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Sample records for heavy-ion linear accelerator

  1. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  2. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.

  3. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  4. The Bucharest heavy ion accelerator facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceauşescu, V.; Dobrescu, S.; Duma, M.; Indreas, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Păpureanu, S.; Pascovici, G.; Semenescu, G.

    1986-02-01

    The heavy ion accelerator facility of the Heavy Ion Physics Department at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest is described. The Tandem accelerator development and the operation of the first stage of the heavy ion postaccelerating system are discussed. Details are given concerning the resonance cavities, the pulsing system matching the dc beam to the RF cavities and the computer control system.

  5. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  6. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on heavy-ion fusion accelerator research: MBE-4: the induction-linac approach; transverse beam dynamics and current amplification; scaling up the results; through ILSE to a driver; ion-source and injector development; and accelerator component research and development.

  7. Developments in accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1985-05-01

    The long term goal of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is the development of an accelerator with the large beam power, large beam stored-energy, and high brightness needed to implode small deuterium-tritium capsules for fusion power. While studies of an rf linac/storage ring combination as an inertial fusion driver continue in Japan and Europe, the US program in recent times has concentrated on the study of the suitability of linear induction acceleration of ions for this purpose. Novel features required include use of multiple beams, beam current amplification in the linac, and manipulation of long beam bunches with a large velocity difference between head and tail. Recent experiments with an intense bright beam of cesium ions have established that much higher currents can be transported in a long quadrupole system than was believed possible a few years ago. A proof-of-principle ion induction linac to demonstrate beam current amplification with multiple beams is at present being fabricated at LBL. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety.

  9. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, In-Seok Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-15

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  10. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project.

    PubMed

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  11. Biomedical research with heavy ions at the IMP accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    The main ion-beam acceleration facilities and research activities at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly introduced. Some of the biomedical research with heavy ions such as heavy-ion biological effect, basic research related to heavy-ion cancer therapy and radiation breeding at the IMP accelerators are presented.

  12. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Barnard, John J.; Faltens, Andris; Friedman, Alex; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  13. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  14. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  15. Low- to medium-β cavities for heavy ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facco, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Acceleration of low- and medium-β heavy ions by means of superconducting (SC) linear accelerators (linacs) was made possible by the development, during four decades, of a particular class of cavities characterized by low operation frequency, several different shapes and different electromagnetic modes of operation. Their performance, initially rather poor in operating accelerators, have steadily increased along with the technological progress and nowadays the gap with the high-β, elliptical cavities is close to be filled. Initially confined to a very small number of applications, this family of cavities evolved in many directions becoming one of the most widespread in linacs. Nowadays it is present in the majority of superconducting radio-frequency ion linac projects worldwide. An overview of low- and medium-β SC cavities for heavy ions, focused on their recent evolution and achievements, will be given.

  16. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The National Energy Strategy calls for a demonstration IFE power plant by the year 2025. The cornerstone of the plan to meet this ambitious goal is research and development for heavy-ion driver technology. A series of successes indicates that the technology being studied by the HIFAR Group -- the induction accelerator -- is a prime candidate for further technology development toward this long-range goal. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions; the understanding of the scaling laws that apply in this hitherto little-explored physics regime; and the validation of new, potentially more economical accelerator strategies. Key specific elements to be addressed include: fundamental physical limits of transverse and longitudinal beam quality; development of induction modules for accelerators, along with multiple-beam hardware, at reasonable cost; acceleration of multiple beams, merging of the beams, and amplification of current without significant dilution of beam quality; final bunching, transport, and focusing onto a small target. In 1992, the HIFAR Program was concerned principally with the next step toward a driver: the design of ILSE, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments. ILSE will address most of the remaining beam-control and beam-manipulation issues at partial driver scale. A few parameters -- most importantly, the line charge density and consequently the size of the ILSE beams -- will be at full driver scale. A theory group closely integrated with the experimental groups continues supporting present-day work and looking ahead toward larger experiments and the eventual driver. Highlights of this long-range, driver-oriented research included continued investigations of longitudinal instability and some new insights into scaled experiments with which the authors might examine hard-to-calculate beam-dynamics phenomena.

  17. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  18. Laser-driven three-stage heavy-ion acceleration from relativistic laser-plasma interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Lin, C; Liu, B; Sheng, Z M; Lu, H Y; Ma, W J; Bin, J H; Schreiber, J; He, X T; Chen, J E; Zepf, M; Yan, X Q

    2014-01-01

    A three-stage heavy ion acceleration scheme for generation of high-energy quasimonoenergetic heavy ion beams is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation and analytical modeling. The scheme is based on the interaction of an intense linearly polarized laser pulse with a compound two-layer target (a front heavy ion layer + a second light ion layer). We identify that, under appropriate conditions, the heavy ions preaccelerated by a two-stage acceleration process in the front layer can be injected into the light ion shock wave in the second layer for a further third-stage acceleration. These injected heavy ions are not influenced by the screening effect from the light ions, and an isolated high-energy heavy ion beam with relatively low-energy spread is thus formed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that ∼100MeV/u quasimonoenergetic Fe24+ beams can be obtained by linearly polarized laser pulses at intensities of 1.1×1021W/cm2.

  19. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    A plan for exploring the physics and technology of induction linac development is discussed which involves a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments. The first is the single-beam transport experiment, which has explored the physics of a single space-charge-dominated beam. Second is the multiple-beam experiment in which four independent beams will be transported and accelerated through a multigap accelerating structure. The single-beam transport experiment is described, and some results are given of stability studies and instrumentation studies. The design and fabrication of the multi-beam experiment are described, as well as results of a first round of experiments in which beam-current amplification was observed. Concurrent theoretical work, resulting in a variety of acce-leration schedules and sets of associated voltage waveforms required to implement the experiments, is also reported. (LEW)

  20. Accelerators for heavy ion inertial fusion: Progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.; Friedman, A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Program is the principal part of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program in the Office of Fusion Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy. The emphasis of the Heavy Ion Program is the development of accelerators for fusion power production. Target physics research and some elements of fusion chamber development are supported in the much larger Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, a dual purpose (defense and energy) program in the Defense Programs part of the Department of Energy. The accelerator research program will establish feasibility through a sequence of scaled experiments that will demonstrate key physics and engineering issues at low cost compared to other fusion programs. This paper discusses progress in the accelerator program and outlines how the planned research will address the key economic issues of inertial fusion energy.

  1. Laser-driven multicharged heavy ion beam acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Y.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental demonstration of multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the interaction between the ultra-intense short pulse laser system and the metal target is presented. The laser pulse of <10 J laser energy, 36 fs pulse width, and the contrast level of ~1010 from 200 TW class Ti:sapphire J-KAREN laser system at JAEA is used in the experiment. Almost fully stripped Fe ions accelerated up to 0.9 GeV are demonstrated. This is achieved by the high intensity laser field of ˜ 1021Wcm-2 interacting with the solid density target. The demonstrated iron ions with high charge to mass ratio (Q/M) is difficult to be achieved by the conventional heavy ion source technique in the accelerators.

  2. Relative biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions for induction of morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Z B; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, M; Furusawa, Y; Kato, T; Ikenaga, M

    1998-09-01

    Syrian hamster embryo cells were used to study the morphological transformation induced by accelerated heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET) ranging from 13 to 400 keV/micron. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), then inoculated to culture dishes. Morphologically altered colonies were scored as transformants. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to X-rays first increased with LET, reached a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/micron, then decreased with the further increase of LET. Our findings confirmed that high LET heavy ions are much more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation.

  3. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  4. Heavy-ion accelerator research for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers a most attractive long-term solution to the problem of future energy supplies: The fuel is virtually inexhaustible and the fusion reaction is notably free of long-lived radioactive by-products. Also, because the fuel is in the form of a plasma, there is no solid fuel core that could melt down. The DOE supports two major fusion research programs to exploit these virtues, one based on magnetic confinement and a second on inertial confinement. One part of the program aimed at inertial fusion is known as Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, or HIFAR. In this booklet, the aim is to place this effort in the context of fusion research generally, to review the brief history of heavy-ion fusion, and to describe the current status of the HIFAR program.

  5. Mutation Induction in Mammalian Cells by Accelerated Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, I. M.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Rink, H.

    The deleterious effects of accelerated heavy ions on living cells are of increasing importance for long duration human space flight activities. An important aspect of this field is attributed to the type and quality of biological damage induced by these densely ionizing particles. To address this aspect, cell inactivation and mutation induction at the hprt locus (coding for hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase) was investigated in cultured V79 Chinese Hamster Cells irradiated with accelerated heavy ions (8-O, 20-Ca, 79-Au, and 92-U) and X-rays. Specific energies of the ions ranged from 1.9 to 69.7 MeV/u and corresponding LET values were between 62 band 15,580 keV/μ m. 30 spontaneous and 196 heavy-ion induced 6-thioguanine resistant hprt mutant colonies were characterized by Southern technique using the restriction enzymes EcoRI, PstI and BglII and a full length hprt cDNA probe isolated from the plasmid pHpt12 (kindly provided by Dr. J. Thacker). While inactivation cross sections (σ i) rise over the whole LET range, mutation induction cross sections (σ m) increase up to approximately 300 keV/μ m (O-ions) but decline with heavier ions and more extreme LET values. A similar behaviour is seen with mutation frequency dependent on particle fluence. After irradiation with accelerated uranium ions (8.8 MeV/u, 15,580 keV/μ m) a significant decrease of mutation frequency was found with higher particle fluences (3× 106 particles cm-2). Nearly no mutants were recovered with 8× 106 particles cm-2. All restriction patterns of the spontaneous hprt mutants were indistinguishable from the wild type pattern. These mutants probably contain small deletions or point mutations in the hprt locus. In contrast, the overall spectrum of heavy ion induced mutations revealed a majority (67%) of partial or complete deletions of the hprt gene. With constant particle fluence (3× 106 particles cm-2) the quality of heavy ion induced mutations in the hprt locus depends on physical

  6. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a /sup 19/F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an /sup 16/O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Modeling Electron-Cloud Effects in Heavy-Ion Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Lund, S M; Molvik, A W; Lee, E P; Azevedo, T; Vay, J; Stoltz, P; Veitzer, S

    2004-09-21

    Stray electrons can arise in positive-ion accelerators for heavy ion fusion or other applications as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary- electron emission. We summarize results from several studies undertaken in conjunction with an effort to develop a self-consistent modeling capability: (1) Calculation of the electron cloud produced by electron desorption from computed beam-ion loss, which illustrates the importance of retaining ion reflection at the walls; (2) Simulation of the effect of specified electron cloud distributions on ion beam dynamics; and (3) analysis of an instability associated with a resonance between the beam-envelope ''breathing'' mode and the electron perturbation. We also report first results from a long-timestep algorithm for electron dynamics, which holds promise for efficient simultaneous solution of electron and ion dynamics. One conclusion from study (2) is that heavy-ion beams are surprisingly robust to electron clouds, compared to a priori expectations.

  8. Simulating Electron Clouds in Heavy-Ion Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik,A.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2005-04-07

    Contaminating clouds of electrons are a concern for most accelerators of positive-charged particles, but there are some unique aspects of heavy-ion accelerators for fusion and high-energy density physics which make modeling such clouds especially challenging. In particular, self-consistent electron and ion simulation is required, including a particle advance scheme which can follow electrons in regions where electrons are strongly-, weakly-, and un-magnetized. They describe their approach to such self-consistency, and in particular a scheme for interpolating between full-orbit (Boris) and drift-kinetic particle pushes that enables electron time steps long compared to the typical gyro period in the magnets. They present tests and applications: simulation of electron clouds produced by three different kinds of sources indicates the sensitivity of the cloud shape to the nature of the source; first-of-a-kind self-consistent simulation of electron-cloud experiments on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which the machine can be flooded with electrons released by impact of the ion beam and an end plate, demonstrate the ability to reproduce key features of the ion-beam phase space; and simulation of a two-stream instability of thin beams in a magnetic field demonstrates the ability of the large-timestep mover to accurately calculate the instability.

  9. Final Progress Report - Heavy Ion Accelerator Theory and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Irving

    2009-10-31

    The use of a beam of heavy ions to heat a target for the study of warm dense matter physics, high energy density physics, and ultimately to ignite an inertial fusion pellet, requires the achievement of beam intensities somewhat greater than have traditionally been obtained using conventional accelerator technology. The research program described here has substantially contributed to understanding the basic nonlinear intense-beam physics that is central to the attainment of the requisite intensities. Since it is very difficult to reverse intensity dilution, avoiding excessive dilution over the entire beam lifetime is necessary for achieving the required beam intensities on target. The central emphasis in this research has therefore been on understanding the nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for intensity dilution and which generally occur when intense space-charge-dominated beams are not in detailed equilibrium with the external forces used to confine them. This is an important area of study because such lack of detailed equilibrium can be an unavoidable consequence of the beam manipulations such as acceleration, bunching, and focusing necessary to attain sufficient intensity on target. The primary tool employed in this effort has been the use of simulation, particularly the WARP code, in concert with experiment, to identify the nonlinear dynamical characteristics that are important in practical high intensity accelerators. This research has gradually made a transition from the study of idealized systems and comparisons with theory, to study the fundamental scaling of intensity dilution in intense beams, and more recently to explicit identification of the mechanisms relevant to actual experiments. This work consists of two categories; work in direct support beam physics directly applicable to NDCX and a larger effort to further the general understanding of space-charge-dominated beam physics.

  10. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  11. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Hyojae Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  12. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  13. Heavy ion mutagenesis: linear energy transfer effects and genetic linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.; Gauny, S.; Criddle, K.; Vannais, D.; Ueno, A.; Kraemer, S.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a series of 69 independent mutants at the endogenous hprt locus of human TK6 lymphoblasts and over 200 independent S1-deficient mutants of the human x hamster hybrid cell line AL arising spontaneously or following low-fluence exposures to densely ionizing Fe ions (600 MeV/amu, linear energy transfer = 190 keV/microns). We find that large deletions are common. The entire hprt gene (> 44 kb) was missing in 19/39 Fe-induced mutants, while only 2/30 spontaneous mutants lost the entire hprt coding sequence. When the gene of interest (S1 locus = M1C1 gene) is located on a nonessential human chromosome 11, multilocus deletions of several million base pairs are observed frequently. The S1 mutation frequency is more than 50-fold greater than the frequency of hprt mutants in the same cells. Taken together, these results suggest that low-fluence exposures to Fe ions are often cytotoxic due to their ability to create multilocus deletions that may often include the loss of essential genes. In addition, the tumorigenic potential of these HZE heavy ions may be due to the high potential for loss of tumor suppressor genes. The relative insensitivity of the hprt locus to mutation is likely due to tight linkage to a gene that is required for viability.

  14. Heavy ion action on single cells: Cellular inactivation capability of single accelerated heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kost, M.; Pross, H.-D.; Russmann, C.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.; Kraft, G.; Lenz, G.; Becher, W.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ions (HZE-particles) constitute an important part of radiation in space. Although their number is small the high amount of energy transferred by individual particles may cause severe biological effects. Their investigation requires special techniques which were tested by experiments performed at the UNILAC at the GSI (Darmstadt). Diploid yeast was used which is a suitable eucaryotic test system because of its resistance to extreme conditions like dryness and vacuum. Cells were placed on nuclear track detector foils and exposed to ions of different atomic number and energy. To assess the action of one single ion on an individual cell, track parameters and the respective colony forming abilities (CFA) were determined with the help of computer aided image analysis. There is mounting evidence that not only the amount of energy deposited along the particle path, commonly given by the LET, is of importance but also the spatial problem of energy deposition at a submicroscopical scale. It is virtually impossible to investigate track structure effects in detail with whole cell populations and (globally applied) high particle fluences. It is, therefore, necessary to detect the action of simple ions in individual cells. The results show that the biological action depends on atomic number and specific energy of the impinging ions, which can be compared with model calculations of recent track structure models.

  15. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs. (WRF)

  16. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  17. Physics issues in the design of a recirculating induction accelerator for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Newton, M.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-04-15

    A substantial savings in size and cost over a linear machine may be achieved in an induction accelerator in which a heavy ion beam makes many (< {approximately} 50) passes through one or more circular induction accelerators. We examine how the requirement of high beam quality and the requirement of pulse simultaneity at the target constrain the design of such an accelerator. Some of the issues that we have considered include beam interactions with residual gas, beam-beam charge exchange, emittance growth around bends, and beam instabilities. We show some of the interplay between maximization of beam quality and recirculator efficiency, and the minimization of recirculator cost, in arriving at a recirculator design. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification -- both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  19. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  20. Impact of Shock Front Nonstationarity on the Acceleration of Heavy Ions by Perpendicular Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Lembege, B.; Lu, Q.

    2010-12-01

    Both hybrid /full particle simulations and recent experimental results have clearly evidenced that the front of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock can be nonstationary and corresponds to the self-reformation of the front itself being due to the accumulation of reflected ions. Not only the amplitude but also the spatial scales of fields components at the front (ramp and foot) are strongly varying within each cycle of the self- reformation. On the other hand, several studies have been made on the acceleration and heating of heavy ions but most have been restricted to a stationary shock profile only. Herein, one-dimensional test particle simulations with fields components issued from self-consistent 1D PIC simulation are performed in order to investigate the impact of shock front non-stationarity on heavy ion acceleration (He, O, Fe). Reflection and acceleration mechanisms of heavy ions with different initial thermal velocities and different charge-mass ratios interacting with a non-stationary shock front (self-reformation) are analyzed in detail. Present preliminary results show that: (i) the heavy ions suffer shock drift acceleration (SDA) and shock surfing acceleration (SSA) mechanisms and will be compared with previous works; (ii) the fraction of reflected heavy ions increases with initial kinetic energy, charge-mass ratio and decreasing shock front width at both stationary shock (situation equivalent to fixed shock regime) and non-stationary shocks (situation equivalent to a continously time-evolving shock regime); (iii) the shock front non-stationarity facilitates the reflection of heavy ions for broad (rather than narrow) shock profiles; (iv) high energy part of Fe/O ratio spectra at a non-stationary shock decreases with shock ramp width. The impact of the shock front non-stationarity on the heavy ions spectra within the shock front region and the downstream region will be also discussed.

  1. Coulomb-driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser-plasma acceleration.

    PubMed

    Braenzel, J; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M

    2015-03-27

    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultrathin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse at a peak intensity of 8×10^{19}  W/  cm^{2}. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to >200  MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using 1.3 J laser energy on target. 1D and 2D particle in cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ion's ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a spatial distribution of the ionization inside the thin target, leading to a field enhancement for the heavy ions by Coulomb explosion. It is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, enabling a higher efficiency for the laser-driven heavy ion acceleration.

  2. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  3. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  4. Acceleration of heavy ions by perpendicular collisionless shocks: Impact of the shock front nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. W.; LembèGe, B.; Lu, Q. M.

    2011-10-01

    Both hybrid/full particle simulations and recent experimental results have clearly evidenced that the front of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock can be nonstationary. One responsible mechanism proposed for this nonstationarity is the self-reformation of the front itself being due to the accumulation of reflected ions. Important consequences of this nonstationarity are that not only the amplitude but also the spatial scales of fields components at the shock front (ramp and foot) are strongly varying within each cycle of the self-reformation. On the other hand, several studies have been made on the acceleration and heating of heavy ions but most have been restricted to a stationary shock profile only. Herein, one-dimensional test particle simulations based on shock profiles fields produced in PIC simulation are performed in order to investigate the impact of the shock front nonstationarity on heavy ion acceleration (He, O, Fe). Reflection and acceleration mechanisms of heavy ions (with different initial thermal velocities and different charge-mass ratios) interacting with a nonstationary shock front (self-reformation) are analyzed in detail. Present preliminary results show that: (1) the heavy ions suffer both shock drift acceleration (SDA) and shock surfing acceleration (SSA) mechanisms; (2) the fraction of reflected heavy ions increases with initial thermal velocity, charge-mass ratio and decreasing shock front width at both stationary shocks (situation equivalent to fixed shock cases) and nonstationary shocks (situation equivalent to continuously time-evolving shock cases); (3) the shock front nonstationarity (time-evolving shock case) facilitates the reflection of heavy ions; (4) a striking feature is the formation of an injected monoenergetic heavy ions population which persists in the shock front spectrum for different initial thermal velocities and ions species. The impact of the shock front nonstationarity on the heavy ions spectra within the shock

  5. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  6. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  7. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This report contains the following topics on heavy ion fusion: MBE-4 drifting beam quadrupole operating range; transverse emittance growth in MBE-4; an improved ion source for MBE-4; drifting beam studies on MBE-4; 2-MV injector; improvements in lifetime of the C{sup +} source; injector control system; Maxwell spark gap test update; ILSE cosine 2{theta} quadrupole magnet development; electrostatic quadrupole prototype development activity; induction accelerator cell development; effect of a spread in beamlet currents on longitudinal stability; and heavy ion linac driver analysis.

  8. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-15

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  9. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  10. Development of long-lived thick carbon stripper foils for high energy heavy ion accelerators by a heavy ion beam sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2013-04-19

    In the past decade, we have developed extremely long-lived carbon stripper foils of 1-50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} thickness prepared by a heavy ion beam sputtering method. These foils were mainly used for low energy heavy ion beams. Recently, high energy negative Hydrogen and heavy ion accelerators have started to use carbon stripper foils of over 100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} in thickness. However, the heavy ion beam sputtering method was unsuccessful in production of foils thicker than about 50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} because of the collapse of carbon particle build-up from substrates during the sputtering process. The reproduction probability of the foils was less than 25%, and most of them had surface defects. However, these defects were successfully eliminated by introducing higher beam energies of sputtering ions and a substrate heater during the sputtering process. In this report we describe a highly reproducible method for making thick carbon stripper foils by a heavy ion beam sputtering with a Krypton ion beam.

  11. Proton and heavy ion acceleration facilities for space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jack

    2003-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for medium energy nuclear physics and heavy charged particle radiobiology and radiotherapy at particle accelerators are in the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation health. In this article we survey some of the particle accelerator facilities in the United States and around the world that are being used for space radiation health and related research, and illustrate some of their capabilities with discussions of selected accelerator experiments applicable to the human exploration of space.

  12. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  13. Acceleration of 3HE and heavy ions at interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, M. I.; Mason, G. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Mazur, J. E.; Smith, C. W.; Koug, R. M.

    2001-08-01

    We have surveyed the 0.5-2.0 MeV nucleon-1 ion composition of 56 interplanetary shocks (IP) observed with the Ultra-Low-Energy Isotope Spectrometer (ULEIS) on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) from 1997 October 1 through 2000 November 30. Our results show the first ever measurement (25 cases) of 3 He ions being accelerated at IP shocks. The 3 He/4 He ratio at the 25 shocks exhibited a wide range of values between 0.00140.24; the ratios were enhanced between factors of ~3-600 over the solar wind value. During the survey period, the occurrence probability of 3 He-rich shocks increased with rising solar activity as measured in terms of the daily occurrence rates of sunspots and X-ray flares. The 3 He enhancements at IP shocks cannot be attributed to rigidity dependent acceleration of solar wind ions and are better explained if the shocks accelerate ions from multiple sources, one being remnant impulsive solar flare material enriched in 3 He ions. Our results also indicate that the contribution of impulsive flares to the seed population for IP shocks varies from event to event, and that the interplanetary medium is being replenished with impulsive material more frequently during periods of increased solar activity. 1. Introduction Enhancements in the intensities of energetic ions associated with transient interplanetary (IP) shocks have been observed routinely at 1 AU since the 1960's (e.g., Reames 1999). It is presently believed that the majority of such IP shocks are driven by fast coronal mass ejections or CMEs as they propagate through interplanetary space (e.g., Gosling 1993), and that the associated ion intensity enhancements are due to diffusive shock acceleration of solar wind ions (Lee 1983; Jones and Ellison 1991; Reames 1999). However, the putative solar wind origin of the IP-shock accelerated ions is based on composition measurements associated with a very limited number of individual IP shocks (Klecker et al. 1981; Hovestadt et al. 1982; Tan et

  14. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengzheng; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR1

  15. Steering algorithms for a small recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.; Hemandez, G.W.

    1997-11-07

    Beam-steering algorithms are proposed for a small recirculating induction accelerator being built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal problem is that the transverse position and velocity of the beam must be inferred from capacitive position monitors, and this determination is complicated by the limited probe resolution and by the lattice errors within steering modules. The fluid/envelope code CIRCE is used to evaluate these algorithms.

  16. Heavy ion beam-ionosphere interactions: Electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, R.L.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Moore, T.E.; Kintner, P.M.; Cahill L.J. Jr.; Walker, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    Operation of a divergent 25-eV Ar/sup +/ gun within an auroral arc produced dramatic changes in the flux of electrons with energies between 1 keV and the 88-eV detector cutoff. The observations suggest that intense return currents flowed parallel to B/sub 0/ to neutralize the Ar/sup +/ beam, particularly within a few meters of the rocket. These neutralization currents were carried above and below the rocket by the few-eV electrons which were emitted by the gun and by colder ionospheric electrons. Such low-energy electrons could not be measured directly by detectors on the rocket. We concluded that generation of strong field-aligned return currents was the most important effect of ion gun operation, and that these field aligned currents were responsible for many other observable effects. Downgoing hectovolt electrons appear to have been accelerated because of interactions with waves or quasi-stationary electric fields that were generated by the field-aligned current. This acceleration took place throughout a cylinder centered on the rocket,with a radius of at least several meters. Acceleration of hectovolt electrons depended surprisingly little on the direction in which the Ar/sup +/ gun was pointing.

  17. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1987-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to access the suitabilty of heavy ion accelerators as iginiters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accerelator techonolgy, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawerence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the vadidation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. The papers in this report that address these goals are: MBE-4 mechanical progress, alignment of MBE-4, a compact energy analyzer for MBE-4, Cs/sup +/ injector modeling with the EGUN code, an improved emittance scanning system for HIFAR, 2-MV injector, carbon arc source development, beam combining in ILSE, emittance growth due to transverse beam combining in ILSE - particle simulation results, achromatic beam combiner for ILSE, additional elements for beam merging, quadrupole magnet design for ILSE, and waveforms and longitudinal beam-parameters for ILSE.

  18. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification - both new features in a linac - without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) fianl bunching, transport, and accurate focussing on a small target.

  19. Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2002-09-01

    This article provides an overview of current U.S. research on accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion, that is, inertial fusion driven by intense beams of heavy ions with the goal of energy production. The concept, beam requirements, approach, and major issues are introduced. An overview of a number of new experiments is presented. These include: the High Current Experiment now underway at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; studies of advanced injectors (and in particular an approach based on the merging of multiple beamlets), being investigated experimentally at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the Neutralized (chamber) Transport Experiment being assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and smaller experiments at the University of Maryland and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The comprehensive program of beam simulations and theory is outlined. Finally, prospects and plans for further development of this promising approach to fusion energy are discussed.

  20. Linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic waves in a strongly coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ema, S. A. Mamun, A. A.; Hossen, M. R.

    2015-09-15

    A theoretical study on the propagation of linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in an unmagnetized, collisionless, strongly coupled plasma system has been carried out. The plasma system is assumed to contain adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ion fluids, nonextensive distributed electrons, and Maxwellian light ions. The normal mode analysis is used to study the linear behaviour. On the other hand, the well-known reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the nonlinear dynamical equations, namely, Burgers equation and Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation. They are also numerically analyzed in order to investigate the basic features of shock and solitary waves. The adiabatic effects on the HIA shock and solitary waves propagating in such a strongly coupled plasma are taken into account. It has been observed that the roles of the adiabatic positively charged heavy ions, nonextensivity of electrons, and other plasma parameters arised in this investigation have significantly modified the basic features (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the HIA solitary/shock waves. The findings of our results obtained from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the linear as well as nonlinear phenomena associated with the HIA waves both in space and laboratory plasmas.

  1. Development of high resolution linear-cut beam position monitor for heavy-ion synchrotron of KHIMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Yang, Tae-Keun; Forck, Peter; Noh, Seon Yeong; Hahn, Garam; Choi, Minkyoo

    2017-04-01

    A beam position monitor with high precision and resolution is required to control the beam trajectory for matching to the injection orbit and acceleration in a heavy-ion synchrotron. It will be also used for measuring the beta function, tune, and chromaticity. Since the bunch length at heavy ion synchrotron is relatively long, a few meters, a boxlike device with plates of typically 20 cm length is used to enhance the signal strength and to get a precise linear dependence with respect to the beam displacement. Especially, the linear-cut beam position monitor is adopted to satisfy the position resolution of 100 μm and accuracy of 200 μm for a nominal beam intensity in the KHIMA synchrotron of ∼ 7 ×108 particles for the carbon beams and ∼ 2 ×1010 for the proton beams. In this paper, we show the electromagnetic design of the electrode and surroundings to satisfy the resolution of 100 μm, the criteria for mechanical aspect to satisfy the position accuracy of 200 μm, the measurement results by using wire test-bench, design and measurement of a high input impedance pre-amplifier, and the beam-test results with long (∼1.6 μs) electron beam in Pohang accelerator laboratory (PAL).

  2. Heavy ion acceleration driven by the Interaction between ultraintense Laser pulse and sub-micron foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinqing; McGuffey, C.; Beg, F. N.; High Energy Density Group Team

    2015-11-01

    For ion acceleration at the intensity exceeding 1021W/cm2, Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) could offer advantages over Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) and Break-Out Afterburner (BOA). In this ultra-relativistic regime, target electrons become highly relativistic and the results are sensitive to many parameters. Especially for heavy ions acceleration, the understanding of the most important parameter effects is limited due to the lack of experiments and modeling. To further understand the key parameters and determine the most suitable regimes for efficient acceleration of heavy ions, we have carried out two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations with the epoch code. In the simulations, effects of preplasma and optimal targets thicknesses for different laser pulse have been studied in detail. Based on the understanding of ion RPA, we propose some new target parameters to achieve higher ion energy. This work was performed with the support of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant FA9550-14-1-0282.

  3. Beam dynamics simulations of post low energy beam transport section in RAON heavy ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hyunchang Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-15

    RAON (Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness) heavy ion accelerator of the rare isotope science project in Daejeon, Korea, has been designed to accelerate multiple-charge-state beams to be used for various science programs. In the RAON accelerator, the rare isotope beams which are generated by an isotope separation on-line system with a wide range of nuclei and charges will be transported through the post Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to transport many kinds of rare isotope beams stably to the RFQ, the post LEBT should be devised to satisfy the requirement of the RFQ at the end of post LEBT, simultaneously with the twiss parameters small. We will present the recent lattice design of the post LEBT in the RAON accelerator and the results of the beam dynamics simulations from it. In addition, the error analysis and correction in the post LEBT will be also described.

  4. Acceleration and heating of heavy ions in high speed solar wind streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberoff, L.; Gratton, F. T.; Gnavi, G.

    1996-07-20

    We propose circularly polarized Alfven waves generated in coronal holes as a possible mechanism to heat and accelerate heavy ions in the fast solar wind. As the solar wind expands, the Alfven waves encounter first the gyrofrequency of the species with the largest M{sub l}=m{sub l}/z{sub l}m{sub p} (m{sub l} is the ion mass, z{sub l} the degree of ionization, and m{sub p} the proton mass). As a result of resonance absorption, the ions are heated and accelerated by quasilinear resonant interaction. As the ions are accelerated, they reach a velocity at which the dispersion relation changes in such a way, that the Alfven-like branch of the dispersion relation goes over the gyrofrequency of the species with the second largest M{sub l} value. As the solar wind continues to expand, more and more of such channels open up, until all heavy ions are heated and accelerated.

  5. Acceleration and heating of heavy ions in high speed solar wind streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomberoff, L.; Gratton, F. T.; Gnavi, G.

    1995-01-01

    Left hand polarized Alfven waves generated in coronal holes propagate in the direction of high speed solar wind streams, accelerating and heating heavy ions. As the solar wind expands, the ratio between the frequency of the Alfven waves and the proton gyrofrequency increases, due to the decrease of the interplanetary magnetic field, and encounter first the local ion gyrofrequency of the species with the largest M(sub l) = m(sub l)/z(sub l)m(sub p) (m(sub l) is the mass of species l, m(sub p) is the proton mass and z(sub l) is the degree of ionization of species l). It is shown that the Alfven waves experience there strong absorption and cannot propagate any further until the ions are accelerated and heated. Once this occurs, the Alfven waves continue to propagate until they meet the gyrofrequency of the next species giving rise to a similar phenomenon. In order to show this contention, we use the linear dispersion relation of ion cyclotron waves in a multicomponent plasma consisting of oxygen ions, alpha particles and protons. We assume that at any distance from the sun, the Alfven waves follow the local dispersion relation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. To illustrate the results, we solve the dispersion relation for oxygen ions and alpha particles drifting relative to the protons. The dispersion relation has three branches. The first branch starts at zero frequency and goes to the Doppler-shifted oxygen ion gyrofrequency. The second branch starts close to the oxygen gyrofrequency, and goes to the Doppler-shifted alpha particle gyrofrequency. The third branch starts close to the alpha particle gyrofrequency, and goes to the proton gyrofrequency. The Alfven waves propagate following the first branch of the dispersion relation. When they reach the Doppler-shifted oxygen ion gyrofrequency, the ions are accelerated and heated to some definite values. When these values are reached, the dispersion relation changes, and it is now the first branch of the

  6. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  7. On the preferential acceleration and heating of solar wind heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, P. A.; Hollweg, J. V.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of producing the observed velocities and temperatures of solar wind heavy ions by the resonant cyclotron interaction with left-polarized hydromagnetic waves was investigated. A "most favorable case" scenario in which the waves are parallel-propagating and dispersionless and the energy for the wave acceleration and heating is taken from saturated low-frequency Alfven waves via a cascade to higher frequencies, is incorporated into a numerical solar wind code and agreement with observation is tested. The resonant cyclotron interaction is shown to fail on at least three points, even in this most favorable case.

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor.

  9. Generation of heavy ion beams using femtosecond laser pulses in the target normal sheath acceleration and radiation pressure acceleration regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G. M.; McGuffey, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from sub-micron gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the time history of the laser pulse is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity 3 × 10 21 W / cm 2 , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 μm, and energy 27 J, the calculated reflection, transmission, and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80%, 5%, and 15%, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8%. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon, and flux 2 × 10 11 ions / sr . An analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the radiation pressure acceleration regime and the onset of the target normal sheath acceleration regime. The numerical simulations and analytical model point to at least four technical challenges hindering the heavy ion acceleration: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration, and high reflectivity of the plasma. Finally, a regime suitable for heavy ion acceleration has been identified in an alternative approach by analyzing the energy absorption and distribution among participating species and scaling of conversion efficiency, maximum energy, and flux with laser intensity.

  10. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S. ); Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H. (Lawrence Liver

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive'' inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology.

  11. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.; Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H.

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or ``drive`` inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology.

  12. How (non-)linear is the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collisions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerchinger, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Beraudo, Andrea; Del Zanna, Luca; Inghirami, Gabriele; Rolando, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    We provide evidence from full numerical solutions that the hydrodynamical evolution of initial density fluctuations in heavy ion collisions can be understood order-by-order in a perturbative series in deviations from a smooth and azimuthally symmetric background solution. To leading linear order, modes with different azimuthal wave numbers do not mix. When quadratic and higher order corrections are numerically sizable, they can be understood as overtones with corresponding wave numbers in a perturbative series. Several findings reported in the recent literature result naturally from the general perturbative series formulated here.

  13. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  14. Seed population for about 1 MeV per nucleon heavy ions accelerated by interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Data obtained between 1977 and 1982 by the ISEE 1 and ISEE 3 satellites on the composition of heavy ions of about 1 MeV per nucleon, accelerated in interplanetary shock events which followed solar flare events, are examined. It was found that the average relative abundances for C, O, and Fe in the shock events were very close to those found for energetic ions in the solar flares, suggesting that, at these energies, the shock accelerated particles have the solar energetic particles as their seed population. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the Fe/O ratio in the solar particle events is very strongly correlated with the Fe/O ratio in associated diffusive shock events.

  15. Accelerator-Based Studies of Heavy Ion Interactions Relevant to Space Biomedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Zeitlin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of space radiation on the crews of long duration space missions must take into account the interactions of high energy atomic nuclei in spacecraft and planetary habitat shielding and in the bodies of the astronauts. These heavy ions (i.e. heavier than hydrogen), while relatively small in number compared to the total galactic cosmic ray (GCR) charged particle flux, can produce disproportionately large effects by virtue of their high local energy deposition: a single traversal by a heavy charged particle can kill or, what may be worse, severely damage a cell. Research into the pertinent physics and biology of heavy ion interactions has consequently been assigned a high priority in a recent report by a task group of the National Research Council. Fragmentation of the incident heavy ions in shielding or in the human body will modify an initially well known radiation field and thereby complicate both spacecraft shielding design and the evaluation of potential radiation hazards. Since it is impractical to empirically test the radiation transport properties of each possible shielding material and configuration, a great deal of effort is going into the development of models of charged particle fragmentation and transport. Accurate nuclear fragmentation cross sections (probabilities), either in the form of measurements with thin targets or theoretical calculations, are needed for input to the transport models, and fluence measurements (numbers of fragments produced by interactions in thick targets) are needed both to validate the models and to test specific shielding materials and designs. Fluence data are also needed to characterize the incident radiation field in accelerator radiobiology experiments. For a number of years, nuclear fragmentation measurements at GCR-like energies have been carried out at heavy ion accelerators including the LBL Bevalac, Saturne (France), the Synchrophasotron and Nuklotron (Dubna, Russia), SIS-18 (GSI, Germany), the

  16. Preferential Heating and Acceleration of Heavy Ions in Impulsive Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Eichler, David; Gaspari, Massimo; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2017-02-01

    We simulate decaying turbulence in a homogeneous pair plasma using a three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell method. A uniform background magnetic field permeates the plasma such that the magnetic pressure is three times larger than the thermal pressure and the turbulence is generated by counter-propagating shear Alfvén waves. The energy predominately cascades transverse to the background magnetic field, rendering the turbulence anisotropic at smaller scales. We simultaneously move several ion species of varying charge to mass ratios in our simulation and show that the particles of smaller charge to mass ratios are heated and accelerated to non-thermal energies at a faster rate. This is in accordance with the enhancement of heavy ions and a non-thermal tail in their energy spectrum observed in the impulsive solar flares. We further show that the heavy ions are energized mostly in the direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field, with a rate consistent with our analytical estimate of the rate of heating due to cyclotron resonance with the Alfvén waves, of which a large fraction is due to obliquely propagating waves.

  17. Source Population and Acceleration Location of Suprathermal Heavy Ions in Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filwett, R. J.; Desai, M. I.; Dayeh, M. A.; Broiles, T. W.

    2017-03-01

    We have analyzed the ∼20–320 keV nucleon‑1 suprathermal (ST) heavy ion abundances in 41 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) observed by the Wind spacecraft from 1995 January to 2008 December. Our results are: (1) the CIR Fe/CNO and NeS/CNO ratios vary with the sunspot number, with values being closer to average solar energetic particle event values during solar maxima and lower than nominal solar wind values during solar minima. The physical mechanism responsible for the depleted abundances during solar minimum remains an open question. (2) The Fe/CNO increases with energy in the 6 events that occurred during solar maximum, while no such trends are observed for the 35 events during solar minimum. (3) The Fe/CNO shows no correlation with the average solar wind speed. (4) The Fe/CNO is well correlated with the corresponding upstream ∼20–320 keV nucleon‑1 Fe/CNO and not with the solar wind Fe/O measured by ACE in 31 events. Using the correlations between the upstream ∼20–40 keV nucleon‑1 Fe/CNO and the ∼20–320 keV nucleon‑1 Fe/CNO in CIRs, we estimate that, on average, the ST particles traveled ∼2 au along the nominal Parker spiral field line, which corresponds to upper limits for the radial distance of the source or acceleration location of ∼1 au beyond Earth orbit. Our results are consistent with those obtained from recent surveys, and confirm that CIR ST heavy ions are accelerated more locally, and are at odds with the traditional viewpoint that CIR ions seen at 1 au are bulk solar wind ions accelerated between 3 and 5 au.

  18. Optics measurement and correction during beam acceleration in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.

    2014-09-09

    To minimize operational complexities, setup of collisions in high energy circular colliders typically involves acceleration with near constant β-functions followed by application of strong focusing quadrupoles at the interaction points (IPs) for the final beta-squeeze. At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam acceleration and optics squeeze are performed simultaneously. In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has taken place at injection and at final energy with some interpolation of corrections into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats which if corrected could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoidance of higher-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. In this report the methodology now operational at RHIC for beam optics corrections during acceleration with simultaneous beta-squeeze will be presented together with measurements which conclusively demonstrate the superior beam control. As a valuable by-product, the corrections have minimized the beta-beat at the profile monitors so reducing the dominant error in and providing more precise measurements of the evolution of the beam emittances during acceleration.

  19. Induction acceleration of heavy ions in the KEK digital accelerator: Demonstration of a fast-cycling induction synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, K.; Yoshimoto, T.; Barata, M.; Wah, Leo Kwee; Xingguang, Liu; Iwashita, T.; Harada, S.; Adachi, T.; Arai, T.; Arakawa, D.; Asao, H.; Kadokura, E.; Kawakubo, T.; Nakanishi, H.; Okada, Y.; Okamura, K.; Okazaki, K.; Takagi, A.; Takano, S.; Wake, M.

    2014-01-01

    A fast-cycling induction synchrotron was demonstrated. Ions with extremely low energies and mass-to-charge ratios (A /Q) in the range from 2 to 10 were injected, captured by barrier voltages, and accelerated to the end of the acceleration cycle of 50 ms by flat pulse voltages generated by pulse transformers referred to as induction cells. Induction acceleration in a wide dynamic frequency range of 56 kHz to 1 MHz was also demonstrated. This accelerator is expected as the next generation of a heavy ion driver for cancer therapy, where a large scale injector is not required. A wide variety of ions for ion energy implantation experiments needing novel materials will be delivered from this compact circular accelerator.

  20. SSR1 and SSR2 Cryomodules for the Heavy Ion Accelerator RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wookang; Lee, Minki; Kim, Heetae; Kim, Youngkwon; Park, Gunn-Tae; Kim, Hyungjin; Jeon, Dong-O.

    The driver linac of the heavy ion accelerator called RAON will be built in Korea and it utilizes four types of superconducting cavities. The SCL1 (Superconducting Linac 1) consists of the QWR (Quarter Wave Resonator, β=0.047, 81.25 MHz) cavities and the HWR (Half Wave Regenerator, β=0.21, 162.5 MHz) cavities. The SCL2 (Superconducting Linac 2) consists of the SSR1 (Single Spoke Resonator1, β=0.3, 325 MHz) and the SSR2 (β=0.51, 325 MHz) cavities. The manufacturing of the prototypes of the SSR1 and SSR2 cryomodules is on-going and the current status is reported. The issues included are the estimation of the thermal load, the P&ID of the cryomodules, as well as the results of the thermal and structural designs of the cryomodule components such as the two phase pipe, support posts and flow pipes.

  1. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Yamada, S.; Jincho, K.; Okada, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Hattori, T.; Biri, S.; Baskaran, R.; Sakata, T.; Sawada, K.; Uno, K.

    2000-02-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C4+ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e μA for C4+ and 1.1e mA for Ar8+, respectively.

  2. Size of lethality target in mouse immature oocytes determined with accelerated heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Dobson, R L; Kwan, T C

    1989-01-01

    Mouse immature oocytes were irradiated in vivo with highly charged, heavy ions from the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The particles used were 670-MeV/nucleon Si14+, 570-MeV/nucleon Ar18+, and 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+. The cross-sectional area of the lethality target in these extremely radiosensitive cells was determined from fluence-response curves and information on energy deposition by delta rays. Results indicate a target cross-section larger than that of the nucleus, one which closely approximates the cross-sectional area of the entire oocyte. For 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+ particles, the predicted target cross-sectional area is 120 +/- 16 microns2, comparing well with the microscopically determined cross-sectional area of 111 +/- 12 microns2 for these cells. The present results are in agreement with our previous target studies which implicate the oocyte plasma membrane.

  3. EVIDENCE FOR LOCAL ACCELERATION OF SUPRATHERMAL HEAVY ION OBSERVATIONS DURING INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Christian, Eric R.

    2015-01-20

    Suprathermal particles are an important seed population for a variety of energetic particles found throughout the heliosphere, but their origin is in debate. We present, for the first time, high-cadence observations of suprathermal heavy ions during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), from the Suprathermal Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Wind spacecraft, and investigate their ionic composition and compare it to the bulk solar wind plasma composition, observed from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Advanced Composition Explorer. We find that the composition of the suprathermal plasma is related to the local bulk solar wind plasma and not to the plasma upstream of the ICME. This implies that the suprathermal plasma is accelerated from the local bulk solar wind plasma and not the upstream solar wind plasma.

  4. Heavy-ion beam dynamics in the RIA post-accelerator.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Aseev, V. N.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    The RIA post-accelerator (RIB) includes three main sections: a room temperature injector with design ion charge-to-mass ratio 1/240 and output energy of {approx} 93 keV/u, a superconducting (SC) linac for ions with charge-to-mass ratio 1/66 or higher up to an energy of {approx} 1 MeV/u and a higher energy SC linac including existing ATLAS to produce 10 MeV/u beams up to uranium. Two strippers are installed between the sections. Extensive accelerator design studies and end-to-end beam dynamics simulations have been performed to minimize the cost of the linac while providing high-quality and high-intensity radioactive beams. Specifically, we have found that cost-effective acceleration in the front end can be provided by several hybrid RFQs proposed and developed for acceleration of low-velocity heavy ions. For beam focusing in the second section it is appropriate to use electrostatic lenses and SC quadrupoles inside common cryostats with the resonators.

  5. Linear induction accelerators for fusion and neutron production

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, W.A. |

    1993-08-01

    Linear induction accelerators (LIA) with pulsed power drives can produce high energy, intense beams or electrons, protons, or heavy ions with megawatts of average power. The continuing development of highly reliable LIA components permits the use such accelerators as cost-effective beam sources to drive fusion pellets with heavy ions, to produce intense neutron fluxes using proton beams, and to generate with electrons microwave power to drive magnetic fusion reactors and high gradient, rf-linacs.

  6. Development of vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion accelerator injectors and ion implantation technology (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, Efim M.

    1998-02-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development and upgrade of MEVVA-type ion sources over the last two years since the previous ICIS-95 is reviewed. There are two main application fields for this ion source: heavy ion accelerators and material surface implantation technology. For particle accelerator ion injection to accelerators it is important to enhance the fractions of multiply charged ions in the ion beam as well as controlling the charge state distribution, and to improve of beam current stability (i.e., to minimize the beam noise) and pulse-to-pulse reproducibility. For ion implantation application we need to increase both the implantation dose rate and the source lifetime (between required maintenance downtime) as well as making this kind of source more reliable and of yet low cost. Most of experimental results reported on here have been obtained in a collaborative program between research groups LBNL (Berkeley, USA), GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), HCEI (Tomsk, Russia), and other important contributions have been made by the groups at (BNU, Beijing, China), EDU (Izmir, Turkey), and elsewhere.

  7. Proton and heavy ion acceleration by stochastic fluctuations in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Filomena; Zimbardo, Gaetano; Perri, Silvia; Greco, Antonella; Artemyev, Anton V.

    2016-10-01

    Spacecraft observations show that energetic ions are found in the Earth's magnetotail, with energies ranging from tens of keV to a few hundreds of keV. In this paper we carry out test particle simulations in which protons and other ion species are injected in the Vlasov magnetic field configurations obtained by Catapano et al. (2015). These configurations represent solutions of a generalized Harris model, which well describes the observed profiles in the magnetotail. In addition, three-dimensional time-dependent stochastic electromagnetic perturbations are included in the simulation box, so that the ion acceleration process is studied while varying the equilibrium magnetic field profile and the ion species. We find that proton energies of the order of 100 keV are reached with simulation parameters typical of the Earth's magnetotail. By changing the ion mass and charge, we can study the acceleration of heavy ions such as He+ + and O+, and it is found that energies of the order of 100-200 keV are reached in a few seconds for He+ + , and about 100 keV for O+.

  8. Differential acceleration in the final beam lines of a Heavy Ion Fusion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2013-10-19

    A long-standing challenge in the design of a Heavy Ion Fusion power plant is that the ion beams entering the target chamber, which number of order a hundred, all need to be routed from one or two multi-beam accelerators through a set of transport lines. The beams are divided into groups, which each have unique arrival times and may have unique kinetic energies. It is also necessary to arrange for each beam to enter the target chamber from a prescribed location on the periphery of that chamber. Furthermore, it has generally been assumed that additional constraints must be obeyed: that the path lengths of the beams in a group must be equal, and that any delay of \\main-pulse" beams relative to \\foot-pulse" beams must be provided by the insertion of large delay-arcs in the main beam transport lines. Here we introduce the notion of applying \\di erential acceleration" to individual beams or sets of beam at strategic stages of the transport lines. That is, by accelerating some beams \\sooner" and others \\later," it is possible to simplify the beam line con guration in a number of cases. For example, the time delay between the foot and main pulses can be generated without resorting to large arcs in the main-pulse beam lines. It is also possible to use di erential acceleration to e ect the simultaneous arrival on target of a set of beams ( e.g., for the foot-pulse) without requiring that their path lengths be precisely equal. We illustrate the technique for two model con gurations, one corresponding to a typical indirect-drive scenario requiring distinct foot and main energies, and the other to an ion-driven fast-ignition scenario wherein the foot and main beams share a common energy.

  9. Differential acceleration in the final beam lines of a Heavy Ion Fusion driver

    DOE PAGES

    Friedman, Alex

    2013-10-19

    A long-standing challenge in the design of a Heavy Ion Fusion power plant is that the ion beams entering the target chamber, which number of order a hundred, all need to be routed from one or two multi-beam accelerators through a set of transport lines. The beams are divided into groups, which each have unique arrival times and may have unique kinetic energies. It is also necessary to arrange for each beam to enter the target chamber from a prescribed location on the periphery of that chamber. Furthermore, it has generally been assumed that additional constraints must be obeyed: thatmore » the path lengths of the beams in a group must be equal, and that any delay of \\main-pulse" beams relative to \\foot-pulse" beams must be provided by the insertion of large delay-arcs in the main beam transport lines. Here we introduce the notion of applying \\di erential acceleration" to individual beams or sets of beam at strategic stages of the transport lines. That is, by accelerating some beams \\sooner" and others \\later," it is possible to simplify the beam line con guration in a number of cases. For example, the time delay between the foot and main pulses can be generated without resorting to large arcs in the main-pulse beam lines. It is also possible to use di erential acceleration to e ect the simultaneous arrival on target of a set of beams ( e.g., for the foot-pulse) without requiring that their path lengths be precisely equal. We illustrate the technique for two model con gurations, one corresponding to a typical indirect-drive scenario requiring distinct foot and main energies, and the other to an ion-driven fast-ignition scenario wherein the foot and main beams share a common energy.« less

  10. Response of sensitive human ataxia and resistant T-1 cell lines to accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Chang, P.Y.; Lommel, L.; Roots, R.

    1983-07-01

    The radiation dose responses of fibroblast from a patient with Ataxia telangiectasis (AT-2SF) and an established line of human T-1 cells were studied. Nearly monoenergetic accelerated neon and argon ions were used at the Berkeley Bevalac with various residual range values. The LET of the particles varied from 30 keV/..mu..m to over 1000 keV/..mu..m. All Ataxia survival curves were exponential functions of the dose. Their radiosensitivity reached peak values at 100 to 200 keV/..mu..m. Human T-1 cells have effective sublethal damage repair as has been evidenced by split dose experiments, and they are much more resistant to low LET than to high LET radiation. The repair-misrepair model has been used to interpret these results. We have obtained mathematical expressions that describe the cross sections and inactivation coefficients for both human cell lines as a function of the LET and the type of particle used. The results suggest either that high-LET particles induce a greater number of radiolesions per track or that heavy-ions at high LET induce lesions that kill cells more effectively and that are different from those produced at low LET. We assume that the lesions induced in T-1 and Ataxia cells are qualitatively similar and that each cell line attempts to repair these lesions. The result in most irradiated Ataxia cells, however, is either lethal misrepair or incomplete repair leading to cell death. 63 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  11. Decay spectroscopy with Solenogam at the ANU Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerathy, M. S. M.; Reed, M. W.; Lane, G. J.; Kibédi, T.; Hota, S. S.; Stuchbery, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Solenogam is a recoil spectrometer designed and constructed for use at the Australian National University (ANU) Heavy-Ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF). The design enables the study of nuclear excitations populated by the decay of long-lived states such as isomers and radioactive ground states. Solenogam is comprised of high-sensitivity γ-ray and electron detector arrays coupled to a new 8-T solenoid. While the installation of the 8-T solenoid proceeds, off-line measurements have been made to characterise Solenogam's performance. Gamma-electron coincidences in the electron capture decay of 182Re into 182W were used to investigate conversion coeffcients and γ-e- angular correlations. The measured conversion coeffcients show good agreement with theoretical calculations and have been used to extract E0/E2 mixing ratios for a number of J → J transitions. The angular correlations measured by the array are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations. However, the magnitudes of the correlations are attenuated by approximately 40% for reasons unknown at present. These results are the first full use of the Solenogam system for γ-e- coincidence measurements and have proven that the system is capable of highly-sensitive internal conversion analysis of complex decays.

  12. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  13. Comparative study on cost evaluation and network visualization of particle accelerator components for heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, A.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob; Barnard, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    By visualizing accelerator system components in heavy ion inertial fusion, the connection between the components becomes clear. We clarify an influential component on the entire cost by the relation of node connections due to the visualization result. Since a low cost component affects a high cost component, not only the cost estimation but also the relation between the components is considerable and important issue. A cost estimation result changing with an induction core cost indicates no influences in the rate of details.

  14. Heavy-ion inertial fusion: influence of target gain on accelerator parameters for vacuum-propagation regimes in reaction chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1982-03-04

    Target physics imposes requirements on the design of inertial fusion drivers. The influence of beam propagation in near vacuum fusion reaction chambers is evaluated for the relation between target gain and the phase-space requirements of heavy-ion accelerators. Initial results suggest that neutralization of the ion beam has a much greater positive effect than the deleterious one of beam stripping provided that the fusion chamber pressure is < 10/sup -3/ torr (of Li vapor or equivalent).

  15. The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monsler, M.J.

    1987-02-25

    This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility.

  16. Simulations of an accelerator-based shielding experiment using the particle and heavy-ion transport code system PHITS.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Sihver, L; Iwase, H; Nakashima, H; Niita, K

    2005-01-01

    In order to estimate the biological effects of HZE particles, an accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction of HZE particles is necessary. Since the heavy ion transport problem is a complex one, there is a need for both experimental and theoretical studies to develop accurate transport models. RIST and JAERI (Japan), GSI (Germany) and Chalmers (Sweden) are therefore currently developing and bench marking the General-Purpose Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS), which is based on the NMTC and MCNP for nucleon/meson and neutron transport respectively, and the JAM hadron cascade model. PHITS uses JAERI Quantum Molecular Dynamics (JQMD) and the Generalized Evaporation Model (GEM) for calculations of fission and evaporation processes, a model developed at NASA Langley for calculation of total reaction cross sections, and the SPAR model for stopping power calculations. The future development of PHITS includes better parameterization in the JQMD model used for the nucleus-nucleus reactions, and improvement of the models used for calculating total reaction cross sections, and addition of routines for calculating elastic scattering of heavy ions, and inclusion of radioactivity and burn up processes. As a part of an extensive bench marking of PHITS, we have compared energy spectra of secondary neutrons created by reactions of HZE particles with different targets, with thicknesses ranging from <1 to 200 cm. We have also compared simulated and measured spatial, fluence and depth-dose distributions from different high energy heavy ion reactions. In this paper, we report simulations of an accelerator-based shielding experiment, in which a beam of 1 GeV/n Fe-ions has passed through thin slabs of polyethylene, Al, and Pb at an acceptance angle up to 4 degrees.

  17. Linear Energy Transfer-Dependent Change in Rice Gene Expression Profile after Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kotaro; Kazama, Yusuke; Morita, Ryouhei; Hirano, Tomonari; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Usuda, Sachiko; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ohbu, Sumie; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Abe, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A heavy-ion beam has been recognized as an effective mutagen for plant breeding and applied to the many kinds of crops including rice. In contrast with X-ray or γ-ray, the heavy-ion beam is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET). LET is an important factor affecting several aspects of the irradiation effect, e.g. cell survival and mutation frequency, making the heavy-ion beam an effective mutagen. To study the mechanisms behind LET-dependent effects, expression profiling was performed after heavy-ion beam irradiation of imbibed rice seeds. Array-based experiments at three time points (0.5, 1, 2 h after the irradiation) revealed that the number of up- or down-regulated genes was highest 2 h after irradiation. Array-based experiments with four different LETs at 2 h after irradiation identified LET-independent regulated genes that were up/down-regulated regardless of the value of LET; LET–dependent regulated genes, whose expression level increased with the rise of LET value, were also identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of LET-independent up-regulated genes showed that some GO terms were commonly enriched, both 2 hours and 3 weeks after irradiation. GO terms enriched in LET-dependent regulated genes implied that some factor regulates genes that have kinase activity or DNA-binding activity in cooperation with the ATM gene. Of the LET-dependent up-regulated genes, OsPARP3 and OsPCNA were identified, which are involved in DNA repair pathways. This indicates that the Ku-independent alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway may contribute to repairing complex DNA legions induced by high-LET irradiation. These findings may clarify various LET-dependent responses in rice. PMID:27462908

  18. Cell inactivation, repair and mutation induction in bacteria after heavy ion exposure: results from experiments at accelerators and in space.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G; Schafer, M; Baltschukat, K; Weisbrod, U; Micke, U; Facius, R; Bucker, H

    1989-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of accelerated heavy ions on biological matter, the responses of spores of B. subtilis to this structured high LET radiation was investigated applying two different approaches. 1) By the use of the Biostack concept, the inactivation probability as a function of radial distance to single particles' trajectory (i.e. impact parameter) was determined in space experiments as well as at accelerators using low fluences of heavy ions. It was found that spores can survive even a central hit and that the effective range of inactivation extends far beyond impact parameters where inactivation by delta-ray dose would be effective. Concerning the space experiment, the inactivation cross section exceeds those from comparable accelerator experiments by roughly a factor of 20. 2) From fluence effect curves, cross sections for inactivation and mutation induction, and the efficiency of repair processes were determined. They are influenced by the ions characteristics in a complex manner. According to dependence on LET, at least 3 LET ranges can be differentiated: A low LET range (app. < 200 keV/micrometers), where cross sections for inactivation and mutation induction follow a common curve for different ions and where repair processes are effective; an intermediate LET range of the so-called saturation cross section with negligible mutagenic and repair efficiency; and a high LET range (>1000 keV/micrometers) where the biological endpoints are majorly dependent on atomic mass and energy of the ion under consideration.

  19. Generation of quasi-monoenergetic heavy ion beams via staged shock wave acceleration driven by intense laser pulses in near-critical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. L.; Qiao, B.; Shen, X. F.; You, W. Y.; Huang, T. W.; Yan, X. Q.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.

    2016-09-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration potentially offers a compact, cost-effective alternative to conventional accelerators for scientific, technological, and health-care applications. A novel scheme for heavy ion acceleration in near-critical plasmas via staged shock waves driven by intense laser pulses is proposed, where, in front of the heavy ion target, a light ion layer is used for launching a high-speed electrostatic shock wave. This shock is enhanced at the interface before it is transmitted into the heavy ion plasmas. Monoenergetic heavy ion beam with much higher energy can be generated by the transmitted shock, comparing to the shock wave acceleration in pure heavy ion target. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that quasi-monoenergetic {{{C}}}6+ ion beams with peak energy 168 MeV and considerable particle number 2.1 × {10}11 are obtained by laser pulses at intensity of 1.66 × {10}20 {{W}} {{cm}}-2 in such staged shock wave acceleration scheme. Similarly a high-quality {{Al}}10+ ion beam with a well-defined peak with energy 250 MeV and spread δ E/{E}0=30 % can also be obtained in this scheme.

  20. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Fukushima, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takasugi, W.; Biri, S.; Rácz, R.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.

    2016-02-15

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  1. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1986-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Activities are reported on MBE-4, the four-beam proof-of-principle ion induction linear accelerator with the capability of beam-current amplification. Mechanical aspects of MBE-4, quadrupole insulator performance, and pulsers are discussed. The computer code, SLID, has been used to help understand the longitudinal beam dynamics in MBE-4. A computer-controlled emittance scanning system is in use in MBE-4. A systematic effort is under way to discover and correct all the defects peculiar to the low energy part of the linac design code. (LEW)

  2. Achieving Stable Radiation Pressure Acceleration of Heavy Ions via Successive Electron Replenishment from Ionization of a High-Z Material Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X. F.; Qiao, B.; Chang, H. X.; Kar, S.; Zhou, C. T.; Borghesi, M.; He, X. T.

    2016-10-01

    Generation of monoenergetic heavy ion beams aroused more scientific interest in recent years. Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is an ideal mechanism for obtaining high-quality heavy ion beams, in principle. However, to achieve the same energy per nucleon (velocity) as protons, heavy ions undergo much more serious Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT) instability and afterwards much worse Coulomb explosion due to loss of co-moving electrons. This leads to premature acceleration termination of heavy ions and very low energy attained in experiment. The utilization of a high-Z coating in front of the target may suppress the RT instability and Coulomb explosion by continuously replenishing the accelerating heavy ion foil with co-moving electrons due to its successive ionization under laser fields with Gaussian temporal and spatial profiles. Thus stable RPA can be realized. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional particles-in-cell simulations with dynamic ionization show that a monoenergetic Al13+ beam with peak energy 4.0GeV and particle number 1010 (charge > 20nC) can be obtained at intensity 1022 W/cm2. Supported by the NSF, Nos. 11575298 and 1000-Talents Program of China.

  3. Shielded Heavy-Ion Environment Linear Detector (SHIELD): an experiment for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Wilson, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C. Jr

    2001-01-01

    Radiological assessment of the many cosmic ion species of widely distributed energies requires the use of theoretical transport models to accurately describe diverse physical processes related to nuclear reactions in spacecraft structures, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, and tissues. Heavy-ion transport models that were designed to characterize shielded radiation fields have been validated through comparison with data from thick-target irradiation experiments at particle accelerators. With the RTD Mission comes a unique opportunity to validate existing radiation transport models and guide the development of tools for shield design. For the first time, transport properties will be measured in free-space to characterize the shielding effectiveness of materials that are likely to be aboard interplanetary space missions. Target materials composed of aluminum, advanced composite spacecraft structure and other shielding materials, helium (a propellant) and tissue equivalent matrices will be evaluated. Large solid state detectors will provide kinetic energy and charge identification for incident heavy-ions and for secondary ions created in the target material. Transport calculations using the HZETRN model suggest that 8 g cm -2 thick targets would be adequate to evaluate the shielding effectiveness during solar minimum activity conditions for a period of 30 days or more.

  4. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment? How is safety ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the ... Therapy (SBRT) . top of page How does the equipment work? The linear accelerator uses microwave technology (similar ...

  5. Effect of a short weak prepulse on laser-triggered front-surface heavy-ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, S. G.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Golovin, G. V.; Uryupina, D. S.; Shulyapov, S. A.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Andriyash, A. V.

    2012-10-15

    A suppression of light-ion acceleration (from surface water contaminants) was observed when a moderate-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse was focused on a thick metal target. Simultaneously, an effective generation of high-energy multicharge ions of the target material (Fe) was experimentally observed. A numerical simulation based on the Boltzmann-Vlasov-Poisson model revealed that this is due to the very specific regime of cleaning contaminants from the target surface by the short weak prepulse preceding the main pulse by more than 10 ns and having an intensity below the surface breakdown threshold. Because this prepulse causes the contaminant layer to boil explosively, a low-density gap forms above the target surface. These conditions are consequently favorable for boosting the energy of heavy ions.

  6. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT.

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.; MUSOLINO,S.V.

    2001-06-01

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations.

  7. Induction of apoptosis by accelerated heavy-ion beams in cultured fetal rat testes and its modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Shang, Yi; Fujita, Kazuko; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Moreno, Stephanie G.; Coffigny, Herve; Hayata, Isamu; Murakami, Masahiro; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    The increasing human activities in space missions make the study on effects from high-LET ionizing radiation an important issue to be addressed. We reported previously that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male breeding activity in rats. To explore the mechanisms involved in radiation-induced gonocyte apoptosis in fetal gonads, which played a critical role in the fate of postnatal testis development, accelerated heavy-ion irradiations and organotypic culture of Wistar fetal rat testes were applied to investigations focused on cellular and molecular events after irradiations with or without chemical addition. Results showed that, in addition to the clustered distribution, both the time course and the percentage of apoptosis in gonocytes on gestation day 15 equivalent in vitro appeared similar to that in utero after exposure to either carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/µm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/µm. Irradiations induced increased p53 expression in a dose dependent manner and decreased expressions of p21 and Bcl- 2 by Western Blot examination. Administration of pan-caspase inhibitor prior to irradiations effectively inhibited apoptosis occurrence and reduced the extent of clustered apoptosis, while such effects were not observed with the presence of p53 inhibitor, gap junction inhibitor, or nitric oxide specific scavenger. These findings indicated that irradiations of cultured fetal rat testes manifested pathologically similar apoptosis induction in gonocytes to that in utero. P53 expression was possibly responsible for the response to radiation damage rather than induction of apoptosis. The syncytial organization of gonocytes played a key role in formation of the clustered apoptosis, an event that both gap junction inhibitor and nitric oxide specific scavenger were incapable of preventing.

  8. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T. Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K.; Hattori, T.

    2014-02-15

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz.

  9. Beam dynamics and error study of the medium energy beam transport line in the Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San; Hahn, Garam

    2016-11-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator consists of an injector and a synchrotron for an ion medical accelerator that is the first carbon-ion therapy system in Korea. The medium energy beam transport(MEBT) line connects the interdigital H-mode drift tube linac and the synchrotron. We investigated the beam conditions after the charge stripper by using the LISE++ and the SRIM codes. The beam was stripped from C4+ into C6+ by using the charge stripper. We investigated the performance of a de-buncher in optimizing the energy spread and the beam distribution in z-dW/W (direction of beam progress-beam and energy) phase. We obtained the results of the tracking simulation and the error analysis by using the TRACK code. Possible misalignments and rotations of the magnets were considered in the simulations. States of the beam were examined when errors occurred in the magnets by the applying analytic fringe field model in TRACK code. The condition for the beam orbit was optimized by using correctors and profile monitors to correct the orbit. In this paper, we focus on the beam dynamics and the error studies dedicated to the MEBT beam line and show the optimized beam parameters for the MEBT.

  10. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for low-energetic heavy ions and their application in accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kraft-Bermuth, S; Andrianov, V A; Bleile, A; Echler, A; Egelhof, P; Kiseleva, A; Kiselev, O; Meier, H J; Meier, J P; Shrivastava, A; Weber, M; Golser, R; Kutschera, W; Priller, A; Steier, P; Vockenhuber, C

    2009-10-01

    The energy-sensitive detection of heavy ions with calorimetric low temperature detectors was investigated in the energy range of E=0.1-1 MeV/amu, commonly used for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The detectors used consist of sapphire absorbers and superconducting aluminum transition edge thermometers operated at T approximately 1.5 K. They were irradiated with various ion beams (13C, 197Au, 238U) provided by the VERA tandem accelerator in Vienna, Austria. The relative energy resolution obtained was DeltaE/E=(5-9) x 10(-3), even for the heaviest ions such as 238U. In addition, no evidence for a pulse height defect was observed. This performance allowed for the first time to apply a calorimetric low temperature detector in an AMS experiment. The aim was to precisely determine the isotope ratio of 236U/238U for several samples of natural uranium, 236U being known as a sensitive monitor for neutron fluxes. Replacing a conventionally used detection system at VERA by the calorimetric detector enabled to substantially reduce background from neighboring isotopes and to increase the detection efficiency. Due to the high sensitivity achieved, a value of 236U/238U=6.1 x 10(-12) could be obtained, representing the smallest 236U/238U ratio measured at the time. In addition, we contributed to establishing an improved material standard of 236U/238U, which can be used as a reference for future AMS measurements.

  11. Heavy ion storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  12. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  13. ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion sources and applications with heavy-ion linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed in the last few years into a reliable source of high charge-state heavy ions. The availability of heavy ions with relatively large charge-to-mass ratios (0.1--0.5) has made it possible to contemplate essentially new classes of heavy-ion linear accelerators. In this talk, I shall review the state-of-the-art in ECR source performance and describe some of the implications this performance level has for heavy-ion linear accelerator design. The present linear accelerator projects using ECR ion sources will be noted and the performance requirements of the ECR source for these projects will be reviewed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Simulating Electron Effects in Heavy-Ion Accelerators with Solenoid Focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Grote, D. P.; Cohen, R. H.; Friedman, A.; Molvik, A. W.; Vay, J.-L.; Seidl, P. A.; Roy, P. K.; Coleman, J. E.; Haber, I.

    2007-06-20

    Contamination from electrons is a concern for solenoid-focused ion accelerators being developed for experiments in high-energy-density physics. These electrons, produced directly by beam ions hitting lattice elements or indirectly by ionization of desorbed neutral gas, can potentially alter the beam dynamics, leading to a time-varying focal spot, increased emittance, halo, and possibly electron-ion instabilities. The electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP is used to simulate electron-cloud studies on the solenoid-transport experiment (STX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. We present self-consistent simulations of several STX configurations and compare the results with experimental data in order to calibrate physics parameters in the model.

  15. Simulating Electron Effects in Heavy-Ion Accelerators with Solenoid Focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W M; Grote, D P; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Seidl, P; Roy, P K; Coleman, J E; Haber, I

    2007-06-29

    Contamination from electrons is a concern for solenoid-focused ion accelerators being developed for experiments in high-energy-density physics. These electrons, produced directly by beam ions hitting lattice elements or indirectly by ionization of desorbed neutral gas, can potentially alter the beam dynamics, leading to a time-varying focal spot, increased emittance, halo, and possibly electron-ion instabilities. The electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP is used to simulate electron-cloud studies on the solenoid-transport experiment (STX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. We present self-consistent simulations of several STX configurations and compare the results with experimental data in order to calibrate physics parameters in the model.

  16. Heavy-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2000-11-01

    Heavy-ion radiotherapy using high-energy carbon beams has been performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. The physical frame works for heavy-ion radiotherapy are established using physical understandings of radiation physics. In order to increase the accuracy of heavy-ion radiotherapy, many physical problems should be solved. Unsolved problems, such as the depth dose distributions, range of heavy-ion in patients and heavy-ion dosimetry in the radiation therapy, are discussed. .

  17. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) half-year report: October 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    For this report we have collected the papers presented by the HIFAR group at the IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference held in Washington, DC, on March 16-19, 1987, which essentially coincides with the end of the reporting period. In addition, we report on research to determine the cause of the failures of Re-X insulator that are used as the high-voltage feed-through for the electrostatic quadrupoles on MBE-4. This report contains papers on the following topics: LBL multiple beam experiments, pulsers for the induction linac experiment (MBE-4), HIF insulator failure, experimental measurement of emittance growth in mismatched space-charge dominated beams, the effect of nonlinear forces on coherently oscillating space-charge dominated beams, space-charge effects in a bending magnet system, transverse combining of nonrelativistic beams in a multiple beam induction linac, comparison of electric and magnetic quadrupole focusing for the low energy end of an induction-linac-ICF driver. Eight individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  18. Scientific issues in future induction linac accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-06-07

    Achievement of atomic-resolution electron-beam tomography will allow determination of the three-dimensional structure of nanoparticles (and other suitable specimens) at atomic resolution. Three-dimensional reconstructions will yield ''section'' images that resolve atoms overlapped in normal electron microscope images (projections), resolving lighter atoms such as oxygen in the presence of heavier atoms, and atoms that lie on non-lattice sites such as those in non-periodic defect structures. Our first demonstrations of 3-D reconstruction to atomic resolution used five zone-axis images from test specimens of staurolite consisting of a mix of light and heavy atoms. We propose combining ultra-high (sub-Angstrom) resolution zone-axis images with off-zone images by first using linear reconstruction of the off-zone images while excluding images obtained within a small range of tilts (of the order of 60 milliradian) of any zone-axis orientation, since it has been shown that dynamical effects can be mitigated by slight off-axis tilt of the specimen. The (partial) reconstruction would then be used as a model for forward calculation by image simulation in zone-axis directions and the structure refined iteratively to achieve satisfactory fits with the experimental zone-axis data. Another path to atomic-resolution tomography would combine ''zone-axis tomography'' with high-resolution dark-field hollow-cone (DFHC) imaging. Electron diffraction theory indicates that dynamic (multiple) scattering is much reduced under highly-convergent illumination. DFHC TEM is the analog of HAADF STEM, and imaging theory shows that image resolution can be enhanced under these conditions. Images obtained in this mode could provide the initial reconstruction, with zone-axis images used for refinement.

  19. SU-E-J-137: Image Registration Tool for Patient Setup in Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M; Suh, T; Cho, W; Jung, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A potential validation tool for compensating patient positioning error was developed using 2D/3D and 3D/3D image registration. Methods: For 2D/3D registration, digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images were applied. The ray-casting algorithm is the most straightforward method for generating DRR. We adopted the traditional ray-casting method, which finds the intersections of a ray with all objects, voxels of the 3D-CT volume in the scene. The similarity between the extracted DRR and orthogonal image was measured by using a normalized mutual information method. Two orthogonal images were acquired from a Cyber-Knife system from the anterior-posterior (AP) and right lateral (RL) views. The 3D-CT and two orthogonal images of an anthropomorphic phantom and head and neck cancer patient were used in this study. For 3D/3D registration, planning CT and in-room CT image were applied. After registration, the translation and rotation factors were calculated to position a couch to be movable in six dimensions. Results: Registration accuracies and average errors of 2.12 mm ± 0.50 mm for transformations and 1.23° ± 0.40° for rotations were acquired by 2D/3D registration using an anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom. In addition, registration accuracies and average errors of 0.90 mm ± 0.30 mm for transformations and 1.00° ± 0.2° for rotations were acquired using CT image sets. Conclusion: We demonstrated that this validation tool could compensate for patient positioning error. In addition, this research could be the fundamental step for compensating patient positioning error at the first Korea heavy-ion medical accelerator treatment center.

  20. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  1. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  2. Induction linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, Daniel

    1992-03-01

    Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typically<10) structures and very large beam pipes. This combination increases the beam breakup limited maximum currents to of order kiloamperes. The micropulse lengths of these machines are measured in 10's of nanoseconds and duty factors as high as 10-4 have been achieved. Until recently the major problem with these machines has been associated with the pulse power drive. Beam currents of kiloamperes and accelerating potentials of megavolts require peak power drives of gigawatts since no energy is stored in the structure. The marriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.

  3. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  4. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  5. Implementation of TTIK method and time of flight for resonance reaction studies at heavy ion accelerator DC-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmukhanbetova, A. K.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Nauruzbayev, D. K.; Rogachev, G. V.; Golovkov, M. S.; Mynbayev, N. A.; Artemov, S.; Karakhodjaev, A.; Kuterbekov, K.; Rakhymzhanov, A.; Berdibek, Zh.; Ivanov, I.; Tikhonov, A.; Zherebchevsky, V. I.; Torilov, S. Yu.; Tribble, R. E.

    2017-03-01

    To study resonance reactions of heavy ions at low energy we have combined the Thick Target Inverse Kinematics Method (TTIK) with Time of Flight method (TF). We used extended target and TF to resolve the identification problems of various possible nuclear processes inherent to the simplest popular version of TTIK. Investigations of the 15N interaction with hydrogen and helium gas targets by using this new approach are presented.

  6. Neoplastic transformation of hamster embyro cells by heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Han, Z; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, M; Furusawa, Y; Kato, T; Ikenaga, M

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the induction of morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET), ranging from 13 to 400 keV/micrometer. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), inoculated to culture dishes, and transformed colonies were identified when the cells were densely stacked and showed a crisscross pattern. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to 250 kVp X-rays showed an initial increase with LET, reaching a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/micrometer, and then decreased with the further increase in LET. Thus, we confirmed that high LET heavy ions are significantly more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation.

  7. Linear induction accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  8. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  9. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  10. Heavy ion cocktail beams at the 88 inch Cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; McMahan, Margaret A.; Argento, David; Gimpel, Thomas; Guy, Aran; Morel, James; Siero, Christine; Thatcher, Ray; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2002-09-03

    Cyclotrons in combination with ECR ion sources provide the ability to accelerate ''cocktails'' of ions. A cocktail is a mixture of ions of near-identical mass-to-charge (m/q) ratio. The different ions cannot be separated by the injector mass-analyzing magnet and are tuned out of the ion source together. The cyclotron then is utilized as a mass analyzer by shifting the accelerating frequency. This concept was developed soon after the first ECR ion source became operational at the 88-Inch Cyclotron and has since become a powerful tool in the field of heavy ion radiation effects testing. Several different ''cocktails'' at various energies are available at the 88-Inch cyclotron for radiation effect testing, covering a broad range of linear energy transfer and penetration depth. Two standard heavy ion cocktails at 4.5 MeV/nucleon and 10 MeV/nucleon have been developed over the years containing ions from boron to bismuth. Recently, following requests for higher penetration depths, a 15MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail has been developed. Up to nine different metal and gaseous ion beams at low to very high charge states are tuned out of the ion source simultaneously and injected together into the cyclotron. It is therefore crucial to balance the ion source very carefully to provide sufficient intensities throughout the cocktail. The paper describes the set-up and tuning of the ion source for the various heavy ion cocktails.

  11. Acceleration modules in linear induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shao-Heng; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.

  12. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  13. Relativistically induced transparency acceleration of light ions by an ultrashort laser pulse interacting with a heavy-ion-plasma density gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Aakash A.; Tsung, Frank S.; Tableman, Adam R.; Mori, Warren B.; Katsouleas, Thomas C.

    2013-10-01

    The relativistically induced transparency acceleration (RITA) scheme of proton and ion acceleration using laser-plasma interactions is introduced, modeled, and compared to the existing schemes. Protons are accelerated with femtosecond relativistic pulses to produce quasimonoenergetic bunches with controllable peak energy. The RITA scheme works by a relativistic laser inducing transparency [Akhiezer and Polovin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz 30, 915 (1956); Kaw and Dawson, Phys. FluidsPFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1692942 13, 472 (1970); Max and Perkins, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.27.1342 27, 1342 (1971)] to densities higher than the cold-electron critical density, while the background heavy ions are stationary. The rising laser pulse creates a traveling acceleration structure at the relativistic critical density by ponderomotively [Lindl and Kaw, Phys. FluidsPFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1693437 14, 371 (1971); Silva , Phys. Rev. E1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.59.2273 59, 2273 (1999)] driving a local electron density inflation, creating an electron snowplow and a co-propagating electrostatic potential. The snowplow advances with a velocity determined by the rate of the rise of the laser's intensity envelope and the heavy-ion-plasma density gradient scale length. The rising laser is incrementally rendered transparent to higher densities such that the relativistic-electron plasma frequency is resonant with the laser frequency. In the snowplow frame, trace density protons reflect off the electrostatic potential and get snowplowed, while the heavier background ions are relatively unperturbed. Quasimonoenergetic bunches of velocity equal to twice the snowplow velocity can be obtained and tuned by controlling the snowplow velocity using laser-plasma parameters. An analytical model for the proton energy as a function of laser intensity, rise time, and plasma density gradient is developed and compared to 1D and 2D PIC OSIRIS [Fonseca , Lect. Note Comput. Sci.9783

  14. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-12-14

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  15. Accelerator Science: Circular vs. Linear

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-11-10

    Particle accelerator are scientific instruments that allow scientists to collide particles together at incredible energies to study the secrets of the universe. However, there are many manners in which particle accelerators can be constructed. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of circular and linear accelerators.

  16. Measurements of neutron effective doses and attenuation lengths for shielding materials at the heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yoshikazu; Noda, Yutaka; Sato, Yukio; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Murakami, Takeshi

    2005-05-01

    The effective doses and attenuation lengths for concrete and iron were measured for the design of heavy ion facilities. Neutrons were produced through the reaction of copper, carbon, and lead bombarded by carbon ions at 230 and 400 MeV.A, neon ions at 400 and 600 MeV.A, and silicon ions at 600 and 800 MeV.A. The detectors used were a Linus and a Andersson-Braun-type rem counter and a detector based on the activation of a plastic scintillator. Representative effective dose rates (in units of 10(-8) microSv h(-1) pps(-1) at 1 m from the incident target surface, where pps means particles per second) and the attenuation lengths (in units of m) were 9.4 x 10(4), 0.46 for carbon ions at 230 MeV.A; 8.9 x 10(5), 0.48 for carbon ions at 400 MeV.A; 9.3 x 10(5), 0.48 for neon ions at 400 MeV.A; 3.8 x 10(6), 0.50 for neon ions at 600 MeV.A; 3.9 x 10(6), 0.50 for silicon ions at 600 MeV.A; and 1.1 x 10(7), 0.51 for silicon ions at 800 MeV.A. The attenuation provided by an iron plate approximately 20 cm thick (nearly equal to the attenuation length) corresponded to that of a 50-cm block of concrete in the present energy range. Miscellaneous results, such as the angular distributions of the neutron effective dose, narrow beam attenuation experiments, decay of gamma-ray doses after the bombardment of targets, doses around an irradiation room, order effects in the multi-layer (concrete and iron) shielding, the doses from different targets, the doses measured with a scintillator activation detector, the gamma-ray doses out of walls and the ratio of the response between the Andersson-Braun-type and the Linus rem counters are also reported.

  17. Effects of prenatal irradiation with accelerated heavy-ion beams on postnatal development in rats: III. Testicular development and breeding activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    With a significant increase in human activities dealing with space missions, potential teratogenic effects on the mammalian reproductive system from prenatal exposure to space radiation have become a hot topic that needs to be addressed. However, even for the ground experiments, such effects from exposure to high LET ionizing radiation are not as well studied as those for low LET ionizing radiations such as X-rays. Using the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, effects on gonads in prenatal male fetuses, on postnatal testicular development and on breeding activity of male offspring were studied following exposure of the pregnant animals to either accelerated carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/μm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on gestation day 15. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp estimated for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. A significantly dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in gonocytes appeared 6 h after irradiations with a dose of 0.5 Gy or more. Measured delayed testis descent and malformed testicular seminiferous tubules were observed to be significantly different from the control animals at a dose of 0.5 Gy. These effects are observed to be dose- and LET-dependent. Markedly reduced testicular weight and testicular weight to body weight ratio were scored at postnatal day 30 even in the offspring that were prenatally irradiated with neon-ions at a dose of 0.1 Gy. A dose of 0.5 Gy from neon-ion beams induced a marked decrease in breeding activity in the prenatally irradiated male rats, while for the carbon-ion beams or X-rays, the significantly reduced breeding activity was observed only when the prenatal dose was at 1.0 Gy or more. These findings indicated that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male

  18. Multi-beam RFQ linac structure for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ishibashi, Takuya; Ito, Taku; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2009-07-01

    Both the RF linear accelerator (linac) and the linear induction accelerator have been considered as injectors in a driver system for heavy ion fusion (HIF). In order to relax beam defocusing by space charge effect in the low-energy region, the accelerating beams that were merged and had their beam currents increased by the funnel tree system are injected into storage rings. A multi-beam linac that accelerates multiple beams in an accelerator cavity has the advantages of cost reduction and downsizing of the system. We modeled the multi-beam Interdigital-H type radio frequency quadruple (IH-RFQ) cavities with the different beam numbers and evaluated the electromagnetic characteristics by simulation. As a result, the reasonable ranges of their configuration were indicated for a practical use.

  19. Accelerated heavy ions and the lens. IV. Biomicroscopic and cytopathological analyses of the lenses of mice irradiated with 600 MeV/amu sup 56 Fe ions

    SciTech Connect

    Worgul, B.V.; Medvedovsky, C.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E. )

    1989-11-01

    The lenses of mice exposed to 600 MeV/amu iron ions were evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and cytopathological analyses. The doses ranged from 0.05 to 1.6 Gy, and the lenses were assessed at several intervals postirradiation. Cataract, the development of which is dependent on both time and dose, is significantly more advanced in all of the exposed mice when compared to the unirradiated controls. The great difference between the severity of the cataracts caused by 0.05 Gy (the lowest dose used) and those that developed spontaneously in the control animals is an indication that 0.05 Gy may far exceed the threshold dose for the production of cataracts by accelerated iron ions. Cytopathologically, a similar dose dependence was observed for a number of end points including micronucleation, interphase death, and meridional row disorganization. In addition the exposure to the 56Fe ions produced a long-term effect on the mitotic population and a pronounced focal loss of epithelial cytoarchitecture. The microscopic changes support the view that the mechanism of heavy-ion-induced cataractogenesis is the same as that for cataracts caused by low-LET radiation.

  20. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M.; Sampayan, Stephen; Slenes, Kirk; Stoller, H. M.

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  1. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  2. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  3. Monte Carlo transport model comparison with 1A GeV accelerated iron experiment: heavy-ion shielding evaluation of NASA space flight-crew foodstuff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. L. Jr; Townsend, L. W.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    2002-01-01

    Deep-space manned flight as a reality depends on a viable solution to the radiation problem. Both acute and chronic radiation health threats are known to exist, with solar particle events as an example of the former and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) of the latter. In this experiment Iron ions of 1A GeV are used to simulate GCR and to determine the secondary radiation field created as the GCR-like particles interact with a thick target. A NASA prepared food pantry locker was subjected to the iron beam and the secondary fluence recorded. A modified version of the Monte Carlo heavy ion transport code developed by Zeitlin at LBNL is compared with experimental fluence. The foodstuff is modeled as mixed nuts as defined by the 71st edition of the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) Handbook of Physics and Chemistry. The results indicate a good agreement between the experimental data and the model. The agreement between model and experiment is determined using a linear fit to ordered pairs of data. The intercept is forced to zero. The slope fit is 0.825 and the R2 value is 0.429 over the resolved fluence region. The removal of an outlier, Z=14, gives values of 0.888 and 0.705 for slope and R2 respectively. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monte Carlo transport model comparison with 1A GeV accelerated iron experiment: heavy-ion shielding evaluation of NASA space flight-crew foodstuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, D. L.; Townsend, L. W.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    Deep-space manned flight as a reality depends on a viable solution to the radiation problem. Both acute and chronic radiation health threats are known to exist, with solar particle events as an example of the former and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) of the latter. In this experiment Iron ions of 1A GeV are used to simulate GCR and to determine the secondary radiation field created as the GCR-like particles interact with a thick target. A NASA prepared food pantry locker was subjected to the iron beam and the secondary fluence recorded. A modified version of the Monte Carlo heavy ion transport code developed by Zeitlin at LBNL is compared with experimental fluence. The foodstuff is modeled as mixed nuts as defined by the 71 st edition of the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) Handbook of Physics and Chemistry. The results indicate a good agreement between the experimental data and the model. The agreement between model and experiment is determined using a linear fit to ordered pairs of data. The intercept is forced to zero. The slope fit is 0.825 and the R 2 value is 0.429 over the resolved fluence region. The removal of an outlier, Z=14, gives values of 0.888 and 0.705 for slope and R 2 respectively.

  5. Selective nonresonant acceleration of He-3(2+) and heavy ions by H(+) cyclotron waves. [in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varvoglis, H.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1983-01-01

    The model advanced by Fisk (1978) to explain the anomalous enhancements in the abundance of some ionic species in energetic solar particle flux measurements at about 1 AU is revised by including the proper nonlinear physics of particle energization by electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) waves. The revised model contains two basic concepts by Fisk: the energization by EIC waves and the need for a second stage acceleration. There is no need for exciting He-4(2+) cyclotron waves, since the dominant process is nonresonant and can be accomplished by hydrogen cyclotron waves. The A/Q selectivity in the flux available for energization in the second stage process enters through the nonlinear saturation level, which in conventional theories depends on the current that drives the instabilities.

  6. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  7. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Auble, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given. (LEW)

  8. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  9. Chiral phase transition in relativistic heavy-ion collisions with weak magnetic fields: Ring diagrams in the linear sigma model

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel

    2009-08-01

    Working in the linear sigma model with quarks, we compute the finite-temperature effective potential in the presence of a weak magnetic field, including the contribution of the pion ring diagrams and considering the sigma as a classical field. In the approximation where the pion self-energy is computed perturbatively, we show that there is a region of the parameter space where the effect of the ring diagrams is to preclude the phase transition from happening. Inclusion of the magnetic field has small effects that however become more important as the system evolves to the lowest temperatures allowed in the analysis.

  10. New developments in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Beginning in 1984, the US Department of Energy plans a program aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as pellet drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This paper will describe the events in the field of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) that have occurred in the three years since the Lausanne conference in this series. The emphasis will be on the events leading towards the new energy oriented program. in addition to providing an overview of progress in HIF, such a discussion may prove useful for promoters of any emerging energy technology.

  11. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants.

    PubMed

    Mei, M; Deng, H; Lu, Y; Zhuang, C; Liu, Z; Qiu, Q; Qiu, Y; Yang, T C

    1994-10-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high-LET heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. RFLP analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  12. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-10-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high-LET heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. RFLP analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  13. Vacancy-related defects in n-type Si implanted with a rarefied microbeam of accelerated heavy ions in the MeV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capan, I.; Pastuović, Ž.; Siegele, R.; Jaćimović, R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study vacancy-related defects formed in bulk n-type Czochralski-grown silicon after implantation of accelerated heavy ions: 6.5 MeV O, 10.5 MeV Si, 10.5 MeV Ge, and 11 MeV Er in the single ion regime with fluences from 109 cm-2 to 1010 cm-2 and a direct comparison made with defects formed in the same material irradiated with 0.7 MeV fast neutron fluences up to 1012 cm-2. A scanning ion microprobe was used as the ion implantation tool of n-Cz:Si samples prepared as Schottky diodes, while the ion beam induced current (IBIC) technique was utilized for direct ion counting. The single acceptor state of the divacancy V2(-/0) is the most prominent defect state observed in DLTS spectra of n-CZ:Si samples implanted by selected ions and the sample irradiated by neutrons. The complete suppression of the DLTS signal related to the double acceptor state of divacancy, V2(=/-) has been observed in all samples irradiated by ions and neutrons. Moreover, the DLTS peak associated with formation of the vacancy-oxygen complex VO in the neutron irradiated sample was also completely suppressed in DLTS spectra of samples implanted with the raster scanned ion microbeam. The reason for such behaviour is twofold, (i) the local depletion of the carrier concentration in the highly disordered regions, and (ii) the effect of the microprobe-assisted single ion implantation. The activation energy for electron emission for states assigned to the V2(-/0) defect formed in samples implanted by single ions follows the Meyer-Neldel rule. An increase of the activation energy is strongly correlated with increasing ion mass.

  14. Heavy ion radiobiology for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2004-12-01

    Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is needed for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions. Although the exposure conditions (e.g. high- vs. low-dose rate) and relevant endpoints (e.g. cell killing vs. neoplastic transformation) are different in the two fields, it is clear that a substantial overlap exists in several research topics. Three such topics are discussed in this short review: individual radiosensitivity, mixed radiation fields, and late stochastic effects of heavy ions. In addition, researchers involved either in experimental studies on space radiation protection or heavy-ion therapy will basically use the same accelerator facilities. It seems to be important that novel accelerator facilities planned (or under construction) for heavy-ion therapy reserve a substantial amount of beamtime to basic studies of heavy-ion radiobiology and its applications in space radiation research.

  15. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    SciTech Connect

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.

  16. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Riepe, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10/sup -7/ torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column.

  17. Report of the heavy-ion fusion task group

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, G.A.; Booth, L.A.; Henderson, D.B.; Jameson, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.; Knapp, E.A.; Pollock, R.; Talbert, W.L.; Thode, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An assessment of heavy-ion fusion has been completed. Energetic heavy ions, for example 10-GeV uranium, provided by an rf linac or an induction linac, are used as alternatives to laser light to drive inertial confinement fusion pellets. The assessment has covered accelerator technology, transport of heavy-ion beams, target interaction physics, civilian power issues, and military applications. It is concluded that particle accelerators promise to be efficient pellet drivers, but that there are formidable technical problems to be solved. It is recommended that a moderate level research program on heavy-ion fusion be pursued and that LASL should continue to work on critical issues in accelerator development, beam transport, reactor systems studies, and target physics over the next few years.

  18. The heavy ion injection scheme for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades-Brown, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven has a multi-component injection system. The Collider requires very heavy ions such as /sub 79//sup 197/Au to be injected fully stripped of atomic electrons, at a kinetic energy of approximately 10 GeV/nucleon. However, the heavy ions are produced initially at a negative ion source and accelerated first in a 15 MV Tandem. These partially stripped ions have a kinetic energy of approximately 1 MeV/nucleon on leaving the Tandem. In order to achieve the injection requirements for RHIC, the partially stripped ions are accelerated in the Booster (currently under construction) and pass through a stripping foil on their way to the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), where they are further accelerated before injection into RHIC. Recent theoretical calculations have shown quite convincingly that very heavy ions with 2 electrons in the filled K-shell may be accelerated with negligible loss in the AGS. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. High energy heavy ions: techniques and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Pioneering work at the Bevalac has given significant insight into the field of relativistic heavy ions, both in the development of techniques for acceleration and delivery of these beams as well as in many novel areas of applications. This paper will outline our experiences at the Bevalac; ion sources, low velocity acceleration, matching to the synchrotron booster, and beam delivery. Applications discussed will include the observation of new effects in central nuclear collisions, production of beams of exotic short-lived (down to 1 ..mu..sec) isotopes through peripheral nuclear collisions, atomic physics with hydrogen-like uranium ions, effects of heavy ''cosmic rays'' on satellite equipment, and an ongoing cancer radiotherapy program with heavy ions. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Linear induction accelerator parameter options

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Caporaso, G.J.; Reginato, L.L.

    1986-04-21

    The principal undertaking of the Beam Research Program over the past decade has been the investigation of propagating intense self-focused beams. Recently, the major activity of the program has shifted toward the investigation of converting high quality electron beams directly to laser radiation. During the early years of the program, accelerator development was directed toward the generation of very high current (>10 kA), high energy beams (>50 MeV). In its new mission, the program has shifted the emphasis toward the production of lower current beams (>3 kA) with high brightness (>10/sup 6/ A/(rad-cm)/sup 2/) at very high average power levels. In efforts to produce these intense beams, the state of the art of linear induction accelerators (LIA) has been advanced to the point of satisfying not only the current requirements but also future national needs.

  1. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  2. NDCX-II, A New Induction Linear Accelerator for Warm Dense Matter Research

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, M.; Bieniosek, F.; Kwan, J.; Logan, G.; Waldron, W.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Sharp, B.; Gilson, E.; Davidson, R.

    2009-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL), a collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), is currently constructing a new induction linear accelerator, called Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment NDCX-II. The accelerator design makes effective use of existing components from LLNL's decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), especially induction cells and Blumlein voltage sources that have been transferred to LBNL. We have developed an aggressive acceleration 'schedule' that compresses the emitted ion pulse from 500 ns to 1 ns in just 15 meters. In the nominal design concept, 30 nC of Li{sup +} are accelerated to 3.5 MeV and allowed to drift-compress to a peak current of about 30 A. That beam will be utilized for warm dense matter experiments investigating the interaction of ion beams with matter at high temperature and pressure. Construction of the accelerator will be complete within a period of approximately two and a half years and will provide a worldwide unique opportunity for ion-driven warm dense matter experiments as well as research related to novel beam manipulations for heavy ion fusion drivers.

  3. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  4. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Parsons, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  5. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  6. Shielding design of the linear accelerator at RAON: Accelerator tunnel and utility gallery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suna; Kang, Bo Sun; Lee, Sangjin; Nam, Shinwoo; Chung, Yeonsei

    2015-10-01

    RAON is the first Korean heavy-ion accelerator for various rare-isotope experiments and will be constructed by the year of 2021. The building for the about 550-m-long superconducting linear accelerator at RAON has three divisions in the vertical layout: accelerator tunnel, intermediate tunnel, and utility gallery. One of the requirements for the building design is that the effective dose rate in the utility gallery should be well below the dose limit for workers. Other parts of the building underground are classified as high-radiation zones where access is strictly controlled. The radiation dose distribution in the building has been calculated by using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX including the radiation streaming effects through the intermediate tunnel and penetrating holes. We have applied a point beam loss model in which the continuous beam loss along the beam line is treated as an equivalent point loss with a simple target. We describe the details of the calculation and discuss the results.

  7. Main Design Principles of the Cold Beam Pipe in the FastRamped Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for Heavy Ion Synchrotron SIS100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierau, A.; Schnizer, P.; Fischer, E.; Macavei, J.; Wilfert, S.; Koch, S.; Weiland, T.; Kurnishov, R.; Shcherbakov, P.

    SIS100, the world second large scale heavy ion synchrotron using fast ramped superconducting magnets, is to be built at FAIR. Its high current operation of intermediate charge state ions requires stable vacuum pressures < 10-12 mbar under dynamic machine conditions which are only achievable when the whole beam pipe is used as an huge cryopump. In order to find technological feasible design solutions, three opposite requirements have to be met: minimum magnetic field distortion caused by AC losses, mechanical stability and low and stable wall temperatures of the beam pipe. We present the possible design versions of the beam pipe for the high current curved dipole. The pros and cons of these proposed designs were studied using simplified analytical models, FEM calculations and tests on models.

  8. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-11-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  9. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.

    2005-06-23

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  10. Effects of heavy ions on bacteria.

    PubMed

    Atlan, H

    1973-01-01

    Genetically well-known bacteria have been used to study efficiencies of heavy ions for mutation induction. For space experiments a technique of correlation of tracks of particles (in emulsion stacked on and between Petri dishes) with individual mutations, has been designed and checked in balloon flights. No clear cut results could be obtained without previous identification of genetic markers sensitive to irradiation by heavy ions. Accelerator experiments were performed at the Berkeley HILAC for systematic study. The results obtained on a strain of E. coli K12F- requiring threonine, leucine and arginine showed that the cell inactivation kinetics for gamma rays, helium, carbon and oxygen ions were almost identical (LD90 approaches 22krads) while argon was less effective (LD90 approaches 40 krads). Heavy ions up to oxygen were either equally or less efficient than gamma rays for induction of reverse mutations. Discrepancies between these findings and previous data on bacteria, yeast and Neurospora systems are discussed on the basis of radiosensitivity, ploidy, deletions, forward and reverse mutations.

  11. Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, W. J.

    1995-05-31

    This report describes an on-going research initiative for the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR): investigating the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, i.e. collisions between massive nuclei which have been accelerated to kinetic energies so large that the rest mass of the ions is a negligible fraction of their total mass-energy. This progress report is being submitted in conjunction with a 3-year grant-renewal proposal, containing additional materials. Three main categories drive the UALRGultra-relativistic heavy ion research. (1) investigations of multi-particle Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlations in the CERN and RHIC energy domains strongly influence the URHI experimental effort, (2) participation in the NA49 Experiment to study 33 TeV (160 GeV/nucleon) Pb on Pb collisions using the SPS facili& at CERN, and (3) participation in the STAR collaboration which is developing a major detector for use with the STAR Experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), being built at BNL.

  12. Heavy-Ion Fusion System Assessment Project quarterly status report, January-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Hovingh, J.; Faltens, A.

    1985-06-01

    A computer model of an accelerator system is a necessary ingredient in estimating the cost of construction and operation of an ion-driven ICF power plant. The LBL computer program LIACEP (Linear Induction Accelerator Cost Evaluation Program) is used to estimate the cost and efficiency of a heavy ion induction linear accelerator as a function of the ion mass, charge and energy for a specified beam output energy, power and pulse repetition frequency. In addition to estimating the accelerator system cost and efficiency, LIACEP can be used to identify the components and materials that have a high leverage on the cost and efficiency of the accelerator system. These high leverage items are logical areas for research and technology development to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of the accelerator system.

  13. Gamma-Ray Measurement of Energetic Heavy Ions at the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    We have derived the J-ray line spectra from accelerated heavy ions at the Sun in data from the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Gamma Ray Spectrometer and...particles. They provide the only source of information on the composition of accelerated heavy ions at the Sun . Analysis of the integrated spectrum from

  14. Generating Monoenergetic Heavy-Ion Bunches with Laser-Induced Electrostatic Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Liangliang; Shen Baifei; Zhang Xiaomei; Wang Fengchao; Jin Zhangyin; Li Xuemei; Wen Meng; Cary, John R.

    2008-10-17

    A method for efficient laser acceleration of heavy ions by electrostatic shock is investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and analytical modeling. When a small number of heavy ions are mixed with light ions, the heavy ions can be accelerated to the same velocity as the light ions so that they gain much higher energy because of their large mass. Accordingly, a sandwich target design with a thin compound ion layer between two light-ion layers and a micro-structured target design are proposed for obtaining monoenergetic heavy-ion beams.

  15. Stopping of relativistic heavy ions in various media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddington, C. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Crawford, H. J.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Heckman, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The residual ranges of (900 + or - 3)-MeV/amu gold nuclei accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac have been measured in several different media. The energy of the beam of nuclei was measured directly using a new time-of-flight system. The ranges were measured by absorption in linear wedges of polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead and in circular wedges of polystyrene, aluminum, and gold, and by total absorption in nuclear emulsion. The measured ranges were significantly different from those calculated from the best available theoretical estimates of the energy loss of highly charged nuclei. It is concluded that at present energy losses and residual ranges of relativistic heavy ions in an arbitrary medium cannot be predicted with better than an approximately 2 percent accuracy.

  16. Comparing Tsallis and Boltzmann temperatures from relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider heavy-ion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.-Q.; Liu, F.-H.

    2016-03-01

    The transverse momentum spectra of charged particles produced in Au + Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider and in Pb + Pb collisions at the large hadron collider with different centrality intervals are described by the multisource thermal model which is based on different statistic distributions for a singular source. Each source in the present work is described by the Tsallis distribution and the Boltzmann distribution, respectively. Then, the interacting system is described by the (two-component) Tsallis distribution and the (two-component) Boltzmann distribution, respectively. The results calculated by the two distributions are in agreement with the experimental data of the Solenoidal Tracker At Relativistic heavy ion collider, Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment, and A Large Ion Collider Experiment Collaborations. The effective temperature parameters extracted from the two distributions on the descriptions of heavy-ion data at the relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider are obtained to show a linear correlation.

  17. Heavy ion collisions and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    There are interesting parallels between the physics of heavy ion collisions and cosmology. Both systems are out-of-equilibrium and relativistic fluid dynamics plays an important role for their theoretical description. From a comparison one can draw interesting conclusions for both sides. For heavy ion physics it could be rewarding to attempt a theoretical description of fluid perturbations similar to cosmological perturbation theory. In the context of late time cosmology, it could be interesting to study dissipative properties such as shear and bulk viscosity and corresponding relaxation times in more detail. Knowledge and experience from heavy ion physics could help to constrain the microscopic properties of dark matter from observational knowledge of the cosmological fluid properties.

  18. Superconducting heavy-ion linac at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Aron, J.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.G.; Johnson, K.W.; Nixon, J.M.; Markovich, P.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The design, status, and performance of the first operating superconducting heavy-ion accelerator, a linac used to boost the energies of beams from a 9-MV tandem, is summarized. When completed in 1981, the linac will consist of 24 independently-phased split-ring niobium resonators operating at 97 MHz. This linac is designed to provide 29 MV of acceleration. Because of the modular character of the system, the linac has been operable and useful since mid-1978, when a beam was accelerated through 2 units and the first nuclear-physics experiments were preformed. Now, 16 resonators are in use, and a beam has been accelerated for approx. 6000 h. Resonator performance has been remarkably stable, in spite of vacuum accidents, and the linac as a whole operates reliably without operators in attendance during nights and weekends. The ease and speed with which the beam energy can be changed is proving to be unexpectedly valuable to users.

  19. Modeling heavy ion ionization energy loss at low and intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, I.L.; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The needs of contemporary accelerator and space projects led to significant efforts made to include description of heavy ion interactions with matter in general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. This paper deals with an updated model of heavy ion ionization energy loss developed previously for the MARS code. The model agrees well with experimental data for various projectiles and targets including super-heavy ions in low-Z media.

  20. Combined generating-accelerating buncher for compact linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, E. A.; Matsievskiy, S. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Sokolov, I. D.; Zavadtsev, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Described in the previous article [1] method of the power extraction from the modulated electron beam has been applied to the compact standing wave electron linear accelerator feeding system, which doesnt require any connection waveguides between the power source and the accelerator itself [2]. Generating and accelerating bunches meet in the hybrid accelerating cell operating at TM020 mode, thus the accelerating module is placed on the axis of the generating module, which consists from the pulsed high voltage electron sources and electrons dumps. This combination makes the accelerator very compact in size which is very valuable for the modern applications such as portable inspection sources. Simulations and geometry cold tests are presented.

  1. Some remarks on in-situ studies using TEM-heavy-ion accelerator link from the stand point of extracting radiation damage caused by fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishino, Shiori; Sekimura, Naoto; Murakami, Kenta; Abe, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    Radiation damage of materials for fission and fusion reactors has been scaled in terms of the number of displacements per atoms (dpa). The method of evaluating the dpa has been established and standardized. However, it has become obvious that more detailed analyses are required, particularly for the nature and spatial distribution of the introduced point defects and their clusters. Such detailed nature of the defects introduced is thought to be governed by the primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectrum, A number of trials to elucidate the PKA dependent radiation effects by choosing the mass and energy of the incident ions have been explored. In some cases, defect formation by a single impinging ion has been observed. However, it has also been recognized that there are a number of artefacts arising from energy deposition distributions, existence of surface sinks together with radiation induced surface modifications and so on. In this paper, discussion will be made on how to establish irradiation correlation between neutron and heavy ion irradiations in a cascade damage formation regime. For the past fifty years, the correlation between neutron and ion irradiations from the view point of simulating the neutron radiation damage by ion irradiations has been discussed many times. However, the correlation itself has not been fully discussed separately. This is the major objective of this paper.

  2. Parallel beam dynamics simulation of linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert D.

    2002-01-31

    In this paper we describe parallel particle-in-cell methods for the large scale simulation of beam dynamics in linear accelerators. These techniques have been implemented in the IMPACT (Integrated Map and Particle Accelerator Tracking) code. IMPACT is being used to study the behavior of intense charged particle beams and as a tool for the design of next-generation linear accelerators. As examples, we present applications of the code to the study of emittance exchange in high intensity beams and to the study of beam transport in a proposed accelerator for the development of accelerator-driven waste transmutation technologies.

  3. Is Africa a 'Graveyard' for Linear Accelerators?

    PubMed

    Reichenvater, H; Matias, L Dos S

    2016-12-01

    Linear accelerator downtimes are common and problematic in many African countries and may jeopardise the outcome of affected radiation treatments. The predicted increase in cancer incidence and prevalence on the African continent will require, inter alia, improved response with regard to a reduction in linear accelerator downtimes. Here we discuss the problems associated with the maintenance and repair of linear accelerators and propose alternative solutions relevant for local conditions in African countries. The paper is based on about four decades of experience in capacity building, installing, commissioning, calibrating, servicing and repairing linear accelerators in Africa, where about 40% of the low and middle income countries in the world are geographically located. Linear accelerators can successfully be operated, maintained and repaired in African countries provided proper maintenance and repair plans are put in place and executed.

  4. [Effect of accelerated heavy ions of carbon 12C, neon 20Ne and iron 56Fe on the chromosomal apparatus of human blood lymphocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Repina, L A

    2011-01-01

    Cytogenetic assay of the chromosomal apparatus of human blood lymphocytes was carried out after in vitro irradiation by heavy charged particles with high LET values. Blood plasm samples enriched with lymphocytes were irradiated by accelerated ions of carbon 12C (290 MeV/nucleon and LET = 70 keV/microm), neon 20Ne (400 MeV/nucleon and LET = 70 keV/microm), and iron 56Fe (500 MeV/nucleon and LET = 200 keV/microm) in the dose range from 0.25 to 1 Gy. Rate of chromosome aberrations showed a linear dependence on doses from the densely ionizing radiations with high LET values. Frequency of dicentrics and centric rings in human lymphocytes irradiated by 12C with the energy of 290 MeV/nucleon was maximal at 1 Gy (p < 0.05) relative to the other heavy particles. It was found that relative biological effectiveness of heavy nuclei is several times higher than of 60Co gamma-radiation throughout the range of doses in this investigation.

  5. Chemistry of heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1988-10-01

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  6. Automating linear accelerator quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhause, Tobias; Thorwarth, Ryan; Moran, Jean M.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Farrey, Karl; Ritter, Timothy; DeMarco, John; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Popple, Richard; Sharma, Vijeshwar; Park, SungYong; Perez, Mario; Booth, Jeremy T.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was 2-fold. One purpose was to develop an automated, streamlined quality assurance (QA) program for use by multiple centers. The second purpose was to evaluate machine performance over time for multiple centers using linear accelerator (Linac) log files and electronic portal images. The authors sought to evaluate variations in Linac performance to establish as a reference for other centers. Methods: The authors developed analytical software tools for a QA program using both log files and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. The first tool is a general analysis tool which can read and visually represent data in the log file. This tool, which can be used to automatically analyze patient treatment or QA log files, examines the files for Linac deviations which exceed thresholds. The second set of tools consists of a test suite of QA fields, a standard phantom, and software to collect information from the log files on deviations from the expected values. The test suite was designed to focus on the mechanical tests of the Linac to include jaw, MLC, and collimator positions during static, IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery. A consortium of eight institutions delivered the test suite at monthly or weekly intervals on each Linac using a standard phantom. The behavior of various components was analyzed for eight TrueBeam Linacs. Results: For the EPID and trajectory log file analysis, all observed deviations which exceeded established thresholds for Linac behavior resulted in a beam hold off. In the absence of an interlock-triggering event, the maximum observed log file deviations between the expected and actual component positions (such as MLC leaves) varied from less than 1% to 26% of published tolerance thresholds. The maximum and standard deviations of the variations due to gantry sag, collimator angle, jaw position, and MLC positions are presented. Gantry sag among Linacs was 0.336 ± 0.072 mm. The

  7. Experimental research of heavy ion and proton induced single event effects for a Bi-CMOS technology DC/DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anlin, He; Gang, Guo; Shuting, Shi; Dongjun, Shen; Jiancheng, Liu; Li, Cai; Hui, Fan

    2015-11-01

    This paper tested and analyzed heavy ion and proton induced single event effects (SEE) of a commercial DC/DC converter based on a 600 nm Bi-CMOS technology. Heavy ion induced single event transients (SET) testing has been carried out by using the Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy. Proton test has been carried out by using the Canadian TRIUMF proton accelerator. Both SET cross section versus linear energy transfer (LET) and proton energy has been measured. The main study conclusions are: (1) the DC/DC is both sensitive to heavy ion and proton radiations although at a pretty large feature size (600 nm), and threshold LET is about 0.06 MeV·mg/cm2 (2) heavy ion SET saturation cross section is about 5 magnitudes order larger than proton SET saturation cross section, which is consistent with the theory calculation result deduced by the RPP model and the proton nuclear reaction model; (3) on-orbit soft error rate (SER) prediction showed, on GEO orbit, proton induced SERs calculated by the heavy ion derived model are 4-5 times larger than those calculated by proton test data.

  8. Antiradiation vaccine: Technology and development of prophylaxis, prevention and treatment of biological consequences from Heavy Ion irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav

    Introduction: An anti-radiation vaccine could be an important part of a countermeasures reg-imen for effective radioprotection, immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy of the acute radi-ation syndromes (ARS) after gamma-irradiation, neutron irradiation or heavy ion irradiation. Reliable protection of non-neoplastic regions of patients with different forms of cancer which undergo to heavy ion therapy ( e.g. Hadron-therapy) can significantly extend the efficiency of the therapeutic course. The protection of cosmonauts astronauts from the heavy ion ra-diation component of space radiation with specific immunoprophylaxis by the anti-radiation vaccine may be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Meth-ods and experiments: 1. The Antiradiation Vaccine preparation -standard (mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins -SRD-group) which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Car-diovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins Specific Radiation Determinant Group were isolated from a central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestiinal, Hematopoi-etic forms of ARS. Devices for γ-radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions irradiation was generated in heavy ion (Fe56) accelerator -UTI. Heavy Ion linear transfer energy -2000-2600 KeV mkm, 600 MeV U. Absorbed Dose -3820 Rad. 3. Experimental Design: Rabbits from all groups were irradiated by heavy ion accelerator. Group A -control -10 rabbits; Group B -placebo -5 rabbits; Group C -radioprotectant Cystamine (50 mg kg)-5 rabbits, 15 minutes before irradiation -5 rabbits; Group D -radioprotectant Gammafos (Amifostine -400mg kg ), -5 rabbits; Group E -Antiradiation Vaccine: subcuta-neus administration or IM -2 ml of active substance, 14 days before irradiation -5 rabbits. 4

  9. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  10. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeV m−1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams. PMID:26439410

  11. Heavy ion driver technology

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Elementary principles of linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, G.A.; Talman, R.

    1983-09-01

    These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    DOE PAGES

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; ...

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton acceleratorsmore » with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.« less

  14. Coherent THz Pulses from Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    G.L. Carr; H. Loos; J.B. Murphy; T. Shaftan; B. Sheehy; X.-J. Wang; W.R. McKinney; M.C. Martin; G.P. Williams; K. Jordan; G. Neil

    2003-10-01

    Coherent THz pulses are being produced at several facilities using relativistic electrons from linear accelerators. The THz pulses produced at the Brookhaven accelerator have pulse energies exceeding 50 {micro}J and reach a frequency of 2 THz. The high repetition rate of the Jefferson Lab accelerator leads to an average THz power of 20 watts. Possible uses for these high power pulses are discussed.

  15. Applications of Electron Linear Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westenskow*, Glen; Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    Linear Induction Accelerators (LIAs) can readily produce intense electron beams. For example, the ATA accelerator produced a 500 GW beam and the LIU-30 a 4 TW beam (see Chap. 2). Since the induction accelerator concept was proposed in the late 1950s [1, 2], there have been many proposed schemes to convert the beam power to other forms. Categories of applications that have been demonstrated for electron LIAs include:

  16. NSAC Recommends a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes the plan submitted by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation urging construction of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collider designed to accelerate nucleon beams of ions as heavy as uranium. Discusses the process of selecting the type of facility as well as siting. (JM)

  17. Effects of heavy ion radiation on the brain vascular system and embryonic development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Tobias, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the effects of heavy-ion radiation on the vascular system and the embryonic development, taking into account the results of experiments with neonatal rats and mouse embryos. It is found that heavy ions can be highly effective in producing brain hemorrhages and in causing body deformities. Attention is given to aspects of methodology, the induction of brain hemorrhages by X-rays and heavy ions, and the effect of iron particles on embryonic development. Reported results suggest that high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions can be very effective in producing developmental abnormalities.

  18. Genetic effects on heavy ions in drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kale, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal mutation test was used to study the dose response relation and relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions. The experiments were performed using the heavy ion beams at BEVALAC of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. These experiments were undertaken according to the proposed milestones and included Ne-20, A-40 and Fe-65 ions with respective energies of 600 MeV, 840 MeV and 850 MeV. At these energies several doses of these radiations ranging from 20 to 1280 R were used. Space radiation exposure to astronauts is supposed to be quite low and therefore very low dose experiments i.e., 20 R, were also performed for the three ions. The mutation response was measured in all germ cell types i.e., spermatozoa, spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia of treated Drosophila males. A linear dose frequency relation was observed for most of the range except at high doses where the saturation effect was observed. Also, a very significant difference was observed among the sensitivity of the four germ cell stages where spermatozoa and spermatids were more sensitive. At the higher doses of this range, most of the spermatogonia and spermatocytes were killed. Although comparative and identical experiments with X-rays or neutrons have not been performed, the compassion of our data with the ones available in literature suggest that the heavy ions have a high rbe and that they are several times more effective than low LET X-rays. The rbe compared to neutrons however appears to be only slightly higher.

  19. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Preis, Florian

    2017-03-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  20. Ultra-relativistic heavy ions and the CBA

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    The study of ultra-relativistic heavy ions at an accelerator such as the CBA provides a unique glimpse of matter as it may have appeared in the early universe. This hot dense matter very probably appears as a quark-gluon plasma which expands and cools into hadronic matter. The CBA would provide data at the very highest energies, and produce matter at the highest energy densities. The possibility of using a cyclotron to inject very heavy ions into the AGS and then into the CBA would also allow the production of quark-gluon matter at higher energy densities than would light ions, and would make the matter in a larger volume where surface effects are minimized. At the highest energies with very heavy ions, there is great flexibility in the experimental signals which might be studied, as well as the nature of the matter which is produced. Some of the possibilities are discussed. (WHK)

  1. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  2. Central collisions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  3. NF-kB activation and its downstream target genes expression after heavy ions exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Arif Ali; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine; Schmitz, Claudia; Koch, Kristina; Feles, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    To enable long-term human space flight cellular radiation response to densely ionizing radiation needs to be better understood for developing appropriate countermeasures to mitigate acute effects and late radiation risks for the astronaut. The biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions (which constitute the most important radiation type in space) with high linear energy transfer (LET) for effecting DNA damage response pathways as a gateway to cell death or survival is of major concern not only for space missions but also for new regimes of tumor radiotherapy. In the current research study, the contribution of NF-κB in response to space-relevant radiation qualities was determined by a NF-κB reporter cell line (HEK-pNF-κB-d2EGFP/Neo L2). The NF-κB dependent reporter gene expression (d2EGFP) after ionizing radiation (X-rays and heavy ions) exposure was evaluated by flow cytometry. Because of differences in the extent of NF-κB activation after X-irradiation and heavy ions exposure, it was expected that radiation quality (LET) might play an important role in the cellular radiation response. In addition, the biological effectiveness (RBE) of NF-κB activation and reduction of cellular survival was examined for heavy ions having a broad range of LET (˜0.3 - 9674 keV/µm). Furthermore, the effect of LET on NF-κB target gene expression was analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In this study it was proven that NF-κB activation and NF-κB dependent gene expression comprises an early step in cellular radiation response. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that NF-κB activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression by heavy ions are highest in the LET range of ˜50-200 keV/μupm. The up-regulated chemokines and cytokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL10, IL-8 and TNF) might be important for cell-cell communication among hit as well as unhit cells (bystander effect). The results obtained suggest the NF-κB pathway to be a

  4. Stability of non-linear integrable accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Batalov, I.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The stability of non-linear Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) model developed in [1] was tested. The area of the stable region in transverse coordinates and the maximum attainable tune spread were found as a function of non-linear lens strength. Particle loss as a function of turn number was analyzed to determine whether a dynamic aperture limitation present in the system. The system was also tested with sextupoles included in the machine for chromaticity compensation. A method of evaluation of the beam size in the linear part of the accelerator was proposed.

  5. The effects of heavy ion radiation on digital micromirror device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travinsky, Anton; Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran; Raisanen, Alan D.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Robberto, Massimo; Heap, Sara

    2016-07-01

    There is a pressing need in the astronomical community for space-suitable multi-object spectrometers (MOSs). Several digital micromirror device (DMD)-based prototype MOSs have been developed for ground-based observatories; however, their main use will come with deployment on a space based mission. Therefore, performance of DMDs under exoatmospheric radiation needs to be evaluated. In our previous work we demonstrated that DMDs are tolerant to heavy ion irradiation in general and calculated upset rate of 4.3 micromirrors in 24 hours in orbit for 1-megapixel device. The goal of this additional experiment was to acquire more data and therefore increase the accuracy of the predicted in-orbit micromirror upset rate. Similar to the previous experiment, for this testing 0.7 XGA DMDs were re-windowed with 2 μm thick pellicle and tested under accelerated heavy-ion radiation (with control electronics shielded from radiation) with a focus on detection of single-event upsets (SEUs). We concentrated on ions with low levels of linear energy transfer (LET) 1.8 - 13 MeV•cm2•mg-1 to cover the most critical range of the Weibull curve for those devices. As during the previous experiment, we observed and documented non-destructive heavy ion-induced micromirror state changes. All SEUs were always cleared with a soft reset (that is, sending a new pattern to the device). The DMDs we tested did not experience single-event induced permanent damage or functional changes that required a hard reset (power cycle), even at high ion fluences. Based on the data obtained in the experiments we predict micromirror in-orbit upset rate of 5.6 micromirrors in 24 hours in-orbit for the tested devices. This suggests that the heavy-ion induced SEU rate burden for a DMD-based instrument will be manageable when exposed to solar particle fluxes and cosmic rays in orbit.

  6. High gluon densities in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul

    2017-03-01

    The early stages of heavy ion collisions are dominated by high density systems of gluons that carry each a small fraction x of the momenta of the colliding nucleons. A distinguishing feature of such systems is the phenomenon of ‘saturation’ which tames the expected growth of the gluon density as the energy of the collision increases. The onset of saturation occurs at a particular transverse momentum scale, the ‘saturation momentum’, that emerges dynamically and that marks the onset of non-linear gluon interactions. At high energy, and for large nuclei, the saturation momentum is large compared to the typical hadronic scale, making high density gluons amenable to a description with weak coupling techniques. This paper reviews some of the challenges faced in the study of such dense systems of small x gluons, and of the progress made in addressing them. The focus is on conceptual issues, and the presentation is both pedagogical, and critical. Examples where high gluon density could play a visible role in heavy ion collisions are briefly discussed at the end, for illustration purpose.

  7. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtayev, K. G.; Tokarova, B.; Bonev, M.

    The peculiarities and mechanisms of the mutagenic action of γ-rays and heavy ions on bacterial cells have been investigated. Direct mutations in the lac-operon of E. coli in wild type cells and repair deficient strains have been detected. Furthermore, the induction of revertants in Salmonella tester strains was measured. It was found that the mutation rate was a linear-quadratic function of dose in the case of both γ-rays and heavy ions with LET up to 200 keV/μm. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increased with LET up to 20 keV/μm. Low mutation rates were observed in repair deficient mutants with a block of SOS-induction. The induction of SOS-repair by ionizing radiation has been investigated by means of the ``SOS-chromotest'' and λ-prophage induction. It was shown that the intensity of the SOS-induction in E. coli increased with increasing LET up to 40-60 keV/μm.

  8. Parametric approach to linear induction accelerator design

    SciTech Connect

    Bresie, D.A.; Andrews, J.A.; Ingram, S.W. . Center for Electromechanics)

    1991-01-01

    Past work on the design of linear induction accelerators has centered on the development of computer codes to analyze accelerator designs, using the current filament method. While these filament models are a very valuable tool for evaluating the performance of an induction launcher design, they provide little insight into the selection of dimensions, materials, and operation points for accelerators with interesting performance. Described in this paper is a parametric approach to defining effective accelerator designs. This method uses a computer optimization routine to iteratively seek out effective designs. The optimization routine is forced to search within a parameter space restricted to interesting and realistic parameters such as size, weight, voltage, and temperature rises. A filament model is used as the filter for the optimizer. Several linear induction accelerators have been designed using this method. The accelerators designed all used a switched capacitor power supply. While the run time of this code on The University of Texas' CRAY XMP-24 computer is moderately long, the resulting designs have good predicted performance. With realistic power supplies and materials, accelerator efficiencies in the 20 to 40% range were easily obtained. This paper describes the effect of armature diameter, length-to-diameter ratio, and weight, as well as other parameters, on the optimum accelerator design.

  9. The chromatic correction in RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Dell, G.F.; Hahn, H.; Parzen, G.

    1987-01-01

    The scheme for the correction of chromatic effects in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL is discussed. This scheme uses six families of sextupoles excited by four independent power supplies, and provides adequate control of linear and quadratic terms in the tune vs momentum dependence and reduces the variation of the betatron amplitude, vs momentum.

  10. Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Moretti, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  11. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-10-01

    Various mutagenic effects by heavy ions were studied in bacteria, irradiated at accelerators in Dubna, Prague, Berkeley or Darmstadt. Endpoints investigated are histidine reversion (B. subtilis, S. typhimurium), azide resistance (B. subtilis), mutation in the lactose operon (E. coli), SOS chromotest (E. coli) and λ-prophage induction (E. coli). It was found that the cross sections of the different endpoints show a similar dependence on energy. For light ions (Z <= 4) the cross section decreases with increasing energy. For ions of Z = 10, it is nearly independent of energy. For heavier ions (Z >= 26) it increases with energy up to a maximum or saturation. The increment becomes steeper with increasing Z. This dependence on energy suggests a ``mutagenic belt'' inside the track that is restricted to an area where the density of departed energy is low enough not to kill the cell, but high enough to induce mutations.

  12. Beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.

    1995-04-01

    A standard design for heavy ion fusion drivers under study in the US is an induction linac with electrostatic focusing at low energy and magnetic focusing at higher energy. The need to focus the intense beam to a few-millimeter size spot at the deuterium-tritium target establishes the emittance budget for the accelerator. Economic and technological considerations favor a larger number of beams in the low-energy, electrostatic-focusing section than in the high-energy, magnetic-focusing section. Combining four beams into a single focusing channel is a viable option, depending on the growth in emittance due to the combining process. Several significant beam dynamics issues that are, or have been, under active study are discussed: large space charge and image forces, beam wall clearances, halos, alignment, longitudinal instability, and bunch length control.

  13. Recirculating Linear Accelerators for Future Muon Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Bogacz, K.B.Beard, R.P. Johnson

    2010-05-01

    Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require rapid acceleration of short-lived muons to multi-GeV and TeV energies. A Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) that uses superconducting RF structures can provide exceptionally fast and economical acceleration to the extent that the focusing range of the RLA quadrupoles allows each muon to pass several times through each high-gradient cavity. A new concept of rapidly changing the strength of the RLA focusing quadrupoles as the muons gain energy is being developed to increase the number of passes that each muon will make in the RF cavities, leading to greater cost effectiveness.

  14. Distributed coupling high efficiency linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Neilson, Jeffrey

    2016-07-19

    A microwave circuit for a linear accelerator includes multiple monolithic metallic cell plates stacked upon each other so that the beam axis passes vertically through a central acceleration cavity of each plate. Each plate has a directional coupler with coupling arms. A first coupling slot couples the directional coupler to an adjacent directional coupler of an adjacent cell plate, and a second coupling slot couples the directional coupler to the central acceleration cavity. Each directional coupler also has an iris protrusion spaced from corners joining the arms, a convex rounded corner at a first corner joining the arms, and a corner protrusion at a second corner joining the arms.

  15. Next linear collider test accelerator injector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) is being constructed at SLAC to demonstrate multibunch beam loading compensation, suppression of higher order deflecting modes and measure transverse components of the accelerating fields in X-band accelerating structures. Currently a simple injector which provides the average current necessary for the beam loading compensations studies is under construction. An injector upgrade is planned to produce bunch trains similar to that of the NLC with microbunch intensity, separation and energy spread, identical to that of NLC. We discuss the design of the NLCTA injector upgrade.

  16. Failla Memorial Lecture: the future of heavy-ion science in biology and medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, C.A.

    1985-07-01

    An extensive review, with over 100 references, of the use of accelerator techniques in radiobiology is presented. Currently, beams of any stable isotope species up to uranium are available at kinetic energies of several hundred MeV/nucleon at the Berkeley Bevalac. The heavy ions hold interest for a broad spectrum of research because of their effectiveness in producing a series of major lesions in DNA along single particle tracks and because of the Bragg depth ionization properties that allow the precise deposition of highly localized doses deep in the human body. Heavy ions, when compared to low-LET radiation, have increased effectiveness for mammalian cell lethality, chromosome mutations, and cell transformation. The molecular mechanisms are not completely understood but appear to involve fragmentation and reintegration of DNA. Heavy ions do not require the presence of oxygen for producing their effects. Heavy ions are effective in delaying or blocking the cell division process. These radiobiological properties, combined with the ability to deliver highly localized internal doses, make accelerated heavy ions potentially important radiotherapeutic tools. Other novel approaches include the utilization of radioactive heavy beams as instant tracers. Heavy-ion radiography and microscopy respond to delicate changes in tissue electron density. The authors laboratory is in the process of proposing a research biomedical heavy-ion accelerator; the availability of such machines would greatly accelerate cancer and brain research with particle beams.

  17. Comparison of helium and heavy ion spectra in /sup 3/He-rich solar flares with model calculations based on stochastic Fermi acceleration in Alfven turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Moebius, E.; Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Gloeckler, G.

    1982-08-01

    A systematic study of the He isotopes, O, and Fe in six /sup 3/He-rich solar flares during the 1977--1979 period using the dE/dx versus E Ultralow Energy Wide Angle Telescope (ULEWAT) of the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland experiment on ISEE 1 and ISEE 3 revealed that the /sup 3/He spectrum is generally harder than that of /sup 4/He, and the O spectrum is harder than that of Fe in the energy range 0.4--4. MeV per nucleon. At higher energies the flux of the anomalous cosmic ray component exceeds the flux of /sup 4/He and O solar particles for 1977. The spectra as measured for /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He are basically in agreement with a stationary model based on stochastic Fermi acceleration in Alfven turbulence including the corresponding rigidity-dependent diffusive particle loss. The oxygen and iron spectra, however, differ from the ones predicted by the model: the variation of the Fe/O ratio is larger than predicted. It is suggested that the occasional observation of a maximum of the /sup 3/He spectrum is due to a short time injection of /sup 3/He and a long time injection of normal composition material. Subject headings: cosmic rays: general: particle acceleration: Sun: abundances: Sun:flares

  18. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: simulations for tamped targets and for disk experiments in accelerator test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-03-22

    Calculations suggest that experiments relating to disk heating, as well as beam deposition, focusing and transport can be performed within the context of current design proposals for accelerator test-facilities. Since the test-facilities have lower ion kinetic energy and beam pulse power as compared to reactor drivers, we achieve high-beam intensities at the focal spot by using short focal distance and properly designed beam optics. In this regard, the low beam emittance of suggested multi-beam designs are very useful. Possibly even higher focal spot brightness could be obtained by plasma lenses which involve external fields on the beam which is stripped to a higher charge state by passing through a plasma cell. Preliminary results suggest that intensities approx. 10/sup 13/ - 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ are achievable. Given these intensities, deposition experiments with heating of disks to greater than a million degrees Kelvin (100 eV) are expected.

  19. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Rhic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foelsche, H.; Hahn, H.; Harrison, M.; Ozaki, S.; Rhoades-Brown, M. J.

    1993-03-01

    The scope of the first relativistic energy heavy ion collider, RHIC, is discussed. Particular attention is paid to those novel features of a heavy ion collider that are distinct from the more usual proton machines. These features are derived from the experimental requirements of operation with a variety of ion species over a wide energy range as well as the increased demands on available ion sources and injector complexes. Storage of heavy ion beams for many hours is severely impacted by intrabeam scattering.

  20. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  1. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  2. Design study of a DPIS injector for a heavy ion FFAG

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Raparia, D.; Ishibashi, K.; Yonemura, Y.; Kanesue, T.

    2008-09-29

    A new heavy ion injector linac is proposed for providing heavy ion beams to a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator in Kyushu University. A combination of the new intense laser source based injector and the FFAG will be able to accelerate high current ion beams with 100 Hz of a repetition rate. The planned average current reaches 7 {micro}A with carbon 6+ beam.

  3. A new 14 GH{sub z} electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the heavy ion accelerator facility ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlapp, M.; Vondrasek, R.C.; Szczech, J.; Biliquist, P.J.; Pardo, R.C.; Xie, Z.Q.; Harkewicz, R.

    1997-09-01

    A new 14 GHz ECRIS has been designed and built over the last two years. The source design incorporates the latest results from ECR developments to produce intense beams of highly charged ions. An improved magnetic electron confinement is achieved from a large mirror ratio and strong hexapole field. The aluminum plasma chamber and extraction electrode as well as a biased disk on axis at the microwave injection side donate additional electrons to the plasma, making use of the large secondary electron yields from aluminum oxide. The source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using two different frequencies simultaneously to increase the electron energy gain. To be able to deliver usable intensities of the heaviest ion beams the design will also allow axial access for metal evaporation ovens and solid material. The main design goal is to produce several e{mu}A of at least {sup 238}U{sup 34+} in order to accelerate the beam to coulomb-barrier energies without further stripping. First charge state distributions for {sup 16}O and {sup 40}Ar have been measured.

  4. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facius, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on 'HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight', it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to 'large' fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too ('The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research'), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions' trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series. Since biological investigations and physical measurements of particle tracks had to be performed in laboratories widely separated, the preferred fixed contact between biological test objects and the particle detectors

  5. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    SciTech Connect

    Facius, R.

    1994-12-31

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on `HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight`, it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to `large` fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too (`The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research`), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions` trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series.

  6. 33.7 MHz heavy-ion radio frequency quadrupole linac at VECC Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Alok; Naik, Vaishali; Dechoudhury, Siddhartha; Bandyopadhyay, Arup; Mondal, Manas; Pandey, Hemendra Kumar; Roy, Tapatee Kundu; Sanyal, Dirtha; Bhowmick, Debasis

    2007-04-15

    A 33.7 MHz heavy-ion radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator has been designed, built, and tested. It is a four-rod-type RFQ designed for acceleration of 1.38 keV/u, q/A{>=}1/16 ions to about 29 keV/u. Transmission efficiencies of about 85% and 80% have been measured for the unanalyzed and analyzed beams, respectively, of oxygen ({sup 16}O{sup 2+}, {sup 16}O{sup 3+}, {sup 16}O{sup 4+}), nitrogen ({sup 14}N{sup 3+}, {sup 14}N{sup 4+}), and argon ({sup 40}Ar{sup 4+}). The system design and measurements along with results of beam acceleration test will be presented.

  7. Overview of US heavy-ion fusion progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    2004-06-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators seek to provide the scientific and technical basis for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an integrated source-to-target physics experiment recently included in the list of future facilities planned by the U.S. Department of Energy. To optimize the design of IBX and future inertial fusion energy drivers, current HIF-VNL research is addressing several key issues (representative, not inclusive): gas and electron cloud effects which can exacerbate beam loss at high beam perveance and magnet aperture fill factors; ballistic neutralized and assisted-pinch focusing of neutralized heavy ion beams; limits on longitudinal compression of both neutralized and un-neutralized heavy ion bunches; and tailoring heavy ion beams for uniform target energy deposition for high energy density physics (HEDP) studies.

  8. High current injector for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W. W.

    1993-05-01

    A 2 MV, 800 mA, K(+) injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 micro-s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (less than 5k Omega) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large (approximately 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 micro-s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented.

  9. A linear accelerator for simulated micrometeors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slattery, J. C.; Becker, D. G.; Hamermesh, B.; Roy, N. L.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the theory, design parameters, and construction details of a linear accelerator designed to impart meteoric velocities to charged microparticles in the 1- to 10-micron diameter range. The described linac is of the Sloan Lawrence type and, in a significant departure from conventional accelerator practice, is adapted to single particle operation by employing a square wave driving voltage with the frequency automatically adjusted from 12.5 to 125 kHz according to the variable velocity of each injected particle. Any output velocity up to about 30 km/sec can easily be selected, with a repetition rate of approximately two particles per minute.

  10. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Relative effectiveness at 1 gy after acute and fractionated exposures of heavy ions with different linear energy transfer for lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Farris Iii, Alton B; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Ya

    2015-02-01

    Space radiation, which is comprised of high-energy charged (HZE) particles with different high-linear energy transfer (LET), induces more severe biological effects than the Earth's radiation. NASA has mandated that risk estimates of carcinogenesis induced by exposure to HZE particles with different LET be determined before conducting human explorations of Mars. Because lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in humans, it is critical the risk of that radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis be included when estimating the risks of space radiation to astronauts. To address this, we examined the incidence of lung tumorigenesis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice at 1.5 years after 1 Gy exposure (single or fractionated dose) to different types of radiation with different LET (iron, silicon, oxygen and X ray). We chose wild-type mice for this study because previous studies of radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis using mutant mice models (either downregulated tumor suppressors or upregulated oncogenes) may not accurately reflect the response of healthy individuals (astronauts) to space radiation. Our study clearly showed that HZE particles (iron, silicon and oxygen) induced a higher incidence of lung tumorigenesis than X rays, and that their relative effectiveness at 1 Gy was >6. In addition, we found that silicon exposure appears to induce more aggressive lung tumors. These results provide valuable information for future followup experiments to study the underlying mechanism of lung tumorigenesis, which will improve risk estimation of space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis and help in the development of mitigators to reduce risk if it exceeds NASA guidelines.

  12. <span class="hlt">Heavy-Ion</span> Imaging Applied To Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J. I.; Tobias, C. A.; Capp, M. P.; Benton, E. V.; Holley, W. R.; Gray, Joel E.; Hendee, William R.; Haus, Andrew G.; Properzio, William S.

    1980-08-18

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  13. Highlights of the heavy ion fusion symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The current status and prospects for inertial confinement fusion based on the use of intense beams of heavy ions will be described in the light of results presented at the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion, (Washington, DC, May 27-29, 1986).

  14. High average power linear induction accelerator development

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-09-22

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 6 figs.

  16. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Caporaso, George J.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  17. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  18. Production of 14 MeV neutrons by heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Brugger, Robert M.; Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a neutron generator and a method for the production of 14 MeV neutrons. Heavy ions are accelerated to impinge upon a target mixture of deuterium and tritium to produce recoil atoms of deuterium and tritium. These recoil atoms have a sufficient energy such that they interact with other atoms of tritium or deuterium in the target mixture to produce approximately 14 MeV neutrons.

  19. Longitudinal instability in heavy-ion-fusion induction linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1993-05-01

    A induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls.

  20. The SPARC linear accelerator based terahertz source

    SciTech Connect

    Chiadroni, E.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L.; Filippetto, D.; Gatti, G.; Pace, E.; Rossi, A. R.; Vaccarezza, C.; Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; and others

    2013-03-04

    Ultra-short electron beams, produced through the velocity bunching compression technique, are used to drive the SPARC linear accelerator based source, which relies on the emission of coherent transition radiation in the terahertz range. This paper reports on the main features of this radiation, as terahertz source, with spectral coverage up to 5 THz and pulse duration down to 200 fs, with an energy per pulse of the order of several micro-joule, and as electron beam longitudinal diagnostics.

  1. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    2010-02-01

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four facilities for heavy ion radiotherapy in operation, and several new facilities are under construction or being planned. The most common requests for ion sources are a long lifetime and good stability and reproducibility. Sufficient intensity has been achieved by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the present facilities.

  2. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsässer, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  3. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsaesser, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-15

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  4. CERN achievements in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenio Bruno, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    Twenty years after a Letter of Intent by the GSI and LBL groups for the "Study of particle production and target fragmentation in central 20Ne on Pb reactions, at 12 GeV per nucleon energy of the CERN PS external beam" [1], based on the results found by the NA45/CERES, NA49, NA50, and WA97/NA57 experiments at the SPS, CERN announced compelling evidence for the formation of a new state of matter in heavyion collisions at CERN-SPS energies [2]. Some of the experiments were indeed the 2nd or 3rd generation successors of the apparatuses originally proposed by the GSI-LBL collaboration. Actually, the CERN ion program initiated at the SPS with the acceleration of oxygen ions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon only in 1986, and continued with sulphur ions at 200 GeV/nucleon up to 1993. The rest is history: lead-ion beams at 160 GeV/nucleon became available at the SPS in 1994; the LHC accelerated and collided lead beams at a center of mass energy per nucleon pair √sNN = 2.76 TeV in 2010. Heavy ion physics is definitely in the future program of CERN: ALICE will operate a major upgrade of its detectors during the second long shutdown of the LHC, in 2018-2019, and the associated physics program will span the third and fourth LHC runs, till late 2020s.

  5. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Riepe, K.B.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.

    1985-10-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10 X torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column. The column consists of two 28-inch diameter insulator modules made of 85 percent Al2O3 ceramic rings brazed to niobium feedthrough rings to which the electrodes are mechanically attached. Field shaping is used to minimize electron avalanche induced flashover along the inside surface of the ceramic rings. The column is self-supporting and is cantilevered from one end of the containment vessel. A brazed assembly was chosen to provide the required bond strength and high vacuum capability. The HV pulsed power supply is a 2MV Marx generator cantilevered from the opposite end of the containment vessel. The stainless steel pressure vessel (PV) contains a 65 psig mixture of SF6(30%) and nitrogen (70%) to provide the electrical insulation.

  6. Use of Proton SEE Data as a Proxy for Bounding Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Hayes, Kathryn P.

    2015-01-01

    Although heavy-ion single-event effects (SEE) pose serious threats to semiconductor devices in space, many missions face difficulties testing such devices at heavy-ion accelerators. Low-cost missions often find such testing too costly. Even well funded missions face issues testing commercial off the shelf (COTS) due to packaging and integration. Some missions wish to fly COTS systems with little insight into their components. Heavy-ion testing such parts and systems requires access to expensive and hard-to-access ultra-high energy ion accelerators, or significant system modification. To avoid these problems, some have proposed using recoil ions from high-energy protons as a proxy to bound heavy-ion SEE rates.

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Interest in energetic heavy ions is rapidly increasing in the field of biomedicine. Heavy ions are normally excluded from radiation protection, because they are not normally experienced by humans on Earth. However, knowledge of heavy ion biophysics is necessary in two fields: charged particle cancer therapy (hadrontherapy), and radiation protection in space missions. The possibility to cure tumours using accelerated heavy charged particles was first tested in Berkeley in the sixties, but results were not satisfactory. However, about 15 years ago therapy with carbon ions was resumed first in Japan and then in Europe. Heavy ions are preferable to photons for both physical and biological characteristics: the Bragg peak and limited lateral diffusion ensure a conformal dose distribution, while the high relative biological effectiveness and low oxygen enhancement ration in the Bragg peak region make the beam very effective in treating radioresistant and hypoxic tumours. Recent results coming from the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba (see the paper by Dr Tsujii and co-workers in this issue) and GSI (Germany) provide strong clinical evidence that heavy ions are indeed an extremely effective weapon in the fight against cancer. However, more research is needed in the field, especially on optimization of the treatment planning and risk of late effects in normal tissue, including secondary cancers. On the other hand, high-energy heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic radiation and, although they are rare as compared to protons, they give a major contribution in terms of equivalent dose to the crews of manned space exploratory-class missions. Exploration of the Solar System is now the main goal of the space program, and the risk caused by exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is considered a serious hindrance toward this goal, because of the high uncertainty on late effects of energetic heavy nuclei, and the lack of effective countermeasures. Risks

  8. Fixed Field Alternating Gradient recirculator for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A.C.; Neil, V.K.

    1991-03-01

    A heavy ion fusion driver is considered in which a beam is passed repeatedly through a LIA (linear induction accelerator) by recirculating with two spiral sector FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) 180 degree bends. The driver consists of three such rings: a 10--100 MeV low energy ring (LER), a 100--1000 MeV medium energy ring (MER), and a 1--10 GeV high energy ring (HER). Using a scaling field of 14 kG and taking the length of the straight sections to equal the path length in the bends, the circumference of the three rings would be 187, 590, and 1890 meters. Four matching sections in each of the three rings provide the interface between the two straight sections accommodating the LIA and the FFAG bends. These matching sections consist of dipoles which provide a dispersion free match between the linear induction accelerator and the energy dependent equilibrium orbits of the FFAG ring. The advantage in the use of the spiral sector FFAG over other recirculator concepts is that the fields are time invariant. This removes the problems associated with time dependent field penetration into the vacuum chamber and the large amount of energy which must be expended to change the magnetic field on the small time scale associated with the required pulse repetition frequency. The disadvantage, as we show in this work is the relatively weak alternating gradient focusing. The FFAG will not accommodate the level of beam current possible in a separate function lattice of bending magnets and quadrupoles.

  9. LIONs at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, T.N.; Zdarko, R.W.; Simmons, R.H.; Bennett, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    The term LION is an acronym for Long Ionization Chamber. This is a distributed ion chamber which is used to monitor secondary ionization along the shield walls of a beam line resulting from incorrectly steered charged particle beams in lieu of the use of many discrete ion chambers. A cone of ionizing radiation emanating from a point source as a result of incorrect steering intercepts a portion of 1-5/8 inch Heliax cable (about 100 meters in length) filled with Argon gas at 20 psi and induces a pulsed current which is proportional to the ionizing charge. This signal is transmitted via the cable to an integrator circuit whose output is directed to an electronic comparators, which in turn is used to turn off the accelerated primary beam when preset limits are exceeded. This device is used in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Beam Containment System (BCS) to prevent potentially hazardous ionizing radiation resulting from incorrectly steered beams in areas that might be occupied by people. This paper describes the design parameters and experience in use in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) area of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  10. Heavy ion fusion notes 94-1 through 94-9

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, D.; Rintamaki, J.; Lund, S.

    1995-03-13

    This report contains information on the following topics dealing with heavy ion fusion accelerators: steering errors and corrections in a small recirculator; evaluation of a capacitive beam position monitor diagnostic for use on the heavy ion recirculator; beam steering with dipole biased electrostatic quadrupoles; estimate of emittance growth; c-probes for the recirculator; analysis of the dipole plate shape and location; and generation of electric dipole waveforms.

  11. Radio frequency focused interdigital linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.; Starling, W. Joel

    2006-08-29

    An interdigital (Wideroe) linear accelerator employing drift tubes, and associated support stems that couple to both the longitudinal and support stem electromagnetic fields of the linac, creating rf quadrupole fields along the axis of the linac to provide transverse focusing for the particle beam. Each drift tube comprises two separate electrodes operating at different electrical potentials as determined by cavity rf fields. Each electrode supports two fingers, pointing towards the opposite end of the drift tube, forming a four-finger geometry that produces an rf quadrupole field distribution along its axis. The fundamental periodicity of the structure is equal to one half of the particle wavelength .beta..lamda., where .beta. is the particle velocity in units of the velocity of light and .lamda. is the free space wavelength of the rf. Particles are accelerated in the gaps between drift tubes. The particle beam is focused in regions inside the drift tubes.

  12. Fissile-fuel production by linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Fissile fuel production by linear accelerators has advantages over fast breeders with respect to the absence of criticality problems and a higher net production rate of fuel. As part of the NASAP effort, a design study of the light-water reactor fuel enricher/regenerator, has been performed under the restriction that fuel was not to be reprocessed. The enricher/regenerator uses liquid lead jets as the target for the accelerator beam. The generated neutrons were then captured in an LWR fuel assembly for in-situ generation of fissile fuel. If the restriction of no reprocessing is removed, uranium or thorium elements can be irradiated directly with high-energy protons. The fissile fuel production rate and the heat regeneration due to high- and low-energy fission reaction are thus considerably increased, i.e., by at least a factor of two, as compared with liquid lead targets.

  13. Relativistic heavy ion fragmentation at HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System)

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to measure projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. Charge identification was obtained by the use of a Cerenkov Hodoscope operating above the threshold for total internal reflection, while velocity measurement was performed by use of a second set of Cerenkov radiators operating at the threshold for total internal reflection. Charge and mass resolution for the system was {sigma}{sub Z} = 0.2 e and {sigma}{sub A} = 0.2 u. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic production cross sections for the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar at 1.65{center dot}A GeV have been compared with an Abrasion-Ablation Model based on the evaporation computer code GEMINI. The model proves to be an accurate predictor of the cross sections for fragments between Chlorine and Boron. The measured cross section were reproduced using simple geometry with charge dispersions induced by zero-point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance for the prompt abrasion stage, and injecting an excitation energy spectrum based on a final state interaction with scaling factor E{sub fsi} = 38.8 MeV/c. Measurement of the longitudinal momentum distribution widths for projectile fragments are consistent with previous experiment and can be interpreted as reflecting the Fermi momentum distribution in the initial projectile nucleus. Measurement of the transverse momentum indicate an additional, unexplained dependence of the reduced momentum widths on fragment mass. This dependence has the same sign and similar slope to previously measured fragments of {sup 139}La, and to predictions based on phase-space constraints on the final state of the system.

  14. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  15. Nonresonant interaction of heavy ions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, J.; Gendrin, R.

    1985-01-01

    The motion of a heavy ion in the presence of an intense ultralow-frequency electromagnetic wave propagating along the dc magnetic field is analyzed. Starting from the basic equations of motion and from their associated two invariants, the heavy ion velocity-space trajectories are drawn. It is shown that after a certain time, particles whose initial phase angles are randomly distributed tend to bunch together, provided that the wave intensity b-sub-1 is sufficiently large. The importance of these results for the interpretation of the recently observed acceleration of singly charged He ions in conjunction with the occurrence of large-amplitude ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere is discussed.

  16. The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original ``Big Bang.`` The collider rings will consist of 1740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing and test results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful.

  17. Quasimolecular single-nucleon effects in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Erb, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Several experimental examples are discussed to illustrate that single-particle molecular orbital behavior has become an established reality in nuclear physics over the last several years. Measurements and analyses of inelastic scattering in the /sup 13/C + /sup 12/C and /sup 17/O + /sup 12/C systems, and of neutron transfer in the /sup 13/C(/sup 13/C, /sup 12/C)/sup 14/C reaction, show that the motion of valence nucleons can be strongly and simultaneously influenced by both collision partners in heavy-ion collisions. This bvehavior is characteristic of a molecular (single-particle) rather than a direct (DWBA) mechanism: it demonstrates that the single-particle analog of atomic molecular motion plays an important role in nuclear reactions at bombarding energies near the Coulomb barrier. Such behavior may be even more pronounced in the collisions of massive nuclei that will be studied with the new generation of heavy-ion accelerators. 19 references.

  18. Development of heavy-ion radiotherapy technology with HIMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Since 1994, HIMAC has carried out clinical studies and treatments for more than 9000 cancer patients with carbon-ion beams. During the first decade of the HIMAC study, a single beam-wobbling method, adopted as the HIMAC beam-delivery technique, was improved for treatments of moving tumors and for obtaining more conformal dose distribution. During the second decade, a pencil-beam 3D scanning method has been developed toward an “adaptive cancer treatment” for treatments of both static and moving tumors. A new treatment research facility was constructed with HIMAC in order to verify the developed 3D scanning technology through a clinical study that has been successfully conducted since 2011. As the next stage, a compact heavy-ion rotating gantry with a superconducting technology has been developed for the more accurate and shorter-course treatments. The twenty-year development of the heavy-ion radiotherapy technologies including accelerator technologies with HIMAC is reviewed.

  19. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  20. Strange Particles and Heavy Ion Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bassalleck, Bernd; Fields, Douglas

    2016-04-28

    This very long-running grant has supported many experiments in nuclear and particle physics by a group from the University of New Mexico. The gamut of these experiments runs from many aspects of Strangeness Nuclear Physics, to rare Kaon decays, to searches for exotic Hadrons such as Pentaquark or H-Dibaryon, and finally to Spin Physics within the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC. These experiments were performed at a number of laboratories worldwide: first and foremost at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), but also at CERN, KEK, and most recently at J-PARC. In this Final Technical Report we summarize progress and achievements for this award since our last Progress Report, i.e. for the period of fall 2013 until the award’s termination on November 30, 2015. The report consists of two parts, representing our two most recent experimental efforts, participation in the Nucleon Spin Physics program of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL – Task 1, led by Douglas Fields; and participation in several Strangeness Nuclear Physics experiments at J-PARC, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Center in Tokai-mura, Japan – Task 2, led by Bernd Bassalleck.

  1. Heavy ion fusion: Prospects and status

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to review the status of HIF as it was presented at Princeton, and also to try to deduce something about the prospects for HIF in particular, and fusion in general, from the world and US political scene. The status of the field is largely, though not entirely, expressed through presentations from the two leading HIF efforts: (1) the US program, centered at LBNL and LLNL, is primarily concerned with applying induction linac technology for HIF drivers; (2) the European program, centered at GSI, Darmstadt, but including several other laboratories, is primarily directed towards the rf linac approach using storage rings for energy compression. Several developments in the field of HIF should be noted: (1) progress towards construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) gives strength to the whole rational for developing a driver for Inertial Fusion Energy; (2) the field of accelerator science has matured far beyond the status that it had in 1976; (3) Heavy Ion Fusion has passed some more reviews, including one by the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), and has received the usual good marks; (5) as the budgets for Magnetic Fusion have fallen, the pressures on the Office of Fusion energy (OFE) have intensified, and a move is underway to shift the HIF program out of the IFE program and back into the ICF program in the Defense Programs (DP) side of the DOE.

  2. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections.

  3. Acceleration in Linear and Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellington, S. H.; Docherty, W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of a simple accelerometer and explains its use in demonstrating acceleration, deceleration, constant speed, measurement of acceleration, acceleration and the inclined plane and angular and radial acceleration. (GS)

  4. Radiosurgery with a linear accelerator. Methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Betti, O O; Galmarini, D; Derechinsky, V

    1991-01-01

    Based on the concepts of Leksell and on recommendations of different Swedish physicists on the use of linear accelerator for radiosurgical use, we developed a new methodology coupling the Talairach stereotactic system with a commercial linac. Anatomical facts encouraged us to use coronal angles of irradiation employing the angular displacement of the linac above the horizontal plane. Different coronal planes are obtained by rotation of the stereotactic frame. The center of the irradiated target coincides with the irradiation and rotation center of the linear accelerator. Multiple targets can be irradiated in the same session. We use as recommended a secondary collimator in heavy alloy. Special software was prepared after different dosimetric controls. The use of a PC allows us to employ 1-6 targets and different collimators to displace the isocenters in order to obtain geometrical isodose modification, and to change the value of each irradiation arc or portions of each arc in some minutes. Simple or sophisticated neurosurgical strategies can be applied in the treatment of frequently irregular shape and volume AVMs.

  5. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1994-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE.

  7. Envelope model of a heavy-ion recirculator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1990-12-01

    A simple transport code has been developed to model the beam in a heavy-ion recirculating accelerator. The novel feature of the model is the treatment of the beam charge density as a Lagrangian fluid in the axial direction. In addition, the envelope and centroid equations include terms that account for the transverse self-force, image forces, and bend fields in the paraxial limit. The use of compressible'' beam slices makes the code suitable for designing the acceleration and compression schedules. The code has been used primarily to design the lattice of the LLNL recirculator, and preliminary magnet configurations for that machine are presented here. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  9. Production of medical radioisotopes with linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Starovoitova, Valeriia N; Tchelidze, Lali; Wells, Douglas P

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we discuss producing radioisotopes using linear electron accelerators and address production and separation issues of photoneutron (γ,n) and photoproton (γ,p) reactions. While (γ,n) reactions typically result in greater yields, separating product nuclides from the target is challenging since the chemical properties of both are the same. Yields of (γ,p) reactions are typically lower than (γ,n) ones, however they have the advantage that target and product nuclides belong to different chemical species so their separation is often not such an intricate problem. In this paper we consider two examples, (100)Mo(γ,n)(99)Mo and (68)Zn(γ,p)(67)Cu, of photonuclear reactions. Monte-Carlo simulations of the yields are benchmarked with experimental data obtained at the Idaho Accelerator Center using a 44MeV linear electron accelerator. We propose using a kinematic recoil method for photoneutron production. This technique requires (100)Mo target material to be in the form of nanoparticles coated with a catcher material. During irradiation, (99)Mo atoms recoil and get trapped in the coating layer. After irradiation, the coating is dissolved and (99)Mo is collected. At the same time, (100)Mo nanoparticles can be reused. For the photoproduction method, (67)Cu can be separated from the target nuclides, (68)Zn, using standard exchange chromatography methods. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed and the (99)Mo activity was predicted to be about 7MBq/(g(⁎)kW(⁎)h) while (67)Cu activity was predicted to be about 1MBq/(g(⁎)kW(⁎)h). Experimental data confirm the predicted activity for both cases which proves that photonuclear reactions can be used to produce radioisotopes. Lists of medical isotopes which might be obtained using photonuclear reactions have been compiled and are included as well.

  10. Optics measurement and correction for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaozhe

    The quality of beam optics is of great importance for the performance of a high energy accelerator like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data can be used to derive beam optics. However, the accuracy of the derived beam optics is often limited by the performance and imperfections of instruments as well as measurement methods and conditions. Therefore, a robust and model-independent data analysis method is highly desired to extract noise-free information from TBT BPM data. As a robust signal-processing technique, an independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm called second order blind identification (SOBI) has been proven to be particularly efficient in extracting physical beam signals from TBT BPM data even in the presence of instrument's noise and error. We applied the SOBI ICA algorithm to RHIC during the 2013 polarized proton operation to extract accurate linear optics from TBT BPM data of AC dipole driven coherent beam oscillation. From the same data, a first systematic estimation of RHIC BPM noise performance was also obtained by the SOBI ICA algorithm, and showed a good agreement with the RHIC BPM configurations. Based on the accurate linear optics measurement, a beta-beat response matrix correction method and a scheme of using horizontal closed orbit bumps at sextupoles for arc beta-beat correction were successfully applied to reach a record-low beam optics error at RHIC. This thesis presents principles of the SOBI ICA algorithm and theory as well as experimental results of optics measurement and correction at RHIC.

  11. CULA: hybrid GPU accelerated linear algebra routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, John R.; Price, Daniel K.; Spagnoli, Kyle E.; Paolini, Aaron L.; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2010-04-01

    The modern graphics processing unit (GPU) found in many standard personal computers is a highly parallel math processor capable of nearly 1 TFLOPS peak throughput at a cost similar to a high-end CPU and an excellent FLOPS/watt ratio. High-level linear algebra operations are computationally intense, often requiring O(N3) operations and would seem a natural fit for the processing power of the GPU. Our work is on CULA, a GPU accelerated implementation of linear algebra routines. We present results from factorizations such as LU decomposition, singular value decomposition and QR decomposition along with applications like system solution and least squares. The GPU execution model featured by NVIDIA GPUs based on CUDA demands very strong parallelism, requiring between hundreds and thousands of simultaneous operations to achieve high performance. Some constructs from linear algebra map extremely well to the GPU and others map poorly. CPUs, on the other hand, do well at smaller order parallelism and perform acceptably during low-parallelism code segments. Our work addresses this via hybrid a processing model, in which the CPU and GPU work simultaneously to produce results. In many cases, this is accomplished by allowing each platform to do the work it performs most naturally.

  12. Validation of Heavy Ion Transport Capabilities in PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronningen, Reginald M.

    2007-03-01

    The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of secondary neutron production cross sections in reactions of Xe at 400 MeV/u with lithium and lead targets, measurements of neutrons outside of thick concrete and iron shields, and measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u 48Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. A practical example that tests magnetic field capabilities is shown for a simulated 48Ca beam at 500 MeV/u striking a lithium target to produce the rare isotope 44Si, with ion transport through a fragmentation-reaction magnetic pre-separator. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably for the simulation of radiation fields that is necessary for designing safe, reliable and cost effective future high-powered heavy-ion accelerators in rare isotope beam facilities.

  13. Progress in heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Bangerter, R.O.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-12-22

    Heavy-ion induction accelerators are being developed as fusion drivers for ICF power production in the US Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, in the Office of Fusion Energy of the US Department of Energy. In addition, they represent an attractive driver option for a high-yield microfusion facility for defense research. This paper describes recent progress in induction drivers for Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF), and plans for future work. It presents research aimed at developing drivers having reduced cost and size, specifically advanced induction linacs and recirculating induction accelerators (recirculators). The goals and design of the Elise accelerator being built at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), as the first stage of the ILSE (Induction Linac Systems Experiments) program, are described. Elise will accelerate, for the first time, space-charge-dominated ion beams which are of full driver scale in line-charge density and diameter. Elise will be a platform on which the critical beam manipulations of the induction approach can be explored. An experimental program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) exploring the recirculator principle on a small scale is described in some detail; it is expected that these studies will result ultimately in an operational prototype recirculating induction accelerator. In addition, other elements of the US HIF program are described.

  14. Vanguard industrial linear accelerator rapid product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harroun, Jim

    1994-07-01

    Siemens' ability to take the VanguardTM Industrial Linear Accelerator from the development stage to the market place in less than two years is described. Emphasis is on the development process, from the business plan through the shipment of the first commercial sale. Included are discussions on the evolution of the marketing specifications, with emphasis on imaging system requirements, as well as flexibility for expansion into other markets. Requirements used to create the engineering specifications, how they were incorporated into the design, and lessons learned from the demonstration system are covered. Some real-life examples of unanticipated problems are presented, as well as how they were resolved, including some discussion of the special problems encountered in developing a user interface and a training program for an international customer.

  15. Development of compact linear accelerator in KBSI

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jang-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Park, Jin Yong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Won, Mi-Sook

    2012-02-15

    The compact linear accelerator using a 28 GHz ECRIS is under construction in KBSI, South Korea. The main capability of this facility is the production of fast neurons for the neutron radiography. The designing of a superconducting magnet, microwave transmission system, beam extraction, and plasma chamber of ECRIS were finished. The nominal axial design fields of the magnets are 3.6 T at injection and 2.2 T at extraction; the nominal radial design field strength at the plasma chamber wall is 2.1 T. We already installed 10 kW, 28 GHz gyrotron, and tested a microwave power from gyrotron using a dummy load. The current status will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Development of compact linear accelerator in KBSI.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jang-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Park, Jin Yong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Won, Mi-Sook

    2012-02-01

    The compact linear accelerator using a 28 GHz ECRIS is under construction in KBSI, South Korea. The main capability of this facility is the production of fast neurons for the neutron radiography. The designing of a superconducting magnet, microwave transmission system, beam extraction, and plasma chamber of ECRIS were finished. The nominal axial design fields of the magnets are 3.6 T at injection and 2.2 T at extraction; the nominal radial design field strength at the plasma chamber wall is 2.1 T. We already installed 10 kW, 28 GHz gyrotron, and tested a microwave power from gyrotron using a dummy load. The current status will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Development of compact linear accelerator in KBSIa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jang-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Park, Jin Yong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Won, Mi-Sook

    2012-02-01

    The compact linear accelerator using a 28 GHz ECRIS is under construction in KBSI, South Korea. The main capability of this facility is the production of fast neurons for the neutron radiography. The designing of a superconducting magnet, microwave transmission system, beam extraction, and plasma chamber of ECRIS were finished. The nominal axial design fields of the magnets are 3.6 T at injection and 2.2 T at extraction; the nominal radial design field strength at the plasma chamber wall is 2.1 T. We already installed 10 kW, 28 GHz gyrotron, and tested a microwave power from gyrotron using a dummy load. The current status will be discussed in this paper.

  18. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Carder, Bruce M.

    1998-01-01

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.

  19. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Carder, B.M.

    1998-05-26

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter. 10 figs.

  20. Introduction to electrodynamics for microwave linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-04-01

    This collection of notes and exercises is intended as a workbook to introduce the principles of microwave linear accelerators, starting with the underlying foundation in electrodynamics. The author reviewed Maxwell's equations, the Lorentz force law, and the behavior of fields near a conducting boundary. The author goes on to develop the principles of microwave electronics, including waveguide modes, circuit equivalence, shunt admittance of an iris, and voltage standing-wave ratio. The author constructed an elementary example of a waveguide coupled to a cavity, and examined its behavior during transient filling of the cavity, and in steady-state. He goes on to examine a periodic line. Then he examined the problem of acceleration in detail, studying first the properties of a single cavity-waveguide-beam system and developing the notions of wall Q, external Q, [R/Q], shunt impedance, and transformer ratio. He then examined the behavior of such a system on and off resonance, on the bench, and under conditions of transient and steady-state beam-loading. This work provides the foundation for the commonly employed circuit equivalents and the basic scalings for such systems. Following this he examined the coupling of two cavities, powered by a single feed, and goes on to consider structures constructed from multiple coupled cavities. The basic scalings for constant impedance and constant gradient traveling-wave structures are set down, including features of steady-state beam-loading, and the coupled-circuit model. Effects of uniform and random detuning are derived. These notes conclude with a brief outline of some problems of current interest in accelerator research.

  1. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Carder, B.M.

    1995-12-31

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.

  2. Inferring magnetospheric heavy ion density using EMIC waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2015-08-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave observations that result from ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the IIH resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. These mode-converted waves at the IIH resonance are localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this paper, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and wave frequencies using a dipole magnetic field model. We find that the resonance only occurs over a limited range of wave frequency such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and EMIC waves observed from the GOES 12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate the He+ concentration of around 4% near L = 6.6 assuming electron-H+-He+ plasma.

  3. Towards a heavy-ion transport capability in the MARS15 Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Gudima, K. K.; Mashnik, S. G.; Rakhno, I. L.; Striganov, S.

    2004-04-01

    In order to meet the challenges of new accelerator and space projects and further improve modelling of radiation effects in microscopic objects, heavy-ion interaction and transport physics have been recently incorporated into the MARS15 Monte Carlo code. A brief description of new modules is given in comparison with experimental data. The MARS Monte Carlo code is widely used in numerous accelerator, detector, shielding and cosmic ray applications. The needs of the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, Large Hadron Collider, Rare Isotope Accelerator and NASA projects have recently induced adding heavy-ion interaction and transport physics to the MARS15 code. The key modules of the new implementation are described below along with their comparisons to experimental data.

  4. The heavy ion compositional signature in 3He-rich solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Reames, D. V.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Vonrosenvinge, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the approx. 1 MeV/nucleon heavy ion abundances in 66 He3-rich solar particle events was performed using the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland and Goddard Space Flight Center instruments on the ISEE-3 spacecraft. The observations were carried out in interplanetary space over the period 1978 October through 1982 June. Earlier observations were confirmed which show an enrichment of heavy ions in HE3-rich events, relative to the average solar energetic particle composition in large particle events. For the survey near 1.5 MeV/nucleon the enrichments compared to large solar particle events are approximately He4:C:O:Ne:Mg:Si:Fe = 0.44:0.66:1.:3.4:3.5:4.1:9.6. Surprising new results emerging from the present broad survey are that the heavy ion enrichment pattern is the same within a factor of approx. 2 for almost all cases, and the degree of heavy ion enrichment is uncorrelated with the He3 enrichment. Overall, the features established appear to be best explained by an acceleration mechanism in which the He3 enrichment process is not responsible for the heavy ion enrichment, but rather the heavy ion enrichment is a measure of the ambient coronal composition at the sites where the He3-rich events occur.

  5. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, T.S.; Barton, D.S.; Oerter, B.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system has been used in the commissioning of the AGS to RHIC transfer line and in the first RHIC sextant test. Much of the controls infrastructure for networks and links has been installed throughout the collider. All of the controls hardware modules needed to be built for early RHIC operations have been designed and tested. Many of these VME modules are already being used in normal AGS operations. Over 150 VME based front end computers and device controllers will be installed by the Summer of 1998 in order to be ready for Fall of 1998. A few features are being added to the front end computer core software. The bulk of the Accelerator Device Objects (ADOs) which are instantiated in the FECs, have been written and tested in the early commissioning. A configuration database has been designed. Generic control and display of ADO parameters via a spreadsheet like program on the console level computers was provided early on in the control system development. User interface tools that were developed for the AGS control system have been used in RHIC applications. Some of the basic operations programs, like alarm display and save/restore, that are used in the AGS operations have been or will be expanded to support RHIC operations. A model for application programs which involves a console level manager servicing ADOs have been verified with a few RHIC applications. More applications need to be written for the Fall of 1998 commissioning effort. A sequencer for automatic control of the fill is being written with the expectation that it will be useful in early commissioning.

  6. Polarization in heavy-ion reactions. [Lectures

    SciTech Connect

    Fick, D.

    1983-08-01

    Determination of the polarization and spin alignment of reaction products emitted from heavy ion reactions should provide a sensitive test of reaction mechanisms. Techniques for producing both polarized beams and polarized targets are advancing rapidly. At the Oak Ridge National Laboraotry interest in this field has lead to the design and construction of a laser optically pumped polarized target by illuminating a supersonic gas jet. This target, which is mounted in the scattering chamber of a magnetic spectrometer, will be used to observe effects when deformed polarized targets are bombarded by heavy ions. Mutual research interests led to the invitation of Professor Fick, a pioneer in heavy ion polarization research who recently reviewed the status of this field, to Oak Ridge. While at ORNL he presented a series of lectures on this subject. Notes from these lectures are presented. (WHK)

  7. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  8. Luminosity Limitations of Linear Colliders Based on Plasma Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri; Burov, Alexey; Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Particle acceleration in plasma creates a possibility of exceptionally high accelerating gradients and appears as a very attractive option for future linear electron-positron and/or photon-photon colliders. These high accelerating gradients were already demonstrated in a number of experiments. Furthermore, a linear collider requires exceptionally high beam brightness which still needs to be demonstrated. In this article we discuss major phenomena which limit the beam brightness of accelerated beam and, consequently, the collider luminosity.

  9. Efficient and stable proton acceleration by irradiating a two-layer target with a linearly polarized laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. Y.; Yan, X. Q.; Chen, J. E.; He, X. T.; Ma, W. J.; Bin, J. H.; Schreiber, J.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D.

    2013-01-15

    We report an efficient and stable scheme to generate {approx}200 MeV proton bunch by irradiating a two-layer targets (near-critical density layer+solid density layer with heavy ions and protons) with a linearly polarized Gaussian pulse at intensity of 6.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Due to self-focusing of laser and directly accelerated electrons in the near-critical density layer, the proton energy is enhanced by a factor of 3 compared to single-layer solid targets. The energy spread of proton is also remarkably reduced. Such scheme is attractive for applications relevant to tumor therapy.

  10. Medium-energy electrons and heavy ions in Jupiter's magnetosphere - Effects of lower hybrid wave-particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    A theory of medium-energy (about keV) electrons and heavy ions in Jupiter's magnetosphere is presented. Lower hybrid waves are generated by the combined effects of a ring instability of neutral wind pickup ions and the modified two-stream instability associated with transport of cool Iogenic plasma. The quasi-linear energy diffusion coefficient for lower hybrid wave-particle interactions is evaluated, and several solutions to the diffusion equation are given. Calculations based on measured wave properties show that the noise substantially modifies the particle distribution functions. The effects are to accelerate superthermal ions and electrons to keV energies and to thermalize the pickup ions on time scales comparable to the particle residence time. The S(2+)/S(+) ratio at medium energies is a measure of the relative contribution from Iogenic thermal plasma and neutral wind ions, and this important quantity should be determined from future measurements. The theory also predicts a preferential acceleration of heavy ions with an accleration time that scales inversely with the root of the ion mass. Electrons accelerated by the process contribute to further reionization of the neutral wind by electron impact, thus providing a possible confirmation of Alfven's critical velocity effect in the Jovian magnetosphere.

  11. Holographic heavy ion collisions with baryon charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mateos, David; van der Schee, Wilke; Triana, Miquel

    2016-09-01

    We numerically simulate collisions of charged shockwaves in Einstein-Maxwell theory in anti-de Sitter space as a toy model of heavy ion collisions with non-zero baryon charge. The stress tensor and the baryon current become well described by charged hydrodynamics at roughly the same time. The effect of the charge density on generic observables is typically no larger than 15%. We find significant stopping of the baryon charge and compare our results with those in heavy ion collision experiments.

  12. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental progress to date has strengthened our belief in the soundness and attractiveness of the heavy ion method for fusion. What surprises that have shown up in the laboratory (e.g., in SBTE) have all been of the pleasant kind so far. The systems assessment has supported the view that the heavy ion approach can lead to economically attractive electric power and that a wide variety of options exists in all parameters. The systems work has also been of great help in pointing the way for the research and development activities.

  13. Angular spectrum analysis in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Muñoz Martínez, Jose L.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy Ion Collisions serve to study some features of early-universe cosmology. In this contribution we adapt data analysis frequently used to understand the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies (such as the Mollweide projection and the angular power spectrum) to heavy ion collisions at the LHC. We examine a few publicly available events of the ALICE collaboration under this light. Because the ALICE time projection chamber has limited coverage in rapidity and some blind angles in the transverse plane, the angular spectrum seems very influenced by the detector's acceptance.

  14. Radio frequency noise from clinical linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Burke, B; Lamey, M; Rathee, S; Murray, B; Fallone, B G

    2009-04-21

    There is a great deal of interest in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), and to advance the state of IGRT, an integrated linear accelerator-magnetic resonance (linac-MR) system has been proposed. Knowledge of the radiofrequency (RF) emissions near a linac is important for the design of appropriate RF shielding to facilitate the successful integration of these two devices. The frequency spectra of both electric and magnetic fields of RF emission are measured using commercially available measurement probes near the treatment couch in three clinical linac vaults with distinct physical layouts. The magnitude spectrum of the RF power emitted from these three linacs is then estimated. The electric field spectrum was also measured at several distances from the linac modulator in order to assess the effects of variations in spatial location in the treatment vault. A large fraction of RF power is emitted at frequencies below 5 MHz. However, the measured RF power at the Larmor frequency (8.5 MHz) of the proposed 0.2 T MR in the linac-MR (0.4-14.6 microW m(-2)) is still large enough to cause artifacts in MR images. Magnetron-based linacs generally emit much larger RF power than klystron-based linacs. In the frequency range of 1-50 MHz, only slight variation in the measured electric field is observed as a function of measurement position. This study suggests that the RF emissions are strong enough to cause image artifacts in MRI systems.

  15. Simulation of a medical linear accelerator for teaching purposes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rhys; Lamey, Michael; MacPherson, Miller; Carlone, Marco

    2015-05-08

    Simulation software for medical linear accelerators that can be used in a teaching environment was developed. The components of linear accelerators were modeled to first order accuracy using analytical expressions taken from the literature. The expressions used constants that were empirically set such that realistic response could be expected. These expressions were programmed in a MATLAB environment with a graphical user interface in order to produce an environment similar to that of linear accelerator service mode. The program was evaluated in a systematic fashion, where parameters affecting the clinical properties of medical linear accelerator beams were adjusted independently, and the effects on beam energy and dose rate recorded. These results confirmed that beam tuning adjustments could be simulated in a simple environment. Further, adjustment of service parameters over a large range was possible, and this allows the demonstration of linear accelerator physics in an environment accessible to both medical physicists and linear accelerator service engineers. In conclusion, a software tool, named SIMAC, was developed to improve the teaching of linear accelerator physics in a simulated environment. SIMAC performed in a similar manner to medical linear accelerators. The authors hope that this tool will be valuable as a teaching tool for medical physicists and linear accelerator service engineers.

  16. Apoptosis and injuries of heavy ion beam and x-ray radiation on malignant melanoma cell.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jin; Li, Sha; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Dong-Wei; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) and low LET X-ray radiation on apoptosis and related proteins of malignant melanoma on tumor-bearing mice under the same physical dosage. C57BL/6 J mice were burdened by tumors and randomized into three groups. These mice received heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) and X-ray radiation under the same physical dosage, respectively; their weight and tumor volumes were measured every three days post-radiation. After 30 days, these mice were sacrificed. Then, median survival time was calculated and tumors on mice were proliferated. In addition, immunohistochemistry was carried out for apoptosis-related proteins to reflect the expression level. After tumor-bearing mice were radiated to heavy ion, median survival time improved and tumor volume significantly decreased in conjunction with the upregulated expression of pro-apoptosis factors, Bax and cytochrome C, and the downregulated expression of apoptosis-profilin (Bcl-2, Survivin) and proliferation-related proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). The results indicated that radiation can promote the apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells and inhibit their proliferation. This case was more suitable for heavy ion ((12)C(6+)). High LET heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) radiation could significantly improve the killing ability for malignant melanoma cells by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibiting their proliferation. These results demonstrated that heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) presented special advantages in terms of treating malignant melanoma.

  17. Multi-beam linear accelerator EVT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, Vladimir E.; Kazakov, Sergey Yu.; Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2016-09-01

    A novel electron multi-beam accelerator is presented. The accelerator, short-named EVT (Electron Voltage Transformer) belongs to the class of two-beam accelerators. It combines an RF generator and essentially an accelerator within the same vacuum envelope. Drive beam-lets and an accelerated beam are modulated in RF modulators and then bunches pass into an accelerating structure, comprising uncoupled with each other and inductive tuned cavities, where the energy transfer from the drive beams to the accelerated beam occurs. A phasing of bunches is solved by choice correspond distances between gaps of the adjacent cavities. Preliminary results of numerical simulations and the initial specification of EVT operating in S-band, with a 60 kV gun and generating a 2.7 A, 1.1 MV beam at its output is presented. A relatively high efficiency of 67% and high design average power suggest that EVT can find its use in industrial applications.

  18. Vacuum systems of linear accelerators of the NICA injection complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosachev, V. V.; Bazanov, A. M.; Butenko, A. V.; Galimov, A. R.; Nesterov, A. V.; Pivin, R. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The NICA project, which includes several accelerators of charged particles, is under construction in the Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna. Obtaining the required vacuum conditions is one of the key points in implementing the project, because reaching the required ion lifetime at all stages of particle acceleration is what determines the effective luminosity of the experiments in the long run. Currently, modernization of the vacuum system of the injection complex of the LU-20 linear accelerator of light ions, one of oldest accelerators in the JINR, is being carried out and the new HILAC linear accelerator for the acceleration of gold ions in the collider mode of the NICA complex is being installed. At the end parts of the linear accelerators, the residual gas pressure must be approximately 10-5 Pa, which is determined by the maximum amplitude of the RF electric field used for the acceleration of ions.

  19. Generation of heavy ion beams using high-intensity short pulse lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, George; McGuffey, Chris; Thomas, Alec; Krushelnick, Karl; Beg, Farhat

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical study of ion acceleration from high-Z material irradiated by intense sub-picosecond lasers is presented. The underlying physics of beam formation and acceleration is similar for light and heavy ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the heavy ions more challenging. At least four technical hurdles have been identified: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration and poor energy coupling due to high reflectivity of the plasma. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we observed transitions from Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) to the Breakout Afterburner regime (BoA) and to Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) akin to light ions. The numerical simulations predict gold ions beams with high directionality (<10 degrees half-angle), high fluxes (>1011 ions/sr) and energy (>10 MeV/nucleon) from laser systems delivering >20 J of energy on target.

  20. Commissioning an Elekta Versa HD linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Saenz, Daniel; Cruz, Wilbert; Ha, Chul S; Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios

    2016-01-08

    The purpose of this study is to report the dosimetric aspects of commissioning performed on an Elekta Versa HD linear accelerator (linac) with high-dose-rate flattening filter-free (FFF) photon modes and electron modes. Acceptance and commissioning was performed on the Elekta Versa HD linac with five photon energies (6 MV, 10 MV, 18 MV, 6 MV FFF, 10 MV FFF), four electron energies (6 MeV, 9MeV, 12 MeV, 15 MeV) and 160-leaf (5 mm wide) multileaf collimators (MLCs). Mechanical and dosimetric data were measured and evaluated. The measurements include percent depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane profiles, head scatter factor (Sc), relative photon output factors (Scp), universal wedge transmission factor, MLC transmission factors, and electron cone factors. Gantry, collimator, and couch isocentricity measurements were within 1 mm, 0.7 mm, and 0.7 mm diameter, respectively. The PDDs of 6 MV FFF and 10 MV FFF beams show deeper dmax and steeper falloff with depth than the corresponding flattened beams. While flatness values of 6 MV FFF and 10 MV FFF normalized profiles were expectedly higher than the corresponding flattened beams, the symmetry values were almost identical. The cross-plane penumbra values were higher than the in-plane penumbra values for all the energies. The MLC transmission values were 0.5%, 0.6%, and 0.6% for 6 MV, 10 MV, and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. The electron PDDs, profiles, and cone factors agree well with the literature. The outcome of radiation treatment is directly related to the accuracy in the dose modeled in the treatment planning system, which is based on the commissioned data. Commissioning data provided us a valuable insight into the dosimetric characteristics of the beam. This set of commissioning data can provide comparison data to others performing Versa HD commissioning, thereby improving patient safety.

  1. Pions from and about heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1982-09-01

    A review is presented of the possibilities of pion production with heavy ion reactions. Major headings include: pion thermometry; hills and valleys in pion spectra; pionic orbits of nuclear size; pion confinement in the fireball; anomalons; and Schroedinger equation solutions for pionic atoms. 47 references, 9 figures. (GHT)

  2. Resonant structures in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, S.J.; Henning, W.; Ernst, H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Jachcinski, C.; Kovar, D.G.; Paul, M.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of heavy-ion resonance structures using the /sup 24/Mg(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 28/Si reaction is presented. The data are analyzed in the context of Breit-Wigner resonances added to a direct-reaction background.

  3. The heavy ion program at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, D.

    1986-09-30

    During two periods in 1986 and 1987, oxygen ion beams with energies up to 3.2 TeV will be available at the CERN-SPS. A brief review of the five large heavy ion experiments is presented and the different physics addressed by each of the experiments is discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  5. Super high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W.M.

    1987-12-01

    Basic theoretical ideas on a phase transition to a plasma of free quarks and gluons in heavy ion collisions are outlined. First results from experiments with oxygen beams at 14.5 GeV/c/N (BNL), 60 and 200 GeV/c/N (CERN) are discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  6. MBE-4, a heavy ion multiple-beam experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.T.; Chavis, C.S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Gough, D.E.; Henderson, T.F.; Keefe, D.; Meneghetti, J.R.; Pike, C.D.; Vanecek, D.L.; Warick, A.I.

    1985-10-01

    MBE-4, a heavy-ion multiple beam induction linac being built at LBL in FY85/86, will model many features of a much longer device. It will accelerate four spacecharge-dominated Cesium ion beams from, for example, 0.2 MeV, 5 mA/beam, 3.0 sec, 1.6 m length at injection to about0.8 MeV, 15 mA/beam, 1.0 sec, 1.1 m length at the exit. It will permit study of simultaneous focussing, acceleration, current amplification and emittance growth of multiple space-charge-dominated ion beams. Some features of this accelerator are described.

  7. MBE-4, a heavy ion multiple-beam experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.T.; Chavis, C.S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Gough, D.E.; Henderson, T.F.; Keefe, D.; Meneghetti, J.R.; Pike, C.D.; Vanecek, D.L.; Warwick, A.I.

    1985-05-01

    MBE-4, a heavy-ion multiple beam induction linac being built at LBL in FY85/86, will model many features of a much longer device. It will accelerate four space-charge-dominated cesium ion beams from, for example, 0.2 MeV, 5 mA/beam, 3.0 ..mu..sec, 1.6 m length at injection to approx.0.8 MeV, 15 mA/beam, 1.0 ..mu..sec, 1.1 m length at the exit. It will permit study of simultaneous focussing, acceleration, current amplification and emittance growth of multiple space-charge-dominated ion beams. Some features of this accelerator are described. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  8. From Stopping to Viscosity in Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Brent W.; Danielewicz, Pawel

    2010-04-26

    Stopping in heavy ion collisions is investigated with the aim of learning about the shear viscosity of nuclear matter. Boltzmann equation simulations are compared to available data on stopping in the energy range of 20-117 MeV/nucleon. Stopping observables used include momentum anisotropy and linear momentum transfer. The data show that modeling the transport with free nucleon-nucleon cross-sections is inaccurate and reduced cross-sections are required. Reduction of the cross-sections produces an increase in the shear viscosity of nuclear matter, compared to calculations based on free cross-sections.

  9. Electronic stopping power for heavy ions in hot targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, You-Nian; Ma, Teng-Cai; Gong, Ye

    1993-03-01

    An investigation on the electronic stopping power and the effective charge for a heavy ion in a hot target is made using linear-response dielectric theory. The charge distribution of the electrons bound to a projectile is determined by the Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model [Phys. Rev. B 25, 3631 (1982)]. Some analytical expressions of the electronic stopping power and the effective charge are obtained in the limits of the low and high velocities, respectively. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data for high-velocity ions.

  10. Failla Memorial lecture. The future of heavy-ion science in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Tobias, C A

    1985-07-01

    Interplanetary space contains fluxes of fast moving atomic nuclei. The distribution of these reflects the atomic composition of the universe, and such particles may pose limitations for space flight and for life in space. Over the past 50 years, since the invention of Ernest Lawrence's cyclotron, advances in accelerator technology have permitted the acceleration of charged nuclei to very high velocities. Currently, beams of any stable isotope species up to uranium are available at kinetic energies of several hundred MeV/nucleon at the Berkeley Bevalac. Recently, new areas of particle physics research relating to the mechanisms of spallation and fission have opened up for investigation, and it is now realistic to search for nuclear super-dense states that might be produced in heavy nuclear collisions. The heavy ions hold interest for a broad spectrum of research because of their effectiveness in producing a series of major lesions in DNA along single particle tracks and because of the Bragg depth ionization properties that allow the precise deposition of highly localized doses deep in the human body. Individual heavy ions can also interrupt the continuity of membraneous regions in cells. Heavy ions, when compared to low-LET radiation, have increased effectiveness for mammalian cell lethality, chromosome mutations, and cell transformation. The molecular mechanisms are not completely understood but appear to involve fragmentation and reintegration of DNA. Cells attempt to repair these lesions, and many of the deleterious effects are due to misrepair or misrejoining of DNA. Heavy ions do not require the presence of oxygen for producing their effects, and hypoxic cells in necrotic regions have nearly the same sensitivity as cells in well-oxygenated tissues. Heavy ions are effective in delaying or blocking the cell division process. Heavy ions are also strong enhancers of viral-induced cell transformation, a process that requires integration of foreign DNA. Some cell

  11. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. P.

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  12. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.; Potter, James M.; Stovall, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  13. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.; Potter, J.M.; Stovall, J.E.

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  14. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  15. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  17. Heavy Ion Reactions with Neutron-Rich Beams - Proceedings of the Riken International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, S.; Ishihara, M.; Takigawa, N.

    1993-11-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Opening Address * Fusion I * Heavy Ion Fusion at Subbarrier Energies: Progress and Questions * Angular Momentum in Heavy Ion Subbarrier Interaction * Fusion II * High Precision Fusion Excitation Function Measurements: What Can We Learn from Them? * Transfer Reactions for 16O + 144,152Sm near the Coulomb Barrier * Fusion III * Recent Theoretical Developments in the Study of Subbarrier Fusion * Direct Reaction Approach to Heavy Ion Scattering and Fusion at Energies near Coulomb Barrier * Fusion IV * Roles of Multi-Step Transfer in Fusion Process Induced by Heavy Ion Reactions * Special Session * RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility (RARF) * Fission I * Bimodal Nature of Nuclear Fission * Systematics of Isotope Production Rates: Mass Excess Dependence of Fission Products * Semiclassical Methods for the Multi-Dimensional Quantum Decay * Dynamics of Di-Nucleus Systems: Molecular Resonances * Fission II * The Competition Between Fusion-Fission and Deeply Inelastic Reactions in the Medium Mass Systems * Unstable Nuclei I * Coulomb Dissociation and Momentum Distributions for 11Li → 9Li+n+n Breakup Reactions * Unstable Nuclei II * Elastic Scattering and Fragmentation of Halo Nuclei * Secondary Reactions of Neutron-Rich Nuclei at Intermediate Energies * Life Time of Soft Dipole Excitation * Unstable Nuclei III * Shell Structure of Exotic Unstable Nuclei * Properties of Unstable Nuclei Within the Relativistic Many-Body Theory * Fusion with Unstable Nuclei * Barrier Distributions for Heavy Ion Fusion * Heavy Ion Reactions with Neutron-Rich Beams * Heavy Ion Fusion with Neutron-Rich Beams * Superheavy Elements * Study of α Decays Following 40Ar Bombardment on 238U * Production of Superheavy Elements via Fusion: What is Limiting Us? * Panel Session * Comments * List of Participants

  18. Science and art in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.S.

    1982-08-09

    One of the more intriguing phenomena discovered in heavy-ion physics is the seeming appearance of high energy structure in the excitation spectra of inelastically scattered heavy ions. For reasons illustrated, these may well be a phenomena unique to heavy ions and their explanation perhaps unique to TDHF.

  19. Modeling the longitudinal wall impedance instability in heavy ion beams using an R-Z PIC code

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P. ); Haber, I. )

    1991-02-22

    The effects of the longitudinal wall impedance instability in a heavy ion beam are of great interest for heavy ion fusion drivers. We are studying this instability using the R-Z thread of the WARP PIC code. We describe the code and our model of the impedance due to the accelerating modules of the induction LINAC as a resistive wall. We present computer simulations which illustrate this instability. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Towards a heavy-ion transport capability in the MARS15 code

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov et al.

    2004-05-12

    In order to meet the challenges of new accelerator and space projects and further improve modeling of radiation effects in microscopic objects, heavy-ion interaction and transport physics have been recently incorporated into the MARS15 Monte Carlo code. A brief description of new modules is given in comparison with experimental data.

  1. Antiradiation Vaccine: Technology Development- Radiation Tolerance,Prophylaxis, Prevention And Treatment Of Clinical Presentation After Heavy Ion Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    irradiation was generated in heavy ion (Fe56) accelerator - UTI. Heavy Ion linear transfer energy - 2000- 2600 KeV -mkm, 600 MeV -92U. Absorbed Dose - 3820 Rad. Experimental Design: Rabbits from all groups were irradiated by heavy ion accelerator. Group A: control-10 rabbits; Group B: placebo-5 rabbits; Group C: Radioprotectant Cystamine (50 mg-kg)-5 rabbits, 15 minutes before irradiation - 5 rabbits; Group D: Radioprotectant Gammafos (Amifostine 400mg -kg ) - 5 rabbits; Group E: Antiradiation Vaccine: subcutaneus administration or IM - 2 ml of active substance, 14 days before irradiation Results: Group A 100% mortality within two hours after heavy ion irradiation with clinical symptoms of Acute Cerebro- and Cardio-Vascular Radiation syndromes. Group B 100% mortality within 15 hours following irradiation. Group C 100% mortality within 14-15 hours after irradiation. Group D 100% mortality within 15-16 hours after irradiation. In groups A- D registered the development of acute radiation cerebrovascular and cardiovascular syndromes and also extensive burns. of skin produced rapid death. Group E -100% mortality in 280-290 hours (12 days) following heavy ion irradiation with animals exhibiting a combination or individual forms of Acute Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, and Gastrointestinal forms and focal skin burns. Discussion Antiradiation vaccine and immune-prophylaxis is an effective method of neutralization of Radiation Toxins. Vaccination before irradiation extended survival time after irradiation with heavy ions from two hours up to 300 hours. Clinical signs, clinical features, symptoms were somewhat attenuated. Degree of clinical forms of Acute Radiation Syndromes were diminished in their clinical manifestation and severity. Groups A-D demonstrated extremely severe level of Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular forms of Acute Radiation Syndromes and lethality 100% was registered in short time after irradiation. Radiation induced burns in this groups (with Cutaneous sub

  2. Observation of snake resonances at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J.; Courant, E.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Gill, R.; Glenn, J.; Huang, H.; Litvinenko, V.; Luccio, A.; Luo, Y.; Pilat, F.; MacKay, W. W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Svirida, D.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2011-05-01

    The Siberian snakes are powerful tools in preserving polarization in high energy accelerators has been demonstrated at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the Siberian snakes also introduce a new set of depolarization resonances, i.e. snake resonances as first discoverd by Lee and Tepikian [1]. The intrinsic spin resonances above 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV which raises the challenge to preserve the polarization up to 250 GeV. In 2009, polarized protons collided for the first time at the RHIC design store energy of 250 GeV. This paper presents the experimental measurements of snake resonances at RHIC. The plan for avoiding these resonanances is also presented.

  3. Observation of snake resonances at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Alessi, J.; et al

    2010-09-27

    The Siberian snakes are powerful tools in preserving polarization in high energy accelerators has been demonstrated at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the Siberian snakes also introduce a new set of depolarization resonances, i.e. snake resonances as first discovered by Lee and Tepikian. The intrinsic spin resonances above 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV which raises the challenge to preserve the polarization up to 250 GeV. In 2009, polarized protons collided for the first time at the RHIC design store energy of 250 GeV. This paper presents the experimental measurements of snake resonances at RHIC. The plan for avoiding these resonances is also presented.

  4. Abundance and Source Population of Suprathermal Heavy Ions in Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensema, R. J.; Desai, M. I.; Broiles, T. W.; Dayeh, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we analyze the abundances of suprathermal heavy ions in 75 Corotating Interaction Region (CIR) events between January 1st 1995 and December 31st 2008. We correlate the heavy ion abundances in these CIRs with those measured in the solar wind and suprathermal populations upstream of these events. Our analysis reveals that the CIR suprathermal heavy ion abundances vary by nearly two orders of magnitude over the solar activity cycle, with higher abundances (e.g., Fe/O) occurring during solar maximum and depleted values occurring during solar minimum. The abundances are also energy dependent, with larger abundances at higher energies, particularly during solar maximum. Following the method used by Mason et al. 2008, we correlate the CIR abundances with the corresponding solar wind and suprathermal values measured during 6-hour intervals for upstream periods spanning 10 days prior to the start of each CIR event. This correlation reveals that suprathermal heavy ions are better correlated with upstream suprathermal abundances measured at the same energy compared with the solar wind heavy ion abundances. Using the 6-hour averaging method, we also identified timeframes of maximum correlation between the CIR and the upstream suprathermal abundances, and find that the time of maximum correlation depends on the energy of the suprathermal ions. We discuss the implications of these results in terms of previous studies of CIR and suprathermal particles, and CIR seed populations and acceleration mechanisms.

  5. Microdosimetric Monte-Carlo Simulations and Measurements of Heavy Ion Irradiation of a TEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollet, S.; Beck, P.; Bock, F.; Ferrari, A.; Latocha, M.; Uchihori, Y.; Wind, M.

    Microdosimetric methods are well suited for systematic study and quantification of the absorbed energy spatial and temporal distribution in irradiated matter A standard instrument used to measure the energy dissipated in microscopic sites by individual ionizing events is the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter TEPC The main focus of this work is to examine interactions of heavy ions with tissue using both experimental and numerical methods Measurements with a TEPC instrument were carried out recently in heavy ion radiation fields at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator HIMAC facility in Chiba which belongs to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences NIRS in Japan The instrument has been exposed to two kinds of heavy ions under different irradiation geometries and beam parameters The heavy ions used were Oxygen with energy of 400 MeV u and Iron of 300 MeV u For the simulation of the irradiation experiments two Monte Carlo codes are used namely FLUKA and GEANT4 Both codes are widely used for basic research and applications in radiation protection and dosimetry radiobiology radiotherapy and space Besides scoring average quantities both Monte Carlo codes have the capability to score energy deposition on an event by event basis Thus together with the total energy deposition a simulation of microdosimetric spectra is possible The comparison of measured and simulated lineal energy distribution show a satisfactory agreement both for irradiation with Oxygen ions of 400 MeV u and for Iron ions of 300 MeV u We will discuss in detail the

  6. Statistical properties of planetary heavy ion precipitations toward the Martian ionosphere based on Mars Express observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, T.; Seki, K.; Futaana, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Barabash, S.; Fedorov, A. O.; Yagi, M.; Delcourt, D. C.

    2013-09-01

    Picked-up ion precipitations are a potential mechanism to increase an atmospheric escape from the unmagnetized planet of Mars. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) embedded in the supersonic solar wind is one of the crucial parameters to control the behavior of the Martian planetary heavy ions. We statistically investigated the effects of the IMF orientation on planetary heavy ions precipitating toward the Martian ionosphere by using data obtained from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard the Mars Express (MEX). To compensate for the absence of a magnetometer onboard MEX, we estimated the IMF orientation from the velocity distribution function of exospheric protons observed in the solar wind. The statistical analysis shows that the precipitations of planetary heavy ions tend to be observed in the direction or the anti-parallel direction of the solar wind electric field inferred from the estimated IMF orientation. We defined the IMF polarity for one event via comparisons of the ion velocity distribution function obtained from MEX/IMA observations and a statistical trajectory tracing of test particles. The estimated polarity corresponds to the anti-parallel direction to the solar wind electric field and is consistent with the asymmetrical distribution of planetary heavy ion precipitation in terms of the solar wind electric field derived from the previous numerical simulations. The observed precipitating planetary heavy ions are accelerated only up to a few keV. This feature may reflect the short distance from the picked-up region in the magnetosheath.

  7. TNSA Heavy Ion Measurements using the Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginnane, M. K.; Kousar, B.; Slish, J.; Palmisano, K.; Mandanas, S.; Padalino, S. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Regan, S.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    The MTW Laser at LLE utilizes an ultra-intense laser to produce high-energy heavy ion pulses through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). Using the Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF) the total number of heavy ions produced by TNSA can be determined, which is needed for stellar nuclear reaction cross section measurements. TNSA heavy ions stop within the thin walled front cup, while light ions pass through it and deposit their remaining charge in the back cup. A two channel storage scope measures voltages produced by the beam currents collected in the cups, respectively. The charge state fraction of plasma ions is modified by passing the heavy ions through a charge-exchange foil at the TRTF entrance. While passing through the foil, ions equilibrate to known charge states based on their velocities. Using time of flight, the total heavy ion current can be normalized to the correct charge state fraction. A pair of dipole magnets deflect relativistic TNSA electrons from the cup's entrance. They also prevent secondary electrons from escaping the front and back cups. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  8. Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-07-25

    In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy ..gamma..-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/..mu... Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs.

  9. Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-12-01

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. We show it is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields |Β|~m2π are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. Lastly, in this contribution we give a brief overview on the status of such efforts.

  10. Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-12-01

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. We show it is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields |Β→|~m2π are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. Lastly, in this contribution we give a brief overview onmore » the status of such efforts.« less

  11. Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.; Tylka, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment has two primary objectives: (1) to measure the elemental composition of ultraheavy Galactic cosmic rays, beginning in the tin-barium region of the periodic table; and (2) to study heavy ions which arrive at LDEF below the geomagnetic cutoff, either because they are not fully stripped of electrons or because their source is within the magnetosphere. Both have practical as well as astrophysical consequences. The HIIS experiment used eight thick stacks of plastic track detectors mounted in two trays on the space facing end of LDEF. Since the last LDEF symposium, the statistics were increased of the observations and have extended the analysis to a second stack and to detector sheets near the top of a stack. New results are reported on the detector resolution and on the observations of both stopping and relativistic particles.

  12. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  13. Analysis of EMIC waves in relation to magnetospheric heavy ion density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, E. H.; Johnson, J.; Lee, D. H.; Clauer, C. R.; Lessard, M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Xu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents observations of EMIC wave events and their relation to heavy ion density in the magnetosphere. It is well known that EMIC waves play an important role in particle acceleration and loss via wave-particle interaction. It is critical to know the ion composition in the plasma with which EMIC waves interact in order to understand wave generation and propagation because it controls ion cyclotron resonance frequencies of EMIC waves. The presence of heavy ions (He+ and O+) causes the wave modes to be more complex with two additional resonance (ion-ion hybrid and Buchsbaum resonances) and polarization changes, making it challenging to analyze wave generation and propagation. In this study, we show wave polarization and Poynting flux using data from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) and Van Allen Probes (VAP) satellites and their ground conjunctions and compare them with the heavy ion density estimated by a wave model.

  14. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  15. Femtoscopy in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa, M; Pratt, S; Soltz, R A; Wiedemann, U

    2005-07-29

    Analyses of two-particle correlations have provided the chief means for determining spatio-temporal characteristics of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss the theoretical formalism behind these studies and the experimental methods used in carrying them out. Recent results from RHIC are put into context in a systematic review of correlation measurements performed over the past two decades. The current understanding of these results are discussed in terms of model comparisons and overall trends.

  16. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  17. Tolerance to X-rays and Heavy Ions (Fe, He) in the Tardigrade Richtersius coronifer and the Bdelloid Rotifer Mniobia russeola.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, K Ingemar; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze tolerance to heavy ions in desiccated animals of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer and the bdelloid rotifer Mniobia russeola within the STARLIFE project. Both species were exposed to iron (Fe) and helium (He) ions at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan, and to X-rays at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne, Germany. Results show no effect of Fe and He on viability up to 7 days post-rehydration in both R. coronifer and M. russeola, while X-rays tended to reduce viability in R. coronifer at the highest doses. Mean egg production rate tended to decline with higher doses in R. coronifer for all radiation types, but the pattern was not statistically confirmed. In M. russeola, there was no such tendency for a dose response in egg production rate. These results confirm the previously reported high tolerance to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in tardigrades and show for the first time that bdelloid rotifers are also very tolerant to high-LET radiation. These animal phyla represent the most desiccation- and radiation-tolerant animals on Earth and provide excellent eukaryotic models for astrobiological research. Key Words: Tardigrada-Rotifera-Radiation tolerance-Heavy ions-X-rays. Astrobiology 17, 163-167.

  18. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  19. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS : RESULTS FROM AGS TO RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.

    2002-06-20

    High-energy collisions of heavy ions provide a means to study QCD in a regime of high parton density, and may provide insight into its phme structure. Results from the four experiments at RHIC (BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR) are presented, and placed in context with the lower energy data from the AGS and SPS accelerators. The focus is on the insights these measurements provide into the time history of the collision process. Taken together, the data point to the creation of a deconfined state of matter that forms quickly, expands rapidly and freezes out suddenly. With the new RHIC data, systematic data now exists for heavy ion collisions as a function of {radical}s over several orders of magnitude and as a function of impact parameter. These data test the interplay between hard and soft processes in a large-volume system where nucleons are struck multiple times. The data is consistent with creating a deconfined state (jet quenching) that forms quickly (saturation models), expands rapidly (radial and elliptic flow) and freezes out suddenly (single freezeout and blast wave fits). There are also intriguing connections with particle production in elementary systems, which point to the role of the energy available for particle production on the features of the final state. Many in this field are optimistic that the careful understanding of this experimental data may lead t o the theoretical breakthroughs that will connect these complex systems to the fundamental lattice predict ions.

  20. Electron-Cloud Effects on Heavy-Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, T; Friedman, A; Cohen, R; Vay, J

    2004-03-29

    Stray electrons can be introduced in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. We are developing a capability for self-consistent simulation of ion beams with the electron clouds they produce. We report on an ingredient in this capability, the effect of specified electron cloud distributions on the dynamics of a coasting ion beam. We consider here electron distributions with axially varying density, centroid location, or radial shape, and examine both random and sinusoidally varying perturbations. We find that amplitude variations are most effective in spoiling ion beam quality, though for sinusoidal variations which match the natural ion beam centroid oscillation or breathing mode frequencies, the centroid and shape perturbations can also be effective. We identify a possible instability associated with resonance with the beam-envelope ''breathing'' mode. One conclusion from this study is that heavy-ion beams are surprisingly robust to electron clouds, compared to a priori expectations.

  1. Heavy Ion Radiation Effects Studies With Ion Photon Emission Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, J. V.; Hattar, K.; Vizkelethy, G.; Powell, C. J.; Doyle, B. L.; Rossi, P.

    2011-06-01

    The development of a new radiation effects microscopy (REM) technique is crucial as emerging semiconductor technologies demonstrate smaller feature sizes and thicker back end of line (BEOL) layers. To penetrate these materials and still deposit sufficient energy into the device to induce single event effects, high energy heavy ions are required. Ion photon emission microscopy (IPEM) is a technique that utilizes coincident photons, which are emitted from the location of each ion impact to map out regions of radiation sensitivity in integrated circuits and devices, circumventing the obstacle of focusing high-energy heavy ions. Several versions of the IPEM have been developed and implemented at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). One such instrument has been utilized on the microbeam line of the 6 MV tandem accelerator at SNL. Another IPEM was designed for ex-vacu use at the 88'' cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Extensive engineering is involved in the development of these IPEM systems, including resolving issues with electronics, event timing, optics, phosphor selection, and mechanics. The various versions of the IPEM and the obstacles, as well as benefits associated with each will be presented. In addition, the current stage of IPEM development as a user instrument will be discussed in the context of recent results.

  2. A Compact High-Brightness Heavy-Ion Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Kwan, J W; Bieniosek, F

    2005-05-11

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerators, we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. In an 80-kV 20-microsecond experiment, the RF plasma source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet. An extraction current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} was achieved, and the thermal temperature of the ions was below 1 eV. We have tested at full voltage gradient the first 4 gaps of an injector design. Einzel lens were used to focus the beamlets while reducing the beamlet to beamlet space charge interaction. We were able to reach greater than 100 kV/cm in the first four gaps. We also performed experiments on a converging 119 multi-beamlet source. Although the source has the same optics as a full 1.6 MV injector system, these test were carried out at 400 kV due to the test stand HV limit. We have measured the beam's emittance after the beamlets are merged and passed through an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ). Our goal is to confirm the emittance growth and to demonstrate the technical feasibility of building a driver-scale HIF injector.

  3. Studies of Limits on Uncontrolled Heavy Ion Beam Losses for Allowing Hands-On Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Reginald M. Ronningen; Igor Remec

    2010-09-11

    Dose rates from accelerator components activated by 1 W/m beam losses are obtained semiempirically for a 1 GeV proton beam and by use of Monte Carlo transport codes for the proton beam and for 777 MeV/u 3He, 500 MeV/u 48Ca, 86Kr, 136Xe, and 400 MeV/u 238U ions. The dose rate obtained by the semi-empirical method, 0.99 mSv/h (99 mrem/h) at 30 cm, 4 h after 100 d irradiation by a 1-GeV proton beam, is consistent with studies at several accelerator facilities and with adopted hands-on maintenance dose rate limits. Monte Carlo simulations verify this result for protons and extend studies to heavy ion beam losses in drift-tube linac and superconducting linac accelerating structures. The studies indicate that the 1 W/m limit imposed on uncontrolled beam losses for high-energy proton beams might be relaxed for heavy ion beams. These studies further suggest that using the ratio of neutrons produced by a heavy ion beam to neutrons produced by a proton beam along with the dose rate from the proton beam (for thin-target scenarios) should allow an estimate of the dose rates expected from heavy ion beam losses.

  4. [The security system of SIEMENS digital linear accelerator].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping

    2013-03-01

    The security system plays an important role to protect the safety of patients and equipment in radiotherapy. The principle and structure of three kinds of security system of the Siemens digital linear accelerator were analyzed with some examples.

  5. Simulating electron clouds in heavy-ion acceleratorsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. H.; Friedman, A.; Covo, M. Kireeff; Lund, S. M.; Molvik, A. W.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Seidl, P. A.; Vay, J.-L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2005-05-01

    Contaminating clouds of electrons are a concern for most accelerators of positively charged particles, but there are some unique aspects of heavy-ion accelerators for fusion and high-energy density physics which make modeling such clouds especially challenging. In particular, self-consistent electron and ion simulation is required, including a particle advance scheme which can follow electrons in regions where electrons are strongly magnetized, weakly magnetized, and unmagnetized. The approach to such self-consistency is described, and in particular a scheme for interpolating between full-orbit (Boris) and drift-kinetic particle pushes that enables electron time steps long compared to the typical gyroperiod in the magnets. Tests and applications are presented: simulation of electron clouds produced by three different kinds of sources indicates the sensitivity of the cloud shape to the nature of the source; first-of-a-kind self-consistent simulation of electron-cloud experiments on the high-current experiment [L. R. Prost, P. A. Seidl, F. M. Bieniosek, C. M. Celata, A. Faltens, D. Baca, E. Henestroza, J. W. Kwan, M. Leitner, W. L. Waldron, R. Cohen, A. Friedman, D. Grote, S. M. Lund, A. W. Molvik, and E. Morse, "High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion," Physical Review Special Topics, Accelerators and Beams 8, 020101 (2005)], at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which the machine can be flooded with electrons released by impact of the ion beam on an end plate, demonstrate the ability to reproduce key features of the ion-beam phase space; and simulation of a two-stream instability of thin beams in a magnetic field demonstrates the ability of the large-time-step mover to accurately calculate the instability.

  6. MBE-4: an induction linac experiment for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.; Avery, R.T.; Brodzik, D.A.; Faltens, A.; Gough, D.E.; Henderson, T.F.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Laslett, L.J.

    1986-06-01

    The multiple-beam induction linac approach to a heavy ion fusion driver features continuous current amplification along the accelerator and a minimum of transverse beam manipulation from source to pellet. Current amplification and bunch length control require careful shaping of the accelerating voltages. This driver approach exploits developments in electron induction linac technology that have occurred within the last 15 years at LBL, LLNL and NBS. MBE-4 is a four beam induction linac that models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a considerably longer induction accelerator. Four parallel Cs/sup +/ beams are electrostatically focussed and will be accelerated from 200 keV to approximately one MeV when the experiment is complete in the spring of 1987. The current in each of the four beams will increase from 10 to 40 mA due to both increase in beam speed and shortening of the bunch length. Results of experiments with the injector and first eight accelerating gaps are presented.

  7. Detection of linear ego-acceleration from optic flow.

    PubMed

    Festl, Freya; Recktenwald, Fabian; Yuan, Chunrong; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2012-07-20

    Human observers are able to estimate various ego-motion parameters from optic flow, including rotation, translational heading, time-to-collision (TTC), time-to-passage (TTP), etc. The perception of linear ego-acceleration or deceleration, i.e., changes of translational velocity, is less well understood. While time-to-passage experiments indicate that ego-acceleration is neglected, subjects are able to keep their (perceived) speed constant under changing conditions, indicating that some sense of ego-acceleration or velocity change must be present. In this paper, we analyze the relation of ego-acceleration estimates and geometrical parameters of the environment using simulated flights through cylindrical and conic (narrowing or widening) corridors. Theoretical analysis shows that a logarithmic ego-acceleration parameter, called the acceleration rate ρ, can be calculated from retinal acceleration measurements. This parameter is independent of the geometrical layout of the scene; if veridical ego-motion is known at some instant in time, acceleration rate allows updating of ego-motion without further depth-velocity calibration. Results indicate, however, that subjects systematically confuse ego-acceleration with corridor narrowing and ego-deceleration with corridor widening, while veridically judging ego-acceleration in straight corridors. We conclude that judgments of ego-acceleration are based on first-order retinal flow and do not make use of acceleration rate or retinal acceleration.

  8. Effectiveness of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with audio-visual biofeedback for synchrotron-based scanned heavy-ion beam delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pengbo; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Ting; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying; Ma, Yuanyuan

    2016-12-01

    A synchrotron-based heavy-ion accelerator operates in pulse mode at a low repetition rate that is comparable to a patient’s breathing rate. To overcome inefficiencies and interplay effects between the residual motion of the target and the scanned heavy-ion beam delivery process for conventional free breathing (FB)-based gating therapy, a novel respiratory guidance method was developed to help patients synchronize their breathing patterns with the synchrotron excitation patterns by performing short breath holds with the aid of personalized audio-visual biofeedback (BFB) system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment precision, efficiency and reproducibility of the respiratory guidance method in scanned heavy-ion beam delivery mode. Using 96 breathing traces from eight healthy volunteers who were asked to breathe freely and guided to perform short breath holds with the aid of BFB, a series of dedicated four-dimensional dose calculations (4DDC) were performed on a geometric model which was developed assuming a linear relationship between external surrogate and internal tumor motions. The outcome of the 4DDCs was quantified in terms of the treatment time, dose-volume histograms (DVH) and dose homogeneity index. Our results show that with the respiratory guidance method the treatment efficiency increased by a factor of 2.23-3.94 compared with FB gating, depending on the duty cycle settings. The magnitude of dose inhomogeneity for the respiratory guidance methods was 7.5 times less than that of the non-gated irradiation, and good reproducibility of breathing guidance among different fractions was achieved. Thus, our study indicates that the respiratory guidance method not only improved the overall treatment efficiency of respiratory-gated scanned heavy-ion beam delivery, but also had the advantages of lower dose uncertainty and better reproducibility among fractions.

  9. Heavy-ion induced genetic changes and evolution processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.; Mei, M.

    1994-01-01

    On Moon and Mars, there will be more galactic cosmic rays and higher radiation doses than on Earth. Our experimental studies showed that heavy ion radiation can effectively cause mutation and chromosome aberrations and that high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy-ion induced mutants can be irreversible. Chromosome translocations and deletions are common in cells irradiated by heavy particles, and ionizing radiations are effective in causing hyperploidy. The importance of the genetic changes in the evolution of life is an interesting question. Through evolution, there is an increase of DNA content in cells from lower forms of life to higher organisms. The DNA content, however, reached a plateau in vertebrates. By increasing DNA content, there can be an increase of information in the cell. For a given DNA content, the quality of information can be changed by rearranging the DNA. Because radiation can cause hyperploidy, an increase of DNA content in cells, and can induce DNA rearrangement, it is likely that the evolution of life on Mars will be effected by its radiation environment. A simple analysis shows that the radiation level on Mars may cause a mutation frequency comparable to that of the spontaneous mutation rate on Earth. To the extent that mutation plays a role in adaptation, radiation alone on Mars may thus provide sufficient mutation for the evolution of life.

  10. LOADED WAVE GUIDES FOR LINEAR ACCELERATORS

    DOEpatents

    Walkinshaw, W.; Mullett, L.B.

    1959-12-01

    A periodically loaded waveguide having substantially coaxially arranged elements which provide an axial field for the acceleration of electrons is described. Radiofrequency energy will flow in the space between the inner wall of an outer guide and the peripheries of equally spaced irises or washes arranged coaxially with each other and with the outer guide, where the loading due to the geometry of the irises is such as to reduce the phase velocity of the r-f energy flowing in the guide from a value greater than that of light to the velocity of light or less.

  11. Heavy ion beams from an Alphatross source for use in calibration and testing of diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, R. J.; Brown, G. M.; Ho, D.; Stockler, B. F. O. F.; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    Ion beams from the 1.7 MV Pelletron Accelerator at SUNY Geneseo have been used to test and calibrate many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) diagnostics and high energy density physics (HEDP) diagnostics used at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The ion source on this accelerator, a radio-frequency (RF) alkali-metal charge exchange source called an Alphatross, is designed to produce beams of hydrogen and helium isotopes. There is interest in accelerating beams of carbon, oxygen, argon, and other heavy ions for use in testing several diagnostics, including the Time Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF). The feasibility of generating these heavy ion beams using the Alphatross source will be reported. Small amounts of various gases are mixed into the helium plasma in the ion source bottle. A velocity selector is used to allow the desired ions to pass into the accelerator. As the heavy ions pass through the stripper canal of the accelerator, they emerge in a variety of charge states. The energy of the ion beam at the high-energy end of the accelerator will vary as a function of the charge state, however the maximum energy deliverable to target is limited by the maximum achievable magnetic field produced by the accelerator's steering magnet. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Formation of High Charge State Heavy Ion Beams with intense Space Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.

    2011-03-01

    High charge-state heavy-ion beams are of interest and used for a number of accelerator applications. Some accelerators produce the beams downstream of the ion source by stripping bound electrons from the ions as they pass through a foil or gas. Heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF) would benefit from low-emittance, high current ion beams with charge state >1. For these accelerators, the desired dimensionless perveance upon extraction from the emitter is {approx}10{sup -3}, and the electrical current of the beam pulse is {approx}1 A. For accelerator applications where high charge state and very high current are desired, space charge effects present unique challenges. For example, in a stripper, the separation of charge states creates significant nonlinear space-charge forces that impact the beam brightness. We will report on the particle-in-cell simulation of the formation of such beams for HIF, using a thin stripper at low energy.

  13. Linear accelerator design study with direct plasma injection scheme for warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M.

    2011-03-28

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) is a challenging science field, which is related to heavy ion inertial fusion and planetary science. It is difficult to expect the behavior because the state with high density and low temperature is completely different from ideal condition. The well-defined WDM generation is required to understand it. Moderate energy ion beams ({approx} MeV/u) slightly above Bragg peak is an advantageous method for WDM because of the uniform energy deposition. Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with a Interdigital H-mode (IH) accelerator has a potential for the beam parameter. We show feasible parameters of the IH accelerator for WDM. WDM physics is a challenging science and is strongly related to Heavy Ion Fusion science. WDM formation by Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with IH accelerator, which is a compact system, is proposed. Feasible parameters for IH accelerator are shown for WDM state. These represents that DPIS with IH accelerator can access a different parameter region of WDM.

  14. Accelerating ab initio molecular dynamics simulations by linear prediction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, Jonathan D.; Steele, Ryan P.

    2016-09-01

    Acceleration of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations can be reliably achieved by extrapolation of electronic data from previous timesteps. Existing techniques utilize polynomial least-squares regression to fit previous steps' Fock or density matrix elements. In this work, the recursive Burg 'linear prediction' technique is shown to be a viable alternative to polynomial regression, and the extrapolation-predicted Fock matrix elements were three orders of magnitude closer to converged elements. Accelerations of 1.8-3.4× were observed in test systems, and in all cases, linear prediction outperformed polynomial extrapolation. Importantly, these accelerations were achieved without reducing the MD integration timestep.

  15. Unified formulation for linear accelerator design

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1986-05-01

    Expressions for peak and average powers required to produce a given average gradient in an accelerator section are given. They are valid for both lossy and lossless (superconducting) sections, for both traveling wave and standing wave sections, and for pulsed or continuous wave rf input. The expressions are given in terms of structure parameters that are equally applicable to traveling wave or standing wave. These parameters delineate the effect of wall losses and energy required to build up the field. For both traveling wave and standing wave sections it is possible to make the rf pulse length short enough to make the wall losses negligible at the expense of increased peak power requirement. Therefore the expressions will include the effects of pulse compression. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Helium and heavy ion measurements with the CRRES satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Edmund Gary

    The CRRES satellite was in service from July 1990 to October 1991, during a period of high solar modulation and solar activity. The ONR-604 experiment aboard CRRES measured helium with isotopic resolution in the energy range 38-110 MeV/nucleon, and heavy ions through iron at 200-500 MeV/nucleon. Although solar modulation was high throughout the CRRES mission, the mission included periods of solar quiescence as well as a number of large solar flares and associated solar energetic particle events. Measurements were made of helium and heavy ions during both the quiet times and the flare periods. A study was made to search for anomalous component helium in the Earth's magnetosphere using the magnetic field as a rigidity filter. This effort was inconclusive due to background in the outer electron radiation belt. During the solar quiet times, the helium spectrum above 60 MeV/nucleon is consistent with the galactic cosmic rays. Below that energy, a separate component appears early in the mission and rises in prominence over the course of the mission, dominating over the galactic cosmic rays below 60 MeV/nucleon. The distinctness of this component is seen both in the helium spectra and the 3He/4He ratio. An association of this component with interplanetary shocks driven by coronal mass ejections is suggested. During the March and June 1991 flare periods, helium spectral characteristics and isotopic ratios are measured. The results are compared to related diagnostic phenomena of gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle acceleration. The average 3He/4He ratio in both periods is enriched relative to the solar wind; 0.01 in June 1991 and 0.07 in March. The March period contains spikes in the isotopic ratio rising to 0.22. Signatures of known solar phenomena are compared to attempt to identify the predominant acceleration mechanism of each major flare. The development of the CRRES/SPACERAD Heavy Ion Model of the Environment (CHIME) is described and the results presented.

  17. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    2000-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a new, larger inertial fusion energy program. To manage program growth, we have developed a new inertial fusion energy research and we have established a Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion. There has been significant technical progress. Improvements in target design have reduced the predicted energy requirements by approximately a factor of two. There have also been important experiments on chamber dynamics and other inertial fusion technologies. The accelerator program has completed a number of small-scale experiments. Experiments with driver-scale beams are being designed -- including experiments with driver-scale ion sources and injectors. Finally we are developing the technologies needed to build a major research facility known as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)

  18. Heavy-Ion Injector for the High Current Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.

    2001-10-01

    We report on progress in development of the Heavy-Ion Injector at LBNL, which is being prepared for use as an injector for the High Current Experiment (HCX). It is composed of a 10-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with a typical operating current of 0.6 A of potassium ions at 1.8 MeV, and a beam pulse length of 4.5 microsecs. We have improved the Injector equipment and diagnostics, and have characterized the source emission and radial beam profiles at the diode and ESQ regions. We find improved agreement with EGUN predictions, and improved compatibility with the downstream matching section. Plans are to attach the matching section and the initial ESQ transport section of HCX. Results will be presented and compared with EGUN and WARP simulations.

  19. Proton linear accelerators: A theoretical and historical introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lapostolle, P.M.

    1989-07-01

    From the beginning, the development of linear accelerators has followed a number of different directions. This report surveys the basic ideas and general principles of such machines, pointing out the problems that have led to the various improvements, with the hope that it may also aid further progress. After a brief historical survey, the principal aspects of accelerator theory are covered in some detail: phase stability, focusing, radio-frequency accelerating structures, the detailed calculation of particle dynamics, and space-charge effects at high intensities. These developments apply essentially to proton and ion accelerators, and only the last chapter deals with a few aspects relative to electrons. 134 refs.

  20. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  1. Pair creation in heavy ion channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Harman, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy ions channeled through crystals with multi-GeV kinetic energies can create electron-positron pairs. In the framework of the ion, the energy of virtual photons arising from the periodic crystal potential may exceed the threshold 2mec2. The repeated periodic collisions with the crystal ions yield high pair production rates. When the virtual photon frequency matches a nuclear transition in the ion, the production rate can be resonantly increased. In this two-step excitation-pair conversion scheme, the excitation rates are coherently enhanced, and scale approximately quadratically with the number of crystal sites along the channel.

  2. Economic aspects of heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The usual parameter space for examining scenarios for heavy ion fusion power plants has generally been based on large, slow cycling, reactor chambers which are only marginally different from chambers proposed for laser drivers. This paper will examine the economic implications of assuming that an inexpensive, low gain pellet is available and that a suitable high-repetition rate reactor has been devised. Interesting scenarios are found that generate economically feasible power from a system with a minimum net capacity of approx. 1 GWe compared to the larger approx. 4 GWe required in previous studies.

  3. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, E.

    2014-01-14

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  4. Jet reconstruction in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciari, Matteo; Rojo, Juan; Salam, Gavin P.; Soyez, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    We examine the problem of jet reconstruction at heavy-ion colliders using jet-area-based background subtraction tools as provided by FastJet. We use Monte Carlo simulations with and without quenching to study the performance of several jet algorithms, including the option of filtering, under conditions corresponding to RHIC and LHC collisions. We find that most standard algorithms perform well, though the anti- k t and filtered Cambridge/Aachen algorithms have clear advantages in terms of the reconstructed p t offset and dispersion.

  5. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z < 2), mesons, and leptons, it is important to maintain overall computational efficiency. In this work, the heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  6. Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.

  7. A beam-matching concept for medical linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, David; Bjelkengren, Ulf; Ottosson, Wiviann; Behrens, Claus F

    2009-01-01

    The flexibility in radiotherapy can be improved if a patient can be moved between any one of the department's medical linear accelerators without the need to change anything in the patient's treatment plan. For this to be possible, the dosimetric characteristics of the various accelerators must be the same, or nearly the same i.e. the accelerators must be beam-matched. During a period of nine months, eight Varian iX accelerators with 6 and 15 MV photon beams and 6-18 MeV electron beams (only four of the eight) were installed at our clinic. All accelerators fulfilled the vendor-defined "fine beam-match" criteria, and a more extensive set of measurements was carried out during commissioning. The measured absorbed dose data for each accelerator were compared with the first accelerator, chosen as reference, and the TPS calculations. Two of the eight accelerators showed a larger discrepancy for the 15 MV beam not revealed by the vendor-defined acceptance criteria, whereas the other six accelerators were satisfactorily matched. The beam-matching acceptance criteria defined by the vendor are not strict enough to guarantee optimal beam-match. Deviations related to dose calculations and to beam-matched accelerators may add up. The safest and most practical way to ensure that all accelerators are within clinical acceptable accuracy is to include TPS calculations in the evaluation. Further, comparisons between measurements and calculations should be done in absolute dose terms.

  8. Response properties of pigeon otolith afferents to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Si, X.; Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the sensitivity to sinusoidal linear accelerations in the plane of the utricular macula was tested in afferents. The head orientation relative to the translation axis was varied in order to determine the head position that elicited the maximal and minimal responses for each afferent. The response gain and phase values obtained to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz linear acceleration stimuli were then plotted as a function of head orientation and a modified cosine function was fit to the data. From the best-fit cosine function, the predicted head orientations that would produce the maximal and minimal response gains were estimated. The estimated maximum response gains to linear acceleration in the utricular plane for the afferents varied between 75 and 1420 spikes s-1 g-1. The mean maximal gains for all afferents to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz sinusoidal linear acceleration stimuli were 282 and 367 spikes s-1 g-1, respectively. The minimal response gains were essentially zero for most units. The response phases always led linear acceleration and remained constant for each afferent, regardless of head orientation. These response characteristics indicate that otolith afferents are cosine tuned and behave as one-dimensional linear accelerometers. The directions of maximal sensitivity to linear acceleration for the afferents varied throughout the plane of the utricle; however, most vectors were directed out of the opposite ear near the interaural axis. The response dynamics of the afferents were tested using stimulus frequencies ranging between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz (0.1 g peak acceleration). Across stimulus frequencies, most afferents had increasing gains and constant phase values. These dynamic properties for individual afferents were fit with a simple transfer function that included three parameters: a mechanical time constant, a gain constant, and a fractional order distributed adaptation operator.

  9. A heavy ion spectrometer system for the measurement of projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelage, J.; Crawford, H.J.; Greiner, L.; Kuo, C.

    1996-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed.

  10. The Klynac: An integrated klystron and linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, James M.; Schwellenbach, David; Meidinger, Alfred

    2013-04-19

    The Klynac concept integrates an electron gun, a radio frequency (RF) power source, and a coupled-cavity linear accelerator into a single resonant system. The klystron is essentially a conventional klystron structure with an input cavity, some number of intermediate cavities and an output cavity. The accelerator structure is, likewise, a conventional on-axis coupled structure. The uniqueness is the means of coupling the klystron output cavity to the accelerator. The coupler is a resonant coupler rather than an ordinary transmission line. The geometry of such a system need not be coaxial. However, if the klystron and accelerator are coaxial we can eliminate the need for a separate cathode for the accelerator by injecting some of the klystron beam into the accelerator. Such a device can be made cylindrical which is ideal for some applications.

  11. The Klynac: An Integrated Klystron and Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J. M.; Schwellenbach, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Klynac concept integrates an electron gun, a radio frequency (RF) power source, and a coupled-cavity linear accelerator into a single resonant system. The klystron is essentially a conventional klystron structure with an input cavity, some number of intermediate cavities and an output cavity. The accelerator structure is, likewise, a conventional on-axis coupled structure. The uniqueness is the means of coupling the klystron output cavity to the accelerator. The coupler is a resonant coupler rather than an ordinary transmission line. The geometry of such a system need not be coaxial. However, if the klystron and accelerator are coaxial we can eliminate the need for a separate cathode for the accelerator by injecting some of the klystron beam into the accelerator. Such a device can be made cylindrical which is ideal for some applications.

  12. Multiplicity and theremalization time in heavy-ions collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, Irina

    2016-10-01

    We present a concise review of quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ions collisions within the holographic approach. In particular, we discuss how to get the total multiplicity in heavy ions collision to fit the recent experimental data. We also discuss theoretical estimations of time formation of QGP in heavy ions collision and show that different observables can give the different times of QGP formation.

  13. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  14. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  15. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  16. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RACK) to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 5 /times/ 10/sup 26/cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy of 100 GeV/u in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The collider consists of two interlaced, but otherwise separate, superconducting magnet rings. The 9.7 m long dipoles will operate at 3.5 T. Their 8 cm aperture was determined by the dimensions of gold ion beams taking into account diffusion due to intrabeam scattering. Heavy ion beams will be available from the Tandem Van de Graaff/Booster/AGS complex. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Hydrodynamic approaches in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derradi de Souza, R.; Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation to the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to be answered to clarify the physics of collective phenomena in the relativistic heavy ion collisions are pointed out.

  18. Mutation induction in bacteria after heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-01-01

    From a compilation of experimental data on the mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria, main conclusions have been drawn as follows: (1) The mutagenic efficacy of heavy ions in bacteria depends on physical and biological variables. Physical variables are the radiation dose, energy and charge of the ion; the biological variables are the bacterial strain, the repair genotype of bacteria, and the endpoint investigated (type of mutation, induction of enzymes related to mutagenesis); (2) The responses on dose or fluence are mainly linear or linear quadratic. The quadratic component, if found for low LET radiation, is gradually reduced with increasing LET; (3) At low values of Z and LET the cross section of mutation induction sigma m (as well as SOS response, sigma sos. and lambda phage induction, sigma lambda versus LET curves can be quite consistently described by a common function which increases up to approximately 100 keV/mu m. For higher LET values, the sigma(m) versus LET curves show the so-called 'hooks' observed also for other endpoints; (4) For light ions (Z is less than or equal to 4), the cross sections mostly decrease with increasing ion energy, which is probably related to the decrease of the specific energy departed by the ion inside the sensitive volume (cell). For ions in the range of Z = 10, sigma(m) is nearly independent on the ion energy. For heavier ions (Z is greater than or equal to 16), sigma(m) increases with the energy up to a maximum or saturation around 10 MeV/u. The increment becomes steeper with increasing atomic number of the ion. It correlates with the increasing track radius of the heavy ion; (5) The mutagenic efficiency per lethal event changes slightly with ion energy, if Z is small indicating a rough correlation between cellular lethality and mutation induction, only. For ions of higher Z this relation increases with energy, indicating a change in the 'mode' of radiation action from 'killing-prone' to 'mutation-prone'; and (6

  19. Radio-frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Moretti, A.

    1982-10-19

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  20. Linear to non linear analysis for positron acceleration in plasma hollow channel wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Ligia Diana; An, Weiming; Mori, Warren B.; Vieira, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Plasma wakefield accelerators are promising candidates for future generation compact accelerators. The standard regime of operation, non-linear or blowout regime, is reached when a particle bunch space charge or laser pulse ponderomotive force radially expels plasma electrons forming a bucket of ions that defocus positron bunches, thus preventing their acceleration. To avoid defocusing, hollow plasma channels have been considered. The corresponding wakefields have been examined in the linear and non-linear excitation regimes for electrons. It is therefore important to extend the theory for positron acceleration, particularly in the nonlinear regime where the wakefields strongly differ. In this work we explore the wakefield structure, examine the differences between the electron and positron beam cases, and explore positron acceleration in nonlinear regimes. We support our findings with multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations performed with OSIRIS and quasi-3D and QuickPIC.

  1. Observation of DNA damage of human hepatoma cells irradiated by heavy ions using comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Li-Mei; Li, Wen-Jian; Pang, Xin-Yue; Gao, Qing-Xiang; Feng, Yan; Zhou, Li-Bin; Zhang, Gao-Hua

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Now many countries have developed cancer therapy with heavy ions, especially in GSI (Gesellschaft fürSchwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt, Germany), remarkable results have obtained, but due to the complexity of particle track structure, the basic theory still needs further researching. In this paper, the genotoxic effects of heavy ions irradiation on SMMC-7721 cells were measured using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The information about the DNA damage made by other radiations such as X-ray, γ-ray, UV and fast neutron irradiation is very plentiful, while little work have been done on the heavy ions so far. Hereby we tried to detect the reaction of liver cancer cells to heavy ion using comet assay, meanwhile to establish a database for clinic therapy of cancer with the heavy ions. METHODS: The human hepatoma cells were chosen as the test cell line irradiated by 80Mev/u 20Ne10+ on HIRFL (China), the radiation-doses were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Gy, and then comet assay was used immediately to detect the DNA damages, 100-150 cells per dose-sample (30-50 cells were randomly observed at constant depth of the gel). The tail length and the quantity of the cells with the tail were put down. EXCEL was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: We obtained clear images by comet assay and found that SMMC-7721 cells were all damaged apparently from the dose 0.5 Gy to 8 Gy (t-test: P < 0.001, vs control). The tail length and tail moment increased as the doses increased, and the number of cells with tails increased with increasing doses. When doses were higher than 2 Gy, nearly 100% cells were damaged. Furthermore, both tail length and tail moment, showed linear equation. CONCLUSION: From the clear comet assay images, our experiment proves comet assay can be used to measure DNA damages by heavy ions. Meanwhile DNA damages have a positive correlation with the dose changes of heavy ions and SMMC-7721 cells have a great radiosensitivity to 20Ne10+. Different

  2. Kinematics and hydrodynamics of linear acceleration in eels, Anguilla rostrata.

    PubMed

    Tytell, Eric D

    2004-12-22

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of routine linear accelerations were studied in American eels, Anguilla rostrata, using high-speed video and particle image velocimetry. Eels were examined both during steady swimming at speeds from 0.6 to 1.9 body lengths (L) per second and during accelerations from -1.4 to 1.3 L s(-2). Multiple regression of the acceleration and steady swimming speed on the body kinematics suggests that eels primarily change their tail-tip velocity during acceleration. By contrast, the best predictor of steady swimming speed is body wave speed, keeping tail-tip velocity an approximately constant fraction of the swimming velocity. Thus, during steady swimming, Strouhal number does not vary with speed, remaining close to 0.32, but during acceleration, it deviates from the steady value. The kinematic changes during acceleration are indicated hydrodynamically by axial fluid momentum in the wake. During steady swimming, the wake consists of lateral jets of fluid and has minimal net axial momentum, which reflects a balance between thrust and drag. During acceleration, those jets rotate to point downstream, adding axial momentum to the fluid. The amount of added momentum correlates with the acceleration, but is greater than the necessary inertial force by 2.8+/-0.6 times, indicating a substantial acceleration reaction.

  3. Kinematics and hydrodynamics of linear acceleration in eels, Anguilla rostrata.

    PubMed Central

    Tytell, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of routine linear accelerations were studied in American eels, Anguilla rostrata, using high-speed video and particle image velocimetry. Eels were examined both during steady swimming at speeds from 0.6 to 1.9 body lengths (L) per second and during accelerations from -1.4 to 1.3 L s(-2). Multiple regression of the acceleration and steady swimming speed on the body kinematics suggests that eels primarily change their tail-tip velocity during acceleration. By contrast, the best predictor of steady swimming speed is body wave speed, keeping tail-tip velocity an approximately constant fraction of the swimming velocity. Thus, during steady swimming, Strouhal number does not vary with speed, remaining close to 0.32, but during acceleration, it deviates from the steady value. The kinematic changes during acceleration are indicated hydrodynamically by axial fluid momentum in the wake. During steady swimming, the wake consists of lateral jets of fluid and has minimal net axial momentum, which reflects a balance between thrust and drag. During acceleration, those jets rotate to point downstream, adding axial momentum to the fluid. The amount of added momentum correlates with the acceleration, but is greater than the necessary inertial force by 2.8+/-0.6 times, indicating a substantial acceleration reaction. PMID:15615678

  4. Staging optics considerations for a plasma wakefield acceleration linear collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrøm, C. A.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; Delahaye, J. P.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Muggli, P.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Yakimenko, V.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration offers acceleration gradients of several GeV/m, ideal for a next-generation linear collider. The beam optics requirements between plasma cells include injection and extraction of drive beams, matching the main beam beta functions into the next cell, canceling dispersion as well as constraining bunch lengthening and chromaticity. To maintain a high effective acceleration gradient, this must be accomplished in the shortest distance possible. A working example is presented, using novel methods to correct chromaticity, as well as scaling laws for a high energy regime.

  5. Dosimetry of the Siemens Mevatron 67 linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.L.

    1983-08-01

    Measurements have been made on a Siemens Mevatron 67 linear accelerator. The change of beam quality has been measured as a function of position off-axis and compared to another Siemens 6 MV linear accelerator. Similarly, beam profiles are compared to a Siemens Mevatron VI. Additional measurements include entrance dose, inverse square applicability, central axis percent depth dose, tissue-maximum ratios, output factors, wedge factors and block transmission factors. Comparison is made with an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Therac 6 and Varian Clinac 6-100.

  6. Dosimetry of the Siemens Mevatron 67 linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Horton, J L

    1983-08-01

    Measurements have been made on a Siemens Mevatron 67 linear accelerator. The change of beam quality has been measured as a function of position off-axis and compared to another Siemens 6 MV linear accelerator. Similarly, beam profiles are compared to a Siemens Mevatron VI. Additional measurements include entrance dose, inverse square applicability, central axis percent depth dose, tissue-maximum ratios, output factors, wedge factors and block transmission factors. Comparison is made with an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Therac 6 and Varian Clinac 6-100.

  7. Numerical simulations of relativistic heavy-ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffin, Frank Cecil

    Bulk quantities of nuclear matter exist only in the compact bodies of the universe. There the crushing gravitational forces overcome the Coulomb repulsion in massive stellar collapses. Nuclear matter is subjected to high pressures and temperatures as shock waves propagate and burn their way through stellar cores. The bulk properties of nuclear matter are important parameters in the evolution of these collapses, some of which lead to nucleosynthesis. The nucleus is rich in physical phenomena. Above the Coulomb barrier, complex interactions lead to the distortion of, and as collision energies increase, the destruction of the nuclear volume. Of critical importance to the understanding of these events is an understanding of the aggregate microscopic processes which govern them. In an effort to understand relativistic heavy-ion reactions, the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (Ueh33) (BUU) transport equation is used as the framework for a numerical model. In the years since its introduction, the numerical model has been instrumental in providing a coherent, microscopic, physical description of these complex, highly non-linear events. This treatise describes the background leading to the creation of our numerical model of the BUU transport equation, details of its numerical implementation, its application to the study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and some of the experimental observables used to compare calculated results to empirical results. The formalism evolves the one-body Wigner phase-space distribution of nucleons in time under the influence of a single-particle nuclear mean field interaction and a collision source term. This is essentially the familiar Boltzmann transport equation whose source term has been modified to address the Pauli exclusion principle. Two elements of the model allow extrapolation from the study of nuclear collisions to bulk quantities of nuclear matter: the modification of nucleon scattering cross sections in nuclear matter, and the

  8. Progress on the Los Alamos heavy-ion injector

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.C.; Riepe, K.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy-ion fusion using an induction linac requires injection of multiple high-current beams from a pulsed electrostatic accelerator at as high a voltage as practical. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a 16-beam, 2-MeV, pulsed electrostatic accelerator for Al/sup +/ ions. The ion source will use a pulsed metal vapor arc plasma. A biased grid will control plasma flux into the ion extraction region. This source has achieved a normalized emittance of epsilon/sub n/ < 3.10/sup -7/..pi..-m-rad with Al/sup +/ ions. An 800 kV Marx prototype with a laser fired diverter is being assembled. The ceramic accelerating column sections have been brazed and leak tested. Voltage hold off on a brazed sample was more than doubled by selective removal of the Ticusil braze fillet extending along the ceramic. A scaled test module held 250 kV for 50 ..mu..s, giving confidence that the full module can hold 175 kV per section. The pressure vessel should be received in June 1986. High-voltage testing of a 1 MV column will begin by early 1987.

  9. Latchup in CMOS devices from heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, K.; Nichols, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microcircuits are inherently latchup prone. The four-layer n-p-n-p structures formed from the parasitic pnp and npn transistors make up a silicon controlled rectifier. If properly biased, this rectifier may be triggered 'ON' by electrical transients, ionizing radiation, or a single heavy ion. This latchup phenomenon might lead to a loss of functionality or device burnout. Results are presented from tests on 19 different device types from six manufacturers which investigate their latchup sensitivity with argon and krypton beams. The parasitic npnp paths are identified in general, and a qualitative rationale is given for latchup susceptibility, along with a latchup cross section for each type of device. Also presented is the correlation between bit-flip sensitivity and latchup susceptibility.

  10. Heavy Ion Reaction Modeling for Hadrontherapy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Enghardt, W.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.; Sommerer, F.

    2007-10-26

    A comprehensive and reliable description of nucleus-nucleus interactions represents a crucial need in different interdisciplinary fields. In particular, hadrontherapy monitoring by means of in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) requires, in addition to measuring, the capability of calculating the activity of {beta}{sup +}-decaying nuclei produced in the irradiated tissue. For this purpose, in view of treatment monitoring at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy (HIT) facility, the transport and interaction Monte Carlo code FLUKA is a promising candidate. It is provided with the description of heavy ion reactions at intermediate and low energies by two specific event generators. In-beam PET experiments performed at GSI for a few beam-target combinations have been simulated and first comparisons between the measured and calculated {beta}{sup +}-activity are available.

  11. Cold fission as heavy ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Maruhn, J. A.; Greiner, W.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mazilu, D.; Gherghescu, R.

    1987-09-01

    The last version of the analytical superasymmetric fission model is applied to study cold fission processes. Strong shell effects are present either in one or both fission fragments. A smooth behaviour is observed when the proton or the neutron numbers are changed by four units. Increasing Z and N, in the transuranium region, a sharp transition from asymmetry with a large peak-to-valley ratio to symmetry at Z=100 and/or N=164 is obtained. The transition toward asymmetry at higher Z and N is much smoother. The most probable cold fission light fragments from234U,236U,239Np and240Pu are100Zr,104Mo,106Mo and106Mo, respectively, in good agreement with experimental data. The unified treatment of alpha decay, heavy ion radioactivities and cold fission is illustrated for234U — the first nucleus in which all three groups have been already observed.

  12. Nuclei at HERA and heavy ion physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.; Strikman, M.

    1995-12-31

    Copies of 16 viewgraph sets from a workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, 17-18 November, 1995. Titles of talks: HERA: The Present; HERA: Potential with Nuclei; Review of Hadron-Lepton Nucleus Data; Fermilab E665: results in muon scattering; Interactions of Quarks and Gluons with Nuclear Matter; Rescattering in Nuclear Targets for Photoproduction and DIS; Structure Functions and Nuclear Effect at PHENIX; Probing Spin-Averaged and Spin-Dependent Parton Distributions Using the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR); Jet Quenching in eA, pA, AA; Nuclear Gluon Shadowing via Continuum Lepton Pairs; What can we learn from HERA with a colliding heavy ion beam? The limiting curve of leading particles at infinite A; Coherent Production of Vector Mesons off Light Nuclei in DIS; A Model of High Parton Densities in PQCD; Gluon Production for Weizaecker-Williams Field in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions; Summary Talk.

  13. Focal-surface detector for heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, John R.; Braid, Thomas H.; Stoltzfus, Joseph C.

    1979-01-01

    A detector of the properties of individual charged particles in a beam includes a gridded ionization chamber, a cathode, a plurality of resistive-wire proportional counters, a plurality of anode sections, and means for controlling the composition and pressure of gas in the chamber. Signals generated in response to the passage of charged particles can be processed to identify the energy of the particles, their loss of energy per unit distance in an absorber, and their angle of incidence. In conjunction with a magnetic spectrograph, the signals can be used to identify particles and their state of charge. The detector is especially useful for analyzing beams of heavy ions, defined as ions of atomic mass greater than 10 atomic mass units.

  14. Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapiditymore » spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.« less

  16. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapidity spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.

  17. Hadron Production in Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, Hans Georg; Xu, Nu

    2009-05-19

    Heavy ion collisions are an ideal tool to explore the QCD phase diagram. The goal is to study the equation of state (EOS) and to search for possible in-medium modifications of hadrons. By varying the collision energy a variety of regimes with their specific physics interest can be studied. At energies of a few GeV per nucleon, the regime where experiments were performed first at the Berkeley Bevalac and later at the Schwer-Ionen-Synchrotron (SIS) at GSI in Darmstadt, we study the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and try to identify in-medium modifications of hadrons. Towards higher energies, the regime of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the Super-Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, we expect to produce a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The physics goal is to identify the QGP and to study its properties. By varying the energy, different forms of matter are produced. At low energies we study dense nuclear matter, similar to the type of matter neutron stars are made of. As the energy is increased the main constituents of the matter will change. Baryon excitations will become more prevalent (resonance matter). Eventually we produce deconfined partonic matter that is thought to be in the core of neutron stars and that existed in the early universe. At low energies a great variety of collective effects is observed and a rather good understanding of the particle production has been achieved, especially that of the most abundantly produced pions and kaons. Many observations can be interpreted as time-ordered emission of various particle species. It is possible to determine, albeit model dependent, the equation of state of nuclear matter. We also have seen indications, that the kaon mass, especially the mass of the K{sup +}, might be modified by the medium created in heavy ion collisions. At AGS energies and above, emphasis shifts towards

  18. Chromosomal instability induced by heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Ponnaiya, B.; Corcoran, J. J.; Giedzinski, E.; Morgan, W. F.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish the dose-response relationship for the induction of chromosomal instability in GM10115 cells exposed to high-energy iron ions (1 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 146 keV/microm) and gold ions (11 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 1450 keV/microm). Past work has established that sparsely ionizing X-rays can induce a long-lived destabilization of chromosomes in a dose-dependent manner at an incidence of approximately 3% per gray. The present investigation assesses the capacity of High-Z and High-energy (HZE) particles to elicit this same endpoint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonal populations derived from single progenitor cells surviving heavy-ion irradiation were analyzed cytogenetically to identify those clones showing a persistent destablization of chromosomes. RESULTS: Dose-response data, with a particular emphasis at low dose (< 1.0 Gy), indicate a frequency of approximately 4% per gray for the induction of chromosomal instability in clones derived from single progenitor cells surviving exposure to iron ions. The induction of chromosomal instability by gold ions was, however, less responsive to applied dose, as the observed incidence of this phenotype varied from 0 to 10% over 1-8 Gy. Both iron and gold ions gave dose-dependent increases in the yield of chromosomal aberrations (both chromosome- and chromatid-type) measured at the first mitosis following irradiation, as well as shoulderless survival curves having D0=0.87 and 1.1 Gy respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present dose-response data, the relative biological effectiveness of iron ions is 1.3 for the induction of chromosomal instability, and this indicates that heavy ions are only slightly more efficient than X-rays at eliciting this delayed phenotype.

  19. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    SciTech Connect

    Soerensen, Allan H.

    2010-02-15

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact ('ultraperipheral collisions'). Requirement of coherent action of the nucleons in order to keep the penetrating projectile intact limits bremsstrahlung to relatively soft photons. The spectrum shows a resonance structure with peak position near 2{gamma} times the position of the giant dipole resonance, that is, near 25{gamma} MeV for a lead ion ({gamma}{identical_to}E/Mc{sup 2} is the Lorentz factor of the projectile of energy E and mass M). The maximum exceeds the bremsstrahlung from a hypothetical structureless, pointlike particle of the same charge and mass as the incoming nucleus, but rapid depletion follows on the high-energy side of the peak. As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions. In collisions with nuclear contact, though, substantial radiation is emitted. It overshoots the bremsstrahlung. However, despite the violence of contact events, the associated photon emission only exceeds the radiation from a hypothetical structureless pointlike nucleus [emitted energy per unit photon-energy interval essentially constant up to ({gamma}-1)Mc{sup 2}] at relatively low photon energies (for lead roughly below 0.2{gamma} GeV, a limit which is about an order of magnitude above the position of the bremsstrahlung peak). Results are presented for bare lead ions penetrating a solid lead target at energies of 158 GeV/n ({gamma}=170) and beyond.

  20. Commissioning of the EBIS-based heavy ion preinjector at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Binello, S.; Hoff, L.; Kondo, K.; Lambiase, R.; LoDestro, V.; Mapes, M.; McNerney, A.; Morris, J.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Smart, L.; Snydstrup, L.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Schempp, A.; Ratzinger, U.; Kanesue, T.

    2010-09-12

    The status is presented of the commissioning of a new heavy ion preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This preinjector uses an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), and an RFQ and IH Linac, both operating at 100.625 MHz, to produce 2 MeV/u ions of any species for use, after further acceleration, at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Among the increased capabilities provided by this preinjector are the ability to produce ions of any species, and the ability to switch between multiple species in 1 second, to simultaneously meet the needs of both science programs. For initial setup, helium beam from EBIS was injected and circulated in the Booster synchrotron. Following this, accelerated Au{sup 32+} and Fe{sup 20+} beams were transported to the Booster injection point, fulfilling DOE requirements for project completion.

  1. Precise measurements of energy loss straggling for swift heavy ions in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Bindu; Neetu; Sharma, Kalpana; Diwan, P. K.; Kumar, Shyam

    2016-11-01

    The energy loss straggling measurements for heavy ions with Z = 3-22 (∼0.2-2.5 MeV/u) in PEN (C7H5O2) and PET (C10H8O4) polymers have been carried out utilizing the swift heavy ion beam facility from 15UD Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The recorded spectra are analyzed in such a way that the Straggling associated with energy loss process could be measured in a systematic manner at any selected value of energy, in terms of per unit thickness of the absorber, at any desired energy intervals. The measured values have been compared with the calculated values obtained from the most commonly used Bethe-Livingston formulations applicable for collisional straggling. The results are tried to be understood in terms of the effective charge on the impinging ion within the absorber. Some interesting trends are observed.

  2. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of barium strontium titanate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannard, W. B.; Johnston, P. N.; Walker, S. R.; Bubb, I. F.; Scott, J. F.; Cohen, D. D.; Dytlewski, N.; Martin, J. W.

    1995-05-01

    Thin films of barium strontium titanate have been analysed using heavy ion recoil spectrometry with 77 and 98 MeV 127I ions at the new heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. New calibration procedures have been developed for quantitative analysis. Energy spectra for each of the elements present reveal interdiffusion that was not previously known.

  3. Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

    2008-08-03

    For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

  4. Recent Progress in Isospin Physics with Heavy-Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming; Li Baoan

    2008-11-11

    We review recent progress in the determination of the subsaturation density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy from heavy-ion collisions as well as the theoretical progress in probing the high density behavior of the symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by future high energy radioactive beams. Implications of these results for the nuclear effective interactions are also discussed.

  5. Theoretical Concepts for Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2009-07-27

    Various forms of matter may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These are the Quark GluonPlasma, the Color Glass Condensate , the Glasma and Quarkyoninc Matter. A novel effect that may beassociated with topological charge fluctuations is the Chiral Magnetic Effect. I explain these concepts andexplain how they may be seen in ultra-relatvistic heavy ion collisions

  6. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made.

  7. Spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to survey the subject of spin dynamics in accelerators: to give a sense of the underlying physics, the typical analytic and numeric methods used, and an overview of results achieved. Consideration will be limited to electrons and protons. Examples of experimental and theoretical results in both linear and circular machines are included.

  8. Preliminary results from the heavy ions in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Beahm, L. P.; Tylka, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment is intended to provide a deep survey of intensely ionizing particles in low earth orbit. Intensely ionizing particles produce single event effects in microelectronic components and are now recognized as the principal cause of spacecraft anomalies. These particles also make an important contribution to radiation doses. Besides the practical applications, HIIS data will be used to study several important scientific questions. By measuring heavy ions that stop in HIIS, the anomalous component of cosmic rays can be studied, evidence can be searched for of heavy ions trapped in the earth's magnetic field and by comparing HISS data with observations from outside the magnetosphere, the mean ionic charge state can be determined of solar energetic particles. HIIS will also record relativistic ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays. Their elemental composition will be measured from tin to uranium. Results are presented on the elemental resolution for stopping heavy ions and relativistic heavy ions.

  9. Beam breakup in an advanced linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl August; Coleman, Joshua Eugene; McCuistian, Brian Trent

    2016-07-01

    Two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) have been in operation for a number of years at the Los Alamos Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility. A new multipulse LIA is being developed. We have computationally investigated the beam breakup (BBU) instability in this advanced LIA. In particular, we have explored the consequences of the choice of beam injector energy and the grouping of LIA cells. We find that within the limited range of options presently under consideration for the LIA architecture, there is little adverse effect on the BBU growth. The computational tool that we used for this investigation was the beam dynamics code linear accelerator model for DARHT (LAMDA). In conclusion, to confirm that LAMDA was appropriate for this task, we first validated it through comparisons with the experimental BBU data acquired on the DARHT accelerators.

  10. Beam breakup in an advanced linear induction accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Ekdahl, Carl August; Coleman, Joshua Eugene; McCuistian, Brian Trent

    2016-07-01

    Two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) have been in operation for a number of years at the Los Alamos Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility. A new multipulse LIA is being developed. We have computationally investigated the beam breakup (BBU) instability in this advanced LIA. In particular, we have explored the consequences of the choice of beam injector energy and the grouping of LIA cells. We find that within the limited range of options presently under consideration for the LIA architecture, there is little adverse effect on the BBU growth. The computational tool that we used for this investigation wasmore » the beam dynamics code linear accelerator model for DARHT (LAMDA). In conclusion, to confirm that LAMDA was appropriate for this task, we first validated it through comparisons with the experimental BBU data acquired on the DARHT accelerators.« less

  11. Beam dynamics and longitudinal instabilities in heavy ion fusion induction linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1992-08-01

    An induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls.

  12. Heavy ion tracks in polycarbonate. Comparison with a heavy ion irradiated model compound (diphenyl carbonate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferain, E.; Legras, R.

    1993-09-01

    The chemical modifications induced by energetic heavy ion irradiation of polycarbonate (PC) film are determined by GPC, HPLC, ESR, TGA, IR and UV spectrophotometry. The main results of the irradiation are creation of radicals, chain scission, cross-linking and appearance of new chemical groups in the main polymer chain. As far as the creation of new groups is concerned, they are determined by means of a model compound of PC: the diphenyl carbonate (DPC). The following compounds are identified after energetic heavy ion irradiation of DPC: salicylic acid, phenol, 4,4'-biphenol, 2,4'-biphenol, 2,2'-biphenol, 4-phenoxyphenol, 2-phenoxyphenol, phenyl ether, phenyl benzoate, phenyl salicylate, 2-phenylphenol and 2-phenoxyphenyl benzoate. A similarity between the heavy ion irradiation and a heat treatment has also been established with DPC. On the basis of these results, we try to give an explanation of the preferential attack along the tracks of the irradiated film. Also, an explanation of the well-known beneficial effect of an UV exposition of the irradiated film on the selectivity of this preferential chemical attack is suggested.

  13. Separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.

    2015-09-01

    A separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator apparatus and method. The accelerator includes a first linac, a second linac, and a plurality of arcs of differing path lengths, including a plurality of up arcs, a plurality of downgoing arcs, and a full energy arc providing a path independent of the up arcs and downgoing arcs. The up arcs have a path length that is substantially a multiple of the RF wavelength and the full energy arc includes a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer multiple of the RF wavelength. Operation of the accelerator includes accelerating the beam utilizing the linacs and up arcs until the beam is at full energy, at full energy executing a full recirculation to the second linac using a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer of the RF wavelength, and then decelerating the beam using the linacs and downgoing arcs.

  14. Pulsed linear acceleration as a vestibular stimulus in electrophysiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Jones, T A; Schiltz, T

    1989-03-01

    A simple method of generating precisely defined pulsed linear acceleration stimuli was developed and used to study vestibular responses to cranial acceleration. Electromechanical shakers were coupled to a stimulus platform. The platform, in turn, was used to couple stimuli to the skull. Movements were controlled by a voltage waveform (V(t] applied to shakers. Software algorithms were used to synthesize voltage functions (V(t]. The resulting acceleration was monitored [a(t)] and used to generate velocity [v(t)] and position [x(t)] functions (first and second integrals of a(t), respectively). The characteristics of stimuli used in physiological experiments are described. The system provides precise control of the timing and amplitude of acceleration, velocity and position pulses to the cranium and has proved to be valuable in developing noninvasive electrophysiological measures of peripheral and central vestibular function.

  15. Linear induction accelerator requirements for ion fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, G.

    1998-01-26

    induction linacs, the purpose of this memo is to explore possible new features and characteristic parameters that induction linacs would need to meet the stringent requirements for beam quality and compression (sufficiently low longitudinal and transverse thermal spread) for ion driven fast ignition. Separately, Ed Lee at LBNL is looking at heavy-ion synchrotrons to meet similar fast ignition requirements. Parameters relating to cost (e.g, total beam-line length and transport quads, total core volt-seconds and power switching) have to be considered in addition to meeting the challenging beam quality requirements for fast ignition compared to conventional HIF. The aim of this preliminary study is to motivate, after critical debate, taking a next step to do more detailed designs, particle simulations, and experimental tests of the most critical accelerator elements and focusing optics, to further assess the feasibility of ion-driven fast ignition.

  16. Overview of WARP, a particle code for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Haber, I.

    1993-02-22

    The beams in a Heavy Ion beam driven inertial Fusion (HIF) accelerator must be focused onto small spots at the fusion target, and so preservation of beam quality is crucial. The nonlinear self-fields of these space-charge-dominated beams can lead to emittance growth; thus a self-consistent field description is necessary. We have developed a multi-dimensional discrete-particle simulation code, WARP, and are using it to study the behavior of HIF beams. The code`s 3d package combines features of an accelerator code and a particle-in-cell plasma simulation, and can efficiently track beams through many lattice elements and around bends. We have used the code to understand the physics of aggressive drift-compression in the MBE-4 experiment at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). We have applied it to LBL`s planned ILSE experiments, to various ``recirculator`` configurations, and to the study of equilibria and equilibration processes. Applications of the 3d package to ESQ injectors, and of the r, z package to longitudinal stability in driver beams, are discussed in related papers.

  17. Experimental study of heavy-ion computed tomography using a scintillation screen and an electron-multiplying charged coupled device camera for human head imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraishi, Hiroshi; Hara, Hidetake; Abe, Shinji; Yokose, Mamoru; Watanabe, Takara; Takeda, Tohoru; Koba, Yusuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a heavy-ion computed tomography (IonCT) system using a scintillation screen and an electron-multiplying charged coupled device (EMCCD) camera that can measure a large object such as a human head. In this study, objective with the development of the system was to investigate the possibility of applying this system to heavy-ion treatment planning from the point of view of spatial resolution in a reconstructed image. Experiments were carried out on a rotation phantom using 12C accelerated up to 430 MeV/u by the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). We demonstrated that the reconstructed image of an object with a water equivalent thickness (WET) of approximately 18 cm was successfully achieved with the spatial resolution of 1 mm, which would make this IonCT system worth applying to the heavy-ion treatment planning for head and neck cancers.

  18. Linear accelerators for TeV colliders. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1985-10-01

    The basic scaling relations for important linear collider design parameters are introduced. Some of the basic concepts concerning the design of accelerating structures are presented, and breakdown limitations are discussed. Rf power sources are considered. Some of the key concepts of wakefield accelerators are discussed, and some examples of wake fields for typical linac structures are presented. Some general concepts concerning emittance, and the limitations on the emittance that can be obtained from linac guns and damping rings are discussed. 49 refs., 15 figs. (LEW)

  19. Evaluation of the Therac 6 linear accelerator for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Grant, W; Ames, J; Almond, P R

    1978-01-01

    The Therac 6 is new generation of low-energy linear accelerator. It incorporates a PDP-11/05 computer for beam control, treatment-factor input, and beam shutdown in the event of failure of the system. The performance of the unit has not been hindered by computer or software malfunction, and the computer has provided an excellent means for preventive maintenance and repair. Dosimetry parameters are similar to other 6 MV x-ray beams, and comparison to 60Co therapy beams shows that this unit may be more like 60Co units in penumbra and absence of off-axis peaking than other low-energy accelerators.

  20. Lorentz-Dirac force from QED for linear acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Martin, Giles D.

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the motion of a wave packet of a charged scalar particle linearly accelerated by a static potential in quantum electrodynamics. We calculate the expectation value of the position of the charged particle after the acceleration to first order in the fine structure constant in the ℏ→0 limit. We find that the change in the expectation value of the position (the position shift) due to radiation reaction agrees exactly with the result obtained using the Lorentz-Dirac force in classical electrodynamics. We also point out that the one-loop correction to the potential may contribute to the position change in this limit.

  1. Beam Dynamics Design and Simulation in Ion Linear Accelerators (

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, Peter N.; Asseev, Vladislav N.; Mustapha, and Brahim

    2006-08-01

    Orginally, the ray tracing code TRACK has been developed to fulfill the many special requirements for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility known as RIA. Since no available beam-dynamics code met all the necessary requirements, modifications to the code TRACK were introduced to allow end-to-end (from the ion souce to the production target) simulations of the RIA machine, TRACK is a general beam-dynamics code and can be applied for the design, commissioning and operation of modern ion linear accelerators and beam transport systems.

  2. Experimental measurement of the 4-d transverse phase space map of a heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H S

    1997-12-01

    The development and employment of a new diagnostic instrument for characterizing intense, heavy ion beams is reported on. This instrument, the ''Gated Beam Imager'' or ''GBI'' was designed for use on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project's ''Small Recirculator'', an integrated, scaled physics experiment and engineering development project for studying the transport and control of intense heavy ion beams as inertial fusion drivers in the production of electric power. The GBI allows rapid measurement and calculation of a heavy ion beam's characteristics to include all the first and second moments of the transverse phase space distribution, transverse emittance, envelope parameters and beam centroid. The GBI, with appropriate gating produces a time history of the beam resulting in a 4-D phase-space and time ''map'' of the beam. A unique capability of the GBI over existing diagnostic instruments is its ability to measure the ''cross'' moments between the two transverse orthogonal directions. Non-zero ''cross'' moments in the alternating gradient lattice of the Small Recirculator are indicative of focusing element rotational misalignments contributing to beam emittance growth. This emittance growth, while having the same effect on the ability to focus a beam as emittance growth caused by non-linear effects, is in principle removable by an appropriate number of focusing elements. The instrument uses the pepperpot method of introducing a plate with many pinholes into the beam and observing the images of the resulting beamlets as they interact with a detector after an appropriate drift distance. In order to produce adequate optical signal and repeatability, the detector was chosen to be a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor readout screen. The heavy ions in the pepperpot beamlets are stopped in the MCP's thin front metal anode and the resulting secondary electron signal is amplified and proximity-focused onto the phosphor while maintaining

  3. Terascale simulations for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Sharp, W M; Celata, C M; Lee, E P; Vay, J-L; Davidson, R C; Kaganovich, I; Lee, W W; Qin, H; Welch, D R; Haber, I; Kishek, R A

    2000-06-08

    The intense ion beams in a heavy ion Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver and fusion chamber are non-neutral plasmas whose dynamics are largely dominated by space charge. We propose to develop a ''source-to-target'' Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) beam simulation capability: a description of the kinetic behavior of this complex, nonlinear system which is both integrated and detailed. We will apply this new capability to further our understanding of key scientific issues in the physics of ion beams for IFE. The simulations will entail self-consistent field descriptions that require interprocessor communication, but are scalable and will run efficiently on terascale architectures. This new capability will be based on the integration of three types of simulations, each requiring terascale computing: (1) simulations of acceleration and confinement of the space-charge-dominated ion beams through the driver (accelerator, pulse compression line, and final focusing system) which accurately describe their dynamics, including emittance growth (phase-space dilution) effects; these are particle-in-cell (PIC) models; (2) electromagnetic (EM) and magnetoinductive (Darwin) simulations which describe the beam and the fusion chamber environment, including multibeam, neutralization, stripping, beam and plasma ionization processes, and return current effects; and (3) highly detailed simulations (6f, multispecies PIC, continuum Vlasov), which can examine electron effects and collective modes in the driver and chamber, and can study halo generation with excellent statistics, to ensure that these effects do not disrupt the focusability of the beams. The code development will involve: (i) adaptation of existing codes to run efficiently on multi-SMP computers that use a hybrid of shared and distributed memory; (ii) development of new and improved numerical algorithms, e.g., averaging techniques that will afford larger timesteps; and (iii) incorporation of improved physics models (e.g., for self

  4. Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, K. O.; Fournier, C.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

    2008-07-01

    The risk assessment for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation has been challenged by a growing body of experimental evidence showing that non-irradiated bystander cells can receive signals from irradiated cells to elicit a variety of cellular responses. These may be significant for radiation protection but also for radiation therapy using heavy ions. Charged particle microbeams for radiobiological application provide a unique means to address these issues by allowing the precise irradiation of single cells with a counted numbers of ions. Here, we focus specifically on heavy ion microbeam facilities currently in use for biological purposes, describing their technical features and biological results. Typically, ion species up to argon are used for targeted biological irradiation at the vertically collimated microbeam at JAEA (Takasaki, Japan). At the SNAKE microprobe in Munich, mostly oxygen ions have been used in a horizontal focused beam line for cell targeting. At GSI (Darmstadt), a horizontal microprobe with a focused beam for defined targeting using ion species up to uranium is operational. The visualization of DNA damage response proteins relocalizing to defined sites of ion traversal has been accomplished at the three heavy ion microbeam facilities described above and is used to study mechanistic aspects of heavy ion effects. However, bystander studies have constituted the main focus of biological applications. While for cell inactivation and effects on cell cycle progression a response of non-targeted cells has been described at JAEA and GSI, respectively, in part controversial results have been obtained for the induction of DNA damage measured by double-strand formation or at the cytogenetic level. The results emphasize the influence of the cellular environment, and standardization of experimental conditions for cellular studies at different facilities as well as the investigation of bystander effects in tissue will be the aims of future

  5. Studies of high density baryon matter with high intensity heavy-ion beams at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, H.; Harada, H.; Sakaguchi, T.; Chujo, T.; Esumi, S.; Gunji, T.; Hasegawa, S.; Hwang, S. H.; Ichikawa, Y.; Imai, K.; Itakura, K.; Kaneta, M.; Kim, B. C.; Kinsho, M.; Kitazawa, M.; Liu, Y.; Masui, H.; Nagamiya, S.; Nishio, K.; Okamura, M.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Saha, P. K.; Sakaguchi, A.; Sato, S.; Shigaki, K.; Sugimura, H.; Tanida, K.; Tamura, J.; Tamura, H.; Nara, Y.; Saito, T. R.

    2016-12-01

    In J-PARC heavy-ion project, we aim at studies of QCD phase structures and hadron properties in high baryon density close to the neutron star core. We have developed a heavy-ion acceleration scheme with a new linac and a new booster with existing two synchrotrons with the goal beam rate of about 1011 Hz. We have also designed a large acceptance spectrometer based on a toroidal magnet. We have evaluated the spectrometer performance, and demonstrated reconstructing dielectron and dimuon spectra with full detector simulations. Finally, we designed a hypernuclear spectrometer which can utilize the full intensity ion beams.

  6. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  7. New results for ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczurek, Antoni; Kłusek-Gawenda, Mariola; Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Schäfer, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    We discuss diphoton semi(exclusive) production in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at energy of √{sN N }=5.5 TeV (LHC). The nuclear calculations are based on equivalent photon approximation in the impact parameter space. The cross sections for elementary γγ → γγ subprocess are calculated including three different mechanisms: box diagrams with leptons and quarks in the loops, a VDM-Regge contribution with virtual intermediate hadronic excitations of the photons and the two-gluon exchange contribution (formally three-loops). We got relatively high cross sections in PbPb collisions. This opens a possibility to study the γγ → γγ (quasi)elastic scattering at the LHC. We find that the cross section for elastic γγ scattering could be measured in the lead-lead collisions for the diphoton invariant mass up to Wγγ ≈ 15 - 20 GeV. We identify region(s) of phase space where the two-gluon exchange contribution becomes important ingredient compared to box and nonperturbative VDM-Regge mechanisms. We discuss also first results concerning production of two e+e- pairs in UPCs of heavy ions. We considered only double scattering mechanism.

  8. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Bangerter, R.O. ); Bock, R. ); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  9. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  10. Beam dynamics in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl; Abeyta, Epifanio O; Aragon, Paul; Archuleta, Rita; Cook, Gerald; Dalmas, Dale; Esquibel, Kevin; Gallegos, Robert A; Garnett, Robert; Harrison, James F; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Jacquez, Edward B; Mc Cuistian, Brian T; Montoya, Nicholas A; Nath, Subrato; Nielsen, Kurt; Oro, David; Prichard, Benjamin; Rose, Chris R; Sanchez, Manolito; Schauer, Martin M; Seitz, Gerald; Schulze, Martin; Bender, Howard A; Broste, William B; Carlson, Carl A; Frayer, Daniel K; Johnson, Douglas E; Tom, C Y; Trainham, C; Williams, John; Scarpetti, Raymond; Genoni, Thomas; Hughes, Thomas; Toma, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The second axis of the Dual Axis Radiography of Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility produces up to four radiographs within an interval of 1.6 microseconds. It accomplishes this by slicing four micro-pulses out of a long 1.8-kA, 16.5-MeV electron beam pulse and focusing them onto a bremsstrahlung converter target. The long beam pulse is created by a dispenser cathode diode and accelerated by the unique DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator (LIA). Beam motion in the accelerator would be a problem for radiography. High frequency motion, such as from beam breakup instability, would blur the individual spots. Low frequency motion, such as produced by pulsed power variation, would produce spot to spot differences. In this article, we describe these sources of beam motion, and the measures we have taken to minimize it.

  11. Evaluation of air photoactivation at linear accelerators for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tana, Luigi; Ciolini, Riccardo; Ciuffardi, Eva; Romei, Chiara; d'Errico, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    High-energy x-rays produced by radiotherapy accelerators operating at potentials above 10 MV may activate the air via (γ, n) reactions with both oxygen and nitrogen. While the activation products are relatively short-lived, personnel entering the accelerator room may inhale some radioactive air, which warrants internal dosimetry assessments. This work illustrates a method based on the use of ammonium nitrate solutions for the evaluation of photon-induced air activation and for the estimate of internal doses to radiotherapy personnel. Air activation and internal dosimetry assessments based on our method are presented for some widespread radiotherapy linear accelerator models. Our results indicate that the equivalent dose to the lungs of radiotherapy personnel is negligible for beam energies below 18 MeV.

  12. Finite element analyses of a linear-accelerator electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M. E-mail: muniqbal@ihep.ac.cn; Wasy, A.; Islam, G. U.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-02-15

    Thermo-structural analyses of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear-accelerator, electron gun, were performed for the gun operating with the cathode at 1000 °C. The gun was modeled in computer aided three-dimensional interactive application for finite element analyses through ANSYS workbench. This was followed by simulations using the SLAC electron beam trajectory program EGUN for beam optics analyses. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the assembly to verify its beam parameters under the same boundary conditions. Simulation and test results were found to be in good agreement and hence confirmed the design parameters under the defined operating temperature. The gun is operating continuously since commissioning without any thermal induced failures for the BEPCII linear accelerator.

  13. Heating heavy ions in the polar corona by collisionless shocks: A one-dimensional simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisticò, Giuseppe; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new model for explaining the observations of preferential heating of heavy ions in the polar solar corona was proposed (Zimbardo, 2010, 2011). In that model the ion energization mechanism is the ion reflection off supercritical quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks in the corona and the subsequent acceleration by the motional electric field E = -V × B/c. The mechanism of heavy ion reflection is based on ion gyration in the magnetic overshoot of the shock. The acceleration due to the motional electric field is perpendicular to the magnetic field, giving rise to large temperature anisotropy with T⊥ ≫ T∥, in agreement with SoHO observations. Such a model is tested here by means of a one dimensional test particle simulation where ions are launched toward electric and magnetic profiles representing the shock transition. We study the dynamics of O5+, as representative of coronal heavy ions for Alfvénic Mach numbers of 2-4, as appropriate to solar corona. It is found that O5+ ions are easily reflected and gain more than mass proportional energy with respect to protons.

  14. Organizational cultural survey of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, an Organizational Survey (OS) was administered at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The OS measured employees' opinions on subjects such as organizational culture, communication, commitment, group cohesion, coordination, safety, environmental issues, and job satisfaction. The result of this work was a quantitative measure of the notion of culture at the SLAC site. This report presents these results and discusses their interpretation.

  15. When is quasi-linear theory exact. [particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C.; Birmingham, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    We use the cumulant expansion technique of Kubo (1962, 1963) to derive an integrodifferential equation for the average one-particle distribution function for particles being accelerated by electric and magnetic fluctuations of a general nature. For a very restricted class of fluctuations, the equation for this function degenerates exactly to a differential equation of Fokker-Planck type. Quasi-linear theory, including the adiabatic assumption, is an exact theory only for this limited class of fluctuations.

  16. Linear induction accelerator and pulse forming networks therefor

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, Malcolm T.; Ginn, Jerry W.

    1989-01-01

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities.

  17. Operations and maintenance manual for the linear accelerator (sled)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Linear Accelerator, a sliding chair which is pulled along a stationary platform in a horizontal axis is described. The driving force is a motor controlled by a velocity loop amplifier, and the mechanical link to the chair is a steel cable. The chair is moved in forward and reverse directions as indicated by the direction of motor rotation. The system operation is described with emphasis on the electronic control and monitoring functions. Line-by-line schematics and wire lists are included.

  18. CECIL: Collaboration between companies and research agencies in heavy ion test of spacecraft microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duzellier, S.; Chapuis, T.; Dufour, C.

    1991-03-01

    With new technologies, high integration levels of spatial components, Single Event Effects (SEE) are becoming of major concern for spacecraft reliability. To access the vulnerability of any device to SEE, experimental measurements and tests using heavy ions accelerators must be carried out. Problems encountered by test engineers performing such investigations are discussed. Space environment simulation, spatial components diversity and complexity, development of specific test facilities and programs are some of the areas considered. The decision to create an operating group called CECIL in order to face these problems is discussed. Heavy ions facilities and a summary of irradiation test results are presented and discussed. The role to be played by the CECIL organization in promoting progress in test capabilities is outlined.

  19. mu. - and tau-pair production from relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The question is addressed of ..mu..- and tau-pair production from the motional Coulomb fields available at the new relativistic heavy-ion accelerators. A semiclassical field theory is developed which is appropriate for families of leptons which are coupled electromagnetically. The field equations are mapped on to a lattice of collocation points using basis spline methods, and techniques for solving the resulting lattice equations are outlined. The properties of the transverse electromagnetic field near the heavy-ion beam are examined and physical arguments are given as to the feasibility of pair creation under a variety of circumstances. Using the Dirac-Hartree equations developed in part one, we shall dynamically evolve the vacuum, using the appropriate fields, and compute ..mu..-pair and tau-pair production cross sections. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Intercomparison of experimental and theoretical ranges of heavy ions in plastic track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, H. S.; Randhawa, G. S.; Sharma, S. K.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, CR-39 and Lexan polycarbonate plastic track detectors have been exposed to various heavy ion beams, i.e. ,238U, b,208Pb, u,197Au, a,139La, e132Xe and b93Nb (energy range from 5.6 to 18.0 MeV/u), from the UNILAC accelerator at GSI, Darmstadt. After exposure, the irradiated samples were etched under optimum etching conditions. The total etchable ranges of these heavy ions have been determined experimentally using a Carl Zeiss binocular microscope. In order to check the validity of the various stopping power and range formulations in this energy range, the experimentally determined range values have been compared with the theoretically computed values from the Benton and Henke, Mukherjee and Nayak, Ziegler et al. and Hubert et al. formulations.

  1. Neoplastic cell transformation by energetic heavy ions and its modification with chemical agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Tobias, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the major deleterious late effects of ionizing radiation is related to the induction of neoplasms. In the present report recent experimental results on neoplastic cell transformation by heavy ions are presented, and possible means to circumvent the carcinogenic effect of space radiation are discussed. Biological effects observed in experiments involving the use of energetic heavy ions accelerated at the Bevalac suggest that many of the biological effects observed in earlier space flight experiments may be due to space radiation, particularly cosmic rays. It is found that the effect of radiation on cell transformation is dose-rate dependent. The frequency of neoplastic transformation for a given dose decreases with a decrease of dose rate of Co-60 gamma rays. It is found that various chemical agents give radiation protection, including DMSO.

  2. Painting analysis of chromosome aberrations induced by energetic heavy ions in human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Hada, M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts in extended ISS and future exploration missions High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects including cell inactivation genetic mutations and cancer induction Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults Over the years we have studied chromosomal damage in human fibroblast epithelia and lymphocyte cells exposed in vitro to energetic charged particles generated at several accelerator facilities in the world Various fluorescence in situ hybridization painting techniques have been used to identify from only the telomere region of the chromosome to every chromosome in a human cell We will summarize the results of the investigations and discuss the unique radiation signatures and biomarkers for space radiation exposure

  3. Particle production and equilibrium properties within a new hadron transport approach for heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, J.; Steinberg, V.; Staudenmaier, J.; Pang, L. G.; Oliinychenko, D.; Mohs, J.; Kretz, M.; Kehrenberg, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Bäuchle, B.; Auvinen, J.; Attems, M.; Petersen, H.

    2016-11-01

    The microscopic description of heavy-ion reactions at low beam energies is achieved within hadronic transport approaches. In this article a new approach called "Simulating Many Accelerated Strongly interacting Hadrons" (SMASH) is introduced and applied to study the production of nonstrange particles in heavy-ion reactions at Ekin=0.4 A -2 A GeV. First, the model is described including details about the collision criterion, the initial conditions and the resonance formation and decays. To validate the approach, equilibrium properties such as detailed balance are presented and the results are compared to experimental data for elementary cross sections. Finally results for pion and proton production in C+C and Au+Au collisions is confronted with data from the high-acceptance dielectron spectrometer (HADES) and FOPI. Predictions for particle production in π +A collisions are made.

  4. Beam charge and current neutralization of high-charge-state heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Callahan, D.A.

    1997-10-29

    High-charge-state heavy-ions may reduce the accelerator voltage and cost of heavy-ion inertial fusion drivers, if ways can be found to neutralize the space charge of the highly charged beam ions as they are focused to a target in a fusion chamber. Using 2-D Particle-In- Cell simulations, we have evaluated the effectiveness of two different methods of beam neutralization: (1) by redistribution of beam charge in a larger diameter, preformed plasma in the chamber, and (2), by introducing a cold-electron-emitting source within the beam channel at the beam entrance into the chamber. We find the latter method to be much more effective for high-charge-state ions.

  5. Heavy-ion linac development for the U.S. RIA project.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P. N.

    2002-01-29

    The Nuclear Science Community in the Unites States has unanimously concluded that developments in both nuclear science and its supporting technologies make building a world-leading Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility for production of radioactive beams the top priority. The RIA development effort involves several US Laboratories (ANL, JLAB, LBNL, MSU, ORNL). The RIA Facility includes a CW 1.4 GeV driver linac and a 100 MV post-accelerator both based on superconducting (SC) cavities operating at frequencies from 48 MHz to 805 MHz. An initial acceleration in both linacs is provided by room temperature RFQs. The driver linac is designed for acceleration of any ion species; from protons up to 900 MeV to uranium up to 400 MeV/u. The novel feature of the driver linac is an acceleration of multiple charge-state heavy-ion beams in order to achieve 400 kW beam power. Basic design concepts of the driver linac are given. Several new conceptual solutions in beam dynamics, room temperature and SC accelerating structures for heavy ion accelerator applications are discussed.

  6. Clinical implementation of electron energy changes of varian linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sean; Liengsawangwong, Praimakorn; Lindsay, Patricia; Prado, Karl; Sun, Tzouh-Liang; Steadham, Roy; Wang, Xiaochun; Salehpour, Mohammad; Gillin, Michael

    2009-10-27

    Modern dual photon energy linear accelerators often come with a few megavoltage electron beams. The megavoltage electron beam has limited range and relative sharp distal falloff in its depth dose curve compared to that of megavoltage photon beam. Its radiation dose is often delivered appositionally to cover the target volume to its distal 90% depth dose (d90), while avoiding the normal--sometimes critical--structure immediately distal to the target. Varian linear accelerators currently offer selected electron beams of 4, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electron beam energies. However, intermediate electron energy is often needed for optimal dose distribution. In this study we investigated electron beam characteristics and implemented two intermediate 7 and 11 MeV electron beams on Varian linear accelerators. Comprehensive tests and measurements indicated the new electron beams met all dosimetry parameter criteria and operational safety standards. Between the two new electron beams and the existing electron beams we were able to provide a choice of electron beams of 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electron energies, which had d90 depth between 1.5 cm and 6.0 cm (from 1.5 cm to 4.0 cm in 0.5 cm increments) to meet our clinical needs.

  7. Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, James M.

    2011-06-01

    The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360 deg. range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

  8. Electron-Cloud Simulation and Theory for High-Current Heavy-Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lund, S; Molvik, A; Lee, E; Azevedo, T; Vay, J; Stoltz, P; Veitzer, S

    2004-07-26

    Stray electrons can arise in positive-ion accelerators for heavy ion fusion or other applications as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary- electron emission. We summarize the distinguishing features of electron cloud issues in heavy-ion-fusion accelerators and a plan for developing a self-consistent simulation capability for heavy-ion beams and electron clouds. We also present results from several ingredients in this capability: (1) We calculate the electron cloud produced by electron desorption from computed beam-ion loss, which illustrates the importance of retaining ion reflection at the walls. (2) We simulate of the effect of specified electron cloud distributions on ion beam dynamics. We consider here electron distributions with axially varying density, centroid location, or radial shape, and examine both random and sinusoidally varying perturbations. We find that amplitude variations are most effective in spoiling ion beam quality, though for sinusoidal variations which match the natural ion beam centroid oscillation or breathing mode frequencies, the centroid and shape perturbations can also have significant impact. We identify an instability associated with a resonance between the beam-envelope ''breathing'' mode and the electron perturbation. We estimate its growth rate, which is moderate (compared to the reciprocal of a typical pulse duration). One conclusion from this study is that heavy-ion beams are surprisingly robust to electron clouds, compared to a priori expectations. (3) We report first results from a long-timestep algorithm for electron dynamics, which holds promise for efficient simultaneous solution of electron and ion dynamics.

  9. Photon spectral characteristics of dissimilar 6 MV linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Hinson, William H; Kearns, William T; deGuzman, Allan F; Bourland, J Daniel

    2008-05-01

    This work measures and compares the energy spectra of four dosimetrically matched 6 MV beams, generated from four physically different linear accelerators. The goal of this work is twofold. First, this study determines whether the spectra of dosimetrically matched beams are measurably different. This study also demonstrates that the spectra of clinical photon beams can be measured as a part of the beam data collection process for input to a three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning system. The spectra of 6 MV beams that are dosimetrically matched for clinical use were studied to determine if the beam spectra are similarly matched. Each of the four accelerators examined had a standing waveguide, but with different physical designs. The four accelerators were two Varian 2100C/Ds (one 6 MV/18 MV waveguide and one 6 MV/10 MV waveguide), one Varian 600 C with a vertically mounted waveguide and no bending magnet, and one Siemens MD 6740 with a 6 MV/10 MV waveguide. All four accelerators had percent depth dose curves for the 6 MV beam that were matched within 1.3%. Beam spectra were determined from narrow beam transmission measurements through successive thicknesses of pure aluminum along the central axis of the accelerator, made with a graphite Farmer ion chamber with a Lucite buildup cap. An iterative nonlinear fit using a Marquardt algorithm was used to find each spectrum. Reconstructed spectra show that all four beams have similar energy distributions with only subtle differences, despite the differences in accelerator design. The measured spectra of different 6 MV beams are similar regardless of accelerator design. The measured spectra show excellent agreement with those found by the auto-modeling algorithm in a commercial 3D treatment planning system that uses a convolution dose calculation algorithm. Thus, beam spectra can be acquired in a clinical setting at the time of commissioning as a part of the routine beam data collection.

  10. Optimized heavy ion beam probing for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Eliseev, L. G.

    1999-01-01

    The international workgroup developed the conceptual design of a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) diagnostics for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is intended for measurements of the plasma potential profile in a gradient area. Now we optimized it by the accurate analysis of the probing trajectories and variation of positions of the injection and detection points. Optimization allows us to reduce the energy of Tl+ beam from 5.6 to 3.4 MeV for standard ITER regime. The detector line starting at the plasma edge towards the center can get an outer part of the horizontal radial potential profile by variation of the energy. The observed radial interval is slightly increased up to 0.76<ρ<1 with respect to initial version 0.8<ρ<1, that allows to cover the region of the density gradient more reliably. Almost double reduction of the beam energy is a critical point. Thus we can significantly decrease the sizes of the accelerator and energy analyzer, the cost of the equipment, and impact of the diagnostics to the machine. Therefore the optimized HIBP design can be realized in ITER.

  11. Simulating Electron Cloud Effects in Heavy-Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Lund, S.W.; Molvik, A.W.; Azevedo, T.; Vay, J.-L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2004-08-04

    Stray electrons can be introduced in heavy ion fusion accelerators as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. We summarize here results from several studies of electron-cloud accumulation and effects: (1) Calculation of the electron cloud produced by electron desorption from computed beam ion loss; the importance of ion scattering is shown; (2) Simulation of the effect of specified electron cloud distributions on ion beam dynamics. We find electron cloud variations that are resonant with the breathing mode of the beam have the biggest impact on the beam (larger than other resonant and random variations), and that the ion beam is surprisingly robust, with an electron density several percent of the beam density required to produce significant beam degradation in a 200-quadrupole system. We identify a possible instability associated with desorption and resonance with the breathing mode. (3) Preliminary investigations of a long-timestep algorithm for electron dynamics in arbitrary magnetic fields.

  12. RF PLASMA SOURCE FOR A HEAVY ION FUSION INJECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Halaxi, E; Kwan, J W; Waldron, W L

    2004-06-25

    We are developing high-current ion sources for Heavy Ion Fusion applications. Our proposed RF plasma source starts with an array of high current density mini-beamlets (of a few mA each at {approx}100 mA/cm{sup 2}) that are kept separated from each other within a set of acceleration grids. After they have gained sufficient kinetic energy (>1.2 MeV), the mini-beamlets are allowed to merge together to form a high current beam (about 0.5 A) with low emittance. Simulations have been done to maximize the beam brightness within the physical constraints of the source. We have performed a series of experiments on an RF plasma source. A 80-kV 20-{micro}s source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet and we measured the emittance of a beamlet, its energy spread, and the fraction of ions in higher charge states. We have also tested a 50-kV 61-hole multi-beamlet array. Two upcoming experiments are being prepared: the first experiment will test full-gradient extraction and transport of 61 beamlets though the first four electrodes, and the second experiment will converge 119 beamlets into an ESQ channel at one-quarter scaled voltage of a 1.6 MV HIF injector.

  13. Experimental Studies of Electrons in a Heavy-Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Seidl, P A; Bieniosek, F M; Cohen, R H; Faltens, A; Friedman, A; Covo, M K; Lund, S M; Prost, L

    2004-06-23

    Electron cloud effects, ECEs, are normally a problem only in ring accelerators. However, heavy-ion induction linacs for inertial fusion energy have an economic incentive to fit beam tubes tightly to intense beams. This places them at risk from electron clouds produced by emission of electrons and gas from walls. We have measured electron and gas emission from 1 MeV K{sup +} impact on surfaces near grazing incidence on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. Electron emission coefficients reach *values of 130, whereas gas desorption coefficients are near 10{sup 4}. Mitigation techniques are being studied: A bead-blasted rough surface reduces electron emission by a factor of 10 and gas desorption by a factor of 2. Diagnostics are installed on HCX, between and within quadrupole magnets, to measure the beam halo loss, net charge and expelled ions, from which we infer gas density, electron trapping, and the effects of mitigation techniques. Here we discuss a new diagnostic technique that measures gas pressure and electron ionization rates within quadrupole magnets during the beam transit.

  14. Effects of heavy ion radiation on digital micromirror device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travinsky, Anton; Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran; Raisanen, Alan D.; Pellish, Jonny; Robberto, Massimo; Heap, Sara

    2016-09-01

    There is a pressing need in the astronomical community for space-suitable multiobject spectrometers (MOSs). Several digital micromirror device (DMD)-based prototype MOSs have been developed for ground-based observatories; however, their main use will come with deployment on a space-based mission. Therefore, the performance of DMDs under exoatmospheric radiation needs to be evaluated. DMDs were rewindowed with 2-μm thick pellicle and tested under accelerated heavy-ion radiation (control electronics shielded from radiation), with a focus on the detection of single-event effects (SEEs) including latch-up events. Testing showed that while DMDs are sensitive to nondestructive ion-induced state changes, all SEEs are cleared with a soft reset (i.e., sending a pattern to the device). The DMDs did not experience single-event induced permanent damage or functional changes that required a hard reset (power cycle), even at high ion fluences. This suggests that the SSE rate burden will be manageable for a DMD-based instrument when exposed to solar particle fluxes and cosmic rays in orbit.

  15. Elastic recoil detection analysis on the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, R.; Orlic, I.; Cohen, David D.

    2002-05-01

    The heavy ion microprobe at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation is capable of focussing heavy ions with an ME/ q2 of up to 100 amu MeV. This makes the microprobe ideally suited for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). However, beam currents on a microprobe are usually very small, which requires a detection system with a large solid angle. We apply microbeam heavy ion ERDA using a large solid angle ΔE- E telescope with a gas ΔE detector to layered structures. We demonstrate the capability to measure oxygen and carbon with a lateral resolution of 20 μm, together with determination of the depth of the contamination in thin deposited layers.

  16. Silicon Carbide Power Device Performance Under Heavy-Ion Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Topper, Alyson; Wilcox, Edward; Phan, Anthony; Ikpe, Stanley; LaBel, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion induced degradation and catastrophic failure data for SiC power MOSFETs and Schottky diodes are examined to provide insight into the challenge of single-event effect hardening of SiC power devices.

  17. Heterogenous Acceleration for Linear Algebra in Multi-coprocessor Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Luszczek, Piotr R; Tomov, Stanimire Z; Dongarra, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient and scalable programming model for the development of linear algebra in heterogeneous multi-coprocessor environments. The model incorporates some of the current best design and implementation practices for the heterogeneous acceleration of dense linear algebra (DLA). Examples are given as the basis for solving linear systems' algorithms - the LU, QR, and Cholesky factorizations. To generate the extreme level of parallelism needed for the efficient use of coprocessors, algorithms of interest are redesigned and then split into well-chosen computational tasks. The tasks execution is scheduled over the computational components of a hybrid system of multi-core CPUs and coprocessors using a light-weight runtime system. The use of lightweight runtime systems keeps scheduling overhead low, while enabling the expression of parallelism through otherwise sequential code. This simplifies the development efforts and allows the exploration of the unique strengths of the various hardware components.

  18. Heavy ion induced permanent damage in MNOS gate insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickel, J. C.; Blandford, J. T., Jr.; Waskiewicz, A. E.; Strahan, V. H., Jr.

    1985-12-01

    Heavy-ion-induced permanent damage in MNOS gate insulators has been investigated using a Cf252 fission source. The electric field and ion LET thresholds for onset of the damage has been characterized. The results are consistent with a thermal runaway mechanism in the silicon nitride layer initiated by a single heavy ion and leading to a permanent high conductivity path through the dielectric layers.

  19. Antiproton production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacak, B. V.

    In high energy p-p and alpha-alpha collisions, baryons are observed predominantly at rapidities near those of target and projectile; the mean rapidity shift of projectile and target nucleons is approximately one unit. In the central rapidity region, the number of baryons is quite small. In fact, the number of baryons and antibaryons is rather similar, indicating that most of these baryons are CREATED particles rather than projectile and target fragments. Antibaryon production is of interest in heavy ion collisions as enhanced antiquark production has been predicted as a potential signature of quark-gluon plasma formation. Antibaryons also provide a sensitive probe of the hadronic environment, via annihilation and/or mean field effects upon their final distributions. However, the collision dynamics also affect the baryon and antibaryon distributions. Baryons are more shifted toward midrapidity in nucleus-nucleus and p-p nucleus collisions than in p-p collisions, increasing the probability of annihilating the antibaryons. The interpretation of antibaryon yields is further complicated by collective processes which may take place in the dense hadronic medium formed in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Jahns and coworkers have shown that multistep processes can increase antibaryon production near threshold. Antiproton production is clearly very interesting, but is sensitive to a combination of processes taking place in the collision. The final number of observed antiprotons depends on the balance between mechanisms for extra antiproton production beyond those from the individual nucleon-nucleon collisions and annihilation with surrounding baryons. We can hope to sort out these things by systematic studies, varying the system size and beam energy. I will review what is known about antiproton production at both the AGS and SPS, and look at trends going from p-p to p-nucleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  20. Skyrme tensor force in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Suckling, E. B.; Fracasso, S.; Barton, M. C.; Umar, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method provides a useful foundation for a fully microscopic many-body theory of low-energy heavy ion reactions. The TDHF method is also known in nuclear physics in the small-amplitude domain, where it provides a useful description of collective states, and is based on the mean-field formalism, which has been a relatively successful approximation to the nuclear many-body problem. Currently, the TDHF theory is being widely used in the study of fusion excitation functions, fission, and deep-inelastic scattering of heavy mass systems, while providing a natural foundation for many other studies. Purpose: With the advancement of computational power it is now possible to undertake TDHF calculations without any symmetry assumptions and incorporate the major strides made by the nuclear structure community in improving the energy density functionals used in these calculations. In particular, time-odd and tensor terms in these functionals are naturally present during the dynamical evolution, while being absent or minimally important for most static calculations. The parameters of these terms are determined by the requirement of Galilean invariance or local gauge invariance but their significance for the reaction dynamics have not been fully studied. This work addresses this question with emphasis on the tensor force. Method: The full version of the Skyrme force, including terms arising only from the Skyrme tensor force, is applied to the study of collisions within a completely symmetry-unrestricted TDHF implementation. Results: We examine the effect on upper fusion thresholds with and without the tensor force terms and find an effect on the fusion threshold energy of the order several MeV. Details of the distribution of the energy within terms in the energy density functional are also discussed. Conclusions: Terms in the energy density functional linked to the tensor force can play a non

  1. Heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, G.; Šafařík, K.; Steinberg, P.

    2014-07-01

    A new era in the study of high-energy nuclear collisions began when the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provided the first collisions of lead nuclei in late 2010. In the first three years of operation the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments each collected Pb-Pb data samples of more than 50 μb at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV, exceeding the previously studied collision energies by more than an order of magnitude. These data have provided new insights into the properties of QCD matter under extreme conditions, with extensive measurements of soft particle production and newly accessible hard probes of the hot and dense medium. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the results obtained in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC so far, with particular emphasis on the complementary nature of the observations by the three experiments. In particular, the combination of ALICE’s strengths at hadron identification, the strengths of ATLAS and CMS to make precise measurements of high pT probes, and the resourceful measurements of collective flow by all of the experiments have provided a rich and diverse dataset in only a few years. While the basic paradigm established at RHIC - that of a hot, dense medium that flows with a viscosity to shear-entropy ratio near the predicted lower bound, and which degrades the energy of probes, such as jets, heavy-flavours and J/ψ - is confirmed at the LHC, the new data suggest many new avenues for extracting its properties in detail.

  2. The longitudinal wall impedance instability in a heavy-ion fusion driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Debra A.; Langdon, A. Bruce; Friedman, Alex; Haber, Irving

    1997-04-01

    For more than ten years [J. Bisognano, I. Haber, L. Smith, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 2501 (1983)], the longitudinal wall impedance instability was thought to be a serious threat to the success of heavy-ion driven inertial confinement fusion. This instability is a "resistive wall" instability, driven by the impedance of the induction modules used to accelerate the beam. Early estimates of the instability growth rate predicted tens of e-folds due to the instability which would modulate the current and increase the longitudinal momentum spread and prevent focusing the ion beam on the small spot needed at the target. We have simulated this instability using an r-z particle-in-cell code which includes a model for the module impedance. These simulations, using driver parameters, show that growth due to the instability is smaller than in previous calculations. We have seen that growth is mainly limited to one head to tail transit by a space-charge wave. In addition, the capacitive component of the module impedance, which was neglected in the early work of Lee [E. P. Lee, Proc. Linear Accelerator Conference, (UCRL-86452), Santa Fe, NM, 1981] significantly reduces the growth rate. We have also included in the simulation intermittently applied axial confining fields which are thought to be the major source of perturbations to seed the longitudinal instability. Simulations show the beam can adjust to a systematic error in the longitudinal confining fields while a random error excites the most unstable wavelength of the instability. These simulations show that the longitudinal instability must be taken into account in a driver design, but it is not the major factor it was once thought to be.

  3. Giant suppression of flux-flow resistivity in heavy-ion irradiated Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 films - Influence of linear defects on vortex transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budhani, R. C.; Suenaga, M.; Liou, S. H.

    1992-01-01

    A large shift of the onset of flux-flow resistivity and the irreversibility line H(irr)(T) to higher temperatures is observed in Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 films containing linear defects created by Ag(+21) ion irradiation. The H(irr)(T), which has a characteristic L shape in highly anisotropic Tl and Bi based cuprates, becomes more like that of YBa2Cu3O7 in the presence of these defects. The Jc at 77 K also shows a large increase as a result of flux localization at the defects. The transport data indicate that in the H-T plane above H(irr)(T) of the unirradiated material, an ensemble of unoccupied defects is required for effective pinning of each flux line in the system.

  4. Pion correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Heavy Ion Spectrometer Systems (HISS)

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, W.B. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    This thesis contains the setup, analysis and results of experiment E684H Multi-Pion Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions''. The goals of the original proposal were: (1) To initiate the use of the HISS facility in the study of central Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC). (2) To perform a second generation experiment for the detailed study of the pion source in RHIC. The first generation experiments, implied by the second goal above, refer to pion correlation studies which the Riverside group had performed at the LBL streamer chamber. The major advantage offered by moving the pion correlation studies to HISS is that, being an electronic detector system, as opposed to the Streamer Chamber which is a visual detector, one can greatly increase the statistics for a study of this sort. An additional advantage is that once one has written the necessary detector and physics analysis code to do a particular type of study, the study may be extended to investigate the systematics, with much less effort and in a relatively short time. This paper discusses the Physics motivation for this experiment, the experimental setup and detectors used, the pion correlation analysis, the results, and the conclusions possible future directions for pion studies at HISS. If one is not interested in all the details of the experiment, I believe that by reading the sections on intensity interferometry, the section the fitting of the correlation function and the systematic corrections applied, and the results section, one will get a fairly complete synopsis of the experiment.

  5. Radio-Frequency Pulse Compression for Linear Accelerators.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantista, Christopher Dennis

    Recent efforts to develop plans for an electron -positron linear collider with center-of-mass energy approaching a TeV have highlighted the need for sources capable of delivering hundreds of megawatts of peak rf drive power at X-band frequencies. This need has driven work in the area of rf pulse compression, which enhances the peak power available from pulsed rf tubes by compressing their output pulses in time, accumulating the available energy into shorter pulses. The classic means of rf pulse compression for linear accelerators is SLED. This technique is described, and the problem it presents for multibunch acceleration explained. Other pulse compression schemes, capable of producing suitable output pulses are explored, both theoretically and experimentally, in particular Binary Pulse Compression and SLED-II. The merits of each are considered with regard to gain, efficiency, complexity, size and cost. The development of some novel system components, along with the theory behind their design, is also discussed. The need to minimize copper losses in long waveguide runs led to the use of the circular TE_{01} propagation mode in over-moded guide, requiring much attention to mechanisms of coupling power between modes. The construction and commissioning of complete, high-power pulse compression systems is reported on, as well as their use in the testing of X-band accelerating structures, which, along with the X-band klystrons used, were developed at SLAC in parallel with the pulse compression work. The focus of the dissertation is on SLED-II, the favored scheme in some current linear accelerator designs. In addition to our experimental results, practical implementation considerations and design improvements are presented. The work to date has led to detailed plans for SLED-II systems to be used in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator, now under construction at SLAC. The prototype of the upgraded system is near completion. Descriptions of various rf pulse

  6. A particle-hole calculation for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Deutchman, P. A.; Townsend, L. W.

    1985-02-01

    A differential cross section for pi-meson production in peripheral heavy-ion collisions is formulated within the context of a particle-hole model in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. This is the first attempt at a fully quantum-mechanical particle-hole calculation for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The particular reaction studied is an O-16 projectile colliding with a C-12 target at rest. In the projectile a linear combination of isobar-hole states is formed, with the possibility of a coherent isobar giant resonance. The target can be excited to its giant M1 resonance (J-pi = 1(+), T = 1) at 15.11 MeV, or to its isobar analog neighbors, B-12 at 13.4 MeV and N-12 at 17.5 MeV. The theory is compared to recent experimental results.

  7. A particle-hole calculation for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Deutchman, P. A.; Townsend, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    A differential cross section for pi-meson production in peripheral heavy-ion collisions is formulated within the context of a particle-hole model in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. This is the first attempt at a fully quantum-mechanical particle-hole calculation for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The particular reaction studied is an O-16 projectile colliding with a C-12 target at rest. In the projectile a linear combination of isobar-hole states is formed, with the possibility of a coherent isobar giant resonance. The target can be excited to its giant M1 resonance (J-pi = 1(+), T = 1) at 15.11 MeV, or to its isobar analog neighbors, B-12 at 13.4 MeV and N-12 at 17.5 MeV. The theory is compared to recent experimental results.

  8. The stopping of heavy ions in the low-to-intermediate energy range: The apparent velocity threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifschitz, A. F.; Arista, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    We present a non-linear study of the energy loss of heavy ions in solids, which is based on the transport cross section (TCS) and the extension of the Friedel sum rule (EFSR) for moving ions. We apply this approach to study the velocity dependence of the energy loss of heavy ions in the energy region below the stopping power maximum. With this formulation we are able to explain some striking effects in the energy loss of heavy ions which have been experimentally observed long time ago (Brown and Moak (1972) [14]), but have not been explained so far by the existing theoretical models: the deviations from the proportionality with ion velocity (predicted by alternative models in the low energy range), and the "apparent velocity threshold".

  9. Linear particle accelerator with seal structure between electrodes and insulators

    DOEpatents

    Broadhurst, John H.

    1989-01-01

    An electrostatic linear accelerator includes an electrode stack comprised of primary electrodes formed or Kovar and supported by annular glass insulators having the same thermal expansion rate as the electrodes. Each glass insulator is provided with a pair of fused-in Kovar ring inserts which are bonded to the electrodes. Each electrode is designed to define a concavo-convex particle trap so that secondary charged particles generated within the accelerated beam area cannot reach the inner surface of an insulator. Each insulator has a generated inner surface profile which is so configured that the electrical field at this surface contains no significant tangential component. A spark gap trigger assembly is provided, which energizes spark gaps protecting the electrodes affected by over voltage to prevent excessive energy dissipation in the electrode stack.

  10. DNA Repair-Protein Relocalization After Heavy Ion Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metting, N. F.

    1999-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is good at making DNA double strand breaks, and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations such as heavy ion particles are particularly efficient. For this reason, the proteins belonging to repair systems that deal with double strand breaks are of particular interest. One such protein is Ku, a component in the non-homologous recombination repair system. The Ku protein is an abundant, heterodimeric DNA end-binding complex, composed of one 70 and one 86 kDa subunit. Ku protein binds to DNA ends, nicks, gaps, and regions of transition between single and double-stranded structure. These binding properties suggest an important role in DNA repair. The Ku antigen is important in this study because it is present in relatively large copy numbers and it is part of a double-strand-break repair system. More importantly, we consistently measure an apparent upregulation in situ that is not verified by whole-cell-lysate immunoblot measurements. This apparent upregulation is triggered by very low doses of radiation, thus showing a potentially useful high sensitivity. However, elucidation of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still to be done.

  11. Tolerance to X-rays and Heavy Ions (Fe, He) in the Tardigrade Richtersius coronifer and the Bdelloid Rotifer Mniobia russeola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jønsson, K. Ingemar; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze tolerance to heavy ions in desiccated animals of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer and the bdelloid rotifer Mniobia russeola within the STARLIFE project. Both species were exposed to iron (Fe) and helium (He) ions at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan, and to X-rays at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne, Germany. Results show no effect of Fe and He on viability up to 7 days post-rehydration in both R. coronifer and M. russeola, while X-rays tended to reduce viability in R. coronifer at the highest doses. Mean egg production rate tended to decline with higher doses in R. coronifer for all radiation types, but the pattern was not statistically confirmed. In M. russeola, there was no such tendency for a dose response in egg production rate. These results confirm the previously reported high tolerance to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in tardigrades and show for the first time that bdelloid rotifers are also very tolerant to high-LET radiation. These animal phyla represent the most desiccation- and radiation-tolerant animals on Earth and provide excellent eukaryotic models for astrobiological research.

  12. Storm time heavy ion outflow at mid-latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Foster, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Local ionospheric observations with the Millstone Hill incoherent scatterradar reveal an upward ion bulk velocity in excess of 3 km s{sup {minus} 1} at 1,000 km altitude during the very large magnetic storm on February 8, 1986. The upward flux of O{sup +} ions exceeded 3 {times} 10{sup 9} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at 42{degree} geodetic latitude (55{degree} {Lambda}) for a 3-hour period around 18 MLT during the event. Frictinal ion heating with ion temperatures in excess of 4,000 K at 500 km altitude was observed by the radar in the vicinity of the ion outflow event. Satellite observations place the ion outflow event within a region of intense ion and electron precipitation on field lines associated with the storm-perturbed ring current. For a one-dimensional analysis of the observed plasma profiles, continuity considerations indicate a region of intense O{sup +} production (200 cm{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}) as well as significant upward acceleration (5-10 m s{sup {minus}2}) in the region between 600 km and 800 km altitude where the outflow approaches supersonic speed. Ionizing collisions involving fast backsplash neutral O atoms (Torr et al., 1974) produced by ring current heavy ion precipitation can provide sufficient upward momentum to account for the acceleration in the observed outflowing thermal O{sup +} fluxes. Alternatively, the outflow event can be explained in terms of a time-dependent diffusion process triggered by a sudden change in the frictional heating rate in the collision-dominated F region (St.-Maurice, 1989). The concurrence of rapid ion convection and energetic ring current precipitation is unique at mid-latitudes during intense magnetic storms. Under these conditions, the observations indicate that the mid-latitude ionosphere constitutes a significant source of upflowing thermal O{sup +} fluxes to the overlying magnetosphere.

  13. RHIC performance for FY2011 Au+Au heavy ion run

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, G.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gardner, C.J.; Gassner, D.M.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.F.; Jamilkowski, J.P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.S.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.J.; Minty, M.G.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Polizzo, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Sandberg, J.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; VanKuik, B.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-09-04

    Following the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 (Run-10) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Au+Au run, RHIC experiment upgrades sought to improve detector capabilities. In turn, accelerator improvements were made to improve the luminosity available to the experiments for this run (Run-11). These improvements included: a redesign of the stochastic cooling systems for improved reliability; a relocation of 'common' RF cavities to alleviate intensity limits due to beam loading; and an improved usage of feedback systems to control orbit, tune and coupling during energy ramps as well as while colliding at top energy. We present an overview of changes to the Collider and review the performance of the collider with respect to instantaneous and integrated luminosity goals. At the conclusion of the FY 2011 polarized proton run, preparations for heavy ion run proceeded on April 18, with Au+Au collisions continuing through June 28. Our standard operations at 100 GeV/nucleon beam energy was bracketed by two shorter periods of collisions at lower energies (9.8 and 13.5 GeV/nucleon), continuing a previously established program of low and medium energy runs. Table 1 summarizes our history of heavy ion operations at RHIC.

  14. Overview of U.S. heavy ion fusion progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, G.; Bieniosek`, F.; Celata, C.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Prost, L.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.; Yu, S.; Barnard, J.; Callahan, D.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.; Lund, S.; Davidson, R.; Efthimion, P.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Rose, D.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.; Kishek, R.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.

    2004-12-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  15. Observation of mass-asymmetric fission of mercury nuclei in heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, E.; Hinde, D. J.; Ramachandran, K.; Williams, E.; Dasgupta, M.; Carter, I. P.; Cook, K. J.; Jeung, D. Y.; Luong, D. H.; McNeil, S.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Rafferty, D. C.; Simenel, C.; Wakhle, A.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Lommel, B.; Kindler, B.

    2015-06-01

    Background: Mass-asymmetric fission has been observed in low energy fission of 180Hg . Calculations predicted the persistence of asymmetric fission in this region even at excitation energies of 30-40 MeV. Purpose: To investigate fission mass distributions by populating different isotopes of Hg using heavy ion fusion reactions. Methods: Fission fragment mass-angle distributions have been measured for two reactions, 40Ca+142Nd and 13C+182W , populating 182Hg and 195Hg , respectively, using the Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility and CUBE spectrometer at the Australian National University. Measurements were made at beam energies around the capture barrier for the two reactions and mass ratio distributions were obtained using the kinematic reconstruction method. Results: Asymmetric fission has been observed following the population of 182Hg at an excitation energy of 22.8 MeV above the saddle point. A symmetric peaked mass ratio distribution was observed for 195Hg nuclei at a similar excitation energy above the saddle point. Conclusions: Mass-asymmetric fission has been observed in neutron deficient Hg nuclei populated via heavy ion fusion for the first time. The results are consistent with observations from beta-delayed fission measurements and provide a proof-of-principle for expanding experimental studies of the influence of shell effects on the fission processes.

  16. High-Time Resolution Measurements of Heavy Ions with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janitzek, N. P.; Berger, L.; Drews, C.; Bochsler, P. A.; Klecker, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer as part of the Charge, ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is designed to measure the kinetic properties and elemental/ionic composition of solar wind ions heavier than H+, which we refer to as heavy ions. This is achieved by the combined measurement of the energy-per-charge, the time-of-flight and the energy of the incident ions. The CTOF instrument combines a remarkable time-of-flight resolution with a large effective area which allows to determine the velocity distributions of a wide range of heavy ions with 5 minute cadence. Based on a sophisticated in-flight calibration and count rate analysis we derived 5-minute velocity distributions for typical charge states of solar wind carbon, oxygen, silicon and iron for the CTOF measurement period between day of year 150 and 220 in 1996. In contrast to previous studies we used pure Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) data, which yields the full mass and mass-per-charge and velocity information. We analyzed the velocity spectra for differential streaming relative to the solar wind bulk proton speed, measured simultaneously with the CELIAS Proton Monitor (PM). Here we present our results which should provide experimental constraints for theories of resonant wave-particle interaction and preferential acceleration of heavy ions in the solar wind.

  17. Smartphone Application for Mechanical Quality Assurance of Medical Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwiyoung; Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In; Choi, Chang Heon; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Young Suk; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2017-03-20

    Mechanical quality assurance (QA) of medical linear accelerators consists of time consuming and human-error prone procedures. We developed a smartphone-application system for mechanical QA. The system consists of two smartphones; one attached to the gantry to obtain real-time information on mechanical parameters of medical linear accelerator, and the other to display the real-time information by bluetoothing the former. Motion sensors embedded in the smartphone were used to measure gantry and collimator rotations. Images taken by a high-resolution camera of the smartphone were processed to evaluate accuracies of jaw-positioning, cross-hair centering, and source-to-surface distance (SSD). The application was developed using Android software development kit and OpenCV library. Accuracy and precision of the system were validated against an optical rotation stage and digital calipers, prior to routine QA measurements of five medical linear accelerators. The system accuracy and precision to measure angles and lengths were determined to be 0.05 ± 0.05° and 0.25 ± 0.14 mm, respectively. The mean absolute errors (MAE) in QA measurements of gantry and collimator rotation were 0.05 ± 0.04° and 0.05 ± 0.04°, respectively. The MAE in QA measurements of light field was 0.39 ± 0.36 mm. The MAEs in QA measurements of crosshair centering and SSD were 0.40 ± 0.35 mm and 0.41 ± 0.32 mm, respectively. In conclusion, most of routine mechanical QA items could be performed by using the smartphone-application system within improved precision and time-frame, while eliminating potential human errors from the conventional manual method.

  18. Research in the US on heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Laslett, L.J.; Lee, E.P.; Tiefenback, M.G.; Smith, L.

    1986-10-01

    The US study of high-energy multigap accelerators to produce large currents of heavy ions for inertial fusion is centered on the single-pass induction linac method. The large technology base associated with multigap accelerators for high-energy physics gives confidence that high efficiency, high repetition rate, and good availability can be achieved, and that the path from scientific demonstration to commercial realization can be a smooth one. In an induction linac driver, multiple (parallel) ion beams are accelerated through a sequence of pulsed transformers. Crucial to the design is the manipulation of electric fields to amplify the beam current during acceleration. A proof-of-principle induction linac experiment (MBE-4) is underway and has begun the first demonstration of current amplification, control of the bunch ends, and the acceleration of multiple beams. A recently completed experiment, called the Single Beam Transport Experiment has shown that we can now count on more freedom to design an alternating-gradient quadrupole focusing channel to transport much higher ion-beam currents than formerly believed possible. A recent Heavy Ion Fusion System Assessment (HIFSA) has shown that a substantial cost saving results from use of multiply-charged ions, and that a remarkably broad range of options exist for viable power-plant designs. The driver cost at 3 to 4 MJ could be $200/joule or less, and the cost of electricity in the range of 50 to 55 mills/kWhr.

  19. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.; Davidson, R.C.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Lindl, J.D.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.

    2000-10-03

    Inertial fusion energy research has enjoyed increased interest and funding. This has allowed expanded programs in target design, target fabrication, fusion chamber research, target injection and tracking, and accelerator research. The target design effort examines ways to minimize the beam power and energy and increase the allowable focal spot size while preserving target gain. Chamber research for heavy ion fusion emphasizes the use of thick liquid walls to serve as the coolant, breed tritium, and protect the structural wall from neutrons, photons, and other target products. Several small facilities are now operating to model fluid chamber dynamics. A facility to study target injection and tracking has been built and a second facility is being designed. Improved economics is an important goal of the accelerator research. The accelerator research is also directed toward the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE is being designed to accelerate ions to >100 MeV, enabling experiments in beam dynamics, focusing, and target physics. Activities leading to the IRE include ion source development and a High Current Experiment (HCX) designed to transport and accelerate a single beam of ions with a beam current of approximately 1 A, the initial current required for each beam of a fusion driver. In terms of theory, the program is developing a source-to-target numerical simulation capability. The goal of the entire program is to enable an informed decision about the promise of heavy ion fusion in about a decade.

  20. Design of 57.5 MHz CW RFQ for medium energy heavy ion superconducting linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kashinsky, D. A.; Minaev, S. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Tretyakova, T. E.; Yaramishev, S. G.; Physics; Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics

    2002-06-01

    The nuclear science community considers the construction of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility as a top priority. The RIA includes a 1.4 GV superconducting linac for production of 400 kW cw heavy ion beams. The initial acceleration of heavy ions delivered from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source can be effectively performed by a 57.5 MHz 4-m long room temperature RFQ. The principal specifications of the RFQ are (i) formation of extremely low longitudinal emittance, (ii) stable operation over a wide range of voltage for acceleration of various ion species needed for RIA operation, and (iii) simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states of uranium ions. cw operation of an accelerating structure leads to a number of requirements for the resonators such as high shunt impedance, efficient water cooling of all parts of the resonant cavity, mechanical stability together with precise alignment, reliable rf contacts, a stable operating mode, and fine tuning of the resonant frequency during operation. To satisfy these requirements a new resonant structure has been developed. This paper discusses the beam dynamics and electrodynamics design of the RFQ cavity, as well as some aspects of the mechanical design of the low-frequency cw RFQ.

  1. Linear accelerator radiosurgery in the management of brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W A; Foote, K D

    2000-02-01

    Radiosurgery is an increasingly popular method for treating a variety of intracranial tumours. A great deal of treatment data has been accumulated suggesting that radiosurgery may be the treatment of choice for small acoustic schwannomas. Moreover, radiosurgery promises excellent tumour control and minimal risk in the treatment of small meningiomas in risky surgical locations such as the cavernous sinus. Radiosurgery offers superior local control rates for many metastatic neoplasms and has promise as an adjuvant 'boost' technique in certain malignant gliomas. This article presents a brief description of the linear accelerator, LINAC, radiosurgical technique, followed by a review of the more common applications of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of intracranial neoplastic disease.

  2. The new control system of the Saclay Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Gournay, J.F.; Garreau, F.; Giraud, A.; Gourcy, G.; Rouault, J.

    1985-10-01

    A new control system for the Saclay Linear Accelerator is now being designed. The computer control architecture is based on 3 dedicated VME crates with MC68000 micro-processors : one crate with a disk-based operating system will run the high level application programs and the data base management facilities, another one will manage the man-machine communications and the third one will interface the system to the linac equipments. Communications between the VME microcomputers will be done through 16 bit parallel links. The software is modular and organized in specific layers, the data base is fully distributed. About 90% of the code is written in Fortran.

  3. Induction linear accelerators for commercial photon irradiation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.M.

    1989-01-13

    A number of proposed irradiation processes requires bulk rather than surface exposure with intense applications of ionizing radiation. Typical examples are irradiation of food packaged into pallet size containers, processing of sewer sludge for recycling as landfill and fertilizer, sterilization of prepackaged medical disposals, treatment of municipal water supplies for pathogen reduction, etc. Volumetric processing of dense, bulky products with ionizing radiation requires high energy photon sources because electrons are not penetrating enough to provide uniform bulk dose deposition in thick, dense samples. Induction Linear Accelerator (ILA) technology developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory promises to play a key role in providing solutions to this problem. This is discussed in this paper.

  4. Acceleration in the linear non-scaling fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerator EMMA

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, S.; Barlow, R.; Berg, J.S.; Bliss, N.; Buckley, R.K.; Clarke, J.A.; Craddock, M.K.; D'Arcy, R.; Edgecock, R.; Garland, J.M.; Giboudot, Y.; /Rutherford /Huddersfield U. /Brookhaven /Daresbury /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U., Vancouver, Dept. Phys. Astron. /University Coll. London /Manchester U. /Brunel U. /ASP, Melbourne

    2012-03-01

    In a fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerator, eliminating pulsed magnet operation permits rapid acceleration to synchrotron energies, but with a much higher beam-pulse repetition rate. Conceived in the 1950s, FFAGs are enjoying renewed interest, fuelled by the need to rapidly accelerate unstable muons for future high-energy physics colliders. Until now a 'scaling' principle has been applied to avoid beam blow-up and loss. Removing this restriction produces a new breed of FFAG, a non-scaling variant, allowing powerful advances in machine characteristics. We report on the first non-scaling FFAG, in which orbits are compacted to within 10?mm in radius over an electron momentum range of 12-18 MeV/c. In this strictly linear-gradient FFAG, unstable beam regions are crossed, but acceleration via a novel serpentine channel is so rapid that no significant beam disruption is observed. This result has significant implications for future particle accelerators, particularly muon and high-intensity proton accelerators.

  5. Dynamical Aspects of Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier

    1995-01-01

    Two independent studies on heavy-ion collisions are presented. In the first part, the charge and mass of the projectile-like fragments produced in the 15-MeV per nucleon ^{40}Ca+^{209 } Bi reaction were determined for products detected near the grazing angle. Neutron number-charge (N-Z) distributions were generated as a function of the total kinetic energy loss and parameterized by their centroids, variances and correlation coefficients. After the interaction, a drift of the charge and mass centroids towards asymmetry is observed. The production of projectile -like fragments is consistent with a tendency of the projectile -like fragments to retain the projectile neutron-to-proton ratio < N > / < Z > = 1. The correlation coefficient remains well below 1.0 for the entire range of total kinetic energy lost. Predictions of two nucleon exchange models, Randrup's and Tassan-Got's, are compared to the experimental results. The models are not able to reproduce the evolution of the experimental distributions, especially the fact that the variances reach a maximum and then decrease as function of the energy loss. This behavior supports the hypothesis that some form of projectile -like fragmentation or cluster emission is perturbing the product distribution from that expected from a damped mechanism. In the second part of the thesis a clustering model that allows the recognition of mass fragments from dynamical simulations has been developed. Studying the evolution of a microscopic computation based on the nuclear -Boltzman transport equation, a suitable time is chosen to identify the bound clusters. At this time the number of binding surfaces for each test nucleon is found. Based on the number of nucleon bindings the interior nucleons are identified, and the cluster kernels are formed. An iterative routine is then applied to determine the coalescence of the surrounding free nucleons. Once the fragment formation has been established, a statistical decay code is used to

  6. Retuning the DARHT Axis-II Linear Induction Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr.; Schulze, Martin E.; Carlson, Carl A.; Frayer, Daniel K.

    2015-03-31

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility uses bremsstrahlung radiation source spots produced by the focused electron beams from two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) to radiograph large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives. The Axis-II 1.7-kA, 1600-ns beam pulse is transported through the LIA by the magnetic field from 91 solenoids as it is accelerated to ~16.5 MeV. The magnetic field produced by the solenoids and 80 steering dipole pairs for a given set of magnet currents is known as the “tune” of the accelerator [1]. From June, 2013 through September, 2014 a single tune was used. This tune was based on measurements of LIA element positions made over several years [2], and models of solenoidal fields derived from actual field measurements [3] [4]. Based on the focus scan technique, changing the tune of the accelerator and downstream transport had no effect on the beam emittance, to within the uncertainties of the measurement. Beam sizes appear to have been overestimated in all prior measurements because of the low magnification of the imaging system. This has resulted in overestimates of emittance by ~50%. The high magnification imaging should be repeated with the old tune for direct comparison with the new tune. High magnification imaging with the new accelerator tune should be repeated after retuning the downstream to produce a much more symmetric beam to reduce the uncertainty of this measurement. Thus, these results should be considered preliminary until we can effect a new tune to produce symmetric spots at our imaging station, for high magnification images.

  7. THERMALIZATION OF HEAVY IONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Patrick J.; Kasper, Justin C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Shearer, Paul; Gilbert, Jason

    2015-10-20

    Observations of velocity distribution functions from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer heavy ion composition instrument are used to calculate ratios of kinetic temperature and Coulomb collisional interactions of an unprecedented 50 ion species in the solar wind. These ions cover a mass per charge range of 1–5.5 amu/e and were collected in the time range of 1998–2011. We report the first calculation of the Coulomb thermalization rate between each of the heavy ion (A > 4 amu) species present in the solar wind along with protons (H{sup +}) and alpha particles (He{sup 2+}). From these rates, we find that protons are the dominant source of Coulomb collisional thermalization for heavy ions in the solar wind and use this fact to calculate a collisional age for those heavy ion populations. The heavy ion thermal properties are well organized by this collisional age, but we find that the temperature of all heavy ions does not simply approach that of protons as Coulomb collisions become more important. We show that He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} follow a monotonic decay toward equal temperatures with protons with increasing collisional age, but O{sup 6+} shows a noted deviation from this monotonic decay. Furthermore, we show that the deviation from monotonic decay for O{sup 6+} occurs in solar wind of all origins, as determined by its Fe/O ratio. The observed differences in heavy ion temperature behavior point toward a local heating mechanism that favors ions depending on their charge and mass.

  8. HIGH-POWER FFAG-BASED HEAVY-ION AND PROTON DRIVERS

    SciTech Connect

    RUGGIERO,A.

    2007-10-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators are being proposed as an alternative to Super-conducting Linacs (SCL), Rapid-Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) and Cyclotrons for the acceleration of very intense Heavy-Ion and Proton beams in the medium energy range. One application is the acceleration of ions of Uranium-238 to an energy of 400 MeV/u, and the average power of 400 kWatt, and the other a 1-GeV Proton Driver with an average beam power of 10 MWatt. One or two FFAG rings are needed for acceleration of both beams. They adopt a Non-Scaling Lattice (NSL) to reduce the size and the cost of the accelerator. The continuous wave (CW) mode of operation is achieved with the method of Harmonic Number Jump (HNJ).

  9. The polarized electron source of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.; Alley, R.; Clendenin, J.; Frisch, J.; Mulhollan, G.; Saez, P.; Tang, H.; Witte, K.

    1994-08-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator has been running with polarized electrons both in the collider (SLC) mode and in the fixed target mode. The accelerators polarized electron source is based on a thin, strained GaAs photocathode, which is held at a negative high voltage and illuminated by a Titanium Sapphire laser. The reliability of the source was better than 95% during the eight-month-long 1993 SLC run. A beam polarization of 63% was measured by the SLD experiment at the SLC interaction point in the 1993 data run. The fixed-target experiment E143 measured a beam polarization of 85% in its 1993--94 run. These polarization measurements, made at high energy, are in good agreement with measurements made at low energy on a calibrated Mott polarimeter. The higher beam polarization in the fixed target experiment is due to a thinner, more highly strained GaAs photocathode than had been used earlier, and to the experiment`s low beam current requirements. The SLC is now running with the high polarization photocathode. Details of the source, and experience with the high polarization strained GaAs photocathodes on the accelerator in the current SLC run, will be presented.

  10. Modification of semiconductor or metal nanoparticle lattices in amorphous alumina by MeV heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanović Radović, I.; Buljan, M.; Karlušić, M.; Jerčinović, M.; Dražič, G.; Bernstorff, S.; Boettger, R.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work we investigate effects of MeV heavy ions (from 0.4 MeV Xe to 15 MeV Si) on regularly ordered nanoparticle (NP) lattices embedded in amorphous alumina matrix. These nanostructures were produced by self-assembling growth using magnetron-sputtering deposition. From grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering measurements we have found that the used MeV heavy ions do not change the NP sizes, shapes or distances among them. However, ions cause a tilt of the entire NP lattice in the direction parallel to the surface. The tilt angle depends on the incident ion energy, type and the applied fluence and a nearly linear increase of the tilt angle with the ion fluence and irradiation angle was found. This way, MeV heavy ion irradiation can be used to design custom-made NP lattices. In addition, grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering can be effectively used as a method for the determination of material redistribution/shift caused by the ion hammering effect. For the first time, the deformation yield in amorphous alumina was determined for irradiation performed at the room temperature.

  11. A model of the effects of heavy ion radiation on human tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev, A.L.; Guida, P.; Ponomarev, A.L.; Sundaresan, A.; Vazquez, M.E.; Guida, P.; Kim, A.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    2010-08-09

    In heavy ion radiotherapy and space travel humans are exposed to energetic heavy ions (C, Si, Fe and others). This type of irradiation often produces more severe biological effects per unit dose than more common X-rays. A new Monte Carlo model generates a physical space with the complex geometry of human tissue or a cell culture based model of tissue, which is affected by the passage of ionizing radiation. For irradiation, the model relies on a physical code for the ion track structure; for tissues, cellular maps are derived from two- or three-dimensional confocal microscopy images using image segmentation algorithm, which defines cells as pixilated volumes. The model is used to study tissue-specific statistics of direct ion hits and the remote ion action on cells. As an application of the technique, we considered the spatial pattern of apoptotic cells after heavy ion irradiation. The pattern of apoptosis is modeled as a stochastic process, which is defined by the action cross section taken from available experimental data. To characterize the degree of apoptosis, an autocorrelation function that describes the spatial correlation of apoptotic cells is introduced. The values of the autocorrelation function demonstrate the effect of the directionality of the radiation track on the spatial arrangements of inactivated cells in tissue. This effect is intrinsic only to high linear-energy-transfer radiation.

  12. Calculation of Heavy Ion Inactivation and Mutation Rates in Radial Dose Model of Track Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Shavers, Mark R.; Katz, Robert

    1997-01-01

    In the track structure model, the inactivation cross section is found by summing an inactivation probability over all impact parameters from the ion to the sensitive sites within the cell nucleus. The inactivation probability is evaluated by using the dose response of the system to gamma rays and the radial dose of the ions and may be equal to unity at small impact parameters. We apply the track structure model to recent data with heavy ion beams irradiating biological samples of E. Coli, B. Subtilis spores, and Chinese hamster (V79) cells. Heavy ions have observed cross sections for inactivation that approach and sometimes exceed the geometric size of the cell nucleus. We show how the effects of inactivation may be taken into account in the evaluation of the mutation cross sections in the track structure model through correlation of sites for gene mutation and cell inactivation. The model is fit to available data for HPRT (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) mutations in V79 cells, and good agreement is found. Calculations show the high probability for mutation by relativistic ions due to the radial extension of ions track from delta rays. The effects of inactivation on mutation rates make it very unlikely that a single parameter such as LET (linear energy transfer) can be used to specify radiation quality for heavy ion bombardment.

  13. Self-Consistent Conversion of a Viscous Fluid to Particles and Heavy-Ion Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Zack J.

    The most widely used theoretical framework to model the early stages of a heavy-ion collision is viscous hydrodynamics. Comparing hydrodynamic simulations to heavy-ion data inevitably requires the conversion of the fluid to particles. This conversion, typically done in the Cooper-Frye formalism, is ambiguous for viscous fluids. In this thesis work, self-consistent phase space corrections are calculated by solving the linearized Boltzmann equation. These species-dependent solutions are contrasted with those obtained using the ad-hoc ''democratic Grad'' ansatz typically employed in the literature in which coefficients are independent of particle dynamics. Solutions are calculated analytically for a massless gas and numerically for the general case of a hadron resonance gas. For example, it is found that for a gas of massless particles interacting via isotropic, energy-independent 2 → 2 scatterings, the shear viscous corrections variationally prefer a momentum dependence close to p3/2 rather than the quadratic dependence assumed in the Grad ansatz. The self-consistent phase space distributions are then used to calculate transverse momentum spectra and differential flow coefficients, v n(pT), to study the effects on heavy-ion identified particle observables. Using additive quark model cross sections, it is found that proton flow coefficients are higher than those for pions at moderately high pT in Pb + Pb collisions at LHC, especially for the coefficients v 4 and v6.

  14. A model of the effects of heavy ion radiation on human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Vazquez, Marcelo E.; Guida, Peter; Kim, Angela; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    In heavy ion radiotherapy and space travel humans are exposed to energetic heavy ions (C, Si, Fe and others). This type of irradiation often produces more severe biological effects per unit dose than more common X-rays. A new Monte Carlo model generates a physical space with the complex geometry of human tissue or a cell culture based model of tissue, which is affected by the passage of ionizing radiation. For irradiation, the model relies on a physical code for the ion track structure; for tissues, cellular maps are derived from two- or three-dimensional confocal microscopy images using image segmentation algorithm, which defines cells as pixilated volumes. The model is used to study tissue-specific statistics of direct ion hits and the remote ion action on cells. As an application of the technique, we considered the spatial pattern of apoptotic cells after heavy ion irradiation. The pattern of apoptosis is modeled as a stochastic process, which is defined by the action cross section taken from available experimental data. To characterize the degree of apoptosis, an autocorrelation function that describes the spatial correlation of apoptotic cells is introduced. The values of the autocorrelation function demonstrate the effect of the directionality of the radiation track on the spatial arrangements of inactivated cells in tissue. This effect is intrinsic only to high linear-energy-transfer radiation.

  15. Linear and angular head acceleration measurements in collegiate football.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Brolinson, Gunnar; Goforth, Mike; Dietter, Dave; Duma, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Each year, between 1.6x10(6) and 3.8x10(6) concussions are sustained by athletes playing sports, with football having the highest incidence. The high number of concussions in football provides a unique opportunity to collect biomechanical data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. Human head acceleration data for a range of impact severities were collected by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players with accelerometers. The helmets of ten Virginia Tech football players were instrumented with measurement devices for every game and practice for the 2007 football season. The measurement devices recorded linear and angular accelerations about each of the three axes of the head. Data for each impact were downloaded wirelessly to a sideline data collection system shortly after each impact occurred. Data were collected for 1712 impacts, creating a large and unbiased data set. While a majority of the impacts were of relatively low severity (<30 g and <2000 rad/s2), 172 impacts were greater than 40 g and 143 impacts were greater than 3000 rad/s2. No instrumented player sustained a clinically diagnosed concussion during the 2007 season. A large and unbiased data set was compiled by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players. Football provides a unique opportunity to collect head acceleration data of varying severity from human volunteers. The addition of concurrent concussive data may advance the understanding of the mechanics of mild traumatic brain injury. With an increased understanding of the biomechanics of head impacts in collegiate football and human tolerance to head acceleration, better equipment can be designed to prevent head injuries.

  16. Long-term differential changes in mouse intestinal metabolomics after γ and heavy ion radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Amrita K; Suman, Shubhankar; Kaur, Prabhjit; Singh, Rajbir; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Tissue consequences of radiation exposure are dependent on radiation quality and high linear energy transfer (high-LET) radiation, such as heavy ions in space is known to deposit higher energy in tissues and cause greater damage than low-LET γ radiation. While radiation exposure has been linked to intestinal pathologies, there are very few studies on long-term effects of radiation, fewer involved a therapeutically relevant γ radiation dose, and none explored persistent tissue metabolomic alterations after heavy ion space radiation exposure. Using a metabolomics approach, we report long-term metabolomic markers of radiation injury and perturbation of signaling pathways linked to metabolic alterations in mice after heavy ion or γ radiation exposure. Intestinal tissues (C57BL/6J, female, 6 to 8 wks) were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) two months after 2 Gy γ radiation and results were compared to an equitoxic ⁵⁶Fe (1.6 Gy) radiation dose. The biological relevance of the metabolites was determined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. Metabolic profile analysis showed radiation-type-dependent spatial separation of the groups. Decreased adenine and guanosine and increased inosine and uridine suggested perturbed nucleotide metabolism. While both the radiation types affected amino acid metabolism, the ⁵⁶Fe radiation preferentially altered dipeptide metabolism. Furthermore, ⁵⁶Fe radiation caused upregulation of 'prostanoid biosynthesis' and 'eicosanoid signaling', which are interlinked events related to cellular inflammation and have implications for nutrient absorption and inflammatory bowel disease during space missions and after radiotherapy. In conclusion, our data showed for the first time that metabolomics can not only be used to distinguish between heavy ion and γ radiation exposures, but also as a radiation

  17. Long-Term Differential Changes in Mouse Intestinal Metabolomics after γ and Heavy Ion Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Prabhjit; Singh, Rajbir; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Tissue consequences of radiation exposure are dependent on radiation quality and high linear energy transfer (high-LET) radiation, such as heavy ions in space is known to deposit higher energy in tissues and cause greater damage than low-LET γ radiation. While radiation exposure has been linked to intestinal pathologies, there are very few studies on long-term effects of radiation, fewer involved a therapeutically relevant γ radiation dose, and none explored persistent tissue metabolomic alterations after heavy ion space radiation exposure. Using a metabolomics approach, we report long-term metabolomic markers of radiation injury and perturbation of signaling pathways linked to metabolic alterations in mice after heavy ion or γ radiation exposure. Intestinal tissues (C57BL/6J, female, 6 to 8 wks) were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) two months after 2 Gy γ radiation and results were compared to an equitoxic 56Fe (1.6 Gy) radiation dose. The biological relevance of the metabolites was determined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. Metabolic profile analysis showed radiation-type-dependent spatial separation of the groups. Decreased adenine and guanosine and increased inosine and uridine suggested perturbed nucleotide metabolism. While both the radiation types affected amino acid metabolism, the 56Fe radiation preferentially altered dipeptide metabolism. Furthermore, 56Fe radiation caused upregulation of ‘prostanoid biosynthesis’ and ‘eicosanoid signaling’, which are interlinked events related to cellular inflammation and have implications for nutrient absorption and inflammatory bowel disease during space missions and after radiotherapy. In conclusion, our data showed for the first time that metabolomics can not only be used to distinguish between heavy ion and γ radiation exposures, but also as a radiation

  18. RF properties of periodic accelerating structures for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.W.

    1989-07-01

    With the advent of the SLAC electron-positron linear collider (SLC) in the 100 GeV center-of-mass energy range, research and development work on even higher energy machines of this type has started in several laboratories in the United States, Europe, the Soviet Union and Japan. These linear colliders appear to provide the only promising approach to studying e/sup /plus//e/sup /minus// physics at center-of-mass energies approaching 1 TeV. This thesis concerns itself with the study of radio frequency properties of periodic accelerating structures for linear colliders and their interaction with bunched beams. The topics that have been investigated are: experimental measurements of the energy loss of single bunches to longitudinal modes in two types of structures, using an equivalent signal on a coaxial wire to simulate the beam; a method of canceling the energy spread created within a single bunch by longitudinal wakefields, through appropriate shaping of the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch; derivation of the complete transient beam-loading equation for a train of bunches passing through a constant-gradient accelerator section, with application to the calculation and minimization of multi-bunch energy spread; detailed study of field emission and radio frequency breakdown in disk-loaded structures at S-, C- and X-band frequencies under extremely high-gradient conditions, with special attention to thermal effects, radiation, sparking, emission of gases, surface damage through explosive emission and its possible control through RF-gas processing. 53 refs., 49 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Geometrical methods in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taliotis, Anastasios

    Currently there exists no known way to construct the Stress-Energy tensor (Tmunu) of the medium produced in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling from purely theoretical grounds. In this work, some steps are taken in that direction. In particular, the evolution of Tmunu at strong coupling and at high energies is being studied for early proper times (tau). This is achieved in the context of the AdS/CFT duality by constructing the evolution of the dual geometry in an AdS5 background. We consider high energy collisions of two shock waves in AdS5 as a model of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in the boundary theory. We first calculate the graviton field produced in the collisions in the LO, NLO and NNLO approximations, corresponding to two, three and four-graviton exchanges with the shock waves. We use this model to study Tmunu and in particular the energy density of the strongly-coupled matter created immediately after the collision because as we argue, the expansion of the energy density (epsilon) in the powers of proper time tau squared corresponds on the gravity side to a perturbative expansion of the metric in graviton exchanges. We point out that shock waves corresponding to physical energy-momentum tensors of the nuclei is likely to completely stop after the collision; on the field theory side, this corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. This motivates a more detailed investigation. For this reason we consider the asymmetric limit where the energy density in one shock wave is much higher than in the other one. In the boundary theory this setup corresponds to proton-nucleus collisions. Employing the eikonal approximation we find the exact high energy analytic solution for the metric in AdS5 for the asymmetric collision of two delta-function shock waves. The solution resums all-order graviton exchanges with the nucleus-shock wave and a single-graviton exchange with the proton

  20. Event-shape fluctuations and flow correlations in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Jia, Jiangyong

    2014-12-01

    I review recent measurements of a large set of flow observables associated with event-shape fluctuations and collective expansion in heavy ion collisions. First, these flow observables are classified and experiment methods are introduced. The experimental results for each type of observables are then presented and compared to theoretical calculations. A coherent picture of initial condition and collective flow based on linear and non-linear hydrodynamic responses is derived, which qualitatively describe most experimental results. I discuss new types of fluctuation measurements that can further our understanding of the event-shape fluctuations and collective expansion dynamics.