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Sample records for heavy-ion nuclear physics

  1. Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, W. J.

    1995-05-31

    This report describes an on-going research initiative for the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR): investigating the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, i.e. collisions between massive nuclei which have been accelerated to kinetic energies so large that the rest mass of the ions is a negligible fraction of their total mass-energy. This progress report is being submitted in conjunction with a 3-year grant-renewal proposal, containing additional materials. Three main categories drive the UALRGultra-relativistic heavy ion research. (1) investigations of multi-particle Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlations in the CERN and RHIC energy domains strongly influence the URHI experimental effort, (2) participation in the NA49 Experiment to study 33 TeV (160 GeV/nucleon) Pb on Pb collisions using the SPS facili& at CERN, and (3) participation in the STAR collaboration which is developing a major detector for use with the STAR Experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), being built at BNL.

  2. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  3. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Gerald W.; Markert, Christina

    2016-09-01

    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or "decay" into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  4. Relativistic heavy ions physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.

    1989-01-01

    Central nuclear collisions at energies far above 1 GeV/nucleon may provide for conditions, where the transition from highly excited hadronic matter into quark matter or quark-gluon plasma can be probed. We review current ideas about the nature of, and signals for, this transition, and we discuss the (hadronic) string model approach to the nuclear collisions dynamics. At even higher energies in the TeV/nucleon range peripheral nuclear collisions may become a laboratory for electroweak physics at the unification scale allowing, e.g., for Higgs boson production. 42 refs., 29 figs.,

  5. Strange Particles and Heavy Ion Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bassalleck, Bernd; Fields, Douglas

    2016-04-28

    This very long-running grant has supported many experiments in nuclear and particle physics by a group from the University of New Mexico. The gamut of these experiments runs from many aspects of Strangeness Nuclear Physics, to rare Kaon decays, to searches for exotic Hadrons such as Pentaquark or H-Dibaryon, and finally to Spin Physics within the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC. These experiments were performed at a number of laboratories worldwide: first and foremost at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), but also at CERN, KEK, and most recently at J-PARC. In this Final Technical Report we summarize progress and achievements for this award since our last Progress Report, i.e. for the period of fall 2013 until the award’s termination on November 30, 2015. The report consists of two parts, representing our two most recent experimental efforts, participation in the Nucleon Spin Physics program of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL – Task 1, led by Douglas Fields; and participation in several Strangeness Nuclear Physics experiments at J-PARC, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Center in Tokai-mura, Japan – Task 2, led by Bernd Bassalleck.

  6. Atomic physics experiments with stored cooled heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    The wide ranging interest in the development of heavy ion synchrotrons with electron beam cooling is evident from the number of projects presently under way. Although much of the initial motivation for these rings stemmed from nuclear and particle physics, a considerable amount of atomic physics experimentation is planned. This paper surveys some of the new opportunities in atomic physics which may be made available with storage ring systems. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Nuclei at HERA and heavy ion physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.; Strikman, M.

    1995-12-31

    Copies of 16 viewgraph sets from a workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, 17-18 November, 1995. Titles of talks: HERA: The Present; HERA: Potential with Nuclei; Review of Hadron-Lepton Nucleus Data; Fermilab E665: results in muon scattering; Interactions of Quarks and Gluons with Nuclear Matter; Rescattering in Nuclear Targets for Photoproduction and DIS; Structure Functions and Nuclear Effect at PHENIX; Probing Spin-Averaged and Spin-Dependent Parton Distributions Using the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR); Jet Quenching in eA, pA, AA; Nuclear Gluon Shadowing via Continuum Lepton Pairs; What can we learn from HERA with a colliding heavy ion beam? The limiting curve of leading particles at infinite A; Coherent Production of Vector Mesons off Light Nuclei in DIS; A Model of High Parton Densities in PQCD; Gluon Production for Weizaecker-Williams Field in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions; Summary Talk.

  8. The Mesozoic Era of relativistic heavy ion physics and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    In order to understand how matter 15 billion years ago in the form of quarks, gluons and leptons at a temperature of 2 {times} 10{sup 12} {degrees}K evolved to become today`s Universe, the goal of relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics is to understand the equation of state of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. This quest is of cross-disciplinary interest. The phase transition from partonic matter to hadronic matter tens of micro-seconds after the beginning of the universe is of interest to cosmology. Fluctuations during this phase transition would influence nucleosynthesis and the understanding of baryonic inhomogeneities in the universe. The nuclear matter equation of state, which describes the incompressibility of nuclear matter, governs neutron star stability. It determines the possible existence of strange quark matter stars and the dynamics of supernova expansion in astrophysics. The existence of collective nuclear phenomena in nuclear physics is also determined by the nuclear equation of state. In relativistic heavy ion collisions collective nuclear flow has been observed and is being studied extensively to obtain a better understanding of the incompressibility of nuclear matter. In high energy nuclear and particle physics, production and excitations of hadronic final states have been studied in detail and are important to an overall understanding of the equation of state of nuclear matter at finite temperature. The possibility in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions to create and study highly excited hadronic and partonic degrees of freedom provides a unique opportunity for understanding the behavior of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. Study of the QCD vacuum, of particular interest in particle physics, would provide a better understanding of symmetry-breaking mechanisms and the origins of the masses of the various quarks and particles.

  9. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsässer, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  10. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsaesser, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-15

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  11. Recent Progress in Isospin Physics with Heavy-Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming; Li Baoan

    2008-11-11

    We review recent progress in the determination of the subsaturation density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy from heavy-ion collisions as well as the theoretical progress in probing the high density behavior of the symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by future high energy radioactive beams. Implications of these results for the nuclear effective interactions are also discussed.

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    include carcinogenesis, late degenerative tissue effects (including damage to the central nervous system), and hereditary effects. For these studies, microbeams represent an essential tool, considering that in space each cell in the human body will not experience more than one heavy-ion traversal. Both NASA and ESA are investing important resources in ground-based space radiation research programs, to reduce risk uncertainty and to develop countermeasures. For both cancer therapy and space radiation protection a better understanding of the effects of energetic heavy ions is needed. Physics should be improved, especially the measurements of nuclear fragmentation cross-sections, and the transport calculations. Biological effects need to be studied in greater detail, and clearly only understanding the mechanisms of heavy-ion induced biological damage will reduce the uncertainty on late effects in humans. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics aims to provide the state-of-the-art of the biophysics of energetic heavy ions and to highlight the areas where more research is urgently needed for therapy and the space program. Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics Contents Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications K O Voss, C Fournier and G Taucher-Scholz Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight L Narici Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy Hirohiko Tsujii, Tadashi Kamada, Masayuki Baba, Hiroshi Tsuji, Hirotoshi Kato, Shingo Kato, Shigeru Yamada, Shigeo Yasuda, Takeshi Yanagi, Hiroyuki Kato, Ryusuke Hara, Naotaka Yamamoto and Junetsu Mizoe Heavy-ion effects: from track structure to DNA and chromosome damage F Ballarini, D Alloni, A Facoetti and A Ottolenghi Shielding experiments with high-energy heavy ions for spaceflight applications C Zeitlin, S Guetersloh, L Heilbronn, J Miller, N Elkhayari, A Empl, M LeBourgeois, B W Mayes, L Pinsky

  13. Glenn T. Seaborg and heavy ion nuclear science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveland, W.

    1992-04-01

    Radiochemistry has played a limited but important role in the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions. Many of the important radiochemical studies have taken place in Seaborg's laboratory or in the laboratories of others who have spent time in Berkeley working with Glenn T. Seaborg. Studies of low energy deep inelastic reactions are discussed, and special emphasis is placed on charge equilibration. Additionally, studies of the properties of heavy residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions and studies of target fragmentation in relativistic and ultrarelativistic reactions are reported. The emphasis will be on the unique information afforded by radiochemistry and the physical insight derived from radiochemical studies. Future roles of radiochemistry in heavy ion nuclear science also will be discussed.

  14. Glenn T. Seaborg and heavy ion nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, W. |

    1992-04-01

    Radiochemistry has played a limited but important role in the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions. Many of the important radiochemical studies have taken place in Seaborg`s laboratory or in the laboratories of others who have spent time in Berkeley working with Glenn T. Seaborg. I will discuss studies of low energy deep inelastic reactions with special emphasis on charge equilibration, studies of the properties of heavy residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions and studies of target fragmentation in relativistic and ultrarelativistic reactions. The emphasis will be on the unique information afforded by radiochemistry and the physical insight derived from radiochemical studies. Future roles of radiochemistry in heavy ion nuclear science also will be discussed.

  15. Glenn T. Seaborg and heavy ion nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, W. . Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1992-04-01

    Radiochemistry has played a limited but important role in the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions. Many of the important radiochemical studies have taken place in Seaborg's laboratory or in the laboratories of others who have spent time in Berkeley working with Glenn T. Seaborg. I will discuss studies of low energy deep inelastic reactions with special emphasis on charge equilibration, studies of the properties of heavy residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions and studies of target fragmentation in relativistic and ultrarelativistic reactions. The emphasis will be on the unique information afforded by radiochemistry and the physical insight derived from radiochemical studies. Future roles of radiochemistry in heavy ion nuclear science also will be discussed.

  16. Nuclear interactions in high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State Univ. , Baton Rouge

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1993-01-11

    The overall objective is to study the mechanisms and the energy dependence of heavy ion fragmentation by studying the reactions of heavy ion projectiles (e.g. [sup 4]He, [sup 16]O, [sup 20]Ne, [sup 28]Si, [sup 56]Fe) in a variety of targets (H, He, C, Si, Cu, Pb) and at a number of beam energies exceeding 0.1 GeV/nucleon. The results have application to questions in high-energy nuclear astrophysics. Most of the discussion is on low-energy [sup 16]O,[sup 28]Si data analysis. The description includes analysis procedures and techniques, detector calibrations, data selections and normalizations. Cross section results for the analysis are also presented. 83 figs., 6 tabs., 73 refs.

  17. Feasibility study of heavy ion physics program at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batyuk, P. N.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Rogachevsky, O. V.; Sorin, A. S.; Voronyuk, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    There are strong experimental and theoretical evidences that in collisions of heavy ions at relativistic energies nuclear matter undergoes a phase transition to the deconfined state—Quark Gluon Plasma. The caused energy region of such transition was not found at high energy at SPS and RHIC and search for this energy is shifted to lower energies, which will be covered by the future NICA (Dubna), FAIR (Darmstadt) facilities and BES II at RHIC. Fixed target and collider experiments at the NICA facility will work at the energy range from a few AGeV up to √ {{S_{NN}}} = 11GeV GeV and will study the most interesting area on the nuclear matter phase diagram. The most remarkable results were observed in the study of collective phenomena occurring in the early stage of nuclear collisions. Investigation of the collective flow will provide information on Equation of State (EoS) for nuclear matter. Study of the Event-by-Event fluctuations and correlations can give us signals of critical behavior of the system. Femtoscopy analysis provides the space-time history of the collisions. Also, it was found that baryon stopping power revealing itself as a "wiggle" in excitation function of curvature of the (net)proton rapidity spectrum relates to the order of the phase transition. The available observations of an enhancement of dilepton rates at low invariant masses may serve as a signal of the chiral symmetry restoration in hot and dense matter. Due to this fact, measurements of the dilepton spectra are considered to be an important part of the NICA physics program. The study of strange particles and hypernuclei production gives additional information on the EoS and "strange" axis of the QCD phase diagram. In this paper a feasibility of the considered investigations is shown by the detailed Monte Carlo simulations applied to the planned experiments (BM@N, MPD) at NICA.

  18. Inclusive inelastic scattering of heavy ions and nuclear correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Khandelwal, Govind S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculations of inclusive inelastic scattering distributions for heavy ion collisions are considered within the high energy optical model. Using ground state sum rules, the inclusive projectile and complete projectile-target inelastic angular distributions are treated in both independent particle and correlated nuclear models. Comparisons between the models introduced are made for alpha particles colliding with He-4, C-12, and O-16 targets and protons colliding with O-16. Results indicate that correlations contribute significantly, at small momentum transfers, to the inelastic sum. Correlation effects are hidden, however, when total scattering distributions are considered because of the dominance of elastic scattering at small momentum transfers.

  19. Physics at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-08-01

    This introductory talk contains a brief discussion of future experiments at RHIC related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we consider the relation between space-time picture of the collision and spectra of the observed secondaries. We discuss where one should look for QGP signals and for possible manifestation of the phase transition. We pay more attention to a rather new topic: hadron modification in the gas phase, which is interesting by itself as a collective phenomenon, and also as a precursor indicating what happens with hadrons near the phase transition. We briefly review current understanding of the photon physics, dilepton production, charm and strangeness and J/{psi} suppression. At the end we try to classify all possible experiments. 47 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Quantum mechanical theory of positron production in heavy ion collisions with nuclear contact

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    The interplay between atomic and nuclear interactions in heavy ion collisions with nuclear contact is studied. The general theoretical description is outlined and analyzed in a number of different limits (semiclassical approximation, DWBA, fully quantal description). The two most important physical mechanisms for generating atomic-nuclear interference, i.e., energy conservation and the introduction of additional phase shifts by nuclear reactions, are extracted. The resulting typical coupling matrix elements are analyzed for their relative importance in atomic and nuclear excitations. The description of nuclear influence on atomic excitations in terms of a classical time delay caused by nuclear reactions is reviewed, and its relationship to the underlying quantal character of the nuclear reaction is discussed. The theory is applied to spontaneous positron emission in supercritical heavy-ion collisions (Z/sub tot/ greater than or equal to 173). It is shown that nuclear contact can lead to line structures in the positron energy spectra if the probability distribution for nuclear delay times caused by the contact has contributions for T greater than or equal to 10/sup -19/ sec. We explicitly evaluate a model where a pocket in the internuclear potential near the touching configuration leads to formation of nuclear molecules, and predict a resonance-like excitation function for the positron peak. 25 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Heavy-ion physics studies for the Future Circular Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armesto, N.; Dainese, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Masciocchi, S.; Roland, C.; Salgado, C. A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Wiedemann, U. A.

    2014-11-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode including proton and nucleus beams, more than seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. An electron-positron collider in the same tunnel is also considered as an intermediate step, which in the long term would allow for electron-hadron collisions. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of quark-gluon plasma, gluon saturation, photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with the physics of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  2. Two-photon physics and the coming generation of heavy ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades-Brown, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities for two-photon physics at the coming generation of heavy ion colliders is discussed. Particular attention is given to both e{sup +}, e{sup {minus}} production and resonance production of the Higgs particle. For e{sup +},e{sup {minus}} production the inadequacy of traditional perturbation theory is outlined, and through of the introduction of approximations valid for heavy ions it is shown how to sum a class of non-perturbative diagrams. The role of the nuclear form factor in suppressing the cross section for the heaviest resonances is also discussed. It is shown how this latter point affects the two-photon cross sections for W{sup +},W{sup {minus}} and Higgs production at RHIC, LHC and SSC energies.

  3. Two-photon physics and the coming generation of heavy ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades-Brown, M.J.

    1992-07-01

    The possibilities for two-photon physics at the coming generation of heavy ion colliders is discussed. Particular attention is given to both e{sup +}, e{sup {minus}} production and resonance production of the Higgs particle. For e{sup +},e{sup {minus}} production the inadequacy of traditional perturbation theory is outlined, and through of the introduction of approximations valid for heavy ions it is shown how to sum a class of non-perturbative diagrams. The role of the nuclear form factor in suppressing the cross section for the heaviest resonances is also discussed. It is shown how this latter point affects the two-photon cross sections for W{sup +},W{sup {minus}} and Higgs production at RHIC, LHC and SSC energies.

  4. Heavy-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2000-11-01

    Heavy-ion radiotherapy using high-energy carbon beams has been performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. The physical frame works for heavy-ion radiotherapy are established using physical understandings of radiation physics. In order to increase the accuracy of heavy-ion radiotherapy, many physical problems should be solved. Unsolved problems, such as the depth dose distributions, range of heavy-ion in patients and heavy-ion dosimetry in the radiation therapy, are discussed. .

  5. Probing the nuclear structure with heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Broglia, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclei display distortions in both ordinary space and in gauge space. It is suggested that it is possible to learn about the spatial distribution of the Nilsson orbitals and about the change of the pairing gap with the rotational frequency through the analysis of one- and two-nucleon transfer reactions induced in heavy-ion collisions.

  6. Relativistic heavy ion physics. Progress report, November 15, 1992--November 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1993-11-01

    This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ``Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ``Physics Research Progress``, is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the {sup 197}Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given.

  7. Summary of the heavy ion physics sessions at Lake Louise

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    The intersections between particle and nuclear physics are discussed. Two subcategories of research are discussed. The first is the study of different phases of nuclear matter. This typically refers to understanding the nuclear equation of state from low baryon densities and temperatures (where a liquid-gas phase transition should occur) to the high densities and temperatures where the onset of deconfinement of quarks in nuclear matter is predicted. Beyond this is the second region, that of the study of quark matter.

  8. Connecting QGP-Heavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2013-10-01

    We discuss properties and evolution of quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments.

  9. Nuclear fragmentation of high-energy heavy-ion beams in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, D.; Schall, I.; Geissel, H.; Irnich, H.; Kraft, G.; Magel, A.; Mohar, M. F.; Münzenberg, G.; Nickel, F.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schwab, W.; Sihver, L.

    As a part of the physical-technical program of the heavy-ion therapy project at GSI we have investigated the nuclear fragmentation of high-energy ion beams delivered by the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS, using water as a tissue-equivalent target. For a direct comparison of fragmentation properties, beams of ^10B, ^12C, ^14N, and ^16O were produced simultaneously as secondary beams from a primary ^18O beam and separated in flight by magnetic beam analysis. The Z-distributions of beam fragments produced in the water target were measured via energy loss in a large ionisation chamber and a scintillator telescope. From these data we obtained both total and partial charge-changing cross sections. In addition we have performed Bragg measurements using two parallel-plate ionization chambers and a water target of variable length. The detailed shape of the measured Bragg curves and the measured cross sections are in good agreement with model calculations based on semi-empirical formulae.

  10. Probing nuclear symmetry energy at high densities using pion, kaon, eta and photon productions in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhi-Gang; Yong, Gao-Chan; Chen, Lie-Wen; Li, Bao-An; Zhang, Ming; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Xu, Nu

    2014-02-01

    The high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy is among the most uncertain properties of dense neutron-rich matter. Its accurate determination has significant ramifications in understanding not only the reaction dynamics of heavy-ion reactions, especially those induced by radioactive beams, but also many interesting phenomena in astrophysics, such as the explosion mechanism of supernova and the properties of neutron stars. The heavy-ion physics community has devoted much effort during the last few years to constrain the high-density symmetry using various probes. In particular, the / ratio has been most extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. All models have consistently predicted qualitatively that the / ratio is a sensitive probe of the high-density symmetry energy especially with beam energies near the pion production threshold. However, the predicted values of the / ratio are still quite model dependent mostly because of the complexity of modeling pion production and reabsorption dynamics in heavy-ion collisions, leading to currently still controversial conclusions regarding the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy from comparing various model calculations with available experimental data. As more / data become available and a deeper understanding about the pion dynamics in heavy-ion reactions is obtained, more penetrating probes, such as the K +/ K 0 ratio, meson and high-energy photons are also being investigated or planned at several facilities. Here, we review some of our recent contributions to the community effort of constraining the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, the status of some worldwide experiments for studying the high-density symmetry energy, including the HIRFL-CSR external target experiment (CEE) are briefly introduced.

  11. The Bucharest heavy ion accelerator facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceauşescu, V.; Dobrescu, S.; Duma, M.; Indreas, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Păpureanu, S.; Pascovici, G.; Semenescu, G.

    1986-02-01

    The heavy ion accelerator facility of the Heavy Ion Physics Department at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest is described. The Tandem accelerator development and the operation of the first stage of the heavy ion postaccelerating system are discussed. Details are given concerning the resonance cavities, the pulsing system matching the dc beam to the RF cavities and the computer control system.

  12. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS : RESULTS FROM AGS TO RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.

    2002-06-20

    High-energy collisions of heavy ions provide a means to study QCD in a regime of high parton density, and may provide insight into its phme structure. Results from the four experiments at RHIC (BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR) are presented, and placed in context with the lower energy data from the AGS and SPS accelerators. The focus is on the insights these measurements provide into the time history of the collision process. Taken together, the data point to the creation of a deconfined state of matter that forms quickly, expands rapidly and freezes out suddenly. With the new RHIC data, systematic data now exists for heavy ion collisions as a function of {radical}s over several orders of magnitude and as a function of impact parameter. These data test the interplay between hard and soft processes in a large-volume system where nucleons are struck multiple times. The data is consistent with creating a deconfined state (jet quenching) that forms quickly (saturation models), expands rapidly (radial and elliptic flow) and freezes out suddenly (single freezeout and blast wave fits). There are also intriguing connections with particle production in elementary systems, which point to the role of the energy available for particle production on the features of the final state. Many in this field are optimistic that the careful understanding of this experimental data may lead t o the theoretical breakthroughs that will connect these complex systems to the fundamental lattice predict ions.

  13. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  14. Nuclear Molecular Resonances in Heavy-Ion Collisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erb, Karl A.; Bromley, D. Allan

    1979-01-01

    Explains that some nuclear scattering phenomena can be attributed to states in which two nuclei are bound to each other at their surfaces, revolving and vibrating for a time before coalescing or disintegrating. (Author/GA)

  15. Physics with relativistic heavy ions: QGP and other delicacies

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    Conditions favorable to formation and observation of a deconfined state of quarks and gluons (often called the quark-gluon plasma) are thought to exist following the collision of very heavy nuclei at center-of-mass energies exceeding several tens of GeV/nucleon. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider under construction at BNL since 1991 is designed to provide such collisions at energies up to {radical}s/A = 200 GeV. Two large dedicated experiments are being built to operate there; these two experiments take rather different approaches to the problem of classifying such collisions and probing for signals of QGP formation. Two smaller experiments are proposed to focus on specific aspects of these collisions. Recent developments in the understanding of the initial state formed in such collisions include, particularly, the possible rapid equilibration of the gluon density, leading in an equilibrium picture to such high temperatures that sizable thermal excitation of charm becomes probable. Recent theoretical conjectures have focussed on the possible formation of a disordered chiral condensate following chiral symmetry restoration in heavy-nucleus collisions, which might be a consequence of nonequilibrium deexcitation of a dense partonic state.

  16. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  17. Heavy-ion physics at the LHC: Review of Run I results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Renu; Bautista, Irais; Bielčíková, Jana; Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we review what we consider are some of the most relevant results of heavy-ion physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This paper is not intended to cover all the many important results of the experiments, instead we present a brief overview of the current status on the characterization of the hot and dense Quantum-Chromo Dynamics (QCD) medium produced in the heavy-ion collisions. Recent exciting results which are still under debate are discussed too, leading to intriguing questions like whether we have a real or fake Quark-Gulon Plasma (QGP) formation in small systems.

  18. Future directions in intermediate energy heavy ion physics. A proposed expansion of the Holifield Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    A proposal is presented for a major accelerator addition to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. The expanded facility will provide ion beams of mass 1 to 238 amu with a combination of energy, intensity, momentum resolution, and beam quality not currently available at any other facility in North America. The physics motivation for such an addition is discussed, and involves physics dominated by meson-exchange forces, Coulomb-force dominated physics, and possibly a regime where the quark and gluon degrees of freedom are significant. The physics research would include topics in atomic and interdisciplinary areas as well as nuclear physics. Some remarks are made on the merits of Oak Ridge as a site for this facility, placing the proposal in some historical perspective. The accelerator system is then described, giving the required beam properties, and the parameters of the synchrotron ring components, injection, ring magnets, RF systems, vacuum system, and electron cooling system and stochastic cooling system requirements. Also described are such facilities as buildings, beam transport and shielding, and experimental facilities, including target areas. (LEW)

  19. Nuclear suppression at low energy in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e; Mohanty, Payal; Sinha, Bikash

    2010-04-15

    The effects of nonzero baryonic chemical potential on the drag and diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks propagating through a baryon-rich quark-gluon plasma have been studied. The nuclear suppression factor R{sub AA} for nonphotonic single-electron spectra resulting from the semileptonic decays of hadrons containing heavy flavors has been evaluated for low-energy collisions. The effect of nonzero baryonic chemical potential on R{sub AA} is highlighted.

  20. Toward a deeper understanding of how experiments constrain the underlying physics of heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangaline, Evan; Pratt, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Recent work has provided the means to rigorously determine properties of superhadronic matter from experimental data through the application of broad scale modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions within a Bayesian framework. These studies have provided unprecedented statistical inferences about the physics underlying nuclear collisions by virtue of simultaneously considering a wide range of model parameters and experimental observables. Notably, this approach has been used to constrain both the QCD equation of state and the shear viscosity above the quark-hadron transition. Although the inferences themselves have a clear meaning, the complex nature of the relationships between model parameters and observables has remained relatively obscure. We present here a novel extension of the standard Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo approach that allows for the quantitative determination of how inferences of model parameters are driven by experimental measurements and their uncertainties. This technique is then applied in the context of heavy-ion collisions in order to explore previous results in greater depth. The resulting relationships are useful for identifying model weaknesses, prioritizing future experimental measurements, and, most importantly, developing an intuition for the roles that different observables play in constraining our understanding of the underlying physics.

  1. Optimizing the rapidity limit for nuclear stopping in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak, Karan Singh; Kumar, Suneel

    2013-03-15

    A systematic study regarding the role of participant matter and spectator matter in nuclear stopping using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model is presented. The simulations have been carried out with soft equation of state along with the reduced isospin-dependent cross section to study the effect of different types and sizes of rapidity distributions on nuclear stopping for the whole colliding geometry with density-dependent symmetry energy. In addition to that, we attempt to investigate the role of isospin in heavy-ion collisions by calculating the individual contribution of neutrons and protons in nuclear stopping for different systems having different isotopic content.

  2. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  3. Irradiation of nuclear track emulsions with thermal neutrons, heavy ions, and muons

    SciTech Connect

    Artemenkov, D. A. Bradnova, V.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Rusakova, V. V.

    2015-07-15

    Exposures of test samples of nuclear track emulsion were analyzed. Angular and energy correlations of products originating from the thermal-neutron-induced reaction n{sub th} +{sup 10} B → {sup 7} Li + (γ)+ α were studied in nuclear track emulsions enriched in boron. Nuclear track emulsions were also irradiated with {sup 86}Kr{sup +17} and {sup 124}Xe{sup +26} ions of energy about 1.2 MeV per nucleon. Measurements of ranges of heavy ions in nuclear track emulsionsmade it possible to determine their energies on the basis of the SRIM model. The formation of high-multiplicity nuclear stars was observed upon irradiating nuclear track emulsions with ultrarelativistic muons. Kinematical features studied in this exposure of nuclear track emulsions for events of the muon-induced splitting of carbon nuclei to three alpha particles are indicative of the nucleardiffraction interaction mechanism.

  4. Heavy ion physics at the Brookhaven alternating gradient synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, T. C.

    1995-01-01

    The collision of large nuclei at relativistic energies is the only known mechanism for creating and studying the properties (equation-of-state, EOS) of extremely dense nuclear matter. At sufficiently high matter densities, one of the most exciting possibilities is the formation of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). However, it is an extremely difficult task to determine the ultimate density achieved during these collisions due to the fleeting nature of the high density state (the lifetime of these states is typically a few times 10-24 ns). We must rely on detailed comparisons between experimental measurements and complex Monte Carlo simulations of the colliding nuclei in order to extract meaningful estimates of the nuclear matter EOS. Our approach has been to study the behavior of the spectator matter (those protons and neutrons which do not directly interact during the collision) to determine the dynamics of the high density state which must necessarily influence the spectator matter as it decays. This report summarizes some of the key results of our study.

  5. Heavy-ion physics prospects with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, N.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2008-10-01

    The next great energy frontier in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is quickly approaching with the completion of the large hadron collider and the ATLAS experiment is poised to make important contributions in understanding QCD matter in extreme conditions. While designed for high-pT measurements in high-energy p+p collisions, the detector is well suited to study many aspects of heavy-ion collisions from bulk phenomena to high-pT and heavy-flavor physics. With its large and finely segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters, the ATLAS detector excels in measurements of photons and jets, observables of great interest at the LHC. In this paper, we highlight the performance of the ATLAS detector for Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC with special emphasis on a key feature of the ATLAS physics program: jet and direct photon measurements.

  6. Heavy ion physics at LHC with the Compact Muon Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Bedjidian, M.; Contardo, D.; Haroutunian, R.

    1995-07-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), is one of the two detectors proposed to achieve the primary goal of the LHC: the discovery of the Higgs boson(s). For this purpose, the detector is optimized for the precise measurement of muons, photons, electrons and jets. It is a clear motivation to investigate its ability to measure the hard processes probing the formation of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) in ion collisions. It is the case of the heavy quark bound states, long predicted to be suppressed in a QGP. In CMS they can be detected, via their muonic decay according to the principle adopted for the p-p physics.

  7. Interplay between compound and fragments aspects of nuclear fission and heavy-ion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Peter; Iwamoto, A; Ichikawa, I

    2010-09-10

    The scission point in nuclear fission plays a special role where one-body system changes to two-body system. Inverse of this situation is realized in heavy-ion fusion reaction where two-body system changes to one body system. Among several peculiar phenomena expected to occur during this change, we focus our attention to the behavior of compound and fragments shell effects. Some aspects of the interplay between compound and fragments shell effect are discussed related to the topics of the fission valleys in the potential energy surface of actinide nuclei and the fusion-like trajectory found in the cold fusion reaction leading to superheavy nuclei.

  8. Physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Ning-bo; Cao, ShanShan; Chen, Bao-yi; ...

    2016-01-15

    We expect heavy-ion collisions at very high colliding energies to produce a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest temperature obtainable in a laboratory setting. Experimental studies of these reactions can provide an unprecedented range of information on properties of the QGP at high temperatures. We also report theoretical investigations of the physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at a future high-energy collider. These include initial parton production, collective expansion of the dense medium, jet quenching, heavy-quark transport, dissociation and regeneration of quarkonia, photon and dilepton production. Here, we illustrate the potential of future experimental studies of the initial particle production andmore » formation of QGP at the highest temperature to provide constraints on properties of strongly interaction matter.« less

  9. Physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ning-bo; Cao, ShanShan; Chen, Bao-yi; Chen, Shi-yong; Chen, Zhen-yu; Ding, Heng-Tong; He, Min; Liu, Zhi-quan; Pang, Long-gang; Qin, Guang-you; Rapp, Ralf; Schenke, Björn; Shen, Chun; Song, HuiChao; Xu, Hao-jie; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhang, Ben-wei; Zhang, Han-zhong; Zhu, XiangRong; Zhuang, Peng-fei

    2016-01-15

    We expect heavy-ion collisions at very high colliding energies to produce a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest temperature obtainable in a laboratory setting. Experimental studies of these reactions can provide an unprecedented range of information on properties of the QGP at high temperatures. We also report theoretical investigations of the physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at a future high-energy collider. These include initial parton production, collective expansion of the dense medium, jet quenching, heavy-quark transport, dissociation and regeneration of quarkonia, photon and dilepton production. Here, we illustrate the potential of future experimental studies of the initial particle production and formation of QGP at the highest temperature to provide constraints on properties of strongly interaction matter.

  10. Nuclear stopping in heavy-ion collisions at 100 MeV/nucleon from inclusive and exclusive neutral pion measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A.C.; Russo, G.; Turrisi, R. ||

    1996-04-01

    Inclusive and exclusive measurements of neutral pions in heavy-ion collisions around 100 MeV/nucleon, carried out in a near 4{pi} geometry, have been analyzed to obtain information on the nuclear stopping of the projectile. Stopping of the projectile has been investigated by the analysis of the source velocity, of the distribution of the energetic products of the collisions, and of the associated rapidity distribution of the baryon matter. Collisions were classified according to their centrality by the charged particle multiplicity. Clear evidence for this phenomenon has been obtained by the study of different observables. Both stopping and reabsorption effects play an essential role in the interpretation of the results. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Probing the nuclear symmetry energy with heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, M.; Baran, V.; Colonna, M.; Greco, V.

    2010-08-01

    Heavy ion collisions (HICs) represent a unique tool to probe the in-medium nuclear interaction in regions away from saturation. In this review we present a selection of new reaction observables in dissipative collisions particularly sensitive to the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state (Iso-EoS). We will first discuss the isospin equilibration dynamics. At low energies this manifests via the recently observed dynamical dipole radiation, due to a collective neutron-proton oscillation with the symmetry term acting as a restoring force. At higher beam energies Iso-EoS effects will be seen in an isospin diffusion mechanism, via imbalance ratio measurements, in particular from correlations to the total kinetic energy loss. For fragmentation reactions in central events we suggest to look at the coupling between isospin distillation and radial flow. In neck fragmentation reactions important Iso-EoS information can be obtained from the fragment isospin content, velocity and alignment correlations. The high-density symmetry term can be probed from isospin effects on heavy-ion reactions at relativistic energies (few A GeV range), in particular for high transverse momentum selections of the reaction products. Rather isospin sensitive observables are proposed from nucleon/cluster emissions, collective flows and meson production. The possibility of shedding light on the controversial neutron/proton effective mass splitting in asymmetric matter is also suggested. A large symmetry repulsion at high baryon density will also lead to an 'earlier' hadron-deconfinement transition in n-rich matter. The binodal transition line of the (T, ρB) diagram is lowered to a region accessible through heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the new planned facilities, e.g. the FAIR/NICA projects. Some observable effects of the formation of a mixed phase are suggested, in particular a neutron trapping mechanism. The dependence of the results on a suitable treatment of the isovector

  12. Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics Studies with Fast Heavy-Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motobayashi, Tohru

    Collaboration between France and Japan on studies with fast RI (radioactive isotope) beams and related technical developments started in 1980s, when the GANIL accelerators and RIKEN cyclotron complex started operation and RI beam production technique was developed. Several examples of collaboration on nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments including related technical development are discussed.

  13. Damages in ceramics for nuclear waste transmutation by irradiation with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvy, Michel; Dalmasso, Chrystelle; Thiriet-Dodane, Catherine; Simeone, David; Gosset, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Inert matrices are proposed for advanced nuclear fuels or for the transmutation of the actinides that is an effective solution for the nuclear waste management. The behaviour of inert matrix ceramics like MgO, MgAl2O4 and cubic ZrO2 oxides under irradiation is presented in this study. The alumina Al2O3 has been also studied as a reference for the ceramic materials. These oxides have been irradiated with swift heavy ions at CIRIL/GANIL to simulate the fragment fission effects. The irradiations with the different heavy ions (from S to Pb) with energy between 91 and 820 MeV, have been realised at room temperature or 500 °C. The fluencies were between 5 × 1010 and 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The polished faces of sintered polycrystalline disks or single crystal slices have been characterized before and after irradiation by X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The apparent swelling evaluated from surface profile measurements after irradiation is very important for spinel and zirconia, comparatively with those of magnesia or alumina. The amorphisation seems to be at the origin of this swelling, and the electronic stopping power of the ions is the most influent parameter for the irradiation damages. The point defects characterized by optical spectroscopy show a significant amount of damage on the oxygen sub-lattice in the irradiated oxides. F+ centres are present in all irradiated oxides. However, new absorption bands are observed and cation clusters cannot be excluded in magnesia and spinel after irradiation.

  14. Bulk nuclear properties from dynamical description of heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jun

    Mapping out the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is a long standing problem in nuclear physics. Both experimentalists and theoretical physicists spare no effort in improving understanding of the EOS. In this thesis, we examine observables sensitive to the EOS within the pBUU transport model based on the Boltzmann equation. By comparing theoretical predictions with experimental data, we arrive at new constraints for the EOS. Further we propose novel promising observables for analysis of future experimental data. One set of observables that we examine within the pBUU model are pion yields. First, we find that net pion yields in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC) are strongly sensitive to the momentum dependence of the isoscalar nuclear mean field. We reexamine the momentum dependence that is assumed in the Boltzmann equation model for the collisions and optimize that dependence to describe the FOPI measurements of pion yields from the Au+Au collisions at different beam energies. Alas such optimized dependence yields a somewhat weaker baryonic elliptic flow than seen in measurements. Subsequently, we use the same pBUU model to generate predictions for baryonic elliptic flow observable in HIC, while varying the incompressibility of nuclear matter. In parallel, we test the sensitivity of pion multiplicity to the density dependence of EOS, and in particular to incompressibility, and optimize that dependence to describe both the elliptic flow and pion yields. Upon arriving at acceptable regions of density dependence of pressure and energy, we compare our constraints on EOS with those recently arrived at by the joint experiment and theory effort FOPI-IQMD. We should mention that, for the more advanced observables from HIC, there remain discrepancies of up to 30%, depending on energy, between the theory and experiment, indicating the limitations of the transport theory. Next, we explore the impact of the density dependence of the symmetry energy on observables

  15. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  16. Chemistry of heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1988-10-01

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  17. Heavy-ion physics with the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    Schukraft, J

    2012-02-28

    After close to 20 years of preparation, the dedicated heavy-ion experiment A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) took first data at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator with proton collisions at the end of 2009 and with lead nuclei at the end of 2010. After a short introduction into the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, this article recalls the main design choices made for the detector and summarizes the initial operation and performance of ALICE. Physics results from this first year of operation concentrate on characterizing the global properties of typical, average collisions, both in proton-proton (pp) and nucleus-nucleus reactions, in the new energy regime of the LHC. The pp results differ, to a varying degree, from most quantum chromodynamics-inspired phenomenological models and provide the input needed to fine tune their parameters. First results from Pb-Pb are broadly consistent with expectations based on lower energy data, indicating that high-density matter created at the LHC, while much hotter and larger, still behaves like a very strongly interacting, almost perfect liquid.

  18. Focusing giga-electronvolt heavy ions to micrometers at the Institute of Modern Physics.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lina; Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Song, Mingtao; Yuan, Youjin; Xiao, Guoqing

    2013-05-01

    To study the radiation effect of cosmic heavy ions of low fluxes in electronics and living samples, a focusing heavy ion microbeam facility, for ions with energies of several MeV/u up to 100 MeV/u, was constructed in the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This facility has a vertical design and an experiment platform for both in-vacuum analysis and in-air irradiation. Recently, microbeam of (12)C(6+) with energy of 80.55 MeV/u was successfully achieved at this interdisciplinary microbeam facility with a full beam spot size of 3 μm × 5 μm on target in air. Different from ions with energy of several MeV/u, the very high ion energy of hundred MeV/u level induces problems in beam micro-collimation, online beam spot diagnosis, radiation protection, etc. This paper presents the microbeam setup, difficulties in microbeam formation, and the preliminary experiments performed with the facility.

  19. The Heidelberg test storage ring for heavy ions and its use for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1986-11-01

    A brief description of the Heavy-Ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) presently being built at the Max-Planck Institut in Heidelberg is given. It will be able to store ions injected from the tandem postaccelerator combination up to about 30 MeV/nucleon for a charge to mass ratio of 0.5. One of the main purposes of the TSR will be the study of electron cooling. Some atomic physics experiments are discussed using the electron cooling device which provides an electron-ion collision facility with good energy resolution and ion beams of high currents and low emittances. Here the possibilities for measurements of spontaneous and laser-induced radiative recombination and dielectronic recombination in the electron cooling section are discussed.

  20. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quark Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, John Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The experimental collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have established that dense nuclear matter with partonic degrees of freedom is formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at 200 GeV. Information from heavy quarks has given significant insight into the dynamics of this matter. Charm and bottom quarks are dominantly produced by gluon fusion in the early stages of the collision, and thus experience the complete evolution of the medium. The production baseline measured in p + p collisions can be described by fixed order plus next to leading log perturbative QCD calculations within uncertainties. In central Au+Au collisions, suppression has been measured relative to the yield in p + p scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, indicating a significant energy loss by heavy quarks in the medium. The large elliptic flow amplitude v2 provides evidence that the heavy quarks flow along with the lighter partons. The suppression and elliptic flow of these quarks are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on Langevin transport models that imply a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound of 1/4pi. However, a full understanding of these phenomena requires measurements of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which should be present in Au+Au collisions but are difficult to distinguish experimentally from effects due to interactions with the medium. This thesis presents measurements of electrons at midrapidity from the decays of heavy quarks produced in d+Au collisions at RHIC. A significant enhancement of these electrons is seen at a transverse momentum below 5 GeV/c, indicating strong CNM effects on charm quarks that are not present for lighter quarks. A simple model of CNM effects in Au+Au collisions suggests that the level of suppression in the hot nuclear medium is comparable for all quark flavors.

  1. The physics and experimental program of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.

    1994-09-01

    The primary motivation for studying nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic and ultrarelativistic energies is to investigate matter at high energy densities ({var_epsilon} {much_gt} 1 GeV/fm{sup 3}). Early speculations of possible exotic states of matter focused on the astrophysical implications of abnormal states of dense nuclear matter. Field theoretical calculations predicted abnormal nuclear states and excitation of the vacuum. This generated an initial interest among particle and nuclear physicists to transform the state of the vacuum by using relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Extremely high temperatures, above the Hagedorn limiting temperature, were expected and a phase transition to a system of deconfined quarks and gluons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), was predicted. Such a phase of matter would have implications for both early cosmology and stellar evolution. The understanding of the behavior of high temperature nuclear matter is still in its early stages. However, the dynamics of the initial stages of these collisions, which involve hard parton-parton interactions, can be calculated using perturbative QCD. Various theoretical approaches have resulted in predictions that a high temperature (T {approximately} 500 MeV) gluon gas will be formed in the first instants (within 0.3 fm/c) of the collision. Furthermore, QCD lattice calculations exhibit a phase transition between a QGP and hadronic matter at a temperature near 250 MeV. Such phases of matter may have existed shortly after the Big Bang and may exist in the cores of dense stars. An important question is whether such states of matter can be created and studied in the laboratory. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and a full complement of detector systems are being constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate these new and fundamental properties of matter.

  2. Mini-proceedings of the workshop on heavy ion physics and instrumentation for a 15-Tm booster and storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    The goal of this workshop was to probe in depth a few of the areas of possible physics made possible by the availability of an intermediate energy heavy-ion physics facility. There was a special emphasis on physics that would be possible only with a storage/cooler ring. Topics discussed were nuclei far from stability, quantum electrodynamics, giant resonances and photonuclear reactions, and high energy gamma-ray production. Individual papers in this meeting were abstracted separately.

  3. Theoretical nuclear database for high-energy, heavy-ion (HZE) transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical methods for estimating high-energy, heavy-ion (HZE) particle absorption and fragmentation cross-sections are described and compared with available experimental data. Differences between theory and experiment range from several percent for absorption cross-sections up to about 25%-50% for fragmentation cross-sections.

  4. Forward calorimetry for heavy-ion physics at the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Daniel; STAR Experiment at RHIC Collaboration; STAR Forward Calorimeter Group Team

    2017-01-01

    A forward calorimeter utilizing hadronic and electromagnetic calorimetry at the STAR experiment of RHIC will achieve a variety of physics goals. These goals include studying long-range rapidity correlations, event plane correlations in heavy-ion interactions, and studying the gluon contribution to the proton spin. Upgrades to the AGS E864 lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter have increased spatial resolution by utilizing cell pixelization. Light collection has been optimized and fringe field effects have been minimized by the introduction of Fresnel lenses and mu-metal shielding. A prototype consisting of a 2x3 cell stack was installed into the forward region of STAR for the end of run16. This prototype investigated the introduction of these new techniques as well as a trial of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) as an alternate to traditional Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). SiPMs do not suffer from fringe field effects, but are susceptible to radiation damage by neutrons, so their performance during the prototype operation was analyzed. This talk will discuss the effects of Fresnel lenses on light collection, mu-metal shielding effects on PMTs, and radiation effects on SiPMs.

  5. Selected Topics in the Physics of Heavy Ion Collisions (1/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In these lectures, I discuss some classes of measurements accessible in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. How can these observables be measured, to what extent can they be calculated, and what do they tell us about the dense mesoscopic system created during the collision? In the first lecture, I shall focus in particular on measurements that constrain the spatio-temporal picture of the collisions and that measure centrality, orientations and extensions. In the subsequent lectures, I then discuss on how classes of measurements allow one to characterize collective phenomena, and to what extent these measurements can constrain the properties of matter produced in heavy ion collisions.

  6. NUMEN Project @ LNS : Heavy ions double charge exchange reactions towards the 0νββ nuclear matrix element determination

    SciTech Connect

    Agodi, C. Calabretta, L.; Calanna, A.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Colonna, M.; Cuttone, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Pandola, L.; Rifuggiato, D.; Tudisco, S.; Cappuzzello, F.; Greco, V.; Bonanno, D. L.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Longhitano, F.; Branchina, V.; Foti, A.; Lo Presti, D.; Lanzalone, G.; and others

    2015-10-28

    In the NUMEN Project it is proposed an innovative technique to access the nuclear matrix elements entering in the expression of the life-time of the neutrinoless double beta decay, using relevant cross sections of double charge exchange reactions. A key aspect is the use of MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer, for the detection of the ejectiles, and of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) K800 Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), for the acceleration of the required high resolution and low emittance heavy-ion beams.

  7. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  8. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  9. Study of heavy ion range in different solid state nuclear track detector materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwan, P. K.; Singh, Lakhwant; Singh, Gurinder; Kumar, Shyam

    2000-03-01

    The range of several heavy ions as 238U, 208Pb, 197Au, 139La, 58Ni and 56Fe in sodalime glass; 197Au and 58Ni in muscovite mica and Lexan polycarbonate; 209Bi and 197Au in CR-39 have been determined experimentally. The calculations of range for these projectile-target combinations have been made using the Benton and Henke [10], Mukherjee and Nayak [11], Ziegler et al. [12] and Hubert et al. [14] semiempirical formulations. Finally a comparison has been made with the experimental results.

  10. Transverse Isotropy: Disappearance of Mott oscillations in sub-barrier elastic scattering of identical heavy ions and the nuclear ineraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mahir; Canto, L. Felipe; Donangelo, Raul

    2015-04-01

    It is found that at a certain critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter the Mott oscillations usually present in the scattering of identical heavy ions, disappear and the cross section becomes quite flat. We call this effect Transverse Isotropy (TI) (L. F. Canto, R. Donangelo and M. S. Hussein, Mod. Phys. Lett. A, 16), 1027 (2001). The critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter at which TI sets in is found to be ηc =√{ 3 s + 2 } , where s is the spin of the nuclei participating in the scattering. No TI is found in the Mott scattering of identical Fermionic nuclei. The critical center of mass energy corresponding to ηc is found to be Ec = 0.40 MeV for α + α (s = 0), and 1.2 MeV for 6 Li + 6 LI (s = 1). We further found that the inclusion of the nuclear interaction induces a significant modification in the TI. This can be verified by calculating the second derivative of the cross section at θ =90° . We suggest measurements at these sub-barrier energies for the purpose of extracting useful information about the nuclear interaction between light heavy ions. Supported by CNPq, FAPESP, FAPERJ, CAPES/ITA.

  11. Heavy ion collisions with A = 10/sup 57/: Aspects of nuclear stability and the nuclear equation of state in coalescing neutron-star binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Evans, C.R.; Detweiler, S.L.

    1987-12-01

    The dynamics of the final stages of the coalescence of two neturon stars (such as the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16) is an unsolved problem in astrophysics. Such systems are probably efficient generators of gravitational radiation, and may be significant contributors to heavy-element nucleosynthesis. The input physics for the study of such systems is similar to that required for the strudy of heavy-ion collision hydrodynamics; e.g., a finite temperature nuclear equation of state, properties of nuclei away from stability, etc. We discuss the development of a relativistic hydrodynamics code in three spatial dimensions for the purpose of studying such neutron-star systems. The properties of the mass-radius relation (determined by the nuclear equation of state) may lead to a proposed mechanism by which hot, highly neutronized matter is ejected from the coalescing stars. This material is photodisintegrated into a free (mostly) neutron gas which may subsequently experience rapid-neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Self-Consistent Conversion of a Viscous Fluid to Particles and Heavy-Ion Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Zack J.

    The most widely used theoretical framework to model the early stages of a heavy-ion collision is viscous hydrodynamics. Comparing hydrodynamic simulations to heavy-ion data inevitably requires the conversion of the fluid to particles. This conversion, typically done in the Cooper-Frye formalism, is ambiguous for viscous fluids. In this thesis work, self-consistent phase space corrections are calculated by solving the linearized Boltzmann equation. These species-dependent solutions are contrasted with those obtained using the ad-hoc ''democratic Grad'' ansatz typically employed in the literature in which coefficients are independent of particle dynamics. Solutions are calculated analytically for a massless gas and numerically for the general case of a hadron resonance gas. For example, it is found that for a gas of massless particles interacting via isotropic, energy-independent 2 → 2 scatterings, the shear viscous corrections variationally prefer a momentum dependence close to p3/2 rather than the quadratic dependence assumed in the Grad ansatz. The self-consistent phase space distributions are then used to calculate transverse momentum spectra and differential flow coefficients, v n(pT), to study the effects on heavy-ion identified particle observables. Using additive quark model cross sections, it is found that proton flow coefficients are higher than those for pions at moderately high pT in Pb + Pb collisions at LHC, especially for the coefficients v 4 and v6.

  13. Swift heavy ions in insulating and conducting oxides: tracks and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulemonde, M.; Bouffard, S.; Studer, F.

    1994-06-01

    Damage induced in several oxide materials by swift heavy ions is presented. The discussion is based on results obtained on the following materials [Y3Fe5O12, AFe12O19 (A = Ba, Sr), BFe2O4 (B = Ni, Mg, Zn), ZrSi2O4, SiO2 quartz, Al2O3, high Tc superconductors (YBa2Cu3O7 - δ and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8)] which have been irradiated by ions with atomic number ranging between 6 (12C) and 92 (238U) and energies between 0.05 GeV and 6 GeV. The damage cross section A has been deduced using several physical characterisations like Mössbauer spectrometry, saturation magnetisation measurements, channeling Rutherford backscattering, infrared absorption and electrical resistance measurements. Depending on the material and on the value of the electronic stopping power (dE/dx) the damage cross section varies between 10-17 and 10-12 cm2. Using medium and high resolution transmission electron microscopy and chemical etching of the latent track, an electronic stopping power evolution of the damage morphology has been observed leading to the definition of an effective radius Re of the latent track which can be linked to the damage (amorphous) cross section A by the relation Re = √A/π. Moreover there is a direct correlation between these values and the damage morphology: for Re > 3 nm the latent tracks are long and cylindrical, conversely for Re < 3 nm the damage is inhomogeneous along the latent track. The effect of the irradiation temperature, of the crystallographic orientation, of the initial electrical resistivity and of the oxygen stoichiometry will be presented. In opposition to what has been usually believed it will be shown that alumina (Al2O3) is indeed sensitive to the electronic stopping power. Moreover the velocity of the incident ion has a direct influence on the damage production: the lower the velocity, the higher the damage.

  14. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  15. High energy heavy ions: techniques and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Pioneering work at the Bevalac has given significant insight into the field of relativistic heavy ions, both in the development of techniques for acceleration and delivery of these beams as well as in many novel areas of applications. This paper will outline our experiences at the Bevalac; ion sources, low velocity acceleration, matching to the synchrotron booster, and beam delivery. Applications discussed will include the observation of new effects in central nuclear collisions, production of beams of exotic short-lived (down to 1 ..mu..sec) isotopes through peripheral nuclear collisions, atomic physics with hydrogen-like uranium ions, effects of heavy ''cosmic rays'' on satellite equipment, and an ongoing cancer radiotherapy program with heavy ions. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Physics issues in the design of a recirculating induction accelerator for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Newton, M.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-04-15

    A substantial savings in size and cost over a linear machine may be achieved in an induction accelerator in which a heavy ion beam makes many (< {approximately} 50) passes through one or more circular induction accelerators. We examine how the requirement of high beam quality and the requirement of pulse simultaneity at the target constrain the design of such an accelerator. Some of the issues that we have considered include beam interactions with residual gas, beam-beam charge exchange, emittance growth around bends, and beam instabilities. We show some of the interplay between maximization of beam quality and recirculator efficiency, and the minimization of recirculator cost, in arriving at a recirculator design. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  17. High Energy Density Physics Research Using Intense Heavy Ion Beam at FAIR: The HEDgeHOB Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Piriz, A. R.; Deutsch, C.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-03-01

    International project, Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), has entered in its construction phase at Darmstadt. It is expected that the new powerful heavy ion synchrotron, SIS100 will deliver a strongly bunched intense beam of energetic uranium ions that will provide the scientists with an efficient and novel tool to research High Energy Density (HED) Physics in the laboratory. Over the past 15 years, substantial theoretical work has been done to design numerous experiments that can be done at this facility in this field. This work has resulted in an extensive scientific proposal named HEDgeHOB, that includes experiment proposals addressing various aspects of HED matter, for example, planetary physics, equation of state, hydrodynamic instabilities and others. In this paper we present a summary of this work.

  18. Nuclear Physics Laboratory 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1980-09-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: astrophysics and cosmology, fundamental symmetries, nuclear structure and reactions, radiative capture, medium energy physics, heavy ion reactions, research by outside users, accelerators and ion sources, instrumentation and experimental techniques, and computers and computing. Publications are listed. (WHK)

  19. Heavy-ion collisions and the nuclear equation of state. Progress report, August 15, 1992--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, D.

    1993-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is to study nucleus-nucleus collisions experimentally at intermediate and relativistic energies, with emphasis on measurement and interpretation of correlation effects that provide insight into the nuclear phase diagram and the nuclear equation of state. During the course of this reporting period, the PI returned to Kent from a 15-month leave at Lawrence Berkeley Lab, which had been devoted 100% to work on this research project. The EOS Time Projection Chamber at LBL`s Bevalac accelerator has continued to be the major focus of research for all of the supported personnel; about a year ago, this detector successfully took data in production mode for the first time, and accumulated in excess of 1000 hours of beam time before the termination of the Bevalac in February 1993. Reduction and analysis of these data is currently our first priority. Effort has also been devoted to the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, in the form of contributions to the Conceptual Design Report, work on HV control hardware and software for use with the STAR Time Projection Chamber, and tracking software development.

  20. Relativistic heavy ion research. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State Univ. , Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Experimental work is reported on the following topics: transverse energy production in 10.7-GeV/c/u Au on Au collisions; first results on delta ray production and charged particle multiplicities with the Au beam at 10.7 GeV/c/A; preliminary studies on the feasibility of flow measurement with the E814 participant calorimeter; preliminary results from the E877 telescope; and low-p[sub t] baryon distribution in Si+Al, Pb collisions at the AGS. Then the status of the Hadronic Calorimeter project of AGS Experiment E864 (ECOS--Exotic Composite Object Spectrometer) is reviewed. Next, the same is done for work of the STAR RHIC collaboration (Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) project evolution and development in FY92, SVT software results from 1992, SVT instrumentation, FY93 SVT pion test beam). The instrumentation section deals with the design and installation of a target rapidity telescope for BNL experiment 814/877 and a repair scheme for the E814/E877 participant calorimeter. Finally, the theory part addresses bosonic kinetics: thermalization of mesons and the pion p[sub perpendicular] spectrum in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and non-equilibrium properties of hadronic mixtures.

  1. HISTRAP: Proposal for a Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the physics capabilities of HISTRAP together with a brief description of the facility and a sampling of the beams which will be available for experimentation, and surveys some of the lines of investigation in the physics of multicharged ions, molecular ion spectroscopy, condensed beams, and nuclear physics that will become possible with the advent of HISTRAP. Details of the accelerator design are discussed, including computer studies of beam tracking in the HISTRAP lattice, a discussion of the HHIRF tandem and ECR/RFQ injectors, and a description of the electron beam cooling system. In the past three years, HISTRAP has received substantial support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory management and staff. The project has used discretionary funds to develop hardware prototypes and carry out design studies. Construction has been completed on a vacuum test stand which models 1/16 of the storage ring and has attained a pressure of 4 x 10/sup -12/ Torr; a prototype rf cavity capable of accelerating beams up to 90 MeV/nucleon and decelerating to 20 keV/nucleon; and a prototype dipole magnet, one of the eight required for the HISTRAP lattice. This paper also contains a summary of the work on electron cooling carried out by one of our staff members at CERN. Building structures and services are described. Details of cost and schedule are also discussed. 77 refs.

  2. First atomic physics experiments with cooled stored ion beams at the Heidelberg heavy-ion ring TSR

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Balykin, V.; Baumann, W.; Berger, J.; Bisoffi, G.; Blatt, P.; Blum, M.; Faulstich, A.; Friedrich, A.; Gerhard, M.; Geyer, C.; Grieser, M.; Grieser, R.; Habs, D.; Heyng, H.W.; Hochadel, B.; Holzer, B.; Huber, G.; Jaeschke, E.; Jung, M.; Karafillidis, A.; Kilgus, G.; Klein, R.; Kraemer, D.; Krause, P.; Krieg, M.; Kuehl, T.; Matl, K.; Mueller, A.; Music, M.; Neumann, R.; Neureither, G.; Ott, W.; Petrich, W.; Povh, B.; Repnow, R.; Schroeder, S.; Schuch, R.; Schwalm, D.; Sigray, P.; Steck, M.; Stokstad, R.; Szmola, E.; Wagner, M.; Wanner, B.; Welti, K.; Zwickler, S. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg Manne Siegbahn Institute , Stockholm Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Giessen, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung , Darmstadt (Fed

    1990-06-01

    An overview of atomic physics experiments at the heavy ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) is given. Highly charged ions up to fully stripped silicon have been stored at energies between 4 and 12 MeV/u. The enhancement of the beam intensity by stacking, the beam lifetime, and electron cooling of these ion beams are discussed. Radiative and state-selective dielectronic recombination rates of hydrogen-like oxygen ions with free electrons from the electron cooler were measured. Beam noise spectra are being investigated with regard to collective effects caused by the Coulomb interaction in the cold ion beams. Resonance fluorescence from stored single-charged ions was observed using tunable narrow-band lasers. First indications of laser cooling in a storage ring were seen.

  3. Heavy ion storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  4. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions: the first billion seconds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baym, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    I first review the early history of the ultrarelativistic heavy ion program, starting with the 1974 Bear Mountain Workshop, and the 1983 Aurora meeting of the U.S. Nuclear Science Committtee, just one billion seconds ago, which laid out the initial science goals of an ultrarelativistic collider. The primary goal, to discover the properties of nuclear matter at the highest energy densities, included finding new states of matter - the quark-gluon plasma primarily - and to use collisions to open a new window on related problems of matter in cosmology, neutron stars, supernovae, and elsewhere. To bring out how the study of heavy ions and hot, dense matter in QCD has been fulfilling these goals, I concentrate on a few topics, the phase diagram of matter in QCD, and connections of heavy ion physics to cold atoms, cosmology, and neutron stars.

  5. Heavy ion collisions and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    There are interesting parallels between the physics of heavy ion collisions and cosmology. Both systems are out-of-equilibrium and relativistic fluid dynamics plays an important role for their theoretical description. From a comparison one can draw interesting conclusions for both sides. For heavy ion physics it could be rewarding to attempt a theoretical description of fluid perturbations similar to cosmological perturbation theory. In the context of late time cosmology, it could be interesting to study dissipative properties such as shear and bulk viscosity and corresponding relaxation times in more detail. Knowledge and experience from heavy ion physics could help to constrain the microscopic properties of dark matter from observational knowledge of the cosmological fluid properties.

  6. Collective Sideward Flow of Nuclear Matter in Violent High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Stöcker, Horst; Maruhn, Jouchim A.; Greiner, Walter

    1980-03-01

    The nuclear fluid dynamical model with final thermal breakup is used to study the reactions {sup 20}Ne + {sup 238}U and {sup 40} Ar + {sup 40}Ca at E{sub LAB}=390 MeV/n. Calculated double differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{Omega}dE are in agreement with recent experimental data. It is shown that azimuthally dependent triple differential cross sections d{sup 3}{sigma}/dEd cos{theta}d{phi} yield considerably deeper insight into the collision process and allow for snapshots of the reactions. Strongly correlated jets of nuclear matter are predicted.

  7. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    This is the final report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington on work supported in part by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC06-81ER40048. It contains chapters on giant dipole resonances in excited nuclei, nucleus-nucleus reactions, astrophysics, polarization in nuclear reactions, fundamental symmetries and interactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ultra-relativistic heavy ions, medium energy reactions, work by external users, instrumentation, accelerators and ion sources, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, a Ph. D. degree granted in the 1990-1991 academic year, and publications. Refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Project of the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna: Perspectives of heavy ion and spin physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lednicky, Richard

    2009-08-04

    One of the main directions of the research program at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna is the relativistic nuclear and spin physics. The present basic facility for this research is the 6 A GeV superconducting synchrotron--Nuclotron. In the coming years, the new JINR flagship program assumes the experimental study of hot and dense strongly interacting QCD matter and polarization phenomena at the new JINR facility. This goal is proposed to be reached by (i) development of the existing Nuclotron accelerator facility as a basis for generation of intense beams over atomic mass range from protons to uranium and light polarized ions, (ii) design and construction of the Nuclotron-based Heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) with the maximum nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of {radical}(S{sub NN}) = 9 GeV and averaged luminosity 10{sup 27} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for U+U collisions, and (iii) design and construction of the Multipurpose Particle Detector (MPD) and Spin Physics Detector (SPD) at intersecting beams. Realization of the project will lead to unique conditions for research activity of the world community.

  9. Nuclear research with heavy ions. Annual progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics; studies of light-charged-particle emission from fission and er reactions in the system 344-MeV{sup 28}Si+{sup 121}Sb {yields} {sup 149}Tb; the role of reversed kinematics and double kinematic solutions in nuclear reactions studies; improvements in interactive data analysis and graphical representations; studies of the reaction 856-MeV {sup 98}Mo + {sup 51}V{yields}{sup 149}Tb(E*=224-MeV): emission of intermediate-mass fragments; particle-particle correlations in compound nucleus reactions: preliminary consideration of lifetime estimates from small angle data; light particle emission studies using a new scintillator array; statistical evaporation calculations: developments with the computer codes LILITA-N90 and CASCADE; star collaboration studies: simulations for the conceptual design of the STAR detector system at RHIC; asymmetric fission of 149Tb* from the finite-range, rotating-liquid-drop model: mean total kinetic energies for binary fragmentation; and charged-particle evaporation from hot composite nuclei: evidence over a broad z range for distortions from cold nuclear profiles.

  10. Nuclear modification factor in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, M.; Ma, Y. G.; Zhang, G. Q.; Chen, J. H.; Fang, D. Q.

    2014-06-01

    The transverse momentum dependent nuclear modification factor (NMF), namely RCP, is investigated for protons produced in Au + Au at 1 A GeV within the framework of the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. It is found that the radial collective motion during the expansion stage affects the NMF at low transverse momentum a lot. By fitting the transverse mass spectra of protons with the distribution function from the Blast-Wave model, the magnitude of radial flow can be extracted. After removing the contribution from radial flow, the RCP can be regarded as a thermal one and is found to keep unitary at transverse momentum lower than 0.6 GeV/c and enhance at higher transverse momentum, which can be attributed to the Cronin effect.

  11. Evidence for nuclear Landau-Zener effect: New resonance mechanism in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Y.; Park, J.Y.

    1983-12-01

    Characteristic resonancelike peaks recently observed in the angle-integrated inelastic cross sections for the /sup 13/C-/sup 17/O system are understood in terms of the Landau-Zener excitation mechanism at energy level crossings. Angle-integrated inelastic cross sections estimated with the Landau-Zener formula show a series of resonancelike peaks as a function of incident energy, each of which is associated with a grazing angular momentum of the relative motion between nuclei. Simple expressions are given for resonance energies and ''widths'' of new ''resonances.'' This resonance mechanism is a new one, which has not been known in nuclear reactions nor in atomic collisions, although it is based on the well-known Landau-Zener promotion mechanism.

  12. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  13. Nuclear interactions in high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Technical progress report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1993-01-11

    The overall objective is to study the mechanisms and the energy dependence of heavy ion fragmentation by studying the reactions of heavy ion projectiles (e.g. {sup 4}He, {sup 16}O, {sup 20}Ne, {sup 28}Si, {sup 56}Fe) in a variety of targets (H, He, C, Si, Cu, Pb) and at a number of beam energies exceeding 0.1 GeV/nucleon. The results have application to questions in high-energy nuclear astrophysics. Most of the discussion is on low-energy {sup 16}O,{sup 28}Si data analysis. The description includes analysis procedures and techniques, detector calibrations, data selections and normalizations. Cross section results for the analysis are also presented. 83 figs., 6 tabs., 73 refs.

  14. Semi-classical methods in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, David M.

    These lecture notes present an introduction to some semi-classical techniques which have applications in nuclear physics. Topics discussed include the WKB method, approaches based on the Feynman path integral, the Gutzwiller trace formula for level density fluctuations and the Thomas-Fermi approximation and the Vlasov equation for many-body problems. There are applications to heavy ion fusion reactions, bremsstrahlung emission in alpha decay and nuclear response functions.

  15. Geant4 physics processes for microdosimetry simulation: Very low energy electromagnetic models for protons and heavy ions in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin, A.; Raine, M.; Gaillardin, M.; Paillet, P.

    2012-09-01

    The Geant4-DNA extension of the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit aims at modeling early biological damages induced by ionizing radiation at the DNA scale, and it can now track particles down to very low energies in liquid water. New models, called "MuElec", have been implemented for microelectronic applications following the same initial theory, to track low energy electrons in silicon. This paper presents the extension of these MuElec models to incident protons and heavy ions in silicon. First, the theory of the model is presented. The resulting cross sections and stopping powers are compared with data from the literature. The model is then implemented in Geant4 and used to simulate proton tracks. Various physical quantities are extracted from the simulation, and compared with data from the literature and with results from simulation using other Geant4 models. It is shown that the generation of low-energy electrons results in more physically meaningful low-energy secondary electron tracks, which significantly modifies the proton and ion track core on the nanometer scale.

  16. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1998-06-25

    Projectile fragmentation experiments have been conducted at the LBL Bevalac accelerator, utilizing both the B40 and the HISS facilities, to produce a dataset of 36 beam/energy combinations covering projectiles from {sup 4}He to {sup 58}Ni and various energies from 170--2100 MeV/nucleon. While some runs were subject to beam instabilities, magnet problems or low statistics, there remains a large dataset which is still being analyzed. The results will be used to investigate the physics of the intermediate energy fragmentation process and will find application in the astrophysics of cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy. An overview of the science goals and rationale is followed by presentation of the experimental techniques and apparatus that has been employed. Data analysis, including both detector subsystem and accelerator calibration, is discussed with emphasis on the unique features of the dataset and the analysis problems being addressed. Results from the experiments are presented throughout to illustrate the status of the analysis, e.g., momentum distribution widths. Total, Elemental and Isotopic cross sections from various beam/energy combinations are presented, including the first data on {sup 32}S fragmentation and the complete isotopic fragmentation cross sections for {sup 28}Si interacting in both Carbon and Hydrogen targets. The new results are compared to any existing data and to formulae used to predict unmeasured cross sections. The size and complexity of the dataset and the required detail of the analysis precluded finishing the full analysis under the subject grant. Plans for additional analysis are presented, and these will be carried out in coming years as time and resources permit.

  17. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Proceedings of the XVIIIth international symposium on nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, H.; Seeliger, D.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the XVIII International Symposium on nuclear physics. Topics covered include: fission fragment distributions; fundamental fission problems; theory of nuclear fission; fragment de-excitation; ternary fission; spontaneous-fission and decay; induced fission; heavy-ion reactions; and applications of fission.

  19. Biomedical research with heavy ions at the IMP accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    The main ion-beam acceleration facilities and research activities at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly introduced. Some of the biomedical research with heavy ions such as heavy-ion biological effect, basic research related to heavy-ion cancer therapy and radiation breeding at the IMP accelerators are presented.

  20. Science and art in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.S.

    1982-08-09

    One of the more intriguing phenomena discovered in heavy-ion physics is the seeming appearance of high energy structure in the excitation spectra of inelastically scattered heavy ions. For reasons illustrated, these may well be a phenomena unique to heavy ions and their explanation perhaps unique to TDHF.

  1. Heavy-ion double charge exchange reactions: A tool toward 0 νββ nuclear matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, C.; Bondì, M.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge of the nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay is fundamental for neutrino physics. In this paper, an innovative technique to extract information on the nuclear matrix elements by measuring the cross section of a double charge exchange nuclear reaction is proposed. The basic point is that the initial- and final-state wave functions in the two processes are the same and the transition operators are similar. The double charge exchange cross sections can be factorized in a nuclear structure term containing the matrix elements and a nuclear reaction factor. First pioneering experimental results for the 40Ca(18O,18Ne)40Ar reaction at 270 MeV incident energy show that such cross section factorization reasonably holds for the crucial 0+ → 0+ transition to 40Args, at least at very forward angles.

  2. [Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions]. [Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    Completed work is summarized on the topics of excitation energy division in deep-inelastic reactions and the onset of multifragmentation in La-induced reactions at E/A = 45 MeV. Magnetic fields are being calculated for the PHOBOS detector system, a two-arm multiparticle spectrometer for studying low-transverse-momentum particles produced at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The Maryland Forward Array is being developed for detection of the reaction products from very peripheral collisions; it consists of two individual units of detectors: the annular silicon detector in front and the plastic phoswich detector at back.

  3. Central collisions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  4. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-28

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and the LHC

  5. New state of nuclear matter: Nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. From charged particle density to jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements: high- pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy-flavor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s≈ 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p+A, d+ Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both

  6. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

    DOE PAGES

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-28

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species asmore » a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and

  7. Apoptosis and injuries of heavy ion beam and x-ray radiation on malignant melanoma cell.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jin; Li, Sha; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Dong-Wei; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) and low LET X-ray radiation on apoptosis and related proteins of malignant melanoma on tumor-bearing mice under the same physical dosage. C57BL/6 J mice were burdened by tumors and randomized into three groups. These mice received heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) and X-ray radiation under the same physical dosage, respectively; their weight and tumor volumes were measured every three days post-radiation. After 30 days, these mice were sacrificed. Then, median survival time was calculated and tumors on mice were proliferated. In addition, immunohistochemistry was carried out for apoptosis-related proteins to reflect the expression level. After tumor-bearing mice were radiated to heavy ion, median survival time improved and tumor volume significantly decreased in conjunction with the upregulated expression of pro-apoptosis factors, Bax and cytochrome C, and the downregulated expression of apoptosis-profilin (Bcl-2, Survivin) and proliferation-related proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). The results indicated that radiation can promote the apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells and inhibit their proliferation. This case was more suitable for heavy ion ((12)C(6+)). High LET heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) radiation could significantly improve the killing ability for malignant melanoma cells by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibiting their proliferation. These results demonstrated that heavy ion ((12)C(6+)) presented special advantages in terms of treating malignant melanoma.

  8. Quasimolecular single-nucleon effects in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Erb, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Several experimental examples are discussed to illustrate that single-particle molecular orbital behavior has become an established reality in nuclear physics over the last several years. Measurements and analyses of inelastic scattering in the /sup 13/C + /sup 12/C and /sup 17/O + /sup 12/C systems, and of neutron transfer in the /sup 13/C(/sup 13/C, /sup 12/C)/sup 14/C reaction, show that the motion of valence nucleons can be strongly and simultaneously influenced by both collision partners in heavy-ion collisions. This bvehavior is characteristic of a molecular (single-particle) rather than a direct (DWBA) mechanism: it demonstrates that the single-particle analog of atomic molecular motion plays an important role in nuclear reactions at bombarding energies near the Coulomb barrier. Such behavior may be even more pronounced in the collisions of massive nuclei that will be studied with the new generation of heavy-ion accelerators. 19 references.

  9. Energetic heavy ions with nuclear charge Z greater than or equal to 4 in the equatorial radiation belts of the earth - Magnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.; Fritz, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Direct in situ observations of trapped energetic heavy ions with nuclear charge Z greater than or equal to 4 at energies in the lower MeV range made with Explorer 45 during the period June-December 1972 are presented. It is noted that all measurements were carried out in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equatorial plane and that the data show the varying effects of four major magnetic storm periods. Orders of magnitude increases in the trapped heavy ion population are seen deep within the radiation belts following the August 1972 solar flare and magnetic storm events. Fluxes of the Z greater than or equal to 4 ions are found to decay faster than those of helium ions of comparable energies; typical decay times for these ions are found to be 24-40 days at L less than or equal to 4 and shorter at higher L shells. The observations are compared with the expected post-injection long-term behavior of atomic oxygen ions deduced from charge exhange, radial diffusive transport, and Coulomb collisions. Good agreement is found between theory and observations.

  10. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, University of Washington April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report contains short discusses on topics in the following areas: astrophysics; giant resonances and photonuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries; accelerator mass spectrometry; medium energy nuclear physics; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; cluster fusion; instrumentation; van de graaff accelerators and ion sources; and computer data acquisition systems. (LSP)

  11. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, University of Washington April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, John G.; Ramirez, Maria G.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains short discusses on topics in the following areas: astrophysics; giant resonances and photonuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries; accelerator mass spectrometry; medium energy nuclear physics; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; cluster fusion; instrumentation; van de graaff accelerators and ion sources; and computer data acquisition systems. (LSP)

  12. Experimental Nuclear Physics Activity in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, E.; de Marco, N.

    2003-04-01

    The experimental Nuclear Physics activity of the Italian researchers is briefly reviewed. The experiments, that are financially supported by the INFN, are done in strict collaboration by more than 500 INFN and University researchers. The experiments cover all the most important field of the modern Nuclear Physics with probes extremely different in energy and interactions. Researches are done in all the four National Laboratories of the INFN even if there is a deeper involvement of the two national laboratories expressly dedicated to Nuclear Physics: the LNL (Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro) and LNS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud) where nuclear spectroscopy and reaction dynamics are investigated. All the activities with electromagnetic probes develops in abroad laboratories as TJNAF, DESY, MAMI, ESFR and are dedicated to the studies of the spin physics and of the nucleon resonance; hypernuclear and kaon physics is investigated at LNF. A strong community of researchers work in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ions field in particular at CERN with the SPS Pb beam and in the construction of the ALICE detector for heavy-ion physics at the LHC collider. Experiments of astrophysical interest are done with ions of very low energy; in particular the LUNA accelerator facility at LNGS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso) succeeded measuring cross section at solar energies, below or near the solar Gamow peak. Interdisciplinary researches on anti-hydrogen atom spectroscopy and on measurements of neutron cross sections of interest for ADS development are also supported.

  13. Extreme Light Infrastructure: nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.; Habs, D.; Negoita, F.; Ursescu, D.

    2011-06-01

    The spectacular progress of electron and heavy-ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high-power laser has opened the way for new methods of investigations in nuclear physics and related fields. On the other hand, upshifting the photon energies of a high repetition TW-class laser through inverse Compton scattering on electron bunches classically accelerated, a high-flux narrow bandwidth gamma beam can be produced. With such a gamma beam in the 1-20 MeV energy range and a two-arms 10-PW class laser system, the pillar of "Extreme Light Infrastructure" to be built in Bucharest will focus on nuclear phenomena and their practical applications. Nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental QED aspects as well as applications in material and life sciences, radioactive waste management and homeland security will be studied using the high-power laser, the gamma beam or combining the two. The article includes a general description of ELI-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, an overview of the Physics Case and some details on the few, most representative proposed experiments.

  14. Superconducting heavy-ion linac at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Aron, J.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.G.; Johnson, K.W.; Nixon, J.M.; Markovich, P.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The design, status, and performance of the first operating superconducting heavy-ion accelerator, a linac used to boost the energies of beams from a 9-MV tandem, is summarized. When completed in 1981, the linac will consist of 24 independently-phased split-ring niobium resonators operating at 97 MHz. This linac is designed to provide 29 MV of acceleration. Because of the modular character of the system, the linac has been operable and useful since mid-1978, when a beam was accelerated through 2 units and the first nuclear-physics experiments were preformed. Now, 16 resonators are in use, and a beam has been accelerated for approx. 6000 h. Resonator performance has been remarkably stable, in spite of vacuum accidents, and the linac as a whole operates reliably without operators in attendance during nights and weekends. The ease and speed with which the beam energy can be changed is proving to be unexpectedly valuable to users.

  15. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-04-01

    This is the April 1989 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Labortaory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, computer systems, instrumentation, and the Laboratory`s booster linac work. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1988-1989 academic year, and publications. Refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-05-01

    This is the May 1988 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, the Laboratory`s booster linac project work, instrumentation, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1987-88 academic year, and publications. Refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Effects of electronic and nuclear stopping power on disorder induced in GaN under swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisy, F.; Sall, M.; Grygiel, C.; Balanzat, E.; Boisserie, M.; Lacroix, B.; Simon, P.; Monnet, I.

    2016-08-01

    Wurtzite GaN epilayers, grown on the c-plane of sapphire substrate, have been irradiated with swift heavy ions at different energies and fluences, and thereafter studied by Raman scattering spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectra show strong structural modifications in the GaN layer. Indeed, in addition to the broadening of the allowed modes, a large continuum and three new modes at approximately 200 cm-1, 300 cm-1 and 670 cm-1 appear after irradiation attributed to disorder-activated Raman scattering. In this case, spectra are driven by the phonon density of states of the material due to the loss of translation symmetry of the lattice induced by defects. It was shown qualitatively that both electronic excitations and elastic collisions play an important role in the disorder induced by irradiation. UV-visible spectra reveal an absorption band at 2.8 eV which is linked to the new mode at 300 cm-1 observed in irradiated Raman spectra and comes from Ga-vacancies. These color centers are produced by elastic collisions (without any visible effect of electronic excitations).

  18. Selected experimental results from heavy-ion collisions at LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Ranbir; Kumar, Lokesh; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; ...

    2013-01-01

    We reviewmore » a subset of experimental results from the heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility at CERN. Excellent consistency is observed across all the experiments at the LHC (at center of mass energysNN=2.76 TeV) for the measurements such as charged particle multiplicity density, azimuthal anisotropy coefficients, and nuclear modification factor of charged hadrons. Comparison to similar measurements from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at lower energy (sNN=200 GeV) suggests that the system formed at LHC has a higher energy density and larger system size and lives for a longer time. These measurements are compared to model calculations to obtain physical insights on the properties of matter created at the RHIC and LHC.« less

  19. Pions from and about heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1982-09-01

    A review is presented of the possibilities of pion production with heavy ion reactions. Major headings include: pion thermometry; hills and valleys in pion spectra; pionic orbits of nuclear size; pion confinement in the fireball; anomalons; and Schroedinger equation solutions for pionic atoms. 47 references, 9 figures. (GHT)

  20. Hadron Production in Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, Hans Georg; Xu, Nu

    2009-05-19

    Heavy ion collisions are an ideal tool to explore the QCD phase diagram. The goal is to study the equation of state (EOS) and to search for possible in-medium modifications of hadrons. By varying the collision energy a variety of regimes with their specific physics interest can be studied. At energies of a few GeV per nucleon, the regime where experiments were performed first at the Berkeley Bevalac and later at the Schwer-Ionen-Synchrotron (SIS) at GSI in Darmstadt, we study the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and try to identify in-medium modifications of hadrons. Towards higher energies, the regime of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the Super-Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, we expect to produce a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The physics goal is to identify the QGP and to study its properties. By varying the energy, different forms of matter are produced. At low energies we study dense nuclear matter, similar to the type of matter neutron stars are made of. As the energy is increased the main constituents of the matter will change. Baryon excitations will become more prevalent (resonance matter). Eventually we produce deconfined partonic matter that is thought to be in the core of neutron stars and that existed in the early universe. At low energies a great variety of collective effects is observed and a rather good understanding of the particle production has been achieved, especially that of the most abundantly produced pions and kaons. Many observations can be interpreted as time-ordered emission of various particle species. It is possible to determine, albeit model dependent, the equation of state of nuclear matter. We also have seen indications, that the kaon mass, especially the mass of the K{sup +}, might be modified by the medium created in heavy ion collisions. At AGS energies and above, emphasis shifts towards

  1. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    Research and development activities are summarized in the following areas: Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, nuclear physics, the UNISOR program, accelerator-based atomic physics, theoretical physics, nuclear science applications, atomic physics and plasma diagnostics for fusion program, high-energy physics, the nuclear data project, and the relativistic heavy-ion collider study. Publications and papers presented are listed. (WHK)

  2. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at UTK is involved in heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. During the last year experimental work has been in 3 broad areas: structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, structure of nuclei far from stability, and ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. Results in these areas are described in this document under: properties of high-spin states, study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics (PHENIX, etc.). Another important component of the work is theoretical interpretation of experimental results (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research).

  3. The heavy ion program at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, D.

    1986-09-30

    During two periods in 1986 and 1987, oxygen ion beams with energies up to 3.2 TeV will be available at the CERN-SPS. A brief review of the five large heavy ion experiments is presented and the different physics addressed by each of the experiments is discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Failla Memorial lecture. The future of heavy-ion science in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Tobias, C A

    1985-07-01

    Interplanetary space contains fluxes of fast moving atomic nuclei. The distribution of these reflects the atomic composition of the universe, and such particles may pose limitations for space flight and for life in space. Over the past 50 years, since the invention of Ernest Lawrence's cyclotron, advances in accelerator technology have permitted the acceleration of charged nuclei to very high velocities. Currently, beams of any stable isotope species up to uranium are available at kinetic energies of several hundred MeV/nucleon at the Berkeley Bevalac. Recently, new areas of particle physics research relating to the mechanisms of spallation and fission have opened up for investigation, and it is now realistic to search for nuclear super-dense states that might be produced in heavy nuclear collisions. The heavy ions hold interest for a broad spectrum of research because of their effectiveness in producing a series of major lesions in DNA along single particle tracks and because of the Bragg depth ionization properties that allow the precise deposition of highly localized doses deep in the human body. Individual heavy ions can also interrupt the continuity of membraneous regions in cells. Heavy ions, when compared to low-LET radiation, have increased effectiveness for mammalian cell lethality, chromosome mutations, and cell transformation. The molecular mechanisms are not completely understood but appear to involve fragmentation and reintegration of DNA. Cells attempt to repair these lesions, and many of the deleterious effects are due to misrepair or misrejoining of DNA. Heavy ions do not require the presence of oxygen for producing their effects, and hypoxic cells in necrotic regions have nearly the same sensitivity as cells in well-oxygenated tissues. Heavy ions are effective in delaying or blocking the cell division process. Heavy ions are also strong enhancers of viral-induced cell transformation, a process that requires integration of foreign DNA. Some cell

  5. Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993 under Contract Number DE-FG05-88ER40459. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focussed on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and the University of Pennsylvania.

  6. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, July 1, 1994--June 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, M.K.; Griffin, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    This progress report contains 36 items of research work done by ten members of the University of Maryland Nuclear Theory Group with 21 outside collaborators from various institutions in the US, Canada, Korea and Europe. The report is in four sections, each representing major and basic areas of interest in nuclear theory. The sections are as follows: (1) hadrons in nuclei and nuclear matter; (2) hadron physics; (3) relativistic dynamics in quark, hadron and nuclear physics; (4) heavy ion dynamics and related processes.

  7. Nuclear matter physics at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senger, P.

    2016-08-01

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram is one of the most exciting and challenging projects of modern nuclear physics. In particular, the investigation of nuclear matter at high baryon densities offers the opportunity to find characteristic structures such as a first-order phase transition with a region of phase coexistence and a critical endpoint. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. Equally important is the quantitative experimental information on the properties of hadrons in dense matter which may shed light on chiral symmetry restoration and the origin of hadron masses. Worldwide, substantial efforts at the major heavy-ion accelerators are devoted to the clarification of these fundamental questions, and new dedicated experiments are planned at future facilities like CBM at FAIR in Darmstadt and MPD at NICA/JINR in Dubna. In this article the perspectives for MPD at NICA will be discussed.

  8. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  9. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  10. Numerical simulations of relativistic heavy-ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffin, Frank Cecil

    Bulk quantities of nuclear matter exist only in the compact bodies of the universe. There the crushing gravitational forces overcome the Coulomb repulsion in massive stellar collapses. Nuclear matter is subjected to high pressures and temperatures as shock waves propagate and burn their way through stellar cores. The bulk properties of nuclear matter are important parameters in the evolution of these collapses, some of which lead to nucleosynthesis. The nucleus is rich in physical phenomena. Above the Coulomb barrier, complex interactions lead to the distortion of, and as collision energies increase, the destruction of the nuclear volume. Of critical importance to the understanding of these events is an understanding of the aggregate microscopic processes which govern them. In an effort to understand relativistic heavy-ion reactions, the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (Ueh33) (BUU) transport equation is used as the framework for a numerical model. In the years since its introduction, the numerical model has been instrumental in providing a coherent, microscopic, physical description of these complex, highly non-linear events. This treatise describes the background leading to the creation of our numerical model of the BUU transport equation, details of its numerical implementation, its application to the study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and some of the experimental observables used to compare calculated results to empirical results. The formalism evolves the one-body Wigner phase-space distribution of nucleons in time under the influence of a single-particle nuclear mean field interaction and a collision source term. This is essentially the familiar Boltzmann transport equation whose source term has been modified to address the Pauli exclusion principle. Two elements of the model allow extrapolation from the study of nuclear collisions to bulk quantities of nuclear matter: the modification of nucleon scattering cross sections in nuclear matter, and the

  11. Nuclear stopping and energy removal in central collisions between heavy ions of 8-115 AMeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rulin

    Central and mid-central collisions have been studied for 40Ar + Cu, Ag and Au from 8 to 115 A MeV. Slow moving heavy residual nuclei were observed along with near 4π detection (including ~ 0.5° to 165° in the lab.) of light charged particles and fragments. A continuous increase in the multiplicities from the most violent collisions is observed with increasing projectile energy. The heavy residual nuclei are found to accept a majority fraction of the projectile momentum only up to ~ 44 A MeV, but then to yield this majority fraction to the ejectile spray for 65-115 A MeV. This confirms a dominance of familiar incomplete fusion processes up to 44 A MeV, but then demonstrates a succession to splintering central collisions, a new reaction class for the Fermi energy domain. For the central collisions, isotropic and forward-peaked components in the frame of the heaviest fragment are separated for each ejectile type. The nuclear stopping is characterized via average longitudinal momenta for the heaviest fragment and for each ejectile type. Comparison of measured values of longitudinal volecity for the heaviest fragment with predictions of the Boltzmann- Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model shows the over estimation of nuclear stopping by the model. Ejectiles emitted isotropically in the frame of the heaviest fragment define average deposition energies that reach 1-2 GeV, but there is no clear signature for a liquid-gas phase transition. Collective tranverse flow is measured by azimuthal correlation functions between each ejectile and the reaction plane, determined by vector summation of projectile-like-fragments. The energy at which collective transverse flow in the reaction plane disappears, termed the balance energy, is found to decrease as the mass of the target increases. The disassembly of the heaviest nuclei for these relatively high energy reactions is compared to calculations by multifragmentation models. Large divergences appear between the experimental data and

  12. Medium effect on the nuclear modification factor of protons and pions in intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, M.; Ma, Y. G.; Chen, J. H.; Fang, D. Q.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Nuclear modification factors Rcp of protons and pions are investigated by simulating Au+Au collisions from 0.8 A to 1.8 A GeV in a framework of an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. The Rcp of protons rise with an increase in the transverse particle momentum pT at different beam energies owing to radial flow and the multiple-collision effect. The rate of increase of Rcp is suppressed at higher beam energies. While the Rcp of pions display weaker pT dependence. By changing the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section, the Rcp of protons change a lot, while the Rcp of pions do not. In addition, by deactivating the N Δ →N N and π N →Δ channels, the Rcp of protons change slightly in their increasing rates compared with the "original" case (with these two channels). However, the Rcp of pions is shifted down for the "no N Δ →N N " case and has an inverse trend for the "no π N →Δ " case. Based on these observations, we argue that the observable Rcp is a suitable tool to better distinguish in-medium effects of protons and pions.

  13. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.

  14. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. P.

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  15. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  16. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  17. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  18. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  19. Skyrme tensor force in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Suckling, E. B.; Fracasso, S.; Barton, M. C.; Umar, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method provides a useful foundation for a fully microscopic many-body theory of low-energy heavy ion reactions. The TDHF method is also known in nuclear physics in the small-amplitude domain, where it provides a useful description of collective states, and is based on the mean-field formalism, which has been a relatively successful approximation to the nuclear many-body problem. Currently, the TDHF theory is being widely used in the study of fusion excitation functions, fission, and deep-inelastic scattering of heavy mass systems, while providing a natural foundation for many other studies. Purpose: With the advancement of computational power it is now possible to undertake TDHF calculations without any symmetry assumptions and incorporate the major strides made by the nuclear structure community in improving the energy density functionals used in these calculations. In particular, time-odd and tensor terms in these functionals are naturally present during the dynamical evolution, while being absent or minimally important for most static calculations. The parameters of these terms are determined by the requirement of Galilean invariance or local gauge invariance but their significance for the reaction dynamics have not been fully studied. This work addresses this question with emphasis on the tensor force. Method: The full version of the Skyrme force, including terms arising only from the Skyrme tensor force, is applied to the study of collisions within a completely symmetry-unrestricted TDHF implementation. Results: We examine the effect on upper fusion thresholds with and without the tensor force terms and find an effect on the fusion threshold energy of the order several MeV. Details of the distribution of the energy within terms in the energy density functional are also discussed. Conclusions: Terms in the energy density functional linked to the tensor force can play a non

  20. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-11-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  1. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.

    2005-06-23

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  2. Elastic recoil detection analysis on the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, R.; Orlic, I.; Cohen, David D.

    2002-05-01

    The heavy ion microprobe at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation is capable of focussing heavy ions with an ME/ q2 of up to 100 amu MeV. This makes the microprobe ideally suited for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). However, beam currents on a microprobe are usually very small, which requires a detection system with a large solid angle. We apply microbeam heavy ion ERDA using a large solid angle ΔE- E telescope with a gas ΔE detector to layered structures. We demonstrate the capability to measure oxygen and carbon with a lateral resolution of 20 μm, together with determination of the depth of the contamination in thin deposited layers.

  3. Report of the heavy-ion fusion task group

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, G.A.; Booth, L.A.; Henderson, D.B.; Jameson, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.; Knapp, E.A.; Pollock, R.; Talbert, W.L.; Thode, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An assessment of heavy-ion fusion has been completed. Energetic heavy ions, for example 10-GeV uranium, provided by an rf linac or an induction linac, are used as alternatives to laser light to drive inertial confinement fusion pellets. The assessment has covered accelerator technology, transport of heavy-ion beams, target interaction physics, civilian power issues, and military applications. It is concluded that particle accelerators promise to be efficient pellet drivers, but that there are formidable technical problems to be solved. It is recommended that a moderate level research program on heavy-ion fusion be pursued and that LASL should continue to work on critical issues in accelerator development, beam transport, reactor systems studies, and target physics over the next few years.

  4. Comparison and physical interpretation of MCNP and TART neutron and γ Monte Carlo shielding calculations for a heavy-ion ICF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainardi, E.; Premuda, F.; Lee, E.

    2004-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) aims to induce implosions of D-T pellets to obtain a extremely dense and hot plasma with lasers or heavy-ion beams. For heavy-ion fusion (HIF), recent research has focused on "liquid-protected" designs that allow highly compact target chambers. In the design of a reactor such as HYLIFE-II [Fus. Techol. 25 (1984); HYLIFE-II Progress Report, UCID-21816, 4.82-100], the liquid used is a molten salt made of F 10, Li 6, Li 7, Be 9 (called flibe). Flibe allows the final-focus magnets to be closer to the target, which helps to reduce the focus spot size and in turn the size of the driver, with a large reduction of the cost of HIF electricity. Consequently the superconducting coils of the magnets closer to the D-T neutron source will potentially suffer higher damage though they can stand only a certain amount of energy deposited before quenching. This work has been primarily focusing on verifying that total energy deposited by fusion neutrons and induced γ rays remain under such limit values and the final purpose is the optimization of the shielding of the magnetic lens system from the points of view of the geometrical configuration and of the physical nature of the materials adopted. The system is analyzed in terms of six geometrical models going from simplified up to much more realistic representations of a system of 192 beam lines, each focused by six magnets. A 3-D transport calculation of the radiation penetrating through ducts, that takes into account the complexity of the system, requires Monte Carlo methods. The technical nature of the design problem and the methodology followed were presented in a previous paper [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 464 (2001) 410] by summarizing briefly the results for the deposited energy distribution on the six focal magnets of a beam line. Now a comparison of the performances of the two codes TART98 [TART98: A Coupled Neutron-Photon 3-D Combinational Geometry Monte Carlo Transport Code, Lawrence Livermore

  5. Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-07-25

    In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy ..gamma..-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/..mu... Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs.

  6. Comparing Tsallis and Boltzmann temperatures from relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider heavy-ion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.-Q.; Liu, F.-H.

    2016-03-01

    The transverse momentum spectra of charged particles produced in Au + Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider and in Pb + Pb collisions at the large hadron collider with different centrality intervals are described by the multisource thermal model which is based on different statistic distributions for a singular source. Each source in the present work is described by the Tsallis distribution and the Boltzmann distribution, respectively. Then, the interacting system is described by the (two-component) Tsallis distribution and the (two-component) Boltzmann distribution, respectively. The results calculated by the two distributions are in agreement with the experimental data of the Solenoidal Tracker At Relativistic heavy ion collider, Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment, and A Large Ion Collider Experiment Collaborations. The effective temperature parameters extracted from the two distributions on the descriptions of heavy-ion data at the relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider are obtained to show a linear correlation.

  7. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a /sup 19/F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an /sup 16/O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  9. Nuclear physics research at the University of Richmond. Progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focused on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and SUNY, Stony Brook. The physics interests driving these efforts at CEBAF are in the study of the structure, interactions, and nuclear-medium modifications of mesons and baryons. This year, an extension of the experiment to measure the magnetic form factor of the neutron was approved by the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee Nine (PAC9) for beam at 6 GeV. The authors also submitted updates to PAC9 on the experiments to measure inclusive {eta} photoproduction in nuclei and electroproduction of the {Lambda}, {Lambda}*(1520), and f{sub 0}(975). In addition to these experiments, the authors collaborated on a proposal to measure rare radiative decays of the {phi} meson which was also approved by PAC9. Their contributions to the construction of the CLAS include the development of the drift-chamber gas system, drift-chamber software, and controls software. Major has been leading the effort in the construction of the gas system. In the last year, the Hall B gas shed was constructed and the installation of the gas system components built at the University of Richmond has begun. Over the last six years, the efforts in low-energy heavy-ion physics have decreased due to the change in focus to electromagnetic nuclear physics at CEBAF. Most of the heavy-ion work is completed and there are now new experiments planned. Included in this report are two papers resulting from collaborations on heavy-ion experiments.

  10. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  11. Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

  12. Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

  13. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  14. Pair creation in heavy ion channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Harman, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy ions channeled through crystals with multi-GeV kinetic energies can create electron-positron pairs. In the framework of the ion, the energy of virtual photons arising from the periodic crystal potential may exceed the threshold 2mec2. The repeated periodic collisions with the crystal ions yield high pair production rates. When the virtual photon frequency matches a nuclear transition in the ion, the production rate can be resonantly increased. In this two-step excitation-pair conversion scheme, the excitation rates are coherently enhanced, and scale approximately quadratically with the number of crystal sites along the channel.

  15. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics. These activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current programs include in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in solar neutrino physics at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada and at SAGE in Russia, and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerators and reactor facilities around the world. Summaries of the individual research projects are included. Areas of research covered are: fundamental symmetries, weak interactions and nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; ultra-relativistic heavy ions; and atomic and molecular clusters.

  16. University of Washington, Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington supports a broad program of experimental physics research. The current program includes in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in double beta decay and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerator and reactor facilities around the world. This book is divided into the following areas: nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries and weak interactions; accelerator mass spectrometry; atomic and molecular clusters; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; external users; electronics, computing, and detector infrastructure; Van de Graff, superconducting booster and ion sources; nuclear physics laboratory personnel; degrees granted for 1994--1995; and list of publications from 1994--1995.

  17. Effect of Track Potentials on the Movement of Secondary Electrons due to Irradiation of Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2017-02-01

    This paper quantitatively discusses the effect of positive nuclear track potentials on the motion of secondary electrons due to heavy-ion irradiation using a simulation model. This model reproduces the tendency of measurement of the number of secondary electrons. Using this model, physical phenomena can be treated closer to reality than those using the conventional models. Here, the track potential is defined as the potential formed from the electric field near the track of a heavy ion. This effect is expected to be given as functions of not only the mean paths (τ) between incident ion impact ionization events but also the average initial secondary electron energies. The results shown in this paper indicate that the effect of the track potential is mainly determined by τ.

  18. Jets in heavy ion collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Christof

    2015-11-01

    In this document I present a brief review of the concepts of jet physics employed in heavy ion physics. Fast partons originating from scatterings with large momentum transfer are produced at very short time-scales and subsequently propagate through the strongly interacting medium produced in the collisions of heavy nuclei. They feature the only experimental handle available to directly study the interaction of a well defined probe and the medium. Consequently they are ideally suited to investigate the nature of the medium produced in these collisions and the mechanism of interaction between the medium and the partons. The experimental methods necessary to reconstruct jets originating from fragmenting partons in the environment of high particle multiplicity heavy ion collisions will be discussed. Physics observables suited to investigate the parton medium interaction will be introduced and a summary of recent results on jet physics in heavy ion collisions is presented.

  19. Tools for the Future of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geesaman, Donald

    2014-03-01

    The challenges of Nuclear Physics, especially in understanding strongly interacting matter in all its forms in the history of the universe, place ever higher demands on the tools of the field, including the workhorse, accelerators. These demands are not just higher energy and higher luminosity. To recreate the matter that fleetingly was formed in the origin of the heavy elements, we need higher power heavy-ion accelerators and creative techniques to harvest the isotopes. We also need high-current low-energy accelerators deep underground to detect the very slow rate reactions in stellar burning. To explore the three dimensional distributions of high-momentum quarks in hadrons and to search for gluonic excitations we need high-current CW electron accelerators. Understanding the gluonic structure of nuclei and the three dimensional distributions of partons at lower x, we need high-luminosity electron-ion colliders that also have the capabilities to prepare, preserve and manipulate the polarization of both beams. A search for the critical point in the QCD phase diagram demands high luminosity beams over a broad range of species and energy. With advances in cavity design and construction, beam manipulation and cooling, and ion sources and targets, the Nuclear Physics community, in the U.S. and internationally has a coordinated vision to deliver this exciting science. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  20. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Miller, J

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  1. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  2. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  3. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  4. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  5. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Preis, Florian

    2017-03-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  6. Hydrodynamic approaches in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derradi de Souza, R.; Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation to the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to be answered to clarify the physics of collective phenomena in the relativistic heavy ion collisions are pointed out.

  7. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  8. Heavy ion driver technology

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  10. NSAC Recommends a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes the plan submitted by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation urging construction of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collider designed to accelerate nucleon beams of ions as heavy as uranium. Discusses the process of selecting the type of facility as well as siting. (JM)

  11. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  12. Antiradiation vaccine: Technology and development of prophylaxis, prevention and treatment of biological consequences from Heavy Ion irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav

    Introduction: An anti-radiation vaccine could be an important part of a countermeasures reg-imen for effective radioprotection, immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy of the acute radi-ation syndromes (ARS) after gamma-irradiation, neutron irradiation or heavy ion irradiation. Reliable protection of non-neoplastic regions of patients with different forms of cancer which undergo to heavy ion therapy ( e.g. Hadron-therapy) can significantly extend the efficiency of the therapeutic course. The protection of cosmonauts astronauts from the heavy ion ra-diation component of space radiation with specific immunoprophylaxis by the anti-radiation vaccine may be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Meth-ods and experiments: 1. The Antiradiation Vaccine preparation -standard (mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins -SRD-group) which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Car-diovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins Specific Radiation Determinant Group were isolated from a central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestiinal, Hematopoi-etic forms of ARS. Devices for γ-radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions irradiation was generated in heavy ion (Fe56) accelerator -UTI. Heavy Ion linear transfer energy -2000-2600 KeV mkm, 600 MeV U. Absorbed Dose -3820 Rad. 3. Experimental Design: Rabbits from all groups were irradiated by heavy ion accelerator. Group A -control -10 rabbits; Group B -placebo -5 rabbits; Group C -radioprotectant Cystamine (50 mg kg)-5 rabbits, 15 minutes before irradiation -5 rabbits; Group D -radioprotectant Gammafos (Amifostine -400mg kg ), -5 rabbits; Group E -Antiradiation Vaccine: subcuta-neus administration or IM -2 ml of active substance, 14 days before irradiation -5 rabbits. 4

  13. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    SciTech Connect

    Soerensen, Allan H.

    2010-02-15

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact ('ultraperipheral collisions'). Requirement of coherent action of the nucleons in order to keep the penetrating projectile intact limits bremsstrahlung to relatively soft photons. The spectrum shows a resonance structure with peak position near 2{gamma} times the position of the giant dipole resonance, that is, near 25{gamma} MeV for a lead ion ({gamma}{identical_to}E/Mc{sup 2} is the Lorentz factor of the projectile of energy E and mass M). The maximum exceeds the bremsstrahlung from a hypothetical structureless, pointlike particle of the same charge and mass as the incoming nucleus, but rapid depletion follows on the high-energy side of the peak. As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions. In collisions with nuclear contact, though, substantial radiation is emitted. It overshoots the bremsstrahlung. However, despite the violence of contact events, the associated photon emission only exceeds the radiation from a hypothetical structureless pointlike nucleus [emitted energy per unit photon-energy interval essentially constant up to ({gamma}-1)Mc{sup 2}] at relatively low photon energies (for lead roughly below 0.2{gamma} GeV, a limit which is about an order of magnitude above the position of the bremsstrahlung peak). Results are presented for bare lead ions penetrating a solid lead target at energies of 158 GeV/n ({gamma}=170) and beyond.

  14. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  15. RHIC and quark matter: proposal for a relativistic heavy ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    This document describes the Brookhaven National Laboratory Proposal for the construction of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The construction of this facility represents the natural continuation of the laboratory's role as a center for nuclear and high-energy physics research and extends and uses the existing AGS, Tandem Van de Graaff and CBA facilities at BNL in a very cost effective manner. The Administration and Congress have approved a project which will provide a link between the Tandem Van de Graaf and the AGS. Completion of this project in 1986 will provide fixed target capabilities at the AGS for heavy ions of about 14 GeV/amu with masses up to approx. 30 (sulfur). The addition of an AGS booster would extend the mass range to the heaviest ions (A approx. 200, e.g., gold); its construction could start in 1986 and be completed in three years. These two new AGS experimental facilities can be combined with the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider to extend the energy range to 100 x 100 GeV/amu for the heaviest ions. BNL proposes to start construction of RHIC in FY 86 with completion in FY 90 at a total cost of 134 M$.

  16. Heavy ion beams from an Alphatross source for use in calibration and testing of diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, R. J.; Brown, G. M.; Ho, D.; Stockler, B. F. O. F.; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    Ion beams from the 1.7 MV Pelletron Accelerator at SUNY Geneseo have been used to test and calibrate many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) diagnostics and high energy density physics (HEDP) diagnostics used at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The ion source on this accelerator, a radio-frequency (RF) alkali-metal charge exchange source called an Alphatross, is designed to produce beams of hydrogen and helium isotopes. There is interest in accelerating beams of carbon, oxygen, argon, and other heavy ions for use in testing several diagnostics, including the Time Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF). The feasibility of generating these heavy ion beams using the Alphatross source will be reported. Small amounts of various gases are mixed into the helium plasma in the ion source bottle. A velocity selector is used to allow the desired ions to pass into the accelerator. As the heavy ions pass through the stripper canal of the accelerator, they emerge in a variety of charge states. The energy of the ion beam at the high-energy end of the accelerator will vary as a function of the charge state, however the maximum energy deliverable to target is limited by the maximum achievable magnetic field produced by the accelerator's steering magnet. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  17. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  18. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Rhic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foelsche, H.; Hahn, H.; Harrison, M.; Ozaki, S.; Rhoades-Brown, M. J.

    1993-03-01

    The scope of the first relativistic energy heavy ion collider, RHIC, is discussed. Particular attention is paid to those novel features of a heavy ion collider that are distinct from the more usual proton machines. These features are derived from the experimental requirements of operation with a variety of ion species over a wide energy range as well as the increased demands on available ion sources and injector complexes. Storage of heavy ion beams for many hours is severely impacted by intrabeam scattering.

  19. Operational Stochastic Cooling in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Severino, F.

    2008-05-02

    Operational stochastic cooling of 100 GeV/nucleon gold beams has been achieved in the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. We discuss the physics and technology of the longitudinal cooling system and present results with the beams. A simulation algorithm is described and shown to accurately model the system.

  20. Photon and dilepton production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Takao

    2015-05-07

    The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high energy heavy ion collisions, obtained particularly at RHIC and LHC are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.

  1. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor.

  3. Experimental results from CERN on reaction mechanisms in high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, S.P. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    Three main experimental results from CERN concerning reaction mechanisms in high energy heavy ion collisions are discussed: (1) the striking validity of the single particle picture, (2) the nuclear stopping power and (3) the attained energy densities.

  4. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  5. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The National Energy Strategy calls for a demonstration IFE power plant by the year 2025. The cornerstone of the plan to meet this ambitious goal is research and development for heavy-ion driver technology. A series of successes indicates that the technology being studied by the HIFAR Group -- the induction accelerator -- is a prime candidate for further technology development toward this long-range goal. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions; the understanding of the scaling laws that apply in this hitherto little-explored physics regime; and the validation of new, potentially more economical accelerator strategies. Key specific elements to be addressed include: fundamental physical limits of transverse and longitudinal beam quality; development of induction modules for accelerators, along with multiple-beam hardware, at reasonable cost; acceleration of multiple beams, merging of the beams, and amplification of current without significant dilution of beam quality; final bunching, transport, and focusing onto a small target. In 1992, the HIFAR Program was concerned principally with the next step toward a driver: the design of ILSE, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments. ILSE will address most of the remaining beam-control and beam-manipulation issues at partial driver scale. A few parameters -- most importantly, the line charge density and consequently the size of the ILSE beams -- will be at full driver scale. A theory group closely integrated with the experimental groups continues supporting present-day work and looking ahead toward larger experiments and the eventual driver. Highlights of this long-range, driver-oriented research included continued investigations of longitudinal instability and some new insights into scaled experiments with which the authors might examine hard-to-calculate beam-dynamics phenomena.

  6. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Recent developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions around the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.; Yao, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear fusion is a reaction to form a compound nucleus. It plays an important role in several circumstances in nuclear physics as well as in nuclear astrophysics, such as synthesis of superheavy elements and nucleosynthesis in stars. Here we discuss two recent theoretical developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The first topic is a generalization of the Wong formula for fusion cross sections in a single-channel problem. By introducing an energy dependence to the barrier parameters, we show that the generalized formula leads to results practically indistinguishable from a full quantal calculation, even for light symmetric systems such as 12C+12C, for which fusion cross sections show an oscillatory behavior. We then discuss a semi-microscopic modeling of heavy-ion fusion reactions, which combine the coupled-channels approach to the state-of-the-art nuclear structure calculations for low-lying collective motions. We apply this method to subbarrier fusion reactions of 58Ni+58Ni and 40Ca+58Ni systems, and discuss the role of anharmonicity of the low-lying vibrational motions.

  8. Overview of US heavy-ion fusion progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    2004-06-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators seek to provide the scientific and technical basis for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an integrated source-to-target physics experiment recently included in the list of future facilities planned by the U.S. Department of Energy. To optimize the design of IBX and future inertial fusion energy drivers, current HIF-VNL research is addressing several key issues (representative, not inclusive): gas and electron cloud effects which can exacerbate beam loss at high beam perveance and magnet aperture fill factors; ballistic neutralized and assisted-pinch focusing of neutralized heavy ion beams; limits on longitudinal compression of both neutralized and un-neutralized heavy ion bunches; and tailoring heavy ion beams for uniform target energy deposition for high energy density physics (HEDP) studies.

  9. Highlights of the heavy ion fusion symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The current status and prospects for inertial confinement fusion based on the use of intense beams of heavy ions will be described in the light of results presented at the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion, (Washington, DC, May 27-29, 1986).

  10. Quantifying the sQGP - Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Richard

    2014-12-01

    This is the closeout for DE-FG02-86ER40271 entitled Quantifying the sQGP - Heavy Ion Collisions at the RHIC. Two major things were accomplished. The first, is the physics planning, design, approval, construction, and commissioning of the MPC-EX. The MPC-EX is an electromagnetic calorimeter covering a rapidity of 3<|eta|<4, which was added to the PHENIX detector. Its primary aim is to measure low-x gluons, in order to understand the suppression seen in a variety of signatures, such as the J/Psi. A candidate to explain this phenomena is the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) A second task was to look at collisions of asymmetric species, in particularly Cu+Au. The signature was the suppression of J/Psi mesons at forward and backward rapidity, where a stronger suppression was seen in the copper going direction. While the blue of the suppression is due to hot nuclear matter effects (e.g. screening) the increase in suppression on the Au side was consistent with cold nuclear matter effects seen in d+Au collisions. A major candidate for the explanation of this phenomena is the aforementioned CGC. Finally the work on sPHENIX, particularly an extension to the forward region, called fsPHENIX is described.

  11. Fourth workshop on experiments and detectors for a relativistic heavy ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fatyga, M.; Moskowitz, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: physics at RHIC; flavor flow from quark-gluon plasma; space-time quark-gluon cascade; jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions; parton distributions in hard nuclear collisions; experimental working groups, two-arm electron/photon spectrometer collaboration; total and elastic pp cross sections; a 4{pi} tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer; hadron spectroscopy; efficiency and background simulations for J/{psi} detection in the RHIC dimuon experiment; the collision regions beam crossing geometries; Monte Carlo simulations of interactions and detectors; proton-nucleus interactions; the physics of strong electromagnetic fields in collisions of relativistic heavy ions; a real time expert system for experimental high energy/nuclear physics; the development of silicon multiplicity detectors; a pad readout detector for CRID/tracking; RHIC TPC R D progress and goals; development of analog memories for RHIC detector front-end electronic systems; calorimeter/absorber optimization for a RHIC dimuon experiment; construction of a highly segmented high resolution TOF system; progress report on a fast, particle-identifying trigger based on ring-imaging and highly integrated electronics for a TPC detector.

  12. Geometrical methods in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taliotis, Anastasios

    Currently there exists no known way to construct the Stress-Energy tensor (Tmunu) of the medium produced in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling from purely theoretical grounds. In this work, some steps are taken in that direction. In particular, the evolution of Tmunu at strong coupling and at high energies is being studied for early proper times (tau). This is achieved in the context of the AdS/CFT duality by constructing the evolution of the dual geometry in an AdS5 background. We consider high energy collisions of two shock waves in AdS5 as a model of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in the boundary theory. We first calculate the graviton field produced in the collisions in the LO, NLO and NNLO approximations, corresponding to two, three and four-graviton exchanges with the shock waves. We use this model to study Tmunu and in particular the energy density of the strongly-coupled matter created immediately after the collision because as we argue, the expansion of the energy density (epsilon) in the powers of proper time tau squared corresponds on the gravity side to a perturbative expansion of the metric in graviton exchanges. We point out that shock waves corresponding to physical energy-momentum tensors of the nuclei is likely to completely stop after the collision; on the field theory side, this corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. This motivates a more detailed investigation. For this reason we consider the asymmetric limit where the energy density in one shock wave is much higher than in the other one. In the boundary theory this setup corresponds to proton-nucleus collisions. Employing the eikonal approximation we find the exact high energy analytic solution for the metric in AdS5 for the asymmetric collision of two delta-function shock waves. The solution resums all-order graviton exchanges with the nucleus-shock wave and a single-graviton exchange with the proton

  13. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  14. The FIDIAS project: Development of a Micromegas TPC for the detection of low-energy heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguaz, Francisco José; Panebianco, Stefano; Axiotis, Michael; Druillole, Frédéric; Fanourakis, George; Geralis, Theodoros; Giomataris, Ioannis; Harissopulos, Sotirios; Lagoyannis, Anastasios; Papaevangelou, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Time Projection Chambers are widely used since many years for tracking and identification of charged particles in high energy physics. We present here a new R&D project, called FIDIAS, meant to investigate the feasibility of a Micromegas TPC for low energy heavy ions detection. In this framework, a TPC prototype based on Micromegas bulk technique has been extensively tested with spontaneous fission source. A deep analysis of the experimental results has been realized leading to a full characterization of the prototype in terms of gain, energy resolution and track reconstruction as a function of three working gas: helium, neon and argon. The encouraging results have also been compared to simulations, showing the Micromegas TPC is a very well suited detector for the detection of heavy ions in nuclear reactions at low energy.

  15. Pion correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Heavy Ion Spectrometer Systems (HISS)

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, W.B. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    This thesis contains the setup, analysis and results of experiment E684H Multi-Pion Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions''. The goals of the original proposal were: (1) To initiate the use of the HISS facility in the study of central Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC). (2) To perform a second generation experiment for the detailed study of the pion source in RHIC. The first generation experiments, implied by the second goal above, refer to pion correlation studies which the Riverside group had performed at the LBL streamer chamber. The major advantage offered by moving the pion correlation studies to HISS is that, being an electronic detector system, as opposed to the Streamer Chamber which is a visual detector, one can greatly increase the statistics for a study of this sort. An additional advantage is that once one has written the necessary detector and physics analysis code to do a particular type of study, the study may be extended to investigate the systematics, with much less effort and in a relatively short time. This paper discusses the Physics motivation for this experiment, the experimental setup and detectors used, the pion correlation analysis, the results, and the conclusions possible future directions for pion studies at HISS. If one is not interested in all the details of the experiment, I believe that by reading the sections on intensity interferometry, the section the fitting of the correlation function and the systematic corrections applied, and the results section, one will get a fairly complete synopsis of the experiment.

  16. Three-dimensional Model of Tissue and Heavy Ions Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Huff, Janice L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional tissue model was incorporated into a new Monte Carlo algorithm that simulates passage of heavy ions in a tissue box . The tissue box was given as a realistic model of tissue based on confocal microscopy images. The action of heavy ions on the cellular matrix for 2- or 3-dimensional cases was simulated. Cells were modeled as a cell culture monolayer in one example, where the data were taken directly from microscopy (2-d cell matrix), and as a multi-layer obtained from confocal microscopy (3-d case). Image segmentation was used to identify cells with precise areas/volumes in an irradiated cell culture monolayer, and slices of tissue with many cell layers. The cells were then inserted into the model box of the simulated physical space pixel by pixel. In the case of modeled tissues (3-d), the tissue box had periodic boundary conditions imposed, which extrapolates the technique to macroscopic volumes of tissue. For the real tissue (3-d), specific spatial patterns for cell apoptosis and necrosis are expected. The cell patterns were modeled based on action cross sections for apoptosis and necrosis estimated from current experimental data. A spatial correlation function indicating a higher spatial concentration of damaged cells from heavy ions relative to the low-LET radiation cell damage pattern is presented. The spatial correlation effects among necrotic cells can help studying microlesions in organs, and probable effects of directionality of heavy ion radiation on epithelium and endothelium.

  17. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facius, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on 'HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight', it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to 'large' fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too ('The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research'), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions' trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series. Since biological investigations and physical measurements of particle tracks had to be performed in laboratories widely separated, the preferred fixed contact between biological test objects and the particle detectors

  18. Chiral electric field in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yang; Yang, Chun-Bin; Cai, Xu; Feng, Sheng-Qin

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that electric fields may lead to chiral separation in quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This is called the chiral electric separation effect. The strong electromagnetic field and the QCD vacuum can both be completely produced in off-central nuclear-nuclear collision. We use the Woods-Saxon nucleon distribution to calculate the electric field distributions of off-central collisions. The chiral electric field spatial distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy regions are systematically studied in this paper. The dependence of the electric field produced by the thermal quark in the central position with different impact parameters on the proper time with different collision energies in the RHIC and LHC energy regions are studied in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375069, 11435054, 11075061, 11221504) and Key Laboratory Foundation of Quark and Lepton Physics (Hua-Zhong Normal University)(QLPL2014P01)

  19. Coherent rho(0) production in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Deng, W S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Filimonov, K; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; LoCurto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moiseenko, V A; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Nystrand, J; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thomas, J H; Thompson, M; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2002-12-30

    The STAR Collaboration reports the first observation of exclusive rho(0) photoproduction, AuAu-->AuAurho(0), and rho(0) production accompanied by mutual nuclear Coulomb excitation, AuAu-->Au*Au*rho(0), in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions. The rho(0) have low transverse momenta, consistent with coherent coupling to both nuclei. The cross sections at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV agree with theoretical predictions treating rho(0) production and Coulomb excitation as independent processes.

  20. Diffraction phenomena in elastic scattering of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyar, V.V.; Shebeko, A.V.

    1981-08-01

    Nuclear diffraction phenomena in elastic scattering of heavy ions are studied in the intermediate energy range. Examination is carried out using the strong absorption models for the S-matrix in the angular momentum representation. New asymptotic expressions for the diffraction scattering amplitudes are obtained. The main attention is paid to the study of the relation between the Fresnel and the Fraunhofer parts of the amplitudes obtained in different regions of scattering angles.

  1. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics. [Indiana Univ. Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C J; Macfarlane, M H; Matsui, T; Serot, B D

    1993-01-01

    A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e[prime]p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus[endash]nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark[endash]gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon[endash]nucleon force.

  2. PREFACE: XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.; Bijker, R.

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo The XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held at Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico from January 3-6 2012. Conceived in 1978 as a small meeting, over the years and thanks to the efforts of various organizing committees, the symposium has become a well known international conference on nuclear physics. To the best of our knowledge, the Mexican Symposium on Nuclear Physics represents the conference series with longest tradition in Latin America and one of the longest-running annual nuclear physics conferences in the world. The Symposium brings together leading scientists from all around the world, working in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, physics with radioactive ion beams, hadronic physics, nuclear astrophysics, neutron physics and relativistic heavy-ion physics. Its main goal is to provide a relaxed environment where the exchange of ideas, discussion of new results and consolidation of scientific collaboration are encouraged. To celebrate the 35th edition of the symposium 53 colleagues attended from diverse countries including: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Japan, Saudi Arabia and USA. We were happy to have the active participation of Eli F Aguilera, Eduardo Andrade, Octavio Castaños, Alfonso Mondragón, Stuart Pittel and Andrés Sandoval who also participated in the first edition of the Symposium back in 1978. We were joined by old friends of Cocoyoc (Stuart Pittel, Osvaldo Civitarese, Piet Van Isacker, Jerry Draayer and Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri) as well as several first time visitors that we hope will come back to this scientific meeting in the forthcoming years. The scientific program consisted of 33 invited talks, proposed by the international advisory committee, which nicely covered the topics of the Symposium giving a balanced perspective between the experimental and the theoretical work that is currently underway in each line of research. Fifteen posters complemented the scientific sessions giving the opportunity

  3. Workshop summary. Biomedical and Space-Related Research with Heavy Ions at the BEVALAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Curtis, S. B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of papers presented at a workshop on Biomedical and Space-Related Research with Heavy Ions at the BEVALAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Goals of the meeting were to determine the critical experiments using heavy ions as probes in radiation physics, radiation chemistry, macromolecular and cellular biology, evolution science, basic neurophysiology, and medical therapies; how beam lines and facilities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory can be improved for these experiments; and implications in priorities and funding for national policy. Workshop topics included physics and facilities, cellular and molecular biology, tissue radiobiology, and the future of heavy ion research.

  4. PREFACE: XIV Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2014-07-01

    This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 29-31 October, 2013. The meeting was held at the Palazzone, an elegant Renaissance Villa, commissioned by the Cardinal Silvio Passerini (1469-1529), Bishop of Cortona, and presently owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennial Conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of nuclear physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to stimulate new ideas and promote collaborations between different research groups. The Conference was attended by 46 participants, coming from 13 Italian Universities and 11 Laboratories and Sezioni of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN. The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on the following main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems Nuclear Structure Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Quark-Gluon Plasma Nuclear Astrophysics Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited review talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Giacomo De Angelis from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the INFN SPES radioactive ion beam project. Sara Pirrone, INFN Sezione di Catania, gave a talk on the symmetry energy and isospin physics with the CHIMERA detector. Finally, Mauro Taiuti (Università di Genova), National Coordinator of the INFN-CSN3 (Nuclear Physics Experiments), reported on the present status and future challenges of experimental nuclear physics in Italy. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of INFN who helped make the conference possible. I Bombaci, A Covello

  5. Panel report: nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A; Hartouni, Edward P

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that supports the

  6. Method for separating jets and the underlying event in heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, J. A.; Sickles, A. M.; Cole, B. A.; Franz, A.; McCumber, M. P.; Morrison, D. P.; Nagle, J. L.; Pinkenburg, C. H.; Sahlmueller, B.; Steinberg, P.; von Steinkirch, M.; Stone, M.

    2012-08-01

    Reconstructed jets in heavy ion collisions are a crucial tool for understanding the quark-gluon plasma. The separation of jets from the underlying event is necessary particularly in central heavy ion reactions in order to quantify medium modifications of the parton shower and the response of the surrounding medium itself. There have been many methods proposed and implemented for studying the underlying event substructure in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. In this paper, we detail a method for understanding underlying event contributions in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV utilizing the HIJING event generator. This method, extended from previous work by the ATLAS collaboration, provides a well-defined association of “truth jets” from the fragmentation of hard partons with “reconstructed jets” using the anti-kT algorithm. Results presented here are based on an analysis of 750M minimum bias HIJING events. We find that there is a substantial range of jet energies and radius parameters where jets are well separated from the background fluctuations (often termed “fake jets”) that make jet measurements at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider a compelling physics program.

  7. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  8. Relativistic heavy ion fragmentation at HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System)

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to measure projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. Charge identification was obtained by the use of a Cerenkov Hodoscope operating above the threshold for total internal reflection, while velocity measurement was performed by use of a second set of Cerenkov radiators operating at the threshold for total internal reflection. Charge and mass resolution for the system was {sigma}{sub Z} = 0.2 e and {sigma}{sub A} = 0.2 u. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic production cross sections for the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar at 1.65{center dot}A GeV have been compared with an Abrasion-Ablation Model based on the evaporation computer code GEMINI. The model proves to be an accurate predictor of the cross sections for fragments between Chlorine and Boron. The measured cross section were reproduced using simple geometry with charge dispersions induced by zero-point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance for the prompt abrasion stage, and injecting an excitation energy spectrum based on a final state interaction with scaling factor E{sub fsi} = 38.8 MeV/c. Measurement of the longitudinal momentum distribution widths for projectile fragments are consistent with previous experiment and can be interpreted as reflecting the Fermi momentum distribution in the initial projectile nucleus. Measurement of the transverse momentum indicate an additional, unexplained dependence of the reduced momentum widths on fragment mass. This dependence has the same sign and similar slope to previously measured fragments of {sup 139}La, and to predictions based on phase-space constraints on the final state of the system.

  9. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    SciTech Connect

    Facius, R.

    1994-12-31

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on `HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight`, it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to `large` fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too (`The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research`), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions` trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series.

  10. Nuclear Physics Review

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Anchoring low-energy nuclear physics to the fundamental theory of strong interactions remains an outstanding challenge. I review the current progress and challenges of the endeavor to use lattice QCD to bridge this connection. This is a particularly exciting time for this line of research as demonstrated by the spike in the number of different collaborative efforts focussed on this problem and presented at this conference. I first digress and discuss the 2013 Ken Wilson Award.

  11. Observation of anomalous reaction mean free paths of nuclear-projectile fragments in research emulsion from 2 A GeV heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Karant, Y.J.

    1981-07-01

    From an analysis of 1460 projectile fragment collisions in nuclear research emulsion exposed to 2.1 A GeV /sup 16/O and 1.9 A GeV /sup 56/Fe at the Bevalac, evidence is presented for the existence of an anomalously short interaction mean free path of projectile fragments for the first several cm after emission. The result is significant to beyond the 3 standard deviation confidence level.

  12. Understanding of the mechanical and structural changes induced by alpha particles and heavy ions in the French simulated nuclear waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakurt, G.; Abdelouas, A.; Guin, J.-P.; Nivard, M.; Sauvage, T.; Paris, M.; Bardeau, J.-F.

    2016-07-01

    Borosilicate glasses are considered for the long-term confinement of high-level nuclear wastes. External irradiations with 1 MeV He+ ions and 7 MeV Au5+ ions were performed to simulate effects produced by alpha particles and by recoil nuclei in the simulated SON68 nuclear waste glass. To better understand the structural modifications, irradiations were also carried out on a 6-oxides borosilicate glass, a simplified version of the SON68 glass (ISG glass). The mechanical and macroscopic properties of the glasses were studied as function of the deposited electronic and nuclear energies. Alpha particles and gold ions induced a volume change up to -0.7% and -2.7%, respectively, depending on the glass composition. Nano-indentations tests were used to determine the mechanical properties of the irradiated glasses. A decrease of about -22% to -38% of the hardness and a decrease of the reduced Young's modulus by -8% were measured after irradiations. The evolution of the glass structure was studied by Raman spectroscopy, and also 11B and 27Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR) on a 20 MeV Kr irradiated ISG glass powder. A decrease of the silica network connectivity after irradiation with alpha particles and gold ions is deduced from the structural changes observations. NMR spectra revealed a partial conversion of BO4 to BO3 units but also a formation of AlO5 and AlO6 species after irradiation with Kr ions. The relationships between the mechanical and structural changes are also discussed.

  13. PREFACE: XXXVIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics (Cocoyoc 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.

    2015-09-01

    The 38th edition of the Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held at Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico from January 6-9, 2015. As in previous years, the Symposium brought together leading scientists from all around the world, working on: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, physics with radioactive ion beams, hadronic physics, nuclear astrophysics, neutron physics and relativistic heavy-ion physics. The scientific program consisted of 27 invited talks, proposed by the international advisory committee that covered, in a balanced way, the experimental and theoretical work that currently is undergoing in the research fields of the Symposium. Ten posters complemented the program, providing students with an opportunity to bring their work to the attention of visiting scientists. This year, the conference activities also included a special talk presented by Archaeologist Omar Espinosa Severino about the ancient ruins found in Chalcatzingo, a village located approximately a 40 minute drive from the conference venue. The talk was followed by a visit to the archaeological site, guided by the group led by Archaeologist Mario Cordova Tello. The present volume contains 14 research articles based on invited talks presented at the Symposium. I would like to thank all the authors for their enthusiastic contribution. Special thanks to the anonymous referees for the time devoted to the review process, their input helped to maintain a high standard of the Conference Proceedings. Finally I would also like to thank the Symposiums' International Advisory Committee and the Sponsoring Organizations that made this event possible.

  14. Hadronic and electromagnetic fragmentation of ultrarelativistic heavy ions at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, H. H.; Fassò, A.; Ferrari, A.; Jowett, J. M.; Sala, P. R.; Smirnov, G. I.

    2014-02-01

    Reliable predictions of yields of nuclear fragments produced in electromagnetic dissociation and hadronic fragmentation of ion beams are of great practical importance in analyzing beam losses and interactions with the beam environment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN as well as for estimating radiation effects of galactic cosmic rays on the spacecraft crew and electronic equipment. The model for predicting the fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions is briefly described, and then applied to problems of relevance for LHC. The results are based on the fluka code, which includes electromagnetic dissociation physics and dpmjet-iii as hadronic event generator. We consider the interaction of fully stripped lead ions with nuclei in the energy range from about one hundred MeV to ultrarelativistic energies. The yields of fragments close in the mass and charge to initial ions are calculated. The approach under discussion provides a good overall description of Pb fragmentation data at 30 and 158A GeV as well as recent LHC data for √sNN =2.76 TeV Pb-Pb interactions. Good agreement with the calculations in the framework of different models is found. This justifies application of the developed simulation technique both at the LHC injection energy of 177A GeV and at its collision energies of 1.38, 1.58, and 2.75A TeV, and gives confidence in the results obtained.

  15. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1991-01-01

    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  16. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections.

  17. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-24

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  18. Influence of the density of states on the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution of the emitted fragments in nuclear heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleya, N. L.; Souza, S. R.; Carlson, B. V.; Donangelo, R.; Lynch, W. G.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    The fragmentation of thermalized sources is studied using a version of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model which employs state densities that take the pairing gap in the nuclear levels into account. Attention is focused on the properties of the charge distributions observed in the breakup of the source. Since the microcanonical version of the model used in this study provides the primary fragment excitation energy distribution, one may correlate the reduction of the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution with the increasing occupation of high-energy states. Thus, in the framework of this model, such staggering tends to disappear as a function of the total excitation energy of the source, although the energy per particle may be small for large systems. We also find that, although the deexcitation of the primary fragments should, in principle, blur these odd-even effects as the fragments follow their decay chains, the consistent treatment of pairing may significantly enhance these staggering effects on the final yields. In the framework of this model, we find that odd-even effects in the charge distributions should be observed in the fragmentation of relatively light systems at very low excitation energies. Our results also suggest that the odd-even staggering may provide useful information on the nuclear state density.

  19. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.D.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1994-07-01

    Under Hadrons in Nuclei and Nuclear Matter the authors research the ways in which the properties of nucleons and mesons are modified in the nuclear medium. Research progress is reported on a number of topics in this general area, including studies of the role of chiral symmetry for finite density or temperature nuclear matter, the use of QCD sum rules to describe baryons in nuclear matter, and color transparency. In the general field of Hadron Physics broad progress included studies of perturbative QCD, heavy quark physics, QCD sum rules, and QCD-based models. Notable progress was also achieved in Relativistic Dynamics in Quark, Hadron, and Nuclear Physics, where an explicit model of composite particles shows how the z-graph physics (which is an essential part of Dirac phenomenology) comes about. In addition, calculations of elastic electron-deuteron scattering based on two-body relativistic dynamics and meson exchange currents were completed, as were studies of quark-anti-quark bound states based on a relativistic quark model. Progress is also reported on the relativistic few-body problem. In the area of Heavy Ion Dynamics and Sharp Lepton Pairs, work continues on the Composite Particle Scenario for the `Sharp Lepton Problem`. In particular, the scenario can now encompass the anomalous sharp leptons reported from positron irradiation of heavy neutral atoms, establishing such irradiations as an alternative experimental window to the heavy ion experiments.

  20. Accelerators for heavy ion inertial fusion: Progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.; Friedman, A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Program is the principal part of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program in the Office of Fusion Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy. The emphasis of the Heavy Ion Program is the development of accelerators for fusion power production. Target physics research and some elements of fusion chamber development are supported in the much larger Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, a dual purpose (defense and energy) program in the Defense Programs part of the Department of Energy. The accelerator research program will establish feasibility through a sequence of scaled experiments that will demonstrate key physics and engineering issues at low cost compared to other fusion programs. This paper discusses progress in the accelerator program and outlines how the planned research will address the key economic issues of inertial fusion energy.

  1. Heavy ion event generator HYDJET++ (HYDrodynamics plus JETs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhtin, I. P.; Malinina, L. V.; Petrushanko, S. V.; Snigirev, A. M.; Arsene, I.; Tywoniuk, K.

    2009-05-01

    ) Operating system: Linux (Scientific Linux, Red Hat Enterprise, FEDORA, etc.) RAM: 50 MBytes (determined by ROOT requirements) Classification: 11.2 External routines: ROOT [1] ( http://root.cern.ch/) Nature of problem: The experimental and phenomenological study of multi-particle production in relativistic heavy ion collisions is expected to provide valuable information on the dynamical behavior of strongly-interacting matter in the form of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) [2-4], as predicted by lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. Ongoing and future experimental studies in a wide range of heavy ion beam energies require the development of new Monte Carlo (MC) event generators and improvement of existing ones. Especially for experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), implying very high parton and hadron multiplicities, one needs fast (but realistic) MC tools for heavy ion event simulations [5-7]. The main advantage of MC technique for the simulation of high-multiplicity hadroproduction is that it allows a visual comparison of theory and data, including if necessary the detailed detector acceptances, responses and resolutions. The realistic MC event generator has to include maximum possible number of observable physical effects, which are important to determine the event topology: from the bulk properties of soft hadroproduction (domain of low transverse momenta p≲1 GeV/c) such as collective flows, to hard multi-parton production in hot and dense QCD-matter, which reveals itself in the spectra of high- p particles and hadronic jets. Moreover, the role of hard and semi-hard particle production at LHC can be significant even for the bulk properties of created matter, and hard probes of QGP became clearly observable in various new channels [8-11]. In the majority of the available MC heavy ion event generators, the simultaneous treatment of collective flow effects for soft hadroproduction and hard multi-parton in-medium production (medium-induced partonic

  2. New results for ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczurek, Antoni; Kłusek-Gawenda, Mariola; Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Schäfer, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    We discuss diphoton semi(exclusive) production in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at energy of √{sN N }=5.5 TeV (LHC). The nuclear calculations are based on equivalent photon approximation in the impact parameter space. The cross sections for elementary γγ → γγ subprocess are calculated including three different mechanisms: box diagrams with leptons and quarks in the loops, a VDM-Regge contribution with virtual intermediate hadronic excitations of the photons and the two-gluon exchange contribution (formally three-loops). We got relatively high cross sections in PbPb collisions. This opens a possibility to study the γγ → γγ (quasi)elastic scattering at the LHC. We find that the cross section for elastic γγ scattering could be measured in the lead-lead collisions for the diphoton invariant mass up to Wγγ ≈ 15 - 20 GeV. We identify region(s) of phase space where the two-gluon exchange contribution becomes important ingredient compared to box and nonperturbative VDM-Regge mechanisms. We discuss also first results concerning production of two e+e- pairs in UPCs of heavy ions. We considered only double scattering mechanism.

  3. CERN achievements in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenio Bruno, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    Twenty years after a Letter of Intent by the GSI and LBL groups for the "Study of particle production and target fragmentation in central 20Ne on Pb reactions, at 12 GeV per nucleon energy of the CERN PS external beam" [1], based on the results found by the NA45/CERES, NA49, NA50, and WA97/NA57 experiments at the SPS, CERN announced compelling evidence for the formation of a new state of matter in heavyion collisions at CERN-SPS energies [2]. Some of the experiments were indeed the 2nd or 3rd generation successors of the apparatuses originally proposed by the GSI-LBL collaboration. Actually, the CERN ion program initiated at the SPS with the acceleration of oxygen ions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon only in 1986, and continued with sulphur ions at 200 GeV/nucleon up to 1993. The rest is history: lead-ion beams at 160 GeV/nucleon became available at the SPS in 1994; the LHC accelerated and collided lead beams at a center of mass energy per nucleon pair √sNN = 2.76 TeV in 2010. Heavy ion physics is definitely in the future program of CERN: ALICE will operate a major upgrade of its detectors during the second long shutdown of the LHC, in 2018-2019, and the associated physics program will span the third and fourth LHC runs, till late 2020s.

  4. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of two critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments are reviewed. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He-C and He-N and He-O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as D-2 plus He-3 are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N(nu), is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of tau(n) = 890 + or - 4s (tau(1/2) = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N(nu) = 2.6 + or - 0.3 (1 sigma), providing a reasonable fit (1.3 sigma) to three families but making a fourth light (m(nu) less than or equal to 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedly unlikely (approx. greater than 4.7 sigma). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-baryon phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions.

  5. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Brookhaven Summer Program on Quarkonium Production in Elementary and Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, A.; Lourenco, C.; Petreczky, P.; Qiu, J., Ruan, L.

    2011-08-03

    Understanding the structure of the hadron is of fundamental importance in subatomic physics. Production of heavy quarkonia is arguably one of the most fascinating subjects in strong interaction physics. It offers unique perspectives into the formation of QCD bound states. Heavy quarkonia are among the most studied particles both theoretically and experimentally. They have been, and continue to be, the focus of measurements in all high energy colliders around the world. Because of their distinct multiple mass scales, heavy quarkonia were suggested as a probe of the hot quark-gluon matter produced in heavy-ion collisions; and their production has been one of the main subjects of the experimental heavy-ion programs at the SPS and RHIC. However, since the discovery of J/psi at Brookhaven National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory over 36 years ago, theorists still have not been able to fully understand the production mechanism of heavy quarkonia, although major progresses have been made in recent years. With this in mind, a two-week program on quarkonium production was organized at BNL on June 6-17, 2011. Many new experimental data from LHC and from RHIC were presented during the program, including results from the LHC heavy ion run. To analyze and correctly interpret these measurements, and in order to quantify properties of the hot matter produced in heavy-ion collisions, it is necessary to improve our theoretical understanding of quarkonium production. Therefore, a wide range of theoretical aspects on the production mechanism in the vacuum as well as in cold nuclear and hot quark-gluon medium were discussed during the program from the controlled calculations in QCD and its effective theories such as NRQCD to various models, and to the first principle lattice calculation. The scientific program was divided into three major scientific parts: basic production mechanism for heavy quarkonium in vacuum or in high energy elementary collisions; the

  6. Production of highly charged heavy ions by 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    PubMed

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been installed as a subject of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron upgrade project (K. Hatanaka et al., in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 18-22 October 2004, pp. 115-117), in order to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions. The production development of several ions has been performed since 2006 and some of them have already been used for user experiments [T. Yorita et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008)]. Further optimizations for each component such as the material of plasma electrode, material, and shape of bias probe and mirror field have been continued and more intense ion beams have been obtained for O, N, and Ar. For the purpose of obtaining highly charged Xe with several microamperes, the optimization of position and shape of plasma electrode and bias disk has also been done and highly charged Xe(32+) beam has been obtained successfully.

  7. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety.

  8. From Stopping to Viscosity in Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Brent W.; Danielewicz, Pawel

    2010-04-26

    Stopping in heavy ion collisions is investigated with the aim of learning about the shear viscosity of nuclear matter. Boltzmann equation simulations are compared to available data on stopping in the energy range of 20-117 MeV/nucleon. Stopping observables used include momentum anisotropy and linear momentum transfer. The data show that modeling the transport with free nucleon-nucleon cross-sections is inaccurate and reduced cross-sections are required. Reduction of the cross-sections produces an increase in the shear viscosity of nuclear matter, compared to calculations based on free cross-sections.

  9. Physics Division annual report - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-07

    Summaries are given of progress accomplished for the year in the following areas: (1) Heavy-Ion Nuclear Physics Research; (2) Operation and Development of Atlas; (3) Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics Research; (4) Theoretical Physics Research; and (5) Atomic and Molecular Physics Research.

  10. Physics through the 1990s: Nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical introduction to nuclear physics. A description of the major advances in the field follows, with chapters on nuclear structure and dynamics, fundamental forces in the nucleus, and nuclei under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and spin. Impacts of nuclear physics on astrophysics and the scientific and societal benefits of nuclear physics are then discussed. Another section deals with scientific frontiers, describing research into the realm of the quark-gluon plasma; the changing description of nuclear matter, specifically the use of the quark model; and the implications of the standard model and grand unified theories of elementary-particle physics; and finishes with recommendations and priorities for nuclear physics research facilities, instrumentation, accelerators, theory, education, and data bases. Appended are a list of national accelerator facilities, a list of reviewers, a bibliography, and a glossary.

  11. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna; Freire Soler, Victor M.; Brökers, Lara; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS2 and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS2 does not.

  12. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L. J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-01

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  13. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, JJ; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-03

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  14. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  15. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Bangerter, R.O. ); Bock, R. ); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  16. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  17. Laser-based acceleration for nuclear physics experiments at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesileanu, O.; Asavei, Th.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Negoita, F.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    As part of the Extreme Light pan-European research infrastructure, Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Romania will focus on topics in Nuclear Physics, fundamental Physics and applications, based on very intense photon beams. Laser-based acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy ions is a prerequisite for a multitude of laser-driven nuclear physics experiments already proposed by the international research community. A total of six outputs of the dual-amplification chain laser system, two of 100TW, two of 1PW and two of 10PW will be employed in 5 experimental areas, with the possibility to use long and short focal lengths, gas and solid targets, reaching the whole range of laser acceleration processes. We describe the main techniques and expectations regarding the acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy nuclei at ELI-NP, and some physics cases for which these techniques play an important role in the experiments.

  18. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. ):)

    1989-12-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of the 2 critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. This paper reviews the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He--C and He--N and He--O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as {sup 2}D plus {sup 3}He are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N{sub {nu}}, is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of {tau}{sub n} = 890 {plus minus} 4s ({tau}{sub {1/2}} = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N{sub {nu}} = 2.6 {plus minus} 0.3 (1{sigma}) providing a reasonable fit (1.3{sigma}) to 3 families but making a fourth light (m{sub {nu}} {approx lt}10 MeV) neutrino family exceedingly unlikely ({approx gt}4.7{sigma}) (barring significant systematic errors either in D + {sup 3}He, and Li and/or {sup 4}He and/or {tau}{sub n}). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-hadron phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Experimental methods of correlation between the trajectories of cosmic heavy ions and biological objects: dosimetric results from the Biostack experiment on Apollo 16 and 17.

    PubMed

    Pfohl, R; Kaiser, R; Massue, J P; Cuer, P

    1974-01-01

    The biological objects in the Biostack are stacked alternately between physical detectors of HZE particle tracks which include nuclear emulsions. The pattern of the biological objects is transferred to the upper side of the adjacent emulsion by optical illumination. On each sheet of nuclear emulsion a coordinate grid is transferred to the bottom side by optical illumination. The visible track left by the passage of the heavy ion can then be very clearly localized. The charge of the ions is determined by photometric measurements of the tracks. These measurements are calibrated with known tracks of heavy ions accelerated at the Bevatron at Berkeley. The results are given as: flux, number of stars per cm3, charge of the ions, comparison with other detectors (plastics, AgCl crystals, LiF), energy loss, hit region in the biological objects.

  20. Heavy-Ion Transfer Reactions with Deformed Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, Karl Gerard

    1992-01-01

    One-neutron transfer reactions involving actinide nuclei are used to investigate the effects of rotational motion on transfer populations. Deexcitation gamma rays were measured using a particle -particle-gamma triple coincidence method. Rotational states up to 28^{+ }(30^{+}) were seen in ^{234}U originating from the reaction ^{235}U( ^{206}Pb, ^ {207}Pb)^{234} U at a laboratory bombarding energy of 1394 MeV. Angular distributions for both inelastic excitation and transfer are presented and the one-neutron transfer reaction cross section as well as the grazing angle have been extracted. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using heavy-ion induced transfer reactions for spectroscopic studies. The second section of this thesis explores the question of diabolical pair transfer in nuclear physics using the reactions ^{206}Pb( ^{156}Gd, ^ {154}Gd)^{208} Pb (diabolical case) and ^{206 }Pb(^{156}Gd, ^{158}Gd)^ {204}Pb (nondiabolic case) at a laboratory bombarding energy of 888 MeV. Early calculations by Nikam, Ring and Canto predicted oscillatory behavior of pair transfer matrix elements as the cranking frequency was varied, within the cranking Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (CHFB) model, and explained this behavior as a manifestation of Berry's phase. Significant suppression of the high spin population in the diabolical nucleus was predicted. The diabolical point is supplied by the crossing of the ground-state band with the two-quasiparticle band. The strength of this band interaction is predicted to be oscillatory with chemical potential in the CHFB model. The study of pair transfer populations can therefore shed light not only on the possible existence of Berry's phase in nuclear systems, but also on whether the band interaction goes strictly to zero as predicted by the CHFB model. The results of this experiment agree with the latest calculations that the expected effects are more subtle than the earliest calculations predicted.

  1. Accelerator-Based Studies of Heavy Ion Interactions Relevant to Space Biomedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Zeitlin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of space radiation on the crews of long duration space missions must take into account the interactions of high energy atomic nuclei in spacecraft and planetary habitat shielding and in the bodies of the astronauts. These heavy ions (i.e. heavier than hydrogen), while relatively small in number compared to the total galactic cosmic ray (GCR) charged particle flux, can produce disproportionately large effects by virtue of their high local energy deposition: a single traversal by a heavy charged particle can kill or, what may be worse, severely damage a cell. Research into the pertinent physics and biology of heavy ion interactions has consequently been assigned a high priority in a recent report by a task group of the National Research Council. Fragmentation of the incident heavy ions in shielding or in the human body will modify an initially well known radiation field and thereby complicate both spacecraft shielding design and the evaluation of potential radiation hazards. Since it is impractical to empirically test the radiation transport properties of each possible shielding material and configuration, a great deal of effort is going into the development of models of charged particle fragmentation and transport. Accurate nuclear fragmentation cross sections (probabilities), either in the form of measurements with thin targets or theoretical calculations, are needed for input to the transport models, and fluence measurements (numbers of fragments produced by interactions in thick targets) are needed both to validate the models and to test specific shielding materials and designs. Fluence data are also needed to characterize the incident radiation field in accelerator radiobiology experiments. For a number of years, nuclear fragmentation measurements at GCR-like energies have been carried out at heavy ion accelerators including the LBL Bevalac, Saturne (France), the Synchrophasotron and Nuklotron (Dubna, Russia), SIS-18 (GSI, Germany), the

  2. Nuclear physics and astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated a variety of research topics on the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics during the past year. We have continued our study of dihyperon states in dense matter and have started to make a connection between their properties in the core of neutron stars with the ongoing experimental searches at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We started to build a scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts using the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars close to an active galactic nucleous. We have been reconsidering the constraints due to neutron star cooling rates on the equation of state for high density matter in the light, of recent findings which show that the faster direct Urca cooling process is possible for a range of nuclear compositions. We have developed a model for the formation of primordial magnetic fields due to the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition. Encouraged by the most recent observational developments, we have investigated the possible origin of the boron and beryllium abundances. We have greatly improved the calculations of the primordial abundances of these elements I>y augmenting the reaction networks and by updating the most recent experimental nuclear reaction rates. Our calculations have shown that the primordial abundances are much higher than previously thought but that the observed abundances cannot be explained by primordial sources alone. We have also studied the origin of the boron and beryllium abundances due to cosmic ray spallation. Finally, we have continued to address the solar neutrino problem by investigating the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the MSW solution for a full three-family treatment of MSW mixing.

  3. Pion shadowing as a tool to study the topology of heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A.C.; Turrisi, R.; Barbera, R.; Riggi, F.; Russo, G.; Turrisi, R.; Russo, G.

    1997-05-01

    The pion reabsorption effect has been exploited, through a new analysis technique, to study the topological distribution of nuclear matter in the course of a heavy-ion collision at intermediate energies. The azimuthal angular distribution of pions with respect to the reaction plane and the angular correlations between pions and projectilelike fragments have been investigated. Quantitative estimations of the pion production time scale and of the impact parameter range involved are provided. The experimental results are successfully compared with the predictions of a microscopic theoretical model based on the solution of the Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov transport equation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Breit interaction effect on dielectronic recombination of heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2016-11-01

    Interaction of highly charged heavy ions with electrons is one of the most important atomic processes in high temperature plasmas, including astrophysical plasmas such as solar corona and artificial plasmas such as fusion reactor plasmas. Therefore it has been well studied to date, both theoretically and experimentally, to accumulate the atomic data required for understanding or controlling such plasmas. However, there still remains interesting subjects that receive remarkable attention from the atomic physics point of view. One of them, which is the subject of this review, is substantially large Breit interaction effects on the resonance recombination process called dielectronic recombination. The Breit interaction is a relativistic effect in the electron-electron interaction potential; it is thus generally important for highly charged heavy ions. However, in the calculation of the energy levels for heavy ions, the Breit interaction is still a small perturbation compared with the main Coulomb term. On the other hand for the dielectronic recombination, it was found that the Breit interaction can enhance the cross sections significantly. It was also found that the Breit interaction can play not only an important, but even a dominant role in determining the angular distribution of x-rays emitted in the recombination processes. This topical review introduces the recent experimental and theoretical activities to clarify the essential origin of the strong effects.

  5. Polarization in heavy-ion reactions. [Lectures

    SciTech Connect

    Fick, D.

    1983-08-01

    Determination of the polarization and spin alignment of reaction products emitted from heavy ion reactions should provide a sensitive test of reaction mechanisms. Techniques for producing both polarized beams and polarized targets are advancing rapidly. At the Oak Ridge National Laboraotry interest in this field has lead to the design and construction of a laser optically pumped polarized target by illuminating a supersonic gas jet. This target, which is mounted in the scattering chamber of a magnetic spectrometer, will be used to observe effects when deformed polarized targets are bombarded by heavy ions. Mutual research interests led to the invitation of Professor Fick, a pioneer in heavy ion polarization research who recently reviewed the status of this field, to Oak Ridge. While at ORNL he presented a series of lectures on this subject. Notes from these lectures are presented. (WHK)

  6. Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions''

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich W. Heinz

    2012-11-09

    In the course of this project the Ohio State University group led by the PI, Professor Ulrich Heinz, developed a comprehensive theoretical picture of the dynamical evolution of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and of the numerous experimental observables that can be used to diagnose the evolving and short-lived hot and dense fireball created in such collisions. Starting from a qualitative understanding of the main features based on earlier research during the last decade of the twentieth century on collisions at lower energies, the group exploited newly developed theoretical tools and the stream of new high-quality data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory (which started operations in the summer of the year 2000) to arrive at an increasingly quantitative description of the experimentally observed phenomena. Work done at Ohio State University (OSU) was instrumental in the discovery during the years 2001-2003 that quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in nuclear collisions at RHIC behaves like an almost perfect liquid with minimal viscosity. The tool of relativistic fluid dynamics for viscous liquids developed at OSU in the years 2005-2007 opened the possibility to quantitatively determine the value of the QGP viscosity empirically from experimental measurements of the collective flow patterns established in the collisions. A first quantitative extraction of the QGP shear viscosity, with controlled theoretical uncertainty estimates, was achieved during the last year of this project in 2010. OSU has paved the way for a transition of the field of relativistic heavy-ion physics from a qualitative discovery stage to a new stage of quantitative precision in the description of quark-gluon plasma properties. To gain confidence in the precision of our theoretical understanding of quark-gluon plasma dynamics, one must test it on a large set of experimentally measured observables. This achievement report demonstrates that we have, at

  7. Heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, G.; Šafařík, K.; Steinberg, P.

    2014-07-01

    A new era in the study of high-energy nuclear collisions began when the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provided the first collisions of lead nuclei in late 2010. In the first three years of operation the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments each collected Pb-Pb data samples of more than 50 μb at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV, exceeding the previously studied collision energies by more than an order of magnitude. These data have provided new insights into the properties of QCD matter under extreme conditions, with extensive measurements of soft particle production and newly accessible hard probes of the hot and dense medium. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the results obtained in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC so far, with particular emphasis on the complementary nature of the observations by the three experiments. In particular, the combination of ALICE’s strengths at hadron identification, the strengths of ATLAS and CMS to make precise measurements of high pT probes, and the resourceful measurements of collective flow by all of the experiments have provided a rich and diverse dataset in only a few years. While the basic paradigm established at RHIC - that of a hot, dense medium that flows with a viscosity to shear-entropy ratio near the predicted lower bound, and which degrades the energy of probes, such as jets, heavy-flavours and J/ψ - is confirmed at the LHC, the new data suggest many new avenues for extracting its properties in detail.

  8. Holographic heavy ion collisions with baryon charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mateos, David; van der Schee, Wilke; Triana, Miquel

    2016-09-01

    We numerically simulate collisions of charged shockwaves in Einstein-Maxwell theory in anti-de Sitter space as a toy model of heavy ion collisions with non-zero baryon charge. The stress tensor and the baryon current become well described by charged hydrodynamics at roughly the same time. The effect of the charge density on generic observables is typically no larger than 15%. We find significant stopping of the baryon charge and compare our results with those in heavy ion collision experiments.

  9. New developments in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Beginning in 1984, the US Department of Energy plans a program aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as pellet drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This paper will describe the events in the field of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) that have occurred in the three years since the Lausanne conference in this series. The emphasis will be on the events leading towards the new energy oriented program. in addition to providing an overview of progress in HIF, such a discussion may prove useful for promoters of any emerging energy technology.

  10. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental progress to date has strengthened our belief in the soundness and attractiveness of the heavy ion method for fusion. What surprises that have shown up in the laboratory (e.g., in SBTE) have all been of the pleasant kind so far. The systems assessment has supported the view that the heavy ion approach can lead to economically attractive electric power and that a wide variety of options exists in all parameters. The systems work has also been of great help in pointing the way for the research and development activities.

  11. Angular spectrum analysis in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Muñoz Martínez, Jose L.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy Ion Collisions serve to study some features of early-universe cosmology. In this contribution we adapt data analysis frequently used to understand the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies (such as the Mollweide projection and the angular power spectrum) to heavy ion collisions at the LHC. We examine a few publicly available events of the ALICE collaboration under this light. Because the ALICE time projection chamber has limited coverage in rapidity and some blind angles in the transverse plane, the angular spectrum seems very influenced by the detector's acceptance.

  12. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 1ST QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORT: Simulations of fast correction of chromatic aberrations to establish physics specifications for implementation on NDCX-1 and NDCX-2

    SciTech Connect

    LIDIA, S.M.; LUND, S.M.; SEIDL, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has completed simulations of a fast correction scheme to compensate for chromatic and time-dependent defocusing effects in the transport of ion beams to the target plane in the NDCX-1 facility. Physics specifications for implementation in NDCX-1 and NDCX-2 have been established. This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has completed simulations of a fast correction scheme to compensate for chromatic and time-dependent defocusing effects in the transport of ion beams to the target plane in the NDCX-1 facility. Physics specifications for implementation in NDCX-1 and NDCX-2 have been established. Focal spot differences at the target plane between the compressed and uncompressed regions of the beam pulse have been modeled and measured on NDCX-1. Time-dependent focusing and energy sweep from the induction bunching module are seen to increase the compressed pulse spot size at the target plane by factors of two or more, with corresponding scaled reduction in the peak intensity and fluence on target. A time-varying beam envelope correction lens has been suggested to remove the time-varying aberration. An Einzel (axisymmetric electric) lens system has been analyzed and optimized for general transport lines, and as a candidate correction element for NDCX-1. Attainable high-voltage holdoff and temporal variations of the lens driving waveform are seen to effect significant changes on the beam envelope angle over the duration of interest, thus confirming the utility of such an element on NDCX-1. Modeling of the beam dynamics in NDCX-1 was performed using a time-dependent (slice) envelope code and with the 3-D, self-consistent, particle-in-cell code WARP. Proof of concept was established with the slice envelope model such that the spread in beam waist positions relative to the target plane can be minimized with a carefully designed

  13. Cellular track model for study of heavy ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Katz, Robert; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Ngo, Duc M.

    1993-01-01

    Track theory is combined with a realistic model of a heavy ion beam to study the effects of nuclear fragmentation on cell survival and biological effectiveness. The effects of secondary reaction products are studied as a function of depth in a water column. Good agreement is found with experimental results for the survival of human T-l cells exposed to monoenergetic carbon, neon, and argon beams under aerobic and hypoxia conditions. The present calculation, which includes the effect of target fragmentation, is a significant improvement over an earlier calculation because of the use of a vastly improved beam model with no change in the track theory or cellular response parameters.

  14. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  15. Resonant structures in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, S.J.; Henning, W.; Ernst, H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Jachcinski, C.; Kovar, D.G.; Paul, M.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of heavy-ion resonance structures using the /sup 24/Mg(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 28/Si reaction is presented. The data are analyzed in the context of Breit-Wigner resonances added to a direct-reaction background.

  16. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  17. Super high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W.M.

    1987-12-01

    Basic theoretical ideas on a phase transition to a plasma of free quarks and gluons in heavy ion collisions are outlined. First results from experiments with oxygen beams at 14.5 GeV/c/N (BNL), 60 and 200 GeV/c/N (CERN) are discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on heavy-ion fusion accelerator research: MBE-4: the induction-linac approach; transverse beam dynamics and current amplification; scaling up the results; through ILSE to a driver; ion-source and injector development; and accelerator component research and development.

  19. PREFACE: XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof; Fossion, Ruben; Lizcano, David

    2010-04-01

    physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure and reactions to radioactive beams, nuclear astrophysics, hadronic physics, fundamental symmetries, ultrarelativistic heavy ions, cosmic rays and quantum chaos. The high quality of the talks, the prestige of the speakers and the broad spectrum of subjects covered in the meeting, shows that nuclear physics is a very active area at the frontier of scientific research which establishes bridges between many different disciplines. One of the exciting new areas in nuclear physics is that of radioactive beams. It provides a powerful tool not only to study exotic nuclei close to the proton and neutron drip lines to obtain important information about the nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in stable and unstable nuclei, but also to address questions of fundamental importance in nuclear astrophysics as well as in various applications like mass spectroscopy, the production of radioactive isotopes and medical applications (Galindo-Uribarri). There was a presentation on the FRIB project which is currently under construction in the USA and its relevance for nuclear astrophysics and the limits of stability (Sherrill and Schatz) In the session on nuclear structure, there were several talks on the nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclei close to the proton and neutron drip lines, like neutron-proton pairing in nuclei with an equal number of protons and neutrons (Pittel), and studies of stable and unstable neutron-rich nuclei near the closed shells N = 82 and N = 50 using (d, p) transfer reactions and Coulomb excitation by means of radioactive beams (Cizewski and Padilla-Rodal). There were several talks on the importance of reaction rates for the excitation of spin-isospin resonances (Sakai), massive star evolution (Klapp) and nuclear synthesis and stellar evolution (Rolfs). In another presentation, the importance of rare isotopes for astrophysical processes was highlighted (Schatz). In addition, there were discussions

  20. Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (431st Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Crease, Robert P

    2007-12-12

    As part of the celebration of Brookhaven Lab's 60th anniversary, Robert P. Crease, the Chair of the Philosophy Department at Stony Brook University and BNL's historian, will present the second of two talks on the Lab's history. In "Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider," Dr. Crease will focus on the creation of the world's most powerful colliding accelerator for nuclear physics. Known as RHIC, the collider, as Dr. Crease will recount, was formally proposed in 1984, received initial construction funding from the U.S. Department of Energy in 1991, and started operating in 2000. In 2005, the discovery at RHIC of the world's most perfect liquid, a state of matter that last existed just moments after the Big Bang, was announced, and, since then, this perfect liquid of quarks and gluons has been the subject of intense study.

  1. Inclusive reconstruction of hadron resonances in elementary and heavy-ion collisions with HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornakov, Georgy

    2016-11-01

    The unambiguous identification of hadron modifications in hot and dense QCD matter is one of the important goals in nuclear physics. In the regime of 1 - 2 GeV kinetic energy per nucleon, HADES has measured rare and penetrating probes in elementary and heavy-ion collisions. The main creation mechanism of mesons is the excitation and decay of baryonic resonances throughout the fireball evolution. The reconstruction of shortlived (≈ 1 fm/c) resonance states through their decay products is notoriously difficult. We have developed a new iterative algorithm, which builds the best hypothesis of signal and background by distortion of individual particle properties. This allows to extract signals with signal-to-background ratios of <1%.

  2. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R&D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  3. Clinical trial of cancer therapy with heavy ions at heavy ion research facility in lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong

    With collaborative efforts of scientists from the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences and hospitals in Gansu, initial clinical trial on cancer therapy with heavy ions has been successfully carried out in China. From November 2006 to December 2007, 51 patients with superficially-placed tumors were treated with carbon ions at Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) within four beam time blocks of 6-11 days, collaborating with the General Hospital of Lanzhou Command and the Tumor Hospital of Gansu Province. Patients and Methods: There were 51 patients (31 males and 20 females) with superficially-placed tumors (squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma of the skin, malignant skin melanoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, breast cancer, metastatic lymph nodes of carcinomas and other skin lesions). The tumors were less than 2.1 cm deep to the skin surface. All patients had histological confirmation of their tumors. Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) of all patients was more than 70. The majority of patients were with failures or recurrences of conventional therapies. Median age at the time of radiotherapy (RT) was 55.5 years (range 5-85 years). Patients were immobilized with a vacuum cushion or a head mask and irradiated by carbon ion beams with energy 80-100 MeV/u at spread-out Bragg peak field generated from HIRFL, with two and three-dimensional conformal irradiation methods. Target volume was defined by physical palpation [ultrasonography and Computerized tomography (CT), for some cases]. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the gross total volume GTV with a 0.5-1.0cm margin axially. Field placement for radiation treatment planning was done based on the surface markings. RBE of 2.5-3 within the target volume, and 40-75 GyE with a weekly fractionation of 7 × 3-15 GyE/fraction were used in the trial. Patients had follow-up examinations performed 1 month after treatment, in 1 or 2 months for the first 6 months, and 3

  4. Physics of Nuclear Collisions at High Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hwa, Rudolph C.

    2012-05-01

    A wide range of problems has been investigated in the research program during the period of this grant. Although the major effort has been in the subject of heavy-ion collisions, we have also studied problems in biological and other physical systems. The method of analysis used in reducing complex data in multiparticle production to simple descriptions can also be applied to the study of complex systems of very different nature. Phase transition is an important phenomenon in many areas of physics, and for heavy-ion collisions we study the fluctuations of multiplicities at the critical point. Human brain activities as revealed in EEG also involve fluctuations in time series, and we have found that our experience enables us to find the appropriate quantification of the fluctuations in ways that can differentiate stroke and normal subjects. The main topic that characterizes the research at Oregon in heavy-ion collisions is the recombination model for the treatment of the hadronization process. We have avoided the hydrodynamical model partly because there is already a large community engaged in it, but more significantly we have found the assumption of rapid thermalization unconvincing. Recent results in studying LHC physics lead us to provide more evidence that shower partons are very important even at low p_T, but are ignored by hydro. It is not easy to work in an environment where the conventional wisdom regards our approach as being incorrect because it does not adhere to the standard paradigm. But that is just what a vibrant research community needs: unconventional approach may find evidences that can challenge the orthodoxy. An example is the usual belief that elliptic flow in fluid dynamics gives rise to azimuthal anisotropy. We claim that it is only sufficient but not necessary. With more data from LHC and more independent thinkers working on the subject what is sufficient as a theory may turn out to be incorrect in reality. Another area of investigation that

  5. Applications of the Monte Carlo method in nuclear physics using the GEANT4 toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Moralles, Mauricio; Guimaraes, Carla C.; Menezes, Mario O.; Bonifacio, Daniel A. B.; Okuno, Emico; Guimaraes, Valdir; Murata, Helio M.; Bottaro, Marcio

    2009-06-03

    The capabilities of the personal computers allow the application of Monte Carlo methods to simulate very complex problems that involve the transport of particles through matter. Among the several codes commonly employed in nuclear physics problems, the GEANT4 has received great attention in the last years, mainly due to its flexibility and possibility to be improved by the users. Differently from other Monte Carlo codes, GEANT4 is a toolkit written in object oriented language (C++) that includes the mathematical engine of several physical processes, which are suitable to be employed in the transport of practically all types of particles and heavy ions. GEANT4 has also several tools to define materials, geometry, sources of radiation, beams of particles, electromagnetic fields, and graphical visualization of the experimental setup. After a brief description of the GEANT4 toolkit, this presentation reports investigations carried out by our group that involve simulations in the areas of dosimetry, nuclear instrumentation and medical physics. The physical processes available for photons, electrons, positrons and heavy ions were used in these simulations.

  6. Physics Division progress report for period ending June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported in detail in the following areas: Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility, nuclear physics, the UNISOR program, neutron physics, theoretical physics, the Nuclear Data Project, atomic and plasma physics, and high energy physics. Publications are listed. Separate abstracts were prepared for 34 papers. (WHK)

  7. Heavy ion action on single cells: Cellular inactivation capability of single accelerated heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kost, M.; Pross, H.-D.; Russmann, C.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.; Kraft, G.; Lenz, G.; Becher, W.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ions (HZE-particles) constitute an important part of radiation in space. Although their number is small the high amount of energy transferred by individual particles may cause severe biological effects. Their investigation requires special techniques which were tested by experiments performed at the UNILAC at the GSI (Darmstadt). Diploid yeast was used which is a suitable eucaryotic test system because of its resistance to extreme conditions like dryness and vacuum. Cells were placed on nuclear track detector foils and exposed to ions of different atomic number and energy. To assess the action of one single ion on an individual cell, track parameters and the respective colony forming abilities (CFA) were determined with the help of computer aided image analysis. There is mounting evidence that not only the amount of energy deposited along the particle path, commonly given by the LET, is of importance but also the spatial problem of energy deposition at a submicroscopical scale. It is virtually impossible to investigate track structure effects in detail with whole cell populations and (globally applied) high particle fluences. It is, therefore, necessary to detect the action of simple ions in individual cells. The results show that the biological action depends on atomic number and specific energy of the impinging ions, which can be compared with model calculations of recent track structure models.

  8. [Heavy ion physics research at Creighton University

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, M.

    1992-01-01

    This research continues the baseline efforts i n the investigation of the behavior of hadronic matter under extreme conditions. The project is concerned with the search for indications of a phase transition from hadronic to quark matter in the STAR, NA44 and NA36 experiments. It is believed that the conditions. This project contributes to the development of a slow control system and time projection chamber tracking for the STAR experiment, upgrades for the NA44 experiment at CERN through studies of a spot focusing Cherenkov-detector, and the remaining analysis of data collected with the NA36 experiment at CERN.

  9. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  10. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  11. Dynamical Aspects of Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier

    1995-01-01

    Two independent studies on heavy-ion collisions are presented. In the first part, the charge and mass of the projectile-like fragments produced in the 15-MeV per nucleon ^{40}Ca+^{209 } Bi reaction were determined for products detected near the grazing angle. Neutron number-charge (N-Z) distributions were generated as a function of the total kinetic energy loss and parameterized by their centroids, variances and correlation coefficients. After the interaction, a drift of the charge and mass centroids towards asymmetry is observed. The production of projectile -like fragments is consistent with a tendency of the projectile -like fragments to retain the projectile neutron-to-proton ratio < N > / < Z > = 1. The correlation coefficient remains well below 1.0 for the entire range of total kinetic energy lost. Predictions of two nucleon exchange models, Randrup's and Tassan-Got's, are compared to the experimental results. The models are not able to reproduce the evolution of the experimental distributions, especially the fact that the variances reach a maximum and then decrease as function of the energy loss. This behavior supports the hypothesis that some form of projectile -like fragmentation or cluster emission is perturbing the product distribution from that expected from a damped mechanism. In the second part of the thesis a clustering model that allows the recognition of mass fragments from dynamical simulations has been developed. Studying the evolution of a microscopic computation based on the nuclear -Boltzman transport equation, a suitable time is chosen to identify the bound clusters. At this time the number of binding surfaces for each test nucleon is found. Based on the number of nucleon bindings the interior nucleons are identified, and the cluster kernels are formed. An iterative routine is then applied to determine the coalescence of the surrounding free nucleons. Once the fragment formation has been established, a statistical decay code is used to

  12. Heavy Ion Reactions with Neutron-Rich Beams - Proceedings of the Riken International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, S.; Ishihara, M.; Takigawa, N.

    1993-11-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Opening Address * Fusion I * Heavy Ion Fusion at Subbarrier Energies: Progress and Questions * Angular Momentum in Heavy Ion Subbarrier Interaction * Fusion II * High Precision Fusion Excitation Function Measurements: What Can We Learn from Them? * Transfer Reactions for 16O + 144,152Sm near the Coulomb Barrier * Fusion III * Recent Theoretical Developments in the Study of Subbarrier Fusion * Direct Reaction Approach to Heavy Ion Scattering and Fusion at Energies near Coulomb Barrier * Fusion IV * Roles of Multi-Step Transfer in Fusion Process Induced by Heavy Ion Reactions * Special Session * RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility (RARF) * Fission I * Bimodal Nature of Nuclear Fission * Systematics of Isotope Production Rates: Mass Excess Dependence of Fission Products * Semiclassical Methods for the Multi-Dimensional Quantum Decay * Dynamics of Di-Nucleus Systems: Molecular Resonances * Fission II * The Competition Between Fusion-Fission and Deeply Inelastic Reactions in the Medium Mass Systems * Unstable Nuclei I * Coulomb Dissociation and Momentum Distributions for 11Li → 9Li+n+n Breakup Reactions * Unstable Nuclei II * Elastic Scattering and Fragmentation of Halo Nuclei * Secondary Reactions of Neutron-Rich Nuclei at Intermediate Energies * Life Time of Soft Dipole Excitation * Unstable Nuclei III * Shell Structure of Exotic Unstable Nuclei * Properties of Unstable Nuclei Within the Relativistic Many-Body Theory * Fusion with Unstable Nuclei * Barrier Distributions for Heavy Ion Fusion * Heavy Ion Reactions with Neutron-Rich Beams * Heavy Ion Fusion with Neutron-Rich Beams * Superheavy Elements * Study of α Decays Following 40Ar Bombardment on 238U * Production of Superheavy Elements via Fusion: What is Limiting Us? * Panel Session * Comments * List of Participants

  13. Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-12-01

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. We show it is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields |Β|~m2π are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. Lastly, in this contribution we give a brief overview on the status of such efforts.

  14. Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-12-01

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. We show it is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields |Β→|~m2π are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. Lastly, in this contribution we give a brief overview onmore » the status of such efforts.« less

  15. Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.; Tylka, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment has two primary objectives: (1) to measure the elemental composition of ultraheavy Galactic cosmic rays, beginning in the tin-barium region of the periodic table; and (2) to study heavy ions which arrive at LDEF below the geomagnetic cutoff, either because they are not fully stripped of electrons or because their source is within the magnetosphere. Both have practical as well as astrophysical consequences. The HIIS experiment used eight thick stacks of plastic track detectors mounted in two trays on the space facing end of LDEF. Since the last LDEF symposium, the statistics were increased of the observations and have extended the analysis to a second stack and to detector sheets near the top of a stack. New results are reported on the detector resolution and on the observations of both stopping and relativistic particles.

  16. Femtoscopy in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa, M; Pratt, S; Soltz, R A; Wiedemann, U

    2005-07-29

    Analyses of two-particle correlations have provided the chief means for determining spatio-temporal characteristics of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss the theoretical formalism behind these studies and the experimental methods used in carrying them out. Recent results from RHIC are put into context in a systematic review of correlation measurements performed over the past two decades. The current understanding of these results are discussed in terms of model comparisons and overall trends.

  17. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Riepe, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10/sup -7/ torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column.

  18. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Auble, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given. (LEW)

  19. Heavy Flavor Dynamics in Relativistic Heavy-ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan

    Heavy flavor hadrons serve as valuable probes of the transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this dissertation, we introduce a comprehensive framework that describes the full-time evolution of heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions, including its initial production, in-medium evolution inside the QGP matter, hadronization process from heavy quarks to their respective mesonic bound states and the subsequent interactions between heavy mesons and the hadron gas. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is studied within the framework of a Langevin equation coupled to hydrodynamic models that simulate the space-time evolution of the hot and dense QGP matter. We improve the classical Langevin approach such that, apart from quasi-elastic scatterings between heavy quarks and the medium background, radiative energy loss is incorporated as well by treating gluon radiation as a recoil force term. The subsequent hadronization of emitted heavy quarks is simulated via a hybrid fragmentation plus recombination model. The propagation of produced heavy mesons in the hadronic phase is described using the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. Our calculation shows that while collisional energy loss dominates the heavy quark motion inside the QGP in the low transverse momentum (p T) regime, contributions from gluon radiation are found to be significant at high pT. The recombination mechanism is important for the heavy flavor meson production at intermediate energies. The hadronic final state interactions further enhance the suppression and the collective flow of heavy mesons we observe. Within our newly developed framework, we present numerical results for the nuclear modification and the elliptic flow of D mesons, which are consistent with measurements at both the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC); predictions for B mesons are also provided. In

  20. Effects of heavy ions on bacteria.

    PubMed

    Atlan, H

    1973-01-01

    Genetically well-known bacteria have been used to study efficiencies of heavy ions for mutation induction. For space experiments a technique of correlation of tracks of particles (in emulsion stacked on and between Petri dishes) with individual mutations, has been designed and checked in balloon flights. No clear cut results could be obtained without previous identification of genetic markers sensitive to irradiation by heavy ions. Accelerator experiments were performed at the Berkeley HILAC for systematic study. The results obtained on a strain of E. coli K12F- requiring threonine, leucine and arginine showed that the cell inactivation kinetics for gamma rays, helium, carbon and oxygen ions were almost identical (LD90 approaches 22krads) while argon was less effective (LD90 approaches 40 krads). Heavy ions up to oxygen were either equally or less efficient than gamma rays for induction of reverse mutations. Discrepancies between these findings and previous data on bacteria, yeast and Neurospora systems are discussed on the basis of radiosensitivity, ploidy, deletions, forward and reverse mutations.

  1. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  2. TNSA Heavy Ion Measurements using the Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginnane, M. K.; Kousar, B.; Slish, J.; Palmisano, K.; Mandanas, S.; Padalino, S. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Regan, S.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    The MTW Laser at LLE utilizes an ultra-intense laser to produce high-energy heavy ion pulses through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). Using the Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF) the total number of heavy ions produced by TNSA can be determined, which is needed for stellar nuclear reaction cross section measurements. TNSA heavy ions stop within the thin walled front cup, while light ions pass through it and deposit their remaining charge in the back cup. A two channel storage scope measures voltages produced by the beam currents collected in the cups, respectively. The charge state fraction of plasma ions is modified by passing the heavy ions through a charge-exchange foil at the TRTF entrance. While passing through the foil, ions equilibrate to known charge states based on their velocities. Using time of flight, the total heavy ion current can be normalized to the correct charge state fraction. A pair of dipole magnets deflect relativistic TNSA electrons from the cup's entrance. They also prevent secondary electrons from escaping the front and back cups. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  3. Harmonic well matter densities and Pauli correlation effects in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    A generalized optical model heavy ion reaction theory is extended to include correlation effects between projectile and target constituents according to the Pauli exclusion principle. These correlation effects are significant for accurately predicting cross sections for projectile nucleus abrasions, but are relatively unimportant for determining total and absorption cross sections for heavy ion collisions. For lighter nuclei, predictive capabilities were also improved by developing an analytic method for extracting their nuclear single particle density distributions from experimentally measured harmonic well charge density distributions. This improved theory is compared with previous theoretical predictions and recent experimental results.

  4. Nuclear Cluster Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Masayasu

    2011-05-06

    Predictive power of theory needs good models and accurate calculation methods to solve the Schroedinger equations of the systems concerned. We present some examples of successful predictions based on the nuclear cluster models of light nuclei and hypernuclei and on the calculation methods that have been developed by Kyushu group.

  5. Multiple-scattering model for inclusive proton production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    A formalism is developed for evaluating the momentum distribution for proton production in nuclear abrasion during heavy ion collisions using the Glauber multiple-scattering series. Several models for the one-body density matrix of nuclei are considered for performing numerical calculations. Calculations for the momentum distribution of protons in abrasion are compared with experimental data for inclusive proton production.

  6. Effect of in-medium properties on heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2000-07-20

    The properties of strange hadrons, i.e. of kaons and hyperons, in the nuclear medium--are discussed in connection with neutron star properties and relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Firstly, the relevant medium modifications of a kaon in a medium as provided by heavy-ion collisions is critically examined within a coupled channel calculation. We demonstrate, that particle ratios for kaons are not a sensitive probe of in-medium effects while the K{sup {minus}} flow is more suited to pin down the K{sup {minus}} optical potential in dense matter. Secondly, the interaction between hyperons is studied and may form bound states which can be produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Signals for the detection of strange dibaryons by their decay topology and/or in the invariant mass spectra are outlined.

  7. Towards a heavy-ion transport capability in the MARS15 Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Gudima, K. K.; Mashnik, S. G.; Rakhno, I. L.; Striganov, S.

    2004-04-01

    In order to meet the challenges of new accelerator and space projects and further improve modelling of radiation effects in microscopic objects, heavy-ion interaction and transport physics have been recently incorporated into the MARS15 Monte Carlo code. A brief description of new modules is given in comparison with experimental data. The MARS Monte Carlo code is widely used in numerous accelerator, detector, shielding and cosmic ray applications. The needs of the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, Large Hadron Collider, Rare Isotope Accelerator and NASA projects have recently induced adding heavy-ion interaction and transport physics to the MARS15 code. The key modules of the new implementation are described below along with their comparisons to experimental data.

  8. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification -- both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  9. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  10. Nonuniformity Mitigation of Beam Illumination in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion. The wobbling HIB axis oscillation is precisely controlled. The oscillating frequency may be several 100 MHz ~ 1 GHz. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space on a HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs' illumination nonuniformity. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations presented here show that the few percent wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates with the same wobbling HIBs frequency. In general a perturbation of physical quantity would feature the instability onset. Normally the perturbation phase is unknown so that the instability growth is discussed with the growth rate. However, if the perturbation phase is known, the instability growth can be controlled by a superposition of perturbations; the well-known mechanism is a feedback control to compensate the displacement of physical quantity. If the perturbation is induced by, for example, a HIB axis wobbling, the perturbation phase could be controlled and the instability growth is mitigated by the superposition of the growing perturbations. Partly supported by JSPS, MEXT, CORE, ASHULA, Japan / US Cooperation program and ILE/Osaka University.

  11. Mutation Induction in Mammalian Cells by Accelerated Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, I. M.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Rink, H.

    The deleterious effects of accelerated heavy ions on living cells are of increasing importance for long duration human space flight activities. An important aspect of this field is attributed to the type and quality of biological damage induced by these densely ionizing particles. To address this aspect, cell inactivation and mutation induction at the hprt locus (coding for hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase) was investigated in cultured V79 Chinese Hamster Cells irradiated with accelerated heavy ions (8-O, 20-Ca, 79-Au, and 92-U) and X-rays. Specific energies of the ions ranged from 1.9 to 69.7 MeV/u and corresponding LET values were between 62 band 15,580 keV/μ m. 30 spontaneous and 196 heavy-ion induced 6-thioguanine resistant hprt mutant colonies were characterized by Southern technique using the restriction enzymes EcoRI, PstI and BglII and a full length hprt cDNA probe isolated from the plasmid pHpt12 (kindly provided by Dr. J. Thacker). While inactivation cross sections (σ i) rise over the whole LET range, mutation induction cross sections (σ m) increase up to approximately 300 keV/μ m (O-ions) but decline with heavier ions and more extreme LET values. A similar behaviour is seen with mutation frequency dependent on particle fluence. After irradiation with accelerated uranium ions (8.8 MeV/u, 15,580 keV/μ m) a significant decrease of mutation frequency was found with higher particle fluences (3× 106 particles cm-2). Nearly no mutants were recovered with 8× 106 particles cm-2. All restriction patterns of the spontaneous hprt mutants were indistinguishable from the wild type pattern. These mutants probably contain small deletions or point mutations in the hprt locus. In contrast, the overall spectrum of heavy ion induced mutations revealed a majority (67%) of partial or complete deletions of the hprt gene. With constant particle fluence (3× 106 particles cm-2) the quality of heavy ion induced mutations in the hprt locus depends on physical

  12. (Theoretical nuclear physics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discussed the following topics: Consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; vacuum polarization in a finite system; isovector correlations in QHD description of nuclear matter; nuclear response functions in quasielastic electron scattering; charge density differences for nuclei near {sup 208}Pb in quantum hadro-dynamics; excitation of the 10.957 MeV 0{sup {minus}}; T=0 state in {sup 16}O by 400 MeV protons; deformed chiral nucleons; new basis for exact vacuum calculations in 3-spatial dimensions; second order processes in the (e,e{prime}d) reaction; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{Lambda} and {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{Sigma}{sup 0} + c.c; and radiative capture of protons by light nuclei at low energies.

  13. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1992--June 30 , 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.J.; Cohen, T.D.

    1993-07-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. The section on Hadrons in Nuclei reports research into the ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate decreases in nuclear matter, and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the Structure of Hadrons reports progress in understanding the structure of the nucleon. These results cover widely different approaches -- lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. Progress in Relativistic Nuclear Physics is reported on electromagnetic interactions in a relativistic bound state formalism, with applications to elastic electron scattering by deuterium, and on application of a two-body quasipotential equation to calculate the spectrum of mesons formed as bound states of a quark and antiquark. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium similar to that found from QCD sum rules. Calculations of three-body bound states with simple forms of relativistic dynamics are also discussed. The section on Heavy Ion Dynamics and Related Processes describes progress on the (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) problem and heavy-on dynamics. In particular, the sharp electrons observed in {beta}{sup +} irradiation of heavy atoms have recently been subsumed into the ``Composite Particle Scenario,`` generalizing the ``(e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}-Puzzle`` of the pairs from heavy ion collisions to the ``Sharp Lepton Problem.``

  14. CORONAL SOURCES, ELEMENTAL FRACTIONATION, AND RELEASE MECHANISMS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Weberg, Micah J.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H. E-mail: slepri@umich.edu

    2015-03-10

    The elemental abundances of heavy ions (masses larger than He) in the solar wind provide information about physical processes occurring in the corona. Additionally, the charge state distributions of these heavy ions are sensitive to the temperature profiles of their respective source regions in the corona. Heavy ion dropouts are a relatively new class of solar wind events identified by both elemental and ionic charge state distributions. We have shown that their origins lie in large, closed coronal loops where processes such as gravitational settling dominate and can cause a mass-dependent fractionation pattern. In this study we consider and attempt to answer three fundamental questions concerning heavy ion dropouts: (1) 'where are the source loops located in the large-scale corona?'; (2) 'how does the interplay between coronal processes influence the end elemental abundances?'; and (3) 'what are the most probable release mechanisms'? We begin by analyzing the temporal and spatial variability of heavy ion dropouts and their correlation with heliospheric plasma and magnetic structures. Next we investigate the ordering of the elements inside dropouts with respect to mass, ionic charge state, and first ionization potential. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of the prevailing solar wind theories and the processes they posit that may be responsible for the release of coronal plasma into interplanetary space.

  15. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.B.

    1986-04-01

    This report covers the research and development activities of the Physics Division for the 1985 fiscal year. The research activities were centered on experimental nuclear physics, experimental atomic physics, and theoretical nuclear and atomic physics. The experimental nuclear physics program is dominated by heavy ion research. A major part of this effort is the responsibility for operating the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility as a national user facility. A major new activity described is the preparation for participation in an ultrarelativistic heavy ion experiment to be performed at CERN in 1986. The experimental atomic physics program has two components: the accelerator-based studies of basic collisional phenomena and the studies in support of the controlled fusion program. Also associated with the fusion-related studies are a plasma diagnostics program and the operation of an atomic physics data center. Theory efforts associated with the UNISOR program are described, as well as smaller programs in applications and high-energy physics. (LEW)

  16. Antiradiation Vaccine: Technology Development- Radiation Tolerance,Prophylaxis, Prevention And Treatment Of Clinical Presentation After Heavy Ion Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Introduction: Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is necessary for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions.[Durante M. 2004] In future crew of long-term manned missions could operate in exremely high hadronic radiation areas of space and will not survive without effective radiation protection. An Antiradiation Vaccine (AV) must be an important part of a countermeasures regimen for efficient radiation protection purposes of austronauts-cosmonauts-taukonauts: immune-prophylaxis and immune-therapy of acute radiation toxic syndromes developed after heavy ion irradiation. New technology developed (AV) for the purposes of radiological protection and improvement of radiation tolerance and it is quite important to create protective immune active status which prevent toxic reactions inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.[Maliev V. et al. 2006, Popov D. et al.2008]. High energy hadrons produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities [Sato T. et al. 2003] Antiradiation Vaccine with specific immune-prophylaxis by an anti-radiation vaccine should be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Methods and experiments: 1. Antiradiation vaccine preparation standard, mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins [SRD-group] which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Cardiovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins of Radiation Determinant Group isolated from the central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastro-intestinal, Hematopoietic forms of ARS. Devices for radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions

  17. Detectability of strange matter in heavy ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner, J., ||; Diener, A.; Stocker, H.,; Greiner, C.,

    1997-06-01

    We discuss the properties of two distinct forms of hypothetical strange matter, small lumps of strange quark matter (strangelets) and of hyperon matter [metastable exotic multihypernuclear objects (MEMO{close_quote}s)], with special emphasis on their relevance for present and future heavy ion experiments. The masses of small strangelets up to A{sub B}=40 are calculated using the MIT bag model with shell mode filling for various bag parameters. The strangelets are checked for possible strong and weak hadronic decays, also taking into account multiple hadron decays. It is found that strangelets which are stable against strong decay are most likely highly negatively charged, contrary to previous findings. Strangelets can be stable against weak hadronic decay but their masses and charges are still rather high. This has serious impact on the present high sensitivity searches in heavy ion experiments at the AGS and CERN facilities. On the other hand, highly charged MEMO{close_quote}s are predicted on the basis of an extended relativistic mean-field model. Those objects could be detected in future experiments searching for short-lived, rare composites. It is demonstrated that future experiments can be sensitive to a much wider variety of strangelets. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production.

  19. Experiments at The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Kwan, J.W.; MacLaren, S.A.; Ponce, D.; Shuman, D.; Yu, S.; Ahle, L.; Lund, S.; Molvik, A.; Sangster, T.C.

    2000-07-24

    An overview of experiments is presented, in which the physical dimensions, emittance and perveance are scaled to explore driver-relevant beam dynamics. Among these are beam merging, focusing to a small spot, and bending and recirculating beams. The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion (VNL) is also developing two driver-scale beam experiments involving heavy-ion beams with I(sub beam) about 1 Ampere to provide guidance for the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) for driver system studies within the next 5 years. Multiple-beam sources and injectors are being designed and a one-beam module will be built and tested. Another experimental effort will be the transport of such a beam through about 100 magnetic quadrupoles. The experiment will determine transport limits at high aperture fill factors, beam halo formation, and the influence on beam properties of secondary electron Research into driver technology will be briefly presented, including the development of ferromagnetic core materials, induction core pulsers, multiple-beam quadrupole arrays and plasma channel formation experiments for pinched transport in reactor chambers.

  20. Theoretical nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rost, E.; Shephard, J.R.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Exact 1-loop vacuum polarization effects in 1 + 1 dimensional QHD; exact 1-fermion loop contributions in 1 + 1 dimensional solitons; exact scalar 1-loop contributions in 1 + 3 dimensions; exact vacuum calculations in a hyper-spherical basis; relativistic nuclear matter with self- consistent correlation energy; consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; transverse response functions in the {triangle}-resonance region; hadronic matter in a nontopological soliton model; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda} {Lambda}} reaction; 0+ and 2+ strengths in pion double-charge exchange to double giant-dipole resonances; and nucleons in a hybrid sigma model including a quantized pion field.

  1. Theoretical nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.D.

    1990-10-01

    This report contains small papers on the following topics: ground state correlations of nuclei in relativistic random phase approximation; instability of infinite nuclear matter in the relativistic hartree approximation; charge density differences for nuclei near {sup 208}Pb in relativistic models; meson exchange current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadro-dynamics; analysis of the O{sup +} {yields} O{sup {minus}} reaction at intermediate energies; contributions of reaction channels to the {sup 6}Li(p,{gamma}){sup 7}Be Reaction; deformed chiral nucleons; vacuum polarization in a finite system; second order processes in the (e,e{prime}d) reaction; sea contributions in Dirac RPA for finite nuclei; and momentum cutoffs in the sea.

  2. Processing multidimensional nuclear physics data

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.

    1994-11-15

    Modern Ge detector arrays for gamma-ray spectroscopy are producing data sets unprecedented in size and event multiplicity. Gammasphere, the DOE sponsored array, has the following characteristics: (1) High granularity (110 detectors); (2) High efficiency (10%); and (3) Precision energy measurements (Delta EE = 0.2%). Characteristics of detector line shape, the data set, and the standard practice in the nuclear physics community to the nuclear gamma-ray cascades from the 4096 times 4096 times 4096 data cube will be discussed.

  3. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  4. Genetic effects on heavy ions in drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kale, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal mutation test was used to study the dose response relation and relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions. The experiments were performed using the heavy ion beams at BEVALAC of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. These experiments were undertaken according to the proposed milestones and included Ne-20, A-40 and Fe-65 ions with respective energies of 600 MeV, 840 MeV and 850 MeV. At these energies several doses of these radiations ranging from 20 to 1280 R were used. Space radiation exposure to astronauts is supposed to be quite low and therefore very low dose experiments i.e., 20 R, were also performed for the three ions. The mutation response was measured in all germ cell types i.e., spermatozoa, spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia of treated Drosophila males. A linear dose frequency relation was observed for most of the range except at high doses where the saturation effect was observed. Also, a very significant difference was observed among the sensitivity of the four germ cell stages where spermatozoa and spermatids were more sensitive. At the higher doses of this range, most of the spermatogonia and spermatocytes were killed. Although comparative and identical experiments with X-rays or neutrons have not been performed, the compassion of our data with the ones available in literature suggest that the heavy ions have a high rbe and that they are several times more effective than low LET X-rays. The rbe compared to neutrons however appears to be only slightly higher.

  5. Lattice QCD and Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos

    2007-03-01

    A steady stream of developments in Lattice QCD have made it possible today to begin to address the question of how nuclear physics emerges from the underlying theory of strong interactions. Central role in this understanding play both the effective field theory description of nuclear forces and the ability to perform accurate non-perturbative calculations in lo w energy QCD. Here I present some recent results that attempt to extract important low energy constants of the effective field theory of nuclear forces from lattice QCD.

  6. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced electrical degradation in deca-nanometer MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yao; Yang, Zhimei; Gong, Min; Gao, Bo; Li, Yun; Lin, Wei; Li, Jinbo; Xia, Zhuohui

    2016-09-01

    In this work, degradation of the electrical characteristics of 65 nm nMOSFETs under swift heavy ion irradiation is investigated. It was found that a heavy ion can generate a localized region of physical damage (ion latent track) in the gate oxide. This is the likely cause for the increased gate leakage current and soft breakdown (SBD) then hard breakdown (HBD) of the gate oxide. Except in the case of HBD, the devices retain their functionality but with degraded transconductance. The degraded gate oxide exhibits early breakdown behavior compatible with the model of defect generation and percolation path formation in the percolation model.

  7. Economic aspects of heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The usual parameter space for examining scenarios for heavy ion fusion power plants has generally been based on large, slow cycling, reactor chambers which are only marginally different from chambers proposed for laser drivers. This paper will examine the economic implications of assuming that an inexpensive, low gain pellet is available and that a suitable high-repetition rate reactor has been devised. Interesting scenarios are found that generate economically feasible power from a system with a minimum net capacity of approx. 1 GWe compared to the larger approx. 4 GWe required in previous studies.

  8. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, E.

    2014-01-14

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  9. Jet reconstruction in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciari, Matteo; Rojo, Juan; Salam, Gavin P.; Soyez, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    We examine the problem of jet reconstruction at heavy-ion colliders using jet-area-based background subtraction tools as provided by FastJet. We use Monte Carlo simulations with and without quenching to study the performance of several jet algorithms, including the option of filtering, under conditions corresponding to RHIC and LHC collisions. We find that most standard algorithms perform well, though the anti- k t and filtered Cambridge/Aachen algorithms have clear advantages in terms of the reconstructed p t offset and dispersion.

  10. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z < 2), mesons, and leptons, it is important to maintain overall computational efficiency. In this work, the heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  11. Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.

  12. Application of nuclear physics in medical physics and nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear physics has a long history of influencing and advancing medical fields. At TRIUMF we use the applications of nuclear physics to diagnose several diseases via medical isotopes and treat cancer by using proton beams. The Life Science division has a long history of producing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes but we are also investigating the production of SPECT and PET isotopes with a potential shortage for clinical operation or otherwise limited access to chemists, biologists and medical researchers. New targets are being developed, aided by a simulation platform investigating the processes inside a target under proton irradiation - nuclear, thermodynamic, and chemical. Simulations also aid in the development of new beam-shaping devices for TRIUMF's Proton Therapy facility, Canada's only proton therapy facility, as well as new treatment testing systems. Both promise improved treatment delivery for cancer patients.

  13. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.

  14. Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While the main emphasis is on experimental problems, the authors have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of their measurements. During the last year they have had several experiments at the ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory, the GAMMASPHERE at the LBL 88 Cyclotron, and with the NORDBALL at the Niels Bohr Institute Tandem. Also, they continue to be very active in the WA93/98 collaboration studying ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in the PHENIX Collaboration at the RHIC accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. During the last year their experimental work has been in three broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (3) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas are described in this document. These studies concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Another area of research is heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions, which utilize the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions.

  15. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  16. Optical model calculations of heavy-ion target fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Norbury, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The fragmentation of target nuclei by relativistic protons and heavy ions is described within the context of a simple abrasion-ablation-final-state interaction model. Abrasion is described by a quantum mechanical formalism utilizing an optical model potential approximation. Nuclear charge distributions of the excited prefragments are calculated by both a hypergeometric distribution and a method based upon the zero-point oscillations of the giant dipole resonance. Excitation energies are estimated from the excess surface energy resulting from the abrasion process and the additional energy deposited by frictional spectator interactions of the abraded nucleons. The ablation probabilities are obtained from the EVA-3 computer program. Isotope production cross sections for the spallation of copper targets by relativistic protons and for the fragmenting of carbon targets by relativistic carbon, neon, and iron projectiles are calculated and compared with available experimental data.

  17. Pion and photon production in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor,D.

    2008-03-16

    Measurement of neutral pions and direct photons are closely connected experimentally, on the other hand they probe quite different aspects of relativistic heavy ion collisions. In this short review of the {pi}{sup 0} results from the PHENIX experiment at RHIC our focus is on the {phi}-integrated nuclear modification factor, its energy and system size dependence, and the impact of these results on parton energy loss models. We also discuss the current status of high p{sub T} and thermal direct photon measurements both in p+p and Au+Au collisions. Recognizing the advantages of measuring not only the 'signal', but also all the 'references' needed for proper interpretation in the same experiments (with same or similar systematics) we argue that RHIC should regularly include d+A and even d+d collisions into its system size and energy scan.

  18. Stopping of relativistic heavy ions in various media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddington, C. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Crawford, H. J.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Heckman, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The residual ranges of (900 + or - 3)-MeV/amu gold nuclei accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac have been measured in several different media. The energy of the beam of nuclei was measured directly using a new time-of-flight system. The ranges were measured by absorption in linear wedges of polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead and in circular wedges of polystyrene, aluminum, and gold, and by total absorption in nuclear emulsion. The measured ranges were significantly different from those calculated from the best available theoretical estimates of the energy loss of highly charged nuclei. It is concluded that at present energy losses and residual ranges of relativistic heavy ions in an arbitrary medium cannot be predicted with better than an approximately 2 percent accuracy.

  19. The heavy ion injection scheme for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades-Brown, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven has a multi-component injection system. The Collider requires very heavy ions such as /sub 79//sup 197/Au to be injected fully stripped of atomic electrons, at a kinetic energy of approximately 10 GeV/nucleon. However, the heavy ions are produced initially at a negative ion source and accelerated first in a 15 MV Tandem. These partially stripped ions have a kinetic energy of approximately 1 MeV/nucleon on leaving the Tandem. In order to achieve the injection requirements for RHIC, the partially stripped ions are accelerated in the Booster (currently under construction) and pass through a stripping foil on their way to the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), where they are further accelerated before injection into RHIC. Recent theoretical calculations have shown quite convincingly that very heavy ions with 2 electrons in the filled K-shell may be accelerated with negligible loss in the AGS. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A heavy ion spectrometer system for the measurement of projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelage, J.; Crawford, H.J.; Greiner, L.; Kuo, C.

    1996-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed.

  1. Multiplicity and theremalization time in heavy-ions collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, Irina

    2016-10-01

    We present a concise review of quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ions collisions within the holographic approach. In particular, we discuss how to get the total multiplicity in heavy ions collision to fit the recent experimental data. We also discuss theoretical estimations of time formation of QGP in heavy ions collision and show that different observables can give the different times of QGP formation.

  2. Using heavy-ion collisions to elucidate the asymmetric equation-of-state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yennello, Sherry; McIntosh, Alan

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear equation-of-state impacts a number of nuclear properties as well as astrophysical processes. The asymmetric term of the equation-of-state, which describes the behavior away from N=Z, has significant uncertainty. Giant resonances and nuclear masses can elucidate the asymmetry energy for cold normal-density nuclei. Heavy-ion collisions can be used to probe nuclear matter at higher temperatures and densities away from saturation density. The temperatures that are attained in these nuclear collisions are predicted to depend on the isospin asymmetry. In this work we present evidence of the asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve.

  3. [Experimental nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in {sup 86}Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone {sup 84}Sr and with {sup 84}Zr. The K=14 (t {sub {1/2}} = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in {sup 176}W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for {sup 14}O+{alpha} and {sup 17}F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne({alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne(p){sup 18}F reactions in order to determine the rates of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of {beta}n{alpha} coincidences from the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N({beta}{sup {minus}}{nu}){sup 16}O({alpha}){sup 12}C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e{sup +} triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  4. Towards a heavy-ion transport capability in the MARS15 code

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov et al.

    2004-05-12

    In order to meet the challenges of new accelerator and space projects and further improve modeling of radiation effects in microscopic objects, heavy-ion interaction and transport physics have been recently incorporated into the MARS15 Monte Carlo code. A brief description of new modules is given in comparison with experimental data.

  5. High gluon densities in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul

    2017-03-01

    The early stages of heavy ion collisions are dominated by high density systems of gluons that carry each a small fraction x of the momenta of the colliding nucleons. A distinguishing feature of such systems is the phenomenon of ‘saturation’ which tames the expected growth of the gluon density as the energy of the collision increases. The onset of saturation occurs at a particular transverse momentum scale, the ‘saturation momentum’, that emerges dynamically and that marks the onset of non-linear gluon interactions. At high energy, and for large nuclei, the saturation momentum is large compared to the typical hadronic scale, making high density gluons amenable to a description with weak coupling techniques. This paper reviews some of the challenges faced in the study of such dense systems of small x gluons, and of the progress made in addressing them. The focus is on conceptual issues, and the presentation is both pedagogical, and critical. Examples where high gluon density could play a visible role in heavy ion collisions are briefly discussed at the end, for illustration purpose.

  6. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  7. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  8. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RACK) to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 5 /times/ 10/sup 26/cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy of 100 GeV/u in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The collider consists of two interlaced, but otherwise separate, superconducting magnet rings. The 9.7 m long dipoles will operate at 3.5 T. Their 8 cm aperture was determined by the dimensions of gold ion beams taking into account diffusion due to intrabeam scattering. Heavy ion beams will be available from the Tandem Van de Graaff/Booster/AGS complex. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtayev, K. G.; Tokarova, B.; Bonev, M.

    The peculiarities and mechanisms of the mutagenic action of γ-rays and heavy ions on bacterial cells have been investigated. Direct mutations in the lac-operon of E. coli in wild type cells and repair deficient strains have been detected. Furthermore, the induction of revertants in Salmonella tester strains was measured. It was found that the mutation rate was a linear-quadratic function of dose in the case of both γ-rays and heavy ions with LET up to 200 keV/μm. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increased with LET up to 20 keV/μm. Low mutation rates were observed in repair deficient mutants with a block of SOS-induction. The induction of SOS-repair by ionizing radiation has been investigated by means of the ``SOS-chromotest'' and λ-prophage induction. It was shown that the intensity of the SOS-induction in E. coli increased with increasing LET up to 40-60 keV/μm.

  10. Comparison of total dose effects on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors induced by different swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Fu, Jun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yu-Dong; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Jie; Li, Gao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2014-11-01

    The degradations in NPN silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) were fully studied in this work, by means of 25-MeV Si, 10-MeV Cl, 20-MeV Br, and 10-MeV Br ion irradiation, respectively. Electrical parameters such as the base current (IB), current gain (β), neutral base recombination (NBR), and Early voltage (VA) were investigated and used to evaluate the tolerance to heavy ion irradiation. Experimental results demonstrate that device degradations are indeed radiation-source-dependent, and the larger the ion nuclear energy loss is, the more the displacement damages are, and thereby the more serious the performance degradation is. The maximum degradation was observed in the transistors irradiated by 10-MeV Br. For 20-MeV and 10-MeV Br ion irradiation, an unexpected degradation in IC was observed and Early voltage decreased with increasing ion fluence, and NBR appeared to slow down at high ion fluence. The degradations in SiGe HBTs were mainly attributed to the displacement damages created by heavy ion irradiation in the transistors. The underlying physical mechanisms are analyzed and investigated in detail.

  11. Shielded Heavy-Ion Environment Linear Detector (SHIELD): an experiment for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Wilson, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C. Jr

    2001-01-01

    Radiological assessment of the many cosmic ion species of widely distributed energies requires the use of theoretical transport models to accurately describe diverse physical processes related to nuclear reactions in spacecraft structures, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, and tissues. Heavy-ion transport models that were designed to characterize shielded radiation fields have been validated through comparison with data from thick-target irradiation experiments at particle accelerators. With the RTD Mission comes a unique opportunity to validate existing radiation transport models and guide the development of tools for shield design. For the first time, transport properties will be measured in free-space to characterize the shielding effectiveness of materials that are likely to be aboard interplanetary space missions. Target materials composed of aluminum, advanced composite spacecraft structure and other shielding materials, helium (a propellant) and tissue equivalent matrices will be evaluated. Large solid state detectors will provide kinetic energy and charge identification for incident heavy-ions and for secondary ions created in the target material. Transport calculations using the HZETRN model suggest that 8 g cm -2 thick targets would be adequate to evaluate the shielding effectiveness during solar minimum activity conditions for a period of 30 days or more.

  12. Physics division progress report for period ending September 30 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.B.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in physics. The areas covered are: Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; low/medium energy nuclear physics; high energy experimental physics; the Unisor program; experimental atomic physics; laser and electro-optics lab; theoretical physics; compilations and evaluations; and radioactive ion beam development. (LSP)

  13. Mutation induction in bacteria after heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-01-01

    From a compilation of experimental data on the mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria, main conclusions have been drawn as follows: (1) The mutagenic efficacy of heavy ions in bacteria depends on physical and biological variables. Physical variables are the radiation dose, energy and charge of the ion; the biological variables are the bacterial strain, the repair genotype of bacteria, and the endpoint investigated (type of mutation, induction of enzymes related to mutagenesis); (2) The responses on dose or fluence are mainly linear or linear quadratic. The quadratic component, if found for low LET radiation, is gradually reduced with increasing LET; (3) At low values of Z and LET the cross section of mutation induction sigma m (as well as SOS response, sigma sos. and lambda phage induction, sigma lambda versus LET curves can be quite consistently described by a common function which increases up to approximately 100 keV/mu m. For higher LET values, the sigma(m) versus LET curves show the so-called 'hooks' observed also for other endpoints; (4) For light ions (Z is less than or equal to 4), the cross sections mostly decrease with increasing ion energy, which is probably related to the decrease of the specific energy departed by the ion inside the sensitive volume (cell). For ions in the range of Z = 10, sigma(m) is nearly independent on the ion energy. For heavier ions (Z is greater than or equal to 16), sigma(m) increases with the energy up to a maximum or saturation around 10 MeV/u. The increment becomes steeper with increasing atomic number of the ion. It correlates with the increasing track radius of the heavy ion; (5) The mutagenic efficiency per lethal event changes slightly with ion energy, if Z is small indicating a rough correlation between cellular lethality and mutation induction, only. For ions of higher Z this relation increases with energy, indicating a change in the 'mode' of radiation action from 'killing-prone' to 'mutation-prone'; and (6

  14. PROCEEDINGS OF THE RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON LARGE SCALE COMPUTATIONS IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS USING THE QCDOC, SEPTEMBER 26 - 28, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    AOKI,Y.; BALTZ,A.; CREUTZ,M.; GYULASSY,M.; OHTA,S.

    2002-09-26

    The massively parallel computer QCDOC (QCD On a Chip) of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RI3RC) will provide ten-teraflop peak performance for lattice gauge calculations. Lattice groups from both Columbia University and RBRC, along with assistance from IBM, jointly handled the design of the QCDOC. RIKEN has provided $5 million in funding to complete the machine in 2003. Some fraction of this computer (perhaps as much as 10%) might be made available for large-scale computations in areas of theoretical nuclear physics other than lattice gauge theory. The purpose of this workshop was to investigate the feasibility and possibility of using a supercomputer such as the QCDOC for lattice, general nuclear theory, and other calculations. The lattice applications to nuclear physics that can be investigated with the QCDOC are varied: for example, the light hadron spectrum, finite temperature QCD, and kaon ({Delta}I = 1/2 and CP violation), and nucleon (the structure of the proton) matrix elements, to name a few. There are also other topics in theoretical nuclear physics that are currently limited by computer resources. Among these are ab initio calculations of nuclear structure for light nuclei (e.g. up to {approx}A = 8 nuclei), nuclear shell model calculations, nuclear hydrodynamics, heavy ion cascade and other transport calculations for RHIC, and nuclear astrophysics topics such as exploding supernovae. The physics topics were quite varied, ranging from simulations of stellar collapse by Douglas Swesty to detailed shell model calculations by David Dean, Takaharu Otsuka, and Noritaka Shimizu. Going outside traditional nuclear physics, James Davenport discussed molecular dynamics simulations and Shailesh Chandrasekharan presented a class of algorithms for simulating a wide variety of femionic problems. Four speakers addressed various aspects of theory and computational modeling for relativistic heavy ion reactions at RHIC. Scott Pratt and Steffen Bass gave general overviews of

  15. Physics Division annual review, 1 April 1980-31 March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Progress in nuclear physics research is reported in the following areas: medium-energy physics (pion reaction mechanisms, high-resolution studies and nuclear structure, and two-nucleon physics with pions and electrons); heavy-ion research at the tandem and superconducting linear accelerator (resonant structure in heavy-ion reactions, fusion cross sections, high angular momentum states in nuclei, and reaction mechanisms and distributions of reaction strengths); charged-particle research; neutron and photonuclear physics; theoretical physics (heavy-ion direct-reaction theory, nuclear shell theory and nuclear structure, nuclear matter and nuclear forces, intermediate-energy physics, microscopic calculations of high-energy collisions of heavy ions, and light ion direct reactions); the superconducting linac; accelerator operations; and GeV electron linac. Progress in atomic and molecular physics research is reported in the following areas: dissociation and other interactions of energetic molecular ions in solid and gaseous targets, beam-foil research and collision dynamics of heavy ions, photoionization- photoelectron research, high-resolution laser rf spectroscopy with atomic and molecular beams, moessbauer effect research, and theoretical atomic physics. Studies on interactions of energetic particles with solids are also described. Publications are listed. (WHK)

  16. HZETRN: A heavy ion/nucleon transport code for space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Badavi, Forooz F.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.

    1991-01-01

    The galactic heavy ion transport code (GCRTRN) and the nucleon transport code (BRYNTRN) are integrated into a code package (HZETRN). The code package is computer efficient and capable of operating in an engineering design environment for manned deep space mission studies. The nuclear data set used by the code is discussed including current limitations. Although the heavy ion nuclear cross sections are assumed constant, the nucleon-nuclear cross sections of BRYNTRN with full energy dependence are used. The relation of the final code to the Boltzmann equation is discussed in the context of simplifying assumptions. Error generation and propagation is discussed, and comparison is made with simplified analytic solutions to test numerical accuracy of the final results. A brief discussion of biological issues and their impact on fundamental developments in shielding technology is given.

  17. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  18. PREFACE: Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Sean

    2012-09-01

    Just over one hundred years ago, Ernest Rutherford presented an interpretation of alpha-particle scattering experiments, performed a couple of years earlier by Geiger and Marsden, to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. The work was summarised shortly afterwards in a paper in the Philosophical Magazine. He postulated that a dense speck of matter must exist at the centre of an atom (later to become known as the nucleus) if the details of the experiments, particularly the yield of alpha particles scattered through large angles, were to be explained. The nuclear hypothesis, combined with the experimental work by Moseley on X-rays and Bohr's theoretical ideas, both also initiated at the Victoria University of Manchester, established our view of atomic structure and gave birth to the field of nuclear physics. The Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics was held at The University of Manchester in August 2011 to celebrate this anniversary by addressing the wide range of contemporary topics that characterise modern nuclear physics. This set of proceedings covers areas including nuclear structure and astrophysics, hadron structure and spectroscopy, fundamental interactions studied within the nucleus and results of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We would like to thank all those who presented their recent research results at the conference; the proceedings stand as a testament to the excitement and interest that still pervades the pursuit of this field of physics. We would also like to thank those who contributed in other ways to the conference. To colleagues at the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry for putting together an exhibition to coincide with the conference that included the manuscript of the 1911 paper, letters, notebooks and equipment used by Rutherford. These items were kindly loaned by Cambridge and Manchester Universities. Winton Capital generously supported this exhibition. We would also like to thank Professor Mary Fowler

  19. Simulating electron clouds in heavy-ion acceleratorsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. H.; Friedman, A.; Covo, M. Kireeff; Lund, S. M.; Molvik, A. W.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Seidl, P. A.; Vay, J.-L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2005-05-01

    Contaminating clouds of electrons are a concern for most accelerators of positively charged particles, but there are some unique aspects of heavy-ion accelerators for fusion and high-energy density physics which make modeling such clouds especially challenging. In particular, self-consistent electron and ion simulation is required, including a particle advance scheme which can follow electrons in regions where electrons are strongly magnetized, weakly magnetized, and unmagnetized. The approach to such self-consistency is described, and in particular a scheme for interpolating between full-orbit (Boris) and drift-kinetic particle pushes that enables electron time steps long compared to the typical gyroperiod in the magnets. Tests and applications are presented: simulation of electron clouds produced by three different kinds of sources indicates the sensitivity of the cloud shape to the nature of the source; first-of-a-kind self-consistent simulation of electron-cloud experiments on the high-current experiment [L. R. Prost, P. A. Seidl, F. M. Bieniosek, C. M. Celata, A. Faltens, D. Baca, E. Henestroza, J. W. Kwan, M. Leitner, W. L. Waldron, R. Cohen, A. Friedman, D. Grote, S. M. Lund, A. W. Molvik, and E. Morse, "High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion," Physical Review Special Topics, Accelerators and Beams 8, 020101 (2005)], at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which the machine can be flooded with electrons released by impact of the ion beam on an end plate, demonstrate the ability to reproduce key features of the ion-beam phase space; and simulation of a two-stream instability of thin beams in a magnetic field demonstrates the ability of the large-time-step mover to accurately calculate the instability.

  20. Latchup in CMOS devices from heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, K.; Nichols, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microcircuits are inherently latchup prone. The four-layer n-p-n-p structures formed from the parasitic pnp and npn transistors make up a silicon controlled rectifier. If properly biased, this rectifier may be triggered 'ON' by electrical transients, ionizing radiation, or a single heavy ion. This latchup phenomenon might lead to a loss of functionality or device burnout. Results are presented from tests on 19 different device types from six manufacturers which investigate their latchup sensitivity with argon and krypton beams. The parasitic npnp paths are identified in general, and a qualitative rationale is given for latchup susceptibility, along with a latchup cross section for each type of device. Also presented is the correlation between bit-flip sensitivity and latchup susceptibility.

  1. Heavy Ion Reaction Modeling for Hadrontherapy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Enghardt, W.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.; Sommerer, F.

    2007-10-26

    A comprehensive and reliable description of nucleus-nucleus interactions represents a crucial need in different interdisciplinary fields. In particular, hadrontherapy monitoring by means of in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) requires, in addition to measuring, the capability of calculating the activity of {beta}{sup +}-decaying nuclei produced in the irradiated tissue. For this purpose, in view of treatment monitoring at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy (HIT) facility, the transport and interaction Monte Carlo code FLUKA is a promising candidate. It is provided with the description of heavy ion reactions at intermediate and low energies by two specific event generators. In-beam PET experiments performed at GSI for a few beam-target combinations have been simulated and first comparisons between the measured and calculated {beta}{sup +}-activity are available.

  2. Cold fission as heavy ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Maruhn, J. A.; Greiner, W.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mazilu, D.; Gherghescu, R.

    1987-09-01

    The last version of the analytical superasymmetric fission model is applied to study cold fission processes. Strong shell effects are present either in one or both fission fragments. A smooth behaviour is observed when the proton or the neutron numbers are changed by four units. Increasing Z and N, in the transuranium region, a sharp transition from asymmetry with a large peak-to-valley ratio to symmetry at Z=100 and/or N=164 is obtained. The transition toward asymmetry at higher Z and N is much smoother. The most probable cold fission light fragments from234U,236U,239Np and240Pu are100Zr,104Mo,106Mo and106Mo, respectively, in good agreement with experimental data. The unified treatment of alpha decay, heavy ion radioactivities and cold fission is illustrated for234U — the first nucleus in which all three groups have been already observed.

  3. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-10-01

    Various mutagenic effects by heavy ions were studied in bacteria, irradiated at accelerators in Dubna, Prague, Berkeley or Darmstadt. Endpoints investigated are histidine reversion (B. subtilis, S. typhimurium), azide resistance (B. subtilis), mutation in the lactose operon (E. coli), SOS chromotest (E. coli) and λ-prophage induction (E. coli). It was found that the cross sections of the different endpoints show a similar dependence on energy. For light ions (Z <= 4) the cross section decreases with increasing energy. For ions of Z = 10, it is nearly independent of energy. For heavier ions (Z >= 26) it increases with energy up to a maximum or saturation. The increment becomes steeper with increasing Z. This dependence on energy suggests a ``mutagenic belt'' inside the track that is restricted to an area where the density of departed energy is low enough not to kill the cell, but high enough to induce mutations.

  4. Focal-surface detector for heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, John R.; Braid, Thomas H.; Stoltzfus, Joseph C.

    1979-01-01

    A detector of the properties of individual charged particles in a beam includes a gridded ionization chamber, a cathode, a plurality of resistive-wire proportional counters, a plurality of anode sections, and means for controlling the composition and pressure of gas in the chamber. Signals generated in response to the passage of charged particles can be processed to identify the energy of the particles, their loss of energy per unit distance in an absorber, and their angle of incidence. In conjunction with a magnetic spectrograph, the signals can be used to identify particles and their state of charge. The detector is especially useful for analyzing beams of heavy ions, defined as ions of atomic mass greater than 10 atomic mass units.

  5. Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapiditymore » spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.« less

  7. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapidity spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.

  8. Beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.

    1995-04-01

    A standard design for heavy ion fusion drivers under study in the US is an induction linac with electrostatic focusing at low energy and magnetic focusing at higher energy. The need to focus the intense beam to a few-millimeter size spot at the deuterium-tritium target establishes the emittance budget for the accelerator. Economic and technological considerations favor a larger number of beams in the low-energy, electrostatic-focusing section than in the high-energy, magnetic-focusing section. Combining four beams into a single focusing channel is a viable option, depending on the growth in emittance due to the combining process. Several significant beam dynamics issues that are, or have been, under active study are discussed: large space charge and image forces, beam wall clearances, halos, alignment, longitudinal instability, and bunch length control.

  9. Monte-Carlo Simulations of Heavy Ions Track Structures and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francia A.

    2013-01-01

    In space, astronauts are exposed to protons, high ]energy heavy (HZE) ions that have a high charge (Z) and energy (E), and secondary radiation, including neutrons and recoil nuclei produced by nuclear reactions in spacecraft walls or in tissue. The astronauts can only be partly shielded from these particles. Therefore, on travelling to Mars, it is estimated that every cell nucleus in an astronaut fs body would be hit by a proton or secondary electron (e.g., electrons of the target atoms ionized by the HZE ion) every few days and by an HZE ion about once a month. The risks related to these heavy ions are not well known and of concern for long duration space exploration missions. Medical ion therapy is another situation where human beings can be irradiated by heavy ions, usually to treat cancer. Heavy ions have a peculiar track structure characterized by high levels of energy ]deposition clustering, especially in near the track ends in the so ]called eBragg peak f region. In radiotherapy, these features of heavy ions can provide an improved dose conformation with respect to photons, also considering that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of therapeutic ions in the plateau region before the peak is sufficiently low. Therefore, several proton and carbon ion therapy facilities are under construction at this moment

  10. Chromosomal instability induced by heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Ponnaiya, B.; Corcoran, J. J.; Giedzinski, E.; Morgan, W. F.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish the dose-response relationship for the induction of chromosomal instability in GM10115 cells exposed to high-energy iron ions (1 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 146 keV/microm) and gold ions (11 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 1450 keV/microm). Past work has established that sparsely ionizing X-rays can induce a long-lived destabilization of chromosomes in a dose-dependent manner at an incidence of approximately 3% per gray. The present investigation assesses the capacity of High-Z and High-energy (HZE) particles to elicit this same endpoint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonal populations derived from single progenitor cells surviving heavy-ion irradiation were analyzed cytogenetically to identify those clones showing a persistent destablization of chromosomes. RESULTS: Dose-response data, with a particular emphasis at low dose (< 1.0 Gy), indicate a frequency of approximately 4% per gray for the induction of chromosomal instability in clones derived from single progenitor cells surviving exposure to iron ions. The induction of chromosomal instability by gold ions was, however, less responsive to applied dose, as the observed incidence of this phenotype varied from 0 to 10% over 1-8 Gy. Both iron and gold ions gave dose-dependent increases in the yield of chromosomal aberrations (both chromosome- and chromatid-type) measured at the first mitosis following irradiation, as well as shoulderless survival curves having D0=0.87 and 1.1 Gy respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present dose-response data, the relative biological effectiveness of iron ions is 1.3 for the induction of chromosomal instability, and this indicates that heavy ions are only slightly more efficient than X-rays at eliciting this delayed phenotype.

  11. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of barium strontium titanate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannard, W. B.; Johnston, P. N.; Walker, S. R.; Bubb, I. F.; Scott, J. F.; Cohen, D. D.; Dytlewski, N.; Martin, J. W.

    1995-05-01

    Thin films of barium strontium titanate have been analysed using heavy ion recoil spectrometry with 77 and 98 MeV 127I ions at the new heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. New calibration procedures have been developed for quantitative analysis. Energy spectra for each of the elements present reveal interdiffusion that was not previously known.

  12. Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

    2008-08-03

    For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

  13. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  14. Theoretical Concepts for Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2009-07-27

    Various forms of matter may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These are the Quark GluonPlasma, the Color Glass Condensate , the Glasma and Quarkyoninc Matter. A novel effect that may beassociated with topological charge fluctuations is the Chiral Magnetic Effect. I explain these concepts andexplain how they may be seen in ultra-relatvistic heavy ion collisions

  15. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made.

  16. Nuclear Physics for Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.

    2009-05-04

    A brief overview is given of the different lines of research developed under the INFN project 'Compact Stellar Objects and Dense Hadronic Matter' (acronym CT51). The emphasis of the project is on the structure of Neutron Stars (NS) and related objects. Starting from crust, the different Nuclear Physics problems are described which are encountered going inside a NS down to its inner core. The theoretical challenges and the observational inputs are discussed in some detail.

  17. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  18. Preliminary results from the heavy ions in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Beahm, L. P.; Tylka, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment is intended to provide a deep survey of intensely ionizing particles in low earth orbit. Intensely ionizing particles produce single event effects in microelectronic components and are now recognized as the principal cause of spacecraft anomalies. These particles also make an important contribution to radiation doses. Besides the practical applications, HIIS data will be used to study several important scientific questions. By measuring heavy ions that stop in HIIS, the anomalous component of cosmic rays can be studied, evidence can be searched for of heavy ions trapped in the earth's magnetic field and by comparing HISS data with observations from outside the magnetosphere, the mean ionic charge state can be determined of solar energetic particles. HIIS will also record relativistic ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays. Their elemental composition will be measured from tin to uranium. Results are presented on the elemental resolution for stopping heavy ions and relativistic heavy ions.

  19. Heavy ion radiobiology for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2004-12-01

    Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is needed for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions. Although the exposure conditions (e.g. high- vs. low-dose rate) and relevant endpoints (e.g. cell killing vs. neoplastic transformation) are different in the two fields, it is clear that a substantial overlap exists in several research topics. Three such topics are discussed in this short review: individual radiosensitivity, mixed radiation fields, and late stochastic effects of heavy ions. In addition, researchers involved either in experimental studies on space radiation protection or heavy-ion therapy will basically use the same accelerator facilities. It seems to be important that novel accelerator facilities planned (or under construction) for heavy-ion therapy reserve a substantial amount of beamtime to basic studies of heavy-ion radiobiology and its applications in space radiation research.

  20. Heavy ion tracks in polycarbonate. Comparison with a heavy ion irradiated model compound (diphenyl carbonate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferain, E.; Legras, R.

    1993-09-01

    The chemical modifications induced by energetic heavy ion irradiation of polycarbonate (PC) film are determined by GPC, HPLC, ESR, TGA, IR and UV spectrophotometry. The main results of the irradiation are creation of radicals, chain scission, cross-linking and appearance of new chemical groups in the main polymer chain. As far as the creation of new groups is concerned, they are determined by means of a model compound of PC: the diphenyl carbonate (DPC). The following compounds are identified after energetic heavy ion irradiation of DPC: salicylic acid, phenol, 4,4'-biphenol, 2,4'-biphenol, 2,2'-biphenol, 4-phenoxyphenol, 2-phenoxyphenol, phenyl ether, phenyl benzoate, phenyl salicylate, 2-phenylphenol and 2-phenoxyphenyl benzoate. A similarity between the heavy ion irradiation and a heat treatment has also been established with DPC. On the basis of these results, we try to give an explanation of the preferential attack along the tracks of the irradiated film. Also, an explanation of the well-known beneficial effect of an UV exposition of the irradiated film on the selectivity of this preferential chemical attack is suggested.

  1. Nuclear physics frontier at RCNP, Osaka University

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, H. J.

    2014-03-05

    Cyclotron accelerator facility and research activities at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, are presented. A special focus is given on several topics in nuclear physics where interesting and important experiment results relevant to the nuclear structure as well as the nuclear astrophysics have been reported.

  2. Effects of Photon Absorption in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchell, Joshua; Somanathan, Sidharth; Fries, Ranier

    2014-09-01

    Photons are an important probe of the hot and dense nuclear matter created in high-energy collisions of nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since the mean free path of photons is larger than the size of the fireball of nuclear matter, final state interactions of photons are usually neglected. In light of recent tension between theoretical calculations and data from RHIC and LHC, we study the effect of reabsorption of photons on elliptic flow v2 and on the nuclear modification factor RAA. We consider photons emitted in primary hard collisions and thermal photons from quark-gluon plasma and hot hadron gas. We use the jet-quenching code PPM to simulate the propagation of those photons in a fireball of quark-gluon plasma and hot hadron gas created by collisions of heavy nuclei. For the absorption cross-sections we consider three different approaches: (a) Compton and pair production processes calculated by us in a static approximation, (b) the photon damping rates calculated by Thoma (1995), and (c) absorption rates derived from a recent photon calculation by van Hees et al.

  3. Precision Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides at The Heavy-Ion Storage Ring in Lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuhu; Xu, Hushan; Litvinov, Yuri A.

    Recent commissioning of the Cooler Storage Ring at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou enabled us to conduct high-precision mass measurements at the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou (IMP). In the past few years, mass measurements were performed using the CSRe-based isochronous mass spectrometry employing the fragmentation of the energetic beams of 58Ni, 78Kr, 86Kr, and 112Sn projectiles. Masses of short-lived nuclides of on both sides of the stability valley were addressed. Relative mass precision of down to 10-6-10-7 is routinely achieved. The mass values were used as an input for dedicated nuclear structure and astrophysics studies, providing for instance new insights into the rp-process of nucleosynthesis in X-ray bursts. In this contribution, we briefly review the so far conducted experiments and the main achieved results, as well as outline the plans for future experiments.

  4. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.B.

    1990-03-01

    This report discusses topics in the following areas: Holifield heavy ion research; Experimental Nuclear physics; The Uniser program; Experimental Atomic Physics; Theoretical Physics; Laser and electro-optics lab; High Energy Physics; compilations and evaluations; and accelerator design and development. (FI)

  5. Applicability of causal dissipative hydrodynamics to relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huovinen, Pasi; Molnar, Denes

    2009-01-01

    We utilize nonequilibrium covariant transport theory to determine the region of validity of causal Israel-Stewart (IS) dissipative hydrodynamics and Navier-Stokes (NS) theory for relativistic heavy ion physics applications. A massless ideal gas with 2→2 interactions is considered in a Bjorken scenario in 0 + 1 dimension (D) appropriate for the early longitudinal expansion stage of the collision. In the scale-invariant case of a constant shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s≈const, we find that IS theory is accurate within 10% in calculating dissipative effects if initially the expansion time scale exceeds half the transport mean free path τ0/λtr,0≳2. The same accuracy with NS requires three times larger τ0/λtr,0≳6. For dynamics driven by a constant cross section, on the other hand, about 50% larger τ0/λtr,0≳3 (IS) and 9 (NS) are needed. For typical applications at energies currently available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), i.e., sNN~100-200 GeV, these limits imply that even the IS approach becomes marginal when η/s≳0.15. In addition, we find that the “naive” approximation to IS theory, which neglects products of gradients and dissipative quantities, has an even smaller range of applicability than Navier-Stokes. We also obtain analytic IS and NS solutions in 0 + 1D, and present further tests for numerical dissipative hydrodynamics codes in 1 + 1, 2 + 1, and 3 + 1D based on generalized conservation laws.

  6. Radiation protection and environmental management at the relativistic heavy ion collider.

    PubMed

    Musolino, S V; Briggs, S L; Stevens, A J

    2001-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a high energy hadron accelerator built to study basic nuclear physics. It consists of two counter-rotating beams of fully stripped gold ions that are accelerated in two rings to an energy of 100 GeV/nucleon or protons at 250 GeV/c. The beams can be stored for a period of five to ten hours and brought into collision for experiments during that time. The first major physics objective is to recreate a state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma, that has been predicted to have existed at a short time after the creation of the universe. Because there are only a few other high energy particle accelerators like RHIC in the world, the rules promulgated in the US Code of Federal Regulations under the Atomic Energy Act, State regulations, or international guidance documents do not cover prompt radiation from accelerators to govern directly the design and operation of a superconducting collider. Special design criteria for prompt radiation were developed to provide guidance tor the design of radiation shielding. Environmental Management at RHIC is accomplished through the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. The applicability, benefits, and implementation of ISO 14001 within the framework of a large research accelerator complex are discussed in the paper.

  7. RADIATION PROTECTION FOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION-COLLIDER AT THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    MUSOLINO,S.V.

    1999-09-27

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a high energy particle accelerator built to study basic nuclear physics. It consists of two counter-rotating beams of fully stripped gold ions that are accelerated in two rings to an energy of 100 GeV/nucleon. The rings consist of a circular lattice of superconducting magnets 3.8 km in circumference. The beams can be stored for a period of five to ten hours and brought into collision for experiments during that time. The first major physics objective when the facility goes into operation is to recreate a state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma, that has been predicted to have existed at a short time after the creation of the universe. There are only a few other high energy particle accelerators like RHIC in the world. The rules promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations under the Atomic Energy Act do not cover prompt radiation from accelerators, nor are there any State regulations that govern the design and operation of a superconducting collider. Special design criteria for prompt radiation were developed to provide guidance for the design of radiation shielding.

  8. Studies of Heavy-Ion Reactions and Transuranic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, W. Udo

    2016-07-28

    Studies of heavy-ion reactions and transuranic nuclei performed by the University of Rochester Nuclear Science Research Group have been successful in furthering experimental systematics and theoretical understanding of the behavior of nuclear systems excited to their limits of stability. The theoretical results explain specifically the “boiling” and “vaporization” of atomic nuclei, but are more generally applicable to isolated, quantal many-particle systems which, under thermal or mechanical stresses, all disintegrate by evaporation, via surface cluster emission, or via fission-like processes. Accompanying experimental investigations by the group have demonstrated several new types of dynamical instability of nuclei: In central, “head-on” collisions, target nuclei exhibit limited ability to stop energetic projectile nuclei and to dissipate the imparted linear momentum. Substantial matter overlap (“neck”) between projectile and target nuclei, which is observed at elevated collision energies, can be stretched considerably and break at several places simultaneously. These results provide new testing grounds for microscopic theory of the cohesion of nuclear matter. This property has remained elusive, even though the elementary nucleon-nucleon forces are well known since some time. Technical R&D has resulted in a detailed characterization of a novel plastic material, which can now be used in the design of sensitive diagnostic systems for various types of radio-activity. Innovative application of powerful laser systems has produced intense, controllable sources of exotic particle radioactivity for nuclear investigations. Several students have received their Ph.D. degree in experimental nuclear science for their work on basic nuclear research or R&D projects.

  9. Understanding transport simulations of heavy-ion collisions at 100 A and 400 A MeV: Comparison of heavy-ion transport codes under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Tsang, ManYee Betty; Wolter, Hermann; Zhang, Ying-Xun; Aichelin, Joerg; Colonna, Maria; Cozma, Dan; Danielewicz, Pawel; Feng, Zhao-Qing; Le Fèvre, Arnaud; Gaitanos, Theodoros; Hartnack, Christoph; Kim, Kyungil; Kim, Youngman; Ko, Che-Ming; Li, Bao-An; Li, Qing-Feng; Li, Zhu-Xia; Napolitani, Paolo; Ono, Akira; Papa, Massimo; Song, Taesoo; Su, Jun; Tian, Jun-Long; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yong-Jia; Weil, Janus; Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Transport simulations are very valuable for extracting physics information from heavy-ion-collision experiments. With the emergence of many different transport codes in recent years, it becomes important to estimate their robustness in extracting physics information from experiments. We report on the results of a transport-code-comparison project. Eighteen commonly used transport codes were included in this comparison: nine Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck-type codes and nine quantum-molecular-dynamics-type codes. These codes have been asked to simulate Au +Au collisions using the same physics input for mean fields and for in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, as well as the same impact parameter, the similar initialization setup, and other calculational parameters at 100 A and 400 A MeV incident energy. Among the codes we compare one-body observables such as rapidity and transverse flow distributions. We also monitor nonobservables such as the initialization of the internal states of colliding nuclei and their stability, the collision rates, and the Pauli blocking. We find that not completely identical initializations may have contributed partly to different evolutions. Different strategies to determine the collision probabilities and to enforce the Pauli blocking also produce considerably different results. There is a substantial spread in the predictions for the observables, which is much smaller at the higher incident energy. We quantify the uncertainties in the collective flow resulting from the simulation alone as about 30% at 100 A MeV and 13% at 400 A MeV, respectively. We propose further steps within the code comparison project to test the different aspects of transport simulations in a box calculation of infinite nuclear matter. This should, in particular, improve the robustness of transport model predictions at lower incident energies, where abundant amounts of data are available.

  10. Benchmark solutions for the galactic heavy-ion transport equations with energy and spatial coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nontrivial benchmark solutions are developed for the galactic heavy ion transport equations in the straightahead approximation with energy and spatial coupling. Analytical representations of the ion fluxes are obtained for a variety of sources with the assumption that the nuclear interaction parameters are energy independent. The method utilizes an analytical LaPlace transform inversion to yield a closed form representation that is computationally efficient. The flux profiles are then used to predict ion dose profiles, which are important for shield design studies.

  11. Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions in a multi-string model

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, K.

    1987-01-01

    We present a model for ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions based on color string formation and subsequent independent string fragmentation. Strings are formed due to color exchange between quarks at each individual nucleon nucleon collision. The fragmentation is treated as in e/sup +/e/sup -/ or lepton nucleon scattering. Calculation for pp, pA, and AA were carried out using the Monte Carlo code VENUS for Very Energetic Nuclear Scattering (version 1.0). 20 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Stochastic approaches to dynamics of heavy ion collisions, the case of thermal fission

    SciTech Connect

    Boilley, D.; Abe, Y.; Suraud, E.; Ayik, S.

    1994-03-30

    In order to study the influence of fluctuations on various phenomena linked to heavy ion collisions, a Langevin equation has been derived from a microscopic model. Parameters entering this equation are completely determined from microscopic quantities characterizing nuclear matter. This equation has been applied to various phenomena at intermediate energies. This paper focuses on large amplitude motions and especially thermal fission. Fission rate is calculated and compared to experimental results.

  13. Ultra-peripheral heavy-ion collisions with CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Pat

    2015-04-10

    Ultra-peripheral collisions (UPCs) of heavy ions involve long range electromagnetic interactions at impact parameters larger than twice the nuclear radius. At TeV energies, the strong electromagnetic field due to the coherent action of the Z = 82 proton charges generates a large flux of photons, which can be used for high-energy photoproduction studies. Heavy vector mesons produced in electromagnetic interactions provide direct information on the parton distribution functions in the nucleus at very low values of Bjorken-x. These events are characterized by a very low hadron multiplicity. The wide pseudo-rapidity coverage of the CMS detectors is used to separate such events from very peripheral nuclear interactions. The CMS experiment has excellent capabilities for the measurement of the heavy vector mesons in the dimuon decay channel using the tracker and the muon chambers. This analysis demonstrates CMS’s capabilities for measuring J/ψ and the two-photon process in ultra-peripheral collisions, using the 2011 PbPb and 2013 pPb data. The prospects for future measurements using the data to be collected in the 2015 PbPb run will be described.

  14. Large amounts of antiproton production by heavy ion collision

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Powell, J.

    1987-01-01

    To produce large amounts of antiprotons, on the order of several grams/year, use of machines to produce nuclear collisions are studied. These can be of either proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus in nature. To achieve high luminosity colliding beams, on the order of 10/sup 41/ m/cm/sup 2/, a self-colliding machine is required, rather than a conventional circular colliding type. The self-colliding machine can produce additional antiprotons through successive collisions of secondary particles, such as spectator nucleons. A key problem is how to collect the produced antiprotons without capture by beam nuclei in the collision zone. Production costs for anti-matter are projected for various energy source options and technology levels. Dedicated facilities using heavy ion collisions could produce antiproton at substantially less than 1 million $/milligram. With co-production of other valuable products, e.g., nuclear fuel for power reactors, antiproton costs could be reduced to even lower values.

  15. Propagation of heavy baryons in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Santosh K.; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Tolos, Laura; Minissale, Vincenzo; Scardina, Francesco; Greco, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of heavy baryons (Λc and Λb ) in the hadronic phase created in the latter stage of the heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies have been evaluated recently. In this work we compute some experimental observables, such as the nuclear suppression factor RA A and the elliptic flow v2 of heavy baryons at RHIC and LHC energies, highlighting the role of the hadronic phase contribution to these observables, which are going to be measured at Run 3 of LHC. For the time evolution of the heavy quarks in the quark and gluon plasma (QGP) and heavy baryons in the hadronic phase, we use the Langevin dynamics. For the hadronization of the heavy quarks to heavy baryons we employ Peterson fragmentation functions. We observe a strong suppression of both the Λc and Λb . We find that the hadronic medium has a sizable impact on the heavy-baryon elliptic flow whereas the impact of hadronic medium rescattering is almost unnoticeable on the nuclear suppression factor. We evaluate the Λc/D ratio at RHIC and LHC. We find that the Λc/D ratio remains unaffected due to the hadronic phase rescattering which enables it as a nobel probe of QGP phase dynamics along with its hadronization.

  16. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    Our work involves the study of intermediate energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions. This work has two foci. On the one hand, we desire to learn about the properties of nuclear matter under abnormal conditions, in this energy domain, predominately low densities. This purpose runs abreast of the second, which is the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. The two objectives are inexorably linked because our experimental laboratory for studying nuclear matter properties is a dynamic one. We are forced to ask how nuclear matter properties, such as phase transitions, are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. It may be that irrefutable information about nuclear matter will not be extracted from the reaction work. Nevertheless, we are compelled to undertake this effort not only because it is the only game in town and as yet we do not know that information cannot be extracted, but also because of our second objective. The process leads to an understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. Our program has been: To study energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition by studying incomplete fusion reactions. To gain confidence that we understand how highly excited systems decompose by studying all emissions from the highly excited systems. To push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain, with excitation function studies. And attempt to learn about the dynamics of the decays using particle-particle correlations. In the last effort, we have decided to focus on simple systems, where we believe, definitive statements are possible. These avenues of research share a common theme, large complex fragment production.

  17. Experimental measurement of the 4-d transverse phase space map of a heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H S

    1997-12-01

    The development and employment of a new diagnostic instrument for characterizing intense, heavy ion beams is reported on. This instrument, the ''Gated Beam Imager'' or ''GBI'' was designed for use on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project's ''Small Recirculator'', an integrated, scaled physics experiment and engineering development project for studying the transport and control of intense heavy ion beams as inertial fusion drivers in the production of electric power. The GBI allows rapid measurement and calculation of a heavy ion beam's characteristics to include all the first and second moments of the transverse phase space distribution, transverse emittance, envelope parameters and beam centroid. The GBI, with appropriate gating produces a time history of the beam resulting in a 4-D phase-space and time ''map'' of the beam. A unique capability of the GBI over existing diagnostic instruments is its ability to measure the ''cross'' moments between the two transverse orthogonal directions. Non-zero ''cross'' moments in the alternating gradient lattice of the Small Recirculator are indicative of focusing element rotational misalignments contributing to beam emittance growth. This emittance growth, while having the same effect on the ability to focus a beam as emittance growth caused by non-linear effects, is in principle removable by an appropriate number of focusing elements. The instrument uses the pepperpot method of introducing a plate with many pinholes into the beam and observing the images of the resulting beamlets as they interact with a detector after an appropriate drift distance. In order to produce adequate optical signal and repeatability, the detector was chosen to be a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor readout screen. The heavy ions in the pepperpot beamlets are stopped in the MCP's thin front metal anode and the resulting secondary electron signal is amplified and proximity-focused onto the phosphor while maintaining

  18. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  19. High current injector for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W. W.

    1993-05-01

    A 2 MV, 800 mA, K(+) injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 micro-s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (less than 5k Omega) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large (approximately 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 micro-s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented.

  20. Developments in accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1985-05-01

    The long term goal of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is the development of an accelerator with the large beam power, large beam stored-energy, and high brightness needed to implode small deuterium-tritium capsules for fusion power. While studies of an rf linac/storage ring combination as an inertial fusion driver continue in Japan and Europe, the US program in recent times has concentrated on the study of the suitability of linear induction acceleration of ions for this purpose. Novel features required include use of multiple beams, beam current amplification in the linac, and manipulation of long beam bunches with a large velocity difference between head and tail. Recent experiments with an intense bright beam of cesium ions have established that much higher currents can be transported in a long quadrupole system than was believed possible a few years ago. A proof-of-principle ion induction linac to demonstrate beam current amplification with multiple beams is at present being fabricated at LBL. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Riepe, K.B.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.

    1985-10-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10 X torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column. The column consists of two 28-inch diameter insulator modules made of 85 percent Al2O3 ceramic rings brazed to niobium feedthrough rings to which the electrodes are mechanically attached. Field shaping is used to minimize electron avalanche induced flashover along the inside surface of the ceramic rings. The column is self-supporting and is cantilevered from one end of the containment vessel. A brazed assembly was chosen to provide the required bond strength and high vacuum capability. The HV pulsed power supply is a 2MV Marx generator cantilevered from the opposite end of the containment vessel. The stainless steel pressure vessel (PV) contains a 65 psig mixture of SF6(30%) and nitrogen (70%) to provide the electrical insulation.

  2. Heavy ion fusion: Prospects and status

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to review the status of HIF as it was presented at Princeton, and also to try to deduce something about the prospects for HIF in particular, and fusion in general, from the world and US political scene. The status of the field is largely, though not entirely, expressed through presentations from the two leading HIF efforts: (1) the US program, centered at LBNL and LLNL, is primarily concerned with applying induction linac technology for HIF drivers; (2) the European program, centered at GSI, Darmstadt, but including several other laboratories, is primarily directed towards the rf linac approach using storage rings for energy compression. Several developments in the field of HIF should be noted: (1) progress towards construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) gives strength to the whole rational for developing a driver for Inertial Fusion Energy; (2) the field of accelerator science has matured far beyond the status that it had in 1976; (3) Heavy Ion Fusion has passed some more reviews, including one by the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), and has received the usual good marks; (5) as the budgets for Magnetic Fusion have fallen, the pressures on the Office of Fusion energy (OFE) have intensified, and a move is underway to shift the HIF program out of the IFE program and back into the ICF program in the Defense Programs (DP) side of the DOE.

  3. Nuclear Physics and Hadron Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Braunn, B.

    2011-12-13

    Hadron therapy uses light charged particles beams (mainly proton and {sup 12}C ions) to irradiate tumors. These beams present a ballistic advantage with a maximum energy deposition at the end of the path. A large dose can be delivered inside a deep tumor while the surrounding healthy tissues are preserved. There is an obvious advantage in using these beams but the beam control has to be achieved and all the physical processes leading to the energy deposition have to be fully under control. This treatment protocol requires accurate control devices and a good knowledge of the physical processes occurring all along the path of the projectile in human tissues. In this report, we will present one example of a beam monitor for the proton therapy. We will also present the experimental program which has been initiated to obtain fundamental data on the nuclear fragmentation process.

  4. Supernovae, compact stars and nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1989-08-25

    We briefly review the current understanding of supernova. We investigate the implications of rapid rotation corresponding to the frequency of the new pulsar reported in the supernovae remnant SN1987A. It places very stringent conditions on the equation of state if the star is assumed to be bound by gravity alone. We find that the central energy density of the star must be greater than 12 times that of nuclear density to be stable against the most optimistic estimate of general relativistic instabilities. This is too high for the matter to plausibly consist of individual hadrons. We conclude that the newly discovered pulsar, if its half-millisecond signals are attributable to rotation, cannot be a neutron star. We show that it can be a strange quark star, and that the entire family of strange stars can sustain high rotation under appropriate conditions. We discuss the conversion of a neutron star to strange star, the possible existence of a crust of heavy ions held in suspension by centrifugal and electric forces, the cooling and other features. 39 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The design, creation, and performance of the parallel multiprocessor nuclear physics data acquisition system, DAPHNE

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, L.C.; Moog, T.H.; Daly, R.T.; Videbaek, F.

    1986-01-01

    The ever increasing complexity of nuclear physics experiments places severe demands on computerized data acquisition systems. A natural evolution of these system, taking advantage of the independent nature of ''events'', is to use identical parallel microcomputers in a front end to simultaneously analyze separate events. Such a system has been developed at Argonne to serve the needs of the experimental program of ATLAS, a new superconducting heavy-ion accelerator and other on-going research. Using microcomputers based on the National Semiconductor 32016 microprocessor housed in a Multibus I cage, multi-VAX cpu power is obtained at a fraction of the cost of one VAX. The front end interfaces to a VAX 750 on which an extensive user friendly command language based on DCL resides. The whole system, known as DAPHNE, also provides the means to replay data using the same command language. Design concepts, data structures, performance, and experience to data are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  6. TWENTY-YEAR PLANNING STUDY FOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER FACILITY AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect

    LUDLAM,T.ET AL.

    2003-12-31

    At the request of DOE's Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has created this planning document to assemble and summarize a planning exercise that addresses the core scientific thrust of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) for the next twenty years and the facilities operation plan that will support this program. The planning work was carried out by BNL in close collaboration with the RHIC user community and within budgetary guidelines for the next five years supplied by the ONP. The resulting plans were reviewed by the BNL High Energy and Nuclear Physics Program Advisory Committee (PAC) at a special RHIC planning meeting held in December 2003. Planning input from each of the four RHIC experimental collaborations was absolutely central to the preparation of this overall Laboratory plan. Each collaboration supplied two key documents, a five-year ''Beam Use Proposal'' and a ten-year ''Decadal Plan''. These plans are posted on the BNL website http://www.bnl.gov/henp/, along with other planning documents germane to this paper, such as the complete written reports from the August and December 2003 PAC meetings that considered the five-year and decadal planning documents of the four RHIC collaborations and offered advice and commentary on these plans. Only in these collaboration documents can the full physics impact of the RHIC program be seen and the full scope of the efforts put into this planning process be appreciated. For this reason, the maximum value of the present planning paper can only be realized by making frequent reference to the collaboration documents.

  7. Ionization and Recombination Measurements at the Heidelberg Heavy Ion Storage Ring TSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, D. W.; Hahn, M.; Lestinsky, M.; Novonty, O.; Bernhardt, D.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Krantz, C.; Wolf, A.

    2011-05-01

    Reliable ionization balance calculations are needed to analyze spectra from a wide range of cosmic sources including photoionized objects such as AGNs and X-ray binaries and electron ionized objects such as as stars, supernovae, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. These theoretical charge state distributions (CSD) depend in turn upon the underlying atomic data. Of particular importance are reliable rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination (DR), which is the dominant electron-ion recombination recombination mechanism for most ions, and for electron impact ionization (EII). We are carrying out DR and EII measurements of astrophysically important ions using the heavy ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. The storage ring measurements are largely free of the metastable contamination found in other experimental geometries. Storage ring measurements therefore result in more precise DR and EII reaction rate measurements. The measured rate coefficients can be used in modeling cosmic and laboratory plasmas as well as in the benchmarking of theoretical atomic calculations. Here we report results for selected recent DR and EII measurements.

  8. Recombination and Ionization Measurements at the Heidelberg Heavy Ion Storage Ring TSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestinsky, Michael; Lukic, D.; Savin, D. W.; Hoffmann, J.; Krantz, C.; Orlov, D. A.; Wolf, A.; Bernhardt, D.; Borovyk, O.; Schmidt, E. W.; Yu, D.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Badnell, N. R.

    2008-05-01

    Much of our knowledge of the universe rests on our ability to interpret spectra collected from various cosmic sources. This analysis requires reliably understanding the underlying charge state distribution (CSD) for the observed gas. In turn, this depends on accurate rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination (DR) and electron impact ionization (EII), which play important roles in determining the CSD for a wide range of cosmic objects. To address these needs we have an ongoing experimental program carrying out DR and EII measurements for astrophysically important ions of cosmically abundant elements. Measurements are performed using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Storage rings are currently the only laboratory method capable of studying the astrophysically relevant DR channels for the majority of cosmically important ions. They are also the only method capable of studying EII using beams of ions with multiple electrons in the valence shell which are free of metastable contamination, allowing for unambiguous EII laboratory data. We use our results to produce rate coefficients for plasma modelling. We are also providing our data to atomic theorist to benchmark their calculations. Here we report our recent results for DR measurements of Fe XI and Fe X and show an early status report on the analysis of recent EII measurements of C IV, C V and O IV. This work has been supported in part by NASA, the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, and the German Research Council.

  9. Recombination and Ionization Measurements at the Heidelberg Heavy Ion Storage Ring TSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael; Bernhardt, D.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Mueller, A.; Novotny, O.; Schippers, S.; Wolf, A.; Savin, D. W.

    2010-03-01

    Reliable ionization balance calculations are needed to analyze spectra from a wide range of cosmic sources including photoionized objects such as AGNs and X-ray binaries and electron ionized objects such as as stars, supernovae, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. These theoretical charge state distributions (CSD) depend in turn upon the underlying atomic data. Of particular importance are reliable rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination (DR), which is the dominant electron-ion recombination recombination mechanism for most ions, and for electron impact ionzation (EII). We are carrying out DR and EII measurements of astrophysically important ions using the heavy ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Insitute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. The storage ring measurements are largely free of the metastable contamination found in other experimental geometries. Storage ring measurements therefore result in more precise DR and EII reaction rate measurements. The measured rate coefficients can be used in plasma modelling as well as in the benchmarking of theoretical atomic calculations. Here we report recent DR and EII measurements of Mg VIII and Fe XII.

  10. Terascale simulations for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Sharp, W M; Celata, C M; Lee, E P; Vay, J-L; Davidson, R C; Kaganovich, I; Lee, W W; Qin, H; Welch, D R; Haber, I; Kishek, R A

    2000-06-08

    The intense ion beams in a heavy ion Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver and fusion chamber are non-neutral plasmas whose dynamics are largely dominated by space charge. We propose to develop a ''source-to-target'' Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) beam simulation capability: a description of the kinetic behavior of this complex, nonlinear system which is both integrated and detailed. We will apply this new capability to further our understanding of key scientific issues in the physics of ion beams for IFE. The simulations will entail self-consistent field descriptions that require interprocessor communication, but are scalable and will run efficiently on terascale architectures. This new capability will be based on the integration of three types of simulations, each requiring terascale computing: (1) simulations of acceleration and confinement of the space-charge-dominated ion beams through the driver (accelerator, pulse compression line, and final focusing system) which accurately describe their dynamics, including emittance growth (phase-space dilution) effects; these are particle-in-cell (PIC) models; (2) electromagnetic (EM) and magnetoinductive (Darwin) simulations which describe the beam and the fusion chamber environment, including multibeam, neutralization, stripping, beam and plasma ionization processes, and return current effects; and (3) highly detailed simulations (6f, multispecies PIC, continuum Vlasov), which can examine electron effects and collective modes in the driver and chamber, and can study halo generation with excellent statistics, to ensure that these effects do not disrupt the focusability of the beams. The code development will involve: (i) adaptation of existing codes to run efficiently on multi-SMP computers that use a hybrid of shared and distributed memory; (ii) development of new and improved numerical algorithms, e.g., averaging techniques that will afford larger timesteps; and (iii) incorporation of improved physics models (e.g., for self

  11. Silicon Carbide Power Device Performance Under Heavy-Ion Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Topper, Alyson; Wilcox, Edward; Phan, Anthony; Ikpe, Stanley; LaBel, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion induced degradation and catastrophic failure data for SiC power MOSFETs and Schottky diodes are examined to provide insight into the challenge of single-event effect hardening of SiC power devices.

  12. Relativistic nuclear physics at JINR: from the synchrophasotron to the NICA collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapov, N. N.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Lednitsky, R.; Matveev, V. A.; Meshkov, I. N.; Nikitin, V. A.; Potrebennikov, Yu K.; Sorin, A. S.; Trubnikov, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    We describe the development of relativistic nuclear physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) from the first experiments to our time and review the current state of the problem. The Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR and its status are described. Two goals of the project — experimental studies of dense nuclear (baryonic) matter and particle spin physics — are combined in the project based on a common experimental method: the investigation of collisions of nuclei at relativistic energies. The first problem is discussed here, and the second will be addressed in a dedicated publication. Such experiments were started at JINR in the 1970s at the Synchrophasotron proton synchrotron, and they are the main focus of the NICA project. Fundamental and applied research in other areas of science and technology that can be implemented at the NICA facility is also discussed. The accelerator facility under construction at JINR will allow performing experimental studies in particle physics at parameters and under experimental conditions that were previously inaccessible. With NICA, particle physics research in a previously inaccessible range of experimental parameters and conditions becomes possible: heavy-ion beams will be collided at center-of-mass energies in the range 4-11 GeV at luminosities up to 1027 cm-2 s-1. These studies will be supplemented with experiments using a beam of exracted nuclei incident on a fixed target. A short description is given of the detectors under construction for these studies.

  13. Studies of relativistic heavy ion collisions. Final report, July 16, 1987--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Madansky, L.

    1997-12-31

    As a member of the DLS collaboration, the Hopkins group participated in all aspects of the experiment and the analysis of the results. The recent work involved measurements of dielectrons from p-p, p-d collisions as well as heavy ion Ca-Ca collisions at high densities. These results show the expected effects of bremsstrahlung vector meson decay and Dalitz decay but still show that some varieties of the low mass cross-sections disagree with various theoretical estimates, which could indicate other effects of high nuclear density. The Hopkins group has also been an initial member of the STAR collaboration and helped initiate the proposal for jet searches in the heavy ion experiments at RHIC. The group was instrumental in initiating the first stage of an electro-magnetic calorimeter for these experiments. The group also joined (E896) the Ho experiment. This work was primarily devoted to finding the existence of an elementary system containing strange quarks. An initial experiment was done recently at which Hopkins provided various beam counters. The final work is expected to commence in the fall of `98. Finally, the group has contributed to a number of experiments involving polarization effects in nuclear collisions, searching for production of antimatter, and other aspects of relativistic collisions of heavy ions using the facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL).

  14. A NRA study of temperature and heavy ion irradiation effects on helium migration in sintered uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Garcia, P.; Labrim, H.; Sauvage, T.; Carlot, G.; Desgardin, P.; Barthe, M. F.; Piron, J. P.

    2006-10-01

    Helium implanted uranium dioxide sintered samples were studied using nuclear reaction analysis prior to and following heavy ion irradiations and temperature anneals at 800 °C and 1100 °C. The results show that the heavy ion irradiations do not produce measurable long range movement of helium atoms. However, the ion irradiations do affect the behaviour of helium during subsequent temperature anneals. As regards the 800 °C anneal, the reduced mobility of helium in the ion-irradiated samples is interpreted as resulting from enhanced helium atom segregation produced by the ion-irradiation. Conversely at 1100 °C, the initial heavy ion irradiation appears to produce a greater than expected movement of helium within the bulk of the sample which could be an indication of defect assisted helium diffusion. Thermal diffusion coefficients are also reported at 800 °C and 1100 °C based on an analysis using a one-dimensional diffusion model.

  15. Momentum imbalance of D mesons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uphoff, Jan; Senzel, Florian; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2014-06-01

    As a new observable for heavy flavor correlations the momentum imbalance AD of D mesons is proposed. It is defined analogously to the jet momentum imbalance AJ of fully reconstructed jets. However, because D mesons are flavor-tagged particles, no jet reconstruction is necessary. AD quantifies the influence of the medium created in heavy-ion collisions on correlated charm pairs. We present results with the partonic transport model Boltzmann approach to multiparton scatterings, which describes well the nuclear modification factor and elliptic flow of all heavy flavor particles at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The AD distribution in heavy-ion collisions at LHC is shifted to larger values of AD compared to proton-proton collisions. We argue that this shift is attributable to medium effects and can be explained partially by a path-length imbalance of charm pairs and partially by momentum fluctuations in the initial charm-pair distribution.

  16. Exploring the QCD Phase Structure with Beam Energy Scan in Heavy-ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaofeng

    2016-12-01

    Beam energy scan programs in heavy-ion collisions aim to explore the QCD phase structure at high baryon density. Sensitive observables are applied to probe the signatures of the QCD phase transition and critical point in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and SPS. Intriguing structures, such as dip, peak and oscillation, have been observed in the energy dependence of various observables. In this paper, an overview is given and corresponding physics implications will be discussed for the experimental highlights from the beam energy scan programs at the STAR, PHENIX and NA61/SHINE experiments. Furthermore, the beam energy scan phase II at RHIC (2019-2020) and other future experimental facilities for studying the physics at low energies will be also discussed.

  17. Heavy ion induced permanent damage in MNOS gate insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickel, J. C.; Blandford, J. T., Jr.; Waskiewicz, A. E.; Strahan, V. H., Jr.

    1985-12-01

    Heavy-ion-induced permanent damage in MNOS gate insulators has been investigated using a Cf252 fission source. The electric field and ion LET thresholds for onset of the damage has been characterized. The results are consistent with a thermal runaway mechanism in the silicon nitride layer initiated by a single heavy ion and leading to a permanent high conductivity path through the dielectric layers.

  18. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  19. Intriguing Trends in Nuclear Physics Articles Authorship

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.

    2014-11-06

    A look at how authorship of physics publications (particularly nuclear publications) have changed throughout the decades by comparing data mined from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) with observations.

  20. Antiproton production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacak, B. V.

    In high energy p-p and alpha-alpha collisions, baryons are observed predominantly at rapidities near those of target and projectile; the mean rapidity shift of projectile and target nucleons is approximately one unit. In the central rapidity region, the number of baryons is quite small. In fact, the number of baryons and antibaryons is rather similar, indicating that most of these baryons are CREATED particles rather than projectile and target fragments. Antibaryon production is of interest in heavy ion collisions as enhanced antiquark production has been predicted as a potential signature of quark-gluon plasma formation. Antibaryons also provide a sensitive probe of the hadronic environment, via annihilation and/or mean field effects upon their final distributions. However, the collision dynamics also affect the baryon and antibaryon distributions. Baryons are more shifted toward midrapidity in nucleus-nucleus and p-p nucleus collisions than in p-p collisions, increasing the probability of annihilating the antibaryons. The interpretation of antibaryon yields is further complicated by collective processes which may take place in the dense hadronic medium formed in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Jahns and coworkers have shown that multistep processes can increase antibaryon production near threshold. Antiproton production is clearly very interesting, but is sensitive to a combination of processes taking place in the collision. The final number of observed antiprotons depends on the balance between mechanisms for extra antiproton production beyond those from the individual nucleon-nucleon collisions and annihilation with surrounding baryons. We can hope to sort out these things by systematic studies, varying the system size and beam energy. I will review what is known about antiproton production at both the AGS and SPS, and look at trends going from p-p to p-nucleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  1. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, T.S.; Barton, D.S.; Oerter, B.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system has been used in the commissioning of the AGS to RHIC transfer line and in the first RHIC sextant test. Much of the controls infrastructure for networks and links has been installed throughout the collider. All of the controls hardware modules needed to be built for early RHIC operations have been designed and tested. Many of these VME modules are already being used in normal AGS operations. Over 150 VME based front end computers and device controllers will be installed by the Summer of 1998 in order to be ready for Fall of 1998. A few features are being added to the front end computer core software. The bulk of the Accelerator Device Objects (ADOs) which are instantiated in the FECs, have been written and tested in the early commissioning. A configuration database has been designed. Generic control and display of ADO parameters via a spreadsheet like program on the console level computers was provided early on in the control system development. User interface tools that were developed for the AGS control system have been used in RHIC applications. Some of the basic operations programs, like alarm display and save/restore, that are used in the AGS operations have been or will be expanded to support RHIC operations. A model for application programs which involves a console level manager servicing ADOs have been verified with a few RHIC applications. More applications need to be written for the Fall of 1998 commissioning effort. A sequencer for automatic control of the fill is being written with the expectation that it will be useful in early commissioning.

  2. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  3. From e+e- to Heavy Ion Collisions - Proceedings of the XXX International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csörgő, Tamás Hegyi, Sándor Kittel, Wolfram

    * Polarization and spin alignment in multihadronic Z0 decays * Jet physics at HERA * Final state studies at HERA * A gauge-invariant subtraction technique for non-inclusive observables in QCD * Baryon transport in dual models and the possibility of a backward peak in diffraction * ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS * Cosmic rays in the energy range of the knee - Recent results from KASCADE * Imaging atmospheric Čerenkov telescopes: Techniques and results * Extensive air shower simulations with CORSIKA and the influence of high-energy hadronic interaction models * Future directions in astroparticle physics and the AUGER experiment * p+A COLLISIONS * pp and pA collisions at CERN SPS * Charmonium attenuation and the quark-gluon plasma * Gluon depletion and J/ψ suppression in pA collisions * CORRELATIONS AND FLUCTUATIONS - EXPERIMENT * Experimental correlation analysis: Foundations and practice * Intermittency and correlations at LEP and at HERA * Moments of the charged-particle multiplicity distribution in Z decays at LEP * On the scale of visible jets in high energy electron-positron collisions * HBT in relativistic heavy ion collisions * Comparison of the pion emission function in hadron-hadron and heavy ion collisions * Multiparticle correlations at LEP1 * Inter-W Bose-Einstein correlations ellipse ... or not? * Colour reconnection at LEP2 * CORRELATIONS AND FLUCTUATIONS - THEORY * Correlations and fluctuations - introduction * Coherence and incoherence in Bose-Einstein correlations * Bose-Einstein correlations in cascade processes and non-extensive statistics * A systematic approach to anomalous phenomena at high energies * Reconstruction of hadronization stage in Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV/c * Status of ring-like correlations and wavelets * Fluctuation probes of quark deconfinement * PQCD structure and hadronization in jets and heavy-ion collisions * Net-baryon fluctuations at the QCD critical point * Fractional Fokker-Planck equation in time variable and oscillation of cumulant

  4. Research in theoretical nuclear and neutrino physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sarcevic, Ina

    2014-06-14

    The main focus of the research supported by the nuclear theory grant DE-FG02-04ER41319 was on studying parton dynamics in high-energy heavy ion collisions, perturbative approach to charm production and its contribution to atmospheric neutrinos, application of AdS/CFT approach to QCD, neutrino signals of dark mattter annihilation in the Sun and on novel processes that take place in dense stellar medium and their role in stellar collapse, in particular the effect of new neutrino interactions on neutrino flavor conversion in Supernovae. We present final technical report on projects completed under the grant.

  5. Symmetry Energy Effects on Low Energy Dissipative Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, C.; Baran, V.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Odsuren, M.

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the reaction path followed by Heavy Ion Collisions with exotic nuclear beams at low energies. We focus on the interplay between reaction mechanisms, fusion vs. break-up (fast-fission, deep-inelastic), that in exotic systems is expected to be influenced by the symmetry energy term at densities around the normal value. The method described here, based on the event by event evolution of phase space quadrupole collective modes, will nicely allow to extract the fusion probability at relatively early times, when the transport results are reliable. Fusion probabilities for reactions induced by 132Sn on 64,58Ni targets at 10 AMeV are evaluated. We obtain larger fusion cross sections for the more n-rich composite system, and, for a given reaction, with a soft symmetry term above saturation. A collective charge equilibration mechanism (the Dynamical Dipole Resonance, DDR) is revealed in both fusion and break-up events, depending on the stiffness of the symmetry term just below saturation. Finally we investigate the effect of the mass asymmetry in the entrance channel for systems with the same overall isospin content and similar initial charge asymmetry. As expected we find reduced fusion probabilities for the more mass symmetric case, while the DDR strength appears not much affected. This is a nice confirmation of the prompt nature of such collective isovector mode.

  6. Open Heavy Flavor Measurements in Heavy Ion Collisions with CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian

    2016-12-01

    The measurement of heavy flavor production is a powerful tool to study the properties of the high-density QCD medium created in heavy-ion collisions as heavy quarks are sensitive to the transport properties of the medium and may interact with the matter differently than light quarks. Heavy flavor jets, non-prompt J / ψ (J / ψ from B-hadron decay) and fully reconstructed B mesons have been studied in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV with CMS. Recently, the nuclear modification factor of prompt D0 mesons has been measured in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV with CMS as a function of both transverse momentum and collision centrality. These studies show that prompt D0 production is suppressed in semi-central to central PbPb collisions and the suppression is smaller at high pT. A comparison with the RAA of charged particle and non-prompt J / ψ hints a hierarchy of suppression as a function of flavor.

  7. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  8. Amorphisation of boron carbide under slow heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosset, D.; Miro, S.; Doriot, S.; Moncoffre, N.

    2016-08-01

    Boron carbide B4C is widely used as a neutron absorber in nuclear plants. Most of the post-irradiation examinations have shown that the structure of the material remains crystalline, in spite of very high atomic displacement rates. Here, we have irradiated B4C samples with 4 MeV Au ions with different fluences at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy have been performed. The Raman analyses show a high structural disorder at low fluence, around 10-2 displacements per atoms (dpa). However, the TEM observations show that the material remains crystalline up to a few dpa. At high fluence, small amorphous areas a few nanometers large appear in the damaged zone but the long range order is preserved. Moreover, the size and density of the amorphous zones do not significantly grow when the damage increases. On the other hand, full amorphisation is observed in the implanted zone at a Au concentration of about 0.0005. It can be inferred from those results that short range and long range damages arise at highly different fluences, that heavy ions implantation has drastic effects on the structure stability and that in this material self-healing mechanisms are active in the damaged zone.

  9. Central collisions of heavy ions. Progress report, October 1, 1991--September 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R&D project was performed.

  10. Comparison of Model Calculations of Biological Damage from Exposure to Heavy Ions with Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wu, Honglu; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET g or X rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged-particle exposure. Dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply at the Bragg peak. However, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle path since biological effects are influenced by the track structures of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the ‘‘biological Bragg curve’’ is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle and may vary for different biological end points. Measurements of the induction of micronuclei (MN) have made across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic silicon and iron ions in vitro at two different energies, 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. Although the data did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak, the increased inhibition of cell progression, which is related to cell death, was found at the Bragg peak location. These results are compared to the calculations of biological damage using a stochastic Monte-Carlo track structure model, Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The GERM code estimates the basic physical properties along the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials, by which the experimental set-up can be interpreted. The code can also be used to describe the biophysical events of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The calculation has shown that the severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are more likely to go through reproductive death, the so called “overkill”. F. A. Cucinotta, I. Plante, A. L. Ponomarev, and M. Y. Kim, Nuclear Interactions in Heavy Ion Transport and Event

  11. Overview of U.S. heavy ion fusion progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, G.; Bieniosek`, F.; Celata, C.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Prost, L.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.; Yu, S.; Barnard, J.; Callahan, D.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.; Lund, S.; Davidson, R.; Efthimion, P.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Rose, D.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.; Kishek, R.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.

    2004-12-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  12. Theoretical nuclear physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    As the three-year period FY93-FY96 ended, there were six senior investigators on the grant full-time: Bulgac, Henley, Miller, Savage, van Kolck and Wilets. This represents an increase of two members from the previous three-year period, achieved with only a two percent increase over the budget for FY90-FY93. In addition, the permanent staff of the Institute for Nuclear Theory (George Bertsch, Wick Haxton, and David Kaplan) continued to be intimately associated with our physics research efforts. Aurel Bulgac joined the Group in September, 1993 as an assistant professor, with promotion requested by the Department and College of Arts and Sciences by September, 1997. Martin Savage, who was at Carnegie-Mellon University, jointed the Physics Department in September, 1996. U. van Kolck continued as research assistant professor, and we were supporting one postdoctoral research associate, Vesteinn Thorssen, who joined us in September, 1995. Seven graduate students were being supported by the Grant (Chuan-Tsung Chan, Michael Fosmire, William Hazelton, Jon Karakowski, Jeffrey Thompson, James Walden and Mitchell Watrous).

  13. Final Progress Report - Heavy Ion Accelerator Theory and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Irving

    2009-10-31

    The use of a beam of heavy ions to heat a target for the study of warm dense matter physics, high energy density physics, and ultimately to ignite an inertial fusion pellet, requires the achievement of beam intensities somewhat greater than have traditionally been obtained using conventional accelerator technology. The research program described here has substantially contributed to understanding the basic nonlinear intense-beam physics that is central to the attainment of the requisite intensities. Since it is very difficult to reverse intensity dilution, avoiding excessive dilution over the entire beam lifetime is necessary for achieving the required beam intensities on target. The central emphasis in this research has therefore been on understanding the nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for intensity dilution and which generally occur when intense space-charge-dominated beams are not in detailed equilibrium with the external forces used to confine them. This is an important area of study because such lack of detailed equilibrium can be an unavoidable consequence of the beam manipulations such as acceleration, bunching, and focusing necessary to attain sufficient intensity on target. The primary tool employed in this effort has been the use of simulation, particularly the WARP code, in concert with experiment, to identify the nonlinear dynamical characteristics that are important in practical high intensity accelerators. This research has gradually made a transition from the study of idealized systems and comparisons with theory, to study the fundamental scaling of intensity dilution in intense beams, and more recently to explicit identification of the mechanisms relevant to actual experiments. This work consists of two categories; work in direct support beam physics directly applicable to NDCX and a larger effort to further the general understanding of space-charge-dominated beam physics.

  14. Direct drive heavy-ion-beam inertial fusion at high coupling efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-05-16

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy-ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX inertial confinement fusion target physics code shows the ion range increasing fourfold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16% to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  15. mu. - and tau-pair production from relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The question is addressed of ..mu..- and tau-pair production from the motional Coulomb fields available at the new relativistic heavy-ion accelerators. A semiclassical field theory is developed which is appropriate for families of leptons which are coupled electromagnetically. The field equations are mapped on to a lattice of collocation points using basis spline methods, and techniques for solving the resulting lattice equations are outlined. The properties of the transverse electromagnetic field near the heavy-ion beam are examined and physical arguments are given as to the feasibility of pair creation under a variety of circumstances. Using the Dirac-Hartree equations developed in part one, we shall dynamically evolve the vacuum, using the appropriate fields, and compute ..mu..-pair and tau-pair production cross sections. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Generation of heavy ion beams using high-intensity short pulse lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, George; McGuffey, Chris; Thomas, Alec; Krushelnick, Karl; Beg, Farhat

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical study of ion acceleration from high-Z material irradiated by intense sub-picosecond lasers is presented. The underlying physics of beam formation and acceleration is similar for light and heavy ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the heavy ions more challenging. At least four technical hurdles have been identified: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration and poor energy coupling due to high reflectivity of the plasma. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we observed transitions from Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) to the Breakout Afterburner regime (BoA) and to Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) akin to light ions. The numerical simulations predict gold ions beams with high directionality (<10 degrees half-angle), high fluxes (>1011 ions/sr) and energy (>10 MeV/nucleon) from laser systems delivering >20 J of energy on target.

  17. Bose-Einstein final state symmetrization for event generators of heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedemann, U.A.; Heinz, U.; Ellis, J.; Geiger, K.

    1998-12-01

    The current relativistic heavy ion program at CERN and BNL aims at investigating the equilibration properties of hadronic matter at extreme temperatures and densities where quarks and gluons are expected to be the physically relevant degrees of freedom for particle production processes. The theoretical discussion of these collision systems is complicated by their mesoscopic character. They are not sufficiently small to allow for an analytical description in terms of elementary processes. They are not sufficiently large to take a description in terms of macroscopic observables for granted. Even if simple thermodynamically of hydrodynamically inspired models account for the data, the task remains to understand the microscopic origin of their success, and to establish to what extent such an agreement is necessary or accidental. The authors discuss algorithms which allow to calculate identical two-particle correlations from numerical simulations of relativistic heavy ion collisions. A toy model is used to illustrate their properties.

  18. Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2002-09-01

    This article provides an overview of current U.S. research on accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion, that is, inertial fusion driven by intense beams of heavy ions with the goal of energy production. The concept, beam requirements, approach, and major issues are introduced. An overview of a number of new experiments is presented. These include: the High Current Experiment now underway at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; studies of advanced injectors (and in particular an approach based on the merging of multiple beamlets), being investigated experimentally at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the Neutralized (chamber) Transport Experiment being assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and smaller experiments at the University of Maryland and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The comprehensive program of beam simulations and theory is outlined. Finally, prospects and plans for further development of this promising approach to fusion energy are discussed.

  19. Direct Drive Heavy-Ion-Beam Inertial Fusion at High Coupling Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B. Grant; Logan, B. Grant; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2007-06-25

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry and Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX ICF target physics code shows the ion range increasing four-fold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16 to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  20. THERMALIZATION OF HEAVY IONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Patrick J.; Kasper, Justin C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Shearer, Paul; Gilbert, Jason

    2015-10-20

    Observations of velocity distribution functions from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer heavy ion composition instrument are used to calculate ratios of kinetic temperature and Coulomb collisional interactions of an unprecedented 50 ion species in the solar wind. These ions cover a mass per charge range of 1–5.5 amu/e and were collected in the time range of 1998–2011. We report the first calculation of the Coulomb thermalization rate between each of the heavy ion (A > 4 amu) species present in the solar wind along with protons (H{sup +}) and alpha particles (He{sup 2+}). From these rates, we find that protons are the dominant source of Coulomb collisional thermalization for heavy ions in the solar wind and use this fact to calculate a collisional age for those heavy ion populations. The heavy ion thermal properties are well organized by this collisional age, but we find that the temperature of all heavy ions does not simply approach that of protons as Coulomb collisions become more important. We show that He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} follow a monotonic decay toward equal temperatures with protons with increasing collisional age, but O{sup 6+} shows a noted deviation from this monotonic decay. Furthermore, we show that the deviation from monotonic decay for O{sup 6+} occurs in solar wind of all origins, as determined by its Fe/O ratio. The observed differences in heavy ion temperature behavior point toward a local heating mechanism that favors ions depending on their charge and mass.

  1. Properties of cylindrical and spherical heavy ion-acoustic solitary and shock structures in a multispecies plasma with superthermal electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M. G.; Rahman, M. M.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical investigation on heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) solitary and shock structures has been accomplished in an unmagnetized multispecies plasma consisting of inertialess kappa-distributed superthermal electrons, Boltzmann light ions, and adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ions. Using the reductive perturbation technique, the nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) Kortewg-de Vries (KdV) and Burgers equations have been derived. The solitary and shock wave solutions of the KdV and Burgers equations, respectively, have been numerically analyzed. The effects of superthermality of electrons, adiabaticity of heavy ions, and nonplanar geometry, which noticeably modify the basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, phase speed, etc.) of small but finite amplitude HIA solitary and shock structures, have been carefully investigated. The HIA solitary and shock structures in nonplanar geometry have been found to distinctly differ from those in planar geometry. Novel features of our present attempt may contribute to the physics of nonlinear electrostatic perturbation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  2. A Scaled Final Focus Experiment for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    MacLaren, Stephan Alexander

    2000-09-19

    A one-tenth dimensionally scaled version of a final focus sub-system design for a heavy ion fusion driver is built and tested. By properly scaling the physics parameters that relate particle energy and mass, beam current, beam emittance, and focusing field, the transverse dynamics of a driver scale final focus are replicated in a small laboratory beam. The experiment uses a 95 μA beam of 160 keV Cs+ ions to study the dynamics as the beam is brought to a ballistic focus in a lattice of six quadrupole magnets. Diagnostic stations along the experiment track the evolution of the transverse phase space of the beam. The measured focal spot size is consistent with calculations and the report of the design on which the experiment is based. By uniformly varying the strengths of the focusing fields in the lattice, the chromatic effect of a small energy deviation on the spot size can be reproduced. This is done for ±1% and ±2% shifts and the changes in the focus are measured. Additionally, a 400 μA beam is propagated through the experiment and partially neutralized after the last magnet using electrons released from a hot tungsten filament. The increase in beam current allows for the observation of significant effects on both the size and shape of the focal spot when the electrons are added.

  3. Simulating Electron Clouds in Heavy-Ion Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik,A.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2005-04-07

    Contaminating clouds of electrons are a concern for most accelerators of positive-charged particles, but there are some unique aspects of heavy-ion accelerators for fusion and high-energy density physics which make modeling such clouds especially challenging. In particular, self-consistent electron and ion simulation is required, including a particle advance scheme which can follow electrons in regions where electrons are strongly-, weakly-, and un-magnetized. They describe their approach to such self-consistency, and in particular a scheme for interpolating between full-orbit (Boris) and drift-kinetic particle pushes that enables electron time steps long compared to the typical gyro period in the magnets. They present tests and applications: simulation of electron clouds produced by three different kinds of sources indicates the sensitivity of the cloud shape to the nature of the source; first-of-a-kind self-consistent simulation of electron-cloud experiments on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which the machine can be flooded with electrons released by impact of the ion beam and an end plate, demonstrate the ability to reproduce key features of the ion-beam phase space; and simulation of a two-stream instability of thin beams in a magnetic field demonstrates the ability of the large-timestep mover to accurately calculate the instability.

  4. Overview of WARP, a particle code for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Haber, I.

    1993-02-22

    The beams in a Heavy Ion beam driven inertial Fusion (HIF) accelerator must be focused onto small spots at the fusion target, and so preservation of beam quality is crucial. The nonlinear self-fields of these space-charge-dominated beams can lead to emittance growth; thus a self-consistent field description is necessary. We have developed a multi-dimensional discrete-particle simulation code, WARP, and are using it to study the behavior of HIF beams. The code`s 3d package combines features of an accelerator code and a particle-in-cell plasma simulation, and can efficiently track beams through many lattice elements and around bends. We have used the code to understand the physics of aggressive drift-compression in the MBE-4 experiment at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). We have applied it to LBL`s planned ILSE experiments, to various ``recirculator`` configurations, and to the study of equilibria and equilibration processes. Applications of the 3d package to ESQ injectors, and of the r, z package to longitudinal stability in driver beams, are discussed in related papers.

  5. RF PLASMA SOURCE FOR A HEAVY ION FUSION INJECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Halaxi, E; Kwan, J W; Waldron, W L

    2004-06-25

    We are developing high-current ion sources for Heavy Ion Fusion applications. Our proposed RF plasma source starts with an array of high current density mini-beamlets (of a few mA each at {approx}100 mA/cm{sup 2}) that are kept separated from each other within a set of acceleration grids. After they have gained sufficient kinetic energy (>1.2 MeV), the mini-beamlets are allowed to merge together to form a high current beam (about 0.5 A) with low emittance. Simulations have been done to maximize the beam brightness within the physical constraints of the source. We have performed a series of experiments on an RF plasma source. A 80-kV 20-{micro}s source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet and we measured the emittance of a beamlet, its energy spread, and the fraction of ions in higher charge states. We have also tested a 50-kV 61-hole multi-beamlet array. Two upcoming experiments are being prepared: the first experiment will test full-gradient extraction and transport of 61 beamlets though the first four electrodes, and the second experiment will converge 119 beamlets into an ESQ channel at one-quarter scaled voltage of a 1.6 MV HIF injector.

  6. RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S.; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -5} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr and electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10{sup -6} Torr range with densities of 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun.

  7. Effects of Heavy Ion Exposure on Nanocrystal Nonvolatile Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Suhail, Mohammed; Kuhn, Peter; Prinz, Erwin; Kim, Hak; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    We have irradiated engineering samples of Freescale 4M nonvolatile memories with heavy ions. They use Silicon nanocrystals as the storage element, rather than the more common floating gate. The irradiations were performed using the Texas A&M University cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility. The chips were tested in the static mode, and in the dynamic read mode, dynamic write (program) mode, and dynamic erase mode. All the errors observed appeared to be due to single, isolated bits, even in the program and erase modes. These errors appeared to be related to the micro-dose mechanism. All the errors corresponded to the loss of electrons from a programmed cell. The underlying physical mechanisms will be discussed in more detail later. There were no errors, which could be attributed to malfunctions of the control circuits. At the highest LET used in the test (85 MeV/mg/sq cm), however, there appeared to be a failure due to gate rupture. Failure analysis is being conducted to confirm this conclusion. There was no unambiguous evidence of latchup under any test conditions. Generally, the results on the nanocrystal technology compare favorably with results on currently available commercial floating gate technology, indicating that the technology is promising for future space applications, both civilian and military.

  8. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kolchin, P.; Davidson, E.C.; Yu, S.S.; Logan, B.G.

    2002-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source.

  9. Long Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.

    2008-06-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally-applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage ({approx} 8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO{sub 3} source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios {approx} 120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high energy density physics applications.

  10. MBE-4: an induction linac experiment for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.; Avery, R.T.; Brodzik, D.A.; Faltens, A.; Gough, D.E.; Henderson, T.F.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Laslett, L.J.

    1986-06-01

    The multiple-beam induction linac approach to a heavy ion fusion driver features continuous current amplification along the accelerator and a minimum of transverse beam manipulation from source to pellet. Current amplification and bunch length control require careful shaping of the accelerating voltages. This driver approach exploits developments in electron induction linac technology that have occurred within the last 15 years at LBL, LLNL and NBS. MBE-4 is a four beam induction linac that models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a considerably longer induction accelerator. Four parallel Cs/sup +/ beams are electrostatically focussed and will be accelerated from 200 keV to approximately one MeV when the experiment is complete in the spring of 1987. The current in each of the four beams will increase from 10 to 40 mA due to both increase in beam speed and shortening of the bunch length. Results of experiments with the injector and first eight accelerating gaps are presented.

  11. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  12. Design and Characterization of a Neutralized-Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, E; Eylon, S; Roy, P; Yu, S S; Anders, A; Bieniosek, F M; Greenway, W G; Logan, B G; MacGill, R A; Shuman, D B; Vanecek, D L; Waldron, W L; Sharp, W M; Houck, T L; Davidson, R C; Efthimion, P C; Gilson, E P; Sefkow, A B; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2004-05-24

    In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit millimeter-sized spots on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams in this final transport is essential for a heavy-ion fusion power plant to be economically competitive. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with particle-in-cell simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed magnetic quadrupoles, permits the study of beam tuning, as well as the effects of phase space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, a converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present the first results from the experiment.

  13. Design and characterization of a neutralized-transport experiment for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Houck, T.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Sefkow, A.B.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2004-03-14

    In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit millimeter-sized spots on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams in this final transport is essential for a heavy-ion fusion power plant to be economically competitive. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with particle-in-cell simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed magnetic quadrupoles, permits the study of beam tuning, as well as the effects of phase space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, the converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present initial results from the experiment.

  14. A model of the effects of heavy ion radiation on human tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev, A.L.; Guida, P.; Ponomarev, A.L.; Sundaresan, A.; Vazquez, M.E.; Guida, P.; Kim, A.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    2010-08-09

    In heavy ion radiotherapy and space travel humans are exposed to energetic heavy ions (C, Si, Fe and others). This type of irradiation often produces more severe biological effects per unit dose than more common X-rays. A new Monte Carlo model generates a physical space with the complex geometry of human tissue or a cell culture based model of tissue, which is affected by the passage of ionizing radiation. For irradiation, the model relies on a physical code for the ion track structure; for tissues, cellular maps are derived from two- or three-dimensional confocal microscopy images using image segmentation algorithm, which defines cells as pixilated volumes. The model is used to study tissue-specific statistics of direct ion hits and the remote ion action on cells. As an application of the technique, we considered the spatial pattern of apoptotic cells after heavy ion irradiation. The pattern of apoptosis is modeled as a stochastic process, which is defined by the action cross section taken from available experimental data. To characterize the degree of apoptosis, an autocorrelation function that describes the spatial correlation of apoptotic cells is introduced. The values of the autocorrelation function demonstrate the effect of the directionality of the radiation track on the spatial arrangements of inactivated cells in tissue. This effect is intrinsic only to high linear-energy-transfer radiation.

  15. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  16. A model of the effects of heavy ion radiation on human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Vazquez, Marcelo E.; Guida, Peter; Kim, Angela; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    In heavy ion radiotherapy and space travel humans are exposed to energetic heavy ions (C, Si, Fe and others). This type of irradiation often produces more severe biological effects per unit dose than more common X-rays. A new Monte Carlo model generates a physical space with the complex geometry of human tissue or a cell culture based model of tissue, which is affected by the passage of ionizing radiation. For irradiation, the model relies on a physical code for the ion track structure; for tissues, cellular maps are derived from two- or three-dimensional confocal microscopy images using image segmentation algorithm, which defines cells as pixilated volumes. The model is used to study tissue-specific statistics of direct ion hits and the remote ion action on cells. As an application of the technique, we considered the spatial pattern of apoptotic cells after heavy ion irradiation. The pattern of apoptosis is modeled as a stochastic process, which is defined by the action cross section taken from available experimental data. To characterize the degree of apoptosis, an autocorrelation function that describes the spatial correlation of apoptotic cells is introduced. The values of the autocorrelation function demonstrate the effect of the directionality of the radiation track on the spatial arrangements of inactivated cells in tissue. This effect is intrinsic only to high linear-energy-transfer radiation.

  17. Physics Division annual report, April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, K.J.; Henning, W.F.

    1994-08-01

    This is the Argonne National Laboratory Physics Division Annual Report for the period April 1, 1993 to March 31, 1994. It summarizes work done in a number of different fields, both on site, and at other facilities. Chapters describe heavy ion nuclear physics research, operation and development of the ATLAS accelerator, medium-energy nuclear physics research, theoretical physics, and atomic and molecular physics research.

  18. Theoretical research in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. [Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses progress that has been made on the following seven problems: (1) (e, e{prime}p) at high momentum transfer; (2) post,acceleration effects in two-nucleon interferometry of heavy-ion collisions; (3) pion-nucleus interactions above 0.5 GeV; (4) chiral symmetry breaking in nuclei and picnic atom anomaly; (5) atomic screening on nuclear astronomical reactions; (6) QCD related work (coherent pion production from skyrmion-antiskyrmion annihilation, QCD in 1 + 1 dimensions, and correlation functions in the QCD vacuum), and (7) kaonic hydrogen atom experiment. The problems deal with various topics mostly in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. We place priority on (1) and (2), and describe them somewhat in detail below. Other problems are our on-going projects, but we are placing lower priority on them in the second and third year.

  19. Collective phenomena in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shan

    1998-12-01

    Collective motion in the final state of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions, produced by the release of compressional energy built-up during the stage of maximum density, is widely accepted as a good observable to test models and a useful tool to probe the nuclear equation of state. This dissertation presents an experimental study of nuclear collisions at the Bevalac accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with special emphasis on collective phenomena. The main detector used is a time projection chamber with more than two million pixels. Using high statistics measurements of all charged final- state fragments in Au + Au reactions at 0.25, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.15A GeV, we present a new method to unify the description of light fragment spectra and the three main categories of collective motion: sideward flow, squeeze-out, and transverse expansion. In this alternative representation, the speed of collective expansion is shown to be slowest in the plane of the reaction, and is modulated sinusoidally according to fragment azimuth relative to this plane. This simple yet complete characterization of squeeze-out leads to its interpretation as an in-plane retardation of collective expansion. We test momentum space power law behavior by studying the momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4He. We conclude that the simple momentum-space power law consistently describes light participant fragment production at p⊥/A/ge0.2 GeV/c over a remarkably wide range of transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity and beam energy in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions and in particular, the increase in sideward flow with fragment mass is well described by a momentum- space power law under these conditions. This behavior is consistent with composite fragment formation through a statistical coalescence mechanism in momentum space. Our conclusion supports the use of models without composite formation to interpret flow

  20. Neoplastic transformation of hamster embyro cells by heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Han, Z; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, M; Furusawa, Y; Kato, T; Ikenaga, M

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the induction of morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET), ranging from 13 to 400 keV/micrometer. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), inoculated to culture dishes, and transformed colonies were identified when the cells were densely stacked and showed a crisscross pattern. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to 250 kVp X-rays showed an initial increase with LET, reaching a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/micrometer, and then decreased with the further increase in LET. Thus, we confirmed that high LET heavy ions are significantly more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation.

  1. Nuclear Physics Made Very, Very Easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The fundamental approach to nuclear physics was prepared to introduce basic reactor principles to various groups of non-nuclear technical personnel associated with NERVA Test Operations. NERVA Test Operations functions as the field test group for the Nuclear Rocket Engine Program. Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program is the combined efforts of Aerojet-General Corporation as prime contractor, and Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory as the major subcontractor, for the assembly and testing of nuclear rocket engines. Development of the NERVA Program is under the direction of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office, a joint agency of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  3. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1987-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to access the suitabilty of heavy ion accelerators as iginiters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accerelator techonolgy, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawerence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the vadidation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. The papers in this report that address these goals are: MBE-4 mechanical progress, alignment of MBE-4, a compact energy analyzer for MBE-4, Cs/sup +/ injector modeling with the EGUN code, an improved emittance scanning system for HIFAR, 2-MV injector, carbon arc source development, beam combining in ILSE, emittance growth due to transverse beam combining in ILSE - particle simulation results, achromatic beam combiner for ILSE, additional elements for beam merging, quadrupole magnet design for ILSE, and waveforms and longitudinal beam-parameters for ILSE.

  4. Experiments on the interaction of heavy ions with dense plasma at GSI-Darmstadt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöckl, C.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Geißel, M.; Roth, M.; Wetzler, H.; Seelig, W.; Iwase, O.; Spiller, P.; Bock, R.; Süß, W.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.

    One of the main objectives of the experimental plasma physics activities at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) are the interaction processes of heavy ions with dense ionized matter. Gas-discharge plasma targets were used for energy loss and charge state measurements in a regime of electron density and temperature up to 10 19 cm -3 and 20 eV, respectively. An improved model of the charge exchange processes in fully ionized hydrogen plasma, taking into account multiple excited electronic configurations which subsequently ionize, has removed the discrepancies of previous theoretical descriptions. The energy loss of the ion beam in partially ionized plasmas such as argon was found to agree very well with our simple theoretical model based on the modified Bethe-Bloch theory. A new setup with a 100 J/5 GW Nd-glass laser now provides access to density ranges up to 10 21 cm -3 and temperatures of up to 100 eV. First results of interaction experiments with laser-produced plasma are presented. To fully exploit the experimental possibilities of the new laser-plasma setup both improved charge state detection systems and better plasma diagnostics are indispensable. Present developments and future possibilities in these fields are presented. This paper summarizes the following contributions: Interaction of heavy-ion beams with laser plasma by C. Stöckl et al. Energy Loss of Heavy Ions in a laser-produced plasma by M. Roth et al. Charge state measurements of heavy ions passing a laser produced plasma with high time resolution by W. Süß et al. Plasma diagnostics for laser-produced plasma by O. Iwase et al. Future possibilities of plasma diagnostics at GSI by M. Geißel et al.

  5. Solar heavy ion Heinrich fluence spectrum at low earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Croley, D R; Spitale, G C

    1998-01-01

    Solar heavy ions from the JPL Solar Heavy Ion Model have been transported into low earth orbit using the Schulz cutoff criterion for L-shell access by ions of a specific charge to mass ratio. The NASA Brouwer orbit generator was used to get L values along the orbit at 60 second time intervals. Heavy ion fluences of ions 2 < or = Z < or = 92 have been determined for the LET range 1 to 130 MeV-cm2/mg by 60, 120 or 250 mils of aluminum over a period of 24 hours in a 425 km circular orbit inclined 51 degrees. The ion fluence is time dependent in the sense that the position of the spacecraft in the orbit at the flare onset time fixes the relationship between particle flux and spacecraft passage through high L-values where particles have access to the spacecraft.

  6. Ultra-relativistic heavy ions and cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    1983-05-01

    The collisions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, E/sub /N/ greater than or equal to 1 TeV/nucleon are most interesting, since, at these energies, matter is produced at sufficiently high energy density that a quark-gluon plasma has a good chance to form. Very heavy ions are also most interesting since the matter forms in a larger volume than for light ions, and the matter is at a somewhat higher energy density. At very high energies with very heavy ions there is great flexibility in the experimental signals which might be studied, as well as the nature of the matter which is produced. The fragmentation region and central region provide different environments where a plasma might form. The former is baryon rich while the central region is high temperature with low baryon number density and is not accessible except at very high energies.

  7. Ultra-relativistic heavy ions and the CBA

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    The study of ultra-relativistic heavy ions at an accelerator such as the CBA provides a unique glimpse of matter as it may have appeared in the early universe. This hot dense matter very probably appears as a quark-gluon plasma which expands and cools into hadronic matter. The CBA would provide data at the very highest energies, and produce matter at the highest energy densities. The possibility of using a cyclotron to inject very heavy ions into the AGS and then into the CBA would also allow the production of quark-gluon matter at higher energy densities than would light ions, and would make the matter in a larger volume where surface effects are minimized. At the highest energies with very heavy ions, there is great flexibility in the experimental signals which might be studied, as well as the nature of the matter which is produced. Some of the possibilities are discussed. (WHK)

  8. Ultra-relativistic heavy ions and cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLerran, L.

    1983-05-01

    The collisions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, E/sub /N/ greater than or equal to 1 TeV/nucleon are most interesting, since, at these energies, matter is produced at a sufficiently high energy density that a quark-gluon plasma has a good chance to form. Very heavy ions are also most interesting since the matter forms in a larger volume than for light ions, and the matter is at a somewhat higher density. At very high energies with very heavy ions there is great flexibility in the experimental signals which might be studied, as well as the nature of the matter which is produced. The fragmentation region and central region provide different environments where a plasma might form. The former is baryon rich while the central region is high temperature with low baryon number density and is not accessible except at very high energies.

  9. Heavy Ion Heating from the Sun to 1AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korreck, K. E.; Lepri, S. T.; Kasper, J. C.; Case, A. W.; Kozarev, K. A.; Opher, M.; Evans, R. M.; Stevens, M. L.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    The heating of heavy ions at the Sun and as they travel through the interplanetary space is relevant to both identifying the solar wind source region as well as the overall heating mechanisms and kinetics of the solar wind. Using ACE SWICS data on heavy ions from the shock associated with a CME on May 13, 2005, we examine the heavy ion heating and non-thermal nature of the helium distributions at 1AU as well as bulk solar wind parameters around the time of the CME. We utilize current work on high resolution 3D MHD models to compare the bulk solar wind parameters from the Sun to the inner heliosphere with a CME input. The relationship between the model's parameters and the observations at different regions of interest i.e the Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter orbits will be extrapolated. This model will in the future be extended to quiescent times of the solar wind.

  10. Characterizing the Energetic Heavy Ion Environment Inside 4 Jovian Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, C. M.; Stone, E. C.

    2004-05-01

    On 21 September 2003 Galileo impacted Jupiter to end its 8-year tour of the Jovian magentosphere. During this last phase data was collected in the very inner part of the magnetosphere at distances < 4 Rj. The region from 2 to 4 Rj was previously explored by Galileo during its 34th orbit around Jupiter. We present the combined data from these two passes obtained by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) for heavy ions at energies above 2 MeV/nucleon. In particular we discuss the significant ion absorption near the moons Thebe and Amalthea, the anisotropic pitch angle distribution and the dramatic increase in heavy ion intensity with decreasing radius seen in this region

  11. Heavy Ion Current Transients in SiGe HBTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Reed, Robert A.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; McMorrow, Dale; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Baggio, Jacques; Paillet, Philipe; Duhanel, Olivier; Phillips, Stanley D.; Sutton, Akil K.; Diestelhorst, Ryan M.; Cressler, John D.; Dodd, Paul E.; Alles, Michael L.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Marshall, Paul W.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved ion beam induced charge reveals heavy ion response of IBM 5AM SiGe HBT: a) Position correlation[ b) Unique response for different bias schemes; c) Similarities to TPA pulsed-laser data. Heavy ion broad-beam transients provide more realistic device response: a) Feedback using microbeam data; b) Overcome issues of LET and ion range with microbeam. Both micro- and broad-beam data sets yield valuable input for TCAD simulations. Uncover detailed mechanisms for SiGe HBTs and other devices fabricated on lightly-doped substrates.

  12. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  13. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    DOE PAGES

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion sourcemore » for regular operation.« less

  14. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, T. Okamura, M.; Kumaki, M.; Ikeda, S.

    2016-02-15

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is {sup 96}Ru + {sup 96}Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  15. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    PubMed

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  16. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  17. Aurel Sandulescu—a life dedicated to nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liotta, R. J.

    2013-02-01

    representation to describe nuclear processes. However, with the perspective that the passing years provides, I have since had to admit that one needs cluster components in the shell model wave functions in order to properly describe the clustering and subsequent decay. For Aurel, this realization led him to consider the decay as a fission process. It was through this that he found, just by simply looking through the penetrability, that cluster radioactivity is a valid form of decay, as was indeed confirmed experimentally several years afterwards. This new form of radioactive decay has had a profound influence on nuclear physics. It opened the way to the investigation of the structure and exotic forms that superheavy nuclei may acquire, since one expects that heavy clusters are likely to be emitted from these nuclei. The importance of cluster decay, and the theory behind its discovery, is of great relevance even today. This can be attested, for example, by the recent prediction of Poenaru, Gherghescu and Greiner (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett 107 062503) that in some superheavy nuclei this form of decay is dominant even over alpha emission, thus making cluster decay a powerful tool in the detection of superheavy nuclei. The description of cluster decay as a fragmentation process and its relation to heavy and superheavy elements was a natural extension of the research that Aurel Sandulescu was conducting at that time. Just before the cluster decay paper appeared he addressed the important question of the production of superheavy elements. The straightforward method of reaching this is by heavy ions collisions, but the question was: which nuclei should one use as reaction partners? Sandulescu proposed choosing those nuclei that provide a minimum of the potential energy, which was an important step in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei. Another subject which is of great importance in nuclear physics and in which Sandulescu played a crucial role was his prediction of neutronless spontaneous

  18. Basic and heavy ion scattering in time dependent Hartree-Fock Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.S.

    1984-05-17

    Time Dependent Hartree-Fock theory, TDHF, is the most sophisticated, microscopic approach to nuclear dynamics yet practiced. Although it is far from a description of nature it does allow us to examine multiply interactive many-body systems semi quantum mechanically and to visualize otherwise covert processes. Some of the properties of the TDHF equations are stated leaving the interested reader to one of several excellent review articles for the derivations. Some of the applications to the collision of heavy ions are briefly described. (WHK)

  19. Nucleon and heavy-ion total and absorption cross section for selected nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Costner, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    Approximate solutions of the coupled-channel equations for high-energy composite particle scattering are obtained and are applied to the nuclear scattering problem. Relationships between several approximation procedures are established and discussed. The eikonal formalism is used with a small-angle approximation to calculate the coherent elastic scattered amplitude from which total and absorption cross sections are derived. Detailed comparisons with nucleon-nucleus experiments show agreement within 5 percent except at lower energies where the eikonal approximation is of questionable accuracy. Even at these lower energies, agreement is within 15 percent. Tables of cross sections required for cosmic heavy-ion transport and shielding studies are presented.

  20. PREFACE: XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof

    2011-10-01

    In the present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the 'XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics', which was held from 4-7 January 2011 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings consist of 19 contributions that were presented as invited talks at the meeting. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. From the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium has been organized every year without interruption, which makes the present Symposium the 34th in a row. The scientific program consisted of 27 invited talks and 17 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure (Draayer, Pittel, Van Isacker, Fraser, Lerma, Cejnar, Hirsch, Stránský and Rath) and nuclear reactions (Aguilera, Gómez-Camacho, Scheid, Navrátil and Yennello) to radioactive beams (Padilla-Rodal and Galindo-Uribarri), nuclear astrophysics (Aprahamian, Civitarese and Escher), hadronic physics (Bijker, Valcarce and Hess), fundamental symmetries (Liu, Barrón-Palos and Baessler) and LHC physics (Menchaca-Rocha and Paic). The high quality of the talks, the prestige of the speakers and the broad spectrum of subjects covered in the meeting, shows that nuclear physics is a very active area at the frontier of scientific research which establishes bridges between many different disciplines. Libertad Barr

  1. Fantasy physics for nuclear testers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    In November a group of scientists will scour a small patch of the Middle East for signs that a nuclear explosion has taken place. Edwin Cartlidge describes their delicate mission and the sophisticated gadgetry they will rely on.

  2. Overview of Theory and Simulations in the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2006-07-03

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. These laboratories, in cooperation with researchers at other institutions, are carrying out a coordinated effort to apply intense ion beams as drivers for studies of the physics of matter at extreme conditions, and ultimately for inertial fusion energy. Progress on this endeavor depends upon coordinated application of experiments, theory, and simulations. This paper describes the state of the art, with an emphasis on the coordination of modeling and experiment; developments in the simulation tools, and in the methods that underly them, are also treated.

  3. Overview of Theory and Simulations in the Heavy Ion Fusion ScienceVirtual National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Alex

    2006-07-09

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. These laboratories, in cooperation with researchers at other institutions, are carrying out a coordinated effort to apply intense ion beams as drivers for studies of the physics of matter at extreme conditions, and ultimately for inertial fusion energy. Progress on this endeavor depends upon coordinated application of experiments, theory, and simulations. This paper describes the state of the art, with an emphasis on the coordination of modeling and experiment; developments in the simulation tools, and in the methods that underly them, are also treated.

  4. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification - both new features in a linac - without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) fianl bunching, transport, and accurate focussing on a small target.

  5. Nuclear physics: a short course

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2010-09-10

    Basic properties of atomic nuclei are reviewed. Starting with the energy and length scales for microscopic processes, we go through the charge density inside the nucleus, nuclear masses and abundances, and nuclear decays. The Liquid Drop Model is presented along with some extensions. Microscopic models are introduced, with emphasis in the shell model. Alpha, beta and gamma decays are commented with some detail, including the symmetry laws which govern these decays.

  6. Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 2008 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Ed., Brian L; Dart, Ed., Eli; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Ernest, Michael; Hitchcock, Daniel; Johnston, William; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Maguire, Charles; Olson, Douglas; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Watson, Chip; Vale, Carla

    2008-11-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In May 2008, ESnet and the Nuclear Physics (NP) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the NP Program Office. Most of the key DOE sites for NP related work will require significant increases in network bandwidth in the 5 year time frame. This includes roughly 40 Gbps for BNL, and 20 Gbps for NERSC. Total transatlantic requirements are on the order of 40 Gbps, and transpacific requirements are on the order of 30 Gbps. Other key sites are Vanderbilt University and MIT, which will need on the order of 20 Gbps bandwidth to support data transfers for the CMS Heavy Ion program. In addition to bandwidth requirements, the workshop emphasized several points in regard to science process and collaboration. One key point is the heavy reliance on Grid tools and infrastructure (both PKI and tools such as GridFTP) by the NP community. The reliance on Grid software is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, continued development and support of Grid software is very important to the NP science community. Another key finding is that scientific productivity is greatly enhanced by easy researcher-local access to instrument data. This is driving the creation of distributed repositories for instrument data at collaborating institutions, along with a corresponding increase in demand for network-based data transfers and the tools

  7. On the probability of cure for heavy-ion radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hanin, Leonid; Zaider, Marco

    2014-07-21

    The probability of a cure in radiation therapy (RT)-viewed as the probability of eventual extinction of all cancer cells-is unobservable, and the only way to compute it is through modeling the dynamics of cancer cell population during and post-treatment. The conundrum at the heart of biophysical models aimed at such prospective calculations is the absence of information on the initial size of the subpopulation of clonogenic cancer cells (also called stem-like cancer cells), that largely determines the outcome of RT, both in an individual and population settings. Other relevant parameters (e.g. potential doubling time, cell loss factor and survival probability as a function of dose) are, at least in principle, amenable to empirical determination. In this article we demonstrate that, for heavy-ion RT, microdosimetric considerations (justifiably ignored in conventional RT) combined with an expression for the clone extinction probability obtained from a mechanistic model of radiation cell survival lead to useful upper bounds on the size of the pre-treatment population of clonogenic cancer cells as well as upper and lower bounds on the cure probability. The main practical impact of these limiting values is the ability to make predictions about the probability of a cure for a given population of patients treated to newer, still unexplored treatment modalities from the empirically determined probability of a cure for the same or similar population resulting from conventional low linear energy transfer (typically photon/electron) RT. We also propose that the current trend to deliver a lower total dose in a smaller number of fractions with larger-than-conventional doses per fraction has physical limits that must be understood before embarking on a particular treatment schedule.

  8. On the probability of cure for heavy-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanin, Leonid; Zaider, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The probability of a cure in radiation therapy (RT)—viewed as the probability of eventual extinction of all cancer cells—is unobservable, and the only way to compute it is through modeling the dynamics of cancer cell population during and post-treatment. The conundrum at the heart of biophysical models aimed at such prospective calculations is the absence of information on the initial size of the subpopulation of clonogenic cancer cells (also called stem-like cancer cells), that largely determines the outcome of RT, both in an individual and population settings. Other relevant parameters (e.g. potential doubling time, cell loss factor and survival probability as a function of dose) are, at least in principle, amenable to empirical determination. In this article we demonstrate that, for heavy-ion RT, microdosimetric considerations (justifiably ignored in conventional RT) combined with an expression for the clone extinction probability obtained from a mechanistic model of radiation cell survival lead to useful upper bounds on the size of the pre-treatment population of clonogenic cancer cells as well as upper and lower bounds on the cure probability. The main practical impact of these limiting values is the ability to make predictions about the probability of a cure for a given population of patients treated to newer, still unexplored treatment modalities from the empirically determined probability of a cure for the same or similar population resulting from conventional low linear energy transfer (typically photon/electron) RT. We also propose that the current trend to deliver a lower total dose in a smaller number of fractions with larger-than-conventional doses per fraction has physical limits that must be understood before embarking on a particular treatment schedule.

  9. Optics measurement and correction for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaozhe

    The quality of beam optics is of great importance for the performance of a high energy accelerator like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data can be used to derive beam optics. However, the accuracy of the derived beam optics is often limited by the performance and imperfections of instruments as well as measurement methods and conditions. Therefore, a robust and model-independent data analysis method is highly desired to extract noise-free information from TBT BPM data. As a robust signal-processing technique, an independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm called second order blind identification (SOBI) has been proven to be particularly efficient in extracting physical beam signals from TBT BPM data even in the presence of instrument's noise and error. We applied the SOBI ICA algorithm to RHIC during the 2013 polarized proton operation to extract accurate linear optics from TBT BPM data of AC dipole driven coherent beam oscillation. From the same data, a first systematic estimation of RHIC BPM noise performance was also obtained by the SOBI ICA algorithm, and showed a good agreement with the RHIC BPM configurations. Based on the accurate linear optics measurement, a beta-beat response matrix correction method and a scheme of using horizontal closed orbit bumps at sextupoles for arc beta-beat correction were successfully applied to reach a record-low beam optics error at RHIC. This thesis presents principles of the SOBI ICA algorithm and theory as well as experimental results of optics measurement and correction at RHIC.

  10. Isospin effect of Coulomb interaction on the dissipation and fragmentation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jianye; Guo Wenjun; Gao Yuanyi; Xing Yongzhong; Li Xiguo

    2004-09-01

    We investigate separately the isospin effects of Coulomb interaction and symmetry potential on the dissipation and fragmentation in the intermediate energy heavy ion collisions by using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculated results show that the Coulomb interaction induces the reductions of both isospin fractionation ratio and nuclear stopping (momentum dissipation). However, the Coulomb interaction not only does not change obviously the strong isospin effect of the symmetry potential on the isospin fractionation ratio but also does not change obviously that of in-medium two-body collision on the nuclear stopping. On the contrary, the symmetry potential induces the enhancement of the isospin fractionation ratio but it is insensitive to the nuclear stopping. Finally, the competition between the Coulomb interaction and symmetry potential induces the reductions of both isospin fractionation ratio and nuclear stopping for two forms of symmetry potentials in this paper.

  11. Electromagnetic dissociation effects in galactic heavy-ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for calculating cross sections for the breakup of galactic heavy ions by the Coulomb fields of the interacting nuclei are presented. By using the Weizsacker-Williams method of virtual quanta, estimates of electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for a variety of reactions applicable to galactic cosmic ray shielding studies are presented and compared with other predictions and with available experimental data.

  12. Creating The Perfect Liquid In Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacak, B.; Steinberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    In 2005 the four experimental groups at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) announced that collisions of gold nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies produced a 'perfect liquid' of quarks and gluons. That's something quite different from the gaseous quark-gluon state theorists and experimenters were expecting from quantum chromodynamics, the standard theory of the strong interaction.

  13. The chromatic correction in RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Dell, G.F.; Hahn, H.; Parzen, G.

    1987-01-01

    The scheme for the correction of chromatic effects in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL is discussed. This scheme uses six families of sextupoles excited by four independent power supplies, and provides adequate control of linear and quadratic terms in the tune vs momentum dependence and reduces the variation of the betatron amplitude, vs momentum.

  14. Gauge/String Duality, Hot QCD and Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Liu, Hong; Mateos, David; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2014-06-01

    1. Opening remarks; 2. A heavy ion phenomenology primer; 3. Results from lattice QCD at nonzero temperature; 4. Introducing the gauge/string duality; 5. A duality toolbox; 6. Bulk properties of strongly coupled plasma; 7. From hydrodynamics for far-from-equilibrium dynamics; 8. Probing strongly coupled plasma; 9. Quarkonium mesons in strongly coupled plasma; 10. Concluding remarks and outlook; Appendixes; References; Index.

  15. Heavy ion cocktail beams at the 88 inch Cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; McMahan, Margaret A.; Argento, David; Gimpel, Thomas; Guy, Aran; Morel, James; Siero, Christine; Thatcher, Ray; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2002-09-03

    Cyclotrons in combination with ECR ion sources provide the ability to accelerate ''cocktails'' of ions. A cocktail is a mixture of ions of near-identical mass-to-charge (m/q) ratio. The different ions cannot be separated by the injector mass-analyzing magnet and are tuned out of the ion source together. The cyclotron then is utilized as a mass analyzer by shifting the accelerating frequency. This concept was developed soon after the first ECR ion source became operational at the 88-Inch Cyclotron and has since become a powerful tool in the field of heavy ion radiation effects testing. Several different ''cocktails'' at various energies are available at the 88-Inch cyclotron for radiation effect testing, covering a broad range of linear energy transfer and penetration depth. Two standard heavy ion cocktails at 4.5 MeV/nucleon and 10 MeV/nucleon have been developed over the years containing ions from boron to bismuth. Recently, following requests for higher penetration depths, a 15MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail has been developed. Up to nine different metal and gaseous ion beams at low to very high charge states are tuned out of the ion source simultaneously and injected together into the cyclotron. It is therefore crucial to balance the ion source very carefully to provide sufficient intensities throughout the cocktail. The paper describes the set-up and tuning of the ion source for the various heavy ion cocktails.

  16. Heavy ion collisions and the pre-equilibrium exciton model

    SciTech Connect

    Betak, E.

    2012-10-20

    We present a feasible way to apply the pre-equilibrium exciton model in its masterequation formulation to heavy-ion induced reactions including spin variables. Emission of nucleons, {gamma}'s and also light clusters is included in our model.

  17. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  18. Overview of Nuclear Physics at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Robert D.

    2013-08-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and associated experimental equipment at Jefferson Lab comprise a unique facility for experimental nuclear physics. This facility is presently being upgraded, which will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential to address important topics in nuclear, hadronic, and electroweak physics. Further in the future, it is envisioned that the Laboratory will evolve into an electron-ion colliding beam facility.

  19. PREFACE: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Europhysics Conference `Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III' (NPA3) took place from 26 31 March 2007 in Dresden, Germany, hosted by Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The present special issue of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics contains all peer-reviewed contributions to the proceedings of this conference. NPA3 is the third conference in the Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics series of conferences devoted to the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. The first and second editions of the series were held in 2002 and 2005 in Debrecen, Hungary. NPA3 has been organized under the auspices of the Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society as its XXI Divisional Conference. The conference marks the 50th anniversary of the landmark paper B2FH published in 1957 by E M Burbidge, G R Burbidge, W A Fowler and F Hoyle. A public lecture by Claus Rolfs (Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany) commemorated the progress achieved since 1957. NPA3 aimed to bring together experimental and theoretical nuclear physicists, astrophysicists and astronomers to address the important part played by nuclear physics in current astrophysical problems. A total of 130 participants from 71 institutions in 26 countries attended the conference, presenting 33 invited and 38 contributed talks and 25 posters on six subject areas. The astrophysical motivation and the nuclear tools employed to address it are highlighted by the titles of the subject areas: Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Stellar Nucleosynthesis and Low Cross Section Measurement Explosive Nucleosynthesis and Nuclear Astrophysics with Photons Nuclei far from Stability and Radioactive Ion Beams Dense Matter in Neutron Stars and Relativistic Nuclear Collisions Neutrinos in Nuclear Astrophysics The presentations and discussions proved that Nuclear Astrophysics is a truly interdisciplinary subject. The remarkable progress in astronomical observations achieved in recent years is matched by advances in

  20. Heavy-ion radiation induced bystander effect in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Changna

    2012-07-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, Low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic, metabolomics and proteomics play significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male mice head were exposed to 2000mGy dose of 12C heavy-ion radiation and the distant organ liver was detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. MSAP was used to monitor the level of polymorphic DNA methylation changes. The results show that heavy-ion irradiate mouse head can induce liver DNA methylation changes significantly. The percent of DNA methylation changes are time-dependent and highest at 6h after radiation. We also prove that the hypo-methylation changes on 1h and 6h after irradiation. But the expression level of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is not changed. UPLC/Synapt HDMS G2 was employed to detect the proteomics of bystander liver 1h after irradiation. 64 proteins are found significantly different between treatment and control group. GO process show that six of 64 which were unique in irradiation group are associated with apoptosis and DNA damage response. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo.

  1. The Standard Model of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detmold, William

    2015-04-01

    At its core, nuclear physics, which describes the properties and interactions of hadrons, such as protons and neutrons, and atomic nuclei, arises from the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the complexities of nuclei result in severe computational difficulties that have historically prevented the calculation of central quantities in nuclear physics directly from this underlying theory. The availability of petascale (and prospect of exascale) high performance computing is changing this situation by enabling us to extend the numerical techniques of lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD), applied successfully in particle physics, to the more intricate dynamics of nuclear physics. In this talk, I will discuss this revolution and the emerging understanding of hadrons and nuclei within the Standard Model.

  2. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  3. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  4. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  5. Implementation of TTIK method and time of flight for resonance reaction studies at heavy ion accelerator DC-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmukhanbetova, A. K.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Nauruzbayev, D. K.; Rogachev, G. V.; Golovkov, M. S.; Mynbayev, N. A.; Artemov, S.; Karakhodjaev, A.; Kuterbekov, K.; Rakhymzhanov, A.; Berdibek, Zh.; Ivanov, I.; Tikhonov, A.; Zherebchevsky, V. I.; Torilov, S. Yu.; Tribble, R. E.

    2017-03-01

    To study resonance reactions of heavy ions at low energy we have combined the Thick Target Inverse Kinematics Method (TTIK) with Time of Flight method (TF). We used extended target and TF to resolve the identification problems of various possible nuclear processes inherent to the simplest popular version of TTIK. Investigations of the 15N interaction with hydrogen and helium gas targets by using this new approach are presented.

  6. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d'Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise document, we required that

  7. System, energy, and flavor dependence of jets through di-hadron correlations in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattrass, Christine

    QCD predicts a phase transition in nuclear matter at high energy densities. This matter, called a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), should have very different properties from normal nuclear matter due to its high temperature and density. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was built to study the QGP. Jets can act as a calibrated probe to examine the QGP, however, reconstruction of jets in a heavy ion environment is difficult. Therefore jets have been studied in heavy ion collisions by investigating the spatial correlations between two intermediate to high-pT hadrons in an event. Previous studies have shown that the near-side di-hadron correlation peak can be decomposed into two components, a jet-like correlation and the Ridge. The jet-like correlation is narrow in both azimuth and pseudorapidity, while the Ridge is narrow in azimuth but independent of pseudorapidity within STAR's acceptance. STAR's data from Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sNN = 62 GeV and sNN = 200 GeV allow comparative studies of these components in different systems and at different energies. Data on correlations with both identified trigger particles and identified associated particles are presented, including the first studies of identified particle correlations in Cu+Cu and the energy dependence of these correlations. The yields are studied as a function of collision centrality, transverse momentum of the trigger particle, transverse momentum of the associated particle, and trigger and associated particle type. The data in this thesis indicate that the jet-like correlation component in heavy ion collisions is dominantly produced by vacuum fragmentation of hard scattered partons. The Ridge component is not present in p+p or d+Au collisions. The Ridge yield is consistent between systems for the same Npart and has properties similar to the bulk. Theoretical mechanisms for the production of the Ridge include parton recombination, collisional energy loss in the medium (momentum kicks), and gluon

  8. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    A plan for exploring the physics and technology of induction linac development is discussed which involves a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments. The first is the single-beam transport experiment, which has explored the physics of a single space-charge-dominated beam. Second is the multiple-beam experiment in which four independent beams will be transported and accelerated through a multigap accelerating structure. The single-beam transport experiment is described, and some results are given of stability studies and instrumentation studies. The design and fabrication of the multi-beam experiment are described, as well as results of a first round of experiments in which beam-current amplification was observed. Concurrent theoretical work, resulting in a variety of acce-leration schedules and sets of associated voltage waveforms required to implement the experiments, is also reported. (LEW)

  9. Jet energy loss in heavy ion collisions from RHIC to LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levai, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The suppression of hadron production originated from the induced jet energy loss is one of the most accepted and well understood phenomena in heavy ion collisions, which indicates the formation of color deconfined matter consists of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. This phenomena has been seen at RHIC energies and now the first LHC results display a very similar effect. In fact, the suppression is so close to each other at 200 AGeV and 2.76 ATeV, that it is interesting to investigate if such a suppression pattern can exist at all. We use the Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev description of induced jet energy loss combined with different nuclear shadowing functions and describe the experimental data. We claim that a consistent picture can be obtained for the produced hot matter with a weak nuclear shadowing. The interplay between nuclear shadowing and jet energy loss playes a crucial role in the understanding of the experimental data.

  10. D0 Meson Production in Heavy Ion Collisions in CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of heavy flavour production is a powerful tool to study the properties of the high-density QCD medium created in heavy-ion collisions as heavy quarks are sensitive to the transport properties of the medium and may interact with the QCD matter differently from light quarks. In particular, the comparison between the nuclear modification factors of light and heavy flavoured particles provides insights into the expected flavour dependence of in-medium parton energy loss. With the CMS detector, the D0 meson production is studied in pp and PbPb collisions at 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. In this talk, the nuclear modification factor of D0 meson are presented and compared to the charged hadron nuclear modification factor and theoretical calculations.

  11. Power spectrum of flow fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumia, P. S.; Srivastava, Ajit M.

    2016-10-01

    We carry out hydrodynamical simulation of the evolution of fluid in relativistic heavy-ion collisions with random initial fluctuations. The time evolution of power spectrum of momentum anisotropies shows very strong correspondence with the physics of cosmic microwave anisotropies as was earlier predicted by us. In particular, our results demonstrate suppression of superhorizon fluctuations and the correspondence between the location of the first peak in the power spectrum of momentum anisotropies and the length scale of fluctuations and expected freeze-out time-scale (more precisely, the sound horizon size at freeze-out).

  12. Heavy-ion linac development for the U.S. RIA project.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P. N.

    2002-01-29

    The Nuclear Science Community in the Unites States has unanimously concluded that developments in both nuclear science and its supporting technologies make building a world-leading Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility for production of radioactive beams the top priority. The RIA development effort involves several US Laboratories (ANL, JLAB, LBNL, MSU, ORNL). The RIA Facility includes a CW 1.4 GeV driver linac and a 100 MV post-accelerator both based on superconducting (SC) cavities operating at frequencies from 48 MHz to 805 MHz. An initial acceleration in both linacs is provided by room temperature RFQs. The driver linac is designed for acceleration of any ion species; from protons up to 900 MeV to uranium up to 400 MeV/u. The novel feature of the driver linac is an acceleration of multiple charge-state heavy-ion beams in order to achieve 400 kW beam power. Basic design concepts of the driver linac are given. Several new conceptual solutions in beam dynamics, room temperature and SC accelerating structures for heavy ion accelerator applications are discussed.

  13. High baryon densities in heavy ion collisions at energies attainable at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Kapusta, Joseph I.

    2017-01-01

    In very high-energy collisions nuclei are practically transparent to each other but produce very hot nearly baryon-free matter in the so-called central rapidity region. The energy in the central rapidity region comes from the kinetic energy of the colliding nuclei. We calculate the energy and rapidity loss of the nuclei using the color glass condensate model. This model also predicts the excitation energy of the nuclear fragments. Using a space-time picture of the collision we calculate the baryon and energy densities of the receding baryonic fireballs. For central collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energy attainable at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, for example, we find baryon densities more than ten times that of atomic nuclei over a large volume.

  14. Towards a Conceptual Diagnostic Survey in Nuclear Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnle, Antje; Mclean, Stewart; Aliotta, Marialuisa

    2011-01-01

    Understanding students' prior beliefs in nuclear physics is a first step towards improving nuclear physics instruction. This paper describes the development of a diagnostic survey in nuclear physics covering the areas of radioactive decay, binding energy, properties of the nuclear force and nuclear reactions, that was administered to students at…

  15. Quantum Electrodynamical Shifts in Multivalent Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupitsyn, I. I.; Kozlov, M. G.; Safronova, M. S.; Shabaev, V. M.; Dzuba, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    The quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections are directly incorporated into the most accurate treatment of the correlation corrections for ions with complex electronic structure of interest to metrology and tests of fundamental physics. We compared the performance of four different QED potentials for various systems to access the accuracy of QED calculations and to make a prediction of highly charged ion properties urgently needed for planning future experiments. We find that all four potentials give consistent and reliable results for ions of interest. For the strongly bound electrons, the nonlocal potentials are more accurate than the local potential.

  16. Quantum Electrodynamical Shifts in Multivalent Heavy Ions.

    PubMed

    Tupitsyn, I I; Kozlov, M G; Safronova, M S; Shabaev, V M; Dzuba, V A

    2016-12-16

    The quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections are directly incorporated into the most accurate treatment of the correlation corrections for ions with complex electronic structure of interest to metrology and tests of fundamental physics. We compared the performance of four different QED potentials for various systems to access the accuracy of QED calculations and to make a prediction of highly charged ion properties urgently needed for planning future experiments. We find that all four potentials give consistent and reliable results for ions of interest. For the strongly bound electrons, the nonlocal potentials are more accurate than the local potential.

  17. Learning to Embrace Nuclear Physics through Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avadanei, Camelia

    2010-01-01

    Due to its achievements, nuclear physics is more and more present in life of every member of the society. Its applications in the medical field and in nuclear energy, as well as the advanced research, always pushing the limits of science towards micro cosmos and macro cosmos, are subjects frequently presented in the media. In addition to their invaluable benefits, these achievements involve also particular rules to prevent potential risks. These risks are also underlined by the media, often being presented in an unfriendly manner. Specialists in nuclear physics are familiar with these problems complying with the specific rules in order to reduce risks at insignificant levels. The development of a specific field ("Radiation protection") defining norms and requirements for "assuring the radiological safety of the workers, population and environment," and its dynamics represent a proof of a responsible attitude regarding nuclear safety. Dedicated international bodies and experts analyze and rigorously evaluate risks in order to draw the right ways of managing activity in the field. The improvement of the formal and informal education of public regarding the real risks of nuclear applications is very important in order to understand and better assimilate some general rules concerning the use of these techniques, as well as for their correct perception, leading to an increase of interest towards nuclear physics. This educational update can be started even from elementary school and continued in each stage of formal education in adapted forms. The task of informing general public is to be carried out mainly by specialists who, unlike 30-40 years ago, can rely on a much more efficient generation of communications' mean. Taking into account the lack of interest for nuclear, an attractive way of presenting the achievements and future possibilities of nuclear physics would contribute to youth orientation towards specific universities in order to become next generation of

  18. Learning to Embrace Nuclear Physics through Education

    SciTech Connect

    Avadanei, Camelia

    2010-01-21

    Due to its achievements, nuclear physics is more and more present in life of every member of the society. Its applications in the medical field and in nuclear energy, as well as the advanced research, always pushing the limits of science towards micro cosmos and macro cosmos, are subjects frequently presented in the media. In addition to their invaluable benefits, these achievements involve also particular rules to prevent potential risks. These risks are also underlined by the media, often being presented in an unfriendly manner. Specialists in nuclear physics are familiar with these problems complying with the specific rules in order to reduce risks at insignificant levels. The development of a specific field ('Radiation protection') defining norms and requirements for 'assuring the radiological safety of the workers, population and environment', and its dynamics represent a proof of a responsible attitude regarding nuclear safety. Dedicated international bodies and experts analyze and rigorously evaluate risks in order to draw the right ways of managing activity in the field. The improvement of the formal and informal education of public regarding the real risks of nuclear applications is very important in order to understand and better assimilate some general rules concerning the use of these techniques, as well as for their correct perception, leading to an increase of interest towards nuclear physics. This educational update can be started even from elementary school and continued in each stage of formal education in adapted forms. The task of informing general public is to be carried out mainly by specialists who, unlike 30-40 years ago, can rely on a much more efficient generation of communications' mean. Taking into account the lack of interest for nuclear, an attractive way of presenting the achievements and future possibilities of nuclear physics would contribute to youth orientation towards specific universities in order to become next generation of

  19. Heavy-ion flux enhancement in the vicinity of the Martian ionosphere during CIR passage: Mars Express ASPERA-3 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, T.; Seki, K.; Futaana, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yagi, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tokumaru, M.; Fedorov, A.; Barabash, S.

    2011-12-01

    Mars does not possess a global intrinsic magnetic field [e.g., Acuna et al., 1998]. The solar wind thus can directly interact with the Martian upper atmosphere. Atmospheric escape induced by the solar wind has been observed by Phobos-2 at the solar maximum, and recently by Mars Express (MEX) at the solar minimum. Escape rates of planetary ions estimated by both spacecraft indicate large dependence on the solar activity and the solar wind conditions [e.g., Lundin et al., 1989; Barabash et al., 2007]. Recently, it was reported by MEX measurements that the interplanetary disturbances, such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can enhance the escape rate [Dubinin et al., 2009; Edberg et al., 2010]. These studies focused on the change of the outflow flux, and the physical process responsible for the heavy-ion escape enhancement by CIRs is still an open question. Here we report on a characteristic heavy-ion signature observed in the vicinity of the Martian ionosphere during passages of CIR structure in the solar wind. We use data obtained by the ion mass analyzer (IMA), which is a part of plasma packages of ASPERA-3 onboard MEX from September to October 2007. We compared the solar wind velocity at Mars derived from IMA data and time-shifted ACE data considering the travel time from Earth to Mars. The solar wind velocity derived from both spacecraft shows the passages of CIR structure quasiperiodically. Coinciding with the CIR passages, IMA observed heavy-ion enhancement in the vicinity of the Martian ionosphere. Observed ion velocity distribution functions indicate that heavy ions are mostly precipitating toward the Martian upper atmosphere. We confirm that events locations where precipitation of heavy ions are detected by IMA distributes rather randomly, regardless of the Martian crustal magnetic field [e.g., Acuna et al., 1998; Connerney et al., 2005]. While the observed flux level is consistent with a previous model prediction of

  20. Uniform fuel target implosion in heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Karino, T.; Kondo, S.; Iinuma, T.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    For a steady operation of a fusion power plant the target implosion should be robust against the implosion non-uniformities. In this paper the non-uniformity mitigation mechanisms in the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination are discussed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to the radiation energy smoothing for the HIB illumination non-uniformity. The large density-gradient scale, which is typically ∼500μm in HIF targets, also contributes to a reduction of the Rayleigh- Taylor instability growth rate. In HIF a wobbling HIBs illumination would also reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth and to realize a uniform implosion.