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Sample records for heckel perciformes sciaenidae

  1. Comparative ontogeny of the feeding apparatus of sympatric drums (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Deary, Alison L; Hilton, Eric J

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the feeding apparatus in fishes, including both oral and pharyngeal jaw elements, is closely related to the ecology of a species. During ontogeny, the oral and pharyngeal jaws undergo dramatic changes. To better understand how such ontogenetic changes occur and relate to the feeding ecology of a species, ontogenetic series of four closely related members of the family Sciaenidae (Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion regalis, Micropogonias undulatus, and Leiostomus xanthurus) were examined. Sciaenids were selected because as adults they exhibit considerable specialization of the feeding apparatus correlated with differences in foraging habitats. However, it is not clear when during ontogeny the structural specializations of the feeding apparatus develop, and thereby enable early life history stage (ELHS) sciaenids to partition their foraging habitats. A regression tree was recovered from the analysis and three divergences were identified during ontogeny. There are no measurable differences in elements of the feeding apparatus until the first divergence at 8.4 mm head length (HL), which was attributed to differences in average gill filament length on the second ceratobranchial. The second divergence occurred at 14.1 mm HL and was associated with premaxilla length. The final divergence occurred at 19.8 mm HL and was associated with differences in the toothed area of the fifth certatobranchial. These morphological divergences suggest that ELHS sciaenids may be structurally able to partition their foraging habitats as early as 8.4 mm HL.

  2. A description of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) veropesoi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the intestine of the silver croaker fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the east coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, F T V; Costa, P A F B; Giese, E G; Gardner, S L; Santos, J N

    2015-01-01

    Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) is considered piscivorous and is a generalist species endemic to the Amazon region. This fish is an important part of the natural ecosystems in which it occurs and provides basic functional components in the food web. The genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 is distributed worldwide and parasitizes fish and turtles, but there are few reports of parasites of this genus in South America, due to the high diversity of fish that can be found in this region. A new species of thorny-headed worm (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is described from P. squamosissimus from Guajará Bay, Belém, Pará, Brazil. In general, the unique characteristics of the hooks on the anterior end of the proboscis and the length-to-width ratio relationship separate this new species from other described species in the genus Neoechinorhynchus. Although the species in this genus are mostly found in North America, the dearth of species known from the neotropics may be due to the lack of studies in this region.

  3. A multi-gene dataset reveals a tropical New World origin and Early Miocene diversification of croakers (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Lo, Pei-Chun; Liu, Shu-Hui; Chao, Ning Labbish; Nunoo, Francis K E; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2015-07-01

    Widely distributed groups of living animals, such as the predominantly marine fish family Sciaenidae, have always attracted the attention of biogeographers to document the origins and patterns of diversification in time and space. In this study, the historical biogeography of the global Sciaenidae is reconstructed within a molecular phylogenetic framework to investigate their origin and to test the hypotheses explaining the present-day biogeographic patterns. Our data matrix comprises six mitochondrial and nuclear genes in 93 globally sampled sciaenid species from 52 genera. Within the inferred phylogenetic tree of the Sciaenidae, we identify 15 main and well-supported lineages; some of which have not been recognized previously. Reconstruction of habitat preferences shows repeated habitat transitions between marine and euryhaline environments. This implies that sciaenids can easily adapt to some variations in salinity, possibly as the consequence of their nearshore habitats and migratory life history. Conversely, complete marine/euryhaline to freshwater transitions occurred only three times, in South America, North America and South Asia. Ancestral range reconstruction analysis concomitant with fossil evidence indicates that sciaenids first originated and diversified in the tropical America during the Oligocene to Early Miocene before undergoing two range expansions, to Eastern Atlantic and to the Indo-West Pacific where a maximum species richness is observed. The uncommon biogeographic pattern identified is discussed in relation to current knowledge on origin of gradients of marine biodiversity toward the center of origin hypothesis in the Indo-West Pacific.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of bighead croaker, Collichthys niveatus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae): structure of control region and phylogenetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tian-Jun; Cheng, Yuan-Zhi; Sun, Yue-Na; Shi, Ge; Wang, Ri-Xin

    2011-10-01

    Sciaenidae is a diverse, commercially important family. To understand the phylogenetic position of Collichthys niveatus in this family, we present its complete mitochondrial genome sequence. The genome is 16469 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) and a control region (CR) as in other bony fishes. Further sequencing for the complete control region was performed on Collichthys lucida. Although the conserved sequence domains such as extend termination associated sequence (ETAS) and conserved sequence block domains (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3) are recognized in the control region of the two congeneric species, the typical central conserved blocks (CSB-F, CSB-E and CSB-D) could not be detected, while they are found in Miichthys miiuy and Cynoscion acoupa of Sciaenidae and other Percoidei fishes. Phylogenetic analyses do not support the monophyly of Pseudosciaeniae, which is against with the morphological results. C. niveatus is most closely related to Larimichthys polyactis, and Collichthys and Larimichthys may be merged into one genus, based on the current datasets.

  5. Does lymphocystis occur in pacora, Plagioscion surinamensis (Sciaenidae), from Colombia?

    PubMed

    Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Williams, Ernest H; Phelps, Ronald P

    2002-04-01

    A lymphocystis-like condition produced hemorrhagic lesions over the bodies of pacora Plagioscion surinamensis (Bleeker) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) held in freshwater aquaculture in northern Colombia and increased their sensitivity to handling stress. This disease eliminated this fish from a project evaluating its aquaculture potential. Lymphocystis disease is assumed to be less damaging to the host. This condition requires more study and histological evaluation.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae): absence of the typical conserved motif in the origin of the light-strand replication.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanzhi; Shi, Ge; Xu, Tianjun; Li, Haiyan; Sun, Yueyan; Wang, Rixin

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus was determined first. The genome was 16,500 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light-strand replication); the gene composition and order of which were similar to most other vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was T 25.5%, C 30.7%, A 27.5%, and G 16.3%, with a slight AT bias of 53%. Within the control region, the discrete and conserved sequence blocks were identified. Motif 5'-ACCGG-3' rather than 5'-GCCGG-3' was detected in the origin of light-strand replication (O(L)) of red drum, which is rare in the mitogenomes of Sciaenidae species. These results would play an important role in elucidating sequence-function relationships of the O(L).

  7. Monogenoideans (Platyhelminthes) from the gill lamellae of the spotted sea trout, Cynoscion nebulosus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae), from the western coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, with redescription of Diplectanum bilobatus Hargis 1955 (Diplectanidae).

    PubMed

    Franco, Edgar F Mendoza; Rodríguez, R E del Rio; Tun, M del C Rosado

    2013-08-01

    The gill lamellae ectoparasites of the spotted sea trout, Cynoscion nebulosus (Sciaenidae), in the western coast of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, revealed three species of Monogenoidea: Cynoscionicola heteracantha (Manter 1938) Price, 1962 (Microcotylidae); Choricotyle cynoscioni (MacCallum, 1917) Llewellyn, 1941 (Diclidophoridae); and Diplectanum bilobatus Hargis, 1955 (Diplectanidae). Brief comments about the current taxonomic status as well as supplemental observations of all these monogenoids originally described and/or reported from the same host fish species found in the USA are provided. New illustrations, prevalence and mean intensity of infection, as well morphological and biometric data based on new specimens are shown. C. heteracantha and C. cynoscioni collected in this study represent the second and first records of the species of these genera for the Atlantic coast of Mexico. The specimens of D. bilobatus are provisionally retained within Diplectanum until an emendation of the genus and a formal revision of all named species of this monogenoidean genus are undertaken.

  8. Effects of a Supraseasonal Drought on the Ecological Attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Pisces, Sciaenidae) in a Brazilian Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Antonia E. F.; Oliveira, Jônnata F.; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Costa, Rodrigo S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supraseasonal drought on the ecological attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus. The fish were caught quarterly from February 2010 to November 2014 using gill nets in the reservoir of Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The abundance of the species was evaluated with the catch per unit effort (CPUE) metric and then correlated with the accumulated rainfall and water volume of the reservoir. The diet of the fish was evaluated using the feeding index (IAi). The proportional similarity index (PSi) was used to evaluate the variation in the niches of the fish. The body condition was inferred through the relative condition factor, and its variation was assessed with ANOVA. A reduction in the abundance of the species that were positively correlated with the reservoir water volume was observed. The diet of the fish comprised shrimp, gastropods, fish, insects, shrimp larvae, and vegetable matter, with shrimp being the major component. PSi showed the occurrence of individual specialization during November 2013 and November 2014. The relative condition factor was not correlated with a reduction in the water volume of the reservoir. The supraseasonal drought did not affect the relative condition factor, diet, and the trophic niche, but it did affect the species abundance. PMID:28326431

  9. Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the ovary of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the coast of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Fajer-Avila, E J; Bakenhaster, M

    2010-03-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens found in the ovary of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus) (Sciaenidae, Perciformes), from the Gulf of Mexico off Treasure Island, Florida, USA. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species differs from most other gonad-infecting Philometra spp. in having a smooth gubernaculum with a distinct dorsal tooth on the distal tip. The new species is most similar to P. carolinensis Moravec, de Buron & Roumillat, 2006, but differs in length and shape of spicules. It can be distinguished from P. carolinensis and other species with unknown males, by the markedly greater body length of gravid females (up to about 100 cm). Philometra floridensis is the third valid gonad-infecting species of Philometra reported from sciaenids.

  10. Mechanistic investigation on pressure dependency of Heckel parameter.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sarsvatkumar; Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2010-04-15

    This work proposed to study the influence of varying compaction pressure on the plastic energy, elasticity (Young's modulus), particle yield strength, strain hardening, and applied pressures on derived Heckel parameter using material with different densification and deformation mechanisms: ibuprofen (IBN), paracetamol (PCM) (elastic behavior), methyl cellulose (Me-Cel), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), sodium chloride (NaCl) (plastic behavior), and dicalcium phosphate (DCP) (brittle fracture). Force-displacement data were captured during in-die compaction for all materials having different deformation behavior. The apparent mean yield pressure (Py), plastic energy, Young's moduli, strain hardening parameter and rate of increase in Py were calculated from force-displacement compaction profiles obtained across a pressure range of 65-260 MPa. Materials under confined compression loading showed pressure dependent biphasic behavior in Py upon increasing pressure from 65 MPa to 260 MPa. IBN and PCM showed pressure dependency due to simultaneous elasticity and strain hardening upon increasing applied pressure. Me-Cel, MCC, and NaCl showed lower pressure dependency while DCP showed higher change in Py upon increasing pressure as a result of higher yield strength of DCP particles. Apparent mean yield pressure from Heckel analysis was significantly affected by the applied pressure, viscoelastic behavior, particle yield strength, and strain hardening. The simultaneously occurring events of elastic deformation and strain hardening give a false increase in Py at higher applied pressures.

  11. A new species of Larimichthys from Terengganu, east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (Perciformes: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Seah, Ying Giat; Hanafi, Norhafiz; Mazlan, Abd Ghaffar; Chao, Ning Labbish

    2015-05-08

    A new species of Larimichthys from Terengganu, east coast of Peninsular Malaysia is described from specimens collected from the fish landing port at Pulau Kambing, Kuala Terengganu. Larimichthys terengganui can be readily distinguished from other species of the genus by having an equally short pair of ventral limbs at the end of the gas bladder appendages, which do not extend lateral-ventrally to the lower half of the body wall, and fewer dorsal soft rays (29-32 vs. 31-36) and vertebrae (24 vs. 25-28). Larimichthys terengganui can be distinguished from L. polyactis and L. crocea by having a gill raker at the angle of first gill arch shorter than the gill filament. Furthermore, the second anal spine in L. terengganui is equal or slightly shorter than eye diameter (vs. shorter in L. polyactis); L. terengganui has 8-9 anal soft rays (vs. only 7 in L. pamoides). Snout length of L. terengganui is greater than eye diameter, whereas in L. crocea the snout is shorter than eye diameter. A key to species of Larimichthys is provided. All obtained specimens of the species were recorded from Terengganu waters, east coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

  12. Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) and Parachromis managuensis (Cichlidae): A Threat to Native Fishes of the Doce River in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Lucas C.; Santos, Udson; Zanuncio, José C.; Dergam, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    The middle section of the lake basin of the Doce River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil is plagued by grave environmental problems, including the introduction of non-native fish, which reduces the biodiversity of this region. This study reports the presence of two newly-detected non-native species in the Doce River Basin. Sampling efforts included gill nets with mesh size of 3 to 12 mm (measured diagonally) and trawling nets, both of which were used in independent field campaigns in 2002 and 2011. The two new invasive Perciform fishes, Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) and Parachromis managuensis (Günther 1867) were collected in Caratinga and Rio Doce municipalities. These records and other reports on non-native fishes suggest favorable environmental conditions for the establishment of invasive species in this drainage. These invasive species have behavior and diet observed in other wide distribution exotic fish of Rio Doce Basin representing a threat to the 77 native fishes of this region, 37 of which are endangered. PMID:22720053

  13. Development of the follicle complex and oocyte staging in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus, 1776 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Grier, Harry J

    2012-08-01

    Pelagic egg development in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, is described using tiered staging. Based on mitosis and meiosis, there are five periods: Mitosis of Oogonia, Active Meiosis I, Arrested Meiosis I, Active Meiosis II, and Arrested Meiosis II. The Periods are divided into six stages: Mitotic Division of Oogonia, Chromatin Nucleolus, Primary Growth, Secondary Growth, Oocyte Maturation and Ovulation. The Chromatin Nucleolus Stage is divided into four steps: Leptotene, Zygotene, Pachytene, and Early Diplotene. Oocytes in the last step possess one nucleolus, dispersed chromatin with forming lampbrush chromosomes and lack basophilic ooplasm. The Primary Growth Stage, characterized by basophilic ooplasm and absence of yolk in oocytes, is divided into five steps: One-Nucleolus, Multiple Nucleoli, Perinucleolar, Oil Droplets, and Cortical Alveolar. During primary growth, the Balbiani body develops from nuage, enlarges and disperses throughout the ooplasm as both endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi develop within it. Secondary growth or vitellogenesis has three steps: Early Secondary Growth, Late Secondary Growth and Full-Grown. The Oocyte Maturation Stage, including ooplasmic and germinal vesicle maturation, has four steps: Eccentric Germinal Vesicle, Germinal Vesicle Migration, Germinal Vesicle Breakdown and Resumption of Meiosis when complete yolk hydration occurs. The period is Arrested Meiosis II. When folliculogenesis is completed, the ovarian follicle, an oocyte and encompassing follicle cells, is surrounded by a basement membrane and developing theca, all forming a follicle complex. After ovulation, a newly defined postovulatory follicle complex remains attached to the germinal epithelium. It is composed of a basement membrane that separates the postovulatory follicle from the postovulatory theca. Arrested Meiosis I encompasses primary and secondary growth (vitellogenesis) and includes most of oocyte maturation until the resumption of meiosis (Active Meiosis II). The last stage, Ovulation, is the emergence of the oocyte from the follicle when it becomes an egg or ovum.

  14. Cotylogaster basiri Siddiqi & Cable, 1960 (Aspidobothrea: Aspidogastridae) in Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus, 1766) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae): first report from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallas, M; Silveira, E F; Périco, E

    2016-07-11

    Up until now, there have been few studies of the helminth fauna of Brazilian populations of Pogonias cromis. In North America, P. cromis is known to be a definitive host of Cotylogaster basiri, although there have been no reports of any species of Cotylogaster infecting fish in Brazil. During necropsies of marine fish obtained from professional fisherman in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, specimens of C. basiri were found in the intestine and rectum of P. cromis. In comparison with previous studies, differences were found in relation to the number of lobes in the buccal disc and the development of the biocellate larvae in the eggs of C. basiri. This is the first report of C. basiri in P. cromis from Brazil, contributing to the understanding of the helminth fauna of this fish from the coastal zone of Brazil.

  15. Morphological and molecular evidence for a new species of the genus Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902 (Ascaridida: Cucullanidae) from marine perciform fishes in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-10-01

    A new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne (Dichelyne) breviculus n. sp., collected from the intestine of the goatee croaker Dendrophysa russelii (Cuvier) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae), the burrowing goby Trypauchen vagina (Bloch & Schneider) and the tropical sand goby Acentrogobius caninus (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in the South China Sea, is described using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species differs from its congeners in the size of body (2.16-2.96 mm in male), the position of the excretory pore and deirids, the length of the spicules (0.90-1.32 mm, representing 32.4-51.9% of body length), the arrangement of the caudal papillae and the morphology of the tail. In addition, in order to primarily assess the validity of the new species genetically, the specimens of D. breviculus n. sp. collected from the three different hosts were also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing ribosomal [small ribosomal subunit (18S rDNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1)] target regions. The molecular analyses support the validity of the new species based on the morphological observations.

  16. Molecular Phylogeny of Weakfish Species of the Stellifer Group (Sciaenidae, Perciformes) of the Western South Atlantic Based on Mitochondrial and Nuclear Data

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Andressa Jisely Barreto; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Santos, Simoni

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships within the Stellifer group of weakfishes (Stellifer, Odontoscion, Ophioscion, and Bairdiella) were evaluated using 2723 base pairs comprising sequences of nuclear (rhodopsin, TMO-4C4, RAG-1) and mitochondrial (16S rRNA and COI) markers obtained from specimens of nine species. Our results indicate a close relationship between Bairdiella and Odontoscion, and also that the genus Stellifer is not monophyletic, but rather that it consists of two distinct lineages, one clade containing S. microps/S. naso/S. brasiliensis and the other, S. rastrifer/S. stellifer/Stellifer sp. B, which is closer to Ophioscion than the former clade. The O. punctatissimus populations from the northern and southern Brazilian coast were also highly divergent in both nuclear (0.8% for rhodopsin and 0.9% for RAG-1) and mitochondrial sequences (2.2% for 16S rRNA and 7.3% for COI), which we conclude is consistent with the presence of two distinct species. The morphological similarities of the members of the Stellifer group is reinforced by the molecular data from both the present study and previous analyses, which have questioned the taxonomic status of the Stellifer group. If, on the one hand, the group is in fact composed of four genera (Stellifer, Ophioscion, Odontoscion, and Bairdiella), one of the two Stellifer clades should be reclassified as a new genus. However, if the close relationship and the reduced genetic divergence found within the group is confirmed in a more extensive study, including representatives of additional taxa, this, together with the morphological evidence, would support downgrading the whole group to a single genus. Obviously, these contradictory findings reinforce the need for a more systematic taxonomic revision of the Stellifer group as a whole. PMID:25020128

  17. Investigation into the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the Marajó Archipelago waters using Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado da; Pessoa, Carla Mariana Ferreira; Rodrigues, Claudia Antonia Campos; Pinheiro, Raul Henrique da Silva; Costa, Edmar Tavares da; Guimarães, Adriana Costa; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Maintaining water quality within tolerable limits is a basic need of the riverside communities in the Amazon. Using endemic aquatic organisms as biological models is useful for monitoring the environment. In this study, potential cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in Plagioscion squamosissimus (commonly known as silver croaker) from the Marajó Archipelago were evaluated using a flow cytometry assay and a survey of micronuclei (MN) frequency as well as other nuclear abnormalities (NA). P. squamosissimus specimens were collected at four locations in the Marajó Archipelago. Blood samples from these fish were used in the flow cytometry assay and piscine micronucleus test, and the resulting data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). We did not observe a difference in the erythrocyte cell cycle distribution among the samples (P=0.9992), which suggests the absence of cytotoxic agent-induced apoptosis. The piscine micronucleus test exhibited differences in the samples from São Sebastião da Boa Vista (SSBV), and those from Anajás produced the highest mutagenicity indices. The MN frequencies were low for all groups, but the groups exhibited significantly different frequencies (P=0.0033). Reniform nuclei, nuclei with extensions, and lobed nuclei were combined and considered NA. The frequency differences for these NA were significant among sampling sites (P <0.0001). This report is the first to use flow cytometry in fish to evaluate cytotoxic agent-induced apoptosis. The micronucleus test results indicate the presence of pollutants that can change the genetic material of the fish studied. We also demonstrate that the Amazonian fish P. squamosissimus is important not only as a comestible species but also as an adequate model for biomonitoring in aquatic environments.

  18. Relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Blasina, Gabriela; Molina, Juan; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan

    This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow. Results suggest that these sciaenid species can partition the food resources, even though they completely overlap in space. Differences in their ecomorphological traits appear to correlate closely with the diet and consequently could explain the trophic differentiation observed. Arguably, these ecomorphological differences play a significant role in the coexistence of the adults of these sympatric fish species.

  19. Automated otolith image classification with multiple views: an evaluation on Sciaenidae.

    PubMed

    Wong, J Y; Chu, C; Chong, V C; Dhillon, S K; Loh, K H

    2016-08-01

    Combined multiple 2D views (proximal, anterior and ventral aspects) of the sagittal otolith are proposed here as a method to capture shape information for fish classification. Classification performance of single view compared with combined 2D views show improved classification accuracy of the latter, for nine species of Sciaenidae. The effects of shape description methods (shape indices, Procrustes analysis and elliptical Fourier analysis) on classification performance were evaluated. Procrustes analysis and elliptical Fourier analysis perform better than shape indices when single view is considered, but all perform equally well with combined views. A generic content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system that ranks dissimilarity (Procrustes distance) of otolith images was built to search query images without the need for detailed information of side (left or right), aspect (proximal or distal) and direction (positive or negative) of the otolith. Methods for the development of this automated classification system are discussed.

  20. Iron in the enameloid of perciform fish.

    PubMed

    Suga, S; Taki, Y; Ogawa, M

    1992-06-01

    It is known that a high concentration of iron is deposited in the enameloid of some teleostean fish. Previously, Suga et al. (1989) pointed out that the iron concentration in the enameloid is related to the phylogeny of fish rather than to the feeding habits, according to the results of quantitative iron analyses on the teeth of marine teleost fish of the Tetraodontiformes. In the present study, in order for the previous idea to be verified, quantitative iron analysis was made with an electron microprobe on the enameloid of fish belonging to the Perciformes, which is the largest group of teleostean fish in the world and consists of both marine and freshwater species. The enameloid of all the fish examined (57 species) contained high iron concentrations ranging from 0.2% to 10.2% at the surface or middle layer, whereas that of an advanced suborder, Tetraodontoidei, of the Tetraodontiformes was very low in iron, at a level which could not be discriminated from the background value of the emission intensity. The distribution pattern of iron in the enameloid was classified into at least two types, namely, type A, in which a high iron concentration was observed mainly in the surface layer, and type B, in which iron was deposited throughout the entire layer, although there were differences in concentration. There were some differences in the concentration and distribution of iron in the enameloid for the families; for example, those of the Scaridae had a type A distribution, with about 0.2% iron only at the surface layer, whereas those of the Cichlidae, Centrarchidae, and Acanthuridae, which showed a type B distribution, contained iron ranging from 2.9% to 10.5% at the surface or middle layer of enameloid. Such differences seemed to be associated with the difference in timing of the commencement of the iron deposition into the developing enameloid, which is probably related to the phylogeny of fish. There was no evidence to support the idea that the iron concentration in

  1. A mitogenomic perspective on the phylogenetic position of the Hapalogenys genus (Acanthopterygii: Perciformes) and the evolutionary origin of Perciformes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Sun, Yuena; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun

    2014-01-01

    The Hapalogenys genus was the most controversial and problematic in phylogenetic position of Percoidei. In this study, we rechecked the taxonomic status of Hapalogenys in Percoidei using complete mitochondrial genome data. We purposefully added a new complete mitochondrial sequence from chosen species of Hapalogenys and conducted phylogenetic analyses using a large complete mitochondrial data set. The resultant tree topologies were congruent from partitioned Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood methods. The results indicated that Hapalogenys was distantly related to Haemulidae and could be removed from Haemulidae. The results supported the Hapalogeny was upgraded to a family rank titled Hapalogenyidae, and it should be recognized in a separate family of Hapalogenyidae. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis indicated that the divergence times of Perciformes groups had a much older than the available old fossil records. The origin of the common ancestral lineage of Perciformes fish was estimated in the late Jurassic about 149 Myr ago.

  2. A Mitogenomic Perspective on the Phylogenetic Position of the Hapalogenys Genus (Acanthopterygii: Perciformes) and the Evolutionary Origin of Perciformes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tao; Sun, Yuena; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun

    2014-01-01

    The Hapalogenys genus was the most controversial and problematic in phylogenetic position of Percoidei. In this study, we rechecked the taxonomic status of Hapalogenys in Percoidei using complete mitochondrial genome data. We purposefully added a new complete mitochondrial sequence from chosen species of Hapalogenys and conducted phylogenetic analyses using a large complete mitochondrial data set. The resultant tree topologies were congruent from partitioned Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood methods. The results indicated that Hapalogenys was distantly related to Haemulidae and could be removed from Haemulidae. The results supported the Hapalogeny was upgraded to a family rank titled Hapalogenyidae, and it should be recognized in a separate family of Hapalogenyidae. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis indicated that the divergence times of Perciformes groups had a much older than the available old fossil records. The origin of the common ancestral lineage of Perciformes fish was estimated in the late Jurassic about 149 Myr ago. PMID:25077480

  3. Spatiotemporal Variability and Sound Characterization in Silver Croaker Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) in the Central Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Borie, Alfredo; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Chao, Ning L.; Fine, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The fish family Sciaenidae has numerous species that produce sounds with superfast muscles that vibrate the swimbladder. These muscles form post embryonically and undergo seasonal hypertrophy-atrophy cycles. The family has been the focus of numerous passive acoustic studies to localize spatial and temporal occurrence of spawning aggregations. Fishes produce disturbance calls when hand-held, and males form aggregations in late afternoon and produce advertisement calls to attract females for mating. Previous studies on five continents have been confined to temperate species. Here we examine the calls of the silver croaker Plagioscion squamosissimus, a freshwater equatorial species, which experiences constant photoperiod, minimal temperature variation but seasonal changes in water depth and color, pH and conductivity. Methods and Principal Findings Dissections indicate that sonic muscles are present exclusively in males and that muscles are thicker and redder during the mating season. Disturbance calls were recorded in hand-held fish during the low-water mating season and high-water period outside of the mating season. Advertisement calls were recorded from wild fish that formed aggregations in both periods but only during the mating season from fish in large cages. Disturbance calls consist of a series of short individual pulses in mature males. Advertisement calls start with single and paired pulses followed by greater amplitude multi-pulse bursts with higher peak frequencies than in disturbance calls. Advertisement-like calls also occur in aggregations during the off season, but bursts are shorter with fewer pulses. Conclusions and Significance Silver croaker produce complex advertisement calls that vary in amplitude, number of cycles per burst and burst duration of their calls. Unlike temperate sciaenids, which only call during the spawning season, silver croaker produce advertisement calls in both seasons. Sonic muscles are thinner, and bursts are

  4. Bothriocephalidean tapeworms (Cestoda) from the blackfish, Centrolophus niger (Perciformes: Centrolophidae).

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomás; Brabec, Jan; Jirsová, Dagmar; Gustinelli, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Bothriocephalidean tapeworms parasitic in the blackfish, Centrolophus niger (Gmelin) (Perciformes: Centrolophidae), are redescribed on the basis of the evaluation of freshly collected specimens and museum material. This evaluation enabled us to supplement species diagnoses by new morphological characters of potential use for phylogenetic analyses, including the data from scanning electron microscopical observations, and to provide a key to identification of the following four species occurring in this fish: Amphicotyle heteropleura (Diesing, 1850); Milanella familiaris Kuchta et Scholz, 2008 (both Triaenophoridae); Bothriocotyle solinosomum Ariola, 1900; and Echinophallus wageneri (Monticelli, 1890) (both Echinophallidae). Large spiniform microtriches were observed on the surface of the posterodorsal margin of segments of B. solinosomum, E. wageneri and M. familiaris. The invalidity of Atelemerus Guiart, 1935, first proposed by Bray et al. (1994), is supported by the present data and its type species, A. acanthodes Guiart, 1935, is newly synonymised with E. wageneri.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Pampus chinensis (Perciformes: Stromateidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Dandan; Cheng, Qiqun; Qiao, Huiying; Zhang, Heng; Chen, Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Pampus chinensis (Perciformes: Stromateidae) was determined. The mitogenome is 16,535 bp in length, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions: origin of light-strand replication (OL) and control region (D-loop). The overall mtDNA nucleotide base composition of P. chinensis is A 29.72%, C 28.10%, G 15.34%, and T 26.84%, with an A + T content of 56.56%. Except for ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. The mitochondrial genome of P. chinensis may be helpful to the studies on stock evaluation and conservation genetics of P. chinensis resource, as well as molecular phylogeny of Stromateidae.

  6. [Ultrastructure of granulocytes of bony fishes (orders Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes)].

    PubMed

    Flerova, E A; Balabanova, L V

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of data on utrastructure of granulocytes of freshwater and marine bony fish of orders Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, and Perciformes showed that in all studied species there were revealed two types of granulocytes - neutrophils and eosinophils. The exception was the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix L. whose pronephros hemopoietic tissue was found to contain one type of the granulocytic line - neutrophils. The identification parameters of granular leukocytes are specific granules filling the cytoplasm. The main form of specific granules in neutrophils of bony fish of various phylogenetic groups is an elongated granule with different distribution of fibrils or a granule that has crystalloid formed from fibrils. The main form of eosinophil granules - large, electron-dense, homogenous.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Pampus argenteus (Perciformes: Stromateidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Dandan; Cheng, Qiqun; Qiao, Huiying; Chen, Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of Pampus argenteus (Perciformes: Stromateidae). The mitogenome is 17,098 bp in length, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 23 tRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions: origin of light-strand replication (OL) and control region (D-loop). The overall nucleotide base composition of P. argenteus mtDNA is A 30.35%, C 25.55%, G 15.28% and T 28.82%, with an A + T content of 59.17%. Except for ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. The mitochondrial genome of P. argenteus may be helpful to the studies on conservation genetics and stock evaluation of P. argenteus resource, as well as molecular phylogeny and species identification of Stromateidae.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mudskipper Boleophthalmus boddarti (Perciformes, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Ting; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Li, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Chen, Shi Xi; Hong, Wan Shu

    2016-01-01

    The Boddart's goggle-eyed mudskipper, Boleophthalmus boddarti (Perciformes, Gobiidae) is an amphibious fish, inhabiting brackish waters of estuaries and builds burrows in soft mud along the intertidal zone. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of B. boddarti was firstly determined. The circle genome (16,727 bp) comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The overall base composition of B. boddarti is 29.1% for C, 28.9% for A, 25.9% for T, and 16.0% for G, with a slight A + T bias of 54.8%. The termination-associated sequence, conserved sequence block domains, and a 131-bp tandem repeat were found in the control region. It has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement.

  9. Solostamenides paucitesticulatus n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Mazocraeidea: Microcotylidae) from the freshwater mullet Liza abu (Heckel) (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) from Atatürk Reservoir on the Euphrates River in southern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Öktener, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Solostamenides paucitesticulatus n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Microcotylidae) from the gills of the abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) in Atatürk Reservoir in southern Turkey is described. Among other features, the new species is easily distinguished from its three congeners, Solostamenides mugilis (Vogt, 1879), Solostamenides pseudomugilis (Hargis, 1956) and Solostamenides polyorchis Zhang & Yang, 2001, by having fewer hooks on the male copulatory organ (11 to 14), testes (5 to 9), and haptoral clamps (31 to 47).

  10. Robertsonian rearrangements and pericentric inversions in Scaridae fish (Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Sena, D C S; Molina, W F

    2007-09-30

    The parrotfishes (family Scaridae) are comprised of the subfamilies Sparisomatinae and Scarinae. They are important agents of marine bioerosion, which rework the substrate with their beaklike jaws. Despite their importance, there are no published cytogenetic data on this group. We made cytogenetic analyses of Sparisoma axillare (Sparisomatinae) and Scarus trispinosus [corrected] (Scarinae) from the Brazilian coast. Differentiation in the diploid number in S. axillare compared to the basal karyotype of the Perciformes apparently occurred due to a Robertsonian fusion, combined with pericentric inversions. S. trispinosus [corrected] presented a conserved diploid number, but showed considerable structural karyotypic changes, resulting mainly from pericentric inversions. The Ag-NOR sites were unique and located on the short arm of the 1st subtelocentric pair in both species (possibly homeologous), corresponding to the 11th pair in S. axillare and the 9th pair in S. trispinosus [corrected] The constitutive heterochromatin is reduced in these species and is distributed in centromeric and pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. The low fundamental number compared to the Scarus genus suggests a more basal condition for Sparisoma. The chromosome formula in S. trispinosus [corrected] was more diversified, deriving from large-scale pericentric inversions. Karyotypic evolution patterns observed for these representatives of the Sparisomatinae and Scarinae subfamilies, added to new data from a larger number of species, would allow us to determine if there is a tendency among the Sparisomatinae for centric fusion events.

  11. Resistances of antibiotics and heavy metals in Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from gills and intestines of Achanthobrama marmid (Heckel,1843) from Sir Dam lake Turkey.

    PubMed

    Toroglu, Sevil; Toroglu, Emin; Dincer, Sadik; Kara, Cemil; Kertmen, Metin

    2009-01-01

    A total of 94 bacteria, associated with wild Achanthobrama marmid (Heckel, 1843) in Sir Dam lake of Turkey identified. Subsequently selected isolates were characterized and identified to the genus level The 94 members of Enterobacteriaceae were isolated in the gills and intestines, and among the isolates, E. coli were represented at a rate of 55%, Shigella spp. at a rate of 21%, Salmonella spp. at a rate of 9%, Citrobacter spp. at a rate of 9%, Klebsiella spp. at a rate of 3% and Proteus spp., at a rate of 3%. A total of 94 bacteria resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals were isolated from total 47 of A. marmid samples and were investigated. Viable counts of antibiotic resistant bacteria isolated from gill and intestinal content samples showed high frequencies of resistance to Penicilline-G (KP) (68%), CZ (54%), FOX (48%), while the proportion of CRO (39%) and CTX (36%) resistance was low. In this research, heavy metal contamination in Sir Dam lake water samples and resistance frequency against heavy metals in isolated bacteria from gill and intestinal contents in A. marmid were investigated. Heavy metal contamination such as nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) determined diverse rate (except Mn) in water samples. The resistance frequency of the isolates was revealed different rate for the following heavy metals: Ni, Cd, Cu and Cr When the concentration of heavy metals increased, the resistance against heavy metals in diverse genus of isolates in different rate decreased.

  12. Species delineation in Pampus (Perciformes) and the phylogenetic status of the Stromateoidei based on mitogenomics.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yuan; Li, Chi Pang; Chu, Ka Hou

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies on the mitochondrial genome have suggested that the duplications of tRNA and tandem repeats in the control region are important changes that are related to species diversity. This paper reports the study of mitogenomes from five Pampus (Perciformes, Stromateidae) species with very similar morphology. A duplicated tRNA(Met) gene in the tRNA-IQM region is present in Pampus sp. and P. punctatissimus. In the conserved sequence blocks of the control region, a duplicated CSB3 and promoter are found in Pampus sp. but are absent in P. minor. Moreover, a duplicated TAS is found in P. punctatissimus and P. chinensis. Based on the complete mitogenome sequence of Pampus sp., the first sequence reported from Stromateidae and the longest (17,694 bp) among the Perciformes mitogenomes, we conducted phylogenetic analysis to show that Stromateoidei and Scombroidei are more closely related to each other than to other Perciformes suborders. However, we reject the reciprocal monophyly of these two suborders.

  13. Myxobolus chushi n. sp. (Myxozoa:Myxosporea) parasitizing Schizothorax niger (Heckel), a native cyprinid fish from Wullar Lake in Kashmir Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Dar, Shoaib Ali; Kaur, Harpreet; Chishti, M Z

    2017-02-21

    In the study, a new species, Myxobolus chushi n. sp. infecting gills of wild specimens of Schizothorax niger (Heckel) inhabiting Wullar Lake in Kashmir Himalayas, (J&K) India has been described based on morphology of the myxospore and using partial 18S rDNA sequencing. Pathological changes in the gills have been studied with the help of histological sections stained with Luna's method. Twenty fish specimens were examined, out of which four had oval, white plasmodia in gills measuring 2.0×0.5mm. The myxospores were spherical to ovoidal in shape with slightly attenuated posterior end, measuring 11.17±0.23 (10.60-11.40)μm in length and 9.14±0.06 (8.80-9.20)μm in width, having a prominent pore at the anterior end. The polar capsules were pyriform in shape, measuring 4.25±0.15 (4.00-4.40)μm in length and 2.38±0.27 (2.00-2.65)μm in width having polar filaments forming coils up to 5 in number. Parietal folds 9 in number present on the posterior part of the shell. The intensity of infection was recorded to be moderate as indicated by gill plasmodial index (GPI=2). The plasmodium was located in the vascular network occupying whole of the gill lamella therefore typed as intralamellar vascular type, LV3. Analysis of 18S small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequence of the isolate demonstrated 90% homogeneity with M. sp. KLT-2014 infecting scales of Labeo rohita from Myanmar and 89% with M. dermiscalis infecting scales of Labeo rohita from India.

  14. A new species of diplectanid (Monogenoidea) from Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off Peru.

    PubMed

    Knoff, Marcelo; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cárdenas-Callirgos, Jorge M; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias.

  15. A new species of diplectanid (Monogenoidea) from Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off Peru

    PubMed Central

    Knoff, Marcelo; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cárdenas-Callirgos, Jorge M.; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias. PMID:25754099

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Perciformes: Scatophagidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Zhi; Zhang, Tian Rui; Su, Li Wei; Zhang, Jun Bin; Yang, Jin Quan

    2014-12-01

    The spotted scat, Scatophagus argus (Perciformes, Scatophagidae), is a recreational and commercial fish in China. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. argus was firstly determined. It is 16,783 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. Except for the eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The mitochondrial DNA information would be useful in species identification and natural resources conservation.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Easten hulafish, Trachinops taeniatus (Perciformes: Plesiopidae).

    PubMed

    Xia, Rong; Fu, Cuizhang

    2015-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Plesiopidae (Teleostei: Perciformes) was determined using the Eastern hulafish Trachinops taeniatus as a representative species of the family. The mitogenome was 16,821 bp in length, including 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. The gene arrangement was similar to other fishes except for the reversal position of tRNA(Ala) and tRNA(Asn). The overall base composition was 27.4% for A, 27.5% for C, 27.4% for T and 17.7% for G. This mitogenome should contribute to resolving phylogenetic position of Plesiopidae.

  18. Concentration of fish serum albumin (FSA) in the aqueous extract of Indonesian Perciformes fishes' muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Januar, Hedi Indra; Fajarningsih, Nurrahmi Dewi; Zilda, Dewi Seswita; Bramandito, Aditya; Wright, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Fish serum albumin (FSA) is an aquatic resource that has potential to be developed as nutraceutical. Therefore, research was undertaken to assess albumin levels in the aqueous extract of muscle tissue of several Perciformes commonly available at a local fish market in Indonesia. Three random replicates for each of 17 Perciformes species were collected and assessed for their FSA content by application of a reversed-phase (C4) HPLC analytical method. Results of these analyses showed that the albumin concentration of the extracts was in the range 3.49-12.61 g/L, and that they varied significantly (P < 0.05) between species and families. This finding may mean that FSA levels are species and family dependent, something that could be investigated in future studies. As fishes from the family Scrombidae showed the highest concentration (12.61 g/L) of FSA, they would likely have the most value as a source for production of albumin-based nutritional and/or clinical products.

  19. Chromosomal differentiation and speciation in sister-species of Grammatidae (Perciformes) from the Western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Wagner Franco; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos

    2012-09-01

    In the tropical Atlantic, the ichthyofauna between the coast of Brazil and the Caribbean regions, divided by the Amazon barrier, is very similar presenting several geminate species, including Gramma brasiliensis, endemic in Brazil, and its Caribbean counterpart Gramma loreto. Morphological and molecular studies have helped establish evolutionary patterns that sister-species of these two marine habitats are subjected to. However, their chromosomal characteristics are only beginning to be better characterized. Accordingly, a comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in G. brasiliensis and G. loreto, seeking evidence of cytotaxonomic markers implicated in the karyotypic diversification of these species and likely associated with speciation events. Heterochromatic regions and their affinity to fluorochromes GC- or AT-specific were identified, as well as the distribution of ribosomal DNA sites in chromosomes, either by silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs) or dual-color FISH mapping with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. While displaying the same diploid number, 2 n = 48 chromosomes, considered basal for Perciformes, the two species differed in karyotype structure, showing karyotypic formulas and species-specific heterochromatin pattern. The cytological characters found support the differentiating status of these species, possibly achieved under the conditions of allopatry due to the Amazon/Orinoco barrier, showing chromosomal peculiarities in Grammatidae species when compared to other groups of Perciformes.

  20. Evolutionary analysis of TLR9 genes reveals the positive selection of extant teleosts in Perciformes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhihuang; Sun, Yuena; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun

    2013-08-01

    The innate immune system can recognize non-self through pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptors were the best-known members of these receptors, and they could sense, recognize, and bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns. TLRs played an important role in innate immune system and were conserved in both invertebrate and vertebrate lineages. Thereinto, TLR9 could detect unmethylated CpG motifs in dsDNA and was expected to undergo coevolution with its microbial ligands. It was known that aquatic and terrestrial organisms dwelled in different environments which contained different pathogens, and they had to adapt to their local environmental conditions. Therefore, we collected TLR9 genes from invertebrate to vertebrate to further explore whether the huge differences between aquatic and terrestrial environments affected the TLR9s evolution between aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Molecular evolution analysis detected positively selected sites in the ancestral lineages of vertebrates, teleosts, and Perciformes but not in the ancestral lineage of mammals. In PAML, site model revealed that extant mammalian TLR9 genes underwent positive selection. However, the positive selection of extant teleosts appeared primarily in Perciformes in which there were 14 positively selected sites. Among these sites, two of them were located on the amino acid insertions of the leucine-rich repeats which could create DNA binding sites, three were found on the convex surface which might possibly affect the flexibility of the TLR solenoids, and six were located on the β-face of concave surface which contained the ligand-binding sites of the TLR solenoids. In other ML methods, we also found three sites under selection that coincided with the codons identified by M8 and these sites were all located in LRRs. The diverse aquatic and terrestrial environments might possess different pathogens to make the living organisms adapt to their local environmental conditions. The positive

  1. Diversification of brain and sense organ morphology in Antarctic dragonfishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Bathydraconidae).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    In the subzero shelf waters of Antarctica, fishes of the perciform suborder Notothenioidei dominate the fish fauna and constitute an adaptive radiation and a species flock. The 16 species of dragonfishes of the family Bathydraconidae live from surface waters to nearly 3,000 m and have the greatest overall depth range among notothenioid families. We examined the anatomy and histology of the brain, retina, and cephalic lateral line system of nine bathydraconid species representing 8 of the 11 known genera. We evaluate these data against a cladogram identifying three clades in the family. We provide a detailed drawing of the brain and cranial nerves of Gymnodraco acuticeps and Akarotaxis nudiceps. Bathydraconid brain morphology falls into two categories. Brains of most species are similar to those of generalized perciforms and some basal notothenioids (Class I). However, brains of deep-living bathydraconids (members of the tribe Bathydraconini minus Prionodraco) have a reduced telencephalon and tectum that renders the neural axis visible - the stalked brain morphology (Class II). All bathydraconids have duplex (rod and cone) retinae but there is considerable interspecific variation in the ratio of cones:rods and in the number of cells in the internal nuclear layer. Retinal histology reflects habitat depth but is not tightly coupled to phylogeny. Although the deep-living species of Bathydraconini have rod-dominated retinae, the retinae of some sister species are photopic. An expanded cephalic lateral line system is also characteristic of all members of the Bathydraconini as exemplified by Akarotaxis. This morphology includes large lateral line pores, wide membranous canals, hypertrophied canal neuromasts, and large anterodorsal lateral line nerves, eminentia granulares, and crista cerebellares. The saccular otoliths are also enlarged in members of this tribe. Neural diversification among bathydraconids on the Antarctic shelf has not involved the evolution of sensory

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the African pompano Alectis ciliaris (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yufang; Chen, Zuozhi; Zhang, Peng; Liang, Peiwen; Chen, Sen; Guo, Yihui; Li, Min

    2016-05-01

    The African pompano Alectis ciliaris (Perciformes: Carangidae) is an economic fish species distributed throughout the tropical oceans and seas of the world. In this study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of A. ciliaris from contiguous, overlapping segments amplified by polymerase chain reactions. The complete mitogenome sequence was 16,570 bp in length, consisting of 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 control region, same with the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. There were 10 regions of gene overlaps totaling 30 bp and 12 intergenic spacer regions totaling 67 bp. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.32% for A, 26.77% for T, 16.16% for G, 28.75% for C with a slight AT bias of 55.09%.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Blue-face angelfish, Pomacanthus xanthometapon (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Loh, Kar-Hoe; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Blue-face angelfish, Pomacanthus xanthometapon (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,533 bp includes 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of Blue-face angelfish is 28.7% for A, 28.9% for C, 15.9% for G, 26.6% for T and show 84% identities to flame angelfish Centropyge loriculus. The complete mitogenome of the Blue-face angelfish provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish phylogeny.

  4. Ningalooia psammopercae n. g., n. sp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae) from the Waigieu seaperch Psammoperca waigiensis (Cuvier) (Perciformes: Latidae) on the Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H

    2007-02-01

    Ningalooia psammopercae n. g., n. sp. is described from the intestine of the Waigieu seaperch Psammoperca waigiensis Cuvier (Perciformes: Latidae) on the Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. The new genus and species are distinctive within the Acanthocolpidae for the combination of the absence of enlarged spines around the oral sucker, a blind ending H-shaped intestine and a deeply lobed ovary.

  5. A new species of Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the interorbital canals of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) off Brazil with an amended diagnosis of the genus.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Nagasawa, Kazuya; Luque, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    A new species of the monotypic genus Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Cyclopoida: Philichthyidae), Leposphilus vogti n. sp., is described based on adult female and male specimens from the interorbital canals of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species differs from its only congener, L. labrei Hesse, 1866, by the following combination of characters in the adult female: a globular cephalosome, a two-segmented maxilla, and fourth abdominal somite fused to caudal ramus; and in the adult male: presence of maxilliped, leg 3 with five setae, and caudal rami tipped with six setae. In addition, an amendment of diagnosis of Leposphilus is provided based on the characters of the new species. Previous records of philichthyid copepods from actinopterygians in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans off the American continent are also given.

  6. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara (Perciformes, Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Minglan; Wang, Shifeng; Su, Yongquan; Zhou, Yongcan; Liu, Min; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae), commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands) and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGG) n in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the masked spinefoot Siganus puellus (Perciformes, Siganidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Yan, Shuai; Li, Min; Zhao, Ming; Yang, Tingbao

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the masked spinefoot Siganus puellus (Perciformes, Siganidae) is determined. The entire sequence is 16,504 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. Gene organization and gene order are similar to those found in other rabbitfishes. Apart from ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Overall base compositions of mitogenome are 28.6% of A, 29.5% of C, 25.6% of T and 16.3% of G. The overall mean genetic distances of 13 protein-coding genes among three Siganus species with known complete mitogenome ranges from 0.076 (COXII) to 0.154 (ATP6), higher than the divergence (0.107) of control region, which implies that ATP6 gene may be more appropriate for population genetic structure analyses of Siganus species.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the orange-spotted spinefoot Siganus guttatus (Perciformes, Siganidae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chaopin; Yang, Tingbao

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the orange-spotted spinefoot Siganus guttatus (Perciformes, Siganidae) is presented in this paper. The entire sequence, 16,505 bp in length, is comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. Structurally, the composition and order of genes are same as those found in other rabbitfishes. Except ND6 and 8 tRNA, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. Overall base compositions of mitogenome are 29.3% of A, 29.3% of C, 25.7% of T, and 15.7% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias which was commonly found in fishes. Three conserved sequence blocks (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3) and long series of di- and mono-nucleotide microsatellite repeats in 3' end are observed in the putative control region. The complete mitogenome sequence of S. guttatus could provide useful information for further phylogenetic and population genetic studies.

  9. Isolation and characterization of type I antifreeze proteins from cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, order Perciformes.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Rod S; Shears, Margaret A; Graham, Laurie A; Davies, Peter L; Fletcher, Garth L

    2011-10-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are produced by many species of teleost fish that inhabit potentially lethal ice-laden seawater and afford them protection from freezing. To date type I AFPs have been fully characterized in two teleost orders: Pleuronectiformes and Scorpaeniformes. In this study, we report the isolation and complete characterization of a type I AFP present in fish from a third order: cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), order Perciformes (family Labridae). This protein was purified from blood plasma and found to belong to what is now known as classical type I AFP with their small size (mass 4095.16 Da), alanine richness (> 57 mol%), high α-helicity (> 99%) with the ability to undergo reversible thermal denaturation, 11 amino acid (ThrX(10)) repeat regions within the primary structure, the capacity to impart a hexagonal bipyramidal shaping to ice crystals and the conservation of an ice-binding site found in many of the other type I AFPs. Partial de novo sequencing of the plasma AFP accounted for approximately half of the peptide mass. Sequencing of a combined liver and skin cDNA library indicated that the protein is produced without a signal sequence. In addition the translated product of the AFP cDNA suggests that it codes for the AFP isolated from plasma. These results further solidify the hypothesis that type I AFPs are multiphyletic in origin and suggest that they represent remarkable examples of convergent evolution within three orders of teleost fish.

  10. Organization and characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the Razorbelly scad Alepes kleinii (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zou, Keshu

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Alepes kleinii (Perciformes: Carangidae) was determined in this study. The entire sequence was 16,571 bp in length which contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the light strand replication origin). Gene organization and gene order were similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. Overall base compositions of the sequence were 28.0% of A, 28.5% of C, 27.0% of T, and 16.5% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed in teleosts. Apart from the ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other genes were encoded on the heavy strand. Three types of initiation codons were detected in the open reading frames of the protein-coding genes, including codon ATA which was rarely detected in Carangidae species. The complete mitogenome sequence data of A. kleinii could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies.

  11. Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-10-01

    Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the

  12. A new species of Gobius (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Mediterranean Sea and the redescription of Gobius bucchichi.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, M; Šanda, R

    2016-03-01

    A new species of the gobiid genus Gobius (Gobiidae, Perciformes), Gobius incognitus sp. nov. is described from the Mediterranean Sea, and its most morphologically similar species Gobius bucchichi is redescribed. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by: scales in lateral series 51-59; predorsal scales 25-35; opercle scaled in adults with 10-16 scales present; pectoral fin with ray count 18-20 and free tips on upper rays well developed and on the first ray longer than two thirds of the entire ray length; pelvic disc complete and with well-developed anterior membrane without lateral lobes; anterior oculoscapular canal with pore α at rear of orbit; oculoscapular row x(1) not extending forwards to pore β; suborbital row d discontinuous with large gap below suborbital rows 3 and 4; eye diameter 1·08-1·32 in snout length; by pigment rows on cheek and pigmentation on pectoral-fin base.

  13. New species of Moravecia (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) from body cavity of marine perciform fish Percophis brasiliensis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Braicovich, Paola; Moravec, Frantisek; Timi, Juan T

    2007-04-01

    A new species of dracunculoid nematode, Moravecia argentinensis n. sp. (Guyanemidae), is described from the blood vessels and body cavity of Brazilian flathead, Percophis brasiliensis Quoy et Gaimard (Perciformes: Percophidae), from off the coast of Argentina. The new species differs from the only other congeneric species, Moravecia australiensis Ribu et Lester, 2004, mainly in the number (14) of cephalic papillae, the length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of esophagus (1:1-2), more numerous (3-5 pairs) genital papillae in the male, and the presence of a sclerotized copulatory plate. This is the second known species of Moravecia Ribu et Lester, 2004 and the first species of this genus reported from South American waters.

  14. A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae) from the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong Yong; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Doo Nam

    2015-10-01

    A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae), parasitic in the branchial cavities of the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Korea is described. The new species is most closely related to A. tangi Venmathi Maran, Moon & Adday, 2014, but differs from it by the following combination of characters in the adult female: the U-shaped rostrum, the distal margin of the anal somite lacks patches of spinules, the proximal segment of the maxilliped is without seta, and the maxilliped claw is armed with long and small naked setae. This is the tenth species of the genus and a key is provided to distinguish all nominal species.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Anabas testudineus (Perciformes, Anabantidae) and its comparison with other related fish species.

    PubMed

    Behera, Bijay Kumar; Baisvar, Vishwamitra Singh; Kumari, Kavita; Rout, Ajaya Kumar; Pakrashi, Sudip; Paria, Prasenjet; Rao, A R; Rai, Anil

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anabas testudineusis reported using PGM sequencer (Ion Torrent, Life Technologies, La Jolla, CA). The complete mitogenome of climbing perch, A. testudineusis obtained by the de novo sequences assembly of genomic reads using the Torrent Mapping Alignment Program (TMAP), which is 16 603 bp in length. The mitogenome of A. testudineus composed of 13 protein- coding genes, two rRNA, and 22 tRNAs. Here, 20 tRNAs genes showed typical clover leaf model, and D-Loop as the control region along with gene order and organization, being closely similar to Osphronemidae and most of other Perciformes fish mitogenomes of NCBI databases. The mitogenome in the present study has 99% similarity to the complete mitogenome sequence of earlier reported A. testudineus. The phylogenetic analysis of Anabantidae depicted that their mitogenomes are closely related to each other. The complete mitogenome sequence of A. testudineus would be helpful in understanding the population genetics, phylogenetics, and evolution of Anabantidae.

  16. Evidence of birth-and-death evolution of 5S rRNA gene in Channa species (Teleostei, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Barman, Anindya Sundar; Singh, Mamta; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Lal, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-12-01

    In higher eukaryotes, minor rDNA family codes for 5S rRNA that is arranged in tandem arrays and comprises of a highly conserved 120 bp long coding sequence with a variable non-transcribed spacer (NTS). Initially the 5S rDNA repeats are considered to be evolved by the process of concerted evolution. But some recent reports, including teleost fishes suggested that evolution of 5S rDNA repeat does not fit into the concerted evolution model and evolution of 5S rDNA family may be explained by a birth-and-death evolution model. In order to study the mode of evolution of 5S rDNA repeats in Perciformes fish species, nucleotide sequence and molecular organization of five species of genus Channa were analyzed in the present study. Molecular analyses revealed several variants of 5S rDNA repeats (four types of NTS) and networks created by a neighbor net algorithm for each type of sequences (I, II, III and IV) did not show a clear clustering in species specific manner. The stable secondary structure is predicted and upstream and downstream conserved regulatory elements were characterized. Sequence analyses also shown the presence of two putative pseudogenes in Channa marulius. Present study supported that 5S rDNA repeats in genus Channa were evolved under the process of birth-and-death.

  17. Trends on the Karyotype Acrocentrization Within Carangidae (Perciformes): A New Phylogenetic Evidence About a Traditional Marine Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Torres, Rodrigo Augusto; Souza, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Carangidae is a morphologically diverse family of marine fish, characterized by stable karyotypes, predominantly with 2n = 48, composed of acrocentric chromosomes (A). This stability is shared with other families of the order Perciformes, which resulted in the hypothesis that 48A is a plesiomorphic karyotype of the group. We tested this hypothesis in the Carangidae family using comparative phylogenetic methods, investigating the evolution of karyotype characters (including chromosome number, morphology, and number of chromosome arms per karyotype [fundamental number, FN]). Our analyses revealed that 2n = 48 is most likely the ancestral chromosome number for the family. However, an extremely variable number of FNs, always above 48, was observed in basal clades within the family and sister groups. On the other hand, the reduced FN = 48 was consistently observed only in the most derived clades, indicating a tendency for acrocentrization. The number of acrocentric chromosomes apparently was accompanied by a trend of reduction in the genome size (1C-value), suggesting that these changes might be correlated. Our data contradict the marine fish hypothesis that the 2n = 48 acrocentric karyotype is plesiomorphic, at least for Carangidae, and reveal the importance for the correct interpretation of karyotype in a temporal and phylogenetic context.

  18. Two new species of Aristocleidus (Monogenea) from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes, Gerreidae) from southwestern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Osorio, Marina Tapia; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aristocleidus mexicanus n. sp. and Aristocleidus lacantuni n. sp. are described from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Gerreidae, Perciformes) from the Rio Lacantún basin, Chiapas State, Mexico. These new species differ from previously described congeneric species in the characteristics of several structures, including: (a) ventral anchors, with differences in length (i.e. 46–50 µm in A. mexicanus vs. 38–43 µm, 34–37 µm, and 26–33 µm in Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, Aristocleidus sp. of Mendoza-Franco, Violante-González & Roche 2009, and Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky & Mendoza-Franco, 2008, respectively) and shape (i.e. slightly angular union of elongate arcing shaft and point in A. mexicanus vs. point and shaft united at a conspicuous angular bend in A. hastatus and Aristocleidus sp., and evenly curved shaft and point in A. lamothei); (b) male copulatory organ, i.e. a coiled tube with less than one ring in A. mexicanus and A. lacantuni (vs. a coiled tube of about 1½ in Aristocleidus sp.); (c) distal end of the accessory piece (ornate in A. mexicanus vs. distally flattened and trifid in A. hastatus and A. lamothei, respectively); (d) vaginal tube (moderately long in A. mexicanus vs. short in A. lamothei and looping in Aristocleidus sp.); and (e) ventral bar (anteromedial process with terminal horn-like ornamentation in A. lacantuni vs. ornamentation absent in the other species). This study reports for the first time species of Aristocleidus from freshwater environments in Mexico. PMID:26605987

  19. [Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Palomino, Bernabé; González Sansón, Gaspar

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific. The information of trophic interactions among species is essential to understand ecosystem function. To assess this in four Diplectrum species, we analyzed the stomach contents of 397 individuals caught using shrimp trawling nets off the coasts of Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. Main food component of D. eumelum were fish of the Order Pleuronectiformes, followed by shrimps (Metapenaeopsis spp). D. euryplectrum feeds mainly on crustaceans, with stomatopods (Squilla mantoidea) as main food items followed by shrimps and brachyurans. Fish and polychaetes had a low representation in the diet of this species. D. labarum feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks and fish. The stomatopod Eurysquilla veleronis contributed to with a high diet percentage by weight, followed by shrimps (mostly Solenoceraflorae) and brachyurans, as well as the squid Lolliguncula diomedae. Fishes (Ophidion spp.) were also an important component of the diet of this species. The most common preys of D. rostrum were crustaceans, mollusks, polychaetes and fish. The squid Lolliguncula diomedae and fishes of genus Ophidion were also well represented in the diet. Diet breadth index yielded significant differences between species. The number of diet items varied from 16 in D. euryplectrum to 6 in D. eumelum. The average value of overlap (0.247) was not significantly different (p = 0.118) from the expected one for a null model (0.174). The observed variance of the overlap index (0.071) was significantly higher (V = 0.025, p = 0.0004) than the value expected for a null model.

  20. Two new species of Aristocleidus (Monogenea) from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes, Gerreidae) from southwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Osorio, Marina Tapia; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aristocleidus mexicanus n. sp. and Aristocleidus lacantuni n. sp. are described from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Gerreidae, Perciformes) from the Rio Lacantún basin, Chiapas State, Mexico. These new species differ from previously described congeneric species in the characteristics of several structures, including: (a) ventral anchors, with differences in length (i.e. 46-50 µm in A. mexicanus vs. 38-43 µm, 34-37 µm, and 26-33 µm in Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, Aristocleidus sp. of Mendoza-Franco, Violante-González & Roche 2009, and Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky & Mendoza-Franco, 2008, respectively) and shape (i.e. slightly angular union of elongate arcing shaft and point in A. mexicanus vs. point and shaft united at a conspicuous angular bend in A. hastatus and Aristocleidus sp., and evenly curved shaft and point in A. lamothei); (b) male copulatory organ, i.e. a coiled tube with less than one ring in A. mexicanus and A. lacantuni (vs. a coiled tube of about 1½ in Aristocleidus sp.); (c) distal end of the accessory piece (ornate in A. mexicanus vs. distally flattened and trifid in A. hastatus and A. lamothei, respectively); (d) vaginal tube (moderately long in A. mexicanus vs. short in A. lamothei and looping in Aristocleidus sp.); and (e) ventral bar (anteromedial process with terminal horn-like ornamentation in A. lacantuni vs. ornamentation absent in the other species). This study reports for the first time species of Aristocleidus from freshwater environments in Mexico.

  1. Morphological and molecular study of Longicollum pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1935 (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) from the barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel) (Perciformes: Oplegnathidae) in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2017-02-01

    Longicollum pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1935 (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) collected from the barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel) (Perciformes: Oplegnathidae) in the East China Sea (off Zhoushan Islands) was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The SEM observations revealed for the first time the presence of about 28 well-developed sensory papillae arranged in a circle on the copulatory bursa. In addition, L. pagrosomi was characterised using molecular methods by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA based on the newly collected material. Longicollum pagrosomi is the first species of the genus with the ITS region sequenced for the purpose of species identification. These new morphological and molecular data contributed to a reliable and accurate specific identification and differentiation of species.

  2. Morphological characterisation and phylogenetic relationships of Zschokkella candia n. sp. from the gall-bladder of Sparisoma cretense (L.) (Perciformes: Scaridae) in the Sea of Crete off Greece.

    PubMed

    Kalatzis, Panos G; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis

    2015-11-01

    A new myxosporean parasite, Zschokkella candia n. sp., from the gall-bladder of the wild parrotfish Sparisoma cretense (L.) (Perciformes: Scaridae) is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Mature spores are elliptical, with mean dimensions 11.2 ± 0.5 × 7.8 ± 0.1 μm and possess spherical polar capsules with mean diameter of 2.3 ± 0.3 μm. The new species is differentiated from other similar species of the genus based on spore morphology, its coelozoic life-style and molecular data. The phylogenetic tree constructed using maximum likelihood analysis of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequence data complements the characterisation of Zschokkella candia n. sp. by defining its phylogenetic position among the species of Zschokkella Auerbach, 1909 sequenced to date. The phylogenetic analysis supports the existing knowledge on the complicated polyphyletic relationships among the members of the genus Zschokkella.

  3. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology of the Falkland Islands mullet, Eleginops maclovinus (Eleginopidae), the sister group of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The perciform notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus, representing the monotypic family Eleginopidae, has a non-Antarctic distribution in the Falkland Islands and southern South America. It is the sister group of the five families and 103 species of Antarctic notothenioids that dominate the cold shelf waters of Antarctica. Eleginops is the ideal subject for documenting the ancestral morphology of nervous and sensory systems that have not had historical exposure to the unusual Antarctic thermal and light regimes, and for comparing these systems with those of the phyletically derived Antarctic species. We present a detailed description of the brain and cranial nerves of Eleginops and ask how does the neural and sensory morphology of this non-Antarctic notothenioid differ from that seen in the phyletically derived Antarctic notothenioids? The brain of Eleginops is similar to those of visually oriented temperate and tropical perciforms. The tectum is smaller but it has well-developed olfactory and mechanoreceptive lateral line areas and a large, caudally projecting corpus cerebellum. Eye diameter is about twofold smaller in Eleginops than in many Antarctic species. Eleginops has a duplex (rod and cone) retina with single and occasional twin cones conspicuous centrally. Ocular vascular structures include a large choroid rete mirabile and a small lentiform body; a falciform process and hyaloid arteries are absent. The olfactory rosette is oval with 50-55 lamellae, a large number for notothenioids. The inconspicuous bony canals of the cephalic lateral line system are simple with membranous secondary branches that lack neuromasts. In Antarctic species, the corpus cerebellum is the most variable brain region, ranging in size from large and caudally projecting to small and round. "Stalked" brains showing reduction in the size of the telencephalon, tectum, and corpus cerebellum are present in the deep-living artedidraconid Dolloidraco longedorsalis and in most of the deep

  4. Monorchiid trematodes of the painted sweetlips, Diagramma labiosum (Perciformes: Haemulidae), from the southern Great Barrier Reef, including a new genus and three new species.

    PubMed

    Searle, Emily L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-07-01

    Five monorchiid species are reported from Diagramma labiosum Macleay (Perciformes: Haemulidae) collected from Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR): two described species, Helicometroides longicollis Yamaguti, 1934 and Diplomonorchis kureh Machida, 2005 and three new species, including one new genus, Asymmetrostoma heronensis n. g., n. sp., Lasiotocus arrhichostoma n. sp. and Proctotrema addisoni n. sp. Helicometroides longicollis and D. kureh were previously reported from the closely related species Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) from Japan. Two further monorchiid species known from D. pictum, Genolopa plectorhynchi (Yamaguti, 1934) and Paraproctotrema fusiforme Yamaguti, 1934, appear to be absent from the southern Great Barrier Reef. Previous reports of two other monorchiids from D. labiosum from the GBR, Paramonorcheides pseudocaranxi Dove & Cribb, 1998 and Helicometroides vitellosus (Durio & Manter, 1968), are shown to have been made in error. The high richness of monorchiids and other trematode families in D. labiosum is consistent with that seen in other haemulids elsewhere.

  5. Kinetic determination of vitellogenin induction in the epidermis of cyprinid and perciform fishes: Evaluation of sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Allner, Bernhard; Hennies, Mark; Lerche, Cristiano F; Schmidt, Thomas; Schneider, Klaus; Willner, Marco; Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra

    2016-12-01

    Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fish is a standardized endpoint in endocrine-disruption testing. To establish a nondestructive swab sampling method, VTG induction in the epidermis of Cypriniformes and Perciformes species was investigated. Both VTG and estrogen receptor genes are expressed in epidermal cells. Immunoaffinity and mass fingerprint analyses show induction of identical VTG peptides in liver and epidermis. Induction of VTG by estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the epidermis was quantified with homolog enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Initial values in juveniles and males were below 1 ng VTG/mL extraction buffer. Exposure to E2 led to values between 200 ng/mL and 4600 ng/mL in cyprinids and between 10 ng/mL and 81 ng/mL in perciforms. Exposure to BPA increased VTG amounts to 250 ng/mL in fathead minnows, 1360 ng/mL in goldfish, 100 ng/mL in zebrafish, and 12 ng/mL in bluegills. Serum VTG contents demonstrated a similar dose-response pattern in the epidermis and the blood. These results show that VTG induction may be reliably assessed in the skin mucus of fishes, demonstrating the suitability of this biological sample for investigating estrogenic activity in compliance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development standard protocols. This broadens the perspectives in toxicological screening and environmental monitoring, reducing the number of tested animals and minimizing harmful effects for animals, allowing for follow-up of individual induction profiles. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2916-2930. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  6. Three members of Opisthomonorcheides Parukhin, 1966 (Digenea: Monorchiidae) from carangid fishes (Perciformes) from Indonesia, with a review of the genus.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Palm, Harry W; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2017-03-23

    Three species of Opisthomonorcheides Parukhin, 1966 are reported for the first time from Indonesian waters: O. pampi (Wang, 1982) Liu, Peng, Gao, Fu, Wu, Lu, Gao & Xiao, 2010 and O. ovacutus (Mamaev, 1970) Machida, 2011 from Parastromateus niger (Bloch), and O. decapteri Parukhin, 1966 from Atule mate (Cuvier). Both O. pampi and O. ovacutus can now be considered widespread in the Indo-Pacific region, with earlier records of these species being from Fujian Province, China and Penang, Malaysia, respectively. We redescribe O. decapteri from one of its original hosts, Atule mate, off New Caledonia, and report this species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, extending its range throughout the Indian Ocean into the south-western Pacific. All three species possess a genital atrium that is long, sometimes very long, and a genital pore that is located in the forebody. This validates the interpretation that the original description was erroneous in reporting the genital pore in the hindbody, well posterior to the ventral sucker. These observations verify the synonymy of Retractomonorchis Madhavi, 1977 with Opisthomonorcheides. A major discrepancy between the species of Opisthomonorcheides is that some are described with the uterus entering the terminal organ laterally and some with it entering terminally; this feature needs further analysis. Based on the length of the genital atrium and the posterior extent of the vitellarium, the 27 species of Opisthomonorcheides considered valid can be divided into four groups. Among the 53 host records analysed, the families Carangidae (53% of records), Stromateidae (17%) and Serranidae (5.7%) are the most common; the reports are overwhelmingly from members of the Perciformes (91%), with further records in the Clupeiformes (5.7%), Gadiformes (1.9%) and Pleuronectiformes (1.9%). Two fish genera (Parastromateus Bleeker and Pampus Bonaparte) dominate the recorded hosts, with the black pomfret Parastromateus niger harbouring six species, the silver

  7. A New Genus and Two New Species of Proteocephalidean Tapeworms (Cestoda) from Cichlid Fish (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    de Chambrier, Alain; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Hernández-Orts, Jesus Servando; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-02-01

    Cichlidocestus n. gen. is proposed to accommodate 2 new species of proteocephalidean cestodes, Cichlidocestus gillesi n. sp. from Cichlasoma amazonarum in Peru (type species) and Cichlidocestus janikae n. sp. from Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (all Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Costa Rica. The new genus is unique among all but 1 proteocephalidean genera in the position of the ovary that occupies the middle and posterior thirds of the median region of proglottids (vs. the ovary in the posterior third of proglottids near their posterior margin in all but 1 remaining taxa). In addition, Cichlidocestus is typified by the presence of a voluminous, spherical, internal seminal vesicle, several pairs of ventral excretory canals in the medulla, a pyramidal, quadrilobed scolex with an apical muscular sucker, and the posterior extent of the testes that may reach almost to the posterior margin of proglottids. The new genus shares the position of the ovary and its extension with Sciadocephalus (also a parasite of cichlids in the Neotropics as the new taxon); in all remaining proteocephalideans the ovary occupies the posterior third only. Sciadocephalus differs from Cichlidocestus by a different morphology of the scolex, which possesses an umbrella-like metascolex that is markedly wider than the strobila, the number of ventral osmoregulatory canals, and development of the uterus, which forms capsule-like formations filled with eggs in Sciadocephalus megalodiscus (vs. simple lateral diverticula in Cichlidocestus spp.). Both new species of Cichlidocestus can be easily distinguished from one another by the anterior extent of the poral vitelline follicles (anterior to the cirrus-sac, i.e., preporal, in C. gillesi vs. posterior, i.e., only postporal in C. janikae), size of the eggs (diameter of the external layer of the embryophore of C. gillesi 30-33 μm vs. 44-46 μm in C. janikae), and the number of uterine lateral diverticula (16-21 on 1 side in C. gillesi vs. only 8-12 in C. janikae

  8. Kudoa hypoepicardialis n. sp. (Myxozoa: Kudoidae) and associated lesions from the heart of seven perciform fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A; Whipps, Christopher M

    2004-06-01

    Kudoa hypoepicardialis n. sp. infects the space between the epicardium and the compact myocardium and, in intense infections, the pericardial chamber of man-of-war fish (Nomeus gronovii) (Nomeidae) (the type host), blue runner (Caranx crysos) (Carangidae), Warsaw grouper (Epinephelus nigritus) (Serranidae), Atlantic tripletail (Lobotes surinamensis) (Lobotidae), northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) (Lutjanidae), black drum (Pogonias cromis) (Sciaenidae), and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) (Pomatomidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This is the first report of a Kudoa sp. from the heart of a fish in the Gulf of Mexico, and of these hosts, only the bluefish was previously identified as a host for a species of Kudoa. Spores of the new species varied slightly in size among these hosts but were regarded as conspecific based on their nearly identical (99.9%) small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence. The new species differs both from the 4 nominal species of Kudoa reported from fishes in the Gulf of Mexico and from K. pericardialis, an allopatric species that infects the pericardial cavity, by the combination of having a large spore, a small polar capsule, and a polar filament with a single coil. The new species is morphologically and genetically most similar to K. shiomitsui, an allopatric species that infects the heart and pericardial cavity, but is distinguished from it based on a 4.2% difference in the SSU rDNA sequence. Heart lesions primarily were restricted to the vicinity of plasmodia and included a layer of fibrinous inflammation characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulomas as well as epithelioid encapsulations around plasmodia. Heavily infected hosts had melanin-like deposits and adipose cells beneath the epicardium. and the epicardium was discontinuous and apparently breached by plasmodia in some regions. Cardiac muscle, gill, liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney were normal.

  9. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology of two species of phyletically basal non-Antarctic thornfishes of the Antarctic suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes: Bovichtidae).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2007-06-01

    The predominantly non-Antarctic family Bovichtidae is phyletically basal within the perciform suborder Notothenioidei, the dominant component of the Antarctic fish fauna. In this article we focus on the South Atlantic bovichtids Bovichtus diacanthus, the klipfish from tide pools at Tristan da Cunha, and Cottoperca gobio, the frogmouth from the Patagonian shelf and Falkland Islands. We document the anatomy and histology of the brains, olfactory apparatus, retina, and cephalic lateral line system. We also use the microvascular casting agent Microfil to examine ocular vascular structures. We provide detailed drawings of the brains and cranial nerves of both species. Typical of perciforms, the brains of both species have a well-developed tectum and telencephalon and robust thalamic nuclei. The telencephalon of C. gobio is prominently lobed, with the dorsomedial nucleus more conspicuous than in any other notothenioid. The corpus cerebelli is relatively small and upright and, unlike other notothenioids, has prominent transverse sulci on the dorsal and caudal surfaces. Areas for lateral line mechanoreception (eminentia granularis and crista cerebellaris) are also conspicuous but olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory areas are less prominent. The anterior lateral line nerve complex is larger than the posterior lateral line nerve in B. diacanthus, and in their cephalic lateral line systems both species possess branched membranous tubules (which do not contain neuromasts) with small pores. These are especially complex in B. diacanthus where they become increasingly branched and more highly pored in progressively larger specimens. Superficial neuromasts are sparse. Both species have duplex (cone and rod) retinae that are 1.25-fold thicker and have nearly 5-fold more photoreceptors and than those of most Antarctic notothenioids. Convergence ratios are also high for bovichtids. Bovichtus diacanthus has a yellow intraocular filter in the dorsal aspect of the cornea. Both

  10. Myxobolus lepomis n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae), a gill myxozoan infecting Lepomis marginatus Holbrook and Lepomis miniatus Jordan (Perciformes: Centrarchidae), in the Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Baumgartner, Wes A; Barger, Michael A; Griffin, Matt J

    2017-05-01

    A parasitological survey of freshwater fishes in the Big Thicket National Preserve in southeast Texas revealed myxozoan infections in two species of sunfish, Lepomis marginatus Holbrook and Lepomis miniatus Jordan (Perciformes: Centrarchidae). Pseudocysts were elongate-oval, 988 × 485 µm (ex L. marginatus) and 800 × 606 µm (ex L. miniatus) and demonstrated a predilection to the edge of the primary gill lamellae. Myxospores consistent with the genus Myxobolus were oblong, 16.8-21.3 (19.0 ± 0.9) µm long, 7.0-8.8 (7.9 ± 0.5) µm wide and 5.3-6.1 (5.8 ± 0.3) µm thick (ex L. marginatus) and 17.2-20.3 (18.8 ± 0.7) µm long, 7.5-9.9 (8.7 ± 0.6) µm wide, and 6.8-7.2 (7.0 ± 0.2) µm thick (ex L. miniatus); with 2 pyriform polar capsules 8.3-9.8 (9.0 ± 0.5) µm long, 2.2-2.7 (2.5 ± 0.2) µm wide (ex L. marginatus) and 9.2-10.5 (10.0 ± 0.4) µm long, 2.2-3.0 (2.8 ± 0.2) µm wide (ex L. miniatus). Statistically, the measurements of spore body width, polar capsule length, and polar capsule width were significantly different between myxospores from L. marginatus and L. miniatus. However, intraspecific genetic variability between isolates at the 18S rRNA gene was negligible, with < 0.8% variability across > 2,000 bp of sequence. The isolates shared no significant sequence similarity with any myxozoan deposited in the GenBank nucleotide database. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the 18S rRNA gene from both L. marginatus and L. miniatus placed the isolates within a clade of myxozoan parasites of perciform fishes. Based on shared tissue and host family tropism, overlapping morphological characters and high degrees of sequence conservation at the 18S rRNA gene, we propose these isolates as morphologically distinct, genetically conspecific representatives of M. lepomis n. sp. from the gills of L. marginatus and L. miniatus in the Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, USA.

  11. Redescription and new host record of Capsala laevis (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae: Capsalinae) from gill of roundscale spearfish, Tetrapturus georgii (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Barse, Ann M; Bullard, Stephen A

    2012-08-01

    Specimens of a capsalid collected from the gill arches of 2 roundscale spearfish, Tetrapturus georgii Lowe, 1840, (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), captured in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean were identified as Capsala laevis (Verrill, 1875) Johnston, 1929 by having the combination of papillae on the ventral surface of haptor, dorsomarginal body sclerites in a single column extending the entire body length, haptoral accessory sclerites, conical papillae distributing over the ventral body surface, and an anterior attachment organ with a fimbriated posterior margin. The new specimens plus the holotype were used to conduct a taxonomic redescription of C. laevis using light and scanning electron microscopy. We documented that the holotype (USNPC No. 7179) and the new specimens of C. laevis from roundscale spearfish each had papillae on the ventral surface of the anterior attachment organs and sensory papillae on the dorsal body surface. Although data are insufficient at this time to justify proposal of a new species, the new specimens differed from the holotype and published accounts of C. laevis by having a sinistral dorsomarginal patch comprising 27-35 sclerites whereas the holotype has a dorsomarginal patch comprising 60 sclerites. Capsala laevis morphologically most closely resembles Capsala ovalis (Goto, 1894) Price, 1938 , but can be most easily differentiated from it by having dorsomarginal body sclerites. This represents the first record of any parasite from the recently taxonomically resurrected roundscale spearfish, long considered by some as a junior subjective synonym of white marlin, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, 1860 and, concomitantly, a new host record for Capsalidae Baird, 1853. An updated list of host records for C. laevis is provided. A perusal of that literature reveals that the identity of the type host for C. laevis is indeterminate beyond Istiophoridae species and that subsequent reports of the type host as ' T. albidus ' are presumptuous (originally

  12. Identification of Two Subgroups of Type I IFNs in Perciforme Fish Large Yellow Croaker Larimichthys crocea Provides Novel Insights into Function and Regulation of Fish Type I IFNs

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yang; Ao, Jingqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, but with varied expression levels. Both IFN genes can be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen tissues by polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid. The recombinant IFNh was shown to be more potent to trigger a rapid induction of the antiviral genes MxA and protein kinase R than the IFNd, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in regulating early antiviral immunity. Strikingly, IFNd, but not IFNh, could induce the gene expression of itself and IFNh through a positive feedback loop mediated by the IFNd-dependent activation of IRF3 and IRF7. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the induction of IFNd can be enhanced by the dimeric formation of IRF3 and IRF7, while the IFNh expression mainly involves IRF3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the IFN responses are diverse in fish and are likely to be regulated by distinct mechanisms. PMID:27656183

  13. The barred grunt Conodon nobilis (Perciformes: Haemulidae) in shallow areas of a tropical bight: spatial and temporal distribution, body growth and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pombo, Maíra; Denadai, Márcia Regina; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flávia Borges; de Faria, Vanessa Hermann; Turra, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the population biology of Conodon nobilis (Perciformes, Haemulidae) in Caraguatatuba Bight, southeastern Brazil. Monthly trawls were performed from October 2003 through October 2004 in two areas of the bight that are similar to but distant from each other, South and North. For all specimens, the size was measured and the sex and reproductive stage identified. Abundance and size were compared over areas and months. Body growth parameters were parameterized according to the Von Bertalanffy growth function. The stomach contents were identified and quantified. C. nobilis occurred mainly in the North area and showed an erratic pattern of abundance over time. Several cohorts entered in different periods, but very few large and mature individuals were observed. The results indicate a preference for shallow, ocean-influenced habitats and some degree of segregation between young and older individuals. The species showed a distribution consistent with an r-strategist species, with high abundance and a high growth constant ( K = 0.68 year-1 and L max = 34.2 cm). Both the relative length of the digestive tube and the prey items indicated a carnivorous feeding habit; mysids were the main item of the diet throughout the study period, indicating that this grunt is a specialist feeder. Other frequently observed items were amphipods and fish fragments. Ingestion of scales is possibly intentional.

  14. Caligus lini n.sp., a new caligid (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on the brilliant pomfret Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan (Perciformes, Bramidae) of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ju-Shey; Cheng, Yu-Rong

    2016-02-10

    Caligus lini n.sp., a new species of caligid copepod parasitic on the gill rakers and caudal fin of the brilliant pomfret, Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan (Perciformes, Bramidae), is described from fish caught off Tai-Dong, Taiwan. The new species differs from its congeners by its possession of the following, unique combination of features: (1) middle two elements at the tip of leg 1 simple (without accessory process), (2) innermost element shortest and smallest of the four terminal elements on leg 1, (3) leg 4 exopod with an armature formula of I,III, and (4) complex leg 5 represented by 2 seta-bearing processes, a simple anterior process tipped with 1 plumose seta and quadripartite posterior process carrying 3 setae (1 simple and 2 plumose). The new species differs from its closest congener, Caligus tylosuri (Rangnekar, 1956), in the structure of the middle two elements (simple without carrying accessory process) at the tip of leg 1 and a quadripartite (instead of tripartite) posterior process on leg 5.

  15. Pseudobacciger cheneyae n. sp. (Digenea: Gymnophalloidea) from Weber's chromis (Chromis weberi Fowler & Bean) (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Derek; Bray, Rodney A; Yong, Russell Q-Y; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-06-01

    A new species of digenean, Pseudobacciger cheneyae n. sp., is described from the intestines of Weber's chromis (Chromis weberi Fowler & Bean) from off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. This species differs from the three described species of Pseudobacciger Nahhas & Cable, 1964 [P. cablei Madhavi, 1975, P. harengulae Yamaguti, 1938 and P. manteri Nahhas & Cable, 1964] in combinations of the size of the suckers and the length of the caeca. The host of the present species is a perciform (Family Pomacentridae) which contrasts with previous records of the genus which are almost exclusively from clupeiform fishes. The genus Pseudobacciger is presently recognised within the family Faustulidae (Poche, 1926) but phylogenetic analyses of 28S and ITS2 rDNA show that the new species bears no relationship to species of four other faustulid genera (Antorchis Linton, 1911, Bacciger Nicoll, 1924, Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 and Trigonocryptus Martin, 1958) but that instead it is nested within the Gymnophalloidea (Odhner, 1905) as sister to the Tandanicolidae (Johnston, 1927). This result suggests that the Faustulidae is polyphyletic.

  16. A new species of Heterosentis Van Cleave, 1931 (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) parasitic in Pseudopercis numida Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae) from southeastern Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiiano M; Felizardo, Nilza N; Luque, José L

    2009-06-01

    Heterosentis brasiliensis n. sp. (Acanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), parasitic in namorado sandperch Pseudopercis numida Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 (Perciformes, Pinguipedidae) from the littoral of Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Heterosentis brasiliensis n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having 10 longitudinal rows of hooks in the proboscis, 6 or 7 hooks in each row, 3 or 4 small basal hooks in each row, and spines in the anterior ventral surface of the body. The similar species, Heterosentis heteracanthus (Linstow, 1896) and Heterosentis caballeroi Gupta & Fatma, 1983, also have 10 longitudinal rows of hooks, but H. heteracanthus differs from the new species by possessing trunk spines in the ventral and dorsal body surface. Heterosentis caballeroi differs from H. brasiliensis by the presence of 1 apical and 1 subapical hook in each longitudinal row; the largest apical, subapical, and basal hooks; lemnisci that are smaller than the proboscis receptacles; and a pre-equatorial male reproductive system. This is the first record of a Heterosentis species in a pinguipedid fish and from Brazilian coastal zone.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tridentiger bifasciatus and Tridentiger barbatus (Perciformes, Gobiidae): a mitogenomic perspective on the phylogenetic relationships of Gobiidae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Rixin; Wei, Tao; Tang, Da; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-01-01

    The fishes of suborder Gobioidei is the largest group of those in present living Perciformes, which contains about 2,200 species belonging to 270 genera of 9 families in the world. The monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of gobies have been controversial and disputable for a long time. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the shimofuri goby Tridentiger bifasciatus (T. bifasciatus) and shokihaze goby Tridentiger barbatus (T. barbatus) were firstly determined. The two mitochondrial genomes were both consisted of 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one major control region (CR). They shared similar features with those of other gobies in terms of gene arrangement, base composition, and tRNA structures. The CR was absence of typical conserved blocks (CSB-E, and CSB-F) respectively for the T. bifasciatus and T. barbatus. Phylogenomic analyses, which based on 12 concatenated protein-coding genes and complete mitochondrial genome sequences, revealed that there were two groups within the Gobiidae. A large group consisted of the Amblyopinae, Gobionellinae, Oxudercinae and Sicydiinae, and Amblyopinae was nested in Oxudercinae and they were both paraphyletic to Sicydiinae. The other group was the Gobiinae. As a whole, our phylogenetic data was different from the traditionally classification of Gobiidae, but supported the new phylogenetic taxonomy view of Thacker (Copeia 2009:93-104, 2009).

  18. Localization and possible function of nrF-AGP, an alpha-1-acid glycoprotein-like protein in viviparous fish Neoditrema ransonnetii (Perciformes, Embiotocidae).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Osamu; Watabe, Yuki; Matsumoto, Naoko; Takasugi, Osamu; Watanabe, Ayako; Tsutsui, Shigeyuki

    2014-12-01

    The nrF-AGP, a 51-kDa acidic glycoprotein found in surfperch (Neoditrema ransonnetii; Perciformes, Embiotocidae), is a member of the lipocalin superfamily. nrF-AGP is the major component in ovarian cavity fluid (OCF), but not in plasma of pregnant females, which suggests its potential relevance in pregnancy. However, its production in the liver, irrespective of reproductive cycle and sex, indicates that the protein also has physiological functions other than its contribution to reproduction. In the present study, Western blot analysis indicated that this protein is widely distributed in the cutaneous and intestinal mucosa, bile, and abdominal adipose tissue of fish, as well as plasma and OCF. Immunohistochemical staining of nrF-AGP was observed in hepatocytes, adipocytes, pancreatic cells, epidermal cells, and epithelial cells of ovigerous lamellae. Transcripts were detected in adipose tissue as well as hepatocytes by reverse transcription PCR analysis. This broad distribution of nrF-AGP suggests that this protein participates in various biological processes through its ability to bind to hydrophobes. After administration of biotinylated F-AGP into the ovarian cavity, the protein was detected in the cytoplasm of the intestinal epithelial cells of the fetus within 4 h. This suggests that nrF-AGP in the ovarian cavity acts as a transporter delivering maternal resources to the fetus.

  19. Chronic kisspeptin administration stimulated gonadal development in pre-pubertal male yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi; Perciformes) during the breeding and non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Nocillado, Josephine N; Zohar, Yonathan; Biran, Jakob; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Elizur, Abigail

    2013-09-15

    The kisspeptin system is now accepted as a key regulator of vertebrate reproductive function, particularly the onset of puberty. In teleosts, the stimulatory effect of exogenous kisspeptins has been demonstrated mainly at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels of the reproductive axis, with very limited information pertaining to gonadal response. We determined the effect of chronic peripheral administration of the conserved kisspeptin decapeptides (YNLNSFGLRY or Kiss1-10; and FNFNPFGLRF or Kiss2-10) on gonadal development of pre-pubertal yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), a Perciform teleost, during the breeding and non-breeding season. We utilized slow-release implants to chronically deliver the synthesized peptides, which were based on the yellowtail kingfish kiss1 and kiss2 cDNA sequences that we isolated. The expression level of kiss2r and gnrh1 in the brain or hypothalamus did not vary between treated and control groups. Pituitary expression of fshβ and lhβ was upregulated only with Kiss1-10 treatment regardless of the season. Based on histological evidence, gonadal development was stimulated in male fish with either Kiss1-10 or Kiss2-10, with Kiss2-10 being more effective during the non-breeding period. Overall, our results suggest that kisspeptins modulate the early gonadal development of male yellowtail kingfish, however that may vary with the breeding season.

  20. A new aporocotylid (Digenea) species from blood vascular system of gag grouper, Mycteroperca microlepis (Perciformes: Serranidae), off Alabama, with an emendation of Pearsonellum Overstreet & Køie, 1989.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A

    2012-04-01

    Pearsonellum lemusi n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infects the blood vascular system of the gag grouper, Mycteroperca microlepis (Perciformes: Serranidae), in the north central Gulf of Mexico, approximately 80 km south of Dauphin Island, Alabama (29°34'09″N, 88°22'16″W). The new species can be most easily differentiated from its only congeners Pearsonellum corventum Overstreet and Køie, 1989 (type species) and Pearsonellum pygmaeus Nolan and Cribb, 2004 , both of which infect Australian serranids, by the combination of having a large adult body (3,237 × 570 µm), a cecal intersection comprising an elongated medial channel, anterior ceca >10% of total body length, ovary narrower than testis, and pre-ovarian uterus not looping between testis and ovary. The embryonated eggs of the new species infect gill epithelium, are spheroid, and measure 25-30 µm in diameter. Sympatric Gulf of Mexico serranids were negative for aporocotylid infections: coney, Cephalopholis fulva (n  =  1); Nassau grouper, Epinephelus striatus (3); red grouper, Epinephelus morio (32); yellowedge grouper, Epinephelus flavolimbatus (1); rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis (1); red hind, Epinephelus guttatus (2); Warsaw grouper, Epinephelus nigritus (3); graysby, Cephalopholis cruentata (1); black grouper, Mycteroperca bonaci (1), and tattler, Serranus phoebe (2). The new species is the first aporocotylid described from a serranid outside of the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The diagnosis of Pearsonellum Overstreet and Køie, 1989 is herein emended to include anterior sucker having concentric rows of spines anterior to mouth, pharynx absent, esophagus length <1/2 total body length, vas deferens connecting with cirrus sac anteromedially, ovary occupying posterior 1/4-1/3 of body, primary vitelline duct dextral, and oviducal seminal receptacle extending posteriad in parallel with lateral body margin, not transverse nor constricted anteriorly or posteriorly by sharp bends or kinks.

  1. Six new and one previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Rojas Herrera, Agustín A

    2011-02-01

    Six new and 1 previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Diplectanidae) are described and/or reported from the gill lamellae of 5 serranid (Perciformes) fish species from the Pacific waters in Guerrero State of Mexico and Panama City, Panama. These species are Pseudorhabdosynochus guerreroensis n. sp. from the Pacific mutton hamlet Alphestes inmaculatus Breder (type host), rivulated mutton hamlet Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther), and spotted grouper Epinephelus analogus Gill from Mexico; Pseudorhabdosynochus urceolus n. sp. from the Pacific graysby Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner) from Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus spirani n. sp. from the starry grouper Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns) from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus fulgidus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus tabogaensis n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus anulus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; and Pseudorhabdosynochus amplidiscatum (Bravo-Hollis, 1954) Kritsky and Beverley-Burton, 1986 from E. analogus and E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama. All new species are mainly distinguished from other species of the genus by the shape and size of the sclerotized vagina and haptoral structures. The present specimens of Alphestes, Cephalopholis, and Epinephelus spp. represent new host records and Panama represents a new geographic record for species of Pseudorhabdosynochus. The apparent common feature supporting a close similarity of these diplectanids is a single, secondary ejaculatory bulb with thickened wall.

  2. Differential Modulation of IgT and IgM upon Parasitic, Bacterial, Viral, and Dietary Challenges in a Perciform Fish.

    PubMed

    Piazzon, Maria C; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Pereiro, Patricia; Estensoro, Itziar; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Gómez-Casado, Eduardo; Novoa, Beatriz; Mulero, Victoriano; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Three different immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes can be found in teleost fish, IgM, IgD, and the teleost-specific IgT. IgM is considered to have a systemic activity, and IgT is attributed a mucosal role, similar to mammalian IgA. In this study, the complete sequence of gilthead sea bream IgM and IgT in their membrane (m) and soluble (s) forms are described for the first time in a perciform fish. Their constitutive gene expression is analyzed in different tissues, and their regulation upon viral, bacterial, parasitic, mucosal vaccination and dietary challenges are studied. GCB IgM and IgT have the prototypical structure when compared to other fish Igs. The constitutive expression of sIgM was the highest overall in all tissues, whereas mIgT expression was highest in mucosal tissues, such as gills and intestine. IgM and IgT were differentially regulated upon infection. IgT was highly upregulated locally upon infection with the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei or systemically after Nodavirus infection. Long-term intestinal parasitic infections increased the serum titer of both isotypes. Mucosal vaccination against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida finely regulated the Ig response inducing a systemic increase of IgM titers in serum and a local IgT response in skin mucus when animals were exposed to the pathogen by bath challenge. Interestingly, plant-based diets inhibit IgT upregulation upon intestinal parasitic challenge, which was related to a worse disease outcome. All these results corroborate the mucosal role of IgT and emphasize the importance of a finely tuned regulation of Ig isotypes upon infection, which could be of special interest in vaccination studies.

  3. Genomic organization and functional diversification of two warm-temperature-acclimation-associated 65-kDa protein genes in rockbream (Oplegnathus fasciatus; Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Byoung Soo; Noh, Choong Hwan; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Two paralogue genes of warm-temperature-acclimation-associated 65-kDa protein were characterized and their mRNA expression patterns during various experimental stimulations were examined in the rockbream (Oplegnathus fasciatus; Perciformes). Rockbream Wap65 isoforms (rbWap65-1 and rbWap65-2) share basically common structural features with other teleostean orthologues and human hemopexin (HPX) at both amino acid (conserved cysteine and histidine residues) and genomic levels (ten-exon structure), although the rbWap65-2 reveals more homologous characteristics to human HPX than does rbWap65-1 isoform. Southern blot analysis indicates that each rbWap65 isoform exists as a single copy gene in the rockbream genome. Both rbWap65 genes were predicted to possess various transcription factor (TF) binding motifs related with stress and innate immunity in their 5ʹ-upstream regions, in which inflammation-related motifs were more highlighted in the rbWap65-2 than in rbWap65-1. Based on the RT-PCR assay, the liver-predominant expression pattern was more apparent in rbWap65-1 than rbWap65-2 isoform. During thermal elevation, clear upregulation was found only for the rbWap65-1. In contrast, immune stimulations (bacterial challenges, viral infection and iron overload) activated more preferentially the rbWap65-2 isoform in overall, although the inducibility was affected by the kinds of stimulators and tissue types. Taken together, our data suggest that the two paralogue rbWap65 isoforms have experienced subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization during their evolutionary history, in which the rbWap65-2 has retained closer, functional orthology to the human HPX while the rbWap65-1 have been diversified to be more related with thermal acclimation physiology.

  4. [Comparative analysis of three length based methods for estimating growth of the tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in a tropical lake of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Arellano-Torres, Andrés; Hernández Montaño, Daniel; Meléndez Galicia, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A comparative analysis of three length based methods for estimating growth of the tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in a tropical lake of Mexico. Several methods are now available to estimate fish individual growth based upon the distribution of body lengths in a population. Comparative analyses of length-based methods have been undertaken mainly for marine species; nevertheless, limited information is available for inland species. Tilapia is one of the most important freshwater fisheries and its growth parameters have been estimated by several authors, usually using one length-based method. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: a) to estimate growth parameters of O. aureus from Chapala lake, Mexico, using three length-based methods ELEFAN, PROJMAT and SLCA; b) to quantify the effect of input data variations in growth parameters estimates by the jackknife technique; and c) to compare the new estimates with those previously reported, through the standard growth index phi. We collected and analyzed a total of 1,973 specimens from commercial landings from January to December 2010. The three length-base methods used in the present study resulted in parameter estimates within the range of those reported in other studies. Results derived from jackknife analysis revealed lowest values in the error percentage and coefficient of variation for L infinity when applying ELEFAN, while PROJMAT showed lowest values in the precision estimators for K, which was very similar to ELEFAN. Estimates of the comparative growth index phi were also very similar to those reported for the same species when studied in different reservoirs. Considering our results, we suggest the use of ELEFAN rather than SLCA due to its accuracy to estimate growth parameters for O. aureus.

  5. Differential Modulation of IgT and IgM upon Parasitic, Bacterial, Viral, and Dietary Challenges in a Perciform Fish

    PubMed Central

    Piazzon, Maria C.; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Pereiro, Patricia; Estensoro, Itziar; Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Gómez-Casado, Eduardo; Novoa, Beatriz; Mulero, Victoriano; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Three different immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes can be found in teleost fish, IgM, IgD, and the teleost-specific IgT. IgM is considered to have a systemic activity, and IgT is attributed a mucosal role, similar to mammalian IgA. In this study, the complete sequence of gilthead sea bream IgM and IgT in their membrane (m) and soluble (s) forms are described for the first time in a perciform fish. Their constitutive gene expression is analyzed in different tissues, and their regulation upon viral, bacterial, parasitic, mucosal vaccination and dietary challenges are studied. GCB IgM and IgT have the prototypical structure when compared to other fish Igs. The constitutive expression of sIgM was the highest overall in all tissues, whereas mIgT expression was highest in mucosal tissues, such as gills and intestine. IgM and IgT were differentially regulated upon infection. IgT was highly upregulated locally upon infection with the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei or systemically after Nodavirus infection. Long-term intestinal parasitic infections increased the serum titer of both isotypes. Mucosal vaccination against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida finely regulated the Ig response inducing a systemic increase of IgM titers in serum and a local IgT response in skin mucus when animals were exposed to the pathogen by bath challenge. Interestingly, plant-based diets inhibit IgT upregulation upon intestinal parasitic challenge, which was related to a worse disease outcome. All these results corroborate the mucosal role of IgT and emphasize the importance of a finely tuned regulation of Ig isotypes upon infection, which could be of special interest in vaccination studies. PMID:28082977

  6. Molecular characterization and new geographical record of Lecithochirium priacanthi (Digenea: Hemiuridae) infecting the moontail bullseye fish Priacanthus hamrur (Perciformes: Priacanthidae) from the Red Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Morsy, Kareem; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Saleh, Rehab; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-12-01

    Sixty specimens of the moontail bullseye Priacanthus hamrur were collected at Coasts of Suez Gulf, Red Sea (Egypt) during the four different seasons of the whole year 2014 and necropsied to study the infection with metazoan parasites. Twenty-one out of 60 examined fish specimens (infection rate of 33.33 %) were found to be naturally infected by the hemiurid digenean parasite Lecithochirium priacanthi. The large-sized fish reaching 15-30 (23.5 ± 4.8) cm were more intensively infected than the smaller ones. A definite seasonal effect was observed as winter was found to be the season of severe parasitic infections, while midsummer was the lowest one. The morphological and morphometric characterization of this parasite were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worms had an elongated body measuring 1.93-2.54 (2.11 ± 0.20) mm in length and 0.61-0.72 (0.67 ± 0.02) mm in width. The body was characterized by the presence of a sub-terminal oral sucker with diameters reaching 0.12-0.16 (0.14 ± 0.02) mm. The ventral sucker measured 0.32-0.45 (0.38 ± 0.02) mm in diameter. The body was supplied by a short retracted portion with a blunt end that measured 0.48-0.61 (0.56 ± 0.02) mm in length and 0.28-0.35 (0.32 ± 0.02) mm in width. Morphological results of the present parasite were compared with other related species described previously from Perciformes. Molecular characterization based on small subunit ribosomal DNA was done to confirm the obtained morphological and morphometric results. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of this parasite and other species of Hemiuridae places the present specimen as a putative sister taxon to Lecithochirium grandiporum and Lecithochirium caesionis. The finding of L. priacanthi in Egyptian marine water fish represents a new geographical record for this parasite.

  7. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  8. Gene flow, population growth and a novel substitution rate estimate in a subtidal rock specialist, the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Steinwender, Bernd; Weiß, Sara; Sefc, Kristina M

    2015-11-01

    Population histories depend on the interplay between exogeneous and endogeneous factors. In marine species, phylogeographic and demographic patterns are often shaped by sea level fluctuations, water currents and dispersal ability. Using mitochondrial control region sequences (n = 120), we infer phylogeographic structure and historic population size changes of a common littoral fish species, the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the north-eastern Adriatic Sea. We find that Adriatic T. delaisi are differentiated from conspecific populations in the remaining Mediterranean, but display little phylogeographic structure within the Adriatic basin. The pattern is consistent with passive dispersal of planktonic larvae along cyclonic currents within the Adriatic Sea, but limited active dispersal of adults. Demographic reconstructions are consistent with recent population expansion, probably triggered by rising sea levels after the last glacial maximum (LGM). Placing the onset of population growth between the LGM and the warming of surface waters (18 000-13 000 years BP) and employing a novel expansion dating approach, we inferred a substitution rate of 2.61-3.61% per site per MY. Our study is one of only few existing investigations of the genetic structure of animals within the Adriatic basin and is the first to provide an estimate for mitochondrial control region substitution rates in blennioid fishes.

  9. Morphological and molecular analyses of a new species of Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954 (Haploporidae Nicoll, 1914) in the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Gómez, L; Pinacho-Pinacho, C D; Hernández-Orts, J S; Sereno-Uribe, A L; García-Varela, M

    2016-07-26

    Saccocoelioides olmecae n. sp. is described from specimens recovered from the intestine of the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) collected in six localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other three described species of Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954 from North and Middle America (i.e. S. sogandaresi Lumsden, 1963, S. chauhani Lamothe-Argumedo, 1974 and S. lamothei Aguirre-Macedo & Violante-González, 2008) by having an elongated body, a sac-like caecum, a uterus that extends to the first third of body and by having vitelline follicles longitudinally elongated reaching the posterior end of the body. Sequences of the large subunit (LSU) of the ribosomal DNA, including the domain D1-D3, and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) were used independently and concatenated to corroborate the morphological distinction among S. olmecae n. sp., S. chauhani and S. lamothei from freshwater and brackish-water fish from Middle America. The genetic divergence estimated among the three species of Saccocoelioides was very low: 1% for LSU and from 1 to 4% for ITS2. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses for each dataset and both datasets combined revealed that S. olmecae n. sp. represents an independent clade with moderate bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. This is the third species of Saccocoelioides described in Mexico, and the 17th species from the Americas.

  10. Acanthocercodes n. g. (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) for species parasitising threadfins (Perciformes: Polynemidae), with description of Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. from the Atlantic threadfin Polydactylus octonemus (Girard) and reassignment of three species of Diplectanum Monticelli, 1903 from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Diggles, Ben K

    2015-07-01

    Acanthocercodes n. g. (Diplectanidae) is proposed for Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. and three previously described species of Diplectanum all parasites of the gill lamellae of threadfins (Perciformes: Polynemidae). The new genus is characterised by species having peduncular spines composed of an anteriorly directed point and a flattened base from which an anterior root arises. Members of the genus lack auxiliary spinous or sucker-like structures in the haptor. Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. is described from the Atlantic threadfin, Polydactylus octonemus (Girard), in the Gulf of Mexico off Louisiana, USA. Diplectanum polynemus Tripathi, 1957 is redescribed and transferred to Acanthocercodes as A. polynemus (Tripathi, 1957) n. comb. based on specimens collected from the fourfinger threadfin, Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw), from the mouth of the River Adelaide, Northern Territory, Australia. Diplectanum spinosum (Maillard & Vala, 1980) (=Pseudodiplectanum spinosum Maillard & Vala, 1980) and Diplectanum megacirrus (Maillard & Vala, 1980) (=Pseudodiplectanum megacirrus Maillard & Vala, 1980) from the lesser African threadfin, Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch), are transferred to Acanthocercodes as A. spinosum (Maillard & Vala, 1980) n. comb. and A. megacirrus (Maillard & Vala, 1980) n. comb., respectively.

  11. [Molecular phylogenetic study of several eelpout fishes (Perciformes, Zoarcoidei) from far eastern seas on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (Co-1)].

    PubMed

    Turanov, S V; kartavtseva, Iu F; Zemnukhov, V V

    2012-02-01

    A total of 95 nucleotide sequences of a Co-1 gene fragment of approximately 650 bp were analyzed for fishes of the orders Perciformes and Scorpaeniformes (outgroup). Gene trees based on four algorithms (BA, NJ, MP, and ML) were similar in topology of solved branches. An emphasis was placed on the species and generic levels, but a significant phylogenetic signal was obtained for higher taxonomic ranks as well. For instance, a monophyletic origin was confirmed for the family Zoarcidae and the subfamily Opisthocentrinae (Stichaeidae). The proportion of different nucleotides in the sequences compared (p-distances) significantly increased with increasing taxonomic rank. The p-distances were estimated for four hierarchic levels and were (1) 0.15 0.06% for the within-species hierarchic level, (2) 6.33 0.37% for the within-genus level, (3) 11.83 0.06% for the within-family level, and (4) 15.22 0.05% for the within-order level. The difference in the Co-1 gene fragments between levels (1) and (2) allows almost errorless species identification on the basis of this kind of a molecular bar code.

  12. Anatomy and histology of the brain and sense organs of the antarctic plunderfish Dolloidraco longedorsalis (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Artedidraconidae), with comments on the brain morphology of other artedidraconids and closely related harpagiferids.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2003-03-01

    In the high-latitude shelf waters of Antarctica, fishes in the perciform suborder Notothenioidei dominate the fish fauna and constitute an adaptive radiation and a species flock. The 25 species of notothenioid plunderfishes, comprising four genera of the family Artedidraconidae, contribute substantially to fish species diversity on the high Antarctic shelf. A mental barbel is an autapomorphy for the family. Dolloidraco longedorsalis is the most abundant artedidraconid at depths over 400 m in these waters. In this article we present the anatomy and histology of the brain and special sense organs of Dolloidraco and compare it to the brains of other artedidraconids, closely related harpagiferids, and more generally to other notothenioids. We provide a detailed drawing of the brain and cranial nerves. The brain of Dolloidraco is simple, without external hypertrophy of sensory or motor regions, but contains several unusual features associated with the ventricular system and CSF, including well-developed circumventricular organs, subependymal expansions, and subarachnoid cisterns; and a ventricle in the corpus cerebellum. The brain of Dolloidraco also contains a lobed chief sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve that is correlated across species with barbel length. The eyes are large and contain a small choroid rete, a structure previously thought to be absent from members of this family. We document the histology of the duplex retina, olfactory apparatus, cutaneous taste buds, and barbel musculature and innervation. We discuss the role of pedomorphy in producing simplified brain morphologies. We consider the possibility that Dolloidraco is a somatosensory specialist-an unusual feature among vertebrates-and decide that this is unlikely.

  13. Flow cytometric determination of genome size in European sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus (Heckel, 1843).

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Marta; Tylko, Grzegorz; Kilarski, Wincenty

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare DNA content in hepatocyte and erythrocyte nuclei of the European sunbleak, Leucaspius delineatus, in relation to nuclear and cell size by means of flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The DNA standards, chicken and rainbow trout erythrocytes, were prepared in parallel with both cell types, with initial separation of liver cells in pepsin solution followed by cell filtering. Standards and investigated cells were stained with a mixture of propidium iodide, citric acid, and Nonidet P40 in the presence of RNAse, and fluorescence of at least 50,000 nuclei was analyzed by flow cytometry. Average cell size was determined by flow cytometry, using fresh cell suspension in relation to latex beads of known diameter. The size of nuclei was examined on the basis of digital micrographs obtained by fluorescence microscopy after nuclei staining with DAPI. The sunbleak's erythrocyte nuclei contain 2.25 ± 0.06 pg of DNA, whereas the hepatocyte nuclei contain 2.46 ± 0.06 pg of DNA. This difference in DNA content was determined spectroscopically using isolated DNA from the two cell types. The modal diameters of the erythrocytes and hepatocytes were estimated to be 5.1 ± 0.2 and 22.3 ± 5.0 μm, respectively, and the corresponding modal dimensions of their nuclei (measured as surface area) were 15.2 and 21.4 μm(2), respectively. The nucleoplasmic index, as calculated from diameters estimated from surface area of nuclear profiles, was 2.51 for the erythrocytes compared with 0.08 for hepatocytes.

  14. Larval development of Evermannia zosterura (Perciformes: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, Enrique; Saldierna-Martínez, Ricardo Javier; Aceves-Medina, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    Gobiidae is the most specious fish family in the world with almost 2 000 species, however only 11% of them have been described for their larval stages. The entire life cycle information is essential to understand the biology and ecology of this important fish group. Previous studies on zooplankton samples from Ensenada de La Paz, México, have shown the presence of several Gobiidae larvae and juveniles which were identified as Evermania zosterura. The main objective of this work was to describe the larval stages of this species, widely distributed in the Eastern tropical Pacific. The development of E. zosterura larvae was described based on 66 specimens. A total of 53 specimens were used to describe morphometrics and pigmentation patterns, while 13 specimens were cleared and stained, to obtain meristic characteristics. Cleared specimens had 30 to 31 total vertebrae; dorsal-fin elements: IV; 1, 13-14, anal-fin elements: 1, 13-14, and most had pterygiophore formula 4-111100. The combination of these characteristics confirmed these specimens as E. zosterura. The pigment pattern is similar throughout ontogeny. Larvae are characterized by having three to five dendritic melanophores along the post-anal ventral margin, four to nine smaller melanophores along the ventral margin between the isthmus and anus, and one on the midpoint of the dorsal margin of the tail. There is one small pigment spot on the angle of the jaw, and other on the tip of lower lip. There is an elongated internal pigment under the notochord, between the head and gas bladder. Notochord flexion starts near 3.5mm BL and ends at 4.6mm BL; transformalion to the juvenile stage is at about 13.6mm BL. Our conclusion is that the most useful characters to distinguish this species early-larval stages from those of similar species in the area, are the number of myomeres, the large melanophores (approximately uniformly in size) on the post anal ventral margin, and the elongate internal pigment under the notochord, anterior to the gas bladder.

  15. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  16. Haematological parameters in Umbrina cirrosa (Teleostei, Sciaenidae): a comparison between diploid and triploid specimens.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Loriano; Dall'Oro, Manuela; Bertotto, Daniela; Libertini, Angelo; Francescon, Antonia; Barbaro, Alvise

    2004-05-01

    Haematological features were compared between diploid and triploid specimens of the ray-finned fish Umbrina cirrosa. No significant differences between diploids and triploids were reported in haematocrit and total haemoglobin concentration, but erythrocytes and thrombocytes were significantly greater in size in triploids. Glycaemia was significantly lower in diploids, whereas triploid erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress. In triploids, a greater fraction of leukocytes was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, when stimulated with Bacillus clausii spores, otherwise no significant increase of oxygen consumption was observed in triploid leukocytes after stimulation, based on assays for superoxide anions. Triploids were characterized by a lower concentration of circulating blood cells with a lower surface/volume ratio when compared with diploids. These features may lead to a general disadvantage of triploids in withstanding stress conditions: a situation that needs to be taken into account in aquaculture practice.

  17. [Iron and copper in Plagioscion squamosissimus (Piscis: Sciaenidae) from the Orinoco river, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    González, A R; Márquez, A; Chung, K S

    2000-12-01

    Bauxite explotation of the Orinoco River in recent years is an important source of heavy metals discharge in the ecosystem, changing the natural biochemical flow of these elements and their concentrations in water, sediment and organisms. Iron and copper concentrations were measured in the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus in the Orinoco river, by sampling the fish population for three months (September-November 1998) in the main channel of the middle Orinoco (07 degrees 38' 21.2" N; 66 degrees 19' 10.9" W) and in Castillero lagoon (7 degrees 39' 09" N; 66 degrees 09' 00" W) with 2 and 4 cm mesh sizes. The internal organs of 30 fishes per month and site were stove-dried at 80 degrees C, pulverized and dried in disecator for 30 min to use as indicators with the acid digestion method for predicting the effect of heavy metals. We found relatively high values of iron and copper concentrations in fishes of the lagoon, and high seasonal variations in the iron concentration.

  18. A mitochondrial DNA based phylogeny of weakfish species of the Cynoscion group (Pisces: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Vergara-Chen, Carlos; Aguirre, Windsor E; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2009-11-01

    We infer the phylogeny of fishes in the New World Cynoscion group (Cynoscion, Isopisthus, Macrodon, Atractoscion, Plagioscion) using 1603bp of DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes. With the exception of Plagioscion, whose position was ambiguous, the Cynoscion group is monophyletic. However, several genera examined are not monophyletic. Atlantic and Pacific species of Cynoscion are interspersed in the tree and geminate species pairs are identified. Intergeneric relationships in the group are clarified. Our analysis is the first comprehensive phylogeny for the Cynoscion group based on molecular data and provides a baseline for future comparative studies of this important group.

  19. Determination of spermatological properties of male Liza abu (Heckel, 1843) in Atatürk Dam Lake, Sanliurfa.

    PubMed

    Sahinöz, Erdinç; Aral, Faruk; Doğu, Zafer

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the spermatological characteristics in male L. abu during the spawning season. Semen was collected weekly by abdominal massage from 26 males in March. In collected semen, volume, motility, duration of motility, concentration and pH were determined. In the L. abu sperm, volume (microl), motility (%), duration of motility (s), concentration (x10(9)/ml), and pH values were found 45.76 +/- 3.55, 54.25 +/- 2.93, 330.15 +/- 37.92, 4.27 +/- 0.40 and 7.87 +/- 0.05, respectively. A correlation was found between semen volume and semen pH. Semen volume and the duration of sperm motility were higher in the 2nd and 3rd sampling dates than in the 1st and 4th sampling dates (P < 0.05; P < 0.01, respectively). Neither sperm motility nor sperm concentration was affected by sampling dates. Major changes in semen pH were observed in the 4th sampling date (P < 0.001). The Pearson correlation test presented significant relationships with the duration of motility, semen volume, and motility. Semen pH values were significantly correlated with the sperm concentration and semen volume. Sperm concentration was inversely correlated with semen volume. Sperm motility and duration significantly correlated with total weight. Total length significantly correlated with the duration of motility and total weight. In conclusion, these characteristics represent a valuable baseline dataset for establishing a semen quality standard and provide background information that may be useful for assisted breeding programs in this species.

  20. Investigation of the leptin levels in the blood serum of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) and Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843).

    PubMed

    Köprücü, S; Algül, S

    2015-06-01

    Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted by adipose tissues in the various teleost fish and vertebrates. Leptin has been suggested to have an important role in a range physiological function, including regulation of food intake, reproduction, immune function, energy expenditure, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In this study, leptin levels in the blood serum of Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta trutta were determined. Then the results were compared between two species and between sexes of each species. In addition, leptin levels were also compared with the body weight and length of both C. carpio and C. trutta. Leptin level was analysed using available enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit (Rat leptin ELISA kit, catalog no: SK00050-08). Leptin levels showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) that in relation to between two species and between sexes of each species. It has been shown that not significantly correlated when examined correlations between the leptin level in blood serum and body weight (r = 0.192, p = 0.380) or length (r = 0.102, p = 0.644) of C. carpio. Similarly, the correlations between leptin level in blood serum and body weight (r = 0.021, p = 0.959) or length (r = 0.123, p = 0.595) of C. trutta were also not significant.

  1. Cryptic Chromosomal Diversity in the Complex "Geophagus" brasiliensis (Perciformes, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabel Araújo; Argolo, Leandro Araújo; Bitencourt, Jamille de Araújo; Diniz, Débora; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2016-02-01

    Among American cichlids, Geophagus stands out as a species-rich genus widespread over neotropical region. Despite their diversity and confusing taxonomy, only few and basic chromosomal reports are available in populations/species along Atlantic coast, hindering our understanding about evolutionary trends in this genus. Therefore, detailed chromosomal studies were performed in "Geophagus" brasiliensis complex from coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil, totalizing seven populations of Geophagus brasiliensis and one of Geophagus itapicuruensis. All samples shared a diploid number (2n) of 48 divided into 2 submetacentric and 46 subtelocentric/acrocentric chromosomes with (peri)centromeric heterochromatin, hypothesized as a symplesiomorphy for Geophagini. Although G. itapicuruensis and two populations of G. brasiliensis presented single NORs on short arms, multiple GC-rich rDNA sites were observed in the remaining G. brasiliensis samples, ranging from three to six NOR-bearing chromosomes. Inversely, 5S rDNA sites were invariably located at interstitial region on a st/a pair, nonsyntenic to NORs. A compilation of the data set in Geophagus shows that their chromosomal evolution has been driven by pericentric inversions and microstructural changes. Besides, the divergence found in northeastern Brazil places this region as a biodiversity hotspot. A taxonomic revision in the complex "Geophagus" brasiliensis is recommended with the support of cytogenetic analyses.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Coreoperca whiteheadi (Perciformes: Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Lv, Liyuan; Tian, Changxu; Liang, Xufang; Yuan, Yongchao; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Coreoperca whiteheadi was determined. The complete mtDNA genome sequence of C. whiteheadi is 16,483 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. Overall base composition of mitogenome is estimated to be 28.30% for A, 29.33% for C, 16.06% for G and 26.32% for T, respectively, with a high A + T content (54.62%). The complete mitogenome of the C. whiteheadi could contribute to basic researches on population history, molecular systematics and phylogeography. It is also helpful to the reasonable utilization and development of rational management strategies for C. whiteheadi resource.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Channa marulius (Perciformes: Channidae: Channa).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jun; Lashari, Punhal; Zhang, Songhao; Wang, Kai; Xu, Jian; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The traditional polymerase chain reaction method was employed to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome of Channa marulius from Pakistan. The mitogenome was determined to be 16,569 bp in length. It contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. This is the first report on the complete mitogenome sequence of C. marulius.

  4. [Reproductive behavior of Opistognathus rosenblatti (Perciformes: Opistognathidae) in captivity].

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mauricio; Anguas, Benjamín; González, Pedro G; Martínez, Rodolfo E

    2012-09-01

    The Blue Spotted Jawfish O. rosenblatti, is an endemic species from the Gulf of California, included in the local list of protected species. With few biological reports, this species is appreciated in the aquarium industry due to its coloration and digging behaviour, and has a considerable value. With the aim to generate valuable biological information, eight fishes were caught at Loreto Natural Marine Protected Area. Captured fishes were juveniles, and just three of them were kept in an aquarium conditioned with gravel, pieces of shells and coral as substrata. Temperature and photoperiod conditions were stable, and they were supplied with a variety of live and inert feeds. Fishes reached maturity in eight months, according to literature reports, displaying mature male courtship coloration and upward movements in the water column. Fishes spawned several times over more than two years in captivity. Presences of egg masses, or some evidence of egg shell or larvae, were registered in 50 occasions. Male took care of eggs in his shelter, but never in his mouth. Egg masses had an average of 3 592 eggs, with a hatching rate close to 99%. Eggs were apparently rounded having three diameter measurements with significant differences (1.17mm mean higher diameter, SD=0.054; 1.13mm mean lower diameter, 0.058; 0.99mm mean height, 0.045; n=125). Most of corion eggs had four, rarely six filaments; with a single oil drop (0.30mm mean diameter, 0.021, n=59). Incubation lasted 10.4 days (9-14), depending on water temperature (21.0-25.3 degrees C). Egg hatching occurred after darkness, emerging newly hatched larvae of 4.51mm mean notochord length (0.082, n=30), with reserves exhausted, eyes pigmented and mouth opened, ready to eat. This study represents the first report on this species courtship displaying, spawning and some basic characteristics of eggs masses and larvae in captivity. Also, their flexibility and adaptability of individual behaviour to particular environment conditions, lead to consider worth their commercial culture, as already occur with other species of this family.

  5. Mitochondrial genome of the Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Zou, Keshu; Chen, Zuozhi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Min

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence was determined for the Mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus, one species of the economically important fish in Carangidae. The entire sequence of the genome was 16,544 bp in length, including the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. Overall base compositions of the sequence were 27.3% of A, 30.4% of C, 25.3% of T and 17.0% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The mitogenome of Decapterus macarellus had a quite high-sequence similarity (92.5%) with D. macrosoma, which was morphologically close to D. macarellus. The complete mitogenome sequence data of D. macarellus could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies.

  6. [First report in Panama on Nerocila californica Schioedte and Meinert 1881 (Isopoda: Cymothoidea) in Sciaenops ocellatus (L) (Pisces: Sciaenidae)].

    PubMed

    Garcés, H A

    1993-01-01

    One juvenile specimen of the isopod Nerocila californica (acuminata form) was found on the skin of a cage-raised red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, in Aguadulce, Cocle Province. This finding is the first report of the occurrence of Nerocila californica as ectoparasitic of fishes on the Pacific side of the Republic of Panama.

  7. Molecular characterization and structure analysis of RPL10/QM-like protein from the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wu, C-W; Zhong, S-P; Zeng, F-R; Zhang, J-S; Wang, J; Niu, S-F

    2011-04-05

    The QM-like gene encodes a ribosomal protein L10. Besides housekeeping roles in protein synthesis, QM-like proteins have multiple extraribosomal functions during cell growth, cell differentiation and apoptosis. We obtained the full-length cDNA of QM-like protein (designated as SoQM) from the salt water game fish Sciaenops ocellatus, using RACE-PCR. The sequence consists of 740 bp, encoding 215-amino acid residues with 24.60 kDa. The AA sequence of the SoQM protein contains a series of functional motifs that belong to the QM family signature, which is conserved among different species. The SoQM gene contains five introns and six exons. The expression pattern of SoQM as determined by RT-PCR indicated that SoQM mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested, including brain, gill, head-kidney, intestine, stomach, heart, spleen, blood, muscle, and gonads. The phylogenetic tree constructed with MEGA 4.0 showed that SoQM clusters together with that of other fish. It was found that the sequences of the SoQM gene are highly conserved, suggesting the fundamental and critical functions of SoQM in S. ocellatus. The three-dimensional structure of the SoQM protein core domain (4~169) was predicted by the Swiss-Model program. Compared with QM proteins in other species, the main structure of SoQM protein was conserved, while the C-terminal domain was different from other QM-like proteins. Prediction of the three-dimensional structure of SoQM would provide valuable insight into the molecular basis of protein function, allowing an effective design of experiments, such as site-directed mutagenesis, studies of disease-related mutations or structure-based design of specific inhibitors.

  8. [Oropharyngeal morphology and food habits of Micropogonias furnieri (Pisces: Sciaenidae) in the North coast of Estado Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, L J; Prieto, A; Lemus, M

    2001-01-01

    Morphology of the mandibular and pharyngeal region, and the feeding habits of Micropogonias furnieri were examined in 256 male and female specimens, between 28.7 and 54.3 cm total length, collected around Morro Puerto Santo, in northeast Sucre State, Venezuela (10 degrees 45'00" N-63 degrees 8'0" W), from May 1989 to April 1990. Micropogonias furnieri has a small ventral mouth; protrusible premaxillary and dentary; first branchial arches with 21 to 27 gill rakers, generally 24 to 25; and 7 to 11 pyloric caecae. The index of vacuity was low, with mean value of 7.00%. The mean intestinal index was 0.72, indicative of carnivorous species. Analysis of frequency of occurrence, indicates preference for crustaceans (45.70%), mainly crabs (34.90%), followed by polychaetes (28.00%), fishes (11.41%) and occasionally mollusks and echinoderms (4.0 and 3.9%, respectively). The diet of this species did not vary with sex.

  9. First record of protozoan parasites in cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from Dal lake in Kashmir Himalayas with study on their pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Shoaib Ali; Kaur, Harpreet; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Irfan ur Rauf; Dar, Gowhar Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 obtained from gills during a parasitological survey conducted for the protozoan parasitic fauna of Schizothorax niger a snow trout in Dal Lake, Kashmir, India during the period October 2013 and March 2015. Thirty out of 180 fish were found infected with protozoan parasites. During the study of their pathogenecity the most common deteriorating signs observed in gill tissue were necrosis, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and fusion of secondary lamellae. Prevalence of infection was found to be 16.66%. This is the first record of the protozoan fauna of the schizothoracines from Kashmir valley, India.

  10. A modified stepping-stone model of population structure in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Sciaenidae), from the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gold, J R; Burridge, C P; Turner, T F

    2001-01-01

    Genetic studies of population or 'stock' structure in exploited marine fishes typically are designed to determine whether geographic boundaries useful for conservation and management planning are identifiable. Implicit in many such studies is the notion that subpopulations or stocks, if they exist, have fixed territories with little or no gene exchange between them. Herein, we review our long-term genetic studies of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an estuarine-dependent sciaenid fish in the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic Ocean. Significant differences in frequencies of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and of alleles at nuclear-encoded microsatellites occur among red drum sampled across the northern Gulf of Mexico. The spatial distribution of the genetic variation, however, follows a pattern of isolation-by-distance consistent with the hypothesis that gene flow occurs among subpopulations and is an inverse (and continuous) function of geographic distance. However, successful reproduction and recruitment of red drum depend on estuarine habitats that have geographically discrete boundaries. We hypothesize that population structure in red drum follows a modified one-dimensional, linear stepping-stone model where gene exchange occurs primarily (but not exclusively) between adjacent bays and estuaries distributed linearly along the coastline. Gene flow does occur among estuaries that are not adjacent but probabilities of gene exchange decrease as a function of geographic distance. Implications of our hypothesis are discussed in terms of inferences drawn from patterns of isolation-by-distance and relative to conservation and management of estuarine-dependent species like red drum. Based on estimates of the ratio of genetic effective population size and census size in red drum, observed patterns of gene flow in red drum may play a significant role in recruitment.

  11. Population Connectivity and Phylogeography of a Coastal Fish, Atractoscion aequidens (Sciaenidae), across the Benguela Current Region: Evidence of an Ancient Vicariant Event

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Romina; Potts, Warren M.; Santos, Carmen V.; Sauer, Warwick H. H.; Shaw, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic diversity and population connectivity within species can be influenced by both historical and contemporary barriers to gene flow. In the marine environment, present day oceanographic features such as currents, fronts and upwelling systems can influence dispersal of eggs/larvae and/juveniles/adults, shaping population substructuring. The Benguela Current system in the southeastern Atlantic is one of the oldest upwelling systems in the world, and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relative influence of contemporary and historical mechanisms shaping the evolutionary history of warm-temperate fish species. Using the genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA Control Region and eight nuclear microsatellite DNA loci, we identified the presence of two highly divergent populations in a vagile and warm-temperate fish species, Atractoscion aequidens, across the Benguela region. The geographical distributions of the two populations, on either side of the perennial upwelling cell, suggest a strong correlation between the oceanographic features of the system and the breakdown of gene flow within this species. Genetic divergence (mtDNA φST = 0.902, microsatellite FST = 0.055: probability of genetic homogeneity for either marker = p<0.001), absence of migrants (less than 1% per generation) between populations and coalescent estimates of time since most recent common ancestor suggest that the establishment of the main oceanographic features of the system (2 million years ago), particularly the strengthening and position of the perennial upwelling cell, is the most likely mechanism behind the observed isolation. Concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers indicates that isolation and divergence of the northern and southern Benguela populations of A. aequidens occurred deep in the past and has continued to the present day. These findings suggest that the Benguela Current system may constitute an ancient and impermeable barrier to gene flow for warm-temperate fish species. PMID:24586296

  12. Population connectivity and phylogeography of a coastal fish, Atractoscion aequidens (Sciaenidae), across the Benguela Current region: evidence of an ancient vicariant event.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Romina; Potts, Warren M; Santos, Carmen V; Sauer, Warwick H H; Shaw, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic diversity and population connectivity within species can be influenced by both historical and contemporary barriers to gene flow. In the marine environment, present day oceanographic features such as currents, fronts and upwelling systems can influence dispersal of eggs/larvae and/juveniles/adults, shaping population substructuring. The Benguela Current system in the southeastern Atlantic is one of the oldest upwelling systems in the world, and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relative influence of contemporary and historical mechanisms shaping the evolutionary history of warm-temperate fish species. Using the genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA Control Region and eight nuclear microsatellite DNA loci, we identified the presence of two highly divergent populations in a vagile and warm-temperate fish species, Atractoscion aequidens, across the Benguela region. The geographical distributions of the two populations, on either side of the perennial upwelling cell, suggest a strong correlation between the oceanographic features of the system and the breakdown of gene flow within this species. Genetic divergence (mtDNA φ ST = 0.902, microsatellite F ST = 0.055: probability of genetic homogeneity for either marker = p<0.001), absence of migrants (less than 1% per generation) between populations and coalescent estimates of time since most recent common ancestor suggest that the establishment of the main oceanographic features of the system (2 million years ago), particularly the strengthening and position of the perennial upwelling cell, is the most likely mechanism behind the observed isolation. Concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers indicates that isolation and divergence of the northern and southern Benguela populations of A. aequidens occurred deep in the past and has continued to the present day. These findings suggest that the Benguela Current system may constitute an ancient and impermeable barrier to gene flow for warm-temperate fish species.

  13. Passive acoustic monitoring, development of disturbance calls and differentiation of disturbance and advertisement calls in the Argentine croaker Umbrina canosai (Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Tellechea, J S; Fine, M L; Norbis, W

    2017-01-23

    Disturbance and advertisement calls of the Argentine croaker Umbrina canosai were recorded from coastal Uruguayan waters. Dissections indicate typical sciaenid extrinsic swimbladder muscles present exclusively in males. Disturbance calls were produced when captive U. canosai were startled, chased with a net or grabbed by the tail. Calls were unusual for sciaenids because each pulse consisted of multiple cycles. The number of cycles per pulse and dominant frequency did not change with U. canosai size, but pulse duration and interpulse interval increased. Advertisement calls were recorded from unseen choruses in the field and confirmed with captive individuals in a large tank. Advertisement calls were recorded throughout the known range of the species in Uruguay indicating a continuous belt of spawning populations. Tank recordings of the same individuals permitted explicit comparisons between the two calls. Advertisement call pulses averaged 2·4 more cycles (11·0-8·6) although pulses of both calls were basically similar as were durations and dominant frequencies. Pulse number, however, differed markedly, averaging 13·6 and 3·4 pulses for disturbance and advertisement calls respectively. Furthermore, disturbance calls were produced as a rapid series with an interpulse interval of 26-31 ms whereas advertisement call patterns were less stereotyped and ranged from <100 to 450 ms. Multicycle pulses distinguished U. canosai from other sympatric sciaenids.

  14. [Bycatch fish species from shrimp industrial fishery in the Gulf of California, Mexico].

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Juana; Herrera-Valdivia, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Romero, Jesús; Hernández-Vázquez, Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Bycatch fish species from shrimp industrial fishery in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The shrimp fishery in the Gulf of California is one the most important activities of revenue and employment for communities. Nevertheless, this fishery has also created a large bycatch problem, principally fish. To asses this issue, a group of observers were placed on board the industrial shrimp fleet and evaluated the Eastern side of the Gulf during 2004 and 2005. Studies consisted on 20kg samples of the capture for each trawl, and made possible a systematic list of species for this geographic area. Fish represented 70% of the capture. A total of 51 101 fish were collected, belonging to two classes, 20 orders, 65 families, 127 genera, and 241 species. The order Perciformes was the most diverse with 31 families, 78 genera, and 158 species. The best represented families by number of species were: Sciaenidae (34) and Paralichthyidae (18) and Haemulidae and Carangidae (16 each). The best represented genera in number of species were Symphurus (nine) and Diplectrum and Cynoscion (six); other important genera were Larimus and Porichthys with five species each. The best represented species in number were Syacium ovale, Pseudupeneus grandisquamis, Haemulopsis nitidos, Diplectrum pacificum, Synodus scituliceps, Balistes polylepis, Eucinostomus currani, Eucinostomus gracilis, Porichthys analis, Chloroscombrus orqueta, Selene peruviana, Orthopristis reddingi, Etropus crossotus, Scorpaena sonorae and Urobatis halleri. The number of recorded species is notably high, compared with demersal fauna of other areas of the Mexican Pacific, such as Gulf of Tehuantepec (178), Nayarit, Michoacán, Guerrero (174, 120 and 166), Jalisco and Colima (161 species), and those of the Western coast of the Baja California Peninsula (220 species).

  15. Plectranthias alcocki, a new anthiine fish species (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Arabian Sea, off southwest India.

    PubMed

    Bineesh, K K; Akhilesh, K V; Gopalakrishnan, A; Jena, J K

    2014-04-04

    A new species of anthiine fish, Plectranthias alcocki n. sp. is described and illustrated based on two specimens, (63.7-72.5 mm SL), recently collected from deep-waters of the Arabian Sea, off Kollam, Kerala, India. The following combination of characters distinguishes it from all other congeners: Dorsal-fin rays X, 15; anal-fin rays III, 7; pectoral-fin rays 14, all unbranched; pelvic-fin rays I, 5; lateral-line complete, the pored lateral-line scales 28; scales above lateral line to origin of dorsal fin 1; scales dorsally on head extending to posterior nostrils; no scales on maxilla or chin; gill rakers 5 + 11 (2 + 7 developed); circumpeduncular scales 10; fourth dorsal spine longest, 2.8 (2.6) in head length (HL), longest dorsal-fin soft ray (second)  2.4 (2.7) in head length; body depth 34.4 (35)% SL; head length 46 (49.8)% SL; orbital length 8.6 in SL; margin of preopercle finely serrate, the serrae 33 (28), ventral edge without antrorse spines; dorsal fin continuous and notched; first anal-fin spine 4.9 (5.6) in HL, second anal-fin spine 2.2 (2.6) in HL; pelvic fins relatively short, 4.0-4.3 in SL; the dorsal fin with a black blotch at base of fourth to eighth spines, one at base of the last three spines, and two at base of soft portion of fin, the dark pigment extending onto adjacent body.

  16. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction of the Neotropical Fish, Crenicichla menezesi (Perciformes: Cichlidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Andréa Soares; do Nascimento, Wallace Silva; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology and the gonadal development cycle of the Neotropical cichlid fish, Crenicichla menezesi, is described. This species exhibits sexual dimorphism only during the spawning season. First sexual maturity of females is attained earlier than the males. Both macroscopic and histological investigations of ovaries and testes revealed four stages of gonadal maturation. Mean batch fecundity of females was 372 (±10,41) of mature oocytes. This species is a partial spawner, with an extended spawning period. Monthly values of GSI and the condition factor are negatively correlated during the gonadal development cycle of this species. PMID:22919339

  17. Molecular phylogeny and possible scenario of ponyfish (Perciformes:Leiognathidae) evolution.

    PubMed

    Ikejima, Kou; Ishiguro, Naoya B; Wada, Minoru; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2004-06-01

    The family Leiognathidae, commonly known as ponyfish or slip mouth, comprises three genera, each being characterized mainly by mouth morphology. To date, however, neither the phylogenetic relationships within the family nor monophyly of the genera has been tested. The phylogenetic relationships among 14 species of Leiognathidae, inferred from two protein coding mitochondrial genes (ND4 and 5), indicated monophyly of the studied species form genera Gazza and Secutor, and paraphyly of the genus Leiognathus, with L. equulus occupying a basal branch of the family. The relationships allowed phylogenetic analyses of mouthpart structures and light organ systems. The results suggested that the morphology of the upwardly and forwardly protractile mouth types (latter with canine-like teeth) are phylogenetically informative, and the downwardly protractile mouth type being ancestral in the family. The results also suggested that internal sexual dimorphism of the light organ system was present in the common ancestor of a sister clade to L. equulus, whereas external sexual dimorphism seems to have evolved subsequently in two monophyletic subgroups.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA sequence-based phylogenetic relationship of Trichiurus lepturus (Perciformes: Trichiuridae) from the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Tamadoni Jahromi, S.; Mohd Noor, S. A.; Pirian, K.; Dehghani, R.; Nazemi, M.; Khazaali, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mitochondrial DNA analysis using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed to investigate the phylogeny relationship of Trichiurus lepturus in the Persian Gulf compared to the other investigated area. The amplification of 16S rDNA resulted in a product of 600 bp in all samples. The results showed that the isolated strain belongs to T. lepturus showing 42 divergence sites among the same reported partial sequences of 16S rRNA gene from the other area (West Atlantic and Indo-Pacific area). Phylogeny results showed that all 18 haplotypes of the species clustered into five clades with reasonably high bootstrap support of values (>64%). Overall, the tree topology for both phylogenetic and phenetic trees for 16S rDNA was similar. Both trees exposed two major clusters, one wholly containing the haplotypes of the T. lepturus species belonging to Indo-Pacific area with two major sister groups including Persian Gulf specimen and the other cleared the Western Atlantic and Japan individuals clustered in another distinct clade supporting the differentiation between the two areas. Phylogenic relationship observed between the Persian Gulf and the other Indo-Pacific Individuals suggested homogeneity between two mentioned areas. PMID:27822250

  19. DNA barcoding of commercially important Grouper species (Perciformes, Serranidae) in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Simon G; Yambot, Apolinario V

    2016-11-01

    Fish identification is generally challenging because of their unpronounced and overlapping morphological characters which is true in grouper species. In the Philippines, an updated, reliable and accurate inventory of this high value commercial groupers has not been carried out previously. Using molecular tools in the identification and inventory of fish species in the country is confined to few laboratories and experts in the country. In this study, 27 species of the Serranidae family were identified from the grouper samples collected from major fish landing sites and markets in the Philippines. The grouper species were molecularly identified using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences for DNA barcoding. The accuracy of the inferred species-level taxonomy based on COI is supported with high similarity search (98-100%) both in BOLD and BLAST, well-distributed genetic distance values and cohesive clustering in the Neighbor-Joining Tree. Aside from reinforcing the classical methodology of grouper identification in the country, this pioneering study on molecular identification of Philippine groupers constitutes a significant contribution to the DNA barcode library of Philippine marine fishes and to the global barcode entries in general, which can be used when dealing with grouper taxonomy, biodiversity, stock assessment and trade. The results reveal the different localities where the grouper species can be possibly sourced out in the country for trade and aquaculture purposes. Several of the grouper species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. As a tool for conservation ecology, this study signals the implementation of sustainable fisheries management regulation to protect in particular those which are listed under the IUCN.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sixblotch hind Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Pisces: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Chen, Kao-Sung; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wu, Chi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the sixblotch hind, Cephalopholis sexmaculata was presented in this study. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,589 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a noncoding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to most vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 29.35%; G, 16.08%; C, 28.56%; and T, 26.01%. The COI gene started with GTG codon and the ATP6 gene started with CTG codon. The complete mitogenomic data may provide informative for further phylogenetic approach of species of Cephalopholis and related genera belong to the Epinephelidae groupers.

  1. Primary male development of two sequentially hermaphroditic groupers, Epinephelus akaara and Epinephelus awoara (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Wang, Y-Y; Shan, X-J; Kang, B; Ding, S-X

    2016-04-01

    Gonad ontogeny of the Hong Kong grouper Epinephelus akaara (a bi-directional sex changer) and the yellow grouper Epinephelus awoara (a protogynous hermaphrodite) was examined for the first time from post-larval phase until first sexual maturation, by histology. Approximately 20 specimens of each species were collected randomly every 2-7 weeks from rearing tanks with natural sea water and temperature between June 2013 and June 2014. The paired gonadal primordia (GP) were observed at 6 weeks after hatching (wah) for both species; however, gonia were first observed in GP at 16 wah for E. akaara and at 8 wah for E. awoara. The timings for the appearance of primary-growth stage oocytes (O1) and the completion of ovarian lumen (OL) varied; both at 27 wah for E. akaara, and at 18 and 23 wah for E. awoara respectively. A bisexual-phase gonad with an OL, O1 and scattered spermatogenic cysts (SC) was observed at 27-29 wah for both E. akaara and E. awoara. Sexual differentiation was subsequently observed from the bisexual-phase gonad at 34 wah for E. akaara, and 41 wah for E. awoara, with the appearance of cortical-alveolus stage oocytes (O2) for developing female and the proliferation of SC for developing primary male (i.e. from juvenile directly). Ovaries of mature females contained the vitellogenic stage oocytes (O3) and scattered SC; testes of mature primary males had sperm in sperm sinuses within the gonadal wall and remained O1. Minimum age of first sexual maturation for both female and primary male of E. akaara was at 41 wah; minimum total length (LT ) of female (143 mm) was larger than that of primary male (137 mm L(T)). Minimum age and size of first sexual maturation for female of E. awoara (47 wah and 149 mm L(T), respectively) were larger than those of E. akaara. Developing primary males of E. awoara were found at 41-58 wah, however, mature males were not observed, indicating inconsistency in first sexual maturation for E. awoara. This study provided strong evidences of primary male pathway in E. akaara and E. awoara; the latter is confirmed to be diandric.

  2. Helminth parasites of the red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from the reef Santiaguillo, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Mendoza, Jesús; Jiménez-Badillo, Lourdes; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2014-12-01

    A total of 21 helminth species were recovered from 52 specimens of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus , captured in the reef Santiaguillo, Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, State of Veracruz, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. These helminths included 9 trematodes (7 adults and 2 metacercariae), 4 nematodes (3 adults and 1 larva), 4 acanthocephalans (1 adult and 3 juvenile), 2 cestodes (both larvae), and 2 monogeneans. Sixteen of the 21 species are new host records; 7 are common species with a prevalence >40% and mean intensity >4.1. The monogenean Euryhaliotrema tubocirrus was the most-prevalent parasite with a prevalence of 78.8%, followed by the intestinal plerocercoids of Tetraphyllidea with a prevalence of 59.6%. The richness (S = 21), and diversity (Shannon index H = 2.17) in the component community, as well as in the infracommunity level (S = 5.1 ± 2.2, H = 0.92 ± 0.4), was similar to those found in other marine fish of temperate and tropical latitudes. The present study suggests that the composition of the parasite community is associated with the host feeding habits because 18/21 of the recorded species are trophically transmitted.

  3. Prognathodes basabei, a new species of butterflyfish (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) from the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Richard L.; Kosaki, Randall K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the butterflyfish genus Prognathodes is described from specimens collected at a depth of 55–61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This species has been observed by mixed-gas divers and from submersibles at depths ranging from 45–187 m throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, with shallower sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and deeper in the Main Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to Prognathodes guezei (Maugé and Bauchot 1976) from the western Indian Ocean, and at least one other undescribed species of Prognathodes from Palau, differing from these species in the number of soft dorsal-fin rays, size of head, and body depth. There are also differences in the life color, and a substantial genetic difference from the Palauan species (d » .08 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I). PMID:27667937

  4. Diet-Morphology Correlations in the Radiation of South American Geophagine Cichlids (Perciformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae)

    PubMed Central

    López-Fernández, Hernán; Winemiller, Kirk O.; Montaña, Carmen; Honeycutt, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    Genera within the South American cichlid tribe Geophagini display specialized feeding and reproductive strategies, with some taxa specialized for both substrate-sifting and mouth brooding. Several lineages within the clade also possess an epibranchial lobe (EBL), a unique pharyngeal structure that has been proposed to have a function in feeding and/or mouth brooding. A recently published genus-level phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids was used as the evolutionary framework for investigating the evolution of morphological features presumably correlated with diet and mouth brooding in the tribe Geophagini. We tested for possible associations between the geophagine epibranchial lobe and benthic feeding and mouth brooding. We also addressed whether the EBL may be associated with unique patterns of diversification in certain geophagine clades. Tests of binary character correlations revealed the EBL was significantly associated with mouth brooding. We also tested for a relationship between diet and morphology. We analyzed stomach contents and morphometric variation among 21 species, with data for two additional species obtained from the literature. Principal Components Analysis revealed axes of morphological variation significantly correlated with piscivory and benthivory, and both morphology and diet were significantly associated with phylogeny. These results suggest that the EBL could be an adaptation for either feeding or mouth brooding. The EBL, however, was not associated with species richness or accelerated rates of phyletic diversification. PMID:22485154

  5. Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of the Neotropical peacock basses Cichla (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Willis, Stuart C; Nunes, Mario S; Montaña, Carmen G; Farias, Izeni P; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2007-07-01

    To investigate forces influencing diversification in Neotropical fishes, the phylogenetic relationships among species and populations of the cichlid genus Cichla were examined. Mitochondrial DNA was sequenced for 454 individuals of the 5 nominal Cichla species and several putative undescribed species. Phylogenetic analyses support the distinction of two major clades of Cichla. Clade A includes C. temensis and two undescribed species from the lower Amazonas and Xingu Rivers. Clade B includes C. orinocensis, C. monoculus, C. ocellaris. C, intermedia, and an undescribed species from the upper Madeira River. Species boundaries were relatively well-circumscribed for clade B, while incomplete lineage sorting was inferred for clade A. Three probable instances of introgression were observed, including a regional population of C. orinocensis from the Negro River that shows a history of introgression. Biogeographic patterns from Cichla are partially congruent with those seen in several other Neotropical fish clades, and the diversification of Cichla species is inferred to result from both vicariance and sympatric divergence.

  6. Luzonichthysseaver, a new species of Anthiinae (Perciformes, Serranidae) from Pohnpei, Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Copus, Joshua M; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie A; Pyle, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Luzonichthysseaver, n. sp., is described from two specimens, 42-46 mm standard length (SL) collected from Pohnpei, Micronesia. Collections were made by divers on mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers using hand nets at depths of 90-100 m. Luzonichthysseaver is distinct from all other species of the genus in the characters of lateral line scales, gill rakers, pelvic fin length, caudal concavity and coloration. Of the six species of Luzonichthys, it appears to be morphologically most similar to L.earlei and L.whitleyi.

  7. DNA Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Diversity within Commercially Exploited Indo-Malay Carangidae (Teleosteii: Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Mat Jaafar, Tun Nurul Aimi; Taylor, Martin I.; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah; de Bruyn, Mark; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcodes, typically focusing on the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) in many animals, have been used widely as a species-identification tool. The ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species from a range of taxa and to reveal cryptic species has been well documented. Despite the wealth of DNA barcode data for fish from many temperate regions, there are relatively few available from the Southeast Asian region. Here, we target the marine fish Family Carangidae, one of the most commercially-important families from the Indo-Malay Archipelago (IMA), to produce an initial reference DNA barcode library. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, a 652 bp region of COI was sequenced for 723 individuals from 36 putative species of Family Carangidae distributed within IMA waters. Within the newly-generated dataset, three described species exhibited conspecific divergences up to ten times greater (4.32–4.82%) than mean estimates (0.24–0.39%), indicating a discrepancy with assigned morphological taxonomic identification, and the existence of cryptic species. Variability of the mitochondrial DNA COI region was compared within and among species to evaluate the COI region's suitability for species identification. The trend in range of mean K2P distances observed was generally in accordance with expectations based on taxonomic hierarchy: 0% to 4.82% between individuals within species, 0% to 16.4% between species within genera, and 8.64% to 25.39% between genera within families. The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance between individuals, between species within genera, and between genera within family were 0.37%, 10.53% and 16.56%, respectively. All described species formed monophyletic clusters in the Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree, although three species representing complexes of six potential cryptic species were detected in Indo-Malay Carangidae; Atule mate, Selar crumenophthalmus and Seriolina nigrofasciata. Conclusion/Significance This study confirms that COI is an effective tool for species identification of Carangidae from the IMA. There were moderate levels of cryptic diversity among putative species within the central IMA. However, to explain the hypothesis of species richness in the IMA, it is necessary to sample the whole family across their broad geographic range. Such insights are helpful not only to document mechanisms driving diversification and recruitment in Carangidae, but also to provide a scientific framework for management strategies and conservation of commercially-important fisheries resources. PMID:23209586

  8. [Growth and mortality parameters of Orthopristis ruber (Perciformes: Haemulidae) from Los Frailes Archipelaeo. Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Atenas, Guerrieri; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo Walter; Guevara, Francisco

    2015-03-01

    Orthopristis ruber is a species in high demand in Eastern Venezuela, but production has been decreasing in recent years. For this reason, our objective was to estimate the growth and mortality parameters of this resource. Monthly samples were collected from June 2011 to May 2012, obtaining 2980 specimens in El Tirano and Puerto Abajo. Data on total length (cm), total weight (g), and sex were recorded for each specimen. No sexual dimorphism was shown with respect to length (t(S)=1.113, p>0.05), so one length-weight ratio was established for both sexes (Wt=0.0612*Lt(2.54)); and they both exhibited minor allometric growth. Growth was estimated by analysis of length frequency distributions using FiSAT software. The estimated growth parameters (L.=39.03cm, W.=679.60g, k=0.48/year and t(O) = -0.32 year) showed moderately rapid growth. Length frequency data were adjusted to the von Bertalaniffy model, and indicated an exponential tendency of accelerated growth during the first years of life, followed by slow growth until the fish reached its maximum length. The coefficient of variation of the growth index (theta) demonstrated no differences in growth pattern. The natural mortality rate (M=0.97/year), from fishing (F=1.57/year), and total mortality (Z=2.54/year), were high, as well as the exploitation rate (E=0.62/year). We concluded that O. ruber has been fully exploited by artisanal fishers, and suggest a continuous study on population dynamics, to recommend optimum management techniques for the fishery.

  9. Fecundity, growth, and survival of the angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Perciformes: Cichlidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Salas, Armando A; Cortés G, Isabel; Reyes-Bustamante, Hugo

    2009-09-01

    The freshwater angelfishes (Pterophyllum) are South American cichlids that have become very popular among aquarists, yet scarce information on their culture and aquarium husbandry exists. We studied Pterophyllum scalare to analyze dietary effects on fecundity, growth, and survival of eggs and larvae during 135 days. Three diets were used: A) decapsulated cysts of Artemia, B) commercial dry fish food, and C) a mix diet of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The initial larval density was 100 organisms in each 40 L aquarium. With diet A, larvae reached a maximum weight of 3.80 g, a total length of 6.3 cm, and a height of 5.8 cm; with diet B: 2.80 g, 4.81 cm, and 4.79 cm, and with diet C: 3.00 g, 5.15 cm, and 5.10 cm, respectively. Significant differences were observed between diet A, and diet B and C, but no significantly differences were observed between diets B and C. Fecundity varied from 234 to 1,082 eggs in 20 and 50 g females, respectively. Egg survival ranged from 87.4% up to 100%, and larvae survival (80 larvae/40 L aquarium) from 50% to 66.3% using diet B and A, respectively. Live food was better for growing fish than the commercial balanced food diet. Fecundity and survival are important factors in planning a good production of angelfish.

  10. A new fish species of the subfamily Serraninae (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey T; Carpenter, Kent E

    2015-01-19

    A new species of serranine fish is described from the Philippine Islands. A single specimen of a new species, Chelidoperca santosi, captured by fishermen working in Palawan waters was discovered in the public fish market in Iloilo City, Panay, Philippines. Two additional specimens of the new species, also from the Philippines, were subsequently discovered in the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia. The new species is currently known only from the Philippines and is characterized by its distinctive coloration with a row of four small dark spots on the snout (two in front of each eye) and two dark spots on the chin (one on each side of the symphysis of the dentaries), a white anal fin with six large yellow spots separated by broad white interspaces and a narrow yellow distal border, caudal fin with narrow yellow bars and a yellowish distal margin and no dark spots, and a combination of meristic and morphological characters. 

  11. Reproductive biology of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Perciformes: Centropomidae) in two tropical habitats.

    PubMed

    Perera-García, Martha A; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido M; Huerta-Ortíz, Maricela; Pérez-Sánchez, Eunice

    2011-06-01

    In Southeastern Mexico, Centropomus undecimalis is an important fish species of sport and commercial fisheries for coastal and riverine communities. Fisheries along rivers and coasts depend on migratory habits of this species, and these movements are probably related to reproduction. In spite of its economic importance, few studies have been conducted focusing on its reproductive biology, and this research aims to analyze these habits. Samples (fork length, somatic and gonads weight, and macroscopic maturity stages) were obtained from organisms collected by fishermen from the largest fishing cooperatives along the coastal and riverine areas of Tabasco, from July 2006 to March 2008. Fish size ranged from 34 to 112 cm fork length, with an average age of 6.42 years for males and 9.12 years for females. In riverine areas, fish sizes ranged from 30 to 85 cm and the average age was 5.5 years for males and 6.6 years for females. Significant differences were recorded between lengths of males and females from the two areas (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The male:female ratio was 1:0.68 in the coast, and 1:0.16 in riverine areas. The length-weight relationship did not vary between both sexes among areas (ANCOVA, p > 0.05). A curve for eviscerated weight was calculated for both sexes, for coastal fishes SW = 0.0059 (FL)3.07, and the riverine ones SW = 0.0086 (FL) 2.98, with an isometric growth (b = 3). The period of maximum reproduction was from July to August, with temperatures of 28 to 30 degrees C. A significant correlation between the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and rainfall was recorded for samples of both males and females from coastal areas (r = 0.63, r = 0.70) whereas only one positive correlation was recorded for riverine females (r = 0.57). The size at first maturity (L50) was estimated at 60 cm and 80 cm (FL), corresponding to 5.5 and 8.5 years of age, for males and females, respectively. An important proportion of mature females of eight years and older, suggests that these ages contribute significantly to the reproductive biomass. The results indicate that due to changes in the exploitation period, we recommend to protect populations of the common snook.

  12. First record of Mugil capurrii (Mugilidae, Perciformes) in the Gulf of Guinea.

    PubMed

    Trape, S; Durand, J-D

    2011-03-01

    Leaping African mullet Mugil capurrii was caught along the Togolese coast in the Gulf of Guinea. This is the first record of this species which usually occurs from Morocco to Guinea Bissau and the southernmost point of its known distribution.

  13. Noise elicits hematological stress parameters in Mediterranean damselfish (Chromis chromis, perciformes): A mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Vazzana, Mirella; Celi, Monica; Arizza, Vincenzo; Calandra, Giampiero; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Bracciali, Claudia; Sarà, Gianluca

    2017-03-01

    In the last few decades, technological developments and the widespread rise of anthropic activities have increased the exposure of organisms to noise pollution, thus evoking great interest in its biological effects, particularly on the immune system. The aim of the present work was to investigate some of the biochemical parameters in the blood of Chromis chromis (Linnaeus, 1758) following in vivo exposure to noise levels of 200 and 300 Hz. Our results revealed that, compared to the control specimens, the fish exposed to noise had significantly increased levels of stress biomarkers such as glucose, lactate and total proteins in plasma, as well as a rise in the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70).

  14. Mitochondrial genome of the blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus Lesson, 1831 (Perciformes, Scrombidae).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Isaza, Juan P; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-05-01

    Blackfin tuna, Thunnus atlanticus is a widespread epipelagic oceanic species in the western Atlantic. So far the mitochondrial genome of this species remained unknown, although the mitogenomes of all congeners are known. The mitochondrial genome encodes for 13 proteins, 21 tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and the gene synteny is conserved with other previously reported mitogenomes of tunas.

  15. Protemblemaria perla, a new species of tube blenny (Perciformes: Chaenopsidae) from the tropical eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Hastings, P A

    2001-07-01

    Protemblemaria perla, from Isla del Rey, Islas Perlas, Panama, is distinctive in having a long unbranched cirrus on the posterior nostril, a U-shaped fleshy ridge bearing fleshy flaps and a pair of papillae on the nape, a relatively high number (18) of segmented dorsal-fin rays, and small rust-colored spots on the dorsal fin. Protemblemaria perla and P. punctata, from the southern Caribbean, share several morphological features and form a transisthmian species pair. Although the degree of color variation is unknown in P. perla, color varies greatly in P. bicirris and P. punctata, both of which have an orange morph.

  16. Embryonic and larval development of Eugerres mexicanus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) in Tenosique, Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Raúl E; Perera, Martha A; Castillo, Alfonso; Luna, Emiliano; de la Cruz, José A; Gómez, Luis M; Valdez Zenil, José

    2012-03-01

    Most studies on Eugerres mexicanus mainly consider biogeographic and systematic aspects and rarely address reproductive characteristics, which are useful for fishery population management plans. This study aimed at evaluating the ontogeny of E. mexicanus, based on 30 embryos and 30 larvae sampled by induced spawning of breeders, taken in February 2009 from the Usumacinta River in Tenosique, Tabasco, Mexico. All descriptions of the embryonic development were based on morphometric and meristic data and followed standard methods. Eggs, recovered at the gastrula stage, had an average diameter of 1.17mm (SD=0.08). The bud stage appeared during the first three hours of development, in which the posterior side was adhered to the vitellus; Kupffer's vesicle was visible. Yolk-sac larvae hatched 18 hours after fertilization, exhibiting a light brown color and an average total length of 2.94mm (SD=0.70); the preflexion stage was reached eight days after hatching, with a total average length of 4.67mm (SD=0.50) and a total notochord length of 4.45mm (SD=0.50). The flexion stage was reached on the 16th day, with an average total length of 6.66mm (SD=1.53), while postflexion was reached on the 24th day, with 10.33mm (SD=1.45). The pre-juvenile stage was reached on the 33rd day, with a total length of 14.30mm (SD=0.93), showing IX spines and 10 rays and III spines and eight rays in the dorsal and anal fins, respectively. The juvenile stage was reached by the 45th day, with an average length of 28.16mm (SD=1.93) and average weight of 4.75g (SD=1.49). Prejuveniles showed an initial pigmentation with dark colored dots in the superior and inferior jaw and dispersed on the head, while juveniles presented the same pigmentation pattern, decreasing towards the margin of the caudal peduncle. In conclusion, the embryonic developmental stages of E. mexicanus were typical for the Gerreidae group. However, their morphometric characters were slightly different since the diameter and size of the drop of oil were bigger than those reported for marine species. In addition, regarding pigmentation, the yolk-sac larvae of E. mexicanus were olive and yellow on the margin of the notochord, which differs from those reported for other species. This is the first recorded report on the reproductive biology and early life development of this species.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of jade perch, Scortum barcoo (Perciformes: Terapontidae: Scortum).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Li, Kaibin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Weiwei; Mai, Xiaomei; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-09-01

    This is the first documentation of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the jade perch, Scortum barcoo. The 16,843 bp mitogenome containes 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes) and two main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication) as do other vertebrate mitogenomes. The overall base composition of S. barcoo is 27.39% for A, 24.74% for T, 31.14% for C and 16.73% for G, with a slight A + T bias of 52.13%. All protein-coding genes are initiated with ATG except for COX1, which begin with GTG instead. Meanwhile, the termination codons of 13 protein-coding genes are varied with TAA, TAG, TA, T or AGG. The measure of complete mitogenome sequence of S. barcoo will provide fundamental data for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Terapontidae.

  18. The gallbladder of Uranoscopus scaber L. (teleost perciform fish) is lined by specialized cholecystocytes.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, J; Ott, Donald W; Oldham-Ott, Carla K

    2011-11-01

    The gallbladder of Uranoscopus exhibits a mucosal surface layer of simple columnar epithelium composed of specialized cholecystocytes. The apices show storage and mucous secretions, typical microvilli, and very apical projections extending deep into the luminal contents. Many organelles and heterogeneous vesicles of diverse size fill the cytoplasm, including neutral mucins, mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomal bodies, and lipid-rich deposits with cholesterol inclusions. The fibromuscular layer shows little blood supply and contains scattered lymph-like walls with minute cholesterol inclusions. The remaining muscular, subserosal, and serosal or adventitial layers of this species do not show any histologic differences to those of other vertebrates. It was unexpected to find cholesterol inclusions in the fatty deposits of the cholecystocytes, similar to those noted in human cholesterolosis and in some forms of hypercholesterolemia, in this teleostean. In addition, aggregations of mitochondria and anomalous mitochondrial morphologies were found that resemble oncocytoma-like changes.

  19. Taxonomic revision and stratigraphic provenance of 'Histiophorus rotundu' Woodward 1901 (Teleostei, Perciformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monsch, K.A.; Fierstine, H.L.; Weems, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, Histiophorus rotundus Woodward 1901, was known from a single, poorly preserved rostrum from the Tertiary phosphate beds near Charleston, South Carolina, an area from which many fossils have been described. The specimen is relatively featureless externally; its internal anatomy is unknown and the documentation of its geological provenance was poor. In an earlier revision the species was transferred to the fossil billfish genus Xiphiorhynchus Van Beneden, 1871. Here we confirm this designation, supported by new morphological studies of the holotype, recently found specimens of Xiphiorhynchus rotundus (Woodward, 1901), and the stratigraphic record of Xiphiorhynchus. The systematic paleontology we present is a contribution to the taxonomic revision of billfishes world-wide. Because the holotype is heavily phosphatized and the type locality was vaguely described, we discuss the geology of the phosphate mining districts of the Charleston region. Based on our studies, we can narrow the possible age of the holotype to late Oligocene or early Miocene. We suggest X. rotundus was extinct by the Burdigalian. 

  20. Phylogenetic relationships and a new classification of the family Cyclopteridae (Perciformes: Cottoidei).

    PubMed

    Oku, Kanami; Imamura, Hisashi; Yabe, Mamoru

    2017-01-16

     Phylogenetic relationships of the family Cyclopteridae were reconstructed based on osteological and external characters.  The monophyly of the family was strongly supported by 47 commonly recognized synapomorphies, including six autapomorphies (plus one additional autapomorphy, presence of a dorsal process on the pelvis, recognized after the phylogenetic analysis) among the suborder Cottoidei.  As a result of the cladistic analysis, a single most parsimonious phylogeny was obtained, based on characters in 32 transformation series.  A new classification of Cyclopteridae based on reconstructed relationships, including three subfamilies [Liparopsinae, Cyclopterinae and Eumicrotreminae (newly established)] and four genera (Aptocyclus, Cyclopsis, Cyclopterus and Eumicrotremus), is proposed.

  1. [Reproductive biology of the golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the central Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Ceballos-Vázquez, Bertha Patricia

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource management programs. To support the possible establishment of closed seasons and catch levels for the area, our study aimed to evaluate the spawning season of the Golden snapper (Lutjanus inermis). For this, fish caught by artisanal fisheries in the Navidad, Tenacatita and Chamela bays (Jalisco, Mexico) were sampled monthly from 1999-2008, and analyzed sex ratios, spawning season and size at first maturity. A total of 311 (53.1%) females and 275 (46.9%) males were caught, and the observed sex ratio was 1:0.88. The total length range was 14.4-37.0cm and total weight range from 48-575g. The length at first maturity was 23.9cm TL for females and 23.6cm TL for males. The gonadosomatic index showed two principal reproductive periods in the year (February-April and September-November), when the largest number of mature gonads were observed. Ovaries were of asynchronic development type and seven oocyte development stages were identified. Testicles showed lobular development and spermatozoa were observed in the center of the cysts and in the collecting ducts. It is important to mention that our results support the current suitable exploitation of this species in the area.

  2. [Reproductive biology of Anisotremus interruptus (Perciformes: Haemulidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Rojo-Vázquez, J A; Arellano-Martínez, Marcial

    2012-06-01

    Anisotremus interruptus is a widely distributed and commercially important species in the Eastern Pacific. A multi-year research on the reproduction of this species was carried out in coastal waters of Jalisco, Mexico. For this purpose, monthly samples were gathered with gillnets of different mesh sizes from 1998-2008. A total of 1090 individuals were collected with a total length range between 15.6-61.0cm. Significant differences from expected 1:1 ratio were found for sex ratios in the total sample and for each size class, but not when comparisons among months and years were done. Temporal variations of the gonadosomatic index and proportions of maturation stages suggest that the main reproductive period is from February to May, although some less intensive spawning events were observed in other months. Seven stages of oocytes development were identified. Oocytes in different stages of development were identified in ovaries classified as mature, suggesting an asynchronic type of gonad development. Mean maturation length (L50) was 31.0 for females and 29.7cm for males. The internal organization of testes is of lobular type.

  3. [The System of the Suborder Zoarcoidei (Pisces, Perciformes) as Inferred from Molecular Genetic Data].

    PubMed

    Radchenko, O A

    2015-11-01

    Based on an analysis of sequence variation in mitochondrial and nuclear markers, the levels of divergence, relationships, and system of the suborder Zoarcoidei was defined. It was demonstrated that DNA lineages of the families Bathymasteridae and Cebidichthyidae were positioned at the bottom ofthe suborder phylogenetic tree. The family Zoarcidae is a monophyletic group, the youngest in the evolutionary terms. Zoarcidae, Anarhichadidae, Neozorcidae, and Eulophiidae form a group of related families. The family Stichaeidae is heterogeneous and has a polyphyletic origin; within this family, the subfamilies Chirolophinae, Alectgiinae, Xiphisterinae, and Stichaeinae are sister taxa. The subfamilies Opisthocentrinae and Lumpeninae are isolated from Stichaedae; Opisthocentrinae is closely associated with the families Pholidae and Ptilichthyidae, and Lumpeninae is closely associated with Zaproridae and Cryptacanthodidae. It is suggested that the rank of subfamilies Opisthocentrinae and Lumpeninae should be raised.

  4. Two new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea .

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2014-11-10

    Two new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. guttatus sp. nov. and C. pseudomonospilus sp. nov., are described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops guttatus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,12; anal-fin rays I,10-11; pectoral-fin rays 17, three upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form a disc, weakly emarginate, with pelvic frenum reduced; longitudinal scale series 33-35; transverse scale rows 9-10; circumpeduncular scales 10-11; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae on cheek; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, with triangular lappet extending from posterior rim, posterior nostril slightly raised; dark orange spots on many of the scales below body midline form a longitudinal pattern, each spot covering one scale; two distinct dark spots behind edge of preopercle, and similar pair of spots at pectoral-fin base. Coryogalops pseudomonospilus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners by having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,11; anal-fin rays I,10; pectoral-fin rays 16-17, two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form a disc, moderately emarginate, with pelvic frenum well-developed; longitudinal scale series 33-35; transverse scales rows 9; circumpeduncular scales 12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae on cheek; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without lappet from posterior rim, posterior nostril slightly raised; and irregular dark maroon mark covering lower part of the first three membranes between spines of first dorsal fin. The distribution of species restricted to the western Indian Ocean is discussed, and a key to the species of the genus is provided.

  5. Oocyte development and fecundity type of the Brazilian Snapper Lutjanus alexandrei Moura & Lindeman, 2007 (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C A F; Oliveira, P G V; Oliveira, C H B; Hazin, F H V; Travassos, P

    2016-02-01

    Lutjanid species exhibit multiple spawning behaviour during an extended spawning season in warm months, asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate fecundity. Although early studies have contributed to knowledge of the reproductive cycle of many species within the group, they have not considered aspects about the number of cortical alveoli oocyte stage throughout maturity phases along spawning season. The latter aspect is also considered very important to confirm indeterminate fecundity hypothesis. In the present study, were analyzed 154 Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei female gonads obtained from artisanal fisheries in Pernambuco State (Brazil) between October 2010 and March 2011. Were measured oocyte size frequency distribution for maturity phases (developing, spawning capable and actively spawning), and oocyte development stage (unyolked oocytes, cortical alveoli, primary, secondary and tertiary vitellogenic oocytes and hydrated oocytes), and also the oocyte stage frequency during spawning season. The frequency of cortical alveoli oocyte stage was constantly found in the spawning period (>37%), showing slight variation throughout maturity phases. The absence of gap in the oocyte size frequency distribution between primary and secondary oocyte growth stages during spawning season is a strong indicator of continuous oocyte recruitment from reserve stocks. In addition, co-occurrence of tertiary vitellogenic oocytes, hydrated oocytes, post-ovulatory follicles and yellow-brown bodies in the histological sections of ovaries reinforce indeterminate fecundity hypothesis.

  6. Phylogeny and taxonomy of Petroschmidtia teraoi (Katayama, 1943) (Osteichthyes: Perciformes: Zoarcidae).

    PubMed

    Nazarkin, Mikhail V; Shinohara, Gento; Shirai, Shigeru M

    2014-03-20

    A morphological and genetic reassessment of the phylogeny and taxonomy of the dwarf zoarcid fish Lycodes teraoi Katayama, 1943 indicated that the species, a senior synonym of Lycodes sadoensis Toyoshima & Honma, 1980, should be placed in the genus Petroschmidtia. A redescription of P. teraoi is provided, with remarks on its taxonomy. Numerous specimens revealed a wide distribution of P. teraoi in the Sea of Japan, as well as in the southern Sea of Okhotsk.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the pink clownfish Amphiprion perideraion (Pisces: Perciformes, Pomacentridae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Xueyi; Li, Jianlong; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    In this study the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the pink clownfish Amphiprion perideraion was obtained by using eight consensus primer pairs with a long PCR technique. The circular mtDNA molecule was 16,579 bp in size and the overall nucleotide composition of the H-strand was 29.37% A, 25.50% T, 15.68% G and 29.45% C, with an A + T bias. The complete mitogenome contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region, and the gene order was typical of vertebrate mitogenomes. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. perideraion is a representative of the subgenus Phalerebus for mitogenomes database of anemonefishes, which can be used to unveil taxonomic problems and phylogenetic relationships in Amphiprioninae.

  8. Two new fish species of the subfamily Anthiinae (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Marquesas.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey T; Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Planes, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of anthiine fishes are described from the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. Plectranthias flammeus was found at depths from 20-45 m and is characterized by dorsal rays X, 14 or 15, with spines 1-6 bearing fleshy white tabs at their tips, longest fleshy tab on spine 4; 14 unbranched pectoral rays; lateral line incomplete with 16-17 tubed scales; preopercle with 8-10 small spines along posterior margin and 2 antrorse spines on ventral margin; broad, fiery red-orange streak across lower cheek; head and body with irregularly spaced maroon-ringed yellow blotches on a white background; pair of small dark oblong spots (red with black centers in life) on the bases of the middle rays of the caudal fin. Pseudanthias oumati was found on the outer reef slope of Fatu Hiva at a depth of 50-55 m and is characterized by 3rd dorsal spine elongate and tipped with fleshy yellow filament extending beyond tip of spine; lateral-line scales 43; gill rakers 10 + 28; no papillae on posterior edge of orbit; front of upper lip not thickened (male condition unknown); caudal fin lunate; color of female yellow, all fins yellow with narrow magenta margin (except pectoral fin, which lacks magenta); no stripe from snout to pectoral base; small scales located on basal quarter of soft-dorsal fin from segmented rays 1-12; dorsal profile of head slightly concave.

  9. Review of the harvestfishes, genus Peprilus (Perciformes: Stromateidae),
    of the Atlantic coast of South America.

    PubMed

    Marceniuk, Alexandre P; Caires, Rodrigo; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-04-06

    Currently, seven valid species are recognized in the genus Peprilus. Found from United States to Argentina, Peprilus paru has a complex nomenclatural history, with seven junior synonyms, three from North America and four from South America. As there has been no recent research, it remains unclear whether species representatives in the north-south axis represent different populations of a single species or distinct species. By comparison of type specimens as well as a comprehensive collection of non-type specimens, this paper aims to clarify the taxonomic status of the nominal species listed as junior synonyms of Peprilus paru in the Atlantic side of South America. Based on morphological data and DNA barcoding, Peprilus crenulatus Cuvier, 1829 and P. xanthurus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) are resurrected, while Rhombus argentipinnis Cuvier, 1833 and Rhombus orbicularis Guichenot, 1866, are considered to be junior synonyms of P. crenulatus.

  10. First report of the black gemfish Nesiarchus nasutus (Perciformes: Gempylidae) in Argentinean waters.

    PubMed

    Spath, M C; Delpiani, G; Brunetti, N E; Sakai, M; Figueroa, D E

    2015-05-01

    The gempylid Nesiarchus nasutus is reported for the first time from Argentinean waters, the southernmost occurrence of the species in the Southwestern Atlantic. This suggests that the fluctuating environmental characteristics of the area would be proper for the presence of tropical and subtropical species.

  11. A new species of the cardinalfish genus Siphamia (Perciformes, Apogonidae) from West Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gon, Ofer; Allen, Gerald R; Erdmann, Mark V; Gouws, Gavin

    2014-11-06

    A new species of the cardinalfish genus Siphamia is described from specimens collected in the Province of West Papua, Indonesia, at depths of 50-72 m. Siphamia papuensis n. sp. has a striated light organ which makes it a member of the S. tubifer species group. Within this group it is closely related to S. argentea, sharing with the latter 13 pectoral-fin rays, 9 developed gill rakers and an irregular pattern of yellowish green bars on the body. It differs from S. argentea in having an incomplete lateral line and in lacking dark marks on the head, and at the origin and end of the dorsal-fin and anal-fin bases, as well as the absence of red spots along the light organ and along the back. Japanese records of S. tubulata are reidentified as S. argentea, and new locality records for S. argentea and S. stenotes are reported. Analysis of sequence data from a 16S rDNA fragment revealed the clear separation of S. papuensis n. sp., S. argentea and other included Siphamia species (S. jebbi, S. tubifer and S. stenotes). 

  12. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters.

    PubMed

    Hermida, M; Pereira, A; Correia, A T; Cruz, C; Saraiva, A

    2016-07-01

    Blue jack mackerel, Trachurus picturatus, is a carangid fish which constitutes an important commercial resource in the north-east Atlantic. Its metazoan parasite community from Portuguese mainland waters was investigated here for the first time. Nine parasite taxa were found, most of which are common parasites of Trachurus spp. The parasite community was broadly similar to that of the Atlantic horse mackerel, T. trachurus, from the same region, but two digenean species were detected in blue jack mackerel, Monascus filiformis and Tergestia sp., which did not occur in horse mackerel from this region. A comparison with the two previous studies of T. picturatus parasite communities shows that continental-shelf regions are characterized by higher prevalences of digenean trematodes and an absence of trypanorhynch cestodes, in contrast with oceanic regions.

  13. Assessment of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae) fishery in Pacific Panama.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Héctor M; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Vega, Angel J; Robles, Yolany A

    2015-09-01

    The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippunis) is a highly migratory pelagic species commercially exploited by industrial, artisanal and recreational fisheries in tropical and subtropical areas of the world's oceans. Herein, we evaluated the dolphinfish industrial fishery in Pacific Panama for the first time generating a growth model and examining fluctuations in annual total catch and in catch per unit effort (CPUE) over a four-year period (2006-2009). Annual and monthly catch values and biological parameters of 14913 individuals were obtained onboard industrial vessels, landing sites and records from processing plants. Size frequency for industrial vessels showed a normal distribution between 353 and 1,715 mm (average, 1010.85 mm; n = 10,459). Fish weight averaged 4.94 kg (SD). Sex ratio was slightly biased toward females. More than 90% of the analyzed fish were sexually mature. The length-weight relationship was positive and significant, reflecting allometric growth. Growth parameters using the von Bertalanffy equation revealed a growth efficiency of θ = 4.61, which is within the reported range for Coryphaena hippurus (3.95-4.70). The largest fish were between age classes 2 and 3 (700 - 1400 mm). Total catch per year and catch per unit effort (CPUE) per year fluctuated, with the highest values recorded between 2008 and 2009. Catch values reported herein are preliminary and appear to be below those recorded elsewhere in the region and cautiously may represent an indicator of sustainable use of this marine resource even considering the absence of management actions in Panama.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sixbar grouper Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Du, Fei-Yan; Ye, Le; Wang, Xue-Hui

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we presented the complete mitogenome for the sixbar grouper Epinephelus sexfasciatus. The complete mitogenome of E. sexfasciatus is 16,786 bp in length with the typical mitochondrial gene order and composition in vertebrates. Overall base composition was 28.40% A, 27.93% C, 27.21% T and 16.45% G. The COI gene used GTG and the ATP6 gene used CTG as the start codon. The tRNA-Ser2 lost the dihydrouridine arm and replaced with a simple loop. Both the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods yielded the same tree topology using available mitogenomes of the genus Epinephelus. Epinephelus sexfasciatus was nested to E. akaara. E. awoara and E. fasciatomaculosus, and then combined with E. stictus formed a clade.

  15. Epinephelus moara: a valid species of the family Epinephelidae (Pisces: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Li, J-L; Ding, S-X; Liu, Z-Q

    2013-05-01

    This study documents the major external and internal morphological differences between Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara, and analyses the complete mitogenomes of both species. The partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (coI) sequence divergence between E. bruneus and E. moara is significantly higher than specimens within the same species (P < 0·05). Analyses of gene flow (Nm = 0·02) and genetic differentiation (ϕst = 0·92995, P > 0·05) reveal reproductive isolation between E. bruneus and E. moara. These results support the hypothesis that E. moara is a valid species. Further molecular comparisons between E. bruneus and E. moara obtained in this study and a specimen identified in GenBank as E. bruneus from South Korea reveal that the latter is identical to E. moara rather than to E. bruneus.

  16. Complete sequence and characterization of mitochondrial DNA genome of Channa asiatica (Perciformes: Channidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Channa asiatica mitochondrial (mtDNA) genome was determined in this study. The genome sequence (GenBank accession number KJ930190) was 16,550 base pairs in length, and the gene content and organization on the mitochondrial genome were similar to the other Channa fishes. The overall base composition of C. asiatica mitogenome is 29.4% A, 26.3% T, 15.3% G, 29.0% C, with a high A + T content of 55.7%. The mitochondrial sequence could provide useful genetic information for studying the molecular identification, population genetics, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics.

  17. Chelidoperca stella, a new species of perchlet (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Matsunuma, Mizuki; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-16

    A new species of serranid fish, Chelidoperca stella, is described on the basis of five specimens from the Andaman Sea in the eastern Indian Ocean. The species can be readily distinguished from all valid congeners by having fewer pored lateral-line scales (34 or 35 vs. 40-45 in the latter) and the pelvic fin white with several small yellow spots (vs. spots absent). The species is also characterized by having relatively high counts of small serrae on the posterior margins of the preopercle (33-43 serrae), interopercle (7-10) and subopercle (18-28), despite the small body size (51.7-61.8 mm SL). Although Chelidoperca stella resembles C. margaritifera in having 2.5 scale rows between lateral line and the sixth dorsal-fin spine base, a relatively wider interorbital region, and the interorbital scales not reaching a vertical through the orbit anterior margin, but differs by having the above-mentioned diagnostic characters plus a slightly shorter longest anal-fin soft ray [17.4-18.7 (mean 18.1) % SL vs. 22.6-26.4 (24.4) % SL in C. margaritifera].

  18. Reproductive tactics optimizing the survival of the offspring of Cichlasoma orientale (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Spíndola Linhares, Jussiara Candeira; Resende Manna, Luisa; Mazzoni, Rosana; Ferreira Rezende, Carla; Feitosa Silva, José Roberto

    2014-09-01

    High mortality rates have been observed in Teleost during early developmental stages, as well as great variations in reproductive tactics, which are related to adaptations towards environmental conditions and ecological niches for which different species have a specific response. The objective of this study was to describe reproductive tactics related to the survival of Cichlasoma orientale offspring, including aspects of body size, parental care, fecundity, oocyte size and spawning patterns. Samples were performed monthly from August 2011 to July 2013, in lentic and lotic environments at Curu river basin, Brazilian Northeastern semiarid region. Individual behavior (n = 13) was observed underwater for over 50 hours by ad libitum sampling and focal-animal sampling. Collected individuals (males n = 185, females n = 95) were evaluated regarding the standard length, batch fecundity, oocyte size and spawning pattern. In females with mature ovaries, oocyte groups at different developmental stages were observed, these cells were counted and measured, and fecundity was estimated by the gravimetric method. Our results showed that the species displayed biparental care behavior and, on average, males were larger than females. Based on 46 ovaries, the average batch fecundity was 2,052-849 (range: 254-3 389). Standard length and batch fecundity were positively correlated, but no correlation was found between oocyte size and standard length. The maximum diameter observed in the most developed oocytes was 1.8 mm. The observed distribution of oocyte size classes indicated synchronous oocyte development in three groups: pre- vitellogenic, vitellogenic and mature, showing that C. orientale is a multiple spawner. Differences in the amount of oocytes among the three groups were observed, with the most developed group showing the smallest number of oocytes. The combination of low fecundity and large egg size is characteristic of demersal spawners due to a greater environmental stability. Multiple spawning increases chances of survival mainly because of increased fecundity per reproductive season, and the reduced competition among the offspring. We concluded that C. orientale makes a heavy investment in larval survival in detriment of the offspring number. Survival is favored by the large size of oocytes, large yolk reserve, biparental care and multiple spawning pattern.

  19. A new species of Hetereleotris (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2014-02-12

    A new species of the genus Hetereleotris is described from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, on the basis of two specimens. Hetereleotris psammophila sp. nov. is unique among the species of the genus Hetereleotris, except for H. diademata, in lacking scales and head pores. The new species differs from the morphologically similar H. diademata in having fewer rays in the second dorsal and anal fins, and in coloration. The habitat preference of the new species for open sand area close to coral reefs in 8-21 m and its nocturnal habits are unusual for species of the genus Hetereleotris.

  20. Wallaceochromis gen. nov, a new chromidotilapiine cichlid genus (Pisces: Perciformes) from West Africa.

    PubMed

    Lamboj, Anton; Trummer, Franziska; Metscher, Brian D

    2016-07-26

    A new genus, Wallaceochromis, is described for the chromidotilapiine cichlids of the Pelvicachromis humilis group. It differs from Pelvicachromis sensu stricto in the number and arrangement of tubular infraorbitals, a straighter and sloping dorsal head profile with a low supraoccipital crest, higher abdominal vertebral counts (14-15 vs. 13-14), and in displaying a pattern of vertical bars on the body in several behavioral situations.

  1. Immune adaptive response induced by Bicotylophora trachinoti (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infestation in pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, I S; Luvizzotto-Santos, R; Sampaio, L A N; Bianchini, A; Martínez, P E

    2006-09-01

    Fish have developed protective strategies against monogeneans through immunological responses. In this study, immune adaptive response to parasites was analysed in the pompano Trachinotus marginatus infested by Bicotylophora trachinoti. Hosts were pre-treated with formalin and after 10 days assigned to one of the following experimental treatments: (1) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti; (2) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti and experimentally re-infested by exposure to T. marginatus heavily infested with B. trachinoti. Samples were collected at 0, 15, and 30 days. Gills were dissected to check the presence of B. trachinoti. Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical assays. Spleen and head-kidney were dissected for phagocytosis assay. The spleen-somatic index was also calculated. Re-infested fish showed a faster and higher parasite infestation than infested ones. The parasite mean abundance at 15 days was 24.86+/-13.32 and 11.67+/-8.57 for re-infested and infested fish, respectively. In both groups, hosts showed an immune adaptive response to parasite infestation that was marked by an increased number of leukocytes. Also, phagocytosis (%) in spleen and head-kidney cells was stimulated after parasite infestation (92.50+/-3.73 and 66.00+/-9.54, respectively), becoming later depressed (77.39+/-6.69 and 53.23+/-9.14, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that monogenean infestation induces a biphasic response of the non-specific defence mechanisms in the pompano T. marginatus. This response is marked by an initial stimulation followed by a later depression of the non-specific defence mechanisms.

  2. Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting oocytes of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Perciformes: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al, Suliman Y Omar

    2015-01-01

    During a survey the occurrence of Kudoa quraishii Mansour, Harrath, Abd-Elkader, Alwasel, Abdel-Baki et Al Omar, 2014, recently identified in the muscles of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), a species of Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947 infecting oocytes of mature females of the same host fish was found. The new species, for which the name Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. is proposed, infects oocytes that are enlarged with a whitish colour. The parasite develops in vesicular polysporous plasmodia within the oocyte. Infection occurs with a mean prevalence of 20% (7/35) of examined females. Mature spores are quadratic in shape in apical view, having four equal valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Fresh spores are 2.4-3.6 µm long (mean ± SD 3.1 ± 0.3 µm), 4.3-5.4 µm (4.7 ± 0.3 µm) wide and 3.4-4.3 µm (3.8 ± 0.3 µm) in thickness and long. The smaller size of the new Kudoa species was the distinctive feature that separates it from all previously described species. Molecular analysis based on the SSU rDNA sequences shows that the highest percentage of similarity of 98.5% was observed with K. ovivora Swearer et Robertson, 1999, reported from oocytes of labroid fish from the Caribbean coasts of Panama. The percentage of similarity was 98% with K. azevedoi Mansour, Thabet, Chourabi, Harrath, Gtari, Al Omar et Ben Hassine, 2013 and 89% with K. quraishii. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU and LSU rDNA data revealed a consistent of the new species with K. azevedoi and K. ovivora. Our findings support the creation of Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. that infects oocytes of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta.

  3. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology in hemoglobinless Antarctic icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Channichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2004-04-01

    The Channichthyidae, one of five Antarctic notothenioid families, includes 16 species and 11 genera. Most live at depths of 200-800 m and are a major component of fish biomass in many shelf areas. Channichthyids are unique among adult fishes in possessing pale white blood containing a few vestigal erythrocytes and no hemoglobin. Here we describe the brains of seven species and special sense organs of eight species of channichthyids. We emphasize Chionodraco hamatus and C. myersi, compare these species to other channichthyids, and relate our findings to what is known about brains and sense organs of red-blooded notothenioids living sympatrically on the Antarctic shelf. Brains of channichthyids generally resemble those of their bathydraconid sister group. Among channichthyids the telencephalon is slightly regressed, resulting in a stalked appearance, but the tectum, corpus cerebellum, and mechanoreceptive areas are well developed. Interspecific variation is present but slight. The most interesting features of channichthyid brains are not in the nervous tissue but in support structures: the vasculature and the subependymal expansions show considerable elaboration. Channichthyids have large accessory nasal sacs and olfactory lamellae are more numerous than in other notothenioids. The eyes are relatively large and laterally oriented with similar duplex (cone and rod) retinae in all eight species. Twin cones are the qualitatively dominant photoreceptor in histological sections and, unlike bathydraconids, there are no species with rod-dominated retinae. Eyes possess the most extensive system of hyaloid arteries known in teleosts. Unlike the radial pattern seen in red-blooded notothenioids and most other teleosts, channichthyid hyaloid arteries arise from four or five main branches and form a closely spaced anastomosing series of parallel channels. Cephalic lateral line canals are membranous and some exhibit extensions (canaliculi), but canals are more ossified than those of deeper-living bathydraconids. We conclude that, with respect to the anatomy and histology of the neural structures, the brain and sensory systems show little that is remarkable compared to other fishes, and exhibit little diversification within the family. Thus, the unusual habitat and a potentially deleterious mutation resulting in a hemoglobinless phenotype are reflected primarily in expansion of the vasculature in the brain and eye partially compensating for the absence of respiratory pigments. Neural morphology gives the impression that channichthyids are a homogeneous and little diversified group.

  4. Endosulfan affects GnRH cells in sexually differentiated juveniles of the perciform Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Yanina; Pandolfi, Matías; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Genovese, Griselda; Lo Nostro, Fabiana

    2015-06-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used in agriculture despite its high toxicity towards non-target organisms such as fish. It has been demonstrated that ES can cause negative effects on aquatic animals, including disruption of hormonal systems. However, the alterations produced by this pesticide on the reproductive axis of fish prior to sexual maturity, as well as possible modes of action have hardly been studied. This study aimed at assessing the effect of waterborne exposure to the pesticide ES on the reproductive axis during sexual differentiation of juveniles of the South American freshwater cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. No mortality was observed due to ES subchronic exposure (90 days post-fertilization). Exposure to ES did not affect body weight nor morphometric parameters, indicating that larvae nutritional state was not affected. Timing of sexual differentiation, gonadal morphology and sex ratio were likewise not altered by ES. However, ES acted as an endocrine disrupting chemical in this species as the morphometry of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) producing cells was altered. Exposure to ES altered nuclear area, cell area and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of GnRH II neurons, and cell and nuclear area and diameter of GnRH III neurons. Interestingly, in our previous study, exposure before sex differentiation (30 day exposure) caused no alteration to GnRH II and III, and did alter GnRH I and FSH cells. These alterations could lead to changes in circulating hormone levels, especially when fish are exposed for prolonged periods, ultimately impairing reproductive fitness. C. dimerus juveniles can be an interesting biological model to perform toxicological studies with the intent to assess early disruption endpoints in the reproductive axis during development.

  5. Temporal dynamics of reproduction of the neotropical fish, Crenicichla menezesi (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Andréa Soares; do Nascimento, Wallace Silva; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology and the gonadal development cycle of the Neotropical cichlid fish, Crenicichla menezesi, is described. This species exhibits sexual dimorphism only during the spawning season. First sexual maturity of females is attained earlier than the males. Both macroscopic and histological investigations of ovaries and testes revealed four stages of gonadal maturation. Mean batch fecundity of females was 372 (± 10,41) of mature oocytes. This species is a partial spawner, with an extended spawning period. Monthly values of GSI and the condition factor are negatively correlated during the gonadal development cycle of this species.

  6. Reproductive biology of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) at Emiliano Zapata dam, Morelos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña-Mendoza, B; Gómez-Márquez, J L; Salgado-Ugarte, I H; Ramirez-Noguera, D

    2005-01-01

    The reproductive season of tilapia was studied by monthly samplings at Emiliano Zapata dam, Morelos State, Mexico. From February 1999 through February 2000 a sample of 50 fish was taken from the commercial catch (castnet, 6.5 cm of mesh size). The observed sex ratio was 1:1.29 (females:males) (chi(2)=10.26; p<0.05). The tilapia reached maturity at 151.3 mm (females) and 152.0 mm (males) of total length. Rainy (August) and dry (February) seasons were determined as the breeding period. Fecundity variation was better correlated with length (r=0.7473: p<0.002) than with weight (r=0.7395; p<0.002). The fecundity ranged between 243 and 847 oocytes per fish, with egg diameter from 300 to 3 700 microm. Intensive breeding activity in August and February coincide with phytoplankton biomass increase.

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in some aquatic insects (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and tissues of Chondrostoma regium (Heckel, 1843) relevant to their concentration in water and sediments from Karasu River, Erzurum, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Zeynep; Şişman, Turgay; İncekara, Ümit; Gürol, Ali

    2017-02-28

    The objectives of this research were to determine and compare the heavy element concentrations in two study areas in Erzurum, Turkey (Aşkale and Dumlu sites). Assessment of some heavy elements in sediment, water, fish (Chondrostoma regium) tissues, and some aquatic insects (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) were carried out in June to August 2014. Heavy element levels in aquatic insect samples and their associated water and sediment were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. Fish tissues, from the same habitat, were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Eleven elements (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb) were measured in fish tissues, and 14 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Br, Pb) were measured in insects. According to the results, it can be said that insects were contaminated by water and sediment, thus accumulated higher concentration of some elements than their environment. The fish, which was caught from Aşkale station, accumulates significantly higher level of heavy metals than Dumlu station's fish. The results were compared with national and international standards. The values of some heavy elements were found at higher concentration than the acceptable limits. The possible consequences of these results are briefly discussed from the point of potential hazards to ecology and human health. Element concentrations in fish tissue are below the limits, which are proposed by Turkish Food Codex, FAO/WHO, and EC, and safe for human consumption in the edible parts of fish species in the regions.

  8. A New Record for Occurrence of Symphodus bailloni (Osteichthyes: Perciformes: Labridae) in the Western Black Sea Coast of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Göktürk, Didem; Karakulak, F. Saadet; Ünsal, Nuran; Kahraman, Abdullah E.

    2012-01-01

    The fish species Symphodus bailloni (Valenciennes, 1839) reported in the present study were collected between June 2010 and June 2011 from the western Black Sea coasts which were previously not recorded from the Black Sea coast of Turkey. A total of 717 specimens of S. bailloni were measured, ranging between 8.9 and 15.4 cm TL. Morphometrics, meristics, and diagnostic characteristics of the species are presented. PMID:22593703

  9. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA Elements and Its Implications for the Chromosomal Evolution of Channid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Villa, Mateo Andres; de Oliveira, Ezequiel Aguiar; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Chaveerach, Arunrat

    2015-01-01

    Channid fishes, commonly referred to as “snakeheads”, are currently very important in Asian fishery and aquaculture due to the substantial decline in natural populations because of overexploitation. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been found in this family, mainly through the use of conventional cytogenetic investigations. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and the distribution of 7 repetitive DNA sequences in several Channa species from different Thailand river basins. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosomal differentiation among species and populations to improve upon the knowledge of its biodiversity and evolutionary history. Rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, fusions and polyploidization, appear to be important events during the karyotypic evolution of this genus, resulting in the chromosomal diversity observed among the distinct species and even among populations of the same species. In addition, such variability is also increased by the genomic dynamism of repetitive elements, particularly by the differential distribution and accumulation of rDNA sequences on chromosomes. This marked diversity is likely linked to the lifestyle of the snakehead fishes and their population fragmentation, as already identified for other fish species. The karyotypic features highlight the biodiversity of the channid fishes and justify a taxonomic revision of the genus Channa, as well as of the Channidae family as a whole, as some nominal species may actually constitute species complexes. PMID:26067030

  10. Overlapping patterns of morphometric and genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean goby Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 (Perciformes, Gobiidae) in Tunisian lagoons.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Randa; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Hassine, Nesrine; Arculeo, Marco; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2012-08-01

    The genetic and morphological variations of Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 were studied in samples collected from three Tunisian lagoons. The morphological analysis included 18 morphometric measurements and was based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA), whereas the genetic analysis was based on the 16S-rRNA and COI mitochondrial genes. Both analyses differentiated the populations and demonstrated consistently a well-supported differentiation between the western Mediterranean samples (Bizerta and Tunis South lagoons) and the eastern Mediterranean sample (El Bibane lagoon). The observed differentiation could be explained in terms of the geographic isolation of the various populations and the influence of environmental factors, which differ greatly between the different sites. The molecular results revealed that the populations are characterised by unique haplotypes which are well defined in relation to limited gene flow and restricted dispersal abilities. Additionally, it seems that local selective pressures have modelled biometrical variation. Morphological results can reflect a differential habitat use revealed in the cephalic features and a different response to hydrodynamic constraints developed in dissimilar dorsal and pelvic fin lengths.

  11. A new species of Pseudocrenilabrus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Mweru in the Upper Congo River System.

    PubMed

    Katongo, Cyprian; Seehausen, Ole; Snoeks, Jos

    2017-02-26

    Pseudocrenilabrus pyrrhocaudalis sp. nov. is described from Lake Mweru in the upper Congo River drainage, on the border of the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia. This species, which appears to be endemic to the lake, lives in sympatry with P. philander. Pseudocrenilabrus pyrrhocaudalis sp. nov. is distinguished from P. philander in nuptial males by the presence of an orange colour on the ventral part of the body and the proximal parts of the anal and caudal fins, a broad band of bright white on the distal edge of anal and caudal fins, a uniform grey head and dorsum, and a subtruncate caudal fin. In addition, P. pyrrhocaudalis has a shorter snout, a narrower head, a smaller interorbital distance, a smaller pre-anal distance, a more slender caudal peduncle and fewer scales around the caudal peduncle in both sexes.

  12. Pempheris ufuagari sp. nov., a new species in the genus Pempheris (Perciformes, Pempheridae) from the oceanic islands of Japan.

    PubMed

    Koeda, Keita; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Tachihara, Katsunori

    2013-01-29

    Pempheris ufuagari sp. nov. is described based on 10 specimens, 143.9-196.8 mm in standard length, collected from Mi-nami Daito Island and Ogasawara Islands, which are oceanic islands of Japan. Pempheris ufuagari is characterized by a distinct black spot on the pectoral fin base, a bright yellow dorsal and caudal fin, and a blackish band on the outer margin of the anal fin. Pempheris oualensis also has a large body and a distinct black spot on the pectoral fin base, and forms mixed schools with P. ufuagari, but can be distinguished by the different fin coloration (dorsal and caudal fin brown or pale; no blackish band on anal fin margin), and the presence of a villiform tooth band extending outside the lips. Although P. otaitensis, which is found in French Polynesia and Samoa, has similar coloration as P. ufuagari, the latter has lower scale counts than those of the former species: pored lateral-line scales 62-71 (vs. 70-79); scale rows above lateral line 6 1/2-7 1/2 (vs. 8 1/2); predorsal scales 37-43 (vs. 44-48).

  13. Pauciconfibula subsolana n. sp. (Monogenea: Microcotylidae) from Morone americana (Perciformes: Percichthyidae) collected in fresh water in New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, L A; Beverley-Burton, M; McAlpine, D F

    1991-12-01

    Pauciconfibula subsolana n. sp. (Monogenea: Microcotylidae) is proposed for parasites found on the inner surface of the operculum of Morone americana collected in the freshwater reaches of the Saint John River, near Mactaquac, New Brunswick. Pauciconfibula subsolana is differentiated from other species in the genus by the 2 posterolateral clamp sclerites, each of which is composed of 2 distinct sections, and by the absence of appendages on the eggs. An amended generic diagnosis is provided for Pauciconfibula. Pseudoaspinatrium Mamaev, 1986, is considered a junior synonym of Pauciconfibula Dillon and Hargis, 1965, and the species previously assigned to Pseudoaspinatrium are transferred to Pauciconfibula as Pauciconfibula euzeti (Ktari, 1971) n. comb., Pauciconfibula gallieni (Euzet and Ktari, 1971) n. comb., and Pauciconfibula pogoniae (MacCallum, 1913) n. comb.

  14. The chromosomal complement of the artedidraconid fish Histiodraco velifer (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) from Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea.

    PubMed

    Caputo, V; Splendiani, A; Nisi Cerioni, P; Olmo, E

    2003-01-01

    The karyotype of Histiodraco velifer from the Antartic Ocean was analyzed using various banding methods and in situ hybridization with a telomeric probe. A male and a female had a diploid set of 46 chromosomes (6 submetacentric + 40 acrocentric, FN = 52); the nucleolar organizer was CMA3-positive and was located on the short arm of a medium-sized submetacentric pair. All chromosomes stained uniformly with DAPI, whereas C-banding revealed heterochromatic blocks that were mostly located centromerically and telomerically and were resistant to ALUI digestion. The substantial identity of the karyotype of H. velifer with that of the other artedidraconids investigated so far suggests that chromosome changes must have played a less than significant role in the speciation among the lineages of this fish family endemic to Antarctica.

  15. The novel finding of four distinct prepro-IGF-I E domains in a perciform fish, Sciaenops ocellatus, during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Cynthia K; Pérez-Domínguez, Rafael; Webb, Kenneth A; Holt, G Joan

    2010-10-01

    In fishes, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates growth and differentiation but also plays a role in a number of other processes including osmoregulation, metabolism, immune response and reproduction. This study presents the cDNA encoding multiple prepro-IGF-I transcripts obtained from red drum, Sciaenopsocellatus, and examines differential expression in select adult tissues and during ontogeny. Four distinct transcripts were sequenced which were identical in the coding region for the signal (132 bp) and mature (204 bp) peptides but differed in the coding region of the E peptide by the exclusion of 117 (Ea-1), 81 (Ea-2) or 36 (Ea-3) bp compared to the 222 bp present in Ea-4. Analysis of the pertinent portion of the genomic sequence of this gene suggests that the transcripts are a result of alternative splicing. This is the first report of the expression of all four known prepro-IGF-I transcripts in a teleost other than a salmonid. The deduced amino acid sequences exhibited 70-95% identity with teleosts and somewhat lower identity to other vertebrates (60-75%). Three of the 4 transcripts (Ea-2, Ea-3, Ea-4) were expressed in the liver, ovary, spleen, gall bladder, brain, red muscle, pancreas and spinal cord of adults. Only the Ea-4 transcript was expressed in adult stomach tissue while no signal was detected in pituitary, retina, intestine, adipose or white muscle. In contrast, all 4 transcripts were expressed throughout ontogeny. The apparent expression of the Ea-1 transcript only during the larval stage may indicate a developmental role for this E peptide in red drum.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome and the phylogenetic position of the brown-spotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Chen, Hao; Yang, Weidi; Lin, Lingling; Liu, Min

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitogenome of the brown-spotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma was determined in this study. It is 16,894 bp in length, containing 37 genes with the typical order and transcriptional direction in the vertebrates. The overall nucleotide composition is: 28.7% A; 28.0% C; 16.3% G and 27.0% T. The lengths of 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes range from 67 (tRNA-Cys) to 76 (tRNA-Leu1) bp. Two start codons (GTG and ATG) and two stop codons (TAG and TAA/T) were found in the protein-coding genes. The nodes of phylogenetic tree were strongly supported based on the complete mitogenomes of available groupers. The phylogenetic results suggested E. chlorostigma is the closest to E. areolatus within the genus Epinephelus.

  17. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. PMID:20601006

  18. In situ video observations of two manefishes (perciformes: Caristiidae) in the mesopelagic zone of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benfield, M.C.; Caruso, John H.; Sulak, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes direct video observations of two manefishes, likely Paracaristius sp., from the mesopelagic waters of the north-central Gulf of Mexico. One fish was observed with a remotely operated vehicle at a depth of 829 m by an industrial ROV as part of the SERPENT Project. The second was observed at 496 m from a manned submersible. Little is known about the behavior of manefishes because most records result from net-collected material. Our observation demonstrates that manefishes are capable of precise locomotory and posture control using extended, erect fins and that the pelvic fins of these fishes are extended in a parachute-like manner. Moreover, one of the specimens exhibited an unusual vertical, sinusoidal oscillation of its caudal fin. One of the observations took place in association with a physonect siphonophore. These observations may include the deepest published record for a manefish in the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe Bisaggio; Pereira, Aldenice de Nazaré; Timi, Juan Tomás; Luque, José Luis

    2013-06-01

    A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus) (Kyphosidae), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva) comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

  20. Growth, mortality and reproduction of the blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Aguamilpa Reservoir, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña Messina, Emilio; Tapia Varela, Raul; Velázquez Abunader, José Iván; Orbe Mendoza, Alma Araceli; Velazco Arce, Javier Marcial de Jesús Ruiz

    2010-12-01

    Tilapia production has increased in Aguamilpa Reservoir, in Nayarit, Mexico, in the last few years and represents a good economic activity for rural communities and the country. We determined growth parameters, mortality and reproductive aspects for 2413 specimens of blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus in this reservoir. Samples were taken monthly from July 2000 through June 2001, of which 1 371 were males and 1 042 were females. Standard length (SL) and total weight (TW) were measured in each organism. The SL/TW relationships through power models for sexes were determined. The growth parameters L infinity k, and t0 of the von Bertalanffy equation were estimated using frequency distribution of length through ELEFAN-I computer program. Finally the reproductive cycle and size of first maturity were established using morph chromatic maturity scale. The results suggested that the males and females had negative allometric growth (b < 3). Significant differences were found between SL/TW model for the sexes, suggesting separate models for males and females. Results indicate that there are no differences in growth rates between sexes; the proposed parameters were L infinity = 43.33 cm standard length, k = 0.36/year and t0 = -0.43 years. Natural and fishing mortality coefficients were 0.83/year and 1.10/year, respectively. The estimated exploitation rate (0.57/year) suggested that during the study period the fishery showed signs of overfishing. Blue tilapia reproduces year-round; the highest activity occurs from January through May and size of first maturity was 23 cm SL. We conclude that it is necessary to establish a minimum catch size in this reservoir based on the reproductive behavior of this species.

  1. Evaluation of cytochrome b mtDNA sequences in genetic diversity studies of Channa marulius (Channidae: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Habib, Maria; Lakra, W S; Mohindra, Vindhya; Khare, Praveen; Barman, A S; Singh, Akanksha; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Khan, Asif A

    2011-02-01

    Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. The present study evaluated partial Cytochrome b gene sequence of mtDNA for determining the genetic variation in wild populations of C. marulius. Genomic DNA extracted from C. marulius samples (n = 23) belonging to 3 distant rivers; Mahanadi, Teesta and Yamuna was analyzed. Sequencing of 307 bp Cytochrome b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 5 haplotypes with haplotype diversity value of 0.763 and nucleotide diversity value of 0.0128. Single population specific haplotype was observed in Mahanadi and Yamuna samples and 3 haplotypes in Teesta samples. The analysis of data demonstrated the suitability of partial Cytochrome b sequence in determining the genetic diversity in C. marulius population.

  2. [Age and growth of the hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the dam "Zimapan" Mexico].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ponce, M A; Granados-Flores, K; Padilla, C; López-Hernández, M; Núñez-Nogueira, G

    2011-06-01

    Studies on age and growth in fishes are essential to establish models on population dynamics. The previous issues were determined in this study by scale growth analyses. Between September 2003 and May 2004, 382 organisms were captured using gill and atarraya nets. Eight samples were developed every month a long this study. Standard length in centimeters (L(e)), total weight in grams (P9t)), scale length in centimeters (L(esc)) and growth rings were determined. The size and weight ranged from 38 to 232 mm (L(e)) and 8.7 to 311.9 g (P(t)), respectively. The growth rings analyses reveal four age groups, being the second group the most representative with 34.3% of the total sampled. The scale ring analyses showed two growth rings, one develops between November-January and the other between April-May, in good correlation with low temperature and gonad development, respectively. The growth parameters were established as: L infinity = 281.1mm, W infinity = 877.1g, K = 0.33 and T(0) = 0.88 year(-1). The growth curves based on length and weight were described by using the von Bertalanffy model: L(e) = 28.11[1 -e (-0.33(t+0.88))] and P(t) = 877.17[1-e (-0.33(t+0.88))]3. Finally, it is concluded that commercial catches in this dam are between a year and year and half-old when exploited.

  3. Molecular based phylogenetic species recognition in the genus Pampus (Perciformes: Stromateidae) reveals hidden diversity in the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Divya, P R; Mohitha, C; Rahul, G Kumar; Rajool Shanis, C P; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A

    2017-04-01

    Pomfrets (Genus Pampus) are commercially important fishes in the Indo Pacific region. The systematics of this genus is complicated due to morphological similarities between species. The silver pomfret from Indian waters has long been considered to be Pampus argenteus. The objective of the study was to utilize the mitochondrial COI gene to establish the molecular identity of the silver pomfret distributed in Indian waters and to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among Pampus species in the world based on sequence data in the NCBI database. Seven valid Pampus species are identified in this study. The mean genetic divergence value calculated between clades representing these species was 7.9%. The mean genetic distance between the so-called Pampus argenteus from Indian waters and sequences attributed to P. argenteus from the South China Sea, where the neotype of this species was collected, was found to be greater than 12%, strongly supporting the likelihood of the Indian species being distinct. The Indian Pampus species show very close affinity to P. cinereus, with inter species differences less than 2%. The taxonomic identity of the silver pomfret in India is also discussed here, in light of molecular and morphological evidence.

  4. Gene rearrangements and evolution of tRNA pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome of the parrotfish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Scaridae).

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Kohji; Miya, Masaki; Satoh, Takashi P; Westneat, Mark W; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2004-09-01

    Genomic size of animal mitochondrial DNA is usually minimized over time. Thus, when regional duplications occur, they are followed by a rapid elimination of redundant material. In contrast to this general view, we report here long-sustained tRNA pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of teleost fishes of the family Scaridae (parrotfishes). During the course of a molecular phylogenetic study of the suborder Labroidei, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for a parrotfish, Chlorurus sordidus, and found a gene rearrangement accompanied by a tRNA pseudogene. In the typical gene order of vertebrates, a tRNA-gene cluster between ND1 and ND2 genes includes tRNA(Ile) (I), tRNA(Gln) (Q), and tRNA(Met) (M) genes in this order (IQM). However, in the mitogenome of the parrotfish, the tRNA(Met) gene was inserted between the tRNA(Ile) and the tRNA(Gln) genes, and the tRNA(Gln) gene was followed by a putative tRNA(Met) pseudogene (psiM). Such a tRNA gene rearrangement including a pseudogene (IMQpsiM) was found in all of the 10 examined species, representing 7 of the 10 currently recognized scarid genera. All sister groups examined (20 species of Labridae and a single species of Odacidae) had the typical gene order of vertebrate mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis of the tRNA(Met) genes and the resulting pseudogenes demonstrated that the ancestral tRNA(Met) gene was duplicated in a common ancestor of the parrotfish. Based on the fossil record, these results indicate that the pseudogenes have survived at least 14 million years. Most of the vertebrate mitochondrial gene rearrangements involving the IQM region have held the tRNA(Met) gene just upstream of the ND2 gene, and even in a few exceptional cases, including the present ones, the tRNA pseudogenes have been found in that position. In addition, most of these tRNA(Met) pseudogenes maintained clover-leaf secondary structures, with the remainder sustaining the clover-leaf structure in the "top half (TpsiC and acceptor arms). Considering their potential secondary structures (holding "top halves" of the clover-leaf structures), locations within mitogenomes (flanking the 5' ends of the ND2 genes) and stabilities over time (survived at least 14 Myr), it is likely that the tRNA pseudogenes retain function as punctuation marks for mitochondrial ND2 mRNA processing.

  5. Niche partitioning of feeding microhabitats produces a unique function for herbivorous rabbitfishes (Perciformes, Siganidae) on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, R. J.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2013-03-01

    Niche theory predicts that coexisting species minimise competition by evolving morphological or behavioural specialisations that allow them to spread out along resource axes such as space, diet and temporal activity. These specialisations define how a species interacts with its environment and, by extension, determine its functional role. Here, we examine the feeding niche of three species of coral reef-dwelling rabbitfishes (Siganidae, Siganus). By comparing aspects of their feeding behaviour (bite location, bite rate, foraging distance) with that of representative species from two other abundant herbivorous fish families, the parrotfishes (Labridae, Scarus) and surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae, Acanthurus), we examine whether rabbitfishes have a feeding niche distinct from other members of the herbivore guild. Measurements of the penetration of the fishes' snouts and bodies into reef concavities when feeding revealed that rabbitfish fed to a greater degree from reef crevices and interstices than other herbivores. There was just a 40 % overlap in the penetration-depth niche between rabbitfish and surgeonfish and a 45 % overlap between rabbitfish and parrotfish, compared with the almost complete niche overlap (95 %) recorded for parrotfish and surgeonfish along this spatial niche axis. Aspects of the morphology of rabbitfish which may contribute to this niche segregation include a comparatively longer, narrower snout and narrower head. Our results suggest that sympatric coexistence of rabbitfish and other reef herbivores is facilitated by segregation along a spatial (and potentially dietary) axis. This segregation results in a unique functional role for rabbitfishes among roving herbivores that of "crevice-browser": a group that specifically feeds on crevice-dwelling algal or benthic organisms. This functional trait may have implications for reef ecosystem processes in terms of controlling the successional development of crevice-based algal communities, reducing their potential to trigger macroalgal outbreaks.

  6. Comparative Mitogenomics of the Genus Odontobutis (Perciformes: Gobioidei: Odontobutidae) Revealed Conserved Gene Rearrangement and High Sequence Variations

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhihong; Yang, Xuefen; Bercsenyi, Miklos; Wu, Junjie; Yu, Yongyao; Wei, Kaijian; Fan, Qixue; Yang, Ruibin

    2015-01-01

    To understand the molecular evolution of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) in the genus Odontobutis, the mitogenome of Odontobutis yaluensis was sequenced and compared with those of another four Odontobutis species. Our results displayed similar mitogenome features among species in genome organization, base composition, codon usage, and gene rearrangement. The identical gene rearrangement of trnS-trnL-trnH tRNA cluster observed in mitogenomes of these five closely related freshwater sleepers suggests that this unique gene order is conserved within Odontobutis. Additionally, the present gene order and the positions of associated intergenic spacers of these Odontobutis mitogenomes indicate that this unusual gene rearrangement results from tandem duplication and random loss of large-scale gene regions. Moreover, these mitogenomes exhibit a high level of sequence variation, mainly due to the differences of corresponding intergenic sequences in gene rearrangement regions and the heterogeneity of tandem repeats in the control regions. Phylogenetic analyses support Odontobutis species with shared gene rearrangement forming a monophyletic group, and the interspecific phylogenetic relationships are associated with structural differences among their mitogenomes. The present study contributes to understanding the evolutionary patterns of Odontobutidae species. PMID:26492246

  7. A Comprehensive Description and Evolutionary Analysis of 22 Grouper (Perciformes, Epinephelidae) Mitochondrial Genomes with Emphasis on Two Novel Genome Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    Groupers of the family Epinephelidae are a diverse and economically valuable group of reef fishes. To investigate the evolution of their mitochondrial genomes we characterized and compared these genomes among 22 species, 17 newly sequenced. Among these fishes we identified three distinct genome organizations, two of them never previously reported in vertebrates. In 19 of these species, mitochondrial genomes followed the typical vertebrate canonical organization with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs, and a non-coding control region. Differing from this, members of genus Variola have an extra tRNA-Ile between tRNA-Val and 16S rRNA. Evidence suggests that this evolved from tRNA-Val via a duplication event due to slipped strand mispairing during replication. Additionally, Cephalopholisargus has an extra tRNA-Asp in the midst of the control region, likely resulting from long-range duplication of the canonical tRNA-Asp through illicit priming of mitochondrial replication by tRNAs. Along with their gene contents, we characterized the regulatory elements of these mitochondrial genomes’ control regions, including putative termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Looking at the mitochondrial genomic constituents, rRNA and tRNA are the most conserved, followed by protein-coding genes, and non-coding regions are the most divergent. Divergence rates vary among the protein-coding genes, and the three cytochrome oxidase subunits (COI, II, III) are the most conserved, while NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and the ATP synthase subunit 8 (ATP8) are the most divergent. We then tested the phylogenetic utility of this new mt genome data using 12 protein-coding genes of 48 species from the suborder Percoidei. From this, we provide further support for the elevation of the subfamily Epinephelinae to family Epinephelidae, the resurrection of the genus Hyporthodus, and the combination of the monotypic genera Anyperodon and Cromileptes to genus Epinephelus, and Aethaloperca to genus Cephalopholis. PMID:23951357

  8. [Osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of Lujanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) larvae under rearing conditions].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ibarra, Luz Estela; Abdo-de la Parra, María Isabel; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Valasco-Blanco, Gabriela; Ibarra-Castro, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) is an important commercial species in Mexico with good culture potential. The osteological study at early stages in this species is an important tool to confirm normal bone structure and for the detection of malformations that may occur during early development. This study was carried out in order to evaluate and describe the normal osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of this species grown under controlled conditions. For this, a total of 540 larvae of L. guttatus, between 2.1 and 17.5 mm of total length (TL), were cultured during 36 days; culture conditions were 28 degrees C, 5.74 mg/L oxygen and 32.2 ups salinity with standard feeding rates. To detect growth changes, a sample of 15 organisms was daily taken from day one until day 36 of post-hatch (DPH). Samples were processed following standard techniques of clearing, and cartilage (alcian blue) and bone staining (alizarin red). Results showed that the vertebral column is composed of ten vertebrae in the abdominal region, and 14 vertebrae including the urostyle in the caudal region. The development of the axial skeleton starts with the neural arches and haemal arches at 3.8 mm TL. Caudal elements such as the hypurals and parahypural began to develop at 4.1 mm TL. Pre-flexion and flexion of the notochord and the formation of all hypurals were observed between 5.3 and 5.8 mm TL. Ossification of the vertebrae in the abdominal region and in some neural arches initiated at 9.5mm TL. In the caudal region, all the neural and haemal arches ossified at 10.2 mm TL. All the abdominal vertebrae and their respective neural arches and parapophyses ossified at 11.2 mm TL, while the elements of the caudal complex that ossified were the hypurals, parahypurals and modified haemal spines. All caudal fm rays, 12 neural spines and 3 haemal arches were ossified by 15.5 mm. The complete ossification process of this specie under laboratory culture conditions was observed when larvae reached 17.3 mm TL on 36 DPH. Detailed analysis of the osteological structures will allow a reference description to evaluate and detect malformations that may occur during the larval culture of the spotted rose snapper.

  9. Revising the distribution of a threatened goby, Apocryptodon punctatus (Perciformes, Oxudercidae), in Japan with the discovery of an isolated population

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Atsunobu; Inui, Ryutei; Miki, Ryohei; Miyazaki, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Five specimens of a threatened goby, Apocryptodon punctatus (21.2–40.1 mm in standard length), were collected at a mudflat site of Kushima City, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, southern Japan over two seasons, autumn (September 2015) and spring (April 2016). A review of distributional records of Apocryptodon punctatus revealed that this population represents the southernmost record of the species in Japanese waters, and is isolated ca. 200 km south-southwest from the nearest point of the main range of the species along the Pacific coast of Japan. Publicising this population will help conserve it and its vulnerable habitat. PMID:28228668

  10. Pogonophryne neyelovi, a new species of Antarctic short-barbeled plunderfish (Perciformes, Notothenioidei, Artedidraconidae) from the deep Ross Sea

    PubMed Central

    Shandikov, Gennadiy A.; Eakin, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper continues descriptions of new deep-water Antarctic barbeled plunderfishes of the poorly known and the most speciose notothenioid genus Pogonophryne. It is based on a comprehensive collection obtained by the authors in 2009–2010 during an Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) fishing trip. A new species, the hopbeard plunderfish Pogonophryne neyelovi, the twenty-second species of the genus, is described. The new species belongs to dorsally-spotted short-barbeled species forming the “Pogonophryne mentella” group. Pogonophryne neyelovi sp. n. is characterized by the following combination of characters: a very short and small mental barbel with an ovaloid and short terminal expansion covered by flattened scale-like processes that are mostly bluntly palmate; a moderately protruding lower jaw; a high second dorsal fin almost uniformly black and lacking a sharply elevated anterior lobe; pectoral fins striped anteriorly and uniformly light posteriorly; the anal and pelvic fins light; the dorsal surface of the head and the area anterior to the first dorsal fin covered with large, irregular dark brown blotches and spots; the ventral surface of the head, breast and belly without sharp dark markings. The new species is compared to the closest species Pogonophryne brevibarbata, Pogonophryne tronio, and Pogonophryne ventrimaculata. English vernacular names are proposed for all species of the genus. PMID:23794878

  11. Developmental and Microbiological Analysis of the Inception of Bioluminescent Symbiosis in the Marine Fish Nuchequula nuchalis (Perciformes: Leiognathidae)▿

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Paul V.; Davis, Kimberly M.; Tomiyama, Shinichi; Fujino, Misato; Fukui, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Many marine fish harbor luminous bacteria as bioluminescent symbionts. Despite the diversity, abundance, and ecological importance of these fish and their apparent dependence on luminous bacteria for survival and reproduction, little is known about developmental and microbiological events surrounding the inception of their symbioses. To gain insight on these issues, we examined wild-caught larvae of the leiognathid fish Nuchequula nuchalis, a species that harbors Photobacterium leiognathi as its symbiont, for the presence, developmental state, and microbiological status of the fish's internal, supraesophageal light organ. Nascent light organs were evident in the smallest specimens obtained, flexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.5 mm in notochord length (NL), a developmental stage at which the stomach had not yet differentiated and the nascent gasbladder had not established an interface with the light organ. Light organs of certain of the specimens in this size range apparently lacked bacteria, whereas light organs of other specimens of 6.5 mm in NL and of all larger specimens harbored large populations of bacteria, representatives of which were identified as P. leiognathi. Bacteria identified as Vibrio harveyi were also present in the light organ of one larval specimen. Light organ populations were composed typically of two or three genetically distinct strain types of P. leiognathi, similar to the situation in adult fish, and the same strain type was only rarely found in light organs of different larval, juvenile, or adult specimens. Light organs of larvae carried a smaller proportion of strains merodiploid for the lux-rib operon, 79 of 249 strains, than those of adults (75 of 91 strains). These results indicate that light organs of N. nuchalis flexion and postflexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.7 mm in NL are at an early stage of development and that inception of the symbiosis apparently occurs in flexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.5 mm in NL. Ontogeny of the light organ therefore apparently precedes acquisition of the symbiotic bacteria. Furthermore, bacterial populations in larval light organs near inception of the symbiosis are genetically diverse, like those of adult fish. PMID:18978090

  12. Tosanoides obama, a new basslet (Perciformes, Percoidei, Serranidae) from deep coral reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Richard L.; Greene, Brian D.; Kosaki, Randall K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new species Tosanoides obama is described from two specimens collected at a depth of 90–92 m off Kure Atoll and Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. It differs from the other two species of this genus in life color and in certain morphological characters, such as number of pored lateral-line scales, pectoral-fin rays, snout length, anterior three dorsal-fin spine lengths, dorsal-fin profile, and other characters. There are also substantial genetic differences from the other two species of Tosanoides (d ≈ 0.10 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I). The species is presently known only from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. PMID:28138296

  13. Developmental and microbiological analysis of the inception of bioluminescent symbiosis in the marine fish Nuchequula nuchalis (Perciformes: Leiognathidae).

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Paul V; Davis, Kimberly M; Tomiyama, Shinichi; Fujino, Misato; Fukui, Atsushi

    2008-12-01

    Many marine fish harbor luminous bacteria as bioluminescent symbionts. Despite the diversity, abundance, and ecological importance of these fish and their apparent dependence on luminous bacteria for survival and reproduction, little is known about developmental and microbiological events surrounding the inception of their symbioses. To gain insight on these issues, we examined wild-caught larvae of the leiognathid fish Nuchequula nuchalis, a species that harbors Photobacterium leiognathi as its symbiont, for the presence, developmental state, and microbiological status of the fish's internal, supraesophageal light organ. Nascent light organs were evident in the smallest specimens obtained, flexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.5 mm in notochord length (NL), a developmental stage at which the stomach had not yet differentiated and the nascent gasbladder had not established an interface with the light organ. Light organs of certain of the specimens in this size range apparently lacked bacteria, whereas light organs of other specimens of 6.5 mm in NL and of all larger specimens harbored large populations of bacteria, representatives of which were identified as P. leiognathi. Bacteria identified as Vibrio harveyi were also present in the light organ of one larval specimen. Light organ populations were composed typically of two or three genetically distinct strain types of P. leiognathi, similar to the situation in adult fish, and the same strain type was only rarely found in light organs of different larval, juvenile, or adult specimens. Light organs of larvae carried a smaller proportion of strains merodiploid for the lux-rib operon, 79 of 249 strains, than those of adults (75 of 91 strains). These results indicate that light organs of N. nuchalis flexion and postflexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.7 mm in NL are at an early stage of development and that inception of the symbiosis apparently occurs in flexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.5 mm in NL. Ontogeny of the light organ therefore apparently precedes acquisition of the symbiotic bacteria. Furthermore, bacterial populations in larval light organs near inception of the symbiosis are genetically diverse, like those of adult fish.

  14. Repetitive DNAs highlight the role of chromosomal fusions in the karyotype evolution of Dascyllus species (Pomacentridae, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Getlekha, Nuntaporn; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Maneechot, Nuntiya; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Tanomtong, Alongklod

    2016-04-01

    The Dascyllus genus consists of 11 species spread over vast regions of the Indo-Pacific, showing remarkable reductions in the diploid chromosome numbers (2n). The present study analyzed the karyotypes and other chromosomal characteristics of D. trimaculatus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50), D. carneus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50) and D. aruanus (2n = 30; 18m + 2st + 10a; NF = 50) from the Thailand Gulf (Pacific Ocean) and D. melanurus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50) from the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean), employing conventional cytogenetic analyses and the chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNAs, using 18S and 5S rDNA, telomeric sequences and (CA)15, (GA)15, and (CAA)10 microsatellites as probes. The C-positive heterochromatin was found in the centromeric regions of most chromosomal pairs and 18S rDNA phenotypes were single in all species. However, in D. aruanus (2n = 30), which harbors nine metacentric pairs; the 5S rDNA sites were located in the centromeric region of the shortest one. The mapping of the telomeric sequences in D. aruanus revealed the presence of interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) in the centromeric region of four metacentric pairs, with one of these pairs also displaying an additional ITS in the long arms. Distinct chromosomal markers confirmed the reduction of the 2n by chromosomal fusions, highlighting the precise characterization of these rearrangements by the cytogenetic mapping of the repetitive DNAs.

  15. First cytogenetic report in Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense Kullander, 1983 (Perciformes, Cichlidae) from northeastern Brazil with inferences on chromosomal evolution of Cichlasomatini

    PubMed Central

    Argôlo, Leandro A.; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Even though genetic aspects of some cichlids have been widely studied over the last decades, little is known about the genomic structure of Cichlidae when compared to the large number of species in the family. In this paper, the first chromosomal data for Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense Kullander, 1983 are presented and discussed based on cytotaxonomic and karyoevolutionary inferences on Cichlasomatini. All individuals shared a diploid number of 2n=48 distributed as 10sm+28st+10a and Ag-NORs on short arms of a submetacentric pair. Heterochromatin was detected at pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes and at terminal sites of a few pairs. GC-rich regions were observed on short arms of two biarmed pairs, including the pair bearing Ag-NORs. Double-FISH with ribosomal probes revealed 18S rDNA clusters coincident with GC-rich regions in two biarmed pairs and 5S rDNA at interstitial location of an acrocentric pair. Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense shares some symplesiomorphic traits described in Cichlidae (2n=48 and pericentromeric C-bands) while other chromosomal features diverge from the common trend reported in Cichlasomatini, such as multiple 18S rDNA sites combined with high FN values. Finally, the present results are useful to support taxonomic identification once species-specific markers have been provided in Cichlasoma sanctifranciscense. PMID:26753082

  16. [Distribution and abundance of Katsuwonus pelamis larvae (Perciformes: Scombridae) in the Gulf of Mexico, 1982-1992].

    PubMed

    Guevara-Rascado, Ma de Lourdes; Cerecedo-Escudero, José Luis; Sánchez-Regalado, Ramón

    2008-09-01

    The epipelagic fish known as skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) is considered inside the "little tuna" group. The species is distributed in tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. Despite its fisheries importance in Mexico, there is little knowledge about the species in the region. The information from 18 oceanographic cruises inside the Mexican exclusive economic zone in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, was analyzed for the period 1982 to 1992. Plankton was collected in a paired 60 cm mouth bongo net sampler with 0.333 mm mesh nets in oblique tows. The maximum abundance was in spring and summer; 1986 had the largest population (4 881.8544 X 10(9) larvae) and 1983 the lowest density (566.3748 X 10(9)). The skipjack has suitable conditions for reproduction in this area, and the southwestern region is the most productive. The spawning was greater in the summer. The annual biomass was estimated in 2 513 to 21 659 tons, the high value corresponded to 1986, with potential yields between 7 472 and 10 071 tons. A local fishery seems viable but needs further evidence.

  17. Four new species of the Indo-Burmese genus Badis from West Bengal, India (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Badidae).

    PubMed

    Valdesalici, Stefano; Voort, Stefan Van Der

    2015-07-13

    Four new species of Badis are described from West Bengal, India. Badis andrewraoi, new species, is diagnosed by a combination of characters which include absence of a black caudal-fin margin, absence of a conspicuous dark blotch on pectoral-fin base, absence of cleithral and opercular blotches, absence of a blotch on the dorsolateral aspect of the caudal peduncle, absence of an ocellus on the caudal-fin base, presence of a conspicuous median black caudal peduncle blotch, a medially broader posterior-most bar, displaying as a partially absorbed second median caudal peduncle blotch, presence of an additional bar anteriorly, and vertical bars restricted to lower half of body and never forming large blocks. Badis autumnum, new species, is diagnosed by a combination of characters which include two autapomorphies: presence of a blotch above the base of the opercular spine, and of a conspicuous dark blotch on pectoral-fin base. Additionally, it presents a black caudal-fin margin, outlining entire fin, absence of a cleithral blotch, absence of a blotch on the dorsolateral aspect of the caudal peduncle, absence of an ocellus on the caudal-fin base, presence of a conspicuous median black caudal peduncle blotch, a medially broader posterior-most bar, displaying as a partially absorbed second median caudal peduncle blotch, and presence of an additional bar anteriorly. Badis kyanos, new species, is diagnosed by a combination of characters which include absence of a conspicuous dark blotch on pectoral-fin base, absence of cleithral and opercular blotches, absence of a blotch on the dorsolateral aspect of the caudal peduncle, absence of an ocellus on the caudal-fin base, presence of a conspicuous median black caudal peduncle blotch, a medially broader posterior-most bar, displaying as a partially absorbed second median caudal peduncle blotch, presence of an additional bar anteriorly, its vertical bars forming large, fragmented black blocks dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally, and a unique stress colouration consisting of a dark grey body, metallic dark blue operculum, flanks almost entirely devoid of bars, large, fragmented black blocks dorsolaterally, and absence of a black caudal-fin margin. Based on similarities in colour pattern and biometrics they are deduced to be closely related and form a new species group, which we herein define. The three species are divergent and diagnosable from each other and represent valid evolutionary species. The fourth species represents a cryptic unit that was heretofore unrecognised and considered as the most widespread species of the genus, B. badis. We describe this lineage as Badis soraya, new species, and find it belongs to the B. badis species group. It can be diagnosed by a combination of characters which include absence of opercular blotches, absence of a blotch on the dorsolateral aspect of the caudal peduncle, absence of an ocellus on the caudal-fin base, presence of a cleithral blotch, presence of a small oval black blotch medially on caudal peduncle, interorbital width 6.3-8.8 % SL, dorsal-fin spines XIV-XVI, scales in lateral row 25-27, and vertebrae number 27.

  18. [Variations of the infracommuity during the ontogeny of Chromis cyanea (Perciformes: Pomcentride) in the North coast of Havana, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Fernández Osorio, Ramón Alexis; Corrada Wong, Raúl Igor; Armenteros, Maickel

    2015-09-01

    The infracommunty or parasites or unromis cyanea (Pisces: Pomacentridae) was studied along the ontogenetic development in the North coast of Havana, Cuba. The objectives were: a- to prove that the core species appears before the strange and stochastic species and they are responsible for the structure in the infracommunity, b- to determine if there is a relationship among the ecological describers of the parasitic infracommunity with the total length. A total of 278 specimens of C. cyanea were captured during the dry season (April) of 2010. The body size range was from 1.5 to 11.5 cm including juvenile and adults. We collected 2 861 parasite specimens belonging to 20 taxa: Crustacea (5), Nematoda (5), Trematoda (4), Cestoda (2), Monogenea (2), Turbellaria (1) and Ciliophora (1). The taxa Tetraphyllidea and Anilocra chromis constituted the core of the parasitic infracommunity. The sequence of appearance and persistence of these taxa during the ontogenetic development, supported the hypothesis of the core species. The changes in the infracommunity, from 6 cm body size, could be the result of an accumulative effect combined with changes of the diet that caused the ingestion of new parasite infective stages. We concluded that the ontogenetic development of C. cyanea constitutes an important variable in the formation of the parasitic infracommunity.

  19. Description of a new species and redescriptions of two rare species of Parapercis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae) from the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2015-08-10

    Parapercis johnsoni sp. nov. is described based on 19 specimens from Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. It differs from congeners in having a combination of the following characters: dorsal-fin rays V, 21; anal-fin rays I, 17; pectoral-fin rays modally 17; pored lateral-line scales modally 52 or 53; predorsal scales 7 or 8; transverse scale rows 3.5 or 4 + 14 or 15; total gill rakers on 1st gill arch 13-16; single row of teeth on vomer; 6 large canines at front of lower jaw; and a distinct coloration. Two rare species, P. flavescens Fourmanoir & Rivaton, 1979 and P. fuscolineata Fourmanoir, 1985, are redescribed based on the types and newly identified specimens. Comments on other species occurring in the area are provided.

  20. [Embryonic and Larval Development of the Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer (Pisces: Perciformes: Latidae) under Thermostatically Controlled Conditions].

    PubMed

    Shadrin, A M; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    Material for this study was obtained from the hatchery with brood stock of Lates calcarifer that originated from a natural population living in inshore waters off Central Vietnam. Commercial interest in L. calcarifer as an object of mariculture and wildstock fishery has resulted in several publications on its early life history; nevertheless, comprehensive description of early development of L. calcarifer based on controlled incubation of embryos and larvae has remained absent. In the present paper embryonic and larval development to the stage of anlage of pelvic fins is described in detail and illustrated with original drawings of live material on the basis of thermostatically controlled incubation of embryos at 27°C and larvae at 26.8°C (26.5-28.0°C). The first cleavage furrow appeared at the age of 33.5 min. The duration of synchronous cleavage cycle was 16 min. About 80% of all embryos hatched at the age of 18 h. The length of newly hatched larva during the first hour after emergence from the egg shell was 1.63 ± 0.016 mm (1.50-1.75 mm). Chronology of development of the organs, early circulatory system, and pigmentation pattern is given. The dynamics of change in the trunk and caudal body segment number in larva from hatching to the moment of anlage of pelvic fins is shown. The total number of body segments reached the maximum value of 26-27 soon after hatching and then decreased to 20-21 segments. Newly received data are discussed in a comparative context of development of some other teleosts.

  1. Molecular systematics and taxonomic status of three latitudinally widespread nototheniid (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) fishes from the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Miya, Tshoanelo; Gon, Ofer; Mwale, Monica; Poulin, Elie

    2016-01-08

    The taxonomic status of the three nototheniids, Lepidonotothen squamifrons, L. larseni and Gobionotothen marionensis from different localities in the Southern Ocean is re-evaluated at the DNA level. DNA sequence divergences and phylogenetic relationship were estimated using a combined mitochondrial (mtDNA, ND2 and COI) dataset and data for one nuclear gene (S7 intron 1). Phylogenies of both datasets had Lepidonotothen kempi nested within L. squamifrons lineage, with low sequence divergences (0% to 0.4%) between the two nominal species suggesting that they are populations of one species. Therefore, these results do not support the previous splitting of L. squamifrons into different species. Similarly, the L. larseni specimens also represented a single genetic unit (0.3% to 0.6%) with low geographic variation between Atlantic and Indian Ocean specimens, which does not support the splitting of this species into geographically restricted species. The mtDNA phylogeny clearly separated individuals of G. acuta from Kerguelen, Heard and MacDonald Islands from G. marionensis individuals into different clades, with sequence divergence of 2.9% between these clades supporting they are different species.

  2. Comparative Mitogenomics of the Genus Odontobutis (Perciformes: Gobioidei: Odontobutidae) Revealed Conserved Gene Rearrangement and High Sequence Variations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhihong; Yang, Xuefen; Bercsenyi, Miklos; Wu, Junjie; Yu, Yongyao; Wei, Kaijian; Fan, Qixue; Yang, Ruibin

    2015-10-20

    To understand the molecular evolution of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) in the genus Odontobutis, the mitogenome of Odontobutis yaluensis was sequenced and compared with those of another four Odontobutis species. Our results displayed similar mitogenome features among species in genome organization, base composition, codon usage, and gene rearrangement. The identical gene rearrangement of trnS-trnL-trnH tRNA cluster observed in mitogenomes of these five closely related freshwater sleepers suggests that this unique gene order is conserved within Odontobutis. Additionally, the present gene order and the positions of associated intergenic spacers of these Odontobutis mitogenomes indicate that this unusual gene rearrangement results from tandem duplication and random loss of large-scale gene regions. Moreover, these mitogenomes exhibit a high level of sequence variation, mainly due to the differences of corresponding intergenic sequences in gene rearrangement regions and the heterogeneity of tandem repeats in the control regions. Phylogenetic analyses support Odontobutis species with shared gene rearrangement forming a monophyletic group, and the interspecific phylogenetic relationships are associated with structural differences among their mitogenomes. The present study contributes to understanding the evolutionary patterns of Odontobutidae species.

  3. Ecology and management of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans/miles complex (Perciformes: Scorpaenidae) in Southern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Vera; Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Sierra, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystem integrity and functioning and are considered one of the major threats to biodiversity on a global scale. The indopacific lionfish (Plerois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] / miles [Bennet, 1882] complex) is the first non-native marine fish that has established itself in the Western Atlantic. It was first reported in Florida in the 1980s and then spread across the entire Caribbean in subsequent years. In Costa Rica, lionfish were first sighted by the end of 2008 and are now present in all South Caribbean reefs. Lionfish are a major problem for local fisherman by displacing native fish species. The aim of this study was to determine population density, size and diet of lionfish populations at four study sites along the Southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Two of the sites were located inside the National Park Cahuita where regular lionfish removal occurs, whereas the other two study sides do not experiment this kind of management. Total length and wet weight of >450 lionfish individuals were determined between March and June 2011. Three relative metrics of prey quantity (percent number, percent frequency, and percent weight) were compared from approximately 300 lionfish caught with the polespear in shallow waters (<7 m depth). Population density was assessed weekly through visual transect surveys. Our results showed that lionfish preyed mostly upon teleosts and crustaceans. Teleosts dominated lionfish diet in percent frequency (71%) and percent weight (85%), whereas crustaceans had the highest percent number (58%). The top five teleost families of dietary importance were Pomacentridae, Acanthuridae, Blennidae, Labridae and Serranidae. The average total length (+/- SD) of lionfish was 18.7 (+/- 5.7)cm and varied significantly between sites (p<0.001). Mean density of lionfish was 92fish/ha with no significant differences between sites. Smallest fish and lowest densities were found at the two sites inside the National Park Cahuita. Despite management efforts on a regional scale, nationwide efforts are ineffective and lionfish control activities are poorly implemented. We conclude that there is an urgent need to develop an improved institutional framework for local lionfish control that promotes effective coordination among the relevant stakeholders in order to deal with invasive lionfish in Costa Rica.

  4. Structure comparison of control region in Stromateoidei and complete mitochondrial genome of the bluefin driftfish Psenes pellucidus (Perciformes, Nomeidae).

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Zhang, Bo; Sun, Yuena

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the bluefin driftfish Psenes pellucidus was determined first. The genome was 16,572 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions. The mitochondrial genome of bluefin driftfish had common features about gene arrangement, base composition and tRNA structures compared with those of most of the bony fishes. In the control region, a termination-associated sequence, the central conserved block (CSB-F, CSB-E and CSB-D) and the conserved sequence blocks (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3) were determined. Meanwhile, the conserved motif 5'-GCCGG-3' was identified in the origin of light strand replication of bluefin driftfish. This mitogenome sequence data would play key role in phylogenetic analysis of Stromateoidei.

  5. A review of the genus Pempheris (Perciformes, Pempheridae) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Koeda, Keita; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Imai, Hideyuki; Tachihara, Katsunori

    2014-04-30

    Four species of the fish genus Pempheris are recognized for the Red Sea: P. adusta Bleeker, 1877; P. mangula Cuvier, 1829; P. nesogallica Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1831; and a new species P. tominagai. All are wide-ranging in the western Indian Ocean, and P. mangula has migrated via the Suez Canal to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Morphological and genetic analysis of 15 species in this genus show that P. adusta, a widely distributed species, that can't be divided into different species, because of the continuity of morphologies and distribution, and lack of variance in genetics between Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and Pacific Ocean populations. This confirms that the two subspecies described by Randall et al. (2013) are both synonyms of P. adusta. Pempheris adusta is distinguished from other species by a blackish spot on pectoral fin base, pored lateral-line scales 56-64, scale rows above lateral line 4 1/2-6 1/2, distinct blackish band on outer edge of anal fin, and blackish band on posterior edge of caudal fin. Pempheris mangula was named by Cuvier (1829) in a footnote making reference to a drawing and short description in Russell (1803) of a Pempheris from southeast India, giving only the native name ''Mangula-Kutti'', and listing no specimen. The wide distribution of this species, from the Indian Ocean to the Red Sea is also demonstrated by morphological and genetic analysis. Thus, the specimen collected from southern India is herein designated as the neotype. This species is distinguished from other species by its huge eye, deep body, blackish tip of the dorsal fin, pored lateral-line scales 49-60, and scale rows above lateral line 4 1/2-5 1/2. The extant syntype of Kossmann & Räuber's P. rhomboidea is designated as the lectotype of the species; however, P. rhomboidea is a synonym of P. mangula. In addition, Kossmann & Räuber's Pempheris erythraea and P. russellii Day, 1888 are also synonyms of P. mangula. Of two existing syntypes of P. nesogallica from Mauritius, one is designated as the lectotype, the other is re-identified as P. mangula; P. nesogallica is presently known only from the southern Red Sea. This species has a similar morphology to P. mangula, but can be distinguished by a smaller eye than P. mangula, and lack irregular faint longitudinal light stripes on the body side. Pempheris tominagai are distinguished from P. schwenkii Bleeker 1855, formerly misidentified, by the form of posterior nostril, scale counts, color of caudal fin, and by a 2.1% mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence. 

  6. Two new species of Cabillus (Perciformes: Gobiidae) and the first record of Cabillus macrophthalmus from the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of the gobiid genus Cabillus, C. nigromarginatus sp. nov. and Cabillus nigrostigmus sp. nov. are described. Cabillus nigromarginatus (from Rodrigues, Western Indian Ocean) is distinguished from congeners by having 18-20 pectoral-fin rays; predorsal area naked; two scales with enlarged ctenii ventrally and dorsally at the caudal-fin base; head with anterior and posterior oculoscapular, and preopercular canals, with pores σ, λ, κ, ω, α, β, ρ, ρ1, ρ2 and γ, δ, ε respectively; the body with four midline lateral blotches, with two or three of them expanding upwards in dorsal saddles; a dark triangular blotch at caudal-fin base; and predorsal with pigmentation at lateral edges forming a rectangle. Cabillus nigrostigmus (from the Red Sea) is distinguished from its congeners by having 19 pectoral-fin rays; transverse scale series 7; nape scaled, median predorsal scales 7; body depth 5.8-6.0 in SL; snout length 1.5-1.9 in eye diameter; caudal-peduncle depth in its length 2.4-2.5; a broad dark brown bar below first dorsal fin beginning anteriorly at the level of fourth spine of the first dorsal fin; elongate black blotch along posterior half of first dorsal fin extending into the sixth spine and adjacent membranes; and midlateral black spot at the end of caudal peduncle followed by S-shaped dark bar. Cabillus macrophthalmus is recorded for the first time in the Western Indian Ocean (Red Sea and Seychelles) and redescribed.

  7. Redescription of Parapercis okamurai Kamohara, 1960 (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), based on specimens newly collected from Taiwan and Japan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2014-09-01

    A rare species of sandperch, Parapercis okamurai, is redescribed based on 2 types and 15 specimens newly collected from Taiwan and Japan. The species is unique in having cycloid scales on the parietal, opercle and subopercle, except for few large ctenoid scale that covers the base of the opercular spine; body color yellowish dorsally, with 10 or 11 faint yellow bands on lateral body and pale ventrally; and black spots on inner side of upper pectoral fin base. It can also be distinguished from congeners by having a combination of the following characters: dorsal-fin rays V, 23; anal-fin rays I, 19; pectoral-fin rays 18; pored lateral-line scales 59-64; medial predorsal scales 9-10; transverse scale rows 4.5-5.5/14-15; circumpeduncular scales 20-21; gill raker4-5+9-10=13-16; -4 pairs of canine teeth at front of lower jaw; 2-4 rows of teeth on vomer; 2 rows of teeth on palatines; scales on cheek moderately large, each half embedded; and body color yellowish dorsally and a prominent ocellus at upper caudal-fin base.

  8. [IDENTIFICATION OF PHOSPHOETHANOLAMINE AND PHOSPHOSERINE IN THE BRAIN OF POND FISH PERCCOTTUS GLEHNI (ELEOTRIDAE, PERCIFORMES, DYB. 1877)].

    PubMed

    Karanova, M V

    2015-04-01

    Considerable modifications of the pools of free amino acid and some other compounds in the body ectothermic animals in response to the decrease in temperature are a consequence of the complexity of their adaptation mechanisms. There is no data in the literature on the contribution of such free connections in the low-temperature adaptation of brain ectothermic animals. In a previous study, it was found that as a result of exposure to acute cold shock in the brain eurothermal fish in large numbers appear two ninhydrinpositive compounds of unknown nature. In this paper, found that by the beginning of the winter period in the brain are accumulated the same connection also. Found that these are metabolites of phospholipids, phosphoethanolamine and phosphoserine. Phosphoethanolamine pool 94 times more in winter than in summer, and phosphoserine is only in the winter. Assumes that the accumulation of phosphoethanolamine and phosphoserine related to adaptation and modification of membrane phospholipid at low temperatures.

  9. A new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) and the first adult record of Feia nympha from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-03-31

    A new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. nanus sp. nov. is described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops nanus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners in having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,10; anal-fin rays I,9; pectoral-fin rays 12-14 (lowest count known for the genus), two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form an emarginate disc, no pelvic frenum; predorsal area and narrow area at base of first dorsal fin naked; longitudinal scale series 26-29; transverse scale rows counted forward 6-7; transverse scale rows counted backward 7-8; circumpeduncular scale rows 11-12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without flap at its tip, posterior nostril pore-like; body semitranslucent, covered with small scattered orange-yellow spots and speckles, those in predorsal area contain black dots; an internal row of white spots along ventral part of body above anal-fin base and on caudal peduncle; head with small scattered orange to yellowish brown spots; first dorsal fin with two broad white bands at base of fin and distally, and with hyaline area densely dotted with melanophores in the middle of fin; preserved specimens opaque white to yellowish with sparse melanophores. An adult specimen of Feia nympha is recorded for the first time in the Red Sea and the lateral line system of this species is described.

  10. Peripatric differentiation among adjacent marine lake and lagoon populations of a coastal fish, Sphaeramia orbicularis (Apogonidae, Perciformes, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Ryo O; Sekimoto, Hidekatsu; Chiba, Satoru N; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of geographical isolation on speciation, particularly within short geographical ranges, is poorly understood among marine organisms. Focusing on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, we investigated the effect of geographical isolation on Sphaeramia orbicularis, a coastal fish inhabiting marine lakes and lagoons. We collected a total of 157 individuals from three meromictic marine lakes and three lagoon sites, and analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of the populations based on complete sequences of the mitochondrial control region (824 bp). The analyses show that the genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations. Moreover, a mismatch distribution analysis suggests that marine lake populations have experienced a decrease followed by a rapid expansion of their population size. These results reveal that marine lake populations have experienced severe founder and/or bottleneck events during the last thousand to tens of thousand years. Pairwise Phi(ST )values ranged from 0.531 to 0.848 between marine lake and lagoon populations and from 0.429 to 0.870 among marine lake populations, indicating a high degree of genetic differentiation. We speculate that such peripatric differentiation between marine lake and lagoon populations was caused by a small number of individuals colonizing the lakes from the lagoon (founder event) followed by repetitive bottleneck events, such as those generated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). So far, such high genetic divergences in extremely short geographical ranges (approximately 150-250 m) have scarcely been reported for marine organisms. We suggest that the marine lake is one of the good model of geographical isolation in marine organisms and each marine lake population is in the early stages of speciation.

  11. Feeding of introduced species of Cichla (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in Volta Grande reservoir, River Grande (MG/SP).

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2004-11-01

    Both species studied, Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus, fed mainly on fish, the first on Cichla spp., Plagioscion squamosissimus, and Tilapia rendalli, and the second, Cichla monoculus, on Cichla spp. Both diets indicated a strong correlation among the food items. Remarkable ontogenetic change was noted in both species diet: the young fed on crustaceans and insects while the adults fed mainly on fishes. The species studied, which are highly adapted to a brief life span, cause serious damage to the fish communities by predation, competition, and cascade effects throughout the whole trophic chain.

  12. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the short mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma), and its phylogenetic position within Scombroidei, Perciformes.

    PubMed

    Jondeung, Amnuay; Karinthanyakit, Wirangrong

    2010-04-01

    In order to support studies of short mackerel population genetic structure in the Gulf of Thailand and phylogenetic relationships, the mitochondrial genome of the short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma, has recently been determined by a partial cloning technique, long PCR with three pairs of newly designed primers and primer walking sequencing. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,539 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) and a control region (CR) as in other bony fishes. Within the 845-bp CR, we identified several conserved motifs. The phylogeny obtained by Bayesian analyses based on two nucleotide datasets corresponding to the cytb and nd2 mitochondrial genes strongly support the inclusion of R. brachysoma within the monophyletic tribe of Scombrini in the family Scombridae. The obtained phylogeny also reveals high-statistical support for the existence of two distinct groups indicating that Scombroidei and Xiphioidei are two separate suborders.

  13. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Isolation and characterization of nine microsatellite loci from the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus (Perciformes, Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Yagishita, N; Kobayashi, T

    2008-03-01

    The stock abundance of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus - a very important species for fisheries, particularly in Japan - in the Pacific Ocean off Japan has remained at a low level. For studying the population genetics of the chub mackerel, we isolated nine polymorphic microsatellite loci (12-31 alleles/locus; expected heterozygosity, 0.762-0.983) from this species. Cross-species amplification indicated that eight of the nine microsatellite loci in the blue mackerel S. australasicus were polymorphic and functional.

  14. Diversity within the Redeye Bass, Micropterus coosae (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) species group, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Baker, Winston H; Blanton, Rebecca E; Johnston, Carol E

    2013-01-01

    The Redeye Bass, Micropterus coosae, was described from the Mobile River basin, Chattahoochee, and Savannah rivers in Alabama and Georgia, USA, by Hubbs and Bailey (1940). At that time the authors recognized significant variation in the Black Warrior River population, and noted that with further study this form may be recognized as a separate taxon. An examination of variation in morphology and mitochondrial DNA supported this observation, and highlighted additional species-level variation, resulting in descriptions of a total of four new species: Micropterus cahabae, new sp., restricted to the Cahaba River system; Micropterus tallapoosae, new sp., restricted to the Tallapoosa River system; Micropterus warriorensis, new sp., from the Black Warrior River system; and Micropterus chattahoochae, new sp., from the Chattahoochee River system. Micropterus coosae is restricted to the Coosa River system. The new species differ from each other and from M. coosae by a combination of pigmentation and scale count characteristics, development of the tooth patch, and divergence within the ND2 gene. While two of these species are relatively common in upland streams within their ranges, M. warriorensis, M. cahabae and M. chattahoochae are uncommon and may warrant protection.

  15. Actinobdella inequinnulata (Annelida: Hirudinida:Rhynchobdellida:Glossiphoniidae) from White Crappie, Pomoxis annularis (Perciformes: Centrarchidae), in Arkansas, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of 4 (25%) white crappie, Pomoxis annularis from the Ouachita River, Dallas County, Arkansas, was found to be infested with 8 glossiphoniid leeches, Actinobdella inequiannulata Moore, 1901. Leeches were removed from within the oeprculum on gills and gill arches. This leech i...

  16. Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many bucephalid species, mainly of the subfamily Prosorhynchinae, have been described from epinepheline serranids (groupers) throughout the World’s Oceans. In this paper eight named prosorhynchine species are described and/or illustrated from epinepheline fishes from New Caledonia. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. in Epinephelus chlorostigma differs from other Neidhartia spp. in various combinations of distinct body-size, rhynchus size, previtelline and pre-mouth distance, post-testicular distance, cirrus-sac reach and egg-size. Other species are: Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 in Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 in Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus and Epinephelus maculatus. Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and Prosorhynchus sp. B. in Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 in Variola albimarginata and Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A in Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature in Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. The new combination Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) is formed. Evidence from this paper and earlier molecular studies indicates that there are numerous morphologically similar prosorhynchine species in serranids, most of which show a high degree of host-specificity. PMID:24351242

  17. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms.

  18. Four new species of Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Faustulidae) from batfishes (Perciformes: Ephippidae) on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Pablo E; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2017-03-01

    Examination of three species of batfishes (Teleostei: Epphippidae) from off Lizard and Heron Islands on the Great Barrier Reef led to the discovery of specimens of the trematode genus Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Faustulidae). Morphological analysis demonstrated that the new specimens represented four morphotypes which we interpret to be new species: Paradiscogaster martini n. sp., P. vichovae n. sp. and P. brayi n. sp. from Platax orbicularis (Forsskål) and P. pinnatus (Linnaeus) off Lizard Island, and P. nitschkei n. sp. from P. teira (Forsskål) off Heron Island. Published material was re-examined and the specimens identified as P. chaetodontis okinawensis Yamaguti, 1971 from P. pinnatus from Okinawa, Japan, actually represent the new species P. brayi n. sp., demonstrating that some species of Paradiscogaster have wide geographical distributions. ITS2 rDNA data for the four morphotypes differ by 4-39 base pairs confirming the delineation of the four species proposed. A feature of this study is the recognition of Platax spp. as an important host group for Paradiscogaster, with the new species placing them as the second richest host group for these parasites after the Chaetodontidae.

  19. Tosanoides obama, a new basslet (Perciformes, Percoidei, Serranidae) from deep coral reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Richard L; Greene, Brian D; Kosaki, Randall K

    2016-01-01

    The new species Tosanoides obama is described from two specimens collected at a depth of 90-92 m off Kure Atoll and Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. It differs from the other two species of this genus in life color and in certain morphological characters, such as number of pored lateral-line scales, pectoral-fin rays, snout length, anterior three dorsal-fin spine lengths, dorsal-fin profile, and other characters. There are also substantial genetic differences from the other two species of Tosanoides (d ≈ 0.10 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I). The species is presently known only from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

  20. A comprehensive description and evolutionary analysis of 22 grouper (perciformes, epinephelidae) mitochondrial genomes with emphasis on two novel genome organizations.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xuan; Qu, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    Groupers of the family Epinephelidae are a diverse and economically valuable group of reef fishes. To investigate the evolution of their mitochondrial genomes we characterized and compared these genomes among 22 species, 17 newly sequenced. Among these fishes we identified three distinct genome organizations, two of them never previously reported in vertebrates. In 19 of these species, mitochondrial genomes followed the typical vertebrate canonical organization with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs, and a non-coding control region. Differing from this, members of genus Variola have an extra tRNA-Ile between tRNA-Val and 16S rRNA. Evidence suggests that this evolved from tRNA-Val via a duplication event due to slipped strand mispairing during replication. Additionally, Cephalopholisargus has an extra tRNA-Asp in the midst of the control region, likely resulting from long-range duplication of the canonical tRNA-Asp through illicit priming of mitochondrial replication by tRNAs. Along with their gene contents, we characterized the regulatory elements of these mitochondrial genomes' control regions, including putative termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Looking at the mitochondrial genomic constituents, rRNA and tRNA are the most conserved, followed by protein-coding genes, and non-coding regions are the most divergent. Divergence rates vary among the protein-coding genes, and the three cytochrome oxidase subunits (COI, II, III) are the most conserved, while NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and the ATP synthase subunit 8 (ATP8) are the most divergent. We then tested the phylogenetic utility of this new mt genome data using 12 protein-coding genes of 48 species from the suborder Percoidei. From this, we provide further support for the elevation of the subfamily Epinephelinae to family Epinephelidae, the resurrection of the genus Hyporthodus, and the combination of the monotypic genera Anyperodon and Cromileptes to genus Epinephelus, and Aethaloperca to genus Cephalopholis.

  1. Gonadotropin-dependent oocyte maturational competence requires activation of the protein kinase A pathway and synthesis of RNA and protein in ovarian follicles of Nibe, Nibea mitsukurii (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshizaki, G.; Shusa, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Patino, R.

    2002-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone- (LH)-dependent ovarian follicle maturation has been recently described in two stages for teleost fishes. The oocyte's ability to respond to the steroidal maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is acquired during the first stage; whereas the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis occurs during the second stage. However, studies directly addressing OMC have been performed with a limited number of species and therefore the general relevance of the two-stage model and its mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the hormonal regulation of OMC and its basic transduction mechanisms in ovarian follicles of the sciaenid teleost, Nibe (Nibea mitsukurii). Exposure to MIH [17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one or 17,20??,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one] stimulated germinal vesicle breakdown (index of meiotic resumption) in full-grown follicles primed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, an LH-like gonadotropin) but not in those pre-cultured in plain incubation medium. The induction of OMC by HCG was mimicked by protein kinase A (PKA) activators (forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP), and blocked by specific inhibitors of PKA (H89 and H8) as well as inhibitors of RNA (actinomycin D) and protein (cycloheximide) synthesis. Forskolin-induced OMC was also inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. A strong activator of protein kinase C, PMA, inhibited HCG-dependent OMC. In conclusion, OMC in Nibe ovarian follicles is gonadotropin-dependent and requires activation of the PKA pathway followed by gene transcription and translation events. These observations are consistent with the two-stage model of ovarian follicle maturation proposed for other teleosts, and suggest that Nibe can be used as new model species for mechanistic studies of ovarian follicle differentiation and maturation in fishes.

  2. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus.

  3. Functional Categorization of Transcriptome in the Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin 1904 (Perciformes: Cichlidae) Exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene and Phenanthrene

    PubMed Central

    Lemgruber, Renato de Souza Pinto; Marshall, Nislanha Ana dos Anjos; Ghelfi, Andrea; Fagundes, Daniel Barros; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the transcriptome alterations, through cDNA libraries, associated with the combined effects of two PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (0.5 µg/L) and phenanthrene (50 µg/L), present in crude oil, on specimens of Symphysodon aequifasciatus (discus fish) after 48 h of exposure. The cDNA libraries were constructed according to the SOLiD™ SAGE™ protocol for sequencing in the SOLiD v.3 Plus sequencer. The results were analyzed by bioinformatics and differentially expressed genes were categorized using the gene ontology program. The functional categories (terms) found in the gene ontology and the gene network generated using STRING software were used to predict the adverse effects of benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene in the liver. In the present study, 27,127 genes (compared to Danio rerio database) were identified. Considering only those genes with a p-value less than or equal to 0.05 and greater than or equal to two-fold change in expression across libraries, we found 804 genes, 438 down-regulated (54%) and 366 up-regulated (46%), in the experimental group compared to the control. Out of this total, 327 genes were successfully categorized, 174 down-regulated and 153 up-regulated, using gene ontology. Using String, the gene network was composed by 199 nodes, 124 of them resulting in 274 interactions. The results showed that even an acute exposure of 48 h caused metabolic change in response to environmental contaminants, resulting in changes of cell integrity, in oxidation-reduction processes, in the immune response and disturbances of intracellular signaling of discus fish. Also the gene network has showed no central interplay cluster, exhibiting instead interconnected clusters interactions and connected sub-networks. These findings highlight that even an acute sublethal exposure of PAHs can cause metabolism changes that may affect survival of discus. Our findings using SOLiD coupled with SAGE-method resulted in a powerful and reliable means for gene expression analysis in discus, a non-model Amazonian fish. PMID:24312524

  4. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25-28 gill rakers, and 37-38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region.

  5. Transcriptome of the Deep-Sea Black Scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo (Perciformes: Trichiuridae): Tissue-Specific Expression Patterns and Candidate Genes Associated to Depth Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Stefanni, Sergio; Bettencourt, Raul; Pinheiro, Miguel; Moro, Gianluca De; Bongiorni, Lucia; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea fishes provide a unique opportunity to study the physiology and evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments. We carried out a high throughput sequencing analysis on a 454 GS-FLX titanium plate using unnormalized cDNA libraries from six tissues of A. carbo. Assemblage and annotations were performed by Newbler and InterPro/Pfam analyses, respectively. The assembly of 544,491 high quality reads provided 8,319 contigs, 55.6% of which retrieved blast hits against the NCBI nonredundant database or were annotated with ESTscan. Comparison of functional genes at both the protein sequences and protein stability levels, associated with adaptations to depth, revealed similarities between A. carbo and other bathypelagic fishes. A selection of putative genes was standardized to evaluate the correlation between number of contigs and their normalized expression, as determined by qPCR amplification. The screening of the libraries contributed to the identification of new EST simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and to the design of primer pairs suitable for population genetic studies as well as for tagging and mapping of genes. The characterization of the deep-sea fish A. carbo first transcriptome is expected to provide abundant resources for genetic, evolutionary, and ecological studies of this species and the basis for further investigation of depth-related adaptation processes in fishes. PMID:25309900

  6. Taxonomical notes on selected freshwater fish species described from northern and central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae; Perciformes: Channidae, Osphronemidae; Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Selected, little known taxa of northern and central Vietnamese freshwater fish species are reviewed. Nomenclatural acts are taken: Hemibarbus lehoai is placed in synonymy of H. maculatus, Paracobitis hagiangensis in synonymy of Schistura caudofurca. A neotype of Micronemacheilusbacmeensis is assigned. The name Channa hanamensis is treated as a nomen nudum. Two labeonine species described from China are nomenclaturally affected: Garra findolabium is transferred to Vinagarra and its specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition; the specific epithet of Sinigarra napoense is corrected to napoensis. PMID:24668657

  7. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae – Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  8. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed.

  9. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  10. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses

    PubMed Central

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima–Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox–Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  11. Mayarhynchus karlae n. g., n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae), a parasite of cichlids (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in southeastern Mexico, with comments on the paraphyly of Neoechynorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; García-Varela, Martín

    2017-03-01

    Mayarhynchus n. g. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is erected for Mayarhynchus karlae n. g, n. sp. described from the intestine of four species of cichlid fishes distributed from southeastern Mexico. The new genus placed in the family Neoechinorhynchidae (Ward, 1917) Van Cleave, 1928, is readily distinguished from the other 17 genera in the family by having a small proboscis armed with 45-46 relatively weak rooted hooks arranged in nine longitudinal rows of five hooks each. In addition, Mayarhynchus n. g., n. sp. is diagnosed by the presence of a short trunk, body wall with five dorsal and one ventral giant hypodermal nuclei, proboscis receptacle nearly cylindrical with single layered wall, lemnisci broad and flat with large nuclei, testes in tandem, cement gland with eight large nuclei, and eggs elongate to oval. Partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2), and the D2-D3 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene (28S) were obtained for five specimens of the new species and other species belonging to the Neoechinorhynchidae. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the new genus belongs to the Neoechynorhynchidae and indicated that the genus Neoechynorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 is not monophyletic. Comparison between three populations of the new species yielded nine variable sites for cox1, 11 for ITS and four for 28S.

  12. High Levels of Genetic Connectivity among Populations of Yellowtail Snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus (Lutjanidae – Perciformes), in the Western South Atlantic Revealed through Multilocus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raimundo; Veneza, Ivana; Sampaio, Iracilda; Araripe, Juliana; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, five loci (mitochondrial and nuclear) were sequenced to determine the genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history of populations of the yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus, found along the coast of the western South Atlantic. O. chrysurus is a lutjanid species that is commonly associated with coral reefs and exhibits an ample geographic distribution, and it can therefore be considered a good model for the investigation of phylogeographic patterns and genetic connectivity in marine environments. The results reflected a marked congruence between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers as well as intense gene flow among the analyzed populations, which represent a single genetic stock along the entire coast of Brazil between the states of Pará and Espírito Santo. Our data also showed high levels of genetic diversity in the species (mainly mtDNA), as well a major historic population expansion, which most likely coincided with the sea level oscillations at the end of the Pleistocene. In addition, this species is intensively exploited by commercial fisheries, and data on the genetic structure of its populations will be essential for the development of effective conservation and management plans. PMID:25769032

  13. Diet and food partitioning between juveniles of mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in a mangrove-fringed estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, C R; Joyeux, J-C

    2010-06-01

    Diet of juvenile mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers were studied in the tropical Brazilian estuarine system of the Piraquê-açú and Piraquê-mirim Rivers to determine how these species share the resources in this restricted space. The three species prey principally upon Peracarida (L. synagris: relative importance index I(RIc) = 29%), Natantia (L. analis and L. synagris: I(RIc) = 39 and 38%, respectively), Reptantia (L. analis and L. jocu: I(RIc) = 28 and 43%, respectively) and Teleostei (L. jocu: I(RIc) = 24%). The three species use estuaries as nursery habitats but food overlap was not biologically significant due to a combination of interspecific differences in size, spatial distribution, microhabitat preferences and seasonal patterns of abundance and prey choice. Large marine protected areas incorporating essential habitats for all life stages are suggested to be the best tool for the management of these economically important species.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of some common Indo-Pacific snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, with comments on the taxonomic position of the Caesioninae.

    PubMed

    Miller, Terrence L; Cribb, Thomas H

    2007-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 27 species of common Indo-Pacific snappers (Lutjanidae) were explored using the 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes with minimum evolution, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses. Included were species representing four subfamilies, the Caesioninae, Etelinae, Paradicichthyinae, and Lutjaninae. Members of the closely related families Haemulidae, Lethrinidae, Nemipteridae and Sparidae, were included for outgroup comparisons and to explore the relationships between the Haemuloidea, Lutjanoidea and Sparoidea. Monophyly of the Lutjanidae was resolved. The Caesioninae was nested within the Lutjaninae, supporting the recent view that the Caesionidae should be treated as a synonym of the Lutjanidae. The subfamilies Etelinae and Paradicichthyinae were resolved as sister taxa to the remainder of the Lutjanidae, which corroborates previous cladistic analyses conducted to determine relationships of lutjanid subfamilies. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses suggest that Macolor is the sister taxon to the Caesioninae and may represent a transitional form between the Lutjaninae and Caesioninae. Three species of Western Atlantic lutjanids, Lutjanus campechanus, L. synagris, and Rhomboplites aurorubens, were included in the analyses to examine their relationships to Indo-Pacific species; they formed a well-supported clade nested within Pacific lutjanines suggesting that Atlantic species of Lutjaninae are derived from an Indo-Pacific lineage. Results of our molecular phylogenetic analyses are congruent with the general morphology and external colouration of the resolved groups of species of Lutjanus. The "black spot" complex containing L. fulviflamma, L. monostigma, and L. russelli was resolved with strong support, and had L. carponotatus nested within. The morphology of L. carponotatus suggests a close relationship to this group, and the lack of the black spot near the lateral line below the soft dorsal fin is possibly a secondary loss. As expected, the "blue-lined" species, L. kasmira and L. quinquelineatus, formed a strongly supported clade. Lutjanus bohar and L. gibbus, both distinctly red, long-lived fish that often accumulate large quantities of ciguatera toxin in their tissues, were resolved as sister taxa.

  15. Unitubulotestis sardae (Trematoda: Didymozoidae) infection in Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda (Perciformes: Scomberomoridae) in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas: histopathological and SEM investigations.

    PubMed

    Marino, F; Giannetto, S; Cavallaro, M; Paradiso, M L; Bottari, T; De Vico, G

    2003-04-01

    Nematobothrinae are trematoda digenea that usually live in cysts in fish tissues. They have been reported in different teleost species although the host-parasite relationships remain to be elucidated. This report is aimed at analysing the presence of Unitubulotestis sardae in the Atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda) populations fished in the Straits of Messina. The histopathological change reported in literature in similar cases is an aneurisma verminosa saccata, whereas, in the specimens here described, we show neovascularisation and at the same time, hyperplasia of the gill epithelium, leading to the formation of a bistratified cystic wall. The SEM examination of the parasitic cysts gave us a better understanding of the surface microanatomical details of the cystic walls. The external surface appeared to be constituted by a pluristratified covering epithelium of the gill arch. The internal layer was constituted by a net of blood vessels richly anastomosed with those originating from the gill arch arteries. This could be in agreement with data reported by Grabda (1947) on the localisation of the juvenile stages of the parasite in this blood vessel, but the evolution in cysts formation does not show similarities with the formation of an aneurisma.

  16. N-Methyltaurine N-acyl amidated bile acids and deoxycholic acid in the bile of angelfish (Pomacanthidae): a novel bile acid profile in Perciform fish.

    PubMed

    Satoh Née Okihara, Rika; Saito, Tetsuya; Ogata, Hiroaki; Ohsaki, Ayumi; Iida, Takashi; Asahina, Kiyoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Hofmann, Alan F; Hagey, Lee R

    2014-02-01

    Two novel N-acyl amidated bile acids, N-methyltaurine conjugated cholic acid and N-methyltaurine conjugated deoxycholic acid, were found to be major biliary bile acids in two species of angelfish the regal (Pygoplites diacanthus) and the blue-girdled (Pomacanthus navarchus) angelfish. The identification was based on their having MS and NMR spectra identical to those of synthetic standards. A survey of biliary bile acids of 10 additional species of angelfish found 7 with N-methyltaurine conjugation. In all 12 species, conjugated deoxycholic acid (known to be formed by bacterial 7-dehydroxylation of cholic acid) was a major bile acid. In all previous studies of biliary bile acids in fish, deoxycholic acid has been present in only trace proportions. In addition, bile acid conjugation with N-methyltaurine has not been detected previously in any known vertebrate. N-methyltaurine conjugated bile acids are resistant to bacterial deconjugation and dehydroxylation, and such resistance to bacterial enzymes should aid in the maintenance of high concentrations of bile acids during lipid digestion. Our findings suggest that these species of angelfish have a novel microbiome in their intestine containing anaerobic bacteria, and describe the presence of N-methyltaurine conjugated bile acids that are resistant to bacterial attack.

  17. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall (Perciformes, Mullidae), a new subspecies of goatfish from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Randall, John E.; Golani, Daniel; Bogorodsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The number of goatfish species has increased recently, thanks in part to the application of molecular approaches to the taxonomy of a family with conservative morphology and widespread intraspecific color variation. A new subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus Fernandez-Silva & Randall is described from the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, including Socotra and Gulf of Oman. It is characterized by a yellow caudal fin, 25–28 gill rakers, and 37–38 lateral-line scales and it is differentiated from nominal subspecies Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus by 1.7% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The morphometric examination of specimens of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavolineatus revealed variation in head length, eye diameter, and barbel length, in western direction from the Hawaiian Islands, South Pacific, Micronesia, and the East Indies to the Indian Ocean. The population of Mulloidichthys flavolineatus flavicaudus subsp. n. in the Gulf of Aqaba differs from that of the remaining Red Sea by shorter barbels, smaller eyes, shorter head, and shorter pelvic fins. We present a list of 26 endemic fishes from the Gulf of Aqaba and discuss the probable basis for the endemism in the light of the geological history of this region. PMID:27551217

  18. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kafayat, A Fakoya; Martins, A Anetekhai; Shehu, L Akintola; Abdulwakil, O Sabal; Abass, Mikhail A

    2015-03-01

    The Gorean snapper, Lutanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life-history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90 cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10 cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance ofjuveniles (<20 cm) and sub-adults (20-35 cm) which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99 cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99 cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean +/- SD; 16.19 +/- 3.73 cm) to the marine habitat samples (32.89 +/- 6.14 cm) indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous studies demonstrated that juvenile L. goreensis displays estuarine dependency and habitat flexibility. Hence, this underscores the importance of preserving estuarine environments as essential fish habitats to prevent overfishing. The study also concludes that the species is vulnerable to recruitment overfishing in the marine environment especially as a consequence of shrimping. Consequently, it advocates for ban on all fishing activities during peak spawning periods in breeding grounds and shrimp ground assemblage.

  19. A new species of Suezichthys (Teleostei: Perciformes: Labridae) from the south-eastern Pacific, with a redefinition of the genus and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barry C; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the fish family Labridae, Suezichthys rosenblatti, is described from specimens collected at Isla San Felix, Isla Juan Fernandez and Isla San Ambrosio, off the coast of Chile. Suezichthys rosenblatti is distinct in having a combination of 11 dorsal fin soft rays and 11 anal fin soft rays. It falls in the group of species that has 1½ scale rows above the lateral line and lack a scaly sheath at the base of the dorsal and anal fins (S. aylingi Russell, S. caudovittatus Russell, S. gracilis (Steindachner & Döderlein) and S. soelae Russell). Unlike other members of this group, S. rosenblatti has haemal arches on vertebrae 10-11 (versus haemal arch only on vertebra 10). The monotypic Nelabrichthys ornatus (Carmichael) is now included in the genus Suezichthys and a revised generic description and key to species of Suezichthys is provided. The occurrence of S. rosenblatti in the south-eastern Pacific and S. ornatus in the south-western Indian Ocean and south Atlantic Ocean represent major range extensions of the genus Suezichthys.

  20. Infection levels and seasonality of monogeneans in the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) from Nuevo León, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galaviz-Silva, L; Iruegas-Buentello, F J; Escobar-González, B; Molina-Garza, Z J

    2016-11-01

    Largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, is a native fish species with special importance for sport fishing competitions in Nuevo León, Mexico. However, no study has investigated the parasitic fauna of M. salmoides, and no reports are available on monogenean parasites in this fish species. Therefore, we described the monogenean parasites of M. salmoides and the effects of season and fish condition factor in five reservoirs: La Boca (LB), El Cuchillo-Solidaridad (CS), Sombreretillo (S), Laguna Salinillas (LS) and Cerro Prieto (CP). The monogeneans infecting M. salmoides were Clavunculus unguis and Acolpenteron ureteroecetes (collected in all localities), as well as Syncleithrium fusiformis, Haplocleidus furcatus, Clavunculus bifurcatus and Urocleidus principalis (CS). Clavunculus unguis had the highest prevalence in fish from all reservoirs. The abundance of monogeneans was generally greater in late spring to autumn than in winter. Although season was not correlated with abundance (r s = 0.0934, P <  0.0154), the months of highest temperature (from May to September) were positively correlated with parasite abundance. A significant association was observed between fish condition factor and the presence of monogeneans (P <  0.05), except for A. ureteroecetes. Our findings include five new geographic records for C. unguis, S. fusiformis, H. furcatus and C. bifurcatus.

  1. [Length, body weight and sex of the golden Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae), of the littoral of Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Madrid, J V; Beltrán-Pimienta, R

    2001-01-01

    Dolphin fish population data were recorded from landings in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja Califonia Sur, Mexico, in 1997. Of 3,211 organisms, only 2,812 produced complete biometric data. The maximal length and weight were 192 cm and 30 kg. The three sampling sites and the climatic periods also were associated with different size (P < 0.05). The covariate analysis of weight and length relationships indicated significative differences (P < 0.05) for total data and by sex. Condition factor was higher throughout the study period in Mazatlán, and the variation was higher, in the spring. The sexual ratio was in Mazatlán constant, while there were more males in Nayarit in the fall and the spring and in Los Cabos in the spring. There may be population differences, between the central mexican Pacific Coast and the Peninsula of Baja data.

  2. Parapercis nigrodorsalis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), a new species of sandperch from northern New Zealand and the Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea and remarks on P. binivirgata (Waite, 1904).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Struthers, Carl D; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2014-08-26

    A new species of pinguipedid fish, Parapercis nigrodorsalis, is described from 17 specimens collected off the North Island of New Zealand and Wanganella Bank, Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea, in depths of 56-280 m. The species has also been photographed underwater off the Poor Knights Islands Reserve and Burgess Island, Mokohinau Group, in New Zealand. It is most similar to Parapercis binivirgata (Waite, 1904) in morphology, coloration and meristic values, but is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays V, 23, anal-fin rays I, 19, lateral-line scales 57-63, vomer with 1-2 irregular rows of robust conical teeth, palatines with 1-2 rows of small teeth, angle of subopercle smooth, 10 abdominal and 22 caudal vertebrae, and coloration, including seven broad reddish-brown bands on the upper body between the spinous dorsal-fin and the caudal peduncle, most bands bifurcated into close-set double bars with black smudge-like blotches below, and membrane of the spinous dorsal fin black. Comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO 1) genetic marker utilised in DNA barcoding produced a genetic divergence of 5.38% and 7.63% between the new species and its two closest sampled congeners. The holotype of P. binivirgata is identified from two specimens previously regarded as syntypes, some revisions are made to meristic data in the original description of the latter, and a detailed description of the revised geographic range of P. binivirgata is provided.  

  3. Site fidelity, size, and morphology may differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish, Bathygobius cocosensis (Perciformes-Gobiidae), in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Malard, Lucie A; McGuigan, Katrina; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The intertidal zone is a transitional environment that undergoes daily environmental fluctuations as tides rise and fall. Relatively few fish species are adapted to endure the physiological pressures of this environment. This study focused on Bathygobius cocosensis (Gobiidae), a common intertidal fish in New South Wales, Australia. We investigated whether shore height impacted site fidelity, survival probability, fish size, and morphological traits with respect to tidal height. Mark-recapture methods were used over a five month period to determine if individuals in high shore pools had greater site fidelity; fish in high tide pools were more than twice as likely to be recaptured in their original pool than fish from low tide pools. High pool individuals were, on average, smaller with larger eyes and longer snouts relative to their size as compared to low pool individuals. We discuss several mechanisms that could cause the observed pattern in morphological variation. Ultimately, this study suggests that within species behaviour and morphology differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish.

  4. Description of three new species of the genus Herichthys (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from eastern Mexico, with redescription of H. labridens, H. steindachneri, and H. pantostictus.

    PubMed

    De La Maza-Benignos, Mauricio; Lozano-Vilano, Ma De Lourdes

    2013-11-06

    Three new species of the genus Herichthys are described on the basis of chromatic, morphometric, and meristic characters. Herichthys pratinus sp. nov. from the Rio Salto in San Luis Potosi is characterized by a steep and shallow predorsal profile, a concavity before the eye, and adult males with a prominent forehead forming a nuchal hump, DXV-XVI, 10-11; and AV, 8-9. Herichthys pame sp. nov. from the Rio Tamasopo in San Luis Potosi is characterized by a gradual and acute predorsal contour, lack of concavity before the eye, and mouth angled slightly downward. Herichthys. molango sp. nov. from Laguna Azteca, Hidalgo is distinguished by small eyes and a slender (slightly broader than long), well-spaced, and indented lower pharyngeal plate with 2 rows of 8-9 medium-sized, lightly pigmented molars flanking the midline. We also provide redescriptions for three species of Herichthys, H. pantostictus, H. labridens, and H. steindachneri and a review of H. bartoni.

  5. Caesio xanthalytos, a new species of fusilier (Perciformes: Caesionidae) from the Western Indian Ocean, with records of range extensions for several species of Caesionidae.

    PubMed

    Holleman, Wouter; Connell, Allan D; Carpenter, Kent E

    2013-01-01

    Caesio xanthalytos, a new species of fusilier, closely related to Caesio caerulaurea Lacepède 1801, is described from several specimens from various localities on the east coast of Africa, and from southern Madagascar. While very similar in colour pattern to C. caerulaurea, its lateral line lies within a dominant, composite yellow stripe, whereas in C. caurulaurea the lateral line lies immediately below the yellow stripe. The two species also differ in the number of lateral-line scales, the modal number of pectoral-fin rays, in the form of the nuchal scale patch, and genetically. The new species has been observed to school with C. caerulaurea and with C. varilineata Carpenter 1987. The ranges of several species of Caesio and Pterocaesio and of Dipterygonotus balteatus and Gymnocaesio gymnoptera are extended to localities on the South African east coast.

  6. Site fidelity, size, and morphology may differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish, Bathygobius cocosensis (Perciformes-Gobiidae), in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Malard, Lucie A.; McGuigan, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    The intertidal zone is a transitional environment that undergoes daily environmental fluctuations as tides rise and fall. Relatively few fish species are adapted to endure the physiological pressures of this environment. This study focused on Bathygobius cocosensis (Gobiidae), a common intertidal fish in New South Wales, Australia. We investigated whether shore height impacted site fidelity, survival probability, fish size, and morphological traits with respect to tidal height. Mark-recapture methods were used over a five month period to determine if individuals in high shore pools had greater site fidelity; fish in high tide pools were more than twice as likely to be recaptured in their original pool than fish from low tide pools. High pool individuals were, on average, smaller with larger eyes and longer snouts relative to their size as compared to low pool individuals. We discuss several mechanisms that could cause the observed pattern in morphological variation. Ultimately, this study suggests that within species behaviour and morphology differ by tidal position for an intertidal fish. PMID:27547568

  7. Taxonomical notes on selected freshwater fish species described from northern and central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae; Perciformes: Channidae, Osphronemidae; Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae).

    PubMed

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Selected, little known taxa of northern and central Vietnamese freshwater fish species are reviewed. Nomenclatural acts are taken: Hemibarbus lehoai is placed in synonymy of H. maculatus, Paracobitis hagiangensis in synonymy of Schistura caudofurca. A neotype of Micronemacheilus bacmeensis is assigned. The name Channa hanamensis is treated as a nomen nudum. Two labeonine species described from China are nomenclaturally affected: Garra findolabium is transferred to Vinagarra and its specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition; the specific epithet of Sinigarra napoense is corrected to napoensis.

  8. Taxonomic review of the species of Mugil (Teleostei: Perciformes: Mugilidae) from the Atlantic South Caribbean and South America, with integration of morphological, cytogenetic and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Naércio A; Nirchio, Mauro; De Oliveira, Cláudio; Siccharamirez, Raquel

    2015-01-10

    Analysis of morphological, molecular and cytological data helped to define and more precisely characterize the species of Mugil from the Atlantic coasts of South Caribbean and South America, allowing a correction of prior misidentifications and distributional ranges. A new species from Venezuela is described and all the species from the area are redescribed. It is demonstrated that the apparent similarity in morphological traits, which contradicted the results from recent molecular studies, is the result of the misuse of traditional morphological characters, and thus both the molecular and cytological data instead are congruent with the morphological differences that are found among mullet species. The presence of Mugil hospes Jordan & Culver in the western south Atlantic is refuted based on the comparison of type material of this species with specimens from this area that also indicated a very significant morphological difference, what on the other hand justifies the recognition of these specimens as Mugil brevirostris (Ribeiro). The distribution of Mugil incilis Hancock is restricted and the similarities among the species formerly depicted in a prior dendrogram is modified following the inclusion of recently obtained molecular data for Mugil curvidens Valenciennes.

  9. Co-located 18S/5S rDNA arrays: an ancient and unusual chromosomal trait in Julidini species (Labridae, Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Karlla Danielle Jorge; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Soares, Rodrigo Xavier; de Souza, Allyson Santos; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wrasses (Labridae) are extremely diversified marine fishes, whose species exhibit complex interactions with the reef environment. They are widely distributed in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Their species have displayed a number of karyotypic divergent processes, including chromosomal regions with complex structural organization. Current cytogenetic information for this family is phylogenetically and geographically limited and mainly based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. Here, the distribution patterns of heterochromatin, GC-specific chromosome regions and Ag-NORs, and the organization of 18S and 5S rDNA sites of the Atlantic species Thalassoma noronhanum (Boulenger, 1890), Halichoeres poeyi (Steindachner, 1867), Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Halichoeres brasiliensis (Bloch, 1791) and Halichoeres penrosei Starks, 1913, belonging to the tribe Julidini were analyzed. All the species exhibited 2n=48 chromosomes with variation in the number of chromosome arms among genera. Thalassoma noronhanum has 2m+46a, while species of the genus Halichoeres Rüppell, 1835 share karyotypes with 48 acrocentric chromosomes. The Halichoeres species exhibit differences in the heterochromatin distribution patterns and in the number and distribution of 18S and 5S rDNA sites. The occurrence of 18S/5S rDNA syntenic arrangements in all the species indicates a functionally stable and adaptive genomic organization. The phylogenetic sharing of this rDNA organization highlights a marked and unusual chromosomal singularity inside the family Labridae. PMID:28123678

  10. Review of the Acanthopagrus latus complex (Perciformes: Sparidae) with descriptions of three new species from the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Y

    2013-07-01

    Acanthopagrus latus, long considered a single valid Indo-West Pacific Ocean species, characterized by having yellow pelvic, anal and caudal fins, is reviewed and separated into A. latus (east Asian shelf) and Acanthopagrus longispinnis (Bengal Bay), and three new species: Acanthopagrus morrisoni sp. nov. (north-western Australia), Acanthopagrus arabicus sp. nov. [Middle East (except for the Red Sea) to coasts of Iran and Pakistan, and western Indian coast] and Acanthopagrus sheim sp. nov. (The Gulf). Although A. latus as redefined considerably varies in morphology and colouration, it can be recognized as a discrete east Asian endemic, with the following nominal species being junior synonyms: Chrysophrys auripes, Chrysophrys xanthopoda, Chrysophrys rubroptera and Sparus chrysopterus. Chrysophrys novaecaledoniae, known only from the holotype (type locality: Nouméa, New Caledonia), is a questionable junior synonym of A. latus, the lack of subsequent collections suggesting that the type locality is erroneous. Acanthopagrus longispinnis is differentiated from the other species in the complex by consistently having 12 dorsal-fin spines and a much larger second anal-fin spine, 21-26% (mean 23%) of standard length (LS ) (v. 14-24%, mean 18-21% in the other four species). Acanthopagrus morrisoni sp. nov. has the entire caudal fin yellow with a wide black posterior margin (persisting in preserved specimens) and consistently 3 ½ scale rows between the fifth dorsal-fin spine base and the lateral line. Acanthopagrus sheim sp. nov. has the pelvic, anal and lower caudal fins vivid yellow, with two (rarely three) small black blotches on the lower inter-radial membranes between the spinous and soft dorsal-fin rays. Acanthopagrus arabicus sp. nov. consistently has 4 ½ scale rows between the fifth dorsal-fin spine base and the lateral line, whereas A. latus always has black streaks proximally on the inter-radial membranes between the yellow anal-fin rays. A neotype and lectotye, respectively, are designated for A. latus and A. longispinnis. The p-distance (net nucleotide substitutions per site) of partial mitochondrial 16s ribosomal RNA genes (538 bp) among the above species (except A. longispinnis) and three other congeners (Acanthopagrus berda, Acanthopagrus pacificus and Acanthopagrus bifasciatus) strongly indicates that each is a distinct species. A key is provided for the 20 species of Acanthopagrus currently known from the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.

  11. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurdalila, A'wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-07-02

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish.

  12. On the colour types in Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914) and species composition of the subgenus Furcimanus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae: Lycodes) in the sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Saveliev, Pavel A; Balanov, Andrey A; Kukhlevskii, Andrey D

    2014-05-30

    Two colour types were revealed in a zoarcid fish of the subgenus Furcimanus, genus Lycodes, in the Sea of Japan. A comparison of morphometric, meristic and genetic characters in dark coloured and light coloured individuals suggests that the two colour morphs represent a single species, determined to be Lycodes nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). Variability in colouration within L. nakamurae and a lack of morphological or molecular characters distinguishing L. nakamurae from L. nishimurai Shinohara & Shirai, 2005 suggest that the latter should be considered a synonym of L. nakamurae (Tanaka, 1914). A record of L. pectoralis in the waters of the Republic of Korea is regarded as a misidentification. Thus, we conclude that only one species of the Lycodes subgenus Furcimanus, L. nakamurae, with dark and light colour morphs as well as specimens of intermediate colouration, inhabits the Sea of Japan.

  13. High levels of genetic connectivity among populations of yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus (Lutjanidae-Perciformes), in the western South Atlantic revealed through multilocus analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raimundo; Veneza, Ivana; Sampaio, Iracilda; Araripe, Juliana; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, five loci (mitochondrial and nuclear) were sequenced to determine the genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history of populations of the yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus, found along the coast of the western South Atlantic. O. chrysurus is a lutjanid species that is commonly associated with coral reefs and exhibits an ample geographic distribution, and it can therefore be considered a good model for the investigation of phylogeographic patterns and genetic connectivity in marine environments. The results reflected a marked congruence between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers as well as intense gene flow among the analyzed populations, which represent a single genetic stock along the entire coast of Brazil between the states of Pará and Espírito Santo. Our data also showed high levels of genetic diversity in the species (mainly mtDNA), as well a major historic population expansion, which most likely coincided with the sea level oscillations at the end of the Pleistocene. In addition, this species is intensively exploited by commercial fisheries, and data on the genetic structure of its populations will be essential for the development of effective conservation and management plans.

  14. First record of the Indo-Pacific areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775) (Perciformes: Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Shevy B S; Stern, Nir; Goren, Menachem

    2016-01-25

    The number of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is steadily increasing and it seems that the pace has been accelerating since the turn of the century (Galil et al. 2014). In 2015 alone five additional fish species have been reported, Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015); Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt, 1823) (Fricke et al. 2015); Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) (Stern et al. 2015); Mobula japanica (Müller & Henle, 1841) (Capapé et al. 2015); and Cryptocentrus caeruleopunctatus (Rüppell, 1830) (Rothman & Goren 2015). Among the ca. 100 alien fish species reported from the Mediterranean to date (Galil & Goren 2014), five Indo-Pacific species belong to the genus Epinephelus Bloch, 1793: Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822), Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775), Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch and Schneider, 1804) Epinephelus merra Bloch, 1793 (Golani et al. 2013a) and Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015). Additional alien Epinephelus species reported from the Mediterranean are excluded for various reasons (Golani et al. 2013b). Here we report the finding of a sixth Indo-Pacific species of this genus along the Mediterranean coast of Israel.

  15. Phylogeny and taxonomy of sculpins, sandfishes, and snailfishes (Perciformes: Cottoidei) with comments on the phylogenetic significance of their early-life-history specializations.

    PubMed

    Smith, W Leo; Busby, Morgan S

    2014-10-01

    Despite recent progress on the higher-level relationships of the Cottoidei and its familial components, phylogenetic conflict and uncertainty remain within the Cottoidea. We analyzed a dataset composed of 4518 molecular (mitochondrial 12S, tRNA-Val, 16S, and cytochrome b and nuclear TMO-4c4, Histone H3, and 28S) and 72 morphological characters for 69 terminals to address cottoid intrarelationships. The resulting well-resolved phylogeny was used to produce a revised taxonomy that is consistent with the available molecular and morphological data and recognizes six families: Agonidae, Cottidae, Jordaniidae, Psychrolutidae, Rhamphocottidae, and Scorpaenichthyidae. The traditional Agonidae was expanded to include traditional hemitripterids and Hemilepidotus. The traditional Cottidae was restricted to Leptocottus, Trachidermus, and the riverine, lacustrine, and Lake Baikal freshwater cottoids. Jordaniidae (Jordania and Paricelinus) was separated from the traditional cottids; Psychrolutidae was expanded from the traditional grouping to include nearly all traditional marine cottids and the single species of bathylutichthyid. Rhamphocottidae was expanded to include the traditional ereuniids, and Scorpaenichthyidae separated Scorpaenichthys from the traditional cottids. The importance of early-life-history characters to the resulting phylogeny and taxonomy were highlighted.

  16. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam.

  17. Northernmost record of a poorly known tuskfish, Choerodon margaritiferus (Perciformes: Labridae), from southern Japan, and first description of a female.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kei; Nonaka, Ai; Oka, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-08-26

    We describe 5 specimens of Choerodon margaritiferus Fowler and Bean, 1928 (94.5-107.0 mm standard length, 1 male and 4 females) collected near Okinawa Island, southern Japan. This is the northernmost record of this species and the first record of it in Japanese waters; until now, C. margaritiferus was recorded only from the western central Pacific. This species was originally described on the basis of 1 male specimen, and all additional specimens described in the literature were also male. Morphological characters of both sexes are described, and new diagnostic characters of the female are presented.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the urohaze-goby Glossogobius olivaceus (Perciformes, Gobiidae) and structure comparison of light strand replication origin in Gobioidei.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuena; Wei, Tao; Jin, Xiaoxiao; Qin, Yu; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-01-01

    The genome of Glossogobius olivaceus (G. olivaceus) was 16,568 bp in length with a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and 2 non-coding region (the control region and origin of the light strand replication). The conserved motif 5'-GCCGG-3' was determined in the origin of light strand replication of G. olivaceus. The G. olivaceus mitogenome base composition was: T 25.65%, C 29.82% A 27.17% and G 17.36%, with a slight A+T bias of 52.82%, which was similar to most of the vertebrate mitogenomes. The mitochondrial genome of G. olivaceus had common features regarding gene arrangement and tRNA structures compared with those of other bony fishes.

  19. Growth and mortality of Cichla spp. (Perciformes, Cichlidae) introduced in Volta Grande Reservoir (Grande River) and in a small artificial lake in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Rondineli, G R; Villares Junior, G A; Braga, F M S

    2010-11-01

    The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural mortality, and smaller number of cohorts than C. kelberi and C. piquiti in Volta Grande. The values of growth performance obtained for the species were similar, corroborating the validity of the estimated growth and mortality parameters. The increase of the growth rate in small and less diverse environments occurs due to predation. The genus Cichla adapts well in locations in which it is introduced, however this adaptation shows itself to be strongly adjusted to each particular location, determining great plasticity and establishment capacity.

  20. Kudoa azevedoi n. sp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) from the oocytes of the Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus (Perciformes, Carangidae) in Tunisian coasts.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Thabet, Aouatef; Chourabi, Kalthoum; Harrath, Abdul Halim; Gtari, Mahr; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2013-04-01

    A new species Kudoa azevedoi sp. n. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) is described in Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 (Carangidae) from fishing harbors in Tunisian coasts using spore morphology and SSU rDNA sequence data. The parasite occurs only in ovaries within oocytes of mature and immature specimens. Spores are quadrate in shape in apical view with rounded edges, having four shell valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. They are of small sizes and measure 3.5±0.41 (3-4.2)×4.5±0.44 (4-5.2) length by width. The polar capsules are pyriform in shape measuring 1.5±0.22 (1.5-2)×0.75±0.14 (0.5-1) μm. Infected oocytes are hypertrophied, whitish colored, and filled with mature spores. Plasmodia are tubular and ramified from the inner membrane toward the center of the oocyte. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences shows the highest similarity (96%) with the ovary parasite Kudoa ovivora. Some morphological details and spore dimensions support the creation of a new species in the genus Kudoa. Mean prevalence among examined females is of about 55.5%. It varies between localities and length of fish. The present myxosporea is the second Kudoa species reported in fish ovaries.

  1. Structural and molecular characterization of Kudoa quraishii n. sp. from the trunk muscle of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Perciforme, Scombridae) in Saudi Arabia coasts.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Abd-Elkader, Omar H; Alwasel, Saleh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al Omar, Suliman Y

    2014-04-01

    A new Myxozoa, Kudoa quraishii n. sp., is reported in the striated muscle of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta from the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf in Saudi Arabia. Mean prevalence of infection is about 20% and varies between localities. The parasite develops whitish and oval or rounded pseudocysts of 0.2-3 mm in the striated muscles of the body. Pseudocysts are filled with mature spores. Myxospores are quadrate in shape in apical view with rounded edges and ovoid in side view. Each spore is formed by four equal shell valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Polar capsules are pyriform in apical view and drop-like in side view. Myxospore measurements in micrometers are 6.14 (5.9-6.34) in width, 5.48 (5.3-5.71) in thickness, and 4.27 (4.1-4.42) in length. Polar capsule measurements in apical view in micrometers are 2.08 (1.88-2.28) and 1.31 (1.10-1.52) length by width. Molecular analysis based on SSU rDNA gene shows closest association with K. amamiensis and K. kenti with respectively 98 and 97.2% of similarities.

  2. Parasciadicleithrum octofasciatum n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), parasite of Rocio octofasciata (Regan) (Cichlidae: Perciformes) from Mexico characterised by morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Hernández-Mena, David; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2017-04-01

    Based on an integrative taxonomic approach, combining morphological characters and partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene, a new genus and species, Parasciadicleithrum octofasciatum, is proposed to accommodate dactylogyrids infecting the gills of Rocio octofasciata (Cichlidae) from a tributary of the Lacantún River basin, Chiapas State, southern Mexico. Morphologically, the new genus resembles members of Sciadicleithrum (Dactylogyridae) in the presence of membranes on the anterior margins of both ventral and dorsal haptoral bars. However, Parasciadicleithrum octofasciatum n. sp. shows morphological differences with respect to a subset of species of Sciadicleithrum occurring in the same host group and geographic area, such as the body size and gonad dimensions (length and width of germarium and testis, respectively, smaller in the new genus). Phylogenetic analyses performed herein based on Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference criteria, showed that Parasciadicleithrum octofasciatum n. sp. represents an undescribed taxon morphologically very similar to species of Sciadicleithrum from which it can be consistently distinguished on the basis of molecular data. P. octofasciatum n. sp. appeared genetically distant from Sciadicleithrum spp. and nested with dactylogyrid parasites of African cichlids. Parasciadicleithrum n. gen. showed divergence levels in the 28S rDNA sequences of 25-26% with respect to Sciadicleithrum spp. Therefore, on the basis of molecular evidence mainly, and morphological differences highlighted above, the erection of the new genus is proposed. The evolutionary and ecological factors that may have influenced the associations between Neotropical cichlids and their dactylogyrid parasites are briefly discussed.

  3. A new species of Neobathyclupea from the northern Indian Ocean with comments on N. malayana (Teleostei, Perciformes, Bathyclupeidae).

    PubMed

    Prokofiev, Artem M; Gon, Ofer; Psomadakis, Peter N

    2016-12-19

    A new species of Neobathyclupea is described from two specimens collected off Myanmar and off Socotra Island. The new species is most similar to N. malayana, but differs from it and other congeners in having jet-black coloured fins, larger pseudobranch, dorsal-pterygiophore pattern and some body proportions. Neobathyclupea malayana is re-diagnosed. Individual variations in armament of the preopercle and in the dorsal-pterygiophore patterns within Bathyclupeidae are discussed.

  4. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases.

  5. REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF YELLOW PERCH (PERCA FLAVESCENS): ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENDOCRINOLOGICAL CUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of reproductive processes in yellow perch is fundamental for intensive culture of this commercially important, freshwater, perciform fish. This paper describes the annual reproductive cycle of female and male perch. It...

  6. First description of the gravid female of Philometra rubra (Leidy, 1856) (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of temperate basses Morone Spp. (Moronidae: Perciformes) in North America.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; de Buron, Isaure; Measures, Lena

    2013-06-01

    Gravid females of the little-known nematode species Philometra rubra ( Leidy, 1856 ) (Philometridae) are described from specimens from the abdominal cavity of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in South Carolina and Canada. The specimens were studied with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is mainly characterized by the distribution and different sizes of cephalic papillae from the external circle, which is a unique feature compared to other philometrids. Other characteristic features are the shape of the posterior end of body, size and location of caudal projections, and the presence of a well-developed anterior esophageal inflation. The morphology of the male of P. rubra and the life cycle of this nematode are still unknown.

  7. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-07-14

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the latter by a concavity in the lateral profile of the snout in adults, deep body and high soft dorsal-fin ray count. Comparison of the CO1 genetic marker utilised in DNA barcoding also resulted in significant genetic divergences between the new species, P. unicolor and their closest sampled congeners. Some behavioural observations are also presented for the species treated, including aggressive interactions between individuals of the new species, the likes of which have not previously been recorded among species of Plectorhinchus.

  8. Molecular identification of cryptic species of Ceratomyxa Thélohan, 1892 (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) including the description of eight novel species from apogonid fishes (Perciformes: Apogonidae) from Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Holly; Adlard, Robert D

    2013-09-01

    Ceratomyxa parasites from the gall bladders of 23 species of cardinalfishes (family Apogonidae) from Australian waters were examined for their taxonomic identity and phylogenetic relatedness. We identified 15 of the 23 apogonid fish species infected with species of Ceratomyxa. Although the majority of apogonid species harboured only a single Ceratomyxa species, four were found with multiple species of Ceratomyxa. This study describes eight novel species using a combination of morphological, small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and biological characters. Six Ceratomyxa species are reported from single apogonid species, while two are reported from multiple host species. Molecular data were critical in identifying several morphologically cryptic species. However, our results suggest that SSU rDNA was not capable of distinguishing all the species present in the current study system and alternative genetic markers should be investigated in the future.

  9. Rediscovery of Sagittalarva inornata n. gen., n. comb. (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Labridae), a long-lost deepwater fish from the eastern Pacific Ocean: a case study of a forensic approach to taxonomy using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Victor, Benjamin C; Alfaro, Michael E; Sorenson, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Some of the more valuable contributions of a standardized DNA sequence database (the DNA barcode) are matching specimens of different life stages and confirming the species identity of individuals from distant locations. These applications can facilitate the detective work required to solve difficult taxonomic problems. In this case, a match was made between the COI mtDNA sequence of an adult male wrasse recently caught at the tip of Baja California in Mexico in deep water (30-100m) and sequences from a series of unusual larvae collected about 3500 km to the south, in the open ocean over the Galápagos Rift hydrothermal vents in 1985. The Baja adults fit the recent description of Halichoeres raisneri Baldwin & McCosker, 2001 from the Galápagos and Cocos Islands. However, another deepwater labrid is known from the same site and depth in Baja; it is the type locality for the century-old holotype and only specimen of the Cape Wrasse Pseudojulis inornatus Gilbert, 1890 (later as Pseudojuloides inornatus). Deepwater video images from the tip of Baja show wrasses identical to H. raisneri photographed in Galápagos but who also fit the description of Pseudojulis inornatus. This coincidence led to a closer investigation of the holotype with x-ray, which revealed unanticipated caniniform teeth (vs. incisiform in Pseudojuloides) and an error in the fin-ray count in the original description, both of which mistakenly separated Halichoeres raisneri. The two species now match in markings, meristics, and morphology as well as overlapping range and are therefore synonymized. Phenetic and phylogenetic trees using mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences show the species is not close to any other lineage and does not group with the other julidine labrids of the New World or the Pseudojuloides or Halichoeres of the Indo-Pacific. The distinctive larval morphology, long, thin, and flattened with a sharply pointed black-tipped snout, resembles no other described labrid larvae and, without an available genus, the new genus Sagittalarva Victor, n. gen. and the new combination Sagittalarva inornata (Gilbert, 1890), n. gen., n. comb. are described.

  10. Description of a new species of Trimma (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea, with a discussion of the generic separation of Trimma and Priolepis, with discussion of sensory papillae terminology.

    PubMed

    Hoese, Douglass F; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2015-10-06

    A new species of Pygmygoby, Trimma quadrimaculatum, n. sp., is described from the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea on the basis of 16 adult specimens. It is small-sized species, with the largest examined specimen reaching only 16.8 mm SL. The new species has characteristics of both Priolepis and Trimma, and easily may be confused with Priolepis randalli and Trimma mendelssohni; it can distinguish from other species by combination of characters: dorsal-fin rays D VI + I,8; anal-fin rays I,7; longitudinal scale series 23-25; median predorsal scales 6-8 (usually 7 or 8); head naked; a pair of modified elongate papillae on nape; fifth pelvic-fin ray with 2 dichotomous branches; body with broad, irregular, brown bars, last bar posteriorly on caudal peduncle extending basally on to rays of caudal fin; head with three dark brown bars below eye; four subcutaneous dark brown spots ventrally on posterior half of body; and basal quarter of second and third membranes of first dorsal fin with diffuse dark blotch. Placement of the new species in Trimma is based on the presence of more characteristics currently associated with Trimma than with Priolepis. The generic separation of the two genera is discussed, suggesting that further work is needed to clarify the separation of these two genera.

  11. Badis laspiophilus, a new miniature addition to the ichthyofauna of West Bengal, north-eastern India, with observations on its ecology and preliminary notes on its ethology (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Badidae).

    PubMed

    Valdesalici, Stefano; Van Der Voort, Stefan

    2015-07-16

    Badis laspiophilus is described from the Torsa River drainage, West Bengal, India. It can be distinguished from congeners by a combination of characters which include a small size (15.7-21.0 mm SL), 14-16 circumpeduncular row scales, interorbital width 6.7-8.9% SL, upper and lower jaws 8.2-9.2 and 10.2-13.4% SL, respectively, presence of two dorsal-fin blotches and a single round blotch on the anal fin, and absence of cleithral, opercle and dorsolateral caudal peduncle blotches. Its benthic ecology is discussed and the Badis singenensis species group is diagnosed, of which B. laspiophilus and B. singenensis are considered members.

  12. 75 FR 35444 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission To Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    .... They are reportedly stepping up aggressive marketing techniques. The federal government plans to invest... in Brazil in cooperation with the International Trade Administration's Global Safety and Security...-356-6644, E-mail: stephanie.heckel@trade.gov . Natalia Susak, Global Trade Programs,...

  13. Human Performance Aspects of Small Screen Displays: A Literature Review Revealing the Lack of Specific Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Heckel, P. (1983). Walt Disney and user oriented software. Byte, 8(12), 143-150. Disney’s successful cartoon ideas are extrapolated and...and 3) stereotypic (abbreviation chosen most often by a large group of people). Rosenberg, J.K. (1982). Evaluating the suggestiv+ness of command names

  14. Mechanical characterization of pharmaceutical solids: a comparison between rheological tests performed under static and dynamic porosity conditions.

    PubMed

    Bonacucina, Giulia; Cespi, Marco; Misici-Falzi, Monica; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this work was to verify how and to what extent rheological tests, carried out under dynamic (Heckel) and static (creep, stress/strain) porosity conditions, may serve as a valuable complement to the classic Heckel tests in the characterization of viscoelastic and densification properties of solid materials for pharmaceutical use. Six different modified (pregelatinized) starches were compressed in a rotary tablet machine equipped to measure force and punch displacement. Tablets were obtained using flat-faced 6mm diameter punches at different compression pressures. Compression cycles performed at the maximal pressure of 200MPa were used to build the Heckel plots. Ejected tablets at the 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% porosity levels were used for the stress/strain and creep tests. Parameters obtained with both types of tests were consistent with each other. In particular, among the six starches, lower viscosity values corresponded to lower P(Y) values, and lower elastic modulus values corresponded to lower elastic recovery of the tablet. Mechanical properties of materials can be better characterized if viscoelastic tests performed under dynamic porosity conditions (Heckel analysis) are supported by classical viscoelastic tests carried out under conditions of static porosity.

  15. Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Upper Mississippi River: Observations at Selected Sites Within the 9-Foot Navigation Channel Project for the St. Paul District, United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1977 - 1979. Volume II. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-10

    111 16. Vermillion River 15 >2 1)9, _: L Hastings Small Boat Harbor 16 13 -,2 IS. Prescott 17 !14 199, 19. Pine Coulee 13 15 0. Truedaie Slough 19 116...Iowa Darter E. nigrum Rafinesque, Johnny Darter Perca flavescens (Mitchill), Yellow Perch Stizostedion e-avadense (Smith), Sauger Family Sciaenidae...brailing Brail runs: positive, 0 ; negative, 14 ;total, 14 Number of square ifeet brailed: 70,000 Exhibit 15 16. Vermillion River \\Tusc’ Tha, xni

  16. Aquatic Habitat Studies on the Lower Mississippi River, River Mile 480 to 530. Report 8. Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    fields, and revetted banks) in the Lower Mississippi River. Specific objectives were: a. To quantitatively define effects of the age , size, and...Eight families were collected: Clupeidae, Hiodontidae, Cyprinidae, Catostomidae , Percichthyidae, Centrarchidae, Percidae, and Sciaenidae. This was...the system was to provide for at least 10 to 15 ecologi- cal variables (e.g., trophic level, sexual condition, age , growth stage, etc.) for subsequent

  17. Final Environmental Assessment Eglin Gulf Test and Training Range (EGTTR) Precision Strike Weapons (PSW) Test (5-Year Plan) Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    Rachycentridae Cobia Sciaenidae Drums Sphymidae Hammerhead sharks Tropical Sphyraenidae Barracudas Fishes of the eastern Gulf can be characterized by...Dusky shark Carcharinus obscurus C One of the larger shark species of continental shelf waters; occurs in Atlantic and Pacific. Feeds on fish...other sharks , rays, squid, octopus, and starfish. Sand tiger shark Odontaspis taurus C In North America, the sand tiger ranges from the Gulf of

  18. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution.

  19. Compendium of the FY1990 and FY1992 Research Reviews for the Research Methods Branch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    seminoma have been reported in African lungfishes (Protopterus aethiopicus) (Masahito et al., 1984a), P. annectens (Nigrelli and Jakowska, 1953), and P...and Fletcher, K.C. 1985. A seminoma and a leiomyosarcoma in an albino African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi). J. Wildl. Dis. 21:72-74. International...Ishikawa, T., and Takayama, S. 1984a. Spontaneous spermatocytic seminoma in African lungfish , Protopterus aethiopicus Heckel. J. Fish Dis. 7:169-172

  20. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Wali, Asifa; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Maqbool, Rafia; Darzi, Mohammed Maqbool; Shah, Feroz Ahmad; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47%) and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63%) and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43%) were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  1. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Balkhi, Masood-ul Hassan; Maqbool, Rafia; Darzi, Mohammed Maqbool; Shah, Feroz Ahmad; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47%) and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63%) and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43%) were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence. PMID:27738522

  2. Yield strength of microcrystalline cellulose: experimental evidence by dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind K

    2013-10-15

    The water-induced ionic charge transport in compacted microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) has been reported to be governed by the densification behaviour. Hence, mechanical properties were expected to correlate with conductivity behaviour of MCC compacts. Both in-die and out-of-die compaction behaviour of MCC powder was investigated using a fully instrumented rotary tablet press. The dielectric measurements were carried out using a Novocontrol Concept 40 broadband dielectric spectrometer and dc conductivity (σdc) was extracted from the low frequency conductivity data at room temperature. As postulated, compaction pressure corresponding to maximum conductivity (σdc max) was observed to correlate with yield strength of MCC, determined using in-die and out-of-die Heckel analysis. Although Heckel transformation is most commonly used in pharmaceutical technology, its general use to characterise the mechanical properties of organic pharmaceutical materials has been criticized. The present study has provided experimental evidence that Heckel equation is practically useful to describe plastic deformation of organic pharmaceutical powders.

  3. Checklist of the continental fishes of the state of Chiapas, Mexico, and their distribution

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Veláquez, Ernesto; López-Vila, Jesús Manuel; Gómez-González, Adán Enrique; Romero-Berny, Emilio Ismael; Lievano-Trujillo, Jorge Luis; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the distribution of fishes that inhabit the continental waters of the Mexican state of Chiapas is presented. The state was compartmentalized into 12 hydrological regions for the purpose of understanding the distribution of fish fauna across a state with large physiographic variance. The ichthyofauna of Chiapas is represented by 311 species distributed in two classes, 26 orders, 73 families, and 182 genera, including 12 exotic species. The families with the highest number of species were Cichlidae, Poeciliidae, Sciaenidae, Carangidae, Ariidae, Gobiidae, and Haemulidae. This study attempts to close gaps in knowledge of the distribution of ichthyofauna in the diverse hydrological regions of Chiapas, Mexico. PMID:27920608

  4. Checklist of the continental fishes of the state of Chiapas, Mexico, and their distribution.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Veláquez, Ernesto; López-Vila, Jesús Manuel; Gómez-González, Adán Enrique; Romero-Berny, Emilio Ismael; Lievano-Trujillo, Jorge Luis; Matamoros, Wilfredo A

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of the distribution of fishes that inhabit the continental waters of the Mexican state of Chiapas is presented. The state was compartmentalized into 12 hydrological regions for the purpose of understanding the distribution of fish fauna across a state with large physiographic variance. The ichthyofauna of Chiapas is represented by 311 species distributed in two classes, 26 orders, 73 families, and 182 genera, including 12 exotic species. The families with the highest number of species were Cichlidae, Poeciliidae, Sciaenidae, Carangidae, Ariidae, Gobiidae, and Haemulidae. This study attempts to close gaps in knowledge of the distribution of ichthyofauna in the diverse hydrological regions of Chiapas, Mexico.

  5. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz

    2007-10-01

    A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).

  6. Systematic revision of the pennellid genus Creopelates Shiino, 1958 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) and the proposal of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke

    2015-01-07

    The parasitic copepod Creopelates floridus Shiino, 1958 (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) is redescribed based on postmetamorphic adult females in the collection of the Imperial Majesty of Japan deposited in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba (NSMT), Japan. Five new species of pennellid copepods are described based on postmetamorphic adult females from marine actinopterygian fishes newly collected in littoral waters of Japan and the Philippines, in the western North Pacific. The copepods and their hosts are as follows: Creopelates hosinoi n. sp. from Bryaninops yongei (Davis & Cohen) (Perciformes: Gobiidae); C. shirakawai n. sp. from Diancistrus fuscus (Fowler) (Ophidiiformes: Bythitidae); C. lubangenesis n. sp. from Gobiodon rivulatus (Rüppell) (Perciformes: Gobiidae); Nagasawanus akinohama n. gen. et n. sp. from Trimma grammistes (Tomiyama) (Perciformes: Gobiidae); N. snufkini n. gen. et n. sp. from T. tevegae Cohen & Davis. The total number of valid species contained in the genus Creopelates is now five. Nagasawanus n. gen. is distinguishable from other pennellid genera by the following features: antennary processes and cephalic lobes rounded without branched fringes, neck region without processes, maxilla with claw-like terminal segment lacking spinules. Keys to the genera of Pennellidae and to the species of Creopelates and Nagasawanus n. gen. are also provided.

  7. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts.

  8. Observations on cucullanid nematodes from freshwater fishes in Mexico, including Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n.

    PubMed

    Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    1999-01-01

    A new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n., is described from the intestine of three species of fishes, Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft) (Mugilidae, Perciformes) (type host), Ictalurus balsanus (Jordan et Snyder) (Ictaluridae, Siluriformes) and Cichlasoma beani (Jordan) (Cichlidae, Perciformes), from three rivers (La Maquina River, Veracruz; Chontalcoatlán River, Guerrero and Santiago River, Nayarit) in central Mexico. This species is characterised by the absence of a ventral sucker in the male (subgenus Dichelyne) and it differs from its congeners mainly in possessing very unequal and dissimilar spicules (left 0.465-0.768 mm and right 293-548 mm long), an asymmetrical gubernaculum, and two intestinal caeca. Another cucullanid nematode, Cucullanus caballeroi Petter, 1977, is reported from Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Eleotridae, Perciformes) from the La Palma and La Maquina Rivers and Balzapote stream, Veracruz, being briefly described and illustrated; this represents a new host record. Findings of D. mexicanus and C. caballeroi represent a new record of cucullanid nematodes from fishes in Mexican fresh waters.

  9. First record of myxozoan parasites from fresh water fishes of Jammu and Kashmir and their pathogenecity.

    PubMed

    Dar, Shoaib Ali; Kaur, Harpreet; Chishti, M Z

    2017-02-20

    The present study was aimed to isolate myxozoan parasites infecting the native carp Schizothorax esocinus (Heckel) and pond reared carp Labeo rohita (Ham.) collected from fresh water ecosystems of Jammu and Kashmir from July 2013 to June 2014. Various organs such as eyes, gills, scales, fins, intestines, visceral organs and pericardial cavity of as many as 100 live specimens were examined. Results revealed that 14% of the examined L. rohita were infected with Myxobolus rocatlae (Ham.) and 6% of S. esocinus (Heckel) were infected with M. kashmirensis sp. nov. Clinical signs revealed mucous laden gills while the parasitological observation under stereozoom binocular microscope revealed multiple minute plasmodia on the gills. On rupturing these plasmodia with sharp needle 100-500 myxospores were liberated. The identification to species level was done on the basis of morphological and morphometric attributes of the myxospores. This is the first record of myxozoan parasites in fishes from the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Histological observations of infected gills revealed plasmodia of two types (LV4 intralamellar vascular type) in M. rocatlae and (LV3 intralamellar vascular type) in M. kasmirensis causing necrosis, hyperplasia, hypertrophy and vacuolization of the epithelial and vascular endothelium.

  10. A Molecular Perspective on Systematics, Taxonomy and Classification Amazonian Discus Fishes of the Genus Symphysodon

    PubMed Central

    Amado, Manuella Villar; Farias, Izeni P.; Hrbek, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    With the goal of contributing to the taxonomy and systematics of the Neotropical cichlid fishes of the genus Symphysodon, we analyzed 336 individuals from 24 localities throughout the entire distributional range of the genus. We analyzed variation at 13 nuclear microsatellite markers, and subjected the data to Bayesian analysis of genetic structure. The results indicate that Symphysodon is composed of four genetic groups: group PURPLE—phenotype Heckel and abacaxi; group GREEN—phenotype green; group RED—phenotype blue and brown; and group PINK—populations of Xingú and Cametá. Although the phenotypes blue and brown are predominantly biological group RED, they also have substantial contributions from other biological groups, and the patterns of admixture of the two phenotypes are different. The two phenotypes are further characterized by distinct and divergent mtDNA haplotype groups, and show differences in mean habitat use measured as pH and conductivity. Differences in mean habitat use is also observed between most other biological groups. We therefore conclude that Symphysodon comprises five evolutionary significant units: Symphysodon discus (Heckel and abacaxi phenotypes), S. aequifasciatus (brown phenotype), S. tarzoo (green phenotype), Symphysodon sp. 1 (blue phenotype) and Symphysodon sp. 2 (Xingú group). PMID:21811676

  11. Effects of some lubricants and evaluation of compression parameters on directly compressible powders.

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Timuçin; Halaçoğlu, Mekin Doğa

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of conventional lubricants including a new candidate lubricant "Hexagonal boron nitride (HBN)" on direct compression powders. Lubricants such as magnesium stearate, glyceryl behenate, stearic acid, talc and polyethylene glycol6000 were studied in this article. Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented tablet press with various lubricant concentrations. Bulk and tapped densities, and Carr's index parameters were calculated for powders. Tensile strength, cohesion index, lower punch ejection force and lubricant effectiveness values were investigated for tablets. The deformation mechanisms of tablets were studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricants. Powders formulated with MGST and HBN showed better flow properties based on Carr's index. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on lubricant effectiveness for tablets. HBN was found very close to MGST with the same concentrations. Other lubricants showed less effectiveness than that of MGST and HBN. It is observed that an increase in the concentration of HBN leads to decreased tensile strength and cohesion index values because of its surface-covering property. Despite covering property, HBN had no significant effect on disintegration time. Based on the Heckel plots at the level of 1%, HBN showed the most pronounced plastic character.

  12. Effect of the compaction platform on the densification parameters of tableting excipients with different deformation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rojas, John; Hernandez, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Several compaction models have been attempted to explain the compression and compaction phenomena of excipients. However, the resulting parameters could be influenced by the compaction platform such as dwell time, compact mass, geometry and type of material. The goal of this study is to assess the effect of these variables on the densification parameters obtained from key models such as Heckel, non-linear Heckel, Kawakita, Carstensen, and Leuenberger. The relationship among the parameters derived was determined by employing a Principal Component Analysis. Results indicated that factors such as compact geometry, consolidation time and compact mass had a negligible impact on parameters such as tensile strength, yield pressure and compressibility. On the contrary, the excipient type had the largest influence on these parameters. Further, the Leuenberger (γ) and Carstensen (f) parameters were highly correlated and related to the excipient deformation mechanism. Sorbitol and PVP-k30 were the most highly compactable excipients and were characterized for having a low yield pressure (P(y)), compressibility (a), and critical porosity (ε(c)). The magnitude of these parameters was highly dependent on the consolidation behavior of each material.

  13. Stress relaxation test for the characterization of the viscoelasticity of pellets.

    PubMed

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Misici-Falzi, Monica; Golzi, Roberto; Boltri, Luigi; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2007-09-01

    The characterization of the mechanical properties of single uncoated pellets was performed in order to verify if these parameters could be used to predict the pellets aptitude to be compressed or utilized differently. Different ratios of microcrystalline cellulose and lactose monohydrate were used for the preparation of four batches of pellets by an extrusion/spheronization process. The 0.6-0.71 mm pellet fraction was used for the tests. Crushing strength and stress relaxation tests were carried out on the single pellets. The first test provided information of both the mechanical strength and the fragmentation aptitude. The second test provided information about their deformation ability (viscous flow) and residual elasticity (stress relaxation modulus). The results obtained from these tests were then compared with those obtained from the Heckel analysis. An excellent consistency was discovered between the parameters obtained from both the stress relaxation and crushing strength tests on one side and the Heckel parameters on the other side. Tests performed on single pellets are very useful tools to predict their deformation and fragmentation aptitude under compression and can be used for early insight of the pellet aptitude to be compressed.

  14. Compaction properties of crystalline pharmaceutical ingredients according to the Walker model and nanomechanical attributes.

    PubMed

    Egart, M; Ilić, I; Janković, B; Lah, N; Srčič, S

    2014-09-10

    This study investigates the extent to which single-crystal mechanical properties of selected active ingredients (famotidine, nifedipine, olanzapine, piroxicam) influence their bulk compressibility and compactibility. Nanomechanical attributes of oriented single crystals were determined with instrumented nanoindentation, and bulk deformational properties were assessed with the Walker and Heckel models as well as the elastic relaxation index. Good correlations were established between bulk and single-crystal plasticity parameters: the Walker coefficient and indentation hardness. The Walker model showed more practical value for evaluating bulk deformational properties of the APIs investigated because their properties differed more distinctly compared to the Heckel model. In addition, it was possible to predict the elastic properties of the materials investigated at the bulk level because a correlation between the elastic relaxation index and compliance was established. The value of using indentation hardness for crystalline APIs was also confirmed because their compactibility at the bulk level was able to be predicted. Mechanically interlocked structures were characteristic of most polymorphic forms investigated, resulting in single crystals having isotropic mechanical properties. It was revealed that in such cases good correlations between single and bulk mechanical properties can be expected. The results imply that innate crystal deformational properties define their compressibility and compactibility properties to a great extent.

  15. Comparative cytogenetics of ten species of cichlid fishes (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the Araguaia River system, Brazil, by conventional cytogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Valente, G Targino; Vitorino, C de Andrade; Cabral-de-Mello, D C; Oliveira, C; Souza, I Lima; Martins, C; Venere, P C

    2012-01-01

    Cichlids represent one of the most species-rich families of fishes and have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists due to the rapid radiation occurring in some groups and the importance of some species in the world aquaculture. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted in 10 cichlid species from the Araguaia River, Amazon Basin, Brazil. The chromosome number was 2n=48 for all analyzed species except for Laetacara araguaiae Ottoni et Costa, 2009 (2n=44). Chromosomal polymorphism was detected only in Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855), which exhibits an extra large submetacentric and and a dot-like chromosomes. Moreover, the C-banding revealed a general pericentromeric heterochromatic pattern and some additional blocks for some species. The heterochromatic blocks corresponding to AgNOR bearing regions were observed in all species and also corresponded to CMA3 positive blocks, which were observed in terminal regions. Besides the general conserved chromosomal and heterochromatin patterns for South American cichlids, the presence of GC-rich heterochromatin was quite different in the species Biotodoma cupido (Heckel, 1840), Geophagus proximus, Retroculus lapidifer (Castelnau, 1855), Crenicichla strigata Günther, 1862 and Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840. The results suggest that independent events of heterochromatin modification occurred during chromosome evolution in the group, regardless of the conservation of macro-chromosomal structure.

  16. Compaction behavior of roller compacted ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sarsvatkumar; Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-06-01

    The effect of roller compaction pressure on the bulk compaction of roller compacted ibuprofen was investigated using instrumented rotary tablet press. Three different roller pressures were utilized to prepare granules and Heckel analysis, Walker analysis, compressibility, and tabletability were performed to derive densification, deformation, course of volume reduction and bonding phenomenon of different pressure roller compacted granules. Nominal single granule fracture strength was obtained by micro tensile testing. Heckel analysis indicated that granules prepared using lower pressure during roller compaction showed lower yield strength. The reduction in tabletability was observed for higher pressure roller compacted granules. The reduction in tabletability supports the results of granule size enlargement theory. Apart from the granule size enlargement theory, the available fines and relative fragmentation during compaction is responsible for higher bonding strength and provide larger areas for true particle contact at constant porosity for lower pressure roller compacted granules. Overall bulk compaction parameters indicated that granules prepared by lower roller compaction pressure were advantageous in terms of tabletability and densification. Overall results suggested that densification during roller compaction affects the particle level properties of specific surface area, nominal fracture strength, and compaction behavior.

  17. Compression parameters of hexagonal boron nitride on direct compression mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and modified starch.

    PubMed

    Halaçoğlu, Mekin Doğa; Uğurlu, Timuçin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of conventional lubricants including a new candidate lubricant "hexagonal boron nitride (HBN)" on direct compression powders. Lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), glyceryl behenate, stearic acid, talc and polyethylene glycol6000 were studied and tablets were manufactured on a single station instrumented tablet press. This study comprised the continuation of our previous one, so mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and modified starch was used as a master formula to evaluate effects of lubricants on pharmaceutical excipients that undergo complete plastic deformation without any fragmentation under compression pressure. Bulk and tapped densities, and Carr's index parameters were calculated for powders. Tensile strength, cohesion index, lower punch ejection force and lubricant effectiveness values were investigated for tablets. The deformation mechanisms of tablets were studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricant. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant and HBN was found very close to it. HBN did not show a significant negative effect on the crushing strength and disintegration time of the tablets when we compared with MGST. Based on the Heckel plots at the level of 1%, formulation prepared with HBN showed the most pronounced plastic character.

  18. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from the Oaxaca killifish Profundulus balsanus (Osteichthyes: Profundulidae) in Mexico, with new host and locality records of P. inecoli: Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; García-Varela, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. is described from the urinary bladder of the Oaxaca killifish, Profundulus balsanus Ahl (Profundulidae) in Rio Pueblo Viejo and Rio Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, southwestern Mexico. The new species is described based on evidence gathered from morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum Braun 1899 are the presence of spines on the entire body surface and having a ventral sucker almost half the size of oral sucker. The new species possess a large number of dome-like papillae on the body surface with scattered distribution along the hindbody, and these papillae are characteristically spinulated. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. most closely resembles P. inecoli Razo-Mendivil, Perez-Ponce de Leon and Rubio- Godoy, 2013, a parasite of the twospot livebearer Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) from Veracruz, in the Atlantic slope of Mexico. In addition to the new species, specimens of P. inecoli were also found parasitising the urinary bladder of cyprinodontiforms such as the Mexican molly Poecilia sphenops Valencienes in a pond at Santa Maria Coyotepec, and in Profundulus sp. in Rio Templo, both in Oaxaca, and in the Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel) in Rio San Juan, as well as in Profundulus punctatus (Gunter) from Rio Nueva Francia, both in Chiapas. The distribution and host range of P. inecoli is extended to freshwaters of the Pacific slope of Mexico, and to other cyprynodontiforms.

  19. Two new species of Urocleidoides Mizelle et Price, 1964 (Monogenoidea) from the gill lamellae of profundulids and poeciliids from Central America and southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo Antonio

    2015-09-07

    During investigations of gill ectoparasites (Platyhelminthes) parasitising freshwater fish from Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama) and southeastern Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), the following dactylogyrid monogenoidean were found: Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. from Profundulus punctatus (Günther) (type host), Profundulus balsanus Ahl, Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther), Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros, Shaefer, Hernández et Chakrabarty, Profundulus labialis (Günther), Profundulus oaxacae (Meek), Profundulus sp. 1 and Profundulus sp. 2 (all Profundulidae); Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. from Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculata (Heckel) (type host) and Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan) (both Poeciliidae); and Urocleidoides vaginoclaustrum Jogunoori, Kritsky et Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 from P. labialis, Profundulus portillorum Matamoros et Shaefer and Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel (Poeciliidae). Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. differs from all other congeneric species in having anchors with well-differentiated roots, curved elongate shaft and short point. Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. most closely resembles U. vaginoclaustrum, but differs from this species mainly in the shape of its anchors (i.e. evenly curved shaft and short point vs curved shaft and elongate point extending just past the tip of the superficial anchor root). The complexity of potential hosts for species of Urocleidoides and their effect on its distribution on profundulid and poeciliid fishes are briefly discussed.

  20. Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Prateek; Kaur, Birender; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.; Singh, Inderbir

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates. PMID:25328710

  1. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the endangered fish (Bahaba taipingensis): Mitogenome characterization and phylogenetic implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Lu, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To understand the systematic status of Bahaba taipingensis within Sciaenidae, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Chinese bahaba has recently been determined by long PCR and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16500 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) as well as a control region (CR) as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the extended termination associated sequence domain (ETAS), the central conserved sequence block domain (CSB-D, SCB-E and CSB-F) and the conserved sequence block domain (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bahaba taipingensis is more closely related to Pseudosciaeniae than Argyrosominae and Sciaeninae. Additionally, Bahaba taipingensis is the sister taxon of Miichthys miiuy, and those two are sister to Collichthys plus Larimichthys. PMID:26798311

  2. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the endangered fish (Bahaba taipingensis): Mitogenome characterization and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Lu, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    To understand the systematic status of Bahaba taipingensis within Sciaenidae, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Chinese bahaba has recently been determined by long PCR and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16500 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) as well as a control region (CR) as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the extended termination associated sequence domain (ETAS), the central conserved sequence block domain (CSB-D, SCB-E and CSB-F) and the conserved sequence block domain (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bahaba taipingensis is more closely related to Pseudosciaeniae than Argyrosominae and Sciaeninae. Additionally, Bahaba taipingensis is the sister taxon of Miichthys miiuy, and those two are sister to Collichthys plus Larimichthys.

  3. Annotated checklist of the coastal ichthyofauna from Michoacán State, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Hernández, Eloísa; Palacios-Morales, Georgina; Romero-Gallardo, Salvador; Salazar-Araujo, Paloma; García-Meraz, Adrián; Madrigal-Guridi, Xavier; Del Moral-Flores, Luis F.; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study is the first to complete an intensive and comprehensive list of the ichthyofauna of nearly all ecosystems of the Michoacán coast, Mexico. The resulting systematic checklist, supplemented with information from the literature and scientific collections, comprises 440 species belonging to two classes, 31 orders, 104 families, and 264 genera. The families with the highest number of species were Sciaenidae (30 spp.), Carangidae (26), Haemulidae (24), Serranidae (21), Paralichthyidae, and Gobiidae (13). Of the total species list, 134 represent first records for the Michoacán State, and one is a first record for Mexico. The results expand the number of known fish species of the Michoacán coast by almost one third and will help to develop conservation and management plans for this coastal zone. PMID:27551224

  4. Miocene marine incursions and marine/freshwater transitions: Evidence from Neotropical fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Nathan R.; Albert, James S.; Crampton, William G. R.

    2006-03-01

    Amazonian rivers contain a remarkable fauna of endemic species derived from taxa that generally occur in oceans and seas. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of marine-derived lineages, including opportunistic invasions via estuaries, vicariance related to uplift of the Andes, and vicariance related to Miocene marine incursions and connections. Here, we examine available data for marine-derived lineages of four groups: stingrays (Myliobatiformes), drums (Sciaenidae), anchovies (Engraulididae), and needlefish (Belonidae). Geographic distributions, age estimates (determined using fossils, biogeography, and molecular data sets), and phylogenies for these taxa are most compatible with origination during the Miocene from marine sister groups distributed along the northern coast of South America. We speculate that unique ecological and biogeographic aspects of the Miocene upper Amazonian wetland system, most notably long-term connections with marine systems, facilitated the evolutionary transition from marine to freshwater habitats.

  5. [Ichthyofauna fisheries in Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico, associated to the El Niño event 1997-1998].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Vázquez, J A; Aguilar-Palomino, B; Galván-Piña, V H; Godínez-Domínguez, E; Hernández-Vázquez, S; Ruiz-Ramírez, S; Lucano-Ramírez, G

    2001-01-01

    The ichthyofauna fished in Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico in the Central Pacific was surveyed during 1998. Six thousand nine hundred and fourty-four organisms of 130 species were caught which weighted 3,231 kg. Nearly 30% of the species belonged to Carangidae. Haemulidae and Sciaenidae. The most important species in number and biomass were Microlepidotus brevipinnins, Caranx caninus and C. caballus. Species number, abundance and biomass fluctuated during the year. The largest number of species was caught in June (61), the minimum in March (33). January had the maximum abundance (1,397 organisms), while the minimum was obtained during August (251). The maximum biomass values were from January (556.5 kg), and the lowest from August (114.7 kg). Eighteen species accumulated 87% of the total abundance, while 20 species represented 86.3% of the biomass. There were large in differences species number, abundance and biomass nets of different mesh size.

  6. Immunogenic activity of the fish tapeworm Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Trypanorhyncha: Pterobothriidae) in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Mattos, D P B G; Verícimo, M A; Lopes, L M S; São Clemente, S C

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the immunogenicity of Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) crude protein extract (PH-CPE) in BALB/c mice. The parasites were obtained from Micropogonias furnieri (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae). Groups of six mice were each immunized with 10, 50 or 100 μg of PH-CPE, on days 0 and 35. Both specific IgG and IgE responses were developed after immunization. The immunoblot assay revealed that specific IgG recognizes PH-CPE proteins with two molecular weight ranges, 60-75 and 30-40 kDa, and that IgE recognizes larger proteins over 120 kDa. This appears to be the first report on the immunogenicity of metacestodes within the Pterobothriidae and that PH-CPE is a potential inducer of a specific IgE response.

  7. The genome of the miiuy croaker reveals well-developed innate immune and sensory systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tianjun; Xu, Guoliang; Che, Rongbo; Wang, Rixin; Wang, Yanjin; Li, Jinrui; Wang, Shanchen; Shu, Chang; Sun, Yuena; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Aishuai; Han, Jingjing; Chu, Qing; Yang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The miiuy croaker, Miichthys miiuy, is a representative Sciaenidae known for its exceptionally large otoliths. This species mainly inhabits turbid aquatic environments with mud to sandy mud bottoms. However, the characteristics of the immune system of this organism and its specific aquatic environment adaptations are poorly understood. Thus, we present a high-quality draft genome of miiuy croaker. The expansions of several gene families which are critical for the fish innate immune system were identified. Compared with the genomes of other fishes, some changes have occurred in the miiuy croaker sensory system including modification of vision and expansion of taste and olfaction receptors. These changes allow miiuy croaker to adapt to the environment during the long-term natural selection. The genome of miiuy croaker may elucidate its relatively well-developed immune defense and provide an adaptation model of the species thriving in turbid deep aquatic environments. PMID:26902509

  8. Patterns of diversification in the discus fishes (Symphysodon spp. Cichlidae) of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas

    2008-10-01

    We carried out a phylogeograhic and population genetic analysis of fishes of the taxonomically contentious genus Symphysodon from the Amazon basin in order to test hypotheses of relationships among taxonomic units, and potential processes driving diversification within this genus. We sampled 334 individuals of the genus Symphysodon from 24 localities that span the complete geographic distribution of this genus. The sampling scheme included all known phenotypic groups, species and subspecies. Analyses were based on 474 bp of the mitochondrial control region and 1443 bp of the exon 3 of RAG1 gene. We observed 102 mtDNA haplotypes defined by 89 segregating sites, and 5 nuDNA alleles defined by three segregating sites. Maximum-likelihood, Bayesian-inference and statistical parsimony analyses revealed three well defined monophyletic groups. These clades corresponded to the 'green' and 'blue' groups of Symphysodon aequifasciatus, and to a previously morphologically unrecognized clade from the Xingu River drainage. These three clades were nested within a paraphyletic assemblage consisting of the 'brown' group of S. aequifasciatus and of both described subspecies of S. discus, the 'Heckel' and the 'abacaxi' discus. Nuclear allele sharing was observed among groups, but there were significant differences in frequencies. We inferred several processes including past fragmentation among groups, and restricted gene flow with isolation by distance within the paraphyletic 'brown+Heckel+abacaxi' groups, and suggest that differences among the 'blue', 'Heckel' and 'brown' groups are potentially maintained by differences in water chemistry preferences. We further inferred colonization of the western Amazon basin by an ancestor of the 'green' clade. The 'green' group was the only group with a pattern of haplotype distribution consistent of a demographic expansion, and the divergence of this clade from other groups of discus was consistent with recent geologic evidence on the breach of

  9. Phylogenetic diversity and cosymbiosis in the bioluminescent symbioses of "Photobacterium mandapamensis".

    PubMed

    Kaeding, Allison J; Ast, Jennifer C; Pearce, Meghan M; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Kimura, Seishi; Endo, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Masaru; Dunlap, Paul V

    2007-05-01

    "Photobacterium mandapamensis" (proposed name) and Photobacterium leiognathi are closely related, phenotypically similar marine bacteria that form bioluminescent symbioses with marine animals. Despite their similarity, however, these bacteria can be distinguished phylogenetically by sequence divergence of their luminescence genes, luxCDAB(F)E, by the presence (P. mandapamensis) or the absence (P. leiognathi) of luxF and, as shown here, by the sequence divergence of genes involved in the synthesis of riboflavin, ribBHA. To gain insight into the possibility that P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi are ecologically distinct, we used these phylogenetic criteria to determine the incidence of P. mandapamensis as a bioluminescent symbiont of marine animals. Five fish species, Acropoma japonicum (Perciformes, Acropomatidae), Photopectoralis panayensis and Photopectoralis bindus (Perciformes, Leiognathidae), Siphamia versicolor (Perciformes, Apogonidae), and Gadella jordani (Gadiformes, Moridae), were found to harbor P. mandapamensis in their light organs. Specimens of A. japonicus, P. panayensis, and P. bindus harbored P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi together as cosymbionts of the same light organ. Regardless of cosymbiosis, P. mandapamensis was the predominant symbiont of A. japonicum, and it was the apparently exclusive symbiont of S. versicolor and G. jordani. In contrast, P. leiognathi was found to be the predominant symbiont of P. panayensis and P. bindus, and it appears to be the exclusive symbiont of other leiognathid fishes and a loliginid squid. A phylogenetic test for cospeciation revealed no evidence of codivergence between P. mandapamensis and its host fishes, indicating that coevolution apparently is not the basis for this bacterium's host preferences. These results, which are the first report of bacterial cosymbiosis in fish light organs and the first demonstration that P. leiognathi is not the exclusive light organ symbiont of leiognathid fishes

  10. Phylogenetic Diversity and Cosymbiosis in the Bioluminescent Symbioses of “Photobacterium mandapamensis”▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kaeding, Allison J.; Ast, Jennifer C.; Pearce, Meghan M.; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Kimura, Seishi; Endo, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Masaru; Dunlap, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    “Photobacterium mandapamensis” (proposed name) and Photobacterium leiognathi are closely related, phenotypically similar marine bacteria that form bioluminescent symbioses with marine animals. Despite their similarity, however, these bacteria can be distinguished phylogenetically by sequence divergence of their luminescence genes, luxCDAB(F)E, by the presence (P. mandapamensis) or the absence (P. leiognathi) of luxF and, as shown here, by the sequence divergence of genes involved in the synthesis of riboflavin, ribBHA. To gain insight into the possibility that P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi are ecologically distinct, we used these phylogenetic criteria to determine the incidence of P. mandapamensis as a bioluminescent symbiont of marine animals. Five fish species, Acropoma japonicum (Perciformes, Acropomatidae), Photopectoralis panayensis and Photopectoralis bindus (Perciformes, Leiognathidae), Siphamia versicolor (Perciformes, Apogonidae), and Gadella jordani (Gadiformes, Moridae), were found to harbor P. mandapamensis in their light organs. Specimens of A. japonicus, P. panayensis, and P. bindus harbored P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi together as cosymbionts of the same light organ. Regardless of cosymbiosis, P. mandapamensis was the predominant symbiont of A. japonicum, and it was the apparently exclusive symbiont of S. versicolor and G. jordani. In contrast, P. leiognathi was found to be the predominant symbiont of P. panayensis and P. bindus, and it appears to be the exclusive symbiont of other leiognathid fishes and a loliginid squid. A phylogenetic test for cospeciation revealed no evidence of codivergence between P. mandapamensis and its host fishes, indicating that coevolution apparently is not the basis for this bacterium's host preferences. These results, which are the first report of bacterial cosymbiosis in fish light organs and the first demonstration that P. leiognathi is not the exclusive light organ symbiont of leiognathid fishes

  11. Chemical biology of the mutualistic relationships of sea anemones with fish and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich

    2009-12-15

    Fish species of the genera Amphiprion and Premnas (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) as well as various crustaceans seek protection from predators among the tentacles of sea anemones, where they live essentially unharmed from stinging by the host's nematocysts. The mucous coats of anemonefish and crustaceans have been suggested as mechanisms that prevent the discharge of the nematocysts upon contact. Whereas some fish species seem to produce their own protecting mucous coating, others may acquire mucus from the sea anemone during an acclimation period, as crustaceans do. Whether the natural or acquired mucus layers contain components that inhibit nematocyst discharge or simply lack compounds stimulating the stinging cell's exocytosis is still unknown.

  12. Cloning and sequencing of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus, Coryphaenidae) growth hormone-encoding cDNA.

    PubMed

    Peduel, A D; Elizur, A; Knibb, W

    1994-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the preprotein growth hormone from the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) has been cloned and sequenced. The cDNA was derived by reverse transcription of RNA from the pituitary of a young fish using the method known as Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). An oligonucleotide primer corresponding to the 5' region of Pagrus major and the universal RACE primer enabled amplification using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The dolphinfish and yellow-tail, Seriola quineqeradiata, are both members of the sub-order Percoidei (Perciforme) and their GH sequences show a high level of homology.

  13. Revised diagnosis of the genus Gonorhynchus McClelland (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Labeonini) with redescription of G. latius (Hamilton) and revalidation of G. wattanah (Sykes).

    PubMed

    Ciccotto, Patrick J; Page, Lawrence M

    2016-06-24

    A new diagnosis of the genus Gonorhynchus McClelland 1838 from South Asia is proposed. Seven species are contained in the genus: G. latius (Hamilton 1822), G. diplochilus (Heckel 1838), G. wattanah (Sykes 1839), G. macmahoni (Zugmayer 1912), G. burmanicus (Hora 1936), G. bicornis (Wu 1977), and G. periyarensis (Menon & Jacob 1996). Gonorhynchus latius, a senior synonym of the type species G. brevis M'Clelland 1839 is redescribed. Crossocheilus gohama (M'Clelland 1839) and Crossochilus rostratus Günther 1868 are considered junior synonyms of G. latius, and a neotype is designated for G. latius. Gonorhynchus wattanah (Sykes 1839) from the Krishna and Godavari River basins in western India is revalidated and redescribed with the designation of a neotype. Akrokolioplax Zhang & Kottelat 2006 is a junior synonym of Gonorhynchus.

  14. Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

    2013-12-01

    The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description.

  15. Flow, packing and compaction properties of novel coprocessed multifunctional directly compressible excipients prepared from tapioca starch and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, Oluwatomide; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-12-01

    Novel multifunctional excipients were prepared by coprocessing tapioca starch with mannitol using two methods viz; co-grinding and co-fusion. The flow, packing and compaction properties of the native and novel excipients were evaluated by using density, Hausner's ratio, angle of repose, the maximum volume reduction, consolidation index, the rate of consolidation, angle of internal friction, morphological properties, Heckel analysis, tensile strength and dilution potential as evaluation parameters. The study revealed that the method of coprocessing, particle size and particle shape influenced the properties of the resulting novel excipients. Co-grinding was less effective than co-fusion in the preparation of excipients with enhanced properties. The study concluded that coprocessing tapioca starch and mannitol will enhance the flow, packing and compaction properties of the novel excipient and that the co-fusion method of coprocessing would produce novel excipients with enhanced direct compression potential compared to the co-grinding method.

  16. Controlled-release cellulose esters matrices for water-soluble diclofenac sodium: compression and dissolution studies.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, W M; Alzoubi, N M

    2014-02-01

    Matrix tablets comprising of a blend of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) or cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and alpha-lactose monohydrate were prepared by direct compression to control the release of diclofenac sodium. Tablet formulations containing CAP75000 or CAB50-54 exhibited highest extents, but lowest onsets of plastic deformation and lowest release rates in buffer medium, while tablets containing CAP15000 or CAB35-39 exhibited lowest extents, but highest rates of plastic deformation and highest release rates in buffer medium. The DA values obtained from Heckel plots and the DI values obtained from Kawakita plots showed similar trends. A plot of compression pressure or crushing strengths against T50% showed curvilinear relationship for all tablets. Tablets containing 40 % CAB35-39 (formulation F7D) was considered the best formulation in terms of T50%, compressibility and compactability.

  17. Comparison of the halving of tablets prepared with eccentric and rotary tablet presses.

    PubMed

    Sovány, T; Kása, P; Pintye-Hódi, K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the densification of powder mixtures on eccentric and rotary tablet presses and to establish relationships with the halving properties of the resulting scored tablets. This is an important problem because the recent guidelines of EU require verification of the equal masses of tablet halves. The models of Walker, Heckel, and Kawakita were used to describe the powder densification on the two machines. The calculated parameters revealed that the shorter compression cycle of rotary machines results in poorer densification and lower tablet hardness at a given compression force. This is manifested in poorer halving properties, which are influenced mainly by the hardness. Better densification improves the halving even at lower tablet hardness. This demonstrates that these parameters can be good predictors of tablet halving properties.

  18. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Farashi, Azita; Kaboli, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimian, Hassan; Coad, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944) is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is “Vulnerable” according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956) within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822. PMID:24493966

  19. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Farashi, Azita; Kaboli, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimian, Hassan; Coad, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944) is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is "Vulnerable" according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956) within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822.

  20. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes. PMID:26623319

  1. Hexagonal boron nitride as a tablet lubricant and a comparison with conventional lubricants.

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Timuçin; Turkoğlu, Murat

    2008-04-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate the lubrication properties of hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) as a new tablet lubricant and compare it with conventional lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), and glyceryl behenate (COMP). Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented single-station tablet press to monitor lower punch ejection force (LPEF) containing varied lubricants in different ratio (0.5, 1, 2%). Tablet crushing strength, disintegration time and thickness were measured. Tensile strength of compacted tablets were measured by applying a diametrical load across the edge of tablets to determine mechanical strength. The deformation mechanism of tablets was studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricants. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on LPEF-lubrication concentration profile and LPEF of HBN was found very close to that of MGST. HBN was better than both STAC and COMP. A good lubrication was obtained at 0.5% for MGST and HBN (189 and 195N, respectively). Where COMP and STAC showed 20 and 35% more LPEF compare to that of MGST (239 and 288N, respectively). Even at the concentration of 2% COMP and STAC did not decrease LPEF as much as 0.5% of MGST and HBN. Like all conventional lubricants the higher the concentration of HBN the lower the mechanical properties of tablets because of its hydrophobic character. However, this deterioration was not as pronounced as MGST. HBN had no significant effect on tablet properties. Based on the Heckel plots, it was observed that after the addition of 1% lubricant granules showed less plastic deformation.

  2. Evaluation of Prosopis africana Seed Gum as an Extended Release Polymer for Tablet Formulation.

    PubMed

    Nadaf, Sameer; Nnamani, Petra; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to screen Prosopis africana seed gum (PG), anionic polymer for extended release tablet formulation. Different categories of drugs (charge basis) like diclofenac sodium (DS), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), and ibuprofen (IB) were compacted with PG and compared with different polymers (charge basis) like xanthan gum (XG), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K100M), and chitosan (CP). For each drug, 12 batches of tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, and granules were evaluated for flow properties, compressibility, and compactibility by Heckel and Leuenberger analysis, swelling index, in vitro dissolution studies, etc. It has been observed that granules of all batches showed acceptable flowability. According to Heckel and Leuenberger analysis, granules of PG-containing compacts showed similar and satisfactory compressibility and compactibility compared to granules of other polymers. PG showed significant swelling (P < 0.05) compared to HPMC, and better than CP and XG. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study showed no interaction between drugs and polymers. From all PG-containing compacts of aforesaid drugs, drug release was sustained for 12 h following anomalous transport. Especially, polyelectrolyte complex formation retarded the release of oppositely charged drug (CPM-PG). However, extended release was noted in both anionic (DS) and nonionic (IB) drugs, maybe due to swollen gel. All compacts were found to be stable for 3-month period during stability study. This concludes that swelling and release retardation of PG has close resemblance to HPMC, so it can be used as extended release polymer for all types of drugs.

  3. Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Directly Compressible Co-processed Excipient by Spray Drying Method.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sohil I; Nathwani, Sandeep V; Soniwala, Moinuddin M; Chavda, Jayant R

    2016-08-01

    The present investigation was carried out to develop and characterize a multifunctional co-processed excipient for improving the compressibility of poorly compressible drugs. Etodolac was used as a model drug. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), lactose monohydrate (lactose), and StarCap 1500 (StarCap) were selected as components of the co-processed excipient. The spray drying method was used for co-processing of excipients. D-optimal mixture design was applied to optimize the proportion of component excipients. Statistical analysis of the D-optimal mixture design revealed that all response variables were significantly affected by the independent variables (p value < 0.05). Optimized composition was obtained from the desirability function. The optimized composition of the co-processed excipient was found to be 30% MCC, 25% lactose, and 45% StarCap. This optimized batch was evaluated for flow properties, compressibility parameters such as Kawakita's and Kuno's equation and Heckel's equation, and dilution potential. Evaluation parameters for flow properties (angle of repose, Carr's index, and Hausner's ratio) suggested excellent flow character. The parameters of Kawakita's and Kuno's equation and Heckel's equation suggested improvement in the compressibility of the model drug. Dilution potential was found to be 40%, and based on that, tablets of the model drug were formulated and evaluated for general evaluation parameters of tablets. All the parameters were found to be within the acceptance criteria which concluded that the multifunctional directly compressible co-processed excipient was prepared successfully that improved the compressibility of the poorly compressible model drug etodolac along with spray drying as an efficient method for the preparation of co-processed excipient.

  4. Differential compaction behaviour of roller compacted granules of clopidogrel bisulphate polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind K

    2014-09-10

    In the present work, in-die and out-of-die compaction behaviour of dry-granulated powders of clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP) polymorphs, form I and form II, was investigated using a fully instrumented rotary tablet press. Each polymorph was compacted at three different roller pressures [70.3 (S1), 105.5 (S2) and 140.6 (S3)kgf/cm(2)], and obtained granules were characterized for their physico-mechanical properties. Compaction data were analyzed for out-of-die compressibility, tabletability and compactibility profiles, and in-die Heckel, Kawakita and Walker analysis. The roller compacted granules of both forms showed markedly different tabletting behaviour. Roller pressure exhibited a trend on compaction behaviour of form I granules, whereas, in case of form II, the effect was insignificant. Tabletability of the six granule batches follows the order; I_S1>I_S2>I_S3>II_S1≈II_S2≈II_S3. In case of form I, the reduced tabletability of the granules compacted at higher roller pressure was attributed to the decreased compressibility and plastic deformation. This was confirmed by compressibility plot and various mathematical parameters derived from Heckel (Py), Kawakita (1/b) and Walker (W) equations. The reduced tabletability of form I granules was due to 'granule hardening' during roller compaction. On the other hand, insignificant effect of roller compaction on tabletting behaviour of form II granules was attributed to brittle fragmentation. The extensive fragmentation of granules offered new 'clean' surfaces and higher contact points that negated the effect of granule hardening.

  5. An integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture in Amazonian fresh water.

    PubMed

    Gilles, S; Ismiño, R; Sánchez, H; David, F; Núñez, J; Dugué, R; Darias, M J; Römer, U

    2014-08-01

    A prototype of an integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture was developed in Iquitos (Peruvian Amazonia) in order to cultivate the Tiger Catfish, Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855). This freshwater recirculating system consisted of two linked sewage tanks with an intensive rearing unit (a cage) for P. punctifer placed in the first, and with a fish-plankton trophic chain replacing the filters commonly used in clear water closed systems. Detritivorous and zooplanktivorous fishes (Loricariidae and Cichlidae), maintained without external feeding in the sewage volume, mineralized organic matter and permitted the stabilization of the phytoplankton biomass. Water exchange and organic waste discharge were not necessary. In this paper we describe the processes undertaken to equilibrate this ecosystem: first the elimination of an un-adapted spiny alga, Golenkinia sp., whose proliferation was favored by the presence of a small rotifer, Trichocerca sp., and second the control of this rotifer proliferation via the introduction of two cichlid species, Acaronia nassa Heckel, 1840 and Satanoperca jurupari Heckel, 1840, in the sewage part. This favored some development of the green algae Nannochloris sp. and Chlorella sp. At that time we took the opportunity to begin a 3-month rearing test of P. punctifer. The mean specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of P. punctifer were 1.43 and 1.27, respectively, and the global FCR, including fish in the sewage part, was 1.08. This system has proven to be suitable for growing P. punctifer juveniles out to adult, and provides several practical advantages compared with traditional recirculating clear water systems, which use a combination of mechanical and biological filters and require periodic waste removal, leading to water and organic matter losses.

  6. The mitochondrial genome of the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, and ordinal teleostean relationships.

    PubMed

    Elmerot, Christian; Arnason, Ulfur; Gojobori, Takashi; Janke, Axel

    2002-08-07

    The small nuclear genome of the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes (order Tetraodontiformes), makes this species highly interesting for genome research. In order to establish the phylogenetic position of the Tetraodontiformes relative to other teleostean orders that might also have a reduced nuclear genome size, we have sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the pufferfish. The gene order, nucleotide composition and evolutionary rate of the mt genome of the fugu correspond to those of other teleosts. This suggests that the evolution of this genome has not been affected by the processes that led to the dramatic reduction of the size of the nuclear genome of the fugu. The phylogenetic analyses, which were based on the concatenated amino acid sequences of twelve protein-coding mt genes, placed the fugu among the percomorphs. The affinities between the Tetraodontiformes and either the Perciformes or the Zeiformes were limited, however. The common notion of a separate euteleostean clade remained unsupported. The analyses did not support the traditional systematic understanding that the Clupeiformes constitute a basal teleostean lineage. In addition the findings strongly suggest that three teleostean orders, the Perciformes, Zeiformes and Scorpaeniformes, are paraphyletic.

  7. Evidence for meiotic drive as an explanation for karyotype changes in fishes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Wagner Franco; Martinez, Pablo A; Bertollo, Luiz Antônio C; Bidau, Claudio Juan

    2014-06-01

    The process of preferential chromosome segregation during meiosis has been suggested to be responsible for the predominance of certain chromosome types in the karyotypes of mammals, birds and insects. We developed an extensive analysis of the fixation of mono- or bibrachial chromosomes in the karyotypes of the large Actinopterygii fish group, a key link in the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates, in order to investigate the generality of meiotic drive in determining karyotypic macrotrends. Unlike mammals, fishes have markedly undergone several types of preferential chromosomal rearrangements throughout evolution. Data from the analyzed orders indicate a prevalence of karyotypes with few (<33%) or many (>66%) acrocentric chromosomes and a low number of karyotypes with balanced numbers of mono- and bi-brachial elements. Parallel trends towards a higher number of karyotypes with prevalence of monobrachial chromosomes occurred in phylogenetically close orders (e.g. Perciformes and Tetraodontiformes, and in the order Mugiliformes) and in clades with prevalence of bibrachial elements (e.g. Characiformes, Gymnotiformes, Siluriformes, and Cypriniformes). Some orders where fewer species were available for study, such as Atheriniformes and Anguilliformes, showed karyotype assemblages where both trends were present. Our results strongly suggest a primary role of meiotic drive in karyotypic evolution as indicated by the accumulation of monobrachial chromosomes in Perciformes and Cypriniformes, or bibrachial chromosomes in Siluriformes and Characiformes. Further examinations of the interaction between life history traits, environmental characteristics, and the fixation of chromosomal rearrangements would be exceedingly valuable.

  8. Convergent Aspects of Acoustic Communication in Darters, Sculpins, and Gobies.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Malavasi, Stefano; Holt, Daniel E; Noel, Patricia; Lugli, Marco; Johnston, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    Darters (Perciformes, Percidae), sculpins (Perciformes, Cottidae), and gobioids (Gobiiformes, Gobioidei) exhibit convergent life history traits, including a benthic lifestyle and a cavity nesting spawning mode. Soniferous species within these taxa produce pulsed and/or tonal sounds with peak frequencies below 200 Hz (with some exceptions), primarily in agonistic and/or reproductive contexts. The reduced or absent swim bladders found in these taxa limit or prevent both hearing enhancement via pressure sensitivity and acoustic amplification of the contracting sonic muscles, which are associated with the skull and pectoral girdle. While such anatomies constrain communication to low frequency channels, optimization of the S/N (signal-to-noise) ratio in low frequency channels is evident for some gobies, as measured by habitat soundscape frequency windows, nest cavity sound amplification, and audiograms. Similar S/N considerations are applicable to many darter and sculpin systems. This chapter reviews the currently documented diversity of sound production in darters, sculpins, and gobioids within a phylogenetic context, examines the efficacy of signal transmission from senders to receivers (sound production mechanisms, audiograms, and masking challenges), and evaluates the potential functional significance of sound attributes in relation to territorial and reproductive behaviours.

  9. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

    2012-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters.

  10. Chromosomal distribution of two multigene families and the unusual occurrence of an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in the dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae): an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Soares, R X; Bertollo, L A C; Cioffi, M B; Costa, G W W F; F Molina, W

    2014-04-03

    Dolphinfishes (Coryphaenidae) are pelagic predators distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical oceans and are very important for commercial, traditional, and sport fishing. This small family contains the Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis species whose chromosomal aspects remain unknown, despite recent advances in cytogenetic data assimilation for Perciformes. In this study, both species were cytogenetically analyzed using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA3 banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, to detect 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA. C. hippurus females exhibit 2n = 48 chromosomes, with 2m+4sm+42a (NF = 54). In C. equiselis, where both sexes could be analyzed, females displayed 2n = 48 chromosomes (2m+6sm+40a) and males exhibited 2n = 47 chromosomes (3m+6sm+38a) (NF = 56), indicating the presence of X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosomes. Sex-chromosome systems are rare in Perciformes, with this study demonstrating the first occurrence in a marine pelagic species. It remains unknown as to whether this system extends to other populations; however, these data are important with respect to evolutionary, phylogenetic, and speciation issues, as well as for elucidating the genesis of this unique sex system.

  11. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in striped bass, Morone saxatilis: molecular characterization and processing during oocyte growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Williams, V N; Reading, B J; Hiramatsu, N; Amano, H; Glassbrook, N; Hara, A; Sullivan, C V

    2014-04-01

    The multiple vitellogenin (Vtg) system of striped bass, a perciform species spawning nearly neutrally buoyant eggs in freshwater, was investigated. Vitellogenin cDNA cloning, Western blotting of yolk proteins (YPs) using Vtg and YP type-specific antisera, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of the YPs revealed the complex mechanisms of yolk formation and maturation in this species. It was discovered that striped bass possesses a tripartite Vtg system (VtgAa, VtgAb, and VtgC) in which all three forms of Vtg make a substantial contribution to the yolk. The production of Vtg-derived YPs is generally similar to that described for other perciforms. However, novel amino-terminal labeling of oocyte YPs prior to MS/MS identified multiple alternative sites for cleavage of these proteins from their parent Vtg, revealing a YP mixture far more complex than reported previously. This approach also revealed that the major YP product of each form of striped bass Vtg, lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH), undergoes limited degradation to smaller polypeptides during oocyte maturation, unlike the case in marine fishes spawning buoyant eggs in which LvHAa undergoes extensive proteolysis to osmotically active free amino acids. These differences likely reflect the lesser need for hydration of pelagic eggs spawned in freshwater. The detailed characterization of Vtgs and their proteolytic fate(s) during oocyte growth and maturation establishes striped bass as a freshwater model for investigating teleost multiple Vtg systems.

  12. First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

  13. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  14. Fish community diversity in the middle continental shelf of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Xiujuan; Jin, Xianshi; Zhou, Zhipeng; Dai, Fangqun

    2011-11-01

    The status of fishery stocks in the coastal waters of China is far from ideal, mainly due to climate change and the impacts of human activities (e.g., pollution and overfishing). Thus, the restoration and protection of fishery resources have become critical and complex. The stability and balanced structure of the fish community is a basic foundation for the protection of fishery resources. Based on data collected from bottom trawls by the R/V Beidou in continental shelf of the East China Sea in November 2006 and February 2007, changes in the composition and diversity of fish species and functional groups were analyzed. The research area was divided into offshore waters and inshore waters by the two-way indicator species analysis (TWIA). The results showed that the dominant species were different between offshore waters and inshore waters and also varied with the survey time. The most abundant family was Sciaenidae and Teraponidae in November 2006, Sciaenidae, Engraulidae and Triglidae were most abundant in February 2007. The species belonged mainly to mobile piscivores (G6), benthivores/piscivores (G4), benthivores (G3) and planktivores (G1), and the dominant species in November 2006 were commercial species (e.g. Larimichthys polyactis and Trichiurus japonicus), but small-sized species were dominant in February 2007 (e.g., Harpadon nehereus, Benthosema pterotum, Champsodon capensis, and Acropoma japonicum). The species diversity showed a similar trend as the functional group diversity. Stations with higher diversity were mainly distributed in inshore waters in February 2007, whereas higher diversity was found in offshore waters in November 2006. The highest biomass and species number were found in G6 group, followed by the G4, G5 and G1 groups. The distribution of the number of individuals of each functional group showed the opposite trend as that of the biomass distribution. In addition, the size spectra were mainly concentrated around 3-29 cm, and the individual

  15. Phylogenetic placement of enigmatic percomorph families (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).

    PubMed

    Sanciangco, Millicent D; Carpenter, Kent E; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Percomorphs are a large and diverse group of spiny-finned fishes that have come to be known as the "bush at the top" due to their persistent lack of phylogenetic resolution. Recently, the broader Euteleost Tree of Life project (EToL) inferred a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis that groups the diversity of percomorphs into nine well-supported series (supraordinal groups): Ophidiaria, Batrachoidaria, Gobiaria, Syngnatharia, Pelagiaria, Anabantaria, Carangaria, Ovalentaria, and Eupercaria. The EToL also provided, for the first time, a monophyletic definition of Perciformes - the largest order of vertebrates. Despite significant progress made in accommodating the diversity of percomorph taxa into major clades, some 62 families (most previously placed in "Perciformes", as traditionally defined) were not examined by the EToL. Here, we provide evidence for the phylogenetic affinities of 10 of those 62 families, seven of which have largely remained enigmatic. This expanded taxonomic sampling also provides further support for the nine EToL supraordinal series. We examined sequences from 21 genes previously used by the EToL and added two fast-evolving mitochondrial markers in an attempt to increase resolution within the rapid percomorph radiations. We restricted the taxonomic sampling to 1229 percomorph species, including expanded sampling from recent studies. Results of maximum likelihood analysis revealed that bathyclupeids (Bathyclupeidae), galjoen fishes (Dichistiidae), kelpfishes (Chironemidae), marblefishes (Aplodactylidae), trumpeters (Latridae), barbeled grunters (Hapalogenyidae), slopefishes (Symphysanodontidae), and picarel porgies (formerly Centracanthidae) are members of the series Eupercaria ("new bush at the top"). The picarel porgies and porgies (Sparidae) are now placed in the same family (Sparidae). Our analyses suggest a close affinity between the orders Spariformes (including Lethrinidae, Nemipteridae and Sparidae) and Lobotiformes (including the

  16. Low-accommodation detrital apron alongside a basement uplift, Pennsylvanian of Midcontinent North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Nicklen, B. L.; Carlson, M. P.

    2007-04-01

    The northern end of the 650-km-long Nemaha Uplift (Nebraska and Kansas, USA) is an important example of basin-margin sedimentation in the North American Midcontinent. An apron of coarse, basal Pennsylvanian arkosic clastic sediments (BPC) was deposited on the flanks of the uplift while marine cyclothems were encroaching from the east. Small-scale fining-upward intervals, many with demonstrably erosional bases, dominate the BPC and are interpreted as overridingly fluvial in origin. Weak paleosols, desiccation cracks, and reddened intervals in the BPC record episodic subaerial exposure. Multiple, burrowed horizons and heterolithic strata of probable tidal origin and rare marine fossils also indicate episodic marine influence. The BPC appear to have been deposited as a thin apron of coalesced, alluvial fans and fan deltas. Deposition of the BPC occurred during the waning of uplift and subsequent quiescence. The comparative thinness and large-scale packaging of the BPC are compatible with the controlling effects of relict relief, regional subsidence, and eustasy, rather than ongoing, major vertical displacements along active faults. A strong autocyclic influence on sedimentation is evidenced by stacked fining-upward intervals of poorly-sorted conglomerates, sandstones, and sandy mudstones. Correlations demonstrate that the accumulation of the BPC took place over more than seven major sea-level cycles, beginning in Cherokee Group times (middle Moscovian/middle Pennsylvanian) and ending only when the eroded uplift was inundated and buried by marine cyclothems. On the basis of local correlations with marine cyclothems, and using black phosphatic shales (so-called "core shales" of Heckel, P.H., 1986. Sea-level surve for Pennsylvanian eustatic marine transgressive-regressive depositional cycles along Midcontinent outcrop belt, North America: Geology 14, 330-334., Heckel, P.H., 1994. Evaluation of evidence for glacio-eustatic control over marine Pennsylvanian cyclothems in

  17. Novel evolutionary relationship among four fish model systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Ortí, Guillermo; Meyer, Axel

    2004-09-01

    Knowledge of the correct phylogenetic relationships among animals is crucial for the valid interpretation of evolutionary trends in biology. Zebrafish, medaka, pufferfish and cichilds are fish models for development, genomics and comparative genetics studies, although their phylogenetic relationships have not been tested rigorously. The results of phylogenomic analysis based on 20 nuclear protein-coding genes confirmed the basal placement of zebrafish in the fish phylogeny but revealed an unexpected relationship among the other three species, contrary to traditionally held systematic views based on morphology. Our analyses show that medaka (Beloniformes) and cichlids (Perciformes) appear to be more closely related to each other than either of them is to pufferfish (Tetraodontiformes), suggesting that a re-interpretation of some findings in comparative biology might be required. In addition, phylogenomic analyses show that fish typically have more copies of nuclear genes than land vertebrates, supporting the fish-specific genome duplication hypothesis.

  18. Preliminary findings on the nucleus of large neurons in Lophius piscatorius L. (Osteichthyes, Lophiiformes).

    PubMed

    Benedetti, I; Mola, L

    1991-01-01

    Some Teleosts belonging to the orders Batrachoidiformes, Lophiiformes, Perciformes and Tetraodontiformes show a cluster of large neurons dorsally located at the boundary between the spinal cord and medulla oblongata. These elements have traditionally been grouped with the supramedullary neurons aligned in the dorso-medial region of the spinal cord of other teleosts (see Marini and Benedetti, in press). However, recent morphological and immunohistochemical studies have suggested that the neurons grouped in a cluster on the spinal cord of Lophius piscatorius may not be of the same nature as the supramedullary neurons aligned within the dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord (Benedetti and Mola, 1988; Mola, 1990). Over the course of these previous investigations, it seemed that the nucleus of the neurons in the cluster showed more abundant chromatin than other neurons in the dorsal spinal cord. This prompted a series of investigations on the nucleus of these neurons.

  19. Reconstructing labroid evolution with single-copy nuclear DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Streelman, J T; Karl, S A

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen per cent of all living fishes are united in a single suborder (Labroidei) and display a dazzling array of behavioural and ecological traits. The labroids are considered monophyletic and members share a pharyngeal jaw apparatus (PJA) modified for crushing and processing prey. Outside of the explicitly functional PJA, there is no corroborative evidence for a monophyletic Labroidei. Here, we report the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of the suborder. Contrary to morphology-based phylogenies, our single-copy nuclear DNA data do not support labroid families as a natural group. Our data indicate that pharyngognathy has evolved independently among labroid families and that characters of the PJA are not reliable markers of perciform evolution. This work 'crushes' conventional views of fish phylogeny and should engender novel concepts of piscine life history evolution. PMID:9263469

  20. Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the marine fish (picarel) Spicara smaris (Centracanthidae) off Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Marino, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from a gravid female found in the abdominal cavity of spicarel, Spicara smaris (Linnaeus) (Centracanthidae, Perciformes), from the Ionian Sea off Sicily, Italy. The new species differs from most other Philometra spp. parasitic in the abdominal cavity of marine fishes by the oesophagus without an anterior inflation, resembling thus only Philometra cheilopogoni Mordvinova, 1986 and Philometra justinei Moravec, Ternengo and Levron, 2006; these two species can be differentiated from P. spicarae by the relative length of the oesophagus to body length (0.6-0.8% vs. 6%) and some other features. From the gonad-infecting species Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896), a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus), P. spicarae differs mainly in having a conspicuously long (1.4 mm) intestinal ligament. It is the first nominal philometrid species described from the fish of the family Centracanthidae.

  1. A new triaenophorid tapeworm from blackfish Centrolophus niger.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-04-01

    Milanella familiaris n. gen. and n. sp. (Bothriocephalidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate a new cestode from blackfish Centrolophus niger (Gmelin) (Perciformes: Centrolophidae). Milanella is characterized as follows: trapeziform, i.e., markedly craspedote proglottids with a velum-like posterior margin and horn like lateral projections; pyriform uterine sac in the first gravid proglottids; arrow-shaped scolex with well-developed apical disc and prominent posterior margins; strobila with intensively stained corpuscles, most numerous in the anterior part; deeply lobated ovary; absence of a neck; a large, pyriform, thin-walled cirrus-sac with the proximal part bent anteromedially; vagina posterior to the cirrus-sac; and cortical vitelline follicles. Milanella most closely resembles Bathycestus Kuchta and Scholz, 2004, Pistana Campbell and Gartner, 1982, and Probothriocephalus Campbell, 1979, differing mainly in the shape of proglottids and uterine sac.

  2. Cues from the reef: olfactory preferences of a symbiotically luminous cardinalfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Alison L.; Harii, Saki; Dunlap, Paul V.

    2015-06-01

    The symbiotically luminous, reef-dwelling cardinalfish, Siphamia tubifer (Perciformes: Apogonidae), exhibits daily site fidelity, homing behavior, and a preference for the long-spined urchin, Diadema setosum, as its daytime host. The fish acquires its symbiont during larval development and releases large numbers of the bacteria with its feces daily at a host urchin. To examine the role of olfaction in site fidelity and homing by S. tubifer, juvenile and adult fish were tested in a two-channel choice flume for their olfactory preferences. Neither juveniles nor adults showed a preference for seawater conditioned by D. setosum. Juvenile fish, but not adults, preferred seawater conditioned by conspecific fish versus unconditioned seawater. Both juveniles and adults preferred seawater conditioned by their luminous symbiont and also preferred home site water to foreign reef water. These results suggest that S. tubifer uses chemical cues for homing and possibly settlement and symbiont acquisition, but not for host urchin recognition.

  3. New records of species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including P. cephalopholidis sp. n. from Cephalopholis sonnerati (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-09-01

    Two different species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from marine perciform fishes, the tomato hind Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and the painted sweetlips Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae), from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Nematodes (only males) from the gonad of C. sonnerati represent a new taxon, P. cephalopholidis sp. n., which is mainly characterized by almost equally long spicules (length 186-228 μm), the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip, and the structure of the caudal end. The nematodes (only gravid females) from abdominal tissues of D. pictum may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra cephalopholidis is the sixth nominal species of this genus recorded from fishes off New Caledonia and the thirteenth species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Serranidae.

  4. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben

    2015-05-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described based on a subgravid female specimen recovered from the ovary of the freshwater perciform fish Cichla mirianae Kullander and Ferreira (Cichlidae) in the Juruena River (Amazon River basin), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is morphologically very different from congeners parasitizing fishes in South America, being mainly characterized by the markedly elongate, narrow body 171 mm long (maximum width/body length 1:598), the presence of three small cone-shaped oesophageal teeth protruding out of the mouth and an onion-shaped oesophageal inflation distinctly separated from the posterior part of the oesophagus, the relative length of the oesophagus, and the rounded posterior end of the body without any caudal projections. It is the third known valid species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitizing a freshwater fish in South America and the second species of this genus reported from fishes of the family Cichlidae.

  5. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region.

  6. Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a new intestinal parasite of the leopard coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae) off New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    A new nematode species, Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the intestine of the leopard coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède) from coral reefs off New Caledonia. The new species, belonging to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987, differs from other congeneric species of this subgenus from marine fishes mainly in the length (168–186 μm), shape and structure of the spicule. It is characterized, in the male, by the presence of two well-developed dorsolateral caudal lobes, a pair of lateral papillae, a heavily sclerotized spicule with many rough transverse grooves in the middle part, a spinose spicular sheath, and in the female, by eggs measuring 60–66 × 27 μm without protruding polar plugs. The buccal cavity contains a small finger-shaped stylet. Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. is the first known species of this genus parasitizing fishes of the perciform family Serranidae. PMID:25531932

  7. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-02-01

    Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea.

  8. Movement patterns, habitat use and site fidelity of the white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) in the Palos Verdes Superfund Site, Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Barrett W; Lowe, Christopher G

    2015-08-01

    White croaker (Genyonemus lineatus family: Sciaenidae) are a schooling, benthic foraging fish historically associated with soft sediment and wastewater outfalls in southern California. While they are often used as an indicator species due to their high organochlorine contaminant loads, little is known of their movements in relation to contaminated habitats. A Vemco Positioning System acoustic telemetry array was used to collect fine-scale movement data and characterize the site fidelity, area use, and dispersal of 83 white croaker on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site, California over 27 months. White croaker generally demonstrated low residency and recurrence to the Palos Verdes Shelf, and were observed to be largely nomadic. However, individual behavior was highly variable. Although the entire monitored shelf was visited by tagged white croaker, habitats in 0-200 m proximity to wastewater outfalls and between 25 and 35 m depth were used most frequently. Approximately half of white croaker migrated into Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors; areas where they may be targeted by subsistence fishers. A model framework for incorporating fish movement data into contaminant exposure estimates was developed to better understanding organochlorine contaminant exposure for planning future remediation and monitoring.

  9. [Ichthyofauna of the Navidad Bay, Jalisco, México].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Palomino, B; Pérez Reyes, C; Galván-Magaña, F; Abitía-Cardenas, L A

    2001-03-01

    A check-list and the relative abundance of the ichthyofauna from Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico is presented. This poorly known area of the eastern Tropical Pacific ocean is characterized by its great fish diversity. A total of 245 fish species (163 genera, 72 families) were collected during the 1994-1995 annual cycle. Vouchers were deposited in Centro de Ecologia Costera, Universidad de Guadalajara. The most important families in number of species were Carangidae (20 species), Haemulidae (20), Serranidae (17), Sciaenidae (13) and Lutjanidae (8); 20 species represented 85% and 80% of relative abundance and biomass respectively. Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caninus, Caranx caballus, Kiphosus analogus and Caranx sexfasciatus, were the dominant species. Most fish species collected in Bahia de Navidad have zoogeographical affinity with the Panamic Province (65%), and in lesser proportion with the Eastern Pacific Ocean (19%), Circumtropical (7%), Mexican Province (5%), Indo-Pacific Ocean (3%) and Gulf of California (0.4%). The great ichthyological affinity between the study area and the southern Gulf of California suggests an extension of the of Gulf southern limit.

  10. Artificial propagation and breeding of marine fish in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wan-Shu; Zhang, Qi-Yong

    2002-03-01

    Since the 1990s, artificial propagation and breeding technique of marine fish in China have developed by way of increasing species and fry numbers, with special stress laid on valuable species. Large quantities of artificial fry can meet the needs of both marine cage culture and pond culture for most species. Experimental results obtained by scientists have been put into use in actual production. Fish fry production has entered a period of sustainable development. So far, at least 44 species (21 families) of marine fish have been successfully bred in China. The artificial fry number of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) exceeded 300 million in 1999. The species whose artificial fry numbers have each surpassed 10 million annually are red drum ( Sciaenops ocellatus), Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus), cuneate drum ( Nibea miichthioides), spring spawning red seabream ( Pagrosomus major) and threebanded sweetlip ( Plectorhynchus cinctus). Millions of artificial fry are bred annually in the species of black porgy ( Sparus macrocephalus), Russell's snapper ( Lutjanus russelli), javelin grunt ( Pomadasys hasta), miiuy croaker ( Miichthys miiuy) and skewband grunt ( Hapalogenys nitens). The fish in the family Sciaenidae are the main species in artificial propagation and breeding. Some problems and prospects on marine fish culture and stock enhancement are also discussed and some proposals for sustainable development are put forward in this article.

  11. Cathepsin S of Sciaenops ocellatus: Identification, transcriptional expression and enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo-Guang; Chi, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Cathepsin S is a member of cysteine cathepsins and belongs to the cathepsin L-like family. In mammals, it is known to participate in various physiological processes and host immune defense. In teleost fish, the function of cathepsin S is less investigated. In the present work, we characterized a cathepsin S homologue (SoCatS) from red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), a commercially valuable fish in Chinese mariculture. Like all cathepsin S, SoCatS possesses a peptidase domain with four catalytically essential residues (Gln140, Cys146, His285, and Asn305) conserved in the cathepsin S of different organisms. SoCatS shares 60-90% overall sequence identities with known teleost cathepsin S. Phylogenetic profiling indicated that SoCatS is evolutionally close to the cathepsin S of other teleost fish, especially Miichthys miiuy, a member of Sciaenidae family like red drum. SoCatS expression was detected in various tissues and was enhanced by bacterial infection. Purified recombinant SoCatS exhibited apparent peptidase activity with maximum at 50°C and pH 7.5. This activity depended on the catalytic residue Cys146 and was severely reduced by the cathepsin inhibitor E-64. Our results suggest that SoCatS functions as a cysteine protease which is probably involved in the antibacterial immunity of red drum.

  12. Larval fish assemblages in a tropical mangrove estuary and adjacent coastal waters: Offshore-inshore flux of marine and estuarine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, A. L.; Chong, V. C.

    2011-10-01

    A total of 92,934 fish larvae representing 19 families were sampled monthly from the Sangga Kecil estuary (Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve) and adjacent coastal waters from May 2002 to October 2003. Larval fish assemblages were numerically dominated by Gobiidae (50.1%) and Engraulidae (38.4%). Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) revealed that the larval fish assemblages, including their ontogenetic stages, differed between the mangrove estuary and adjacent offshore waters, and that salinity, turbidity and zooplankton food are the major environmental factors structuring the larval fish assemblages. Estuarine preflexion gobiid larvae were ubiquitous in the coastal and estuarine waters. Larval stages of euryhaline species that were spawned in offshore waters, such as Engraulidae and Clupeidae, were largely advected into mangrove areas at the postflexion stages. Larvae of other euryhaline fishes (Sciaenidae, Blenniidae and Cynoglossidae) that may have been spawned inside the estuary were, however, exported to offshore waters. Given that the collective number of juvenile and adult fish families in the Matang estuary was 53, while the number of larval families was only 17, the former is quite disconnected from the existing larval fish population in the estuary.

  13. Fish entrainment rates through towboat propellers in the Upper Mississippi and Illinois rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jack, Killgore K.; Miranda, L.E.; Murphy, C.E.; Wolff, D.M.; Hoover, J.J.; Keevin, T.M.; Maynord, S.T.; Cornish, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspecially designed netwas used to study fish entrainment and injury through towboat propellers in 13 pools of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois rivers. The net was attached to the stern of a 48.8-m-long towboat with twin propellers (in Kort propulsion nozzles), and sampling typically took place while the towboat pushed 15 loaded barges upstream at a time. In total, 254 entrainment samples over 894 km of the 13 study pools were collected. The sampling efforts produced 16,005 fish representing 15 families and at least 44 species; fish ranged in total length from 3 to 123 cm, but only 12.5-cm or longer fish were analyzed because smaller fish could escape through the mesh of the trawl. Clupeidae (68% of total catch) and Sciaenidae (21%) were the dominant families. We detected no effects of towboat operation variables (speed and engine [i.e., propeller] revolutions per minute [RPM]) on entrainment rate (i.e., fish/km), but entrainment rate showed a wedge-shaped distribution relative to hydraulic and geomorphic characteristics of the channel. Entrainment rate was low (30 fish/km). Although total entrainment rate was not related to engine RPM, the probability of being struck by a propeller increased with fish length and engine RPM. Limits on engine RPM in narrow, shallow, and sluggish reaches could reduce entrainment impact, particularly for large-bodied fish. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  14. Spatio-temporal dynamics of a fish spawning aggregation and its fishery in the Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Erisman, Brad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Gonzalez-Abraham, Charlotte; Mascareñas-Osorio, Ismael; Moreno-Báez, Marcia; Hastings, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    We engaged in cooperative research with fishers and stakeholders to characterize the fine-scale, spatio-temporal characteristics of spawning behavior in an aggregating marine fish (Cynoscion othonopterus: Sciaenidae) and coincident activities of its commercial fishery in the Upper Gulf of California. Approximately 1.5–1.8 million fish are harvested annually from spawning aggregations of C. othonopterus during 21–25 days of fishing and within an area of 1,149 km2 of a biosphere reserve. Spawning and fishing are synchronized on a semi-lunar cycle, with peaks in both occurring 5 to 2 days before the new and full moon, and fishing intensity and catch are highest at the spawning grounds within a no-take reserve. Results of this study demonstrate the benefits of combining GPS data loggers, fisheries data, biological surveys, and cooperative research with fishers to produce spatio-temporally explicit information relevant to the science and management of fish spawning aggregations and the spatial planning of marine reserves. PMID:22359736

  15. First report of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam, with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Amin, O.M.; Ha, N.V.; Ha, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudoretractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not N. johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included. PMID:21395202

  16. First report of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam, with the description of six new species.

    PubMed

    Amin, O M; Ha, N V; Ha, D N

    2011-02-01

    The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudo-retractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not N. johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included.

  17. Expanded description of Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) manubrianus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish in Halong Bay, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Amin, O M; Heckmann, R A

    2012-08-01

    Neoechinorhynchus manubrianus Amin, Ha & Ha, 2011 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) (formerly Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis Amin, Ha & Ha, 2011), was recently described based on optical microscopy of four males and two females (none was gravid) from caroun croaker, Johnius carouna (Cuvier), flower croaker, Nibea albiflora (Richardson), and silver croaker, Pennabia argentata (Houttuyen) (Sciaenidae) in Halong Bay, Vietnam. Subsequently, many more specimens became available from N. albiflora that were studied using SEM. SEM studies showed many additional features that were not possible to discern with optical microscopy. These included the prominent angulation of the anterior trunk, the presence of (1) anterio-dorsal and (2) undulating mid-lateral fin-like protrusions of the body wall, uniquely shaped eggs as well as details of trunk micropores, proboscis, bursa, and female gonopore. Microscopical examination of eggs from the new collection demonstrated the presence of polar prolongation of fertilization membrane which places N. manubriensis in the subgenus Hebesoma. The features of trunk angulation, trunk fins, and egg morphology further distinguish N. manubriensis from all other species of Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 from Vietnam or from any where else in the world.

  18. A comparative study of fish assemblages near aquaculture, artificial and natural habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Shouyu; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Habitat plays a critical role in regulating fish community structure. Using the data collected from a monthly trammel net survey in Ma'an archipelago off the east coast of China, we evaluated impacts of five different habitats (artificial reefs, mussel farms, cage aquaculture, rocky reefs and soft bottom) on fish assemblages. This study suggests that artificial reefs (AR) have significantly higher species richness, abundance and diversity than mussel farms (MF) or soft bottom (SB) habitats during most seasons, and that fish taxa in the AR habitats are similar to those in the rocky reef (RR) habitats. Two different fish assemblage patterns were revealed in the study area using non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination: an assemblage dominated by reef fishes (especially by Scorpaenidae species) in AR, RR and cage aquaculture (CA) habitats and an assemblage dominated by Sciaenidae species in MF and SB habitats. We suggest that reef fishes play a key role in differentiating fish community structures in the study area. Although few differences in fish abundance and diversity were found between the CA and SB habitats, a more diverse age structure was observed in the CA habitats. A much more complex fish assemblage and enhanced population of local species were established as a result of the presence of both floating and fixed artificial structures, probably through improved survival rates.

  19. The single sonic muscle twitch model for the sound-production mechanism in the weakfish, Cynoscion regalis.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M W

    2000-11-01

    A model of the weakfish, Cynoscion regalis, sound-production mechanism based on damped driven oscillators is presented. The weakfish "purr" consists of several short pulses of sound separated by intervals of no sound. Each pulse is produced by an individual simultaneous twitch of each sonic muscle causing swimbladder oscillations that radiate sound into the surrounding water. The sonic muscles are modeled as a stretched string with a time-varying tension force. The swimbladder is modeled as a highly damped, driven oscillator undergoing radial oscillations. Although the swimbladder functions as an impedance-matching device between the sonic muscles and the surrounding fluid, its transient response to the sonic muscle pulses includes frequencies that are not a part of the spectrum of the sonic muscle excitations. Differential equations of motion for the sonic muscles and swimbladder are given and are numerically solved to produce predicted waveforms matching those of measured weakfish sounds. The model leads to better understanding of the weakfish sound-producing mechanism and the effects of environmental and physiological factors on sound production. This model may also lead to a better understanding of sound production in other species, particularly other members of Family Sciaenidae, with similar mechanisms for sound production.

  20. Before the flood: Miocene otoliths from eastern Amazon Pirabas Formation reveal a Caribbean-type fish fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Orangel; Schwarzhans, Werner; Moraes-Santos, Heloísa; Nepomuceno, Aguinaldo

    2014-12-01

    The Pirabas Formation of Early Miocene age represents the final stage of the central western Atlantic carbonate platform in northeastern South America, predating the emplacement of the Amazon delta system. The otolith-based fossil fish fauna is represented by 38 species typical of a shallow marine environment. A total of 18 species are described new to science from the families Congridae, Batrachoididae, Bythitidae, Sciaenidae and Paralichthyidae. The fish fauna was associated with high benthic and planktic primary productivity including seagrass meadows, calcareous algae and suspension-feeders. The break of todays shallow marine bioprovince at the Amazonas delta mouth is not evident from the fish fauna of the Pirabas Fm., which shows good correlation with the Gatunian/proto-Caribbean bioprovince known from an only slightly younger time window in Trinidad and Venezuela. Differences observed to those Early Miocene faunal associations are interpreted to be mainly due to stratigraphic and geographic and not environmental differences. We postulate that the emergence of the Amazonas river mouth close to its present day location has terminated the carbonate cycle of the Pirabas Fm. and pushed back northwards a certain proportion of the fish fauna here described.

  1. Novel relationships among ten fish model species revealed based on a phylogenomic analysis using ESTs.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Dirk; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2006-06-01

    The power of comparative phylogenomic analyses also depends on the amount of data that are included in such studies. We used expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from fish model species as a proof of principle approach in order to test the reliability of using ESTs for phylogenetic inference. As expected, the robustness increases with the amount of sequences. Although some progress has been made in the elucidation of the phylogeny of teleosts, relationships among the main lineages of the derived fish (Euteleostei) remain poorly defined and are still debated. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of a set of 42 of orthologous genes from 10 available fish model systems from seven different orders (Salmoniformes, Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Beloniformes, and Perciformes) of euteleostean fish to estimate divergence times and evolutionary relationships among those lineages. All 10 fish species serve as models for developmental, aquaculture, genomic, and comparative genetic studies. The phylogenetic signal and the strength of the contribution of each of the 42 orthologous genes were estimated with randomly chosen data subsets. Our study revealed a molecular phylogeny of higher-level relationships of derived teleosts, which indicates that the use of multiple genes produces robust phylogenies, a finding that is expected to apply to other phylogenetic issues among distantly related taxa. Our phylogenomic analyses confirm that the euteleostean superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii are monophyletic and the Protacanthopterygii and Ostariophysi are sister clades. In addition, and contrary to the traditional phylogenetic hypothesis, our analyses determine that killifish (Cyprinodontiformes), medaka (Beloniformes), and cichlids (Perciformes) appear to be more closely related to each other than either of them is to pufferfish (Tetraodontiformes). All 10 lineages split before or during the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea in the

  2. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  3. Latitudinal and taxonomic patterns in the feeding ecologies of fish larvae: A literature synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llopiz, Joel K.

    2013-01-01

    The longtime focus on factors that influence the survival of marine fish larvae has yielded an extensive number of studies on larval fish diets and feeding success. In light of a recent increase in such studies within lower latitudes, results from the peer-reviewed literature were synthesized to examine both latitudinal and taxonomic differences in several trophic-related categories, including feeding incidence, trophic niche breadth, ontogenetic diet shifts, dominant prey types, diet broadness, and larval piscivory. A total of 204 investigations (taxon-article combinations) contained suitable results for at least one of these categories. Feeding incidences (proportions of larvae containing food) were significantly higher in lower latitudes with all taxa combined, as well as only within the order Perciformes. Feeding incidences also differed among orders, with Perciformes and Scorpaeniformes having the highest values. The number of larval taxa exhibiting a significantly increasing niche breadth (SD of the log of prey sizes) with larval size decreased toward lower latitudes, with some taxa in lower latitudes exhibiting a decrease in niche breadth with size. The frequency of exhibiting ontogenetic diets shifts decreased with decreasing latitude, as did relative diet broadness (a function of prey types). The most common dominant prey types in the diets of higher latitude larvae were nauplii and calanoid copepods, with cyclopoids being rare in higher latitudes. Dominant prey types in lower latitudes were more diverse, with nauplii, calanoids, and cyclopoids being equally important. Appendicularians increased in importance with decreasing latitude, and one of the clearest latitudinal distinctions was the display of larval piscivory (almost exclusively by scombroid taxa), which was highly concentrated in lower latitudes. Overall, the latitudinal differences observed for multiple trophic-related factors highlight inherent distinctions in larval fish feeding ecologies

  4. Responses of action potential and K+ currents to temperature acclimation in fish hearts: phylogeny or thermal preferences?

    PubMed

    Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Electrical activity of the heart is assumed to be one of the key factors that set thermal tolerance limits for ectothermic vertebrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that in thermal acclimation--the duration of cardiac action potential and the repolarizing K+ currents that regulate action potential duration (APD)--the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ current (I(Kr)) and the inward rectifier K+ current (I(K1)) are more plastic in eurythermal than in stenothermal fish species. The hypothesis was tested in six freshwater teleosts representing four different fish orders (Cadiformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes, Salmoniformes) acclimated at +4 degrees C (cold acclimation) or +18 degrees C (warm acclimation). In cold acclimation, a compensatory shortening of APD occurred in all species regardless of thermal tolerances, life styles, or phylogenies of the fish, suggesting that this response is a common characteristic of the teleost heart. The strength of the response did not, however, obey simple eurythermy-stenothermy gradation but differed among the phylogenetic groups. Salmoniformes fish showed the greatest acclimation capacity of cardiac electrical activity, whereas the weakest response appeared in the perch (Perciformes) heart. The underlying ionic mechanisms were also partly phylogeny dependent. Modification of the I(Kr) current was al- most ubiquitously involved in acclimation response of fish cardiac myocytes to temperature, while the ability to change the I(K1) current under chronic thermal stress was absent or showed inverse compensation in Salmoniformes species. Thus, in Salmoniformes fish, the thermal plasticity of APD is strongly based on I(Kr), while other fish groups rely on both I(Kr) and I(K1).

  5. A phylogeny of the temperate seabasses (Moronidae) characterized by a translocation of the mt-nd6 gene.

    PubMed

    Williams, E P; Peer, A C; Miller, T J; Secor, D H; Place, A R

    2012-01-01

    The entire mitochondrial genome of the striped bass Morone saxatilis was sequenced together with the mitochondrial (mt) control regions of the white bass Morone chrysops, white perch Morone americana, yellow bass Morone mississippiensis, spotted seabass Dicentrarchus punctatus, European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax and the Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus. The resultant 17 580 base pair circular genome of M. saxatilis contains 38 genes (13 proteins, 23 transfer RNAs and two ribosomal RNAs) and a control region bordered by the proline and phenylalanine mitochondrial tRNAs. Gene arrangement was similar to other vertebrates, except that the mt-nd6 gene was found within the control region rather than the canonical position between the mt-nd5 and mt-cyb genes. This translocation was found in all the Morone and Dicentrarchus species studied without functional copies or pseudogenes in the ancestral position. In L. japonicus, the mt-nd6 gene was found in the canonical position without evidence of an mt-nd6 gene in the control region. A Bayesian analysis of these and published mt-nd6 sequences from 45 other Perciformes grouped the Morone and Dicentrarchus species monophyletically with a probability of 1·00 with respect to L. japonicus and all other perciforms, and placed the Dicentrarchus species in the basal position. These data reinforce current placement of L. japonicus outside the Moronidae and provide a clear evolutionary character to define this family. The phylogeny of the Moronidae presented here also supports the hypothesis of an anadromous common ancestor to this family that gave rise to the North American estuarine and freshwater species. A series of tandem repeats previously reported in M. saxatilis was found in the control region of all Morone species between the mt-nd6 and mt-rnr1 genes, but not in either Dicentrarchus species, which reinforces the continued use of these two separate genera.

  6. Preparation and standardization of a herbal agent for the therapeutic management of asthma.

    PubMed

    Emeje, Martins; Izuka, Amaka; Isimi, Christiana; Ofoefule, Sabinus; Kunle, Olobayo

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to develop a suitable single tablet dosage form containing a mixture of hot water stem back extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Prosopis africana (AA1), suitable for use in the therapeutic management of asthma. The compaction characteristics of the oven-dried hot water extract (HWE) were studied using the Heckel equation. The mechanical properties as well as disintegration and dissolution profile of the compacts were also assessed. The results showed that AA1 exhibited high densification due to dye filling while the subsequent rearrangement of the granules did not contribute, significantly, to their densification. The granules had enhanced plasticity as shown by the low yield point, Py. The tablets produced from the extract had good mechanical properties, with hardness increasing with compression pressure while the friability decreased. Of the four disintegrants tested, tablets containing Explotab had the shortest disintegration time of 11 min while tablets containing Prosolv had the longest disintegration time of 40 min. The order of disintegrant property is Explotab > Cellactose > Emcocel > Maize starch > Prosolv. Dissolution results (t(90%)) show that tablets containing Explotab released 100% of the drug in 20 min proving to be the most suitable in acute asthma attack. The order of dissolution is Explotab > Cellactose > Maize starch > Prosolv > Emcocel. It is concluded that incorporation of Explotab (10%w/w) as a disintegrant in AA1 preparation produced tablets of suitable compressional properties and ensured adequate drug release for the management of acute asthma.

  7. Comparative evaluation of silicified microcrystalline cellulose II as a direct compression vehicle.

    PubMed

    Rojas, John; Kumar, Vijay

    2011-09-15

    The powder flow and tableting properties of novel silicified microcrystalline cellulose II (SMCCII) were evaluated and compared with current silicified cellulosic I excipients such as ProSolv(®) SMCC50 and ProSolv(®) SMCC90. This excipient was prepared by coprocessing cellulose II and silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) at a 95:5 ratio by spray drying. The novel SMCCII yielded more benefits in terms of functionality as compared with the parent cellulose II material. SMCCII had higher bulk and tap densities, better powder packing ability, reduced porosity, increased surface area, and increased flowability. This silicified excipient had the highest brittleness behavior as given by the Heckel, Leuenberger and brittle fracture index analyses. The mechanical properties of SMCCII, such as toughness and Young's modulus were comparable to those of commercial products. SMCCII was the least sensitive material to magnesium stearate, and blending time or reprocessing did not affect its compactibility. It also provided for the fastest compact disintegration and release of griseofulvin. This new material has the potential for use as a direct compression excipient.

  8. Chromosomal distribution of microsatellite repeats in Amazon cichlids genome (Pisces, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia; Terencio, Maria Leandra; de Tavares, Édika Sabrina Girão Mitozo; Martins, Cesar; Feldberg, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Fish of the family Cichlidae are recognized as an excellent model for evolutionary studies because of their morphological and behavioral adaptations to a wide diversity of explored ecological niches. In addition, the family has a dynamic genome with variable structure, composition and karyotype organization. Microsatellites represent the most dynamic genomic component and a better understanding of their organization may help clarify the role of repetitive DNA elements in the mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Thus, in this study, microsatellite sequences were mapped in the chromosomes of Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831, Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823, and Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840. Four microsatellites demonstrated positive results in the genome of Cichla monoculus and Symphysodon discus, and five demonstrated positive results in the genome of Pterophyllum scalare. In most cases, the microsatellite was dispersed in the chromosome with conspicuous markings in the centromeric or telomeric regions, which suggests that sequences contribute to chromosome structure and may have played a role in the evolution of this fish family. The comparative genome mapping data presented here provide novel information on the structure and organization of the repetitive DNA region of the cichlid genome and contribute to a better understanding of this fish family's genome.

  9. Evaluation of starches obtained from four Dioscorea species as binding agent in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations

    PubMed Central

    Okunlola, Adenike; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-01-01

    Starches obtained from four Dioscorea species namely Dioscorea dumetorum (Bitter), Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese), Dioscorea alata (Water), and Dioscorea rotundata (White) have been evaluated as binding agents in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch. The compressional properties of the formulations were analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita equations. The mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using tensile strength, brittle fracture index (BFI), and friability tests while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results indicate that the four starches vary considerably in their physicochemical properties. The ranking for the tensile strength and the disintegration and dissolution times for the formulations was Chinese > Bitter > Corn > White > Water while the ranking was reversed for BFI and friability. The results suggest that Water, White, and Corn could be useful when faster disintegration time of tablets is desired while Chinese and Bitter could be more useful when bond strength is of concern and in minimizing the problems of lamination and capping in tablet formulation. PMID:23960747

  10. Powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Hellrup, Joel; Nordström, Josefina; Mahlin, Denny

    2017-02-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural impact of the nanofiller incorporation on the powder compression mechanics of spray-dried lactose. The lactose was co-spray-dried with three different nanofillers, that is, cellulose nanocrystals, sodium montmorillonite and fumed silica, which led to lower micron-sized nanocomposite particles with varying structure and morphology. The powder compression mechanics of the nanocomposites and physical mixtures of the neat spray-dried components were evaluated by a rational evaluation method with compression analysis as a tool, using the Kawakita equation and the Shapiro-Konopicky-Heckel equation. Particle rearrangement dominated the initial compression profiles due to the small particle size of the materials. The strong contribution of particle rearrangement in the materials with fumed silica continued throughout the whole compression profile, which prohibited an in-depth material characterization. However, the lactose/cellulose nanocrystals and the lactose/sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites demonstrated high yield pressure compared with the physical mixtures indicating increased particle hardness upon composite formation. This increase has likely to do with a reinforcement of the nanocomposite particles by skeleton formation of the nanoparticles. In summary, the rational evaluation of mechanical properties done by applying powder compression analysis proved to be a valuable tool for mechanical evaluation for this type of spray-dried composite materials, unless they demonstrate particle rearrangement throughout the whole compression profile.

  11. Process induced transformations during tablet manufacturing: phase transition analysis of caffeine using DSC and low frequency micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Sébastien; Briancon, Stéphanie; Hedoux, Alain; Guinet, Yannick; Paccou, Laurent; Fessi, Hatem; Puel, François

    2011-11-25

    The phase transition of a model API, caffeine Form I, was studied during tableting process monitored with an instrumented press. The formulation used had a plastic flow behavior according to the Heckel model in the compression pressure range of 70-170 MPa. The quantitative methods of analysis used were Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and low frequency Micro Raman Spectroscopy (MRS) which was used for the first time for the mapping of polymorphs in tablets. They brought complementary contributions since MRS is a microscopic spectral analysis with a spatial resolution of 5 μm(3) and DSC takes into account a macroscopic fraction (10mg) of the tablet. Phase transitions were present at the surfaces, borders and center of the tablets. Whatever the pressure applied during the compression process, the transition degree of caffeine Form I toward Form II was almost constant. MRS provided higher transition degrees (50-60%) than DSC (20-35%). MRS revealed that caffeine Form I particles were partially transformed in all parts of the tablets at a microscopic scale. Moreover, tablet surfaces showed local higher transition degree compared to the other parts.

  12. Trophic status and helminth infracommunities of fish populations in Kashmir Himalayan lakes.

    PubMed

    Shah, H B; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Shahnaz, S; Ahmad, F

    2014-09-01

    The present study considers the influence of the trophic status of three Kashmir Himalayan lakes on the patterns of helminth infracommunities in populations of three species of fish during 2006 to 2008. Data were collected from three lakes of differing trophic status in the Kashmir Himalayas, namely Anchar, a hyper(eu)trophic lake; Dal, a eutrophic lake; and Manasbal, a meso(eu)trophic lake. Three species of fish examined included the native fish Schizothorax niger Heckel and two exotic species--Carassius carassius (Linnaeus) and Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. The analysis of data showed a clear habitat effect on the abundance pattern of helminth species, thus revealing lake-specific differences in parasite infracommunities of both S. niger and C. carassius. Helminth infracommunity richness was the highest in host populations from the Anchar lake compared to other two lakes. Low values in the Manasbal lake emphasize the low diversity of their helminth infracommunities. On the other hand, there was no observed pattern of community structure in the case of C. carpio in the three lake sites. However due to bias in sampling there was no distinct effect of fish body size on parasite infracommunity structure, although the present results do show that fish parasite data can be meaningful in diagnosing changes in the trophic condition of eutrophic lakes.

  13. Monogeneans of freshwater fishes from cenotes (sinkholes) of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, E F; Scholz, T; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Vargas-Vázquez, J

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the parasites of freshwater fishes from cenotes (sinkholes) of the Yucatan Peninsula the following species of monogeneans were found on cichlid, pimelodid, characid and poeciliid fishes: Sciadicleithrum mexicanum Kritsky, Vidal-Martinez et Rodriguez-Canul, 1994 from Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) (type host), Cichlasoma friedrichsthali (Heckel), Cichlasoma octofasciatum (Regan), and Cichlasoma synspilum Hubbs, all new host records; Sciadicleithrum meekii Mendoza-Franco, Scholz et Vidal-Martínez, 1997 from Cichlasoma meeki (Brind); Urocleidoides chavarriai (Price, 1938) and Urocleidoides travassosi (Price, 1938) from Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther); Urocleidoides costaricensis (Price et Bussing, 1967), Urocleidoides heteroancistrium (Price et Bussing, 1968), Urocleidoides anops Kritsky et Thatcher, 1974, Anacanthocotyle anacanthocotyle Kritsky et Fritts, 1970, and Gyrodactylus neotropicalis Kritsky et Fritts, 1970 from Astyanax fasciatus; and Gyrodactylus sp. from Gambusia yucatana Regan. Urocleidoides chavarriai, U. travassosi, U. costaricensis, U. heteroancistrium, U. anops, Anacanthocotyle anacanthocotyle and Gyrodactylus neotropicalis are reported from North America (Mexico) for the first time. These findings support the idea about the dispersion of freshwater fishes and their monogenean parasites from South America through Central America to southeastern Mexico, following the emergence of the Panamanian isthmus between 2 and 5 million years ago.

  14. Effects of drying methods on the physicochemical and compressional characteristics of Okra powder and the release properties of its metronidazole tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Bakre, L G; Jaiyeoba, K T

    2009-02-01

    A study has been made of the effects of sun and oven drying methods on the physicochemical characteristics and compressibility of Okra powder and the release properties of its metronidazole tablet formulation. Corn starch was used as the reference standard. The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated using crushing strength and friability, while the release properties were determined using the disintegration times and dissolution rates. The results obtained showed that sun-dried Okra powder had smaller particle size, exhibited good flow and possessed higher hydration and swelling capacities compared to the oven dried samples. The compressibility of Okra powders assessed by the indices of plasticity from Heckel (Py) and Kawakita plots (Pk) showed that sun dried Okra powders had higher Py but lower Pk values than the oven-dried Okra powder. Metronidazole tablets formulated with oven dried Okra powder formed stronger tablets than tablets containing sun dried Okra powder. Generally, tablets containing sun dried Okra powders had faster disintegration and dissolution than tablets formulated with oven-dried powder. The results suggest that the choice of drying method during the processing of pharmaceutical raw materials is critical to its physicochemical properties and the release properties of its tablet formulations.

  15. Gyrodactylus aff. mugili Zhukov, 1970 (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae) from the gills of mullets (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the inland waters of southern Iraq, with an evalutation of previous records of Gyrodactylus spp. on mullets in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Ali, Atheer H; Khamees, Najim R

    2013-11-01

    Gyrodactylus aff. mugili Zhukov, 1970 (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae) is recorded and described from the gill lamellae of 11 of 35 greenback mullet, Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) (minimum prevalence 31%), from the brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab Estuary in southern Iraq. The gyrodactylid was also found on the gill lamellae of one of eight Speigler's mullet, Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker), from the brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Basrah Canal (minimum prevalence 13%). Fifteen Klunzinger's mullet, Liza klunzingeri (Day), and 13 keeled mullet, Liza carinata (Valenciennes), collected and examined from southern Iraqi waters, were apparently uninfected. The gyrodactylids from the greenback mullet and Speigler's mullet were considered to have affinity to G. mugili Zhukov, 1970, and along with G. mugili may represent members of a species complex occurring on mullets in the Indo-Pacific Region. A single damaged gyrodactylid from the external surfaces of the abu mullet, Liza abu (Heckel), was insufficient for species identification. Previously identified species of Gyrodactylus recorded on L. abu in Iraq by various authors were considered possible misidentifications or accidental infections.

  16. Study of compressibility properties of yogurt powder in order to prepare a complementary formulation.

    PubMed

    Moghbel, Abdolhossein; Abbaspour, Hamideh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare an oral tablet from liquid yogurt by reforming the physical properties for easy transportation, long-term storage and also as a complementary dairy product in case of nutrient deficiency. The liquid fresh yogurt was lyophilized at -40°C and 0.03 mTor pressure. The dry powder was homogenized by a 12 mesh size sieve. Some tests such as Carr's compressibility index, Hausner ratio and the angle of repose were applied to evaluate the flowability of yogurt powder. Study of the deformation of particles during forcing was done by calculation of the elastic recovery index. Carr's compressibility index percent and Hausner ratio were calculated 15 and 0.94, respectively. The range of repose angle was measured between19-20°. The elastic recovery was obtained up to 60%. Since the hardness of tablets increased by decreasing compression velocity, therefore yogurt powder might have a plastic deformation. The reduction of powder volume due to compression force was about 20% (p < 0.05). Tablets with low fat yogurt showed very good compressibility with 6-12 Strong-Cab (SC) hardness units. Producing a complementary formulated as a tablet from yogurt powder is possible and also maybe therapeutically effective against lactose-intolerance syndrome and preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea.We suggest that for more authentic confirmation of the type of deformation, it should go through Heckel's equation analysis, too.

  17. Chromosomal distribution of microsatellite repeats in Amazon cichlids genome (Pisces, Cichlidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia; Terencio, Maria Leandra; de Tavares, Édika Sabrina Girão Mitozo; Martins, Cesar; Feldberg, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fish of the family Cichlidae are recognized as an excellent model for evolutionary studies because of their morphological and behavioral adaptations to a wide diversity of explored ecological niches. In addition, the family has a dynamic genome with variable structure, composition and karyotype organization. Microsatellites represent the most dynamic genomic component and a better understanding of their organization may help clarify the role of repetitive DNA elements in the mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Thus, in this study, microsatellite sequences were mapped in the chromosomes of Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831, Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823, and Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840. Four microsatellites demonstrated positive results in the genome of Cichla monoculus and Symphysodon discus, and five demonstrated positive results in the genome of Pterophyllum scalare. In most cases, the microsatellite was dispersed in the chromosome with conspicuous markings in the centromeric or telomeric regions, which suggests that sequences contribute to chromosome structure and may have played a role in the evolution of this fish family. The comparative genome mapping data presented here provide novel information on the structure and organization of the repetitive DNA region of the cichlid genome and contribute to a better understanding of this fish family’s genome. PMID:26753076

  18. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koner, Jasdip S.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2015-11-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the β-polymorph however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties.

  19. Counterintuitive compaction behavior of clopidogrel bisulfate polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Khomane, Kailas S; More, Parth K; Bansal, Arvind K

    2012-07-01

    Being a density violator, clopidogrel bisulfate (CLP) polymorphic system (forms I and II) allows us to study individually the impact of molecular packing (true density) and thermodynamic properties such as heat of fusion on the compaction behavior. These two polymorphs of CLP were investigated for in-die and out-of-die compaction behavior using CTC profile, Heckel, and Walker equations. Compaction studies were performed on a fully instrumented rotary tabletting machine. Detailed examinations of the molecular packing of each form revealed that arrangement of the sulfate anion differs significantly in both crystal forms, thus conferring different compaction behavior to two forms. Close cluster packing of molecules in form I offers a rigid structure, which has poor compressibility and hence resists deformation under compaction pressure. This results into lower densification, higher yield strength, and mean yield pressure, as compared with form II at a given pressure. However, by virtue of higher bonding strength, form I showed superior tabletability, despite its poor compressibility and deformation behavior. Form I, having higher true density and lower heat of fusion showed higher bonding strength. Hence, true density and not heat of fusion can be considered predictor of bonding strength of the pharmaceutical powders.

  20. Taxonomic revision of the genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Borkenhagen, Kai; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Representatives of the fish genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Middle East and North Africa were previously placed in 14 different genus-group taxa (Barbellion, Barbus, Barynotus, Capoeta, Carasobarbus, Cyclocheilichthys, Kosswigobarbus, Labeobarbus, Luciobarbus, Pseudotor, Puntius, Systomus, Tor and Varicorhinus). The generic assignment of several species changed frequently, necessitating a re-evaluation of their taxonomic status. In this study, the genus Carasobarbus is revised based on comparative morphological examinations of about 1300 preserved specimens from collections of several museums and freshly collected material. The species Carasobarbus apoensis, Carasobarbus canis, Carasobarbus chantrei, Carasobarbus exulatus, Carasobarbus fritschii, Carasobarbus harterti, Carasobarbus kosswigi, Carasobarbus luteus and Carasobarbus sublimus form a monophyletic group that shares the following combination of characters: medium-sized barbels with a smooth last unbranched dorsal-fin ray, nine or 10 branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched anal fin-rays; scales large, shield-shaped, with many parallel radii; the lateral line containing 25 to 39 scales; the pharyngeal teeth hooked, 2.3.5-5.3.2 or 2.3.4-4.3.2; one or two pairs of barbels. The species are described in detail, their taxonomic status is re-evaluated and an identification key is provided. A lectotype of Systomus luteus Heckel, 1843 is designated. Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971, Kosswigobarbus Karaman, 1971, and Pseudotor Karaman, 1971 are subjective synonyms, and acting as First Reviser we gave precedence to the name Carasobarbus. PMID:24146585

  1. Chitosan-Montmorillonite Polymer Composites: Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Tablets of Aceclofenac

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Garima; Singh, Amrinder; Singh, Inderbir

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the preparation and evaluation of polymer composites of chitosan and montmorillonite. The prepared polymer composites were evaluated for various powder properties and characterized by FTIR-ATR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy- Attenuated Total Reflectance), XRD (X Ray Diffraction), and SEM (Scaning Electron Microscopy) techniques. Heckel and Kawakita equations indicated good compression characteristics of the composites. The polymer composites were employed in formulating sustained release tablets of aceclofenac. The formation of intercalated lamellar structures due to the entrapment of clay particles in the polymeric matrix network was found to be responsible for the drug release retardant behavior of the composites. The in vitro drug release data were fitted to various models like zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, and Hixon and Crowell for studying the mechanism of drug release from the formulation. The value of release exponent (n) was found to range between 0.59 and 0.82, indicating non-Fickian (anomalous) drug release behavior. Swelling-induced diffusion of the drug through the polymer matrix and polymer matrix chain relaxation appeared to play a role in the release of the drug from the polymer composites.

  2. [Differences in the infestation rate of young cyprinid fishes (Cypriniformes) by metacercaria of Posthodiplostomum Cuticola (Digenea, Diplostomatidae) in river and lake systems of the Lake Chany basin (Western Siberia)].

    PubMed

    Iadrenkina, E N

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 fish species were studied for the invasion of P. cuticola (Nordmann, 1832) metacercariae in the Chany Lake estuaries, river and lake systems during different periods of water level. All infected individuals were represented by juveniles of the family Cyprinidae, except for adults of the dace Leuciscus leuciscus. (L.). Under an average water level (2010) the highest rate of fish invasion was revealed in the estuary zone, where the prevalence of infection (PI) constituted 37.5%, 13.4%, and 5.9% for the gudgeon Gobio gobio, the roach Rutilus rutilus (L.), and the dace L. leuciscus (L.), respectively. An infested carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Heckel) (PI - 13.5%) was recorded in the lower Kargat River, and the goldfish Carassius auratus (L.) (PI - 3.2%), in the lake system. Mean intensity of infection (MI) constituted 1.3, 1.4, 2.5, 2.6, and 1.0 in gudgeon, roach, dace, carp, and bream (Abramis brama L.), respectively. During dry season (2011) with high water salinity only two fish species were infected with P. cuticola metacercariae, the goldfish (PI - 7.9%) and the roach (PI - 1.5%). No correlation between PI and fish density was revealed. It is assumed that the high degree of water salinity is a limiting factor regulating the efficiency of cercariae transition from the first intermediate host (Planorbis planorbis (L.)) to the second one (Pisces, Cyprinidae).

  3. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Koner, Jasdip S.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the β-polymorph; however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties. PMID:26553127

  4. Compressional characteristics of native and pregelatinized forms of sorghum, plantain, and corn starches and the mechanical properties of their tablets.

    PubMed

    Alebiowu, G; Itiola, O A

    2002-07-01

    A study was made of the compressional characteristics of native and pregelatinized forms of sorghum, plantain, and corn starches and the mechanical properties of their tablets. Compressional characteristics were analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita plots. Pregelatinized starches exhibited more densification than native starches during die filling and at low pressures. The ranking for the mean yield pressure (Py) values for the starches was plantain < corn < sorghum, with the pregelatinized starches having lower values than the native starches. The ranking for the values of another pressure term, Pk--an inverse measure of plasticity, was corn < plantain < sorghum, but with the native starches having the lower values. For the tablets, the ranking for values of tensile strength (T) was corn > plantain > sorghum, while the ranking for the brittle fracture index (BFI) was plantain > corn > sorghum. Tablets made from pregelatinized starches had lower T and BFI values than those made from native starches. The results suggest that pregelatinization of the starches facilitated faster onset of plastic deformation but reduced the amount of plastic deformation which occurred during the compression process.

  5. Niches of dominant fish in the waters surrounding the Taishan Islands, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Chen, Jie; Yang, Shengyun; Zhong, Huiqi; Ju, Peilong; Yang, Shunliang; Sun, Qinqin; Chen, Mingru

    2016-07-01

    An index of relative importance (IRI) was employed to screen for dominant fish in the waters surrounding the Taishan Islands, China, using data from four seasonal trawl surveys undertaken between 2012 and 2013. Niche breadth and niche overlap were measured using the Feinsinger and Morisita-Horn indices, respectively, and the characteristics and seasonal variations in the niches of dominant fish were assessed via non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and cluster analysis. A total of 80 fish species, including 16 dominant species, were recorded. Only Amblychaeturichthys hexanema was dominant in all seasons. According to niche breadth values and NMDS, the 16 dominant species were grouped into the following three types: (1) wide niche breadth species, including Cynoglossus macrolepidotus, A. hexanema, and Trypauchen vagina, among others; (2) medium niche breadth species, including Setipinna taty and Johnius belangerii; and (3) narrow niche breadth species, including Atrobucca nibe and Coilia mystus. Most species with a wider niche breadth were demersal fish with a lower swimming capability and even distribution. The niche breadth of migrating fish was narrower than that of settled fish. At a given spatial scale, fish with stronger swimming capabilities had a narrower niche breadth. Niche overlap, which is associated with niche specialization, ranged from 0.000 to 0.886 and had an annual mean value of 0.314. In summer and autumn, niche overlap was relatively high within species of the Sciaenidae family and within species of the Gobiidae in autumn. Differences in thermophily, feeding habits, food organism abundance/distribution and predator-prey relationships affected the niche overlap of fish in this area. Cluster analysis revealed that species with the narrowest niche breadth and lowest niche overlap values usually displayed lower aggregation and greater distribution differences compared with other species.

  6. Genomic structure and promoter functional analysis of GnRH3 gene in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jianshe; Liao, Zhi; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Huifei; Zhu, Aiyi; Wu, Changwen

    2016-01-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone III (GnRH3) is considered to be a key neurohormone in fish reproduction control. In the present study, the cDNA and genomic sequences of GnRH3 were cloned and characterized from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. The cDNA encoded a protein of 99 amino acids with four functional motifs. The full-length genome sequence was composed of 3797 nucleotides, including four exons and three introns. Higher identities of amino acid sequences and conserved exon-intron organizations were found between LcGnRH3 and other GnRH3 genes. In addition, some special features of the sequences were detected in partial species. For example, two specific residues (V and A) were found in the family Sciaenidae, and the unique 75-72 bp type of the open reading frame 2 and 3 existed in the family Cyprinidae. Analysis of the 2576 bp promoter fragment of LcGnRH3 showed a number of transcription factor binding sites, such as AP1, CREB, GATA-1, HSF, FOXA2, and FOXL1. Promoter functional analysis using an EGFP reporter fusion in zebrafish larvae presented positive signals in the brain, including the olfactory region, the terminal nerve ganglion, the telencephalon, and the hypothalamus. The expression pattern was generally consistent with the endogenous GnRH3 GFP-expressing transgenic zebrafish lines, but the details were different. These results indicate that the structure and function of LcGnRH3 are generally similar to the other teleost GnRH3 genes, but there exist some distinctions among them.

  7. Muscle metabolism and growth in Antarctic fishes (suborder Notothenioidei): evolution in a cold environment.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Ian A

    2003-12-01

    The radiation of notothenioid fishes (order Perciformes) in the Southern Ocean provides a model system for investigating evolution and adaptation to a low temperature environment. The Notothenioid fishes comprising eight families, 43 genera and 122 species dominate the fish fauna in Antarctica. The diversification of the clade probably began 15-20 million years ago after the formation of the Antarctic Polar Front. The radiation was, therefore, associated with climatic cooling down to the present day temperature of -1.86 degrees C. Origins and Evolution of the Antarctic Biota Geological Society Special Publication No. 47, Geological Society of London. pp. 253-268). The success of the group has been closely linked with the evolution of glycopeptide and peptide antifreezes, which are amongst the most abundant proteins in blood and interstitial fluid. The radiation of the clade has been associated with disaptation (evolutionary loss of function) and recovery. For example, it is thought that the icefishes (Channichyidae) lost haemoglobin through a single mutational event leading to the deletion of the entire beta-globin gene and the 5' end of the linked alpha-globin gene, resulting in compensatory adaptations of the cardiovascular system. Phylogenetically based statistical methods also indicate a progressive and dramatic reduction in the number of skeletal muscle fibres (FN(max)) at the end of the recruitment phase of growth in basal compared to derived families. The reduction in FN(max) is associated with a compensatory increase in the maximum fibre diameter, which can reach 100 microm in slow and 600 microm in fast muscle fibres. At -1 to 0 degrees C, the oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria per mg mitochondrial protein shows no evidence of up-regulation relative to mitochondria from temperate and tropical Perciform fishes. The mitochondria content of slow muscle fibres in Antarctic notothenioids is towards the upper end of the range reported for teleosts with

  8. Morphology and molecules reveal the alien Posthodiplostomum centrarchi Hoffman, 1958 as the third species of Posthodiplostomum Dubois, 1936 (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Borislav; Georgieva, Simona; Pankov, Plamen; Kudlai, Olena; Kostadinova, Aneta; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2017-01-01

    Metacercariae of two species of Posthodiplostomum Dubois, 1936 (Digenea: Diplostomidae) were subjected to morphological and molecular studies: P. brevicaudatum (von Nordmann, 1832) from Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) (Gasterosteiformes: Gasterosteidae), Bulgaria (morphology, cox1 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and Perca fluviatilis L. (Perciformes: Percidae), Czech Republic (morphology, cox1, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S); and P. centrarchi Hoffman, 1958 from Lepomis gibbosus (L.) (Perciformes: Centrarchidae), Bulgaria (morphology, cox1 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and Slovakia (cox1 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). In addition, cercariae of P. cuticola (von Nordmann, 1832) from Planorbis planorbis (L.) (Mollusca: Planorbidae), Lithuania (morphology and cox1) and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum scardinii (Schulman in Dubinin, 1952) from Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.) (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), Czech Republic, were examined (morphology, cox1, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S). These represent the first molecular data for species of Posthodiplostomum and Ornithodiplostomum Dubois, 1936 from the Palaearctic. Phylogenetic analyses based on cox1 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, using O. scardinii as the outgroup and including the three newly-sequenced Posthodiplostomum spp. from Europe and eight published unidentified (presumably species-level) lineages of Posthodiplostomum from Canada confirmed the distinct status of the three European species (contrary to the generally accepted opinion that only P. brevicaudatum and P. cuticola occur in the Palaearctic). The subspecies Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi Hoffmann, 1958, originally described from North America, is elevated to the species level as Posthodiplostomum centrarchi Hoffman, 1958. The undescribed "Posthodiplostomum sp. 3" of Locke et al. (2010) from centrarchid fishes in Canada has identical sequences with the European isolates of P. centrarchi and is recognised as belonging to the same species. The latter parasite, occurring in the alien pumpkinseed sunfish

  9. Evaluation of cocoa butter as potential lubricant for coprocessing in pharmaceutical tablets.

    PubMed

    Adeagbo, Adebolu Adewole; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2008-01-01

    The lubricant activity of cocoa butter coprocessed with magnesium stearate plus talc (CMT) was compared with magnesium stearate plus talc (MT) using flow and compressional characteristics of paracetamol granules and mechanical properties of their tablets as assessment parameters. The flow of the granules quantified as Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, and angle of repose showed that CMT has a higher ability than MT to reduce densification of granules due to vibration. Compressional characteristics analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita plots revealed that CMT did not facilitate the increase in the densification of the granules during the filling and at low pressures, D(b). Also, CMT reduced the plastic deformation of the granules measured by the P(y)-yield pressure at onset of plastic deformation and P(k)-yield pressure of deformation under compression. The mechanical properties determined by the tensile strength, T, and brittle fracture index, BFI, of the tablets produced were affected by CMT. The T and BFI of tablets with CMT were lower than those of MT. The results suggest that though CMT lowered the plasticity of the granules, it improved their flow rate and assisted in producing tablets with fewer tendencies to cap or laminate. This work concluded that cocoa butter, an inexpensive and easily available lipid, is an effective and viable lubricant that can be co-processed with magnesium stearate/talc mixture for an efficient lubrication of granules and may be useful in reducing lamination and capping in formulations that are susceptible to these 2 defects of tablets.

  10. Use of in-die powder densification parameters in the implementation of process analytical technologies for tablet production on industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Cespi, Marco; Perinelli, Diego R; Casettari, Luca; Bonacucina, Giulia; Caporicci, Giuseppe; Rendina, Filippo; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2014-12-30

    The use of process analytical technologies (PAT) to ensure final product quality is by now a well established practice in pharmaceutical industry. To date, most of the efforts in this field have focused on development of analytical methods using spectroscopic techniques (i.e., NIR, Raman, etc.). This work evaluated the possibility of using the parameters derived from the processing of in-line raw compaction data (the forces and displacement of the punches) as a PAT tool for controlling the tableting process. To reach this goal, two commercially available formulations were used, changing the quantitative composition and compressing them on a fully instrumented rotary pressing machine. The Heckel yield pressure and the compaction energies, together with the tablets hardness and compaction pressure, were selected and evaluated as discriminating parameters in all the prepared formulations. The apparent yield pressure, as shown in the obtained results, has the necessary sensitivity to be effectively included in a PAT strategy to monitor the tableting process. Additional investigations were performed to understand the criticalities and the mechanisms beyond this performing parameter and the associated implications. Specifically, it was discovered that the efficiency of the apparent yield pressure depends on the nominal drug title, the drug densification mechanism and the error in pycnometric density. In this study, the potential of using some parameters derived from the compaction raw data has been demonstrated to be an attractive alternative and complementary method to the well established spectroscopic techniques to monitor and control the tableting process. The compaction data monitoring method is also easy to set up and very cost effective.

  11. A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  12. Evaluation of the material and tablet formation properties of modified forms of Dioscorea starches.

    PubMed

    Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M

    2009-11-01

    Starches obtained from four different Dioscorea species-namely, White yam (Dioscorea rotundata), Bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum), Chinese yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia), and Water yam (Dioscorea alata)-were modified by cross-linking, hydroxypropylation, and dual modification-cross-linking followed by hydroxypropylation. The physicochemical, material, and tablet properties of the modified starches were investigated with the aim of understanding their properties to determine their potential use for different applications. The tablet formation properties were assessed using 3D modeling, the Heckel equation, and force-displacement profiles. The analyzed tablet properties were elastic recovery, compactibility, and disintegration. The result indicates that the modifications generally increased the swelling power for all the starches in the rank order hydroxypropyl > hydroxypropylated cross-linked > cross-linked (CL) while the solubility did not show a clear-cut pattern. This indicates that hydroxypropylation generally showed the strongest effects on swelling. Furthermore, hydroxypropylation improved the hot water swelling of the CL starches. The modifications did not cause any detectable morphological change in the starch granules shape or size although slight rupture was observed in some granules. CL starch had the lowest water sorption capacity and hydroxypropylation increased the sorption capacity of the CL starches. The material property results indicate that hydroxypropylation and cross-linking did not significantly improve the flowability and compressibility but improved bonding, which resulted in an increased compaction and higher tablet crushing force even though they all disintegrated rapidly. Thus, the modified Dioscorea starches showed potentials for development as new excipients in solid dosage form design, and they could be useful as disintegrants or for Soft tableting.

  13. An Investigation on the Sinterability and the Compaction Behavior of Aluminum/Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Prepared by Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saboori, A.; Novara, C.; Pavese, M.; Badini, C.; Giorgis, F.; Fino, P.

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the densification response of Al matrix reinforced with different weight percentages (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 wt.%) of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) was studied. These composites were produced by a wet method followed by a conventional powder metallurgy. The Raman spectrum of graphene indicates that preparation of the composites through the wet mixing method did not affect the disordering and defect density in the GNPs structure. The nanocomposite powder mixture was consolidated via a cold uniaxial compaction. The samples were sintered at different temperatures (540, 580 and 620 °C) under nitrogen flow so as to assess the sinterability of the nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been carried out to check the possible reaction between GNPs and aluminum. According to the XRD patterns, it seems that Al4C3 did not form during the fabrication process. The relative density, compressibility, sinterability and Vickers hardness of the nanocomposites were also evaluated. The effects of GNPs on the consolidation behavior of the matrix were studied using the Heckel, Panelli and Ambrosio Filho, and Ge equations. The outcomes show that at early stage of consolidation the rearrangement of particles is dominant, while by increasing the compaction pressure, due to the load partitioning effect of GNPs, the densification rate of the powder mixture decreases. Moreover, the fabricated nanocomposites exhibited high Vickers hardness of 67 HV5, which is approximately 50% higher than monolithic aluminum. The effect of graphene addition on the thermal conductivity of Al/GNPs nanocomposites was evaluated by means of thermal diffusivity measurement, and the results showed that the higher thermal conductivity can be only achieved at lower graphene content.

  14. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic) Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

  15. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts.

    PubMed

    Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Miklisová, Dana; Kirin, Diana; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Recent morphological and molecular data have shown that one of the most common parasites of freshwater fish in the Palaearctic Region, the cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Eucestoda: Caryophyllidea), is highly polymorphic. Five distinct morphotypes of C. laticeps, largely corresponding to different fish hosts and representing separate, yet closely related genetic lineages, have been recognised and they are characterised in the present paper. Morphotype 1 from breams, Abramis brama (L.) (type-host) and Ballerus spp., corresponds to the original Taenia laticeps Pallas, 1781 and its neotype (paragenophore ex A. brama in Russia) is designated. This morphotype is characterised by a slender body and flabellate scolex. Morphotype 2 was found in the Macedonian vimba Vimba melanops (Heckel) and the vimba bream V. vimba (L.); it is typified by a more robust body, with most anterior extent of the vitelline follicles near the scolex and the cirrus-sac situated more anteriorly than in other morphotypes. Morphotype 3 is represented by worms from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. that possess a cuneicrispitate scolex (having the form of a wedge with shallow indentations on anterior margin). Morphotype 4 from the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) has a large, robust body and a wide scolex with numerous superficial grooves (wrinkles) in its anterior part. Morphotype 5 is represented by worms from the white-eye bream Ballerus sapa (Pallas); its typical characteristics are a festoon-like anterior margin of the scolex, the absence of vitelline follicles posterior to the cirrus-sac and the absence of a well-developed internal seminal vesicle. Discriminant analysis of 15 morphometric variables readily separated Morphotypes 3, 4 and 5 and confirmed the key discriminating power of traits related to the reproductive system, especially the terminal reproductive organs. Morphological polymorphism and the genetic divergence of different morphotypes of C. laticeps correspond

  16. An Investigation on the Sinterability and the Compaction Behavior of Aluminum/Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Prepared by Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saboori, A.; Novara, C.; Pavese, M.; Badini, C.; Giorgis, F.; Fino, P.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the densification response of Al matrix reinforced with different weight percentages (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 wt.%) of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) was studied. These composites were produced by a wet method followed by a conventional powder metallurgy. The Raman spectrum of graphene indicates that preparation of the composites through the wet mixing method did not affect the disordering and defect density in the GNPs structure. The nanocomposite powder mixture was consolidated via a cold uniaxial compaction. The samples were sintered at different temperatures (540, 580 and 620 °C) under nitrogen flow so as to assess the sinterability of the nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been carried out to check the possible reaction between GNPs and aluminum. According to the XRD patterns, it seems that Al4C3 did not form during the fabrication process. The relative density, compressibility, sinterability and Vickers hardness of the nanocomposites were also evaluated. The effects of GNPs on the consolidation behavior of the matrix were studied using the Heckel, Panelli and Ambrosio Filho, and Ge equations. The outcomes show that at early stage of consolidation the rearrangement of particles is dominant, while by increasing the compaction pressure, due to the load partitioning effect of GNPs, the densification rate of the powder mixture decreases. Moreover, the fabricated nanocomposites exhibited high Vickers hardness of 67 HV5, which is approximately 50% higher than monolithic aluminum. The effect of graphene addition on the thermal conductivity of Al/GNPs nanocomposites was evaluated by means of thermal diffusivity measurement, and the results showed that the higher thermal conductivity can be only achieved at lower graphene content.

  17. Infection level of the Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger, from Anchar Lake, relative to season, sex, length and condition factor.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Ummer Rashid; Chishti, M Z; Yousuf, A R; Ahmed, Fayaz

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi causes great economic loss in hatcheries, fish farms as well as in lakes. In order to understand the seasonal variation of infection in a nutrient-enriched lake, parasitological investigation was carried out in the indigenous cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838 from September, 2008 to August, 2009. Overall, this study revealed definite seasonality of infection (p < 0.05), with greater infection in summer (prevalence = 39.5%) and lesser in winter (prevalence = 8.1%). The prevalence among different seasons revealed significant differences (p < 0.05). Sex was not an important factor influencing the prevalence of the Asian tapeworm. A strong positive correlation (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.7; p = 0.02) between total length of S. niger and number of Asian fish tapeworms was observed. Similarly, a strong positive correlation existed between weight of fish and number of tapeworms (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.7; p = 0.005). Prevalence and mean abundance were positively and significantly correlated with water temperature (r = 0.8, p < 0.01 and r = 0.8, p < 0.01, respectively). Thus seasonal dynamics, total length and weight of the host significantly influenced the tapeworm infection. The above findings will be useful in devising the appropriate control strategies for the Asian tapeworm in wild fish in Kashmir valley as well as in similar climatic zones of other parts of the world. Also, information from this study will be used to assess the spread and extent of B. acheilognathi which is a potential threat to the indigenous fish fauna of Anchar Lake.

  18. Evidence-Based Nanoscopic and Molecular Framework for Excipient Functionality in Compressed Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-khattawi, Ali; Alyami, Hamad; Townsend, Bill; Ma, Xianghong; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2014-01-01

    The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair). Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm2–10 µm2) and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs) showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale. PMID:25025427

  19. Body size–trophic position relationships among fishes of the lower Mekong basin

    PubMed Central

    Montaña, Carmen G.; Winemiller, Kirk O.

    2017-01-01

    Body size is frequently claimed to be a major determinant of animal trophic interactions, yet few studies have explored relationships between body size and trophic interactions in rivers, especially within the tropics. We examined relationships between body size and trophic position (TP) within fish assemblages in four lowland rivers of the Lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia. Stable isotope analysis (based on δ15N) was used to estimate TP of common fish species in each river, and species were classified according to occupation of benthic versus pelagic habitats and major feeding guilds. Regression analysis yielded strong correlations between body size and TP among fishes from the Sesan and Sreprok rivers, but not those from the Mekong and Sekong rivers. The Mekong fish assemblage had higher average TP compared with those of other rivers. The relationship between body size and TP was positive and significantly correlated for piscivores and omnivores, but not for detritivores and insectivores. The body size–TP relationship did not differ between pelagic and benthic fishes. Body size significantly predicted TP within the orders Siluriformes and Perciformes, but not for Cypriniformes, the most species-rich and ecologically diverse order in the Lower Mekong River. We conclude that for species-rich, tropical fish assemblages with many detritivores and invertivores, body size would not be an appropriate surrogate for TP in food web models and other ecological applications. PMID:28280563

  20. Anisakid nematodes (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the marine fishes Plectropomus laevis Lacépède (Serranidae) and Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae) off New Caledonia, including two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-11-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) are described from the digestive tract of perciform fishes off New Caledonia: H. alatum n. sp. from Plectropomus laevis (Lacépède) (Serranidae) and H. sphyraenae n. sp. from Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae). The former species (H. alatum) is mainly characterised by its large body (male 42.05 mm, gravid females 51.18-87.38 mm long), the shape of the dorsal lip, conspicuously broad cervical alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length of the spicules (925 µm), the number (25 pairs) and distribution of the genital papillae and the tail tip bearing numerous minute cuticular protuberances. The other species (H. sphyraenae) is mainly characterised by the presence of narrow lateral alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length (762-830 µm) and shape of the spicules, the number (37-38 pairs) and arrangement of the genital papillae, and by the tail tip which lacks any distinct cuticular projections visible under the light microscope. In addition, and unidentifiable at the species level, conspicuously large (45.71-66.10 mm long) larvae of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912, were found in the body cavity of P. laevis, which serves as a paratenic host for this parasite.

  1. Cloning of a river pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) metallothionein cDNA and study of its induction profile in cadmium-exposed fish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Wang, Soon-Young; Kim, Il-Chan; Ki, Jang-Seu; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Lee, Jae-Seong; Han, Kyung-Nam

    2008-04-01

    We report here the full-length cDNA sequence of metallothionein (MT) gene from an anadromous river pufferfish, Takifugu obscurus (order: Tetradotiformes; family: Tetradontidae). Phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that the identified MT has high sequence similarity with many Perciformes fish species. The tissue distribution and concentration- and time-dependent expression of MT mRNA were studied in fish exposed to cadmium. Liver showed the highest level of MT gene expression followed by other tissues (brain, gill and kidney) in response to cadmium exposure. Muscle showed a weak expression response of MT gene. Time-course study revealed highest early phase (at 6h) expression in the brain and late persistence of induction in the intestine. MT mRNA expression showed a concentration-dependent expression in all the tissues. However, induction in brain and liver occurred at much lower concentrations as compared to other tissues. Our results demonstrate that MT in T. obscurus is induced by cadmium exposure which indicates that it plays a functionally conserved function of metal detoxification.

  2. Two new Huffmanela species, H. japonica n. sp. and H. shikokuensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae), from marine fishes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Koudela, B; Ogawa, K; Nagasawa, K

    1998-06-01

    Two new species of trichuroid nematodes. Huffmanela japonica n. sp. and Huffmanela shikokuensis n. sp., are established on the basis of their egg morphology and biological characters; the eggs of both species occur in the musculature of marine fishes from the Inland Sea of Japan. The dark-shelled eggs of H. japonica are found locally in masses ("black spots") in the flesh of Upeneus bensasi (Temminck et Schlegel) (Mullidae, Perciformes) and are characterized mainly by their shape and size (58-69 x 26-30 microm), an aspinose superficial transparent envelope enclosing the egg proper, relatively small polar plugs, and by their thick egg wall (4-5 microm). The eggs of H. shikokuensis are also dark-colored and are found evenly distributed in the musculature of Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Temminck et Schlegel) (Monacanthidae, Tetraodontiformes); they are characterized mainly by their shape and size (78-90 X 36-45 microm), by a very thin and aspinose superficial transparent envelope, large polar plugs, and relatively thin egg wall (3 microm). Histological sections of the host's infected musculature showed the presence of H. shikokuensis nematodes inside the muscle cells and in the intercellular spaces. A key to Huffmanela species based on egg morphology is provided.

  3. Identification and functional characterization of a new IL-1 family member, IL-1Fm2, in most evolutionarily advanced fish.

    PubMed

    Angosto, Diego; Montero, Jana; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Alcaraz-Pérez, Francisca; Bird, Steve; Sarropoulou, Elena; Abellán, Emilia; Meseguer, José; Sepulcre, María P; Mulero, Victoriano

    2014-07-01

    The IL-1 family consists of 11 members that play an important role as key mediators in inflammation and immunity. Here, we report the identification of a new member of the IL-1 family (IL-1Fm2) that is present in species belonging to the most evolutionarily advanced group of teleost fish (Series Percomorpha), including Perciformes, Beloniformes, Gasterosteiformes, Cyprinodontiformes and Pleuronectiformes. However, IL-1Fm2 seems to be absent in Tetraodontiformes, which also belong to the Percomorpha. The expression pattern of gilthead seabream IL-1Fm2 revealed that although it was hardly induced by PAMPs, the combination of PAMPs and recombinant IL-1Fm2 synergistically induced its expression in macrophages and granulocytes. In addition, recombinant IL-1Fm2 was able to activate the respiratory burst of seabream phagocytes and to synergistically induce the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-10 when combined with PAMPs. Finally, although gilthead seabream IL-1Fm2 did not show a conserved caspase-1 processing site, macrophages processed IL-1Fm2 before being released. However, both pan-caspase and caspase-1 inhibitors failed to inhibit the processing and release of IL-1Fm2. These results demonstrate an important role of IL-1Fm2 in the regulation of fish immune responses, shed light on the evolution of the IL-1 family in vertebrates and point to the complexity of this cytokine family.

  4. A radiation hybrid map of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) based on 1581 markers: Synteny analysis with model fish genomes.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Richard; Senger, Fabrice; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Sadequi, Naoual; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hitte, Christophe; Galibert, Francis

    2010-10-01

    The selective breeding of fish for aquaculture purposes requires the understanding of the genetic basis of traits such as growth, behaviour, resistance to pathogens and sex determinism. Access to well-developed genomic resources is a prerequisite to improve the knowledge of these traits. Having this aim in mind, a radiation hybrid (RH) panel of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was constructed from splenocytes irradiated at 3000 rad, allowing the construction of a 1581 marker RH map. A total of 1440 gene markers providing ~4400 anchors with the genomes of three-spined stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish, helped establish synteny relationships with these model species. The identification of Conserved Segments Ordered (CSO) between sea bass and model species allows the anticipation of the position of any sea bass gene from its location in model genomes. Synteny relationships between sea bass and gilthead seabream were addressed by mapping 37 orthologous markers. The sea bass genetic linkage map was integrated in the RH map through the mapping of 141 microsatellites. We are thus able to present the first complete gene map of sea bass. It will facilitate linkage studies and the identification of candidate genes and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The RH map further positions sea bass as a genetic and evolutionary model of Perciformes and supports their ongoing aquaculture expansion.

  5. Two new species of parasitic nematodes from the dogtooth tuna Gymnosarda unicolor (Pisces) off the Maldive Islands.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Lorber, Julia; Konecný, Robert

    2007-02-01

    Two new nematode species, Philometra gymnosardae n. sp. (Philometridae) and Heptochona maldivensis n. sp. (Rhabdochonidae), are described from the dogtooth tuna Gymnosarda unicolor (Rüppell) (Scombridae, Perciformes) from the Indian Ocean off the Maldive Islands (Republic of Maldives). The former species is characterized mainly by unequal, conspicuously long (859 and 435 microm) spicules; the structure of the caudal end in the male (found in the host's stomach); by markedly large, oval cephalic papillae (n = 8) of the outer circle; the presence of a small, anterior bulb on the very long esophagus; and 2 large caudal projections in the gravid female (parasitic in the host's body cavity). This is the first-known species of Philometra whose gravid females are present in the body cavity of tuna fishes. Heptochona maldivensis resembles H. stromatei but differs mainly in the position of deirids, shape of the muscular esophagus, character of postanal papillae, length of the left spicule (648 microm), much larger body measurements, location in the host (stomach), and the host type. Rhabdochona parastromatei Bilqees, 1971, is synonymized with H. stromatei, whereas Heptochona sindica Akram and Pie de Imprenta, 1988, and H. rivdica Akram, 1988, are invalid names. Heptochona varmai is transferred to another genus as Rhabdochona varmai (Gupta and Masoodi, 1990) n. comb. Rhabdochona varmai, Heptochona schmidtii Arya, 1991, and Rhabdochona marina Lakshmi and Sudha, 1999, are considered species inquirendae.

  6. Triple trouble? Invasive poeciliid fishes carry the introduced tilapia pathogen Gyrodactylus cichlidarum in the Mexican highlands.

    PubMed

    García-Vásquez, Adriana; Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2017-02-15

    As part of ongoing surveys of the gyrodactylid parasite fauna of freshwater fishes in Mexico, we recorded the infection of three species of poeciliids (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliopsis gracilis, and Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus [syn.=Heterandria bimaculata]) with Gyrodactylus cichlidarum, a monogenean parasite of cichlid fishes, which has been co-introduced globally with its translocated, African "tilapia" hosts. This tilapia pathogen was found on poeciliid fishes both within their native distribution range in the Gulf of Mexico slope, as well as on invasive species artificially introduced to the Mexican highlands, to rivers draining into the Pacific Ocean. Identity of G. cichlidarum was confirmed by morphological and molecular analyses. Prevalence and abundance of infection were low, but this is the first record of G. cichlidarum infecting poeciliids (Cyprinodontiformes), which are distantly related to this parasite's primary cichlid fish hosts (Perciformes). This study provides evidence that G. cichlidarum, a recognized pathogen which has been co-introduced globally with its cichlid fish hosts for aquacultural purposes, is able to infect non-related poeciliid fishes inhabiting water bodies adjacent to tilapia farms, thereby potentially increasing its ability to disperse between farms and different river basins. It is of particular concern that G. cichlidarum was found on poeciliids, as these invasive fishes have been introduced worldwide and could act as carriers for this parasite known to induce significant mortality of farmed tilapias - globally, the second most important freshwater aquaculture fish group, after the carps.

  7. Body size-trophic position relationships among fishes of the lower Mekong basin.

    PubMed

    Ou, Chouly; Montaña, Carmen G; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2017-01-01

    Body size is frequently claimed to be a major determinant of animal trophic interactions, yet few studies have explored relationships between body size and trophic interactions in rivers, especially within the tropics. We examined relationships between body size and trophic position (TP) within fish assemblages in four lowland rivers of the Lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia. Stable isotope analysis (based on δ(15)N) was used to estimate TP of common fish species in each river, and species were classified according to occupation of benthic versus pelagic habitats and major feeding guilds. Regression analysis yielded strong correlations between body size and TP among fishes from the Sesan and Sreprok rivers, but not those from the Mekong and Sekong rivers. The Mekong fish assemblage had higher average TP compared with those of other rivers. The relationship between body size and TP was positive and significantly correlated for piscivores and omnivores, but not for detritivores and insectivores. The body size-TP relationship did not differ between pelagic and benthic fishes. Body size significantly predicted TP within the orders Siluriformes and Perciformes, but not for Cypriniformes, the most species-rich and ecologically diverse order in the Lower Mekong River. We conclude that for species-rich, tropical fish assemblages with many detritivores and invertivores, body size would not be an appropriate surrogate for TP in food web models and other ecological applications.

  8. Mitogenome metadata: current trends and proposed standards.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Jeff H T; Gwiazdowski, Rodger A; Hanner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Mitogenome metadata are descriptive terms about the sequence, and its specimen description that allow both to be digitally discoverable and interoperable. Here, we review a sampling of mitogenome metadata published in the journal Mitochondrial DNA between 2005 and 2014. Specifically, we have focused on a subset of metadata fields that are available for GenBank records, and specified by the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) and other biodiversity metadata standards; and we assessed their presence across three main categories: collection, biological and taxonomic information. To do this we reviewed 146 mitogenome manuscripts, and their associated GenBank records, and scored them for 13 metadata fields. We also explored the potential for mitogenome misidentification using their sequence diversity, and taxonomic metadata on the Barcode of Life Datasystems (BOLD). For this, we focused on all Lepidoptera and Perciformes mitogenomes included in the review, along with additional mitogenome sequence data mined from Genbank. Overall, we found that none of 146 mitogenome projects provided all the metadata we looked for; and only 17 projects provided at least one category of metadata across the three main categories. Comparisons using mtDNA sequences from BOLD, suggest that some mitogenomes may be misidentified. Lastly, we appreciate the research potential of mitogenomes announced through this journal; and we conclude with a suggestion of 13 metadata fields, available on GenBank, that if provided in a mitogenomes's GenBank record, would increase their research value.

  9. Diversity of planktonic fish larvae along a latitudinal gradient in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean estimated through DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Morote, Elvira; Kochzius, Marc; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Mid-trophic pelagic fish are essential components of marine ecosystems because they represent the link between plankton and higher predators. Moreover, they are the basis of the most important fisheries resources; for example, in African waters. In this study, we have sampled pelagic fish larvae in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal gradient between 37°N and 2°S. We have employed Bongo nets for plankton sampling and sorted visually fish and fish larvae. Using the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) as a DNA barcode, we have identified 44 OTUs down to species level that correspond to 14 families, with Myctophidae being the most abundant. A few species were cosmopolitan and others latitude-specific, as was expected. The latitudinal pattern of diversity did not exhibit a temperate-tropical cline; instead, it was likely correlated with environmental conditions with a decline in low-oxygen zones. Importantly, gaps and inconsistencies in reference DNA databases impeded accurate identification to the species level of 49% of the individuals. Fish sampled from tropical latitudes and some orders, such as Perciformes, Myctophiformes and Stomiiformes, were largely unidentified due to incomplete references. Some larvae were identified based on morphology and COI analysis for comparing time and costs employed from each methodology. These results suggest the need of reinforcing DNA barcoding reference datasets of Atlantic bathypelagic tropical fish that, as main prey of top predators, are crucial for ecosystem-based management of fisheries resources.

  10. Two new species of nematode parasites, Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. (Camallanidae), from marine serranid and haemulid fishes off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2017-04-05

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of parasitic nematodes are described from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia: Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) from the intestine of the brownspotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. from the intestine of the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae). Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. differs from its congeners mainly in possessing a unique structure of the anterior, elevated cloacal lip with a large posterior outgrowth covering the cloacal aperture and in the presence of cervical alae and two small preanal papillae on the median dome-shaped precloacal elevation. This is the second known nominal species of this genus parasitising fishes of the family Serranidae and the second representative of Cucullanus Müller, 1777 recorded from fishes in New Caledonian waters. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. is mainly characterised by 10-12 spiral ridges in the buccal capsule, the presence of wide caudal alae, three pairs of pedunculate preanal papillae, two unequally long spicules (465-525 µm and 218-231 µm) and by the tail tip with a knob-like structure in the male, and the broad, rounded tail with a terminal digit-like protrusion without cuticular spikes in the female. This is the fifth nominal species of the subgenus Spirocamallanus Olsen, 1952 reported from fishes in New Caledonian waters.

  11. Family of Tc1-like elements from fish genomes and horizontal transfer.

    PubMed

    Pocwierz-Kotus, Anita; Burzynski, Artur; Wenne, Roman

    2007-04-01

    The involvement of horizontal transfer (HT) in the evolution of vertebrate transposable elements (TEs) is a matter of an ongoing debate. The phylogenetic relationships between Tc1 TEs, based on limited dataset have been previously used to infer a case of Tc1 HT between the genomes of fish and frogs. Here this hypothesis has been critically evaluated by the experimental approach including comparative data on the range of fish species available today. The distribution of a Tc1 subfamily of TE in selected fish species was investigated by PCR with a single primer complementary to ITRs and showed that they are widespread in the studied 17 fish species. They belong to five different subfamilies of Tc1 TEs, as revealed by the comparison with current genomic data for fish and amphibians. The original hypothesis would get much weaker support from the current data, although at least one novel potential and more convincing case of HT was identified between genomes of Perciformes fish. An interesting case of recombination-driven mobilisation of a degenerated TE by distantly related TE from different subfamily was discovered in the genome of pike. The occurrence of such cases widens the range of TE elements identifiable with the employed experimental approach. Further similar studies would help to explain the evolution of the multiple Tc1 lineages including species for which full genome sequences will not be available soon.

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with differential body size in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi).

    PubMed

    Tian, Changxu; Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Guo, Wenjie; Lv, Liyuan; Wang, Qingchao; Song, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Body size is an obvious and important characteristic of fish. Mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) is one of the most valuable perciform species widely cultured in China. Individual differences in body size are common in mandarin fish and significantly influence the aquaculture production. However, little is currently known about its genetic control. In this study, digital gene expression profiling and transcriptome sequencing were performed in mandarin fish with differential body size at 30 and 180 days post-hatch (dph), respectively. Body weight, total length and body length of fish with big-size were significantly higher than those with small-size at both 30 and 180 dph (P < 0.05). 2171 and 2014 differentially expressed genes were identified between small-size and big-size fish at 30 and 180 dph, respectively. RT quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the differential expression of 10 selected genes in mandarin fish that went through the same training procedure. The genes were involved in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis, cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, glucose metabolism, reproduction and sexual size dimorphism pathways. This study will help toward a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of regulation of body size in mandarin fish individuals and provide valuable information for future research.

  13. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    PubMed

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera.

  14. Evolutionary origin of the Scombridae (tunas and mackerels): members of a paleogene adaptive radiation with 14 other pelagic fish families.

    PubMed

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae "Pelagia" in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families.

  15. Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Campbell, L M; Osano, O; Hecky, R E; Dixon, D G

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g(-1) wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Turkana and the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Naivasha ranged between 4 and 95 ng g(-1). The tilapiine species in all lakes, including the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, had consistently low THg concentrations ranging between 2 and 25 ng g(-1). In Lake Naivasha, the crayfish species, Procambrus clarkii, had THg concentrations similar to those for the tilapiine species from the same lake, which is consistent with their shared detritivore diet. THg concentrations in all fish species were usually consistent with their known trophic position, with highest concentrations in piscivores and declining in omnivores, insectivores and detritivores. One exception is the detritivore Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo, which had surprisingly elevated THg concentrations (mean=75 ng g(-1)), which was similar to those for the top trophic species (Clarias and Protopterus) in the same lake. Except for two Hydrocynus forskahlii individuals from Lake Turkana, which had THg concentrations near or above the international marketing limit of 500 ng g(-1), THg concentrations in the fish were generally below those of World Health Organization's recommended limit of 200 ng g(-1) for at-risk groups.

  16. Use of comparative genomics to develop EST-SSRs for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Portnoy, David S; Gold, John R

    2012-12-01

    Microsatellites physically linked to expressed sequence tags (EST-SSRs) are an important resource for linkage mapping and comparative genomics, and data mining in publicly available EST databases is a common strategy for EST-SSR discovery. At present, many species lack species-specific EST sequence data needed for the efficient characterization of EST-SSRs. This paper describes the discovery and development of EST-SSRs for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an estuarine-dependent sciaenid species of economic importance in the USA and elsewhere, using a phylogenetically informed, comparative genomics approach to primer design. The approach entailed comparing existing genomic resources from species closely allied phylogenetically to red drum, with resources from more distantly related outgroup species. By taking into account the degree to which flanking regions are conserved across taxa, the efficiency of PCR primer design was increased greatly. The amplification success rate for primers designed for red drum was 100 % when using EST libraries from confamilial species and 92 % when using an EST library from a species in the same suborder. The primers developed also amplified EST-SSRs in a wide range of perciform fishes, suggesting potential use in comparative genomics. This study demonstrates that EST-SSRs can be efficiently developed for an organism when limited species-specific data are available by exploiting genomic resources from well-studied species, even those at extended phylogenetic distances.

  17. Experimental and computational study of inter- and intra- species specificity of gonadotropins for various gonadotropin receptors.

    PubMed

    Aizen, Joseph; Kowalsman, Noga; Kobayashi, Makito; Hollander, Lian; Sohn, Young Chang; Yoshizaki, Goro; Niv, Masha Y; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2012-11-25

    The gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and their receptors play critical roles in vertebrate reproduction. In order to study intra- and interspecies ligand promiscuity of gonadotropins, COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with one of the gonadotropin receptor genes, FSHR or LHR, and tested for activation by gonadotropins from representative fish orders: Aquilliformes (eel; e), Salmoniformes (trout; tr), and Perciformes (tilapia; ta), and of mammalian origin: porcine (p), bovine (b) and human (h). The study reveals complex relations between the gonadotropin hormones and their receptors. Each gonadotropin activated its own cognate receptor. However, taLHR was also activated by hCG and eLHR was activated by hFSH, hCG, and trFSH. For FSHR, the only cross-reactivity detected was for hFSHR, which was activated by pFSH and bFSH. These findings are of great interest and applicability in the context of activation of various GTHRs by their ligands and by ligands from other vertebrates. Analysis of the three-dimensional models of the structures highlights the importance of residues outside of the currently established hormone-receptor interface region. In addition, the interface residues in taFSHR and the effect of exon duplication, which causes an insert in the LRR domain, are suggested to affect the interaction and binding of taFSH.

  18. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species.

  19. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided.

  20. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37–39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  1. Antarctic teleost immunoglobulins: more extreme, more interesting.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Maria Rosaria; Varriale, Sonia; Giacomelli, Stefano; Oreste, Umberto

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the immunoglobulin molecule and the genes encoding it in teleosts living in the Antarctic seas at the constant temperature of -1.86 °C. The majority of Antarctic teleosts belong to the suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes), which includes only a few non-Antarctic species. Twenty-one Antarctic and two non-Antarctic Notothenioid species were included in our studies. We sequenced immunoglobulin light chains in two species and μ heavy chains, partially or totally, in twenty species. In the case of heavy chain, genomic DNA and the cDNA encoding the secreted and the membrane form were analyzed. From one species, Trematomus bernacchii, a spleen cDNA library was constructed to evaluate the diversity of VH gene segments. T. bernacchii IgM, purified from the serum and bile, was characterized. Homology Modelling and Molecular Dynamics were used to determine the molecular structure of T. bernacchii and Chionodraco hamatus immunoglobulin domains. This paper sums up the previous results and broadens them with the addition of unpublished data.

  2. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae.

  3. Nippotaenia mogurndae Yamaguti et Myiata, 1940 (Cestoda, Nippotaeniidea): first data on spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Bílý, Tomáš; Nebesářová, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon ultrastructure of the cestode Nippotaenia mogurndae Yamaguti et Myiata, 1940 (Nippotaeniidea), a parasite of Perccottus glenii Dubowski, 1877 (Perciformes: Odontobutidae), have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate (PA-TSC-SP) for glycogen, and electron tomography. The process of spermatozoon formation is characterised by the presence of (1) two centrioles without typical striated rootlets, (2) a single intercentriolar body, (3) a flagellar rotation (free flagellum plus flagellar bud), and (4) a complete proximodistal fusion. The mature spermatozoon of N. mogurndae contains a single helicoidal crested body, one axoneme of the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan structure, parallel cortical microtubules arranged in a ring in the anterior region of the cell, and a spiraled nucleus encircling the axoneme. Intracellular components are situated in a moderately electron-dense cytoplasm, containing glycogen in the principal regions (II, III, IV) of the spermatozoon. Application of electron tomography has revealed a helicoidal nature of the central electron-dense core in the central cylinder of the axoneme in parasitic cestodes for the first time. The patterns of spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure resemble most closely those in mesocestoidids and may reflect the relationships between Nippotaeniidea and Mesocestoididae.

  4. [Phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis of flatfish species (Teleostei, Pleuronectiformes) inferred from the primary nucleotide sequence of cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (Co-1)].

    PubMed

    Sharina, S N; Kartavtsev, Iu F

    2010-03-01

    Seventeen nucleotide sequences of Co-1 gene from 13 Pleuronectiformes species and 2 Perciformes species served as the outgroup were examined. For divergence comparison, the initial stage involved calculation of pairwise p-distances for all investigated sequences. This allowed to evaluate the nucleotide diversity on four phylogenetically different levels: (1) intraspecific, (2) intrageneric, (3) intrafamilial, and (4) intraordinal. The values of p-distances for the Co-1 gene for the four mentioned categories were (1) 0.93 +/- 0.73%, (2) 11.72 +/- 1.86%, (3) 12.10 +/- 1.10%, and (4) 20.20 +/- 0.22%, respectively. An increase in the level of genetic divergence along with an enhancement in taxon rank was previously reported for different species, which might be explained by prevalence of geographic speciation model in nature. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using four approaches: maximum parsimony, Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining. These trees demonstrated similar results confirming the monophyletic origin of the families studied. The examined representatives of the flatfish species and genera were shown to be sufficiently divergent genetically.

  5. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear lesions in Channa punctatus following exposure to carbosulfan, glyphosate and atrazine.

    PubMed

    Nwani, Christopher Didigwu; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Pavan; Lakra, Wazir Singh

    2014-10-01

    The genotoxic effects of commonly used agricultural pesticides viz., carbosulfan, glyphosate, and atrazine, were evaluated in Channa punctatus (Pisces, Perciformes) using micronucleus (MN) test and induction of nuclear lesions (NL). The 96 h LC50 value were estimated by probit analysis as 0.27, 32.0 and 42.0 mg L(-1), respectively, for carbosulfan, glyphosate, and atrazine using semi-static bioassays. Based on these values, three sublethal test concentrations of carbosulfan (0.07, 0.13, 0.20 mg L(-1)), glyphosate (8.1, 16.3, 24.4 mg L(-1)) and atrazine (10.6, 21.2, 31.8 mg L(-1)) corresponding to ¼, ½ and ¾ of the LC50 of the pesticides respectively, were selected for exposure for 96 h. Peripheral blood samplings were taken at intervals of 24 h for assessment of MN and NL frequencies. Considerably higher genotoxic damage was induced by carbosulfan as compared to glyphosate and atrazine. There were significant effects (p < 0.01) of concentrations in all the treated groups. The induction of MN and NL was highest at 96 h pesticide exposure at all test concentrations. The nuclear abnormalities recorded in this study, such as blebbed-, lobed-, notched- and bi-nuclei, other than micronuclei, are indicators of genotoxic damage.

  6. Mitogenomic circumscription of a novel percomorph fish clade mainly comprising "Syngnathoidei" (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yeun; Mabuchi, Kohji; Satoh, Takashi P; Moore, Jon A; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2014-06-01

    Percomorpha, comprising about 60% of modern teleost fishes, has been described as the "(unresolved) bush at the top" of the tree, with its intrarelationships still being ambiguous owing to huge diversity (>15,000 species). Recent molecular phylogenetic studies based on extensive taxon and character sampling, however, have revealed a number of unexpected clades of Percomorpha, and one of which is composed of Syngnathoidei (seahorses, pipefishes, and their relatives) plus several groups distributed across three different orders. To circumscribe the clade more definitely, we sampled several candidate taxa with reference to the previous studies and newly determined whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences for 16 percomorph species across syngnathoids, dactylopterids, and their putatively closely-related fishes (Mullidae, Callionymoidei, Malacanthidae). Unambiguously aligned sequences (13,872 bp) from those 16 species plus 78 percomorphs and two outgroups (total 96 species) were subjected to partitioned Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The resulting trees revealed a highly supported clade comprising seven families in Syngnathoidei (Gasterosteiformes), Dactylopteridae (Scorpaeniformes), Mullidae in Percoidei and two families in Callionymoidei (Perciformes). We herein proposed to call this clade "Syngnathiformes" following the latest nuclear DNA studies with some revisions on the included families.

  7. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: the case of the Sorocaba River basin, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Smith, Welber Senteio; Petrere Júnior, Miguel; Barrella, Walter

    2003-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpio.

  8. Genetic identification of bucktooth parrotfish Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes, 1840) (Labridae, Scarinae) by chromosomal and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Paim, Fabilene Gomes; Brandão, José Henrique Souza Galdino; Sampaio, Iracilda; de Mello Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes; Diniz, Débora

    2014-10-01

    Parrotfishes (Labridae, Scarinae) comprise a large marine fish group of difficult identification, particularly during juvenile phase when the typical morphology and coloration of adults are absent. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test cytogenetic markers and DNA barcoding in the identification of bucktooth parrtotfish Sparisoma radians from the northeastern coast of Brazil. Sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) confirmed all studied samples as S. radians, and all showed high similarity (99-100%) with Caribbean populations. The karyotype of this species was divergent from most marine Perciformes, being composed of 2n = 46 chromosomes. These consisted of a large number of metacentric and submetacentric pairs with small amounts of heterochromatin and GC-rich single nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) not syntenic to 5S rDNA clusters. These are the first data about DNA barcoding in parrotfish from the Brazilian province and the first refined chromosomal analysis in Scarinae, providing useful data to a reliable genetic identification of S. radians.

  9. Genetic identification of bucktooth parrotfish Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes, 1840) (Labridae, Scarinae) by chromosomal and molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Paim, Fabilene Gomes; Brandão, José Henrique Souza Galdino; Sampaio, Iracilda; de Mello Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes; Diniz, Débora

    2014-01-01

    Parrotfishes (Labridae, Scarinae) comprise a large marine fish group of difficult identification, particularly during juvenile phase when the typical morphology and coloration of adults are absent. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test cytogenetic markers and DNA barcoding in the identification of bucktooth parrtotfish Sparisoma radians from the northeastern coast of Brazil. Sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) confirmed all studied samples as S. radians, and all showed high similarity (99–100%) with Caribbean populations. The karyotype of this species was divergent from most marine Perciformes, being composed of 2n = 46 chromosomes. These consisted of a large number of metacentric and submetacentric pairs with small amounts of heterochromatin and GC-rich single nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) not syntenic to 5S rDNA clusters. These are the first data about DNA barcoding in parrotfish from the Brazilian province and the first refined chromosomal analysis in Scarinae, providing useful data to a reliable genetic identification of S. radians. PMID:25505839

  10. Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families

    PubMed Central

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

  11. Nerocila benrosei n. sp. (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), an external parasite of hogfishes from the northern Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Bunkley-Williams, L; Williams, E H

    1999-12-01

    Nerocila benrosei n. sp. is described from the hogfish, Lachnolaimus maximus (Walbaum), and the Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus (Linnaeus), (Perciformes: Labridae) from the northern Bahamas. Nerocila benrosei differs from all species of Nerocila by having the body of females 1.4-1.9 times as wide as long, instead of 2.0-3.0 times, and pleopods 1 and 2 lacking accessory lamellae. It differs from the only species of Nerocila with which it overlaps geographically, N. lanceolata (Say, 1818), by having the lateral margins of pleonites 1-5 strongly produced ventrally, coxae 5-7 manifestly shorter than the posterolateral projection of the respective pereonite, and a vaulted dorsal surface. The species of Nerocila in the northwestern Atlantic have almost mutually exclusive geographic ranges: New England to Panama, including Bermuda and the northern coast of Cuba (Nerocila lanceolata); Brazil to Trinidad and Tobago (Nerocila fluviatilis Schiödte and Meinert, 1881); and the northern Bahamas and Bermuda (Nerocila benrosei). No species of Nerocila have been reported from the insular Caribbean. Nerocila benrosei appears to be highly host and site specific.

  12. Molecular performance of Prl and Gh/Igf1 axis in the Mediterranean meager, Argyrosomus regius, acclimated to different rearing salinities.

    PubMed

    Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; González, Antonio Astola; Suárez, Rubén Ayala; Galal-Khallaf, Asmaa; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Ibrahim, Hany Mohammed; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Aquaculture industry in the Mediterranean region exhibits a growing interest for the Mediterranean meager Argyrosomus regius. Some preliminary works showed a good growth performance of the species in nearly isosmotic salinities. However, the patterns of alteration of prolactin (Prl) as well as growth hormone (Gh)/insulin growth factor-1 (Igf1) axis at the molecular level are not yet described in this species. Therefore, we cloned and sequenced partial cDNAs for pituitary prolactin (prl) and growth hormone (gh), hepatic insulin-like growth factor (igf1), and β-actin (actb). Expression patterns of these transcripts were tested in juveniles of A. regius acclimated to four different environmental salinities: (1) 5 ‰ (hyposmotic); (2) 12 ‰ (isosmotic); (3) 38 ‰ (hyperosmotic; seawater control); and (4) 55 ‰ (extremely hyperosmotic). All investigated transcripts shared high sequence identities with their counterparts in other perciformes. prl mRNA levels showed inverse pattern with increasing salinities. gh mRNA enhanced significantly in both 12 and 55 ‰ salinity groups in comparison with the control group, while igf1 showed its maximum expression levels under the nearly isosmotic environment. The results indicated clear sensitivity of prl, gh and igf1 to changes in environmental salinity, which can possibly control the euryhalinity capacity of this species.

  13. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-25

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.

  14. Histopathology of a mesoparasitic hatschekiid copepod in hospite: does Mihbaicola sakamakii (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) fast within the host fish tissue?

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-08-01

    Mihbaicola sakamakii is a mesoparasitic copepod that infests the branchiostegal membranes of groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae). In this study, we observed M. sakamakii within host tissue. Histologically, copepods were found enclosed inside a pouch composed of the thickened epidermis of the host, tightly encased on all sides by the host epidermal pouch wall. There were no host blood cells or other food resources in the pouch lumen. Since the host epidermis was intact and continuous, even in the vicinity of the oral region of the parasite, the copepod would not have access to the host blood in this state. However, the stomach (ampullary part of the mid gut) was filled with granular components, the majority of which were crystalloids that likely originated from fish erythrocyte hemoglobin. We supposed that the parasite drinks blood exuded from the lesion in the fish caused by copepod entry into the host tissue. Invasion of the parasite may elicit immune responses in the host, but there were no traces on the copepod of any cellular immune reactions, such as encapsulation. The array of minute protuberances on the copepod cuticle surface may be involved in avoidance of cell adhesion. After the lesion has healed, the copepod is enclosed in a tough epidermal pouch, in which it gradually digests the contents of its stomach and continues egg production.

  15. Pleistocene desiccation in East Africa bottlenecked but did not extirpate the adaptive radiation of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Kathryn R; Reggio, Chiara; Wirth, Thierry; Verheyen, Erik; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2009-08-11

    The Great Lakes region of East Africa, including Lake Victoria, is the center of diversity of the mega-diverse cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Teleostei). Paleolimnological evidence indicates dramatic desiccation of this lake ca. 18,000-15,000 years ago. Consequently, the hundreds of extant endemic haplochromine species in the lake must have either evolved since then or refugia must have existed, within that lake basin or elsewhere, from which Lake Victoria was recolonized. We studied the population history of the Lake Victoria region superflock (LVRS) of haplochromine cichlids based on nuclear genetic analysis (12 microsatellite loci from 400 haplochomines) of populations from Lake Kivu, Lake Victoria, and the connected and surrounding rivers and lakes. Population genetic analyses confirmed that Lake Kivu haplochromines colonized Lake Victoria. Coalescent analyses show a 30- to 50-fold decline in the haplochromine populations of Lake Victoria, Lake Kivu, and the region ca. 18,000-15,000 years ago. We suggest that this coincides with drastic climatic and geological changes in the late Pleistocene. The most recent common ancestor of the Lake Victoria region haplochromines was estimated to have existed about 4.5 million years ago, which corresponds to the first radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and the origin of the tribe Haplochrominii. This relatively old evolutionary origin may explain the high levels of polymorphism still found in modern haplochromines. This degree of polymorphism might have acted as a "genetic reservoir" that permitted the explosive radiation of hundreds of haplochromines and their array of contemporary adaptive morphologies.

  16. A new species of Heterosentis Van Cleave, 1931 (Acanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of pinguipedid fishes in the southwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, Ana L; Timi, Juan T

    2011-02-01

    A new species of arhythmacanthid acanthocephalan, Heterosentis martini n. sp., parasitic in the Argentinean sandperch Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) (Perciformes, Pinguipedidae) from the coasts of Argentina is described. Heterosentis martini n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having 10 longitudinal rows of hooks in the proboscis, each with 7-8 hooks, consisting of 1 medium apical and 3 larger sub-apical hooks with root, and 3-4 smaller, basal, curved hooks with rudimentary roots and spines in both ventral and dorsal regions of the body. The most similar species, Heterosentis heteracanthus (Linstow, 1896) Van Cleave, 1931, and Heterosentis brasiliensis Vieira, Felizardo and Luque, 2009, also have 10 longitudinal rows of hooks, but H. heteracanthus differs from the new species by having only 3-5 (more frequently 4) hooks in each row, with only the anterior hook large and bearing a developed root. Heterosentis brasiliensis differs from the new species by possessing 2 sub-apical hooks in each row (instead of 3), similar body length but shorter proboscis, and trunk spines restricted to the ventral surface of body.

  17. Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species.

  18. Relative Brain and Brain Part Sizes Provide Only Limited Evidence that Machiavellian Behaviour in Cleaner Wrasse Is Cognitively Demanding.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Dominika; Isler, Karin; Barski, Jaroslaw Jerzy; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently widely accepted that the complexity of a species' social life is a major determinant of its brain complexity, as predicted by the social brain hypothesis. However, it remains a challenge to explain what social complexity exactly is and what the best corresponding measures of brain anatomy are. Absolute and relative size of the brain and of the neocortex have often been used as a proxy to predict cognitive performance. Here, we apply the logic of the social brain hypothesis to marine cleaning mutualism involving the genus Labroides. These wrasses remove ectoparasites from 'client' reef fish. Conflict occurs as wrasse prefer client mucus over ectoparasites, where mucus feeding constitutes cheating. As a result of this conflict, cleaner wrasse show remarkable Machiavellian-like behaviour. Using own data as well as available data from the literature, we investigated whether the general brain anatomy of Labroides provides any indication that their Machiavellian behaviour is associated with a more complex brain. Neither data set provided evidence for an increased encephalisation index compared to other wrasse species. Published data on relative sizes of brain parts in 25 species of the order Perciformes suggests that only the diencephalon is relatively enlarged in Labroides dimidiatus. This part contains various nuclei of the social decision making network. In conclusion, gross brain anatomy yields little evidence for the hypothesis that strategic behaviour in cleaning selects for larger brains, while future research should focus on more detailed aspects like the sizes of specific nuclei as well as their cryoarchitectonic structure and connectivity.

  19. A new species of Heteronybelinia (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from Sympterygia bonapartii (Rajidae), Nemadactylus bergi (Cheilodactylidae) and Raneya brasiliensis (Ophidiidae) in the south-western Atlantic, with comments on host specificity of the genus.

    PubMed

    Menoret, A; Ivanov, V A

    2013-12-01

    Adults and plerocercoids of a new species of Heteronybelinia (Trypanorhyncha, Tentaculariidae) were recovered from the skate Sympterygia bonapartii (Rajiformes: Rajidae) and two species of teleosts, Raneya brasiliensis (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae) and Nemadactylus bergi (Perciformes: Cheilodactylidae), respectively. Heteronybelinia mattisi n. sp. differs from its congeners in its possession of a tentacular armature consisting of hooks with slight differences in size and shape on opposite surfaces of the tentacle (uncinate with rounded bases on the bothrial surface and uncinate with elongate bases on the antibothrial surface), without a characteristic basal armature, hooks increasing in size toward the tip of the tentacles, and pars bothrialis slightly overlapping with bulbs. The description of Heteronybelinia is emended regarding the distribution of testes to include species without postovarian testes (H. palliata and H. mattisi), and without testes anterior to cirrus sac on the poral side (H. robusta and H. mattisi). Host data are summarized for all 15 valid species of Heteronybelinia. Host specificity of adults and plerocercoids of Heteronybelinia is variable among species, the adults being more host specific than the plerocercoids. With the exception of H. mattisi, the definitive hosts of all species of Heteronybelinia for which adults are known include carcharhiniform sharks. Heteronybelinia mattisi seems to have oioxenous specificity for its definitive batoid host, S. bonapartii, and to be more specific for the intermediate hosts than most of its congeners.

  20. Molecular phylogenetics of sculpins of the subfamily Oligocottinae (Cottidae).

    PubMed

    Buser, Thaddaeus J; Andrés López, J

    2015-05-01

    The sculpin subfamily Oligocottinae includes 18-20 species of nearshore benthic fishes with a diverse array of reproductive strategies. As a first step toward understanding the evolution of that diversity, we conducted a phylogenetic study based on DNA sequences from eight genomic regions from 31 sculpin species aimed at testing monophyly and relationships of the Oligocottinae. Representatives from the perciform families Agonidae, Cottidae, Hemitripteridae, Hexagrammidae, Psychrolutidae, and Rhamphocottidae served as outgroups. The sequence data were analyzed in maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference frameworks. Results of these analyses show that a systematic revision of the group is warranted. The genus Clinocottus is a polyphyletic assemblage of three distinct lineages, which should be indicated by resurrection of the subgenera Blennicottus, Clinocottus, and Oxycottus; Leiocottus hirundo is more closely related to Clinocottus analis than C. analis is related to any other member of Clinocottus; the composition of the tribe Oligocottini should be revised to include only the genera Oligocottus, Clinocottus, and Orthonopias; and the genus Sigmistes should be removed from the subfamily Oligocottinae.

  1. Nematode parasites of four species of Carangoides (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in New Caledonian waters, with a description of Philometra dispar n. sp. (Philometridae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. PMID:27615321

  2. Hierarchical analysis of taxonomic variation in intraspecific competition across fish species.

    PubMed

    Foss-Grant, Andrew P; Zipkin, Elise F; Thorson, James T; Jensen, Olaf P; Fagan, William F

    2016-07-01

    The nature and intensity of intraspecific competition can vary greatly among taxa, yet similarities in these interactions can lead to similar population dynamics among related organisms. Variation along the spectrum of intraspecific competition, with contest and scramble competition as endpoints, leads to vastly different responses to population density. Here we investigated the diversity of intraspecific competition among fish species, predicting that functional forms of density-dependent reproduction would be conserved in related taxa. Using a hierarchical model that links stock-recruitment parameters among populations, species, and orders, we found that the strength of overcompensation, and therefore the type of intraspecific competition, is tightly clustered within taxonomic groupings, as species within an order share similar degrees of compensation. Specifically, species within the orders Salmoniformes and Pleuronectiformes exhibited density dependence indicative of scramble competition (overcompensation) while the orders Clupeiformes, Gadiformes, Perciformes, and Scorpaeniformes exhibited dynamics consistent with contest competition (compensation). Maximum potential recruitment also varied among orders, but with less clustering across species. We also tested whether stock-recruitment parameters correlated with maximum body length among species, but found no strong relationship. Our results suggest that much of the variation in the form of density-dependent reproduction among fish species may be predicted taxonomically due to evolved life history traits and reproductive behaviors.

  3. A new genus and species of philometrid (Nematoda) from the subcutaneous tissue of the crevalle jack, Caranx hippos (Osteichthyes), from the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Montoya-Mendoza, Jesús; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2008-12-01

    A new genus and species of nematode, Caranginema americanum n. gen., n. sp. (Philometridae), are described from gravid, subgravid, and nongravid female specimens collected from the subcutaneous tissue of the fish (crevalle jack) Caranx hippos (Carangidae, Perciformes) from the coral reef El Cabezo, southern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. Caranginema, assigned to the Philometrinae, differs from other genera of this subfamily mainly in the presence of 2 conspicuous parallel cordons on either side, extending along nearly the entire body length and demarcating narrow smooth lateral fields and in having the remaining body surface with numerous ornamentations forming irregularly scattered, transversely elongated narrow cuticular molds. The new species is characterized mainly by the presence of 3 large, sclerotized esophageal teeth protruded out of the mouth, the number and arrangement of cephalic papillae (8 papillae in 4 pairs of external circle and 4 single papillae of internal circle), the length and structure of the esophagus, and by the body length of gravid and subgravid females (267 and 258 mm, respectively). Caranginema americanum is the seventh philometrid species reported from marine and brackish water fishes in Mexico.

  4. Two new gonad-infecting philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Serranidae) and the great northern tilefish Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps (Malacanthidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2013-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine perciform fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. hyporthodi n. sp. from the ovary of the yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Poey) (Serranidae) and P. lopholatili n. sp. from the ovary of the great northern tilefish Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps Goode & Bean (Malacanthidae). Philometra hyporthodi is mainly characterised by the body length of both the males (3.62-4.07 mm) and gravid female (105 mm), the length of the spicules (135-138 μm) and the presence of dorsal transverse lamella-like structures on the distal portion of the gubernaculum. Philometra lopholatili is distinguished by the presence of a distinct dorsal protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellated parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, an uninterrupted mound on the male caudal extremity, the length of the spicules (165-189 μm) and the body length of the males (2.19-2.34 mm) and gravid female (280 mm). Philometra lopholatili is the first representative of the genus and the second philometrid species reported from fishes of the family Malacanthidae.

  5. Growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) was localized in the female as well as male germ cells in a protogynous hermaphroditic teleost fish, ricefield eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi; Wu, Yangsheng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Taixin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) superfamily. As an oocyte-derived growth factor, GDF9 plays key roles in regulating follicle development. In the present study, we identified a gdf9 homologue from the ovary of ricefield eel, and analyzed its expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. Ricefield eel Gdf9 showed high homologies with those of other teleosts, especially perciformes fish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that ricefield eel gdf9 was expressed exclusively in the ovary and testis. The mRNA levels of gdf9 in the ovary were increased significantly at the pre-vitellogenic (PV) stage and then decreased significantly along with vitellogenesis. During the natural sex change, expression of ricefield eel gdf9 was peaked at the intersexual stages. The immunoreactivity for Gdf9 was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm of the oocytes in the ovary, particularly the oocytes at early stages, but not in the oogonia. Interestingly, strong immunoreactive signals were also detected in the degenerating oocytes in the intersexual gonad. Furthermore, the Gdf9 immunoreactivity was demonstrated for the first time to be localized in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes of ricefield eel, a teleost fish. Taken together, the results of present study suggested that Gdf9 may play important roles in the folliculogenesis as well as spermatogenesis in ricefield eels.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cherskii's sculpin (Cottus czerskii) (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae).

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomin; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Shuai; Xu, Chunzhu

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Cherskii's sculpin (Cottus czerskii) is determined using long PCR. The genome is 16,534 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (26.4%), C (30.1%), T (26.1%) and G (17.5%). The control region is 857 bp in length and the A + T content of the region is 61.5%. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of Cherskii's sculpin. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees, indicating a close phylogenetic affinity of the 21 Actinopterygii species. It appears that no less than two major phyletic lineages were present in Actinopterygii. The main clades within the Perciformes and Scorpaeniformes supported are: a clade including the Scombridae, Kyphosidae and Percichthyidae; a clade (Cottidae) with the Trichodontidae as the sister taxon to Pholidae, Anarhichadidae and Zoarcidae, which was supported by bootstrap values of 92%. The five Cottus species formed a paraphyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100%) in all examinations.

  7. Biologically meaningful expression profiling across species using heterologous hybridization to a cDNA microarray

    PubMed Central

    Renn, Susan CP; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Hofmann, Hans A

    2004-01-01

    Background Unravelling the path from genotype to phenotype, as it is influenced by an organism's environment, is one of the central goals in biology. Gene expression profiling by means of microarrays has become very prominent in this endeavour, although resources exist only for relatively few model systems. As genomics has matured into a comparative research program, expression profiling now also provides a powerful tool for non-traditional model systems to elucidate the molecular basis of complex traits. Results Here we present a microarray constructed with ~4500 features, derived from a brain-specific cDNA library for the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni (Perciformes). Heterologous hybridization, targeting RNA to an array constructed for a different species, is used for eight different fish species. We quantified the concordance in gene expression profiles across these species (number of genes and fold-changes). Although most robust when target RNA is derived from closely related species (<10 MA divergence time), our results showed consistent profiles for other closely related taxa (~65 MA divergence time) and, to a lesser extent, even very distantly related species (>200 MA divergence time). Conclusion This strategy overcomes some of the restrictions imposed on model systems that are of importance for evolutionary and ecological studies, but for which only limited sequence information is available. Our work validates the use of expression profiling for functional genomics within a comparative framework and provides a foundation for the molecular and cellular analysis of complex traits in a wide range of organisms. PMID:15238158

  8. Diversity of planktonic fish larvae along a latitudinal gradient in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean estimated through DNA barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Morote, Elvira; Kochzius, Marc; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Mid-trophic pelagic fish are essential components of marine ecosystems because they represent the link between plankton and higher predators. Moreover, they are the basis of the most important fisheries resources; for example, in African waters. In this study, we have sampled pelagic fish larvae in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal gradient between 37°N and 2°S. We have employed Bongo nets for plankton sampling and sorted visually fish and fish larvae. Using the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) as a DNA barcode, we have identified 44 OTUs down to species level that correspond to 14 families, with Myctophidae being the most abundant. A few species were cosmopolitan and others latitude-specific, as was expected. The latitudinal pattern of diversity did not exhibit a temperate-tropical cline; instead, it was likely correlated with environmental conditions with a decline in low-oxygen zones. Importantly, gaps and inconsistencies in reference DNA databases impeded accurate identification to the species level of 49% of the individuals. Fish sampled from tropical latitudes and some orders, such as Perciformes, Myctophiformes and Stomiiformes, were largely unidentified due to incomplete references. Some larvae were identified based on morphology and COI analysis for comparing time and costs employed from each methodology. These results suggest the need of reinforcing DNA barcoding reference datasets of Atlantic bathypelagic tropical fish that, as main prey of top predators, are crucial for ecosystem-based management of fisheries resources. PMID:27761307

  9. Distribution pattern of crustacean ectoparasites of freshwater fish from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Dias-Júnior, Miguel Benedito Ferreira; Florentino, Alexandro Cezar; Silva, Luís Mauricio Abdon; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the informations relating to parasite crustaceans species that was published over the course of one century (1913 to 2013), in order to search for infestation and distribution patterns among these ectoparasites in Brazilian freshwater fish species. This search was carried out on 445 samples of 119 host fish of 27 families within the orders Characiformes, Perciformes, Clupeiformes, Mugiliformes, Osteoglossiformes, Symbranchiformes, Tetraodontiformes and Siluriformes from various regions of Brazil. We organized different host-parasite systems into matrices grouping species at different taxonomic and infestation levels and according to host parameters. Five families of parasites (Ergasilidae, Argulidae, Lernaeidae, Lernaeopodidae and Cymothoidae) distributed into 76 species of 27 genera were analyzed in the host samples, which presented dominance of Ergasilidae species, mainly from the genus Ergasilus. Some crustaceans are host and site-specific, especially in relation to fish in particular habitats and lifestyles (e.g. Perulernaea gamitanae, Anphira branchialis and Riggia paranensis), while other parasites frequently have no preference (e.g. Lernaea cyprinacea and Braga patagonica). We found broadly similar distribution patterns for some crustacean species among the different localities, whereas other species showed well-defined geographical patterns, and these findings were discussed.

  10. Inheritance patterns of morphological laterality in mouth opening of zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Hata, Hiroki; Hori, Michio

    2012-01-01

    The inheritance patterns of asymmetry in mouth opening in zebrafish were investigated using crossing experiments. Zebrafish exhibit asymmetric laterality in mouth opening, with each individual having either a leftward (righty) or rightward (lefty) bias. All righty incrosses produced only righty F(1), whereas all lefty incrosses resulted in an F(1) L:R ratio of 2:1. All test crosses between lefty and righty individuals resulted in an F(1) L:R=1:1. These results were consistent with the hereditary pattern for Japanese medaka, three Tanganyikan cichlids, and a Japanese riverine goby. The pattern suggests a one-locus two-allele Mendelian model of inheritance, with the lefty allele being dominant over righty and the dominant homozygote being lethal. To determine the reason for the absence of lefty homozygotes, the survival rates of the offspring were examined according to developmental stage. Survival did not differ among combinations of parent laterality. Thus the mechanism underlying the lethality of the dominant homozygote remains unclear. This study showed that the mouth-opening laterality of zebrafish is genetically determined and that the direction follows a Mendelian inheritance pattern that is shared among cypriniform zebrafish, beloniform medaka, perciform cichlids, and a goby, suggesting a common genetic background in mouth-opening laterality among these species.

  11. Development of predictive models for predicting binding affinity of endocrine disrupting chemicals to fish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Yang, Xianhai; Yin, Cen; Wei, Mengbi; He, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). In the modeling, the relative binding affinity (RBA) of a chemical with 17β-estradiol binding to fSHBG was selected as the endpoint. Classification models were developed for two fish species, while QSAR models were established for the other six fish species. Statistical results indicated that the models had satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability, and that application domain covered a large number of endogenous and exogenous steroidal and non-steroidal chemicals. Additionally, by comparing the log RBA values, it was found that the same chemical may have different affinities for fSHBG from different fish species, thus species diversity should be taken into account. However, the affinity of fSHBG showed a high correlation for fishes within the same Order (i.e., Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes), thus the fSHBG binding data for one fish species could be used to extrapolate other fish species in the same Order.

  12. A RAD-tag genetic map for the platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) reveals mechanisms of karyotype evolution among teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3-40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24-25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ∼120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ∼195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years.

  13. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of the parasite Henneguya carolina sp. nov. (Myxozoa), from the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, S; Casal, G; Garcia, P; Matos, E; Al-Quraishy, S; Azevedo, C

    2014-12-02

    Microscopic and molecular procedures are used to describe a new myxosporean species, Henneguya carolina sp. nov., found infecting the intestine of the marine teleost fish Trachinotus carolinus on the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil. Spherical to ellipsoid cysts, measuring up to ~750 µm, display synchronous development. Mature myxospores are ellipsoidal with a bifurcated caudal process. Myxospore body length, width, and thickness are 12.7 ± 0.8 (12.0-13.4) µm, 8.8 ± 0.6 (7.5-9.6) µm, and 5.8 ± 0.4 (5.0-6.4) µm, respectively; 2 equal caudal processes are 16.8 ± 1.1 (15.9-18.0) µm long, and the total myxospore length is 29.4 ± 0.8 (28.4-30.4) µm. Two pyriform polar capsules measure 5.0 ± 0.5 (4.6-5.6) × 2.4 ± 0.4 (1.9-2.9) µm, and each contains a polar filament forming 3 to 4 coils. Sporoplasm is binucleated and presents a spherical vacuole surrounded by numerous globular sporoplasmosomes. Molecular analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene by maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and maximum likelihood reveals the parasite clustering together with other myxobolids that are histozoic in marine fish of the order Perciformes, thereby strengthening the contention that the host phylogenetic relationships and aquatic environment are the strongest evolutionary signal for myxosporeans of the family Myxobolidae.

  14. Molecular phylogeny and host specificity of the larval Eustrongylides (Nematoda: Dioctophmidae) from freshwater fish in China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fan; Li, Wen X; Wu, Shan G; Zou, Hong; Wang, Gui T

    2013-02-01

    The nematodes Eustrongylides spp. collected from different fish species in China were examined for their intra- and interspecific evolutionary variations using the molecular markers mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA regions. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Eustrongylides species are divided into 3 well-supported clades. The ITS divergence between the clades suggested that clades 2 and 3 might represent the same species, whereas clade 1 represent another cryptic species. The host specificity of these nematodes was analyzed according to prevalence data, host range, and phylogenetic information. Clade 1 was found in 4 fish species, i.e., Odontobutis obscurus, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus, and Acanthogobius flavimanus, but was predominant in the 2 perciform species, O. obscurus and A. flavimanus. Clade 2 was found in 3 fish species, Monopterus albus, Channa argus, and Channa asiatica, but was predominant in M. albus, reported to feed primarily on oligochaetes, the first intermediate host of Eustrongylides sp. Clade 3 was found in 9 species, but its low prevalence suggests accidental infection in all species. Although the larval nematode presented low host specificity, it exhibited some host preference.

  15. Fish assemblage structure of the Ipanema River, a small lotic environment partially protected by a Conservation Unit in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A K; Apone, F; Birindelli, J L O; Garavello, J C

    2013-05-01

    A study on the fish assemblage of the Ipanema River, a small affluent of the Tietê River basin in southeastern Brazil, was performed aiming to look for structural patterns of species diversity in small lowland lotic environments. Fish samplings were performed every two months from June 2003 to April 2004 at four sample sites located on the lower stretch of the river. Local assemblage showed to be species rich, with fifty-two species belonging to Characiformes (25 spp.), Siluriformes (19 spp.), Cyprinodontiformes (3 spp.), Gymnotiformes (2 spp.), Perciformes (2 spp.), and Synbranchiformes (1 sp.). Fish fauna was composed of small-sized species (<200 mm SL) and by individuals of medium (up to 400 mm SL) to large (more than 400 mm SL) sized species. The Ipanema River, such as other small lotic transitional environments in the upper Paraná River drainage, is considered important for conservation of fish fauna because they cover available habitats for persistent populations of small-sized species and for non-persistent individuals or shoals of medium and large-sized fish species, which occupy other habitats along their life-history (e. g. floodplains, oxbow lakes, main channel of great rivers). The importance of the Ipanema River basin for fish fauna conservation is also reinforced by the fact that it is located in a highly impacted region of southeastern Brazil, near the São Paulo metropolitan area.

  16. A new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the Atlantic Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus (Scombridae) off the Atlantic Coast of Florida and South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah; de Buron, Isaure

    2013-04-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra atlantica n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens found in the ovary of the Atlantic Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill) (Scombridae, Perciformes), off the Atlantic coast of Florida and South Carolina. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species differs from most other gonad-infecting Philometra spp. in the length of spicules (111-126 μm), number and arrangement of genital papillae, and a U-shaped, dorsally interrupted caudal mound in the male. A unique feature among all gonad-infecting philometrids is the presence of 2 reflexed dorsal barbs on the distal end of the gubernaculum. From a few congeneric, gonad-infecting species with unknown males, it can be distinguished by some morphological and biometrical features found in gravid females (body length, length of first-stage larvae or esophagus, structure of caudal end) and by the host type (fish family) and geographical distribution. Philometra atlantica is the fourth valid gonad-infecting species of Philometra reported from fishes of the family Scombridae.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of gonadotropin subunits (GTHα, FSHβ and LHβ) and their regulation by hCG and GnRHa in Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chi, Mei L; Ni, Meng; Li, Ji F; He, Feng; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Pei; Chai, Sen H; Wen, Hai S

    2015-06-01

    In this study, three cDNA sequences encoding common glycoprotein α subunit (GTHα), follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (FSHβ) and luteinizing hormone β subunit (LHβ) were isolated from Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with other gonadotropic hormones (GTHs) indicated that their cysteine residues and potential N-linked glycosylation sites were highly conserved, and high homology with those of other perciformes was showed in phylogenetic analysis. GTHs transcripts were present highly in the pituitary and brain and weakly in testis and other tissues. During testicular development, GTHs transcriptional levels in pituitary and brain (expect FSHβ subunit in brain) were significantly increased at spermiation period, stage V. Subsequently, the effects of hCG and GnRHa on the mRNA levels of GTHs subunits were examined. In brain, both hormones were detected to improve the expression of GTHα subunit mRNA. In pituitary, three GTHs subunits increased parallelly and abruptly in two hormone treatment groups. In testis, hCG was suggested to improve three GTHs subunits expression in Japanese sea bass for the first time. These results suggest that both gonadotropins are probably involved in the control of Japanese sea bass spermatogenesis and provide a framework for better understanding of the mechanisms of hormone-mediated reproduction control in Japanese sea bass and other teleosts.

  18. Description of free-living marine nematodes found in the intestine of fishes from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, Joaquín; Ruiz-Cuenca, Alba N; Fernandes, Berenice M M; Cohen, Simone C; Cárdenas, Melissa Q

    2015-04-22

    The marine nematodes usually comprise free-living species, although a few are parasitic. However, several cases of free-living nematodes found accidentally in the digestive tract of certain vertebrates, especially fishes, have sometimes been recorded and categorized as pseudoparasites. In the present work, two species of marine fishes, the rhomboid crappie, Diapterus rhombeus, and the silvered crappie, Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), from Angra dos Reis on the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were examined. Seven species of free-living marine nematodes were found in the digestive tract of these fish. Several of these species remain unknown as free-living forms in Brazil. The combination of the fish feeding strategies and the poor preservation of the body of the nematode specimens found could indicate that these nematodes are pseudoparasites, appearing in the fishes' digestive tracts through accidental ingestion and thereafter surviving for brief periods of time. Descriptions, illustrations and tables of measurements are provided for all species. Six of these species (Croconema torquens, Dorylaimopsis pellucida, Oncholaimellus labiatus, Parodontophora breviamphida, Prooncholaimus ornatus, Trissonchulus latus) have been reported for the first time from the Brazilian coast.

  19. A RAD-Tag Genetic Map for the Platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) Reveals Mechanisms of Karyotype Evolution Among Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Nanda, Indrajit; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ron; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian genomes can vary substantially in haploid chromosome number even within a small taxon (e.g., 3–40 among deer alone); in contrast, teleost fish genomes are stable (24–25 in 58% of teleosts), but we do not yet understand the mechanisms that account for differences in karyotype stability. Among perciform teleosts, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) both have 24 chromosome pairs, but threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) have just 21 pairs. To understand the evolution of teleost genomes, we made a platyfish meiotic map containing 16,114 mapped markers scored on 267 backcross fish. We tiled genomic contigs along the map to create chromosome-length genome assemblies. Genome-wide comparisons of conserved synteny showed that platyfish and medaka karyotypes remained remarkably similar with few interchromosomal translocations but with numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements (transpositions and inversions) since their lineages diverged ∼120 million years ago. Comparative genomics with platyfish shows how reduced chromosome numbers in stickleback and green pufferfish arose by fusion of pairs of ancestral chromosomes after their lineages diverged from platyfish ∼195 million years ago. Zebrafish and human genomes provide outgroups to root observed changes. These studies identify likely genome assembly errors, characterize chromosome fusion events, distinguish lineage-independent chromosome fusions, show that the teleost genome duplication does not appear to have accelerated the rate of translocations, and reveal the stability of syntenies and gene orders in teleost chromosomes over hundreds of millions of years. PMID:24700104

  20. Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.

    2014-01-01

    Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558

  1. Genomic cloning and promoter functional analysis of myostatin-2 in shi drum, Umbrina cirrosa: conservation of muscle-specific promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Nadjar-Boger, Elisabeth; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Radaelli, Giuseppe; Funkenstein, Bruria

    2013-02-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-ß superfamily, known as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. In contrast to mammals, fish possess at least two paralogs of MSTN: MSTN-1 and MSTN-2. Here we describe the cloning and sequence analysis of spliced and precursor (unspliced) transcripts as well as the 5' flanking region of MSTN-2 from the marine fish Umbrina cirrosa (ucMSTN-2). In silico analysis revealed numerous putative cis regulatory elements including several E-boxes known as binding sites to myogenic transcription factors. Transient transfection experiments using non-muscle and muscle cell lines showed high transcriptional activity in muscle cells and in differentiated neural cells, in accordance with our previous findings in MSTN-2 promoter from Sparus aurata. Comparative informatics analysis of MSTN-2 from several fish species revealed high conservation of the predicted amino acid sequence as well as the gene structure (exon length) although intron length varied between species. The proximal promoter of MSTN-2 gene was found to be conserved among Perciforms. In conclusion, this study reinforces our conclusion that MSTN-2 promoter is a very strong promoter, especially in muscle cells. In addition, we show that the MSTN-2 gene structure is highly conserved among fishes as is the predicted amino acid sequence of the peptide.

  2. Demersal Fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddeek, M. S. M.; Fouda, M. M.; Hermosa, G. V.

    1999-08-01

    The demersal fisheries of the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf are reviewed. The region comprises eight countries: Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran. Over 350 commercial fish species, eight shrimp species, two spiny lobster species, one shovel nose lobster species, one cuttlefish species, one crab species, and one abalone species support the demersal fisheries in the continental shelves of the three regions. Artisanal and industrial vessels with over 120 000 fishermen were involved in demersal fisheries. Fishing boats include fish and shrimp trawlers (wooden and steel hulled), large wooden boats (dhow) with inboard engines, small dhows with outboard engines, and fibreglass boats. Fishing gear consists of trawls, bottom gill nets, traps (wire mesh and plastic types), barrier traps, hand lines, and bare hands and knives (to dislodge abalone). Demersal fish (primarily Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Serranidae, Siganidae, Sciaenidae, Stromateidae, Lutjanidae, Trichiuridae, and Nemipteridae) and shrimp (primarily Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, and Penaeus merguiensis) were the two commercial demersal resources. Approximately 198 000-214 000 tonnes (t) of demersals were landed annually during 1988-1993, accounting for nearly 40% of the total marine landings (475 000-552 000 t). This percentage, however varied among countries: 25% in Oman, 32% in U.A.E., 71% in Qatar, 52% in Saudi Arabia, 56% in Bahrain, 55% in Kuwait, close to 100% in Iraq, and 41% in Iran. Fishing effort on certain stocks may have been below the optimum level (e.g. certain Omani demersal fish), near the optimum level (e.g. Omani shrimp), or above the optimum level (e.g. Arabian Gulf shrimp and demersal fish). Overexploitation led to restriction of fishing effort by limiting fishing licences, regulating fishing gear (mesh size) and capture size, closing fishing areas, restricting fishing season, and

  3. Do juveniles of the estuarine-dependent dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, exhibit optimum growth indices at reduced salinities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernatzeder, Andrea K.; Cowley, Paul D.; Hecht, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The natural distribution of early juvenile (<150 mm TL) dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae) along the east coast of South Africa appears to be restricted to the reduced salinity upper reaches of estuaries. This study experimentally tested the effect of salinity on growth indices in an attempt to explain the estuarine distribution of early juvenile A. japonicus. Growth under laboratory conditions was used as an indicator of relative energy expenditure for osmoregulation at salinities 5 (hypoosmotic), 12 (isosmotic) and 35 (hyperosmotic), as energy used for osmoregulation becomes unavailable for growth. Juveniles (81 ± 1.5 mm SL and 9.6 ± 0.5 g) survived and grew at all three salinities over a nine-week period. Contrary to what was hypothesised, growth of juveniles increased with increasing salinity (average weight 35.57 ± 1.50 g, 42.31 ± 2.70 g and 48.86 ± 1.30 g for the 5, 12 and 35 treatments respectively), with specific growth rate of juveniles at the hypoosmotic salinity (2.05 ± 0.15) significantly lower than at isosmotic (2.52 ± 0.09) and hyperosmotic salinities (2.59 ± 0.09). Food conversion ratio was significantly higher at the hypoosmotic (1.30 ± 0.28) than the hyperosmotic salinity (0.94 ± 0.05), but there was no difference between the isosmotic (1.01 ± 0.08) and hyperosmotic salinity. Salinity did not affect condition factor (range: 2.67 ± 0.03-2.75 ± 0.10) or feed intake (range: 2.43 ± 0.17-2.75 ± 0.53). The results, in part, indicated that early juvenile A. japonicus expend more energy at salinities below isosmotic levels and that salinity alone does not explain their natural distribution within estuaries. It is possible that high conductivity in the upper reaches of certain South African estuaries may mitigate the negative effect of reduced salinity on growth and hence the estuarine distribution of early juveniles.

  4. Constraints on torsion from the bosonic sector of Lorentz violation and magnetogenesis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    2011-06-01

    A. Kostelecky et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 111102], have shown that there is an exceptional sensitivity of spacetime torsion components by coupling it to fermions and constraining it to Lorentz violation. They obtain new constraints on torsion components down to the level of 10 GeV. Yet more recently, L.C. Garcia de Andrade [Phys. Lett. B 468 (2011) 28] has shown that the photon sector of Lorentz violation (LV) Lagrangian leads to linear non-standard Maxwell equations where the magnetic field decays slower giving rise to a seed for galactic dynamos. In this paper bounds are placed on torsion based on the magnetogenesis or the origin of magnetic fields in the universe. On a coherence scale of 10 kpc, galactic magnetic fields of the order of some μG yield a torsion primordial field of the order of K≈10 GeV. Just to give an idea of how tiny it is we mention that torsion limit in the Early universe yield K≈10 GeV had been obtained by V. de Sabbata and C. Sivaram. Good limits were also obtained by B.R. Heckel et al. [Phys. Rev. D 78 (2008) 092006]. In our case the advantage from astro-particle physics point of view, is that a very small seed torsion field is enough to seed galactic dynamo. C. Sivaram limit is obtained from a massive photon electrodynamics [L.C. Garcia de Andrade, C. Sivaram, Ap. Space Sci. 209 (1993) 109] where a gauge invariant electrodynamics is used. Dynamo stars data are able to raise this value of torsion up to 10 GeV at magnetar atmosphere. From these estimates one notices that they coincide with the ones obtained by A. Kostelecky et al., the difference being basically in the method. The ones here were obtained from magnetogenesis data while theirs were obtained from the Earth laboratory data from polarised electrons. Besides here one used the torsion derivatives while A. Kostelecky et al. uses the constant axial torsion tensor. Another fundamental distinction is that we use bosonic sector of the Lagrangian while they use mainly

  5. Use of arsenic and REE in black shales as potential environmental tracers in hydraulic fracturing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Torres, M. E.; Haley, B. A.; McKay, J. L.; Algeo, T. J.; Hakala, A.; Joseph, C.; Edenborn, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Black shales commonly targeted for shale gas development were deposited under low oxygen concentrations, and typically contain high As levels. The depositional environment governs its solid-phase association in the sediment, which in turn will influence degree of remobilization during hydraulic fracturing. Organic carbon (OC), trace element (TE) and REE distributions have been used as tracers for assessing deep water redox conditions at the time of deposition in the Midcontinent Sea of North America (Algeo and Heckel, 2008), during large-scale oceanic anoxic events (e.g., Bunte, 2009) and in modern OC-rich sediments underlying coastal upwelling areas (e.g., Brumsack, 2006). We will present REE and As data from a collection of six different locations in the continental US (Kansas, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kentucky, North Dakota and Pennsylvania), ranging in age from Devonian to Upper Pennsylvanian, and from a Cretaceous black shale drilled on the Demerara Rise during ODP Leg 207. We interpret our data in light of the depositional framework previously developed for these locations based on OC and TE patterns, to document the mechanisms leading to REE and As accumulation, and explore their potential use as environmental proxies and their diagenetic remobilization during burial, as part of our future goal to develop a predictive evaluation of arsenic release from shales and transport with flowback waters. Total REE abundance (ΣREE) ranged from 35 to 420 ppm in an organic rich sample from Stark shale, KS. PAAS-normalized REE concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 7, with the highest enrichments observed in the MREE (Sm to Ho). Neither the ΣREE nor the MREE enrichments correlated with OC concentrations or postulated depositional redox conditions, suggesting a principal association with aluminosilicates and selective REE fractionation during diagenesis. In the anoxic reducing environments in which black shales were deposited, sulfide minerals such as FeS2 trap aqueous arsenic in the

  6. An investigation of the physico-mechanical properties of pharmaceutical compounds by compaction simulator and nano-indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordawekar, Mangesh

    In early development, pharmaceutical formulation scientists are often faced with challenges of developing robust and scalable formulations in extremely stringent timelines based on limited API quantities. Hence, tablet formulation development would benefit significantly from tools that enable predictive analysis based on limited quantities of API to enable selection of excipients with appropriate physico-mechanical properties that would result in robust and scalable formulations. With the recent technological advances, especially in sensor technologies, tools such as the compaction simulator, and instrumented nanoindentation offer hitherto unavailable means of assessing material properties with limited quantities. The goal of this work was to evaluate the physico-mechanical properties of selected pharmaceutical excipients and active pharmaceutical ingredients using a macro-scale analysis technique (compaction simulator), and a micro-scale analysis technique (nanoindentation tester) and compare the results obtained from these techniques in order to determine whether a rank order correlation exists between the two. Excipients representing diverse physic-mechanical properties, and a group of APIs were selected for the study. For the compaction simulator studies, tablets were uniaxially compressed using a flat faced 11.28mm round tooling on the STYLCAM® 200R compaction simulator, to a target final porosity at two different cam speeds (5 rpm and 25 rpm). The force displacement profiles, plastic, elastic, and total compression energies, plasticity index, energy density and the Heckel plots were determined for each compact. These compacts were further analyzed with a Berkovich geometry indenter. The plasticity index, hardness, elastic modulus, as well as creep and relaxation were determined from the force-displacement profiles. The nature of force-displacement curves was studied to differentiate compounds based on predominant mechanisms of deformation. Compaction

  7. Aluminium Diffusion in MgSiO3 Perovskite and Majoritic Garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, N.; Marton, F. C.; Frost, D. J.; Langenhorst, F. H.; Rubie, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    The diffusion of Al in majoritic garnet (mj-gt) and aluminous silicate perovskite (pv) plays an important role in the chemical heterogeneity in the the Earth's lower mantle. There are also many arguments about the effects of Al dissolution on the elastic and transport properties of pv. Analysis of Al interdiffusion in the pv-mj-gt system can provide important information on the homogenization of subducting slabs into the Earth's deep interior. Al interdiffusion experiments between pv and mj-gt were performed on polycrystalline MgSiO3 pv and Mg3Al2Si3O12 pyrope diffusion couples in the binary system MgSiO3- Al2O3 at 25 GPa and 2023-2223 K, using a multi-anvil press. For comparison, experiments on (i) MgSiO3 mj and pyrope and (ii) MgSiO3 pv and Al-bearing MgSiO3 pv, were also carried out at 19 GPa and 26 GPa, respectively. Diffusion profiles of recovered samples were examined with scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDXS). Although measured diffusion profiles of pv are <1 μm in length, shorter than the spatial resolution of SEM chemical analyses, those of mj-gt are 5-20 μm in length under the same P-T conditions. Interdiffusion coefficients (D) were obtained by fitting the measured diffusion profiles with the numerical model of Tanzilli and Heckel [1968]. D in pv and mj-gt at 25 GPa and 2223 K are ~2 × 10-16 m2s-1 and ~5 × 10^{-15} m2s-1, respectively. Measured DAl in MgSiO3 pv are one to two orders of magnitude faster than those for Si-self diffusion and Mg-Fe interdiffusion [Yamazaki et al., 2000; Holzapfel et al., 2005] at comparable T, but one order of magnitude slower than in mj-gt at the same conditions. The former result implies that the oxygen vacancy-related substitution mechanism of Al in pv actively encourages the diffusion process. The latter suggests that homogenization of aluminous components in slabs and mineral transformations involving an

  8. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M

    2006-03-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn < pigeon pea < plantain starch while the ranking for P(k), an inverse measure of the amount of plasticity, was pigeon pea < plantain < corn starch, which indicated that formulations containing corn starch generally exhibited the fastest onset of plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain < pigeon pea < corn starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain

  9. Evidence for 5S rDNA Horizontal Transfer in the toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus (Schneider, 1801) based on the analysis of three multigene families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Batrachoididae family is a group of marine teleosts that includes several species with more complicated physiological characteristics, such as their excretory, reproductive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Previous studies of the 5S rDNA gene family carried out in four species from the Western Atlantic showed two types of this gene in two species but only one in the other two, under processes of concerted evolution and birth-and-death evolution with purifying selection. Here we present results of the 5S rDNA and another two gene families in Halobatrachus didactylus, an Eastern Atlantic species, and draw evolutionary inferences regarding the gene families. In addition we have also mapped the genes on the chromosomes by two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Two types of 5S rDNA were observed, named type α and type β. Molecular analysis of the 5S rDNA indicates that H. didactylus does not share the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sequences with four other species of the family; therefore, it must have evolved in isolation. Amplification with the type β specific primers amplified a specific band in 9 specimens of H. didactylus and two of Sparus aurata. Both types showed regulatory regions and a secondary structure which mark them as functional genes. However, the U2 snRNA gene and the ITS-1 sequence showed one electrophoretic band and with one type of sequence. The U2 snRNA sequence was the most variable of the three multigene families studied. Results from two-colour FISH showed no co-localization of the gene coding from three multigene families and provided the first map of the chromosomes of the species. Conclusions A highly significant finding was observed in the analysis of the 5S rDNA, since two such distant species as H. didactylus and Sparus aurata share a 5S rDNA type. This 5S rDNA type has been detected in other species belonging to the Batrachoidiformes and Perciformes orders, but not in the Pleuronectiformes

  10. Evolution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recognition and signaling: fish TLR4 does not recognize LPS and negatively regulates NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Sepulcre, María P; Alcaraz-Pérez, Francisca; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Roca, Francisco J; Meseguer, José; Cayuela, María L; Mulero, Victoriano

    2009-02-15

    It has long been established that lower vertebrates, most notably fish and amphibians, are resistant to the toxic effect of LPS. Furthermore, the lack of a TLR4 ortholog in some fish species and the lack of the essential costimulatory molecules for LPS activation via TLR4 (i.e., myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) and CD14) in all the fish genomes and expressed sequence tag databases available led us to hypothesize that the mechanism of LPS recognition in fish may be different from that of mammals. To shed light on the role of fish TLRs in LPS recognition, a dual-luciferase reporter assay to study NF-kappaB activation in whole zebrafish embryos was developed and three different bony fish models were studied: 1) the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Perciformes), an immunological-tractable teleost model in which the presence of a TLR4 ortholog is unknown; 2) the spotted green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis, Tetraodontiformes), which lacks a TLR4 ortholog; and 3) the zebrafish (Danio rerio, Cypriniformes), which possesses two TLR4 orthologs. Our results show that LPS signaled via a TLR4- and MyD88-independent manner in fish, and, surprisingly, that the zebrafish TLR4 orthologs negatively regulated the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. We think that the identification of TLR4 as a negative regulator of TLR signaling in the zebrafish, together with the absence of this receptor in most fish species, explains the resistance of fish to endotoxic shock and supports the idea that the TLR4 receptor complex for LPS recognition arose after the divergence of fish and tetrapods.

  11. Systematic variation in the pattern of gene paralog retention between the teleost superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii.

    PubMed

    Garcia de la Serrana, Daniel; Mareco, Edson A; Johnston, Ian A

    2014-04-01

    Teleost fish underwent whole-genome duplication around 450 Ma followed by diploidization and loss of 80-85% of the duplicated genes. To identify a deep signature of this teleost-specific whole-genome duplication (TSGD), we searched for duplicated genes that were systematically and uniquely retained in one or other of the superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii. TSGD paralogs comprised 17-21% of total gene content. Some 2.6% (510) of TSGD paralogs were present as pairs in the Ostariophysi genomes of Danio rerio (Cypriniformes) and Astyanax mexicanus (Characiformes) but not in species from four orders of Acanthopterygii (Gasterosteiformes, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodon nigroviridis; Perciformes, Oreochromis niloticus; and Beloniformes, Oryzias latipes) where a single copy was identified. Similarly, 1.3% (418) of total gene number represented cases where TSGD paralogs pairs were systematically retained in the Acanthopterygian but conserved as a single copy in Ostariophysi genomes. We confirmed the generality of these results by phylogenetic and synteny analysis of 40 randomly selected linage-specific paralogs (LSPs) from each superorder and completed with the transcriptomes of three additional Ostariophysi species (Ictalurus punctatus [Siluriformes], Sinocyclocheilus species [Cypriniformes], and Piaractus mesopotamicus [Characiformes]). No chromosome bias was detected in TSGD paralog retention. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed significant enrichment of GO terms relative to the human GO SLIM database for "growth," "Cell differentiation," and "Embryo development" in Ostariophysi and for "Transport," "Signal Transduction," and "Vesicle mediated transport" in Acanthopterygii. The observed patterns of paralog retention are consistent with different diploidization outcomes having contributed to the evolution/diversification of each superorder.

  12. A Phylogenetic Perspective on the Evolution of Mediterranean Teleost Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Christine N.; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a highly diverse, highly studied, and highly impacted biogeographic region, yet no phylogenetic reconstruction of fish diversity in this area has been published to date. Here, we infer the timing and geographic origins of Mediterranean teleost species diversity using nucleotide sequences collected from GenBank. We assembled a DNA supermatrix composed of four mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal DNA, 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b) and two nuclear genes (rhodopsin and recombination activating gene I), including 62% of Mediterranean teleost species plus 9 outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic and dating analyses were calibrated using 20 fossil constraints. An additional 124 species were grafted onto the chronogram according to their taxonomic affinity, checking for the effects of taxonomic coverage in subsequent diversification analyses. We then interpreted the time-line of teleost diversification in light of Mediterranean historical biogeography, distinguishing non-endemic natives, endemics and exotic species. Results show that the major Mediterranean orders are of Cretaceous origin, specifically ∼100–80 Mya, and most Perciformes families originated 80–50 Mya. Two important clade origin events were detected. The first at 100–80 Mya, affected native and exotic species, and reflects a global diversification period at a time when the Mediterranean Sea did not yet exist. The second occurred during the last 50 Mya, and is noticeable among endemic and native species, but not among exotic species. This period corresponds to isolation of the Mediterranean from Indo-Pacific waters before the Messinian salinity crisis. The Mediterranean fish fauna illustrates well the assembly of regional faunas through origination and immigration, where dispersal and isolation have shaped the emergence of a biodiversity hotspot. PMID:22590545

  13. Assessing genetic diversity of Brazilian reef fishes by chromosomal and DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Pedro Manoel; Molina, Wagner Franco; Affonso, Paulo Roberto A M; Aguilar, Cecília Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Little is known on genetics of Brazilian coral reef fish and most of this information is limited to chromosome characterization of major representative species. The diploid chromosome number in marine fish varies from 2n= 22-26 to 2n = 240-260. Despite of this apparent diversity, most studied marine species have a diploid complement with 48 acrocentric chromosomes. This latter trend is mostly observed among Perciformes, an important major taxon of coral reef fishes. Studies in the families Pomacentridae, Pomacanthidae and Chaetodontidae, for example, have shown a common karyotype pattern entirely formed by 48 uniarmed chromosomes. However, rare numerical and structural chromosome polymorphisms and cryptic chromosome rearrangements involving heterochromatin segments and/or nucleolar organizing sites have been reported among such fishes. Although new chromosome forms can contribute to the establishment of genetically isolated populations, their role in reef fish speciation at marine realm still is an open question. More recently, genomic DNA analyses using RAPD and microsatellites, and sequencing and RFLP of mitochondrial DNA have increasingly been used in Atlantic reef fish species. Genetic homogeneity over wide geographical ranges has been reported for different fish groups, in contrast to several cases of population substructuring related to environmental constraints or evolutionary history. Amazonas outflow and upwelling on the Southeastern coast of Brazil are believed to be strong barriers to dispersal of some reef species. Moreover, it is suggested that the pattern of speciation and population structure at South Atlantic is quite distinctive from Pacific Ocean, even when comparing closely related taxa. Further genetic studies are strongly encouraged in Brazilian reef fishes in order to provide a reliable scenario of the genetic structure in this important and diverse fish group.

  14. Fish otoliths: do sizes correlate with taxonomic group, habitat and/or luminescence?

    PubMed

    Paxton, J R

    2000-09-29

    Otoliths are dense structures in the ears of fishes that function in hearing and gravity perception. Otolith (sagitta) diameters, as percentages of standard length (% SL), are calculated for 247 marine fish species in 147 families and compared by taxonomic group (usually order), habitat and presence or absence of luminescence. Otolith sizes range from 0.4-31.4 mm and 0.08-11.2% SL. The eel and spiny eel orders Anguilliformes and Notacanthiformes have small to very small otoliths, as do the triggerfish order Tetraodontiformes, pipefish order Gasterosteiformes, billfish suborder Scombroidei and many of the dragonfish order Stomiiformes. The soldierfish order Beryciformes has moderate to very large otoliths. The perch order Perciformes has a wide range of otolith sizes but most have small to moderate otoliths 2-5% SL. Only 16 out of the 247 species have the relatively largest otoliths, over 7% SL. Seven out of these 16 species are also luminous from a variety of habitats. Luminous species have slightly to much larger otoliths than non-luminous species in the same family Both beryciforms and luminous fishes live in low-light environments, where acute colour vision is probably impossible. Most fishes of the epipelagic surface waters have very small otoliths, perhaps due to background noise and/or excessive movement of heavy otoliths in rough seas. Bathypelagic species usually have small otoliths and regressed or absent swimbladders. Other habitats have species with a range of otolith sizes. While the relationship between hearing ability and otolith length is unknown, at least some groups with modified swim-bladders have larger otoliths, which may be associated with more acute hearing.

  15. Coping with sub-optimal water temperature: modifications in fatty acid profile of barramundi as influenced by dietary lipid.

    PubMed

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic responses to sub-optimal temperature deplete lipid depots, remodel membrane lipid and alter the fatty acid profile in the whole body and tissues of ectothermic vertebrates including fish. The magnitude of these changes may depend on dietary history including oil sources with different fatty acid compositions. Barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes, Latidae), a tropical ectothermic fish, was fed on diets either rich in dietary long-chain (≥C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from fish oil, rich in stearidonic and γ-linolenic acid (SDA and GLA, respectively) from Echium plantagineum, or rapeseed oil deficient in LC-PUFA. Following 5 weeks at the optimum temperature of 30 °C when growth rates were comparable amongst dietary treatments, water temperature was dropped to 20 °C for 1 week for half of the animals and maintained at 30 °C for the other half. Decreased temperature increased the liver and skeletal muscle content of LC-PUFA in fish fed on echium oil compared with rapeseed oil, while dietary LC-PUFA depots in fish oil fed-fish depleted rapidly in the week of sub-optimal temperature. The lipid unsaturation index of cellular membrane in the liver and muscle increased under low temperature at the same rate regardless of dietary oil. Therefore, rapid exposure of an ectothermic vertebrate to a lower and sub-optimal temperature caused significant modulation in fatty acid composition. We propose that the tolerance of barramundi, a representative of tropical farmed fish, to sub-optimal temperature will be enhanced when fatty acid substrates closer to the LC-PUFA are available in their diet.

  16. Positive regulation of myoblast differentiation by medaka Neu3b sialidase through gangliosides desialylation.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Harasaki, Yusuke; Fukuda, Midori; Yoshinaga, Ayana; Ryuzono, Sena; Chigwechokha, Petros Kingstone; Komatsu, Masaharu; Miyagi, Taeko

    2016-04-01

    Sialidase Neu3b is an unique enzyme conserved in medaka and tilapia, but not in mammals. Previous study revealed that medaka Neu3b is localized at cytosol and is a ganglioside-specific sialidase. Neu3b functions, however, have not been understood, while Neu3a sialidase, which is widely conserved from human to fish, is known as a regulator of neurite formation. Here, we investigated the biological function of Neu3b for C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation. Bioinformatics analysis using genome browser revealed the presence of neu3b gene in some orders of fish species such as Beloniformes, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes. With the treatment of 2% horse serum, Neu3b-overexpression accelerated myoblast cell differentiation to myotubes accompanied with up-regulation of myogenesis biomarkers mRNA, myod and myog. Neu3b altered ganglioside composition in C2C12 cells results showing a decrease in GM2, and the increase of Lac-Cer, while desialylation of glycoproteins were not detected. Contrary to cell differentiation, Neu3b cell proliferation was suppressed in normal growth medium. To understand the mechanism of the alteration of cell differentiation and proliferation, phosphorylation of signal molecules in EGFR/ERK pathway was investigated. Neu3b induced a decline in phosphorylation of ERK and EGFR. Surprisingly, immuno-blot and real-time PCR analysis revealed that down-regulation of egfr gene could be involved in the acceleration of cell differentiation by Neu3b. These results suggested that Neu3b sialidase is a positive regulator for myoblast differentiation, similar with mammalian cytosolic sialidase Neu2.

  17. Leptin expression in mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky): Regulation by postprandial and short-term fasting treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaochen; Li, Aixuan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Huang, Wei; Song, Yi; He, Shan; Cai, Wenjing; Tao, Ya-xiong

    2016-04-01

    Most fish species possess duplicate leptin genes (LEP). Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) leptin A gene (sLEP-A) have been cloned in the previous study. In the present study, we cloned and characterized leptin B gene (sLEP-B) in mandarin fish, including a 471bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 158-amino acid protein. The three-dimensional (3D) structural model of sLEP-B protein showed a highly conserved of tertiary structure similar to that of other vertebrates. Genomic sequencing results indicated that sLEP-B possessed only one intron. This is the first report of the loss of an intron in LEP-B in Perciformes. The different distribution patterns of sLEPs suggest different physiological roles of these two genes. The presence of HNF3β, a liver-enriched transcription factor, only in sLEP-A indicated abundant expression and metabolic function of sLEP-A in the liver. In an in vivo experiment, the expressions of brain sLEP-A and sLEP-B were observed to increase after a meal. During the short-term fasting, the expressions of sLEPs in mandarin fish brain were decreased significantly. A persistent and significant increase in hepatic sLEP-A expression supported a relationship between leptin and food intake in mandarin fish. These results suggest that sLEP-A plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in this carnivorous fish, and sLEP-B is probably a specialized gene responsible for the central nervous system (CNS) control of energy regulation.

  18. Species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from fishes off the Mediterranean coast of Africa, with a description of Philometra rara n. sp. from Hyporthodus haifensis and a molecular analysis of Philometra saltatrix from Pomatomus saltatrix

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) were recorded for the first time from marine perciform fishes off Tunisia and Libya: Philometra rara n. sp. from the rare, deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis (Serranidae) off Libya and Philometra saltatrix Ramachandran, 1973 from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Pomatomidae) off Tunisia. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. Light and scanning electron microscope studies of Ph. rara n. sp. showed that it is characterized by the length of spicules (216–219 μm) and the gubernaculum (90–93 μm), the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio (1:2.32–2.43), and mainly by the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum (shovel-shaped with a wide median smooth field in dorsal view), appearing as having a dorsal protuberance in lateral view, and by the structure of the male caudal mound (dorsally interrupted); large subgravid females (70–137 mm long) are characterized by the presence of four oval submedian cephalic elevations, each of them bearing a pair of cephalic papillae of the outer circle. The finding of Ph. saltatrix off Tunisia confirms that this species is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. A molecular analysis of our Ph. saltatrix specimens and other available philometrid cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) sequences showed that most species have robust clades. Sequences of Ph. saltatrix from Tunisia diverge from Ph. saltatrix from Brazil and the USA, suggesting that speciation is currently occurring between populations from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:28287390

  19. Prosthenystera oonastica n. sp. (Digenea: Callodistomidae) from ictalurid catfishes in southeastern United States and molecular evidence differentiating species in the genus across Americas.

    PubMed

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Curran, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Prosthenhystera oonastica n. sp. is described as a cryptic species from the gall bladder of three ictalurid catfishes, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes), and Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque), in rivers in the southeastern United States. The species was originally named by Wilmer A. Rogers in 1979 but never formally described. Material used for the description consists of two specimens of Roger's original material and ten new specimens. We found no significant morphological features that are useful for discriminating between the new species and its closest relative Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850) Travassos, 1922 that occurs in the gall bladders of freshwater characiform, perciform and siluriform fishes, ranging from South America to southern Mexico. However, we found substantial differences in the large subunit ribosomal DNA (partial 28S rRNA gene) between the two species justifying the naming of the new species. Prosthenhystera oonastica n. sp. is readily differentiated from Prosthenhystera caballeroi Jiménez-Guzmán, 1973 that occurs in the gall bladders of characid fishes in Central America and Mexico, by having a relatively straight or bent rather than highly convoluted oesophagus, a relatively smaller ovary, smaller and less coalesced vitelline follicles, narrower caeca and smaller eggs. Comparison of ribosomal DNA (partial ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and partial 28S gene) between P. oonastica n. sp. and P. caballeroi revealed large differences between the two species. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 28S rRNA gene sequences from the three studied species of Prosthenhystera Travassos, 1922 and related digenean taxa revealed a closer relationship between P. oonastica n. sp. and P. obesa than either has had with P. caballeroi.

  20. Impact assessment of the introduction of Cichla kelberi in a large Neotropical reservoir and its lateral lagoons (Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2015-11-10

    AbstractThis study aimed to understand how the introduction of Cichla kelberi in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River) affected the native ichthyofauna. Data on the structure of the small fish fauna assemblage were obtained before and after the introduction of this carnivorous species. Samplings were carried out in February and September of 2004, previously to the register of Cichla kelberi in the reservoir, and after its introduction, November of 2004, January, March, May and August of 2005, February and June of 2006, February and July of 2007, February and October of 2008 and February of 2009. A total of 4,693 fish, belonging to 43 different species was sampled between 2004 and 2009. The order Characiformes was the most abundant, followed by Perciformes and Siluriformes. Comparative analyses, before and after the introduction, could not demonstrate significant changes in composition, richness, abundance, biomass, mean length and diversity of fish. Aquatic insects were the main feeding item of C. kelberi, followed by tetragonopterinae fish. Cannibalism was recorded during the whole study period. The results showed that Cichla cannot deeply affect the ichthyofauna assemblages of a large Neotropical reservoir, at least in a short or medium term period after its introduction. The results also allowed concluding that the introduction of C. kelberi in the reservoir is in the phase 3. In this phase, the specie can survive and reproduce in the new environment; however it is not totally established and disseminated. The reasons for the fact that Cichla is still not dominant in Rosana Reservoir could be related to feeding competition, high rate of cannibalism and the presence of large amount of aquatic macrophytes (refuge zones). In spite of the results, the continuous monitoring of the role of non-native species on the local fish fauna is absolutely necessary because the impacts caused by colonization of this undesirable species can be magnified by complex processes

  1. Impact assessment of the introduction of Cichla kelberi in a large Neotropical reservoir and its lateral lagoons (Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to understand how the introduction of Cichla kelberi in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River) affected the native ichthyofauna. Data on the structure of the small fish fauna assemblage were obtained before and after the introduction of this carnivorous species. Samplings were carried out in February and September of 2004, previously to the register of Cichla kelberi in the reservoir, and after its introduction, November of 2004, January, March, May and August of 2005, February and June of 2006, February and July of 2007, February and October of 2008 and February of 2009. A total of 4,693 fish, belonging to 43 different species was sampled between 2004 and 2009. The order Characiformes was the most abundant, followed by Perciformes and Siluriformes. Comparative analyses, before and after the introduction, could not demonstrate significant changes in composition, richness, abundance, biomass, mean length and diversity of fish. Aquatic insects were the main feeding item of C. kelberi, followed by tetragonopterinae fish. Cannibalism was recorded during the whole study period. The results showed that Cichla cannot deeply affect the ichthyofauna assemblages of a large Neotropical reservoir, at least in a short or medium term period after its introduction. The results also allowed concluding that the introduction of C. kelberi in the reservoir is in the phase 3. In this phase, the specie can survive and reproduce in the new environment; however it is not totally established and disseminated. The reasons for the fact that Cichla is still not dominant in Rosana Reservoir could be related to feeding competition, high rate of cannibalism and the presence of large amount of aquatic macrophytes (refuge zones). In spite of the results, the continuous monitoring of the role of non-native species on the local fish fauna is absolutely necessary because the impacts caused by colonization of this undesirable species can be magnified by complex processes, usually

  2. The Tree of Life and a New Classification of Bony Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Betancur-R., Ricardo; Broughton, Richard E.; Wiley, Edward O.; Carpenter, Kent; López, J. Andrés; Li, Chenhong; Holcroft, Nancy I.; Arcila, Dahiana; Sanciangco, Millicent; Cureton II, James C; Zhang, Feifei; Buser, Thaddaeus; Campbell, Matthew A.; Ballesteros, Jesus A; Ro