This paper is a continuation of the author's study published in 1975. The teeth of the school children included in the study were first examined in 1952, re-examined in 1972 and subsequently at 5-year intervals. Children in the village of Salo had drinking water with a high fluride content and those in the village of Suontaka drank water with a low fluoride content. In the first examination, the Salo children showed a caries prevalence, measured with the DMF inxed, ca. 67% lower than the Suontaka children. With some exceptions, such as the first molars, the absolute differences in caries prevalence between subjects from the two villages had remained practically the same throughout the years. By the 1987 examination, the difference had been reduced, measured with the DMF index, to about 23% and with the DMFS index, to about 28%. In the last 5 years (1982-87), the DMFS index of the Suontaka pupils increased by 2.5 and that of the Salo pupils by 4.1. In the preceding two 5-year periods the increment in each group was ca. 7.0%.
We describe three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 from Costa Rica: R. annemayae Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov., R. eowilsoni Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. and R. philipmayi Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. We used a data set of DNA COI-barcodes accumulated for Lepidoptera collected at Area de Conse...
Kallies, Axel; Edwards, Ted; Young, Andy; Douglas, Fabian
Sun moths (Castniidae) constitute a family of day-flying moths that due to their slim bodies, broad and often richly coloured wings and clubbed antennae closely resemble butterflies. However, despite this superficial similarity, sun moths are not related to butterflies but belong to the diverse cossoid assemblage of lepidopterous families (Edwards et al. 1998). Until recently, Castniidae were assigned to the superfamily Sesioidea (Minet 1991). A molecular study by Mutanen et al. (2010), however, failed to find support for a close relationship of Sesiidae and Castniidae, resulting in the inclusion of both families in a larger concept of Cossoidea (Nieukerken et al. 2011). In contrast, Heikkil et al. (2015) who added considerable morphological data to DNA, recovered Sesioidea as monophyletic, with Sesiidae, Castniidae and Brachodidae as constituent families, yet with low support values. Thus, although the monophyly of Castniidae is well supported, the systematic position of this family is unresolved.
Heikkilä, T. T.; Kopnin, N. B.; Volovik, G. E.
Topological media are systems whose properties are protected by topology and thus are robust to deformations of the system. In topological insulators and superconductors the bulk-surface and bulk-vortex correspondence gives rise to the gapless Weyl, Dirac or Majorana fermions on the surface of the system and inside vortex cores. Here we show that in gapless topological media, the bulk-surface and bulk-vortex correspondence is more effective: it produces topologically protected gapless fermions without dispersion—the fiat band. Fermion zero modes forming the flat band are localized on the surface of topological media with protected nodal lines [A. P. Schnyder and S. Ryu, Phys. Rev. B 84, 060504(R) (2011); T. T. Heikkil G. E. Volovik, JETP Lett. 93, 59 (2011)] and in the vortex core in systems with topologically protected Fermi points (Weyl points) [G. E. Volovik, JETP Lett. 93, 66 (2011)]. Flat band has an extremely singular density of states, and we show that this property may give rise in particular to surface superconductivity which could exist even at room temperature.
Neeman, Elias M.; Dréan, Pascal; Huet, T. R.
The emission of volatile organic compounds, from plants has strong revelance for plant physiology, plant ecology and atmospheric chemistry. Camphene (C10H16) is a bicyclic monoterpene which is emitted in the atmosphere by biogenic sources. The structure of the unique stable conformer was optimized using density functional theory and ab initio calculations. The rotational spectrum of camphene was recorded in a supersonic jet expansion with a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer over the range 2-20 GHz. Signals from the parent species and from the ten 13C isotopomers were observed in natural abundance. The rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters were fitted to a Watson's Hamiltonian in the A-reduction. A magnetic hyperfine structure associated with the pairs of hydrogen nuclei in the methylene groups was observed and modeled.The rotational constants coupled to the equilibrium structure calculations were used to determine the r_0 and the r_m(1) gas-phase geometries of the carbon skeleton. The present work provides the first spectroscopic characterization of camphene in the gas phase and these results are also relevant for ozonolysis kinetics study through Criegee intermediates. R. Baraldi, F. Rapparini, O. Facini, D. Spano and P. Duce, Journal of Mediterranean Ecology, Vol.6, No.1, (2005). A. Bracho-Nunez, N. M. Knothe, S. Welter, M. Staudt, W. R. Costa, M. A. R. Liberato, M. T. F. Piedade, and J. Kesselmeier Biogeosciences, 10, 5855-5873, (2013). Minna Kivimäenpää, Narantsetseg Magsarjav, Rajendra Ghimire, Juha-Matti Markkanen, Juha Heijari, Martti Vuorinen and Jarmo K. Holopainen, Atmospheric Environment, 60, 477-485, (2012). R.C. de M. Oliveira and G. F. Bauerfeldt, J. Phys. Chem. A, 119 2802-2812 (2015)
Lazukova, Miroslava; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Makhamov, Mahkham; Kivelev, Juri; Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Ibrahim, Tarik F.; Araujo, Ricardo; Lehto, Hanna; Hernesniemi, Juha A.
Background: The lateral supraorbital approach (LSO) provides access to a variety of pathologies including anterior and some posterior circulation aneurysms, sellar and suprasellar lesions, and anterior fossa tumors. Technical modifications of LSO improve the surgical exposure of the skull base. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 73 consecutive patients treated by the senior author (Juha A. Hernesniemi), at the Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Hospital in Helsinki, Finland from May 2013 to October 2013. This study cohort underwent a modified LSO to access anterior circulation aneurysms, sellar and suprasellar tumors, and anterior fossa tumors. The studied population comprised 30 men and 43 women, with a mean age at treatment of 54 years (9–83 years). Results: LSO was successfully used to access anterior circulation aneurysms in 59 (81%) patients, 10 (14%) patients with anterior cranial fossa tumors, and 4 (5%) patients with suprasellar tumors. The skull base drilling provided a mean of 6.8 mm (1.7–22 mm) in increased exposure. Conclusion: LSO provides adequate access to vascular and neoplastic lesions of the anterior cranial fossa, by drilling approximately 6.8 mm (1.7–22 mm) of the lateral orbital wall and sphenoid wing. This enhances surgical exposure and trajectory. An additional trick while performing an LSO is to place a single or multiple stiches (orbitozygomatic stich) at the base of the dura once opened, eliminating the dead space between the dura and anterior skull base. PMID:27168949
Tiira, T.; Hyvonen, T.; Komminaho, K.; Korja, A.; Heikkinen, P.
schist belts in southern and eastern Finland. In the south, Laitila and Vyborg rapakivi batholiths are characterized by high Vp/Vs-values (>1.76). The Central Finland Granitoid Complex expresses higher velocity ratios (Vp/Vs >1.74) in the lower crust than the surrounding regions (Vp/Vs <1.72). Two high velocity ratio (Vp/Vs >1.76) pieces suggest hidden mafic blocks in the lower crust of the Complex. In summary, the velocity tomography image completes our view of the crust forming processes, the accretion of old micro-continents and island arcs stabilized by extensional processes.
Autere, Anton; Karvonen, Lasse; Säynätjoki, Antti; Roussey, Matthieu; Roenn, John; Färm, Elina; Kemell, Marianna; Tu, Xiaoguang; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Lo, Patrick; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Lipsanen, Harri; Honkanen, Seppo; Sun, Zhipei
waveguides and show signal enhancement. Our results show that atomic layer deposited nanolaminates can potentially open new possibilities for various photonic applications, such as silicon photonic devices for light emission and amplification, optical sensing and all-optical signal processing. References  A. Autere, L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. Roussey, E. Färm, M. Kemell, X. Tu, T.Y. Liow, G.Q. Lo, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, S. Honkanen, H. Lipsanen, and Z. Sun, "Slot waveguide ring resonators coated by an atomic layer deposited organic/inorganic nanolaminate," Opt. Express 23, 26940-26951 (2015)  L. D. Salmi, E. Puukilainen, M. Vehkamäki, M. Heikkilä, and M. Ritala, "Atomic layer deposition of Ta2O5/polyimide nanolaminates," Chem. Vap. Deposition 15, 221-226 (2009).  S. Morino, T. Yamashita, K. Horie, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of aromatic polyisoimides," React. Funct. Polym. 44, 183-188 (2000).  C.-Y. Tai, J. Wilkinson, N. Perney, M. Netti, F. Cattaneo, C. Finlayson, and J. Baumberg, "Determination of nonlinear refractive index in a Ta2O5 rib waveguide using self-phase modulation," Opt. Express 12, 5110-5116 (2004).
Pan, J.; Durand, M. T.; Vanderjagt, B. J.
The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method had been proved to be successful in snow water equivalent retrieval based on synthetic point-scale passive microwave brightness temperature (TB) observations. This method needs only general prior information about distribution of snow parameters, and could estimate layered snow properties, including the thickness, temperature, density and snow grain size (or exponential correlation length) of each layer. In this study, the multi-layer HUT (Helsinki University of Technology) model and the MEMLS (Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks) will be used as observation models to assimilate the observed TB into snow parameter prediction. Previous studies had shown that the multi-layer HUT model tends to underestimate TB at 37 GHz for deep snow, while the MEMLS does not show sensitivity of model bias to snow depth. Therefore, results using HUT model and MEMLS will be compared to see how the observation model will influence the retrieval of snow parameters. The radiometric measurements at 10.65, 18.7, 36.5 and 90 GHz at Sodankyla, Finland will be used as MCMC input, and the statistics of all snow property measurement will be used to calculate the prior information. 43 dry snowpits with complete measurements of all snow parameters will be used for validation. The entire dataset are from NorSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment) experiments carried out by Juha Lemmetyinen, Anna Kontu and Jouni Pulliainen in FMI in 2009-2011 winters, and continued two more winters from 2011 to Spring of 2013. Besides the snow thickness and snow density that are directly related to snow water equivalent, other parameters will be compared with observations, too. For thin snow, the previous studies showed that influence of underlying soil is considerable, especially when the soil is half frozen with part of unfrozen liquid water and part of ice. Therefore, this study will also try to employ a simple frozen soil permittivity model to improve the
: Pekka Leviäkangas, Anu Tuominen, Riitta Molarius, Heta Kojo, Jari Schabel, Sirra Toivonen, Jaana Keränen, Johanna Ludvigsen, Andrea Vajda, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Ilkka Juga, Pertti Nurmi, Jenni Rauhala, Frank Rehm, Thomas Gerz, Thorsten Muehlhausen, Juha Schweighofer, Silas Michaelides, Matheos Papadakis, Nikolai Dotzek (†), Pieter Groenemeijer.
It is not easy to assess, or even to describe correctly a long and distinguished career that started about the time when I was born. In 1964 Stig Stenholm got both an engineering degree at the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), and an MSc degree (in Mathematics) at the University of Helsinki. The two degrees demonstrate Stig's ability to understand both complex mathematics and experimental physics. Statistical physics or rather, quantum liquids, was the field in which Stig got his DPhil at Oxford in 1967, under the guidance of Dirk ter Haar. It is interesting that together they worked on studying fermions in a bosonic background ; at the time this meant, of course, 3He atoms as impurities in 4He liquid, but nowadays one would immediately connect such systems to the physics of cold atomic gases. The postdoctoral period in 1967-1968 at Yale University brought Stig in contact with Willis Lamb and laser physics . Back in Finland, Stig's career in the 1970s was dominated by theoretical studies of gas lasers, especially pressure and collision effects on spectral lines and saturation spectroscopy, together with his first PhD student, Rainer Salomaa. A professorship at the University of Helsinki came in 1974, and in 1980 an important era started as Stig became the scientific director of the Research Institute for Theoretical Physics (TFT). At that time he also developed the semiclassical theory of laser cooling especially with Juha Javanainen. The laser spectroscopy work led to a textbook in 1984 , and the semiclassical laser cooling theory was summarized in a review article in 1986 . These were not, of course, his only interests, as he also worked on free-electron lasers, ring-laser gyroscopes, multiphoton processes and quantum amplifiers. In an article written in 1990 in honour of Olli Lounasmaa , the founder of the famous Low Temperature Laboratory at HUT, Stig mentions that one of his most memorable achievements was acting as a bridge between the
Trinitis, C; Bader, M; Schulz, M
In today's world, the use of parallel programming and architectures is essential for simulating practical problems in engineering and related disciplines. Significant progress in CPU architecture (multi- and many-core CPUs, SMT, transactional memory, virtualization support, shared caches etc.) system scalability, and interconnect technology, continues to provide new opportunities, as well as new challenges for both system architects and software developers. These trends are paralleled by progress in algorithms, simulation techniques, and software integration from multiple disciplines. In its 8th year, ParSim continues to build a bridge between application disciplines and computer science and to help fostering closer cooperations between these fields. Since its successful introduction in 2002, ParSim has established itself as an integral part of the EuroPVM/MPI conference series. In contrast to traditional conferences, emphasis is put on the presentation of up-to-date results with a short turn-around time. We believe that this offers a unique opportunity to present new aspects in this dynamic field and discuss them with a wide, interdisciplinary audience. The EuroPVM/MPI conference series, as one of the prime events in parallel computation, serves as an ideal surrounding for ParSim. This combination enables participants to present and discuss their work within the scope of both the session and the host conference. This year, five papers from authors in five countries were submitted to Par-Sim, and we selected three of them. They cover a range of different application fields including mechanical engineering, material science, and structural engineering simulations. We are confident that this resulted in an attractive special session and that this will be an informal setting for lively discussions as well as for fostering new collaborations. Several people contributed to this event. Thanks go to Jack Dongarra, the EuroPVM/MPI general chair, and to Jan Westerholm, Juha
central network of filamentary structures spiralling down to the centre. "Our analysis of the VLT/NACO images of NGC 1097 shows that these filaments end up at the very centre of the galaxy", says co-author Juha Reunanen from ESO. "This network closely resembles those seen in computer models", adds co-worker Witold Maciejewski from the University of Oxford, UK. "The nuclear filaments revealed in the NACO images are the tracers of cold dust and gas being channelled towards the centre to eventually ignite the AGN." The astronomers also note that the curling of the spiral pattern in the innermost 300 light-years seem indeed to confirm the presence of a super-massive black hole in the centre of NGC 1097. Such a black hole in the centre of a galaxy causes the nuclear spiral to wind up as it approaches the centre, while in its absence the spiral would be unwinding as it moves closer to the centre. An image of NGC 1097 and its small companion, NGC 1097A, was taken in December 2004, in the presence of Chilean President Lagos with the VIMOS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is available as ESO PR Photo 35d/04. More information This ESO Press Photo is based on research published in the October issue of Astronomical Journal, vol. 130, p. 1472 ("Feeding the Monster: The Nucleus of NGC 1097 at Subarcsecond Scales in the Infrared with the Very Large Telescope", by M. Almudena Prieto, Witold Maciejewski, and Juha Reunanen).
Petri Vaattovaara (1), Tuukka Petäjä (2), Jorma Joutsensaari (1), Pasi Miettinen (1), Boris Zaprudin (1,6), Aki Kortelainen (1), Juha Heijari (3,7), Pasi Yli-Pirilä (3), Pasi Aalto (2), Doug R. Worsnop (4), and Ari Laaksonen(1,5) (1) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (2) University of Helsinki, Finland (3) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (4) Aerodyne Research Inc., USA (5) Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland (6) Currently at University of Turku, Finland (7) Currently at Maritime Research Centre, Finland Email address of the Corresponding author: Petri.Vaattovaara@uef.fi The geographical extent of the tropical, temperate and boreal forests is about 30% of the Earth's land surface. Those forests are located around the world in different climate zones effecting widely on atmospheric composition via new particle formation. The Boreal forests solely cover one third of the forests extent and are one of the largest vegetation environments, forming a circumpolar band throughout the northern hemisphere continents, with a high potential to affect climate processes . In order to more fully understand the possible climatic effects of the forests, the properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in varying conditions (e.g. a change in meteorological parameters or in the concentrations of biogenic and antropogenic trace gases) need to be better known. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer ) and the UFH-TDMA (ultrafine hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer ) methods parallel to shed light on the evolution of the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions (via physic-chemical properties) at a virgin boreal forest site in varying conditions. The measurements were carried out at Hyytiälä forest station in Northern Europe (Finland) during 15 spring nucleation events. We also carried out a statistical analysis using linear correlations in order to explain the variability in
Corbella, I.; Torres, F.; Martin-Neira, M.; Duffo, N.; González-Gambau, V.; Camps, A.; Vall-Llossera, M.
for the in-orbit commissioning phase. The tool can ingest raw data from the electronic ground support equipment (EGSE) developed by the instrument manufacturer and also from the nominal level 0 data provided by the SMOS ground segment data acquisition system. The software classifies the input data and applies the calibration procedures to produce calibrated visibility and brightness temperature. Most of the intermediate results, including raw data and calibration parameters, are saved in files for further analysis and processing. The processing has been optimized for speed so that the results are produced in near real time and it is designed to process large amount of data in a continuous way. Finally, the tool includes a user-friendly graphics interface that allows selecting specific data according to different parameters (baselines or receivers, modes of operation or others). 4 Conclusions During the SMOS In-Orbit Commissioning Phase, a number of tests will be carried out in order to check the payload MIRAS operation and fully characterize it in terms of data consistency and calibration parameters. The UPC team is in charge of analyzing the data and develop the procedures to verify that the final data meets the required specifications. The procedures for this have been summarized and will be presented at the conference in more detail. References  Michael Brown, "SMOS in-orbit commissioning phase plan," Tech. Rep. SO-PL-ESA-SYS-5505, issue 1.1, ESA-ESTEC, The Netherlands, 8 August 2008.  Ignasi Corbella, Francesc Torres, Nuria Duffo, Manuel Martín-Neira, Verónica González, Adriano Camps, and Mercè Vall-llossera, "MIRAS ground characterization," in 10th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment - Rad 2008, Florence, Italy, 11-14 March 2008, Istituto di Fisica Applicata "N.Carrara" (IFAC-CNR), pp. 1-4.  Manuel Martín-Neira, Martin Suess, and Juha Kainulainen, "The flat target transformation," IEEE Transactions on
the development of SINFONI for nearly 7 years. Some of the members of the Commissioning Teams are depicted in PR Photos 24g/04 and 24h/04; in addition to the SPIFFI team members present on the second photo, Walter Bornemann, Reinhard Genzel, Hans Gemperlein, Stefan Huber have also been working on the reintegration/commissioning in Paranal. Notes  This press release is issued in coordination between ESO, the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, Germany, and the Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie in Leiden, The Netherlands. A German version is available at http://www.mpg.de/bilderBerichteDokumente/dokumentation/pressemitteilungen/2004/pressemitteilung20040824/index.html and a Dutch version at http://www.astronomy.nl/inhoud/pers/persberichten/30_08_04.html.  The SINFONI team consists of Roberto Abuter, Andrew Baker, Walter Bornemann, Ric Davies, Frank Eisenhauer (SPIFFI Principal Investigator), Hans Gemperlein, Reinhard Genzel (MPE Director), Andrea Gilbert, Armin Goldbrunner, Matthew Horrobin, Stefan Huber, Christof Iserlohe, Matthew Lehnert, Werner Lieb, Dieter Lutz, Nicole Nesvadba, Claudia Röhrle, Jürgen Schreiber, Linda Tacconi, Matthias Tecza, Niranjan Thatte, Harald Weisz (Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Anthony Brown, Paul van der Werf (NOVA, Leiden, The Netherlands), Eddy Elswijk, Johan Pragt, Jan Kragt, Gabby Kroes, Ton Schoenmaker, Rik ter Horst (ASTRON, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands), Henri Bonnet (SINFONI Project Manager), Roberto Castillo, Ralf Conzelmann, Romuald Damster, Bernard Delabre, Christophe Dupuy, Robert Donaldson, Christophe Dumas, Enrico Fedrigo, Gert Finger, Gordon Gillet, Norbert Hubin (Head of Adaptive Optics Dept.), Andreas Kaufer, Franz Koch, Johann Kolb, Andrea Modigliani, Guy Monnet (Head of Telescope Systems Division), Chris Lidman, Jochen Liske, Jean Louis Lizon, Markus Kissler-Patig (SINFONI Instrument Scientist), Jerome Paufique, Juha Reunanen