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Sample records for helianthus annuus

  1. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  2. Genetic variability in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and in the Helianthus genus as assessed by retrotransposon-based molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Vukich, M; Schulman, A H; Giordani, T; Natali, L; Kalendar, R; Cavallini, A

    2009-10-01

    The inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) protocol was applied for the first time within the genus Helianthus to assess intraspecific variability based on retrotransposon sequences among 36 wild accessions and 26 cultivars of Helianthus annuus L., and interspecific variability among 39 species of Helianthus. Two groups of LTRs, one belonging to a Copia-like retroelement and the other to a putative retrotransposon of unknown nature (SURE) have been isolated, sequenced and primers were designed to obtain IRAP fingerprints. The number of polymorphic bands in H. annuus wild accessions is as high as in Helianthus species. If we assume that a polymorphic band can be related to a retrotransposon insertion, this result suggests that retrotransposon activity continued after Helianthus speciation. Calculation of similarity indices from binary matrices (Shannon's and Jaccard's indices) show that variability is reduced among domesticated H. annuus. On the contrary, similarity indices among Helianthus species were as large as those observed among wild H. annuus accessions, probably related to their scattered geographic distribution. Principal component analysis of IRAP fingerprints allows the distinction between perennial and annual Helianthus species especially when the SURE element is concerned.

  3. Ecological characterization of wild Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris germplasm in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris (Asteraceae) are wild sunflowers native to North America but have become naturalized in central Argentina covering an area of about 5 million hectares. Wild H. annuus has been recognized as invader species in several countries, but no research has been done to stu...

  4. Phytoremediation potential of Helianthus annuus L in sewage-irrigated Indo-Gangetic alluvial soils.

    PubMed

    Mani, Dinesh; Sharma, Bechan; Kumar, Chitranjan; Pathak, Niraj; Balak, Shiv

    2012-03-01

    The study of phytoremediation potential of Helianthus annuus L was conducted in the sewage-irrigated Indo-Gangetic alluvial soils, India. Calcium @ 1.0% and Zn @ 40 ppm enhanced the yield of H. annuus L and minimized the toxicity of Cr in the investigated soils. The study indicated that H. annuus L is highly sensitive to Cr and Zn in terms of metallic pollution; and may be used as indicator plant. For Cr-phytoremediation, humic acid treatment @ 500 mL/acre induced the Cr-accumulation in roots (p < 0.007) and in shoots (p < 0.015), which was recorded 3.21 and 3.16 mg/kg in root and shoot of H. annuus L, respectively. We suggest that H. annuus L fulfils the necessary condition for efficiently increasing species bioaccumulation after soil treatment with humic acid in Cr-polluted sewage-irrigated soils through soil- plant rhizospheric processes.

  5. Complex relationship between growth and circumnutations in Helianthus annuus stem.

    PubMed

    Stolarz, Maria; Krol, Elzbieta; Dziubinska, Halina; Zawadzki, Tadeusz

    2008-06-01

    The growth and circumnutation of the stem of three-week old Helianthus annuus in the 16:8 h light:dark photoperiod were monitored using an angular position-sensing transducer and a time lapse photography system. It was found that the rate of growth and circumnutation reached a high level in the dark stage; in the light stage, however, only the growth rate reached the same high level, whereas the circumnutations were weak. These results showed that in the light stage the stem circumnutation was downregulated more strongly than the growth. Short-term stem responses to darkening and illumination were a further display of the relation between growth and circumnutations. Switching off the light caused an increase in the growth and circumnutation rate. In some cases it was accompanied by changes in the rotation direction. On the other hand, switching the light on caused an immediate transient (several-minute long) decrease in the growth rate resulting in stem contraction, and this was accompanied by an almost complete pause of circumnutation. Additionally, under light, there occurred a subsequent decrease in the magnitude, disturbance of circumnutation trajectory and, in some cases, changes in the direction of rotation. The observed stem contraction and disturbance of circumnutation imply the occurrence of turgor changes in sunflower stem, which may be caused by a non-wounding, darkening or illumination stimulus. Our experiments indicate that the disturbances of the growth rate are accompanied by changes in circumnutation parameters but we have also seen that there is no simple quantitative relation between growth rate and circumnutation rate.

  6. Complex relationship between growth and circumnutations in Helianthus annuus stem

    PubMed Central

    Krol, Elzbieta; Dziubinska, Halina; Zawadzki, Tadeusz

    2008-01-01

    The growth and circumnutation of the stem of three-week old Helianthus annuus in the 16:8 h light:dark photoperiod were monitored using an angular position-sensing transducer and a time lapse photography system. It was found that the rate of growth and circumnutation reached a high level in the dark stage; in the light stage, however, only the growth rate reached the same high level, whereas the circumnutations were weak. These results showed that in the light stage the stem circumnutation was downregulated more strongly than the growth. Short-term stem responses to darkening and illumination were a further display of the relation between growth and circumnutations. Switching off the light caused an increase in the growth and circumnutation rate. In some cases it was accompanied by changes in the rotation direction. On the other hand, switching the light on caused an immediate transient (several-minute long) decrease in the growth rate resulting in stem contraction, and this was accompanied by an almost complete pause of circumnutation. Additionally, under light, there occurred a subsequent decrease in the magnitude, disturbance of circumnutation trajectory and, in some cases, changes in the direction of rotation. The observed stem contraction and disturbance of circumnutation imply the occurrence of turgor changes in sunflower stem, which may be caused by a non-wounding, darkening or illumination stimulus. Our experiments indicate that the disturbances of the growth rate are accompanied by changes in circumnutation parameters but we have also seen that there is no simple quantitative relation between growth rate and circumnutation rate. PMID:19513225

  7. Phomopsis stem canker: a re-emerging threat to sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phomopsis stem canker frequently causes yield reductions on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Russia, Europe and North America. Between 2001 and 2012, the incidence of Phomopsis stem canker has increased 16 fold in the Northern Great Plains of the United...

  8. A Novel Biodiversity of Wild Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) Naturally Developed in Central Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sunflower's wild relative, Helianthus annuus L., is a non-native invader in several regions of the world. It was introduced as experimental forage in central Argentina six decades ago where it probably escaped and developed extended populations coexisting with the sunflower crop. If the invasive...

  9. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  10. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  11. Molecular mapping of R11, a novel rust resistance gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an ‘HA 89’ backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), was identified a...

  12. Alternaria roseogrisea, a new species from achenes of Helianthus annuus (sunflower)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternaria roseogrisea was isolated from the achenes of Helianthus annuus L. during studies conducted in 1983-85 to document the diversity of fungi occurring in sunflower seeds and the possible role these fungi play in degradation of oilseed quality. A. roseogrisea was reported as "Alternaria sp. 2...

  13. Abscisic acid content of a nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutant was observed in the progeny of a cross between the sunflower cultivar HA 89 and an amphiploid of a H. divaricatus L. x P21 cross that exhibited loss of dormancy induction in the developing embryo. Seeds of this mutant frequently germinate on the head about 4...

  14. Characterization of a green nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutant ndg

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutant was observed in the progeny of a cross between the sunflower cultivar HA 89 and an amphiploid of a H. divaricatus L. x P21 cross that exhibited loss of dormancy induction in the developing embryo. Seeds of this mutant frequently germinate on the head about 4...

  15. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe ...

  16. Effect of Flooding on Starch Accumulation in Chloroplasts of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Wample, Robert L.; Davis, Ronald W.

    1983-01-01

    Chloroplasts in leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv hybrid 894) whose roots were flooded for 4 days showed an increase in the level of starch in chloroplasts when examined with the electron microscope. Starch determination showed significantly higher levels in leaves of flooded plants. Chloroplast and mitochondrial structure seemed otherwise normal. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16663176

  17. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kantar, Michael B.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Khoury, Colin K.; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C.; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation. PMID:26500675

  18. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Kantar, Michael B; Sosa, Chrystian C; Khoury, Colin K; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation.

  19. Influence of light on DNA content of Helianthus annuus Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Price, H J; Johnston, J S

    1996-10-01

    Mean nuclear 2C DNA content (C equaling haploid DNA per nucleus) of the first leaf of the sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is influenced by the quality and the quantity of light. Seedlings of two inbred lines, RHA 299 and RHA 271 were germinated and grown in controlled environmental conditions. Lighting was adjusted to provide different combinations of photon flux densities and red to far red (R:FR) ratios. At R:FR = 5.8 and photon flux densities of 170 mumol.m-2.s-1, 200 mumol.m-2.s-1, and 230 mumol.m-2.s-1, DNA content remained high and relatively constant (x = 6.97 pg for RHA 271 and x = 7.32 pg for RHA 299). When the photon flux density range (R:FR = 5.8) was elevated to 350 mumol.m-2.s-1, 410 mumol.m-2.s-1, and 470 mumol.m-2.s-1, mean DNA content was reduced to 6.23 pg (RHA 271) and 6.46 pg (RHA 299). At R:FR = 1.5, mean DNA content was consistently high (7.2-7.9 pg) only at the lowest photon flux density of 170 mumol.m-2.s-1. Significant decreases in DNA content (< or = 12%) were observed at photon flux densities of 200 mumol.m-2.s-1 and 230 mumol.m-2.s-1. At the higher photon flux densities (350 mumol.m-2.s-1, 410 mumol.m-2.s-1, and 470 mumol.m-2.s-1) and R:RF = 1.5, the plants had extremely low DNA contents (mean x = 3.36 pg for RHA 271 and 3.41 pg for RHA 299) and high between-plant variance. The instability of DNA content, particularly for plants grown under light that is far red rich, suggests that phytochromes may be involved in regulating DNA content of the sunflower.

  20. Antimony uptake by Zea mays (L.) and Helianthus annuus (L.) from nutrient solution.

    PubMed

    Tschan, Martin; Robinson, Brett; Schulin, Rainer

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the extent of Sb uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from nutrient solutions containing concentrations from 3 to 24 mg/L of potassium antimonate, with the aim of determining the potential of Sb to enter the food chain. The maximum shoot Sb concentrations in Z. mays and H. annuus were 41 mg/kg and 77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. There was no significant difference in Sb uptake between species. The average bioaccumulation coefficients (the plant/solution concentration quotients) were 1.02 and 1.93 for Z. mays and H. annuus, respectively. Phosphate addition did not affect plant growth or Sb uptake. Antimony uptake by both Z. mays and H. annuus is unlikely to pose a health risk to animals and humans.

  1. [Protective effect of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on myocardial infarction in New Zealand rabbit].

    PubMed

    Guardia-Espinoza, Edith; Herrera-Hurtado, Gianina Liseth del Carmen; Garrido-Jacobi, Saúl; Cárdenas-Peralta, Danitza; Martínez-Romero, Christian; Hernández-Figueroa, Pedro; Condori-Calizaya, Mary; La Barrera-Llacchua, Juan; Flores-Ángeles, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Determine the protective effect of oil Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) on myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine in New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were randomized into five groups (8 per group): blank, negative control, experimental 1 (10 mg / kg), experimental 2 (20 mg / kg) and three experimental (40 mg/ kg). Experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received Helianthus annuus oil for two weeks. Epinephrine (2 mg/Kg) to the negative, Experimental Control 1, 2 and 3 groups was given over two consecutive days with an interval of 24 h after pretreatment with oil. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the rabbits were anesthetized and sacrificed. Serum troponin I and polymorphonuclear evaluated by .mu.m.sup.2. Significant difference between the negative control group and the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 was found in the serum variables troponin I and polymorphonuclear by .mu.m.sup.2. Helianthus annuus oil at doses of 20 mg/kg has protective effect on myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine in New Zealand rabbits.

  2. Adaptive introgression of abiotic tolerance traits in the sunflower Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kenneth D; Randell, Rebecca A; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2010-07-01

    *Adaptive trait introgression is increasingly recognized as common. However, it is unclear whether adaptive genetic exchanges typically affect only a single trait, or instead affect multiple aspects of the phenotype. Here, we examine introgression of abiotic tolerance traits between two hybridizing North American sunflower species, Helianthus annuus and Helianthus debilis. *In two common gardens in the hybrid range, we measured 10 ecophysiological, phenological, and architectural traits for parents and their natural and artificial hybrids, and examined how fitness covaried with trait values. *Eight of the 10 traits showed patterns consistent with introgression from H. debilis into H. annuus, and suggested that H. debilis-like traits allowing rapid growth and reproduction before summer heat and drought have been favored in the hybrid range. Natural selection currently favors BC(1) hybrids with H. debilis-like branching traits. *We demonstrate that introgression has altered multiple aspects of the H. annuus phenotype in an adaptive manner, has affected traits relevant to both biotic and abiotic environments, and may have aided expansion of the H. annuus range into central Texas, USA.

  3. Differences between Helianthus winteri and Helianthus annuus are deeper than physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter’s sunflower (Helianthus winteri, Hw), a new sunflower species, is found on rocky, un-grazed, south facing slopes of the Southern Sierra Nevada foothills between the valley edge and several hundred feet upslope. This study characterized physiological differences between Helianthus winteri (Hw)...

  4. The tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method.

  5. Genotoxic effects of the insecticide cypermethrin on the root meristem cells of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Inceer, Huseyin; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ozcan, Melahat

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the genotoxic effects of the insecticide cypermethrin on the root meristem cells of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) were investigated. The roots were treated with 10- 25- 50- and 100-ppm concentrations of cypermethrin for 6, 12 and 24 h. The mitotic index and mitotic abnormalities were determined in both control and test groups. The cypermethrin showed a marked mitodepressive action on mitosis. The types of mitotic abnormalities included disturbed metaphase, c-mitosis, stickiness, laggards and chromatid bridges. A pronounced toxic effect was observed at the 50-ppm concentration. Cypermethrin may have genotoxic effects on sunflowers.

  6. Structure of the stigma and style in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Gotelli, M M; Galati, B G; Medan, D

    2010-12-01

    This is the first report of the ultrastructure of the stigma and style during and after anthesis in Helianthus annuus L. using light and transmission electron microscopy. The stigma is bifid with unicellular papillae. There is no secretion of lipids, carbohydrates or proteins at anthesis. The style is semisolid in the upper portion, closer to the stigma, and becomes solid below. Ultrastructural changes on cells of the stigma and the style are described. The transmitting tissue of the ovule is first evident 40 minutes after pollination and persists during the first stages of embryogenesis. Only one pollen tube per micropyle was observed growing through this tissue.

  7. A morphometric analysis of cellular differentiation in caps of primary and lateral roots of Helianthus annuus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine if patterns of cell differentiation are similar in primary and lateral roots, I performed a morphometric analysis of the ultrastructure of calyptrogen, columella, and peripheral cells in primary and lateral roots of Helianthus annuus. Each cell type is characterized by a unique ultrastructure, and the ultrastructural changes characteristic of cellular differentiation in root caps are organelle specific. No major structural differences exist in the structures of the composite cell types, or in patterns of cell differentiation in caps of primary vs. lateral roots.

  8. A morphometric analysis of cellular differentiation in caps of primary and lateral roots of Helianthus annuus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine if patterns of cell differentiation are similar in primary and lateral roots, I performed a morphometric analysis of the ultrastructure of calyptrogen, columella, and peripheral cells in primary and lateral roots of Helianthus annuus. Each cell type is characterized by a unique ultrastructure, and the ultrastructural changes characteristic of cellular differentiation in root caps are organelle specific. No major structural differences exist in the structures of the composite cell types, or in patterns of cell differentiation in caps of primary vs. lateral roots.

  9. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Rec...

  10. A survey of the foliar and soil arthropod communities in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fields in central and eastern South Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The long coevolutionary history between sunflowers (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae) and arthropods in the Northern Great Plains has resulted in a commonly grown oilseed crop that harbors a large diversity of insects. A bioenventory of foliar and subterranean arthropods was performed in 22 ...

  11. Natural Variation in Gene Expression Between Wild and Weedy Populations of Helianthus annuus

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Zhao; Kane, Nolan C.; Zou, Yi; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular genetic changes underlying the transformation of wild plants into agricultural weeds are poorly understood. Here we use a sunflower cDNA microarray to detect variation in gene expression between two wild (non-weedy) Helianthus annuus populations from Utah and Kansas and four weedy H. annuus populations collected from agricultural fields in Utah, Kansas, Indiana, and California. When grown in a common growth chamber environment, populations differed substantially in their gene expression patterns, indicating extensive genetic differentiation. Overall, 165 uni-genes, representing ∼5% of total genes on the array, showed significant differential expression in one or more weedy populations when compared to both wild populations. This subset of genes is enriched for abiotic/biotic stimulus and stress response proteins, which may underlie niche transitions from the natural sites to agricultural fields for H. annuus. However, only a small proportion of the differentially expressed genes overlapped in multiple wild vs. weedy comparisons, indicating that most of the observed expression changes are due to local adaptation or neutral processes, as opposed to parallel genotypic adaptation to agricultural fields. These results are consistent with an earlier phylogeographic study suggesting that weedy sunflowers have evolved multiple times in different regions of the United States and further indicate that the evolution of weedy sunflowers has been accompanied by substantial gene expression divergence in different weedy populations. PMID:18689879

  12. Cynarin-rich sunflower (Helianthus annuus) sprouts possess both antiglycative and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Chen, Jingnan; Ma, Jinyu; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Mingfu; Ren, Guixing; Chen, Feng

    2012-03-28

    The present study examined the antiglycative and antioxidant properties of four edible sprouts popular in Chinese markets. In a protein-reducing sugar model, the sunflower sprout Helianthus annuus exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects against the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). At a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL, its inhibitory rate achieved 83.29%, which is stronger than that of aminoguanidine (1 mM), a well-known synthetic antiglycative agent (with an inhibitory rate of 80.88%). The antioxidant capacity of H. annuus was also much stronger than other sprout samples in terms of free radical scavenging and reducing properties. An active ingredient contributing to the observed activities was identified as cynarin (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid). This is the first report of the novel function of cynarin to intervene against glycoxidation. Given the key roles of AGEs and oxidation in the pathogenesis of diabetes, the sunflower sprout H. annuus rich in cynarin may be regarded as a beneficial food choice for diabetic patients.

  13. Breaking tuber dormancy in Helianthus tuberosus L. and interspecific hybrids of Helianthus annuus L. x Helianthus tuberosus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers are dormant from the late fall to the following spring. In the wild, tuber dormancy is broken after exposure to winter cold, resulting in sprouting and shoot development in the spring when environmental conditions are favorable. The dormancy period typically limits H. ...

  14. Phytoaccumulation of lead by sunflower (Helianthus annuus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides).

    PubMed

    Boonyapookana, Benjaporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Techapinyawat, Sombun; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2005-01-01

    The ability of three plant species: Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum, and Vetiveria zizanioides for phytoaccumulation of Pb was studied. Plants were grown in hydroponic solution containing Pb(NO3)2 at concentration of 0.25 and 2.5 mM Pb in the presence or absence of chelating agents (EDTA or DTPA). Lead (Pb) transport and localization within the tissues of the plant species was determined using scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM-EDS). The addition of chelators increased Pb uptake as compared to plants grown in solution containing Pb alone. Lead taken up by the plant species were concentrated in both leaf and stem at the region of vascular bundles with greater amounts in the leaf portion. Lead granules were also found in the H. annuus root tissue from the epidermis layer to the central axis. After four weeks of growth a 23-fold increase in shoot Pb content for H. annuus and N. tabacum and 17-fold increase in shoot Pb for V. zizanioides resulted from plants grown in the 2.5 mM Pb-EDTA treatment. The higher Pb treatment (2.5 mM Pb containing EDTA) resulted in higher concentrations of Pb in plant tissue at the fourth week of exposure as compared to Pb treatment containing DTPA. Overall, Pb accumulation potential of H. annuus was greater than that of N. tabacum and V. zizanioides as indicated by the bioconcentration factor (171, 70, and 88, respectively). The highest measured Pb concentrations were found in H. annuus roots, stems, and leaves (2668, 843, and 3611 microg/g DW, respectively) grown in the 2.5 mM Pb-EDTA treatment. The addition of chelators caused some reduction in plant growth and biomass. Results showed that the three plant species tested have potential for use in phytoaccumulation of Pb since the Pb was concentrated in leaf and stem as compared to control plants. H. annuus however best meet the prerequisites for a hyperaccumulator plant and would have the potential for use in the restoration of

  15. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide.

  16. Plant growth regulating activity of three polyacetylenes from Helianthus annuus L.

    PubMed

    Hong, Si Won; Hasegawa, Koji; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    Three polyacetylenes, 8-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-hydroxy-1,9,14-pentadecatriene-4,6-diyne, termed "helian"(1), 8-acetoxy-3-hydroxy-1,9,14-pentadecatriene-4,6-diyne (2), and 3,8-dihydroxy-1,9,14-pentadecatriene-4,6-diyne (3) were isolated from seedlings of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. cv Russia. Compounds 1 and 2, having a beta-glucose and an acetoxy group at C-8, respectively, showed a weak effect on the growth of roots and shoots of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and cress (Lepidium sativum L.), while compound 3, having a free hydroxyl group at C-8, exhibited a growth promoting effect on the roots and shoots of rice and cress.

  17. Growth, biochemical modifications and proline metabolism in Helianthus annuus L. as induced by drought stress.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, P; Jaleel, C Abdul; Sankar, B; Kishorekumar, A; Somasundaram, R; Lakshmanan, G M A; Panneerselvam, R

    2007-10-01

    In the present investigation, two watering treatments, viz., 100% and 60% field capacity (FC) were used to understand the effects of water deficit on early growth, biomass allocation, pigment and biochemical constituents and proline metabolism of five varieties of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. We found that there was a significant difference in early growth, dry matter accumulation, pigment, biochemical constituents and proline metabolism among the five varieties. The root length, shoot length, total leaf area, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid were significantly reduced under water stress treatments. Water stress increased the proline, free amino acid and glycinebetaine contents along with increased activity of gamma-glutamyl kinase but the activity of proline oxidase reduced as a consequence of water stress.

  18. Bacterial Cr(VI) reduction concurrently improves sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) growth.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida

    2005-07-01

    Four Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial strains (Ochrobactrum intermedium, CrT-2, CrT-3 and CrT-4) previously isolated from chromium-contaminated sites were inoculated on to seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus var SF-187), which were germinated and grown along with non-inoculated controls with chromate salts (300 microg CrCl3 or K2CrO4 ml(-1)). Severe reduction (20%) in seed germination was observed in Cr(VI) stress. Plant height decreased (36%) with Cr(VI) when compared with chromium-free control, while O. intermedium inoculation resulted a 20% increment in this parameter as compared to non-inoculated chromium-free control. CrT-3 inoculation resulted a 69% increment in auxin content as compared to non-inoculated control. O. intermedium caused 30% decrease in chromium uptake in sunflower plant roots under Cr(VI) stress as compared to chromium-free control plants.

  19. Differential expression of proteins induced by lead in the Dwarf Sunflower Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Walliwalagedara, Chamari; Atkinson, Ian; van Keulen, Harry; Cutright, Teresa; Wei, Robert

    2010-09-01

    The Dwarf Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is a hyperaccumulator of toxic metals including cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). In order to identify stress response to Pb, plants were exposed to a mixture of 30 mg/l of three ions, Cd, Cr, and Ni, with and without Pb. Soluble proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four proteins were differentially expressed and very abundant in the leaf samples after plants were exposed to all these four metals. The first protein spot contained two proteins: chitinase and a chloroplast drought-induced stress protein CDSP-34. The second spot contained a thaumatin-like protein. Two proteins in spot 3 were identified as heat-shock cognate 70-1 and the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Several peptides were identified in spot 4 but none could be matched to any sequence in the NCBI database.

  20. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid.

  1. Modulation of inflammatory responses by diterpene acids from Helianthus annuus L.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Viciedo, Rodrigo; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Girón, Natalia; Massó, Jose M; Rodriguez, Benjamín; Villar, Angel; de Las Heras, Beatriz

    2008-05-02

    Fractionation of a petroleum ether extract of Helianthus annuus L. led to the isolation of three diterpene acids: grandiflorolic, kaurenoic and trachylobanoic acids. These compounds were studied for potential anti-inflammatory activity on the generation of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. At non-toxic concentrations, these compounds reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) production, as well as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). All diterpenoids displayed significant in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and suppressed the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-mouse ear edema. In addition, inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, an index of cellular infiltration, was observed. In summary, our results suggest that the inhibition of the expression of NOS-2, COX-2 and the release of inflammatory cytokines, is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of the diterpenoids isolated from H. annuus L. which likely contributes to the pharmacological action of sunflower.

  2. Patterns of microsatellite evolution inferred from the Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Sreepriya; Perkins, Andy D; Welch, Mark E

    2014-08-01

    The distribution of microsatellites in exons, and their association with gene ontology (GO) terms is explored to elucidate patterns of microsatellite evolution in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. The relative position, motif, size and level of impurity were estimated for each microsatellite in the unigene database available from the Compositae Genome Project (CGP), and statistical analyses were performed to determine if differences in microsatellite distributions and enrichment within certain GO terms were significant. There are more translated than untranslated microsatellites, implying that many bring about structural changes in proteins. However, the greatest density is observed within the UTRs, particularly 5'UTRs. Further, UTR microsatellites are purer and longer than coding region microsatellites. This suggests that UTR microsatellites are either younger and under more relaxed constraints, or that purifying selection limits impurities, and directional selection favours their expansion. GOs associated with response to various environmental stimuli including water deprivation and salt stress were significantly enriched with microsatellites. This may suggest that these GOs are more labile in plant genomes, or that selection has favoured the maintenance of microsatellites in these genes over others. This study shows that the distribution of transcribed microsatellites in H. annuus is nonrandom, the coding region microsatellites are under greater constraint compared to the UTR microsatellites, and that these sequences are enriched within genes that regulate plant responses to environmental stress and stimuli.

  3. Biologically active antimicrobial and antioxidant substances in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen.

    PubMed

    Fatrcová-Šramková, Katarína; Nôžková, Janka; Máriássyová, Magda; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the content of flavonoids, polyphenols, and carotenoids in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen. It was also to evaluate the ability of the dried, frozen, and freeze-dried extracts of sunflower (H. annuus) pollen, its scavenged free radicals and reducing action. Another aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial in vitro action of the H. annuus pollen extracts against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. All pollen extracts showed medium antiradical activity and reductive ability. The most effective was the freeze-dried extract in both evaluation systems. The evaluation of the protective effects of DNA using a biosensor showed an opposite trending-frozen ˃ dried ˃ freeze-dried pollen. For the evaluation of antiradical activity, the DPPH method was used, and reductive ability was assessed by means of phosphomolybdic complex formation. The comparison of the polyphenols content shows higher values in freeze-dried bee pollen than in the dried and frozen pollen. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the frozen samples and the most carotenoids were present in the dried samples. In our study, the best antibacterial effects of the dried sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best inhibitory properties of the frozen sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paenibacillus larvae. Very good inhibitory effects of freeze-dried sunflower bee pollen were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Brochotrix thermosphacta, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best antifungal activity of the sunflower bee pollen was found in the frozen bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus ochraceus and freeze-dried bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus niger.

  4. Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Leaf Surface Defenses to Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Heather C.; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness. PMID:22623991

  5. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  6. Genetics of species differences in the wild annual sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris.

    PubMed

    Lexer, Christian; Rosenthal, David M; Raymond, Olivier; Donovan, Lisa A; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2005-04-01

    Much of our knowledge of speciation genetics stems from quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies. However, interpretations of the size and distribution of QTL underlying species differences are complicated by differences in the way QTL magnitudes are estimated. Also, many studies fail to exploit information about QTL directions or to compare inter- and intraspecific QTL variation. Here, we comprehensively analyze an extensive QTL data set for an interspecific backcross between two wild annual sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris, interpret different estimates of QTL magnitudes, identify trait groups that have diverged through selection, and compare inter- and intraspecific QTL magnitudes. Our results indicate that even minor QTL (in terms of backcross variance) may be surprisingly large compared to levels of standing variation in the parental species or phenotypic differences between them. Morphological traits, particularly flower morphology, were more strongly or consistently selected than life history or physiological traits. Also, intraspecific QTL were generally smaller than interspecific ones, consistent with the prediction that larger QTL are more likely to spread to fixation across a subdivided population. Our results inform the genetics of species differences in Helianthus and suggest an approach for the simultaneous mapping of inter- and intraspecific QTL.

  7. Genetics of Species Differences in the Wild Annual Sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris

    PubMed Central

    Lexer, Christian; Rosenthal, David M.; Raymond, Olivier; Donovan, Lisa A.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2005-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of speciation genetics stems from quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies. However, interpretations of the size and distribution of QTL underlying species differences are complicated by differences in the way QTL magnitudes are estimated. Also, many studies fail to exploit information about QTL directions or to compare inter- and intraspecific QTL variation. Here, we comprehensively analyze an extensive QTL data set for an interspecific backcross between two wild annual sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris, interpret different estimates of QTL magnitudes, identify trait groups that have diverged through selection, and compare inter- and intraspecific QTL magnitudes. Our results indicate that even minor QTL (in terms of backcross variance) may be surprisingly large compared to levels of standing variation in the parental species or phenotypic differences between them. Morphological traits, particularly flower morphology, were more strongly or consistently selected than life history or physiological traits. Also, intraspecific QTL were generally smaller than interspecific ones, consistent with the prediction that larger QTL are more likely to spread to fixation across a subdivided population. Our results inform the genetics of species differences in Helianthus and suggest an approach for the simultaneous mapping of inter- and intraspecific QTL. PMID:15545657

  8. Helikaurolides A-D with a Diterpene-Sesquiterpene Skeleton from Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Varela, Rosa M; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macías, Francisco A

    2015-10-02

    Four novel compounds (1-4) with an unprecedented skeleton that combines a sesquiterpene lactone and a kaurane diterpene acid were isolated from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna extract, which was obtained under supercritical conditions. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. The biosynthetic routes involve sesquiterpene lactones and kauranic acid, both of which were previously isolated from this species.

  9. Light intensity alters the extent of arsenic toxicity in Helianthus annuus L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Geeta; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-06-01

    The present study is aimed at assessing the extent of arsenic (As) toxicity under three different light intensities-optimum (400 μmole photon m(-2) s(-1)), sub-optimum (225 μmole photon m(-2) s(-1)), and low (75 μmole photon m(-2) s(-1))-exposed to Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 seedlings by examining various physiological and biochemical parameters. Irrespective of the light intensities under which H. annuus L. seedlings were grown, there was an As dose (low, i.e., 6 mg kg(-1) soil, As1; and high, i.e., 12 mg kg(-1) soil, As2)-dependent decrease in all the growth parameters, viz., fresh mass, shoot length, and root length. Optimum light-grown seedlings exhibited better growth performance than the sub-optimum and low light-grown seedlings; however, low light-grown plants had maximum root and shoot lengths. Accumulation of As in the plant tissues depended upon its concentration used, proximity of the plant tissue, and intensity of the light. Greater intensity of light allowed greater assimilation of photosynthates accompanied by more uptake of nutrients along with As from the medium. The levels of chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids declined with increasing concentrations of As. Seedlings acquired maximum Chl a and b under optimum light which were more compatible to face As1 and As2 doses of As, also evident from the overall status of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT, and GST) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (Pro).

  10. Metal accumulation by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and the efficacy of its biomass in enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jinglin; Kim, Dongwook; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil). The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4%) was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt), whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt) was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (%) as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7%) from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production.

  11. Metal accumulation by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and the efficacy of its biomass in enzymatic saccharification

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jinglin; Kim, Dongwook; Kalia, Vipin C.; Kim, In-Won; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10–2,000 mg/kg dry soil). The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4%) was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt), whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt) was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (%) as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7%) from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production. PMID:28437478

  12. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductase genes.

    PubMed

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductases from sunflower. A major factor contributing to the amount of fatty acids in plant oils are the first steps of their synthesis. The intraplastidic fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS). The last step in each elongation cycle is carried out by the enoyl-[ACP]-reductase, which reduces the dehydrated product of β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydrase using NADPH or NADH. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two enoyl-[ACP]-reductase genes have been identified and cloned from developing seeds with 75 % identity: HaENR1 (GenBank HM021137) and HaENR2 (HM021138). The two genes belong to the ENRA and ENRB families in dicotyledons, respectively. The genetic duplication most likely originated after the separation of di- and monocotyledons. RT-qPCR revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Highest expression of HaENR1 was in roots, stems and developing cotyledons whereas that of H a ENR2 was in leaves and early stages of seed development. Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single-copy genes. In vivo activity of the ENR enzymes was tested by complementation experiments with the JP1111 fabI(ts) E. coli strain. Both enzymes were functional demonstrating that they interacted with the bacterial FAS components. That different fatty acid profiles resulted infers that the two Helianthus proteins have different structures, substrate specificities and/or reaction rates. The latter possibility was confirmed by in vitro analysis with affinity-purified heterologous-expressed enzymes that reduced the crotonyl-CoA substrate using NADH with different V max.

  13. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2013-07-01

    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments.

  14. Catalase degradation in sunflower cotyledons during peroxisome transition from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function. [Helianthus annuus

    SciTech Connect

    Eising, R.; Gerhardt, B.

    1987-06-01

    First order rate constant for the degradation (degradation constants) of catalase in the cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were determined by measuring the loss of catalase containing /sup 14/C-labeled heme. During greening of the cotyledons, a period when peroxisomes change from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function, the degradation of glyoxysomal catalase is significantly slower than during all other stages of cotyledon development in light or darkness. The degradation constant during the transition stage of peroxisome function amounts to 0.205 day/sup -1/ in contrast to the constants ranging from 0.304 day/sup -1/ to 0.515 day/sup -1/ during the other developmental stages. Density labeling experiments comprising labeling of catalase with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and its isopycnic centrifugation on CsCl gradients demonstrated that the determinations of the degradation constants were not substantially affected by reutilization of /sup 14/C-labeled compounds for catalase synthesis. The degradation constants for both glyoxysomal catalase and catalase synthesized during the transition of peroxisome function do not differ. This was shown by labeling the catalases with different isotopes and measuring the isotope ratio during the development of the cotyledons. The results are inconsistent with the concept that an accelerated and selective degradation of glyoxysomes underlies the change in peroxisome function. The data suggest that catalase degradation is at least partially due to an individual turnover of catalase and does not only result from a turnover of the whole peroxisomes.

  15. Cr localization and speciation in roots of chromate fed Helianthus annuus L. seedlings using synchrotron techniques.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Bernal-Alvarado, Jesús; Córdova-Fraga, Teodoro; López-Moreno, Laura; Cotte, Marine

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge on the potential use of Helianthus annuus L. for the remediation of Cr(VI) polluted waters, hydroponics experiments were set up to determine Cr uptake and tolerance in different Cr(VI)-sulfate conditions, and Cr biotransformations. Results indicated that Cr(VI) promoted seed germination, and plant tolerance was higher at younger plant stages. Cr uptake was dependent on sulfate concentrations. The highest Cr levels in roots and shoots (13,700 and 2,500 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively) were obtained in 1 mM sulfate. The lowest Cr uptake in roots (10,600 mg kg(-1) DW) was observed in seedlings treated with no sulfate. In shoots, Cr concentration was of 1,500 mg kg(-1)DW for the 1 mM sulfate treatment, indicating a different level of interaction between chromate and sulfate in both tissues. For the first time, using micro X-ray florescence (muXRF), we demonstrated Cr reaches the root stele and is located in the walls of xylem vessels. Bulk and micro X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (muXANES) results showed that Cr in the roots is mostly in the form of Cr(III) phosphate (80%), with the remainder complexed to organic acids. Our results suggest this plant species may serve for Cr(VI) rhizofiltration purposes.

  16. Effects of sewage sludge fertilizer on heavy metal accumulation and consequent responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Dalel; Elloumi, Nada; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Zouari, Mohamed; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Ayadi, Habib; Kallel, Monem

    2016-10-01

    Use of sewage sludge, a biological residue produced from sewage treatment processes in agriculture, is an alternative disposal technique of waste. To study the usefulness of sewage sludge amendment for Helianthus annuus, a pot experiment was conducted by mixing sewage sludge at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 % (w/w) amendment ratios to the agricultural soil. Soil pH decreased whereas electrical conductivity, organic matter, total N, available P, and exchangeable Na, K, and Ca increased in soil amended with sewage sludge in comparison to unamended soil. Sewage sludge amendment led to significant increase in Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations of soil. The increased concentration of heavy metals in soil due to sewage sludge amendment led to increases in shoot and root concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in plant as compared to those grown on unamended soil. Accumulation was more in roots than shoots for most of the heavy metals. Moreover, high metal removal for the harvestable parts of the crops was recorded. Sewage sludge amendment increased root and shoot length, leaves number, biomass, and antioxidant activities of sunflower. Significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the glutathione, proline, and soluble sugar content in response to amendment with sewage sludge may be defense mechanisms induced in response to heavy metal stress. Graphical abstract Origin, fate and behavior of sewage sludge fertilizer.

  17. Isolation and functional characterization of two novel seed-specific promoters from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Zavallo, Diego; Lopez Bilbao, Marisa; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth

    2010-03-01

    The promoter region of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. HA89 genotype) seed specifically expressed genes, coding for an oleate desaturase (HaFAD2-1) and a lipid transfer protein (HaAP10), were cloned and in silico characterized. The isolated fragments are 867 and 964 bp long, respectively, and contain several seed-specific motifs, such as AACA motif, ACGT element, E-Boxes, SEF binding sites and GCN4 motif. Functional analysis of these promoters in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was investigated after fusing them with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. None of the promoters triggered GUS activity in any vegetative tissue, with the exception of early seedling cotyledons. HaFAD2-1 and HaAP10 promoters were tested along seed development from globular stage to mature seeds. GUS staining was restricted to embryonic tissue and quantitative fluorometric assays showed high activity values at the later stages of development. In this work we demonstrate that HaFAD2-1 promoter is as strong as 35S promoter even though it is a tissue-specific promoter and its activity derived just from the embryo, thus confirming that it can be considered a strong highly specific seed promoter useful for biotechnology applications.

  18. HACRE1, a recently inserted copia-like retrotransposon of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Buti, M; Giordani, T; Vukich, M; Gentzbittel, L; Pistelli, L; Cattonaro, F; Morgante, M; Cavallini, A; Natali, L

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we report on the isolation and characterization, for the first time, of a complete 6511 bp retrotransposon of sunflower. Considering its protein domain order and sequence similarity to other copia elements of dicotyledons, this retrotransposon was assigned to the copia retrotransposon superfamily and named HACRE1 (Helianthus annuus copia-like retroelement 1). HACRE1 carries 5' and 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs) flanking an internal region of 4661 bp. The LTRs are identical in their sequence except for two deletions of 7 and 5 nucleotides in the 5' LTR. Based on the sequence identity of the LTRs, HACRE1 was estimated to have inserted within the last approximately 84 000 years. The isolated sequence contains a complete open reading frame with only one complete reading frame. The absence of nonsense mutations agrees with the very high sequence identity between LTRs, confirming that HACRE1 insertion is recent. The haploid genome of sunflower (inbred line HCM) contains about 160 copies of HACRE1. This retrotransposon is expressed in leaflets from 7-day-old plantlets under different light conditions, probably in relation to the occurrence of many putative light-related regulatory cis-elements in the LTRs. However, sequenced cDNAs show less variability than HACRE1 genomic sequences, indicating that only a subset of this family is expressed under these conditions.

  19. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, David L.; Pohl, Mary DeLand; Alvarado, José Luis; Tarighat, Somayeh; Bye, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Mexico has long been recognized as one of the world's cradles of domestication with evidence for squash (Cucurbita pepo) cultivation appearing as early as 8,000 cal B.C. followed by many other plants, such as maize (Zea mays), peppers (Capsicum annuum), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We present archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric data demonstrating that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) had entered the repertoire of Mexican domesticates by ca. 2600 cal B.C., that its cultivation was widespread in Mexico and extended as far south as El Salvador by the first millennium B.C., that it was well known to the Aztecs, and that it is still in use by traditional Mesoamerican cultures today. The sunflower's association with indigenous solar religion and warfare in Mexico may have led to its suppression after the Spanish Conquest. The discovery of ancient sunflower in Mexico refines our knowledge of domesticated Mesoamerican plants and adds complexity to our understanding of cultural evolution. PMID:18443289

  20. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lentz, David L; Pohl, Mary DeLand; Alvarado, José Luis; Tarighat, Somayeh; Bye, Robert

    2008-04-29

    Mexico has long been recognized as one of the world's cradles of domestication with evidence for squash (Cucurbita pepo) cultivation appearing as early as 8,000 cal B.C. followed by many other plants, such as maize (Zea mays), peppers (Capsicum annuum), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We present archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric data demonstrating that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) had entered the repertoire of Mexican domesticates by ca. 2600 cal B.C., that its cultivation was widespread in Mexico and extended as far south as El Salvador by the first millennium B.C., that it was well known to the Aztecs, and that it is still in use by traditional Mesoamerican cultures today. The sunflower's association with indigenous solar religion and warfare in Mexico may have led to its suppression after the Spanish Conquest. The discovery of ancient sunflower in Mexico refines our knowledge of domesticated Mesoamerican plants and adds complexity to our understanding of cultural evolution.

  1. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Febina M; Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Jordahl, James G; Meyer, Scott M; Castlebury, Lisa A; Gulya, Thomas J; Markell, Samuel G

    2015-07-01

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe helianthi was assumed to be the sole causal agent in the United States, a newly described species, D. gulyae, was found to be the primary cause of Phomopsis stem canker in Australia. To determine the identity of Diaporthe spp. causing Phomopsis stem canker in the Northern Great Plains, 275 infected stems were collected between 2010 and 2012. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, elongation factor subunit 1-α, and actin gene regions of representative isolates, in comparison with those of type specimens, confirmed two species (D. helianthi and D. gulyae) in the United States. Differences in aggressiveness between the two species were determined using the stem-wound method in the greenhouse; overall, D. helianthi and D. gulyae did not vary significantly (P≤0.05) in their aggressiveness at 10 and 14 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that both Diaporthe spp. have emerged as sunflower pathogens in the United States, and have implications on the management of this disease.

  2. Glutamate induces series of action potentials and a decrease in circumnutation rate in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Stolarz, Maria; Król, Elzbieta; Dziubińska, Halina; Kurenda, Andrzej

    2010-03-01

    Reports concerning the function of glutamate (Glu) in the electrical and movement phenomena in plants are scarce. Using the method of extracellular measurement, we recorded electrical potential changes in the stem of 3-week-old Helianthus annuus L. plants after injection of Glu solution. Simultaneously, circumnutation movements of the stem were measured with the use of time-lapse images. Injection of Glu solution at millimolar (200, 50, 5 mM) concentrations in the basal part of the stem evoked a series of action potentials (APs). The APs appeared in the site of injection and in different parts of the stem and were propagated acropetally and/or basipetally along the stem. Glu injection also resulted in a transient, approximately 5-h-long decrease in the stem circumnutation rate. The APs initiated and propagating in the sunflower stem after Glu injection testify the existence of a Glu perception system in vascular plants and suggest its involvement in electrical, long-distance signaling. Our experiments also demonstrated that Glu is a factor affecting circumnutation movements.

  3. Capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae): ultrastructure and cytological development.

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, produce sesquiterpene lactones (STL) and flavonoids, which are sequestered and accumulated between the apical cuticle and the wall of the tip cells. To explore the cellular structures required and putatively involved in the STL biosynthesis and secretion, the present study was focused on the development of CGT and the comparison of the ultrastructure of its different cell types. Gradual maturation of flowers in the capitulum of the sunflower provided the possibility to study the simultaneous differentiation from the primordial to the secretory stage of CGT located by light microscopy (bright field, differential interference contrast and fluorescence) as well as transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the CGT of sunflower anthers had a biseriate structure with up to 14 cell pairs. In mature trichomes, the apical cells called secretory cells were covered entirely by a large cuticle globe, which enclosed the resinous terpenoids and was specialised in thickness and structure. The secretory cells lacked chloroplasts and contained mainly smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER). Conspicuous cell wall protuberances and an accumulation of mitochondria nearby occurred in the horizontally oriented cell walls. The cytological differences between stalk cells and secretory cells indicate a different function. The dominance of sER suggests its involvement in STL biosynthesis and cell wall protuberances enlarge the surface of the plasmamembrane of secretory cells and may be involved in the secretion processes of STL into the subcuticular space.

  4. Distinct light responses of the adaxial and abaxial stomata in intact leaves of Helianthus annuus L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2008-09-01

    Using a laboratory-constructed system that can measure the gas exchange rates of two leaf surfaces separately, the light responses of the adaxial and abaxial stomata in intact leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were investigated, keeping the intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)) at 300 microL L(-1). When evenly illuminating both sides of the leaf, the stomatal conductance (g(s)) of the abaxial surface was higher than that of the adaxial surface at any light intensity. When each surface of the leaf was illuminated separately, both the adaxial and abaxial stomata were more sensitive to the light transmitted through the leaf (self-transmitted light) than to direct illumination. Relationships between the whole leaf photosynthetic rate (A(n)) and the g(s) for each side highlighted a strong dependence of stomatal opening on mesophyll photosynthesis. Light transmitted through another leaf was more effective than the direct white light for the abaxial stomata, but not for the adaxial stomata. Moreover, green monochromatic light induced an opening of the abaxial stomata, but not of the adaxial stomata. As the proportion of blue light in the transmitted light is less than that in the white light, there may be some uncharacterized light responses, which are responsible for the opening of the abaxial stomata by the transmitted, green light.

  5. Chloroplast SSR polymorphisms in the Compositae and the mode of organellar inheritance in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Wills, David M; Hester, Melissa L; Liu, Aizhong; Burke, John M

    2005-03-01

    Because organellar genomes are often uniparentally inherited, chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymorphisms have become the markers of choice for investigating evolutionary issues such as sex-biased dispersal and the directionality of introgression. To the extent that organellar inheritance is strictly maternal, it has also been suggested that the insertion of transgenes into either the chloroplast or mitochondrial genomes would reduce the likelihood of gene escape via pollen flow from crop fields into wild plant populations. In this paper we describe the adaptation of chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) for use in the Compositae. This work resulted in the identification of 12 loci that are variable across the family, seven of which were further shown to be highly polymorphic within sunflower (Helianthus annuus). We then used these markers, along with a novel mtDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), to investigate the mode of organellar inheritance in a series of experimental crosses designed to mimic the initial stages of crop-wild hybridization in sunflower. Although we cannot rule out the possibility of extremely rare paternal transmission, our results provide the best evidence to date of strict maternal organellar inheritance in sunflower, suggesting that organellar gene containment may be a viable strategy in sunflower. Moreover, the portability of these markers suggests that they will provide a ready source of cpDNA polymorphisms for use in evolutionary studies across the Compositae.

  6. Estimation of mating system parameters in an evolving gynodioecous population of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Roumet, M; Ostrowski, M-F; David, J; Tollon, C; Muller, M-H

    2012-04-01

    Cultivated plants have been molded by human-induced selection, including manipulations of the mating system in the twentieth century. How these manipulations have affected realized parameters of the mating system in freely evolving cultivated populations is of interest for optimizing the management of breeding populations, predicting the fate of escaped populations and providing material for experimental evolution studies. To produce modern varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), self-incompatibility has been broken, recurrent generations of selfing have been performed and male sterility has been introduced. Populations deriving from hybrid-F1 varieties are gynodioecious because of the segregation of a nuclear restorer of male fertility. Using both phenotypic and genotypic data at 11 microsatellite loci, we analyzed the consanguinity status of plants of the first three generations of such a population and estimated parameters related to the mating system. We showed that the resource reallocation to seed in male-sterile individuals was not significant, that inbreeding depression on seed production averaged 15-20% and that cultivated sunflower had acquired a mixed-mating system, with ∼50% of selfing among the hermaphrodites. According to theoretical models, the female advantage and the inbreeding depression at the seed production stage were too low to allow the persistence of male sterility. We discuss our methods of parameter estimation and the potential of such study system in evolutionary biology.

  7. Effect of chromium on growth attributes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Fozia, Andaleeb; Muhammad, Anjum Zia; Muhammad, Ashraf; Zafar, Mahmood Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal soil pollution takes place when the metal concentration of soil exceeds natural background level and causes ecological destruction and deterioration of the environment. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chromium-contaminated soil in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) growth attributes. Three different levels of chromium (Cr) i.e., 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg were applied to three varieties of sunflower (G-3, G-9, and G-59). The results of morphological, chemical, and yield parameters were recorded at crop maturity. The result showed that germination, root, and shoot lengths were decreased with increase in Cr concentrations. A gradual decrease was observed for various morphological parameters like root fresh and dry weights, shoot fresh and dry weights, and plant height with increase in Cr levels. A comparison among Cr treatments obtained a significant decrease in yield parameters as achenes/capitulum, achenes/plant, and 100 achenes weight in three varieties. Cr was significantly absorbed by roots but its transport to other parts of plants was slow, and uptake in seeds was much lower than in roots and shoots.

  8. Estimation of mating system parameters in an evolving gynodioecous population of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Roumet, M; Ostrowski, M-F; David, J; Tollon, C; Muller, M-H

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated plants have been molded by human-induced selection, including manipulations of the mating system in the twentieth century. How these manipulations have affected realized parameters of the mating system in freely evolving cultivated populations is of interest for optimizing the management of breeding populations, predicting the fate of escaped populations and providing material for experimental evolution studies. To produce modern varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), self-incompatibility has been broken, recurrent generations of selfing have been performed and male sterility has been introduced. Populations deriving from hybrid-F1 varieties are gynodioecious because of the segregation of a nuclear restorer of male fertility. Using both phenotypic and genotypic data at 11 microsatellite loci, we analyzed the consanguinity status of plants of the first three generations of such a population and estimated parameters related to the mating system. We showed that the resource reallocation to seed in male-sterile individuals was not significant, that inbreeding depression on seed production averaged 15–20% and that cultivated sunflower had acquired a mixed-mating system, with ∼50% of selfing among the hermaphrodites. According to theoretical models, the female advantage and the inbreeding depression at the seed production stage were too low to allow the persistence of male sterility. We discuss our methods of parameter estimation and the potential of such study system in evolutionary biology. PMID:21915147

  9. Trichome differentiation on leaf primordia of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae): morphology, gene expression and metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Amrehn, Evelyn; Bechtel, Lisa; Spring, Otmar

    2015-04-01

    Sunflower trichomes fully develop on embryonic plumula within 3 days after start of germination. Toxic sesquiterpene lactones are produced immediately thereafter thus protecting the apical bud of the seedling against herbivory. Helianthus annuus harbors non-glandular and two different types of multicellular glandular trichomes, namely the biseriate capitate glandular trichomes and the uniseriate linear glandular trichomes. The development of capitate glandular trichomes is well known from anther tips on sunflower disk florets, but not from leaves and no information is yet available on the development of the linear glandular trichomes. Scanning electron microscopy of sunflower seedlings unravelled that within the first 40 h of seed germination all three types of trichomes started to emerge on primordia of the first true leaves. Within the following 20-30 h trichomes developed from trichoblasts to fully differentiated hairs. Gene expression studies showed that genes involved in the trichome-based sesquiterpene lactone formation were up-regulated between 72 and 96 h after start of germination. Metabolite profiling with HPLC confirmed the synthesis of sesquiterpene lactones which may contribute to protect the germinating seedlings from herbivory. The study has shown that sunflower leaf primordia can serve as a fast and easy to handle model system for the investigation of trichome development in Asteraceae.

  10. Μetal Uptake by Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Irrigated with Water Polluted with Chromium and Nickel

    PubMed Central

    Stoikou, Vasiliki; Andrianos, Vangelis; Stasinos, Sotiris; Kostakis, Marios G.; Attiti, Sofia; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in our previous work, the cross-contamination of the food chain with these two heavy metals was quantified. In the present study, the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivation in these regions is evaluated. The scope of our study was to investigate the uptake of chromium and nickel by sunflower, in a greenhouse experiment. The study included two cultivation periods of plants in six irrigation lines with different levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ranging from 0 μg/L (control) to 10,000 μg/L. In all plant parts, statistically significant increased levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) were found when compared to control ones. Also, a positive correlation, both for Cr and Ni, between levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and plants was observed. Following European Food Safety Authority recommendations, the obtained oil was evaluated as safe for consumption, therefore, sunflower cultivation could be a valid bioremediation solution for the Asopos and Messapia regions. PMID:28714908

  11. Mineral uptake and biochemical changes in Helianthus annuus under treatment with different sodium salts.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, P; Jaleel, C Abdul; Sankar, B; Kishorekumar, A; Murali, P V; Somasundaram, R; Panneerselvam, R

    2008-03-15

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of different sodium salts viz., sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium sulphate (Na(2)SO(4)) and sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3)) on growth, dry matter production, mineral contents, biochemical constituent and enzyme activities of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The germinating sunflower seeds were treated with 10, 20 and 50mM NaCl and Na(2)SO(4) and 5, 10 and 15 mM Na(2)CO(3). The seedling growth, minerals, chlorophyll content and biochemicals like protein and free amino acid contents with enzyme activities like ATPase and protease were analysed on 8 DAS. The seedlings were separated into root, stem, leaf and cotyledon on 8 DAS. All the treatments decreased the germination percentage; shoot length, root length, leaf area and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein contents significantly. Potassium, sodium and free amino acid contents; activities of ATPase and protease were increased when compared to control. This effect was very high in the Na(2)CO(3) treated seedlings this was followed by Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treated seedlings. From the results of this investigation, it is clear that, the sunflower seedlings were affected significantly in the Na(2)CO(3) treatments, and followed by Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatments.

  12. Combined linkage and association mapping of flowering time in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Cadic, Elena; Coque, Marie; Vear, Felicity; Grezes-Besset, Bruno; Pauquet, Jerôme; Piquemal, Joël; Lippi, Yannick; Blanchard, Philippe; Romestant, Michel; Pouilly, Nicolas; Rengel, David; Gouzy, Jerôme; Langlade, Nicolas; Mangin, Brigitte; Vincourt, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Association mapping and linkage mapping were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and/or causative mutations involved in the control of flowering time in cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus. A panel of 384 inbred lines was phenotyped through testcrosses with two tester inbred lines across 15 location × year combinations. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising 273 lines was phenotyped both per se and through testcrosses with one or two testers in 16 location × year combinations. In the association mapping approach, kinship estimation using 5,923 single nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be the best covariate to correct for effects of panel structure. Linkage disequilibrium decay ranged from 0.08 to 0.26 cM for a threshold of 0.20, after correcting for structure effects, depending on the linkage group (LG) and the ancestry of inbred lines. A possible hitchhiking effect is hypothesized for LG10 and LG08. A total of 11 regions across 10 LGs were found to be associated with flowering time, and QTLs were mapped on 11 LGs in the RIL population. Whereas eight regions were demonstrated to be common between the two approaches, the linkage disequilibrium approach did not detect a documented QTL that was confirmed using the linkage mapping approach.

  13. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  14. Image Analysis of Geo-Induced Inhibition, Compression, and Promotion of Growth in an Inverted Helianthus annuus L. Seedling.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D C; Macdonald, I R; Hart, J W; Berg, A

    1984-11-01

    The growth responses of a sunflower seedling (Helianthus annuus L.), subjected to repeated inversion, were characterized by time-lapse recording in conjunction with video image analysis. The investigation revealed a characteristic response pattern and established that the directional movement of the seedling is achieved by both inhibition and stimulation of growth in the normal growing regions. The complex growth changes in contiguous regions of the hypocotyl are such as seem to be inexplicable in terms of an environmentally imposed gradient of a single growth substance.

  15. Identification of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Moschen, Sebastian; Bengoa Luoni, Sofia; Paniego, Norma B; Hopp, H Esteban; Dosio, Guillermo A A; Fernandez, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs) identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ethylene insensitive 2) previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1) and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could play important

  16. Identification of Candidate Genes Associated with Leaf Senescence in Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Moschen, Sebastian; Bengoa Luoni, Sofia; Paniego, Norma B.; Hopp, H. Esteban; Dosio, Guillermo A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs) identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2) previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1) and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could play important

  17. Root water transport of Helianthus annuus L. under iron oxide nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Barroso, Didac; Komárek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The application of nanomaterials in commercially available products is increasing rapidly for agriculture, phytoremediation and biotechnology. Since plants suppose the first sink for the accumulation of nanoparticles from the environment, emerging studies have focused on the general consequences for plants and their effects on the biomass production. However, effects on the root surface, as well as blockage of nutrients and water uptake by the roots, may also occur. This experiment was designed to prove if the plant water relations can be affected by the adsorption of nanoparticles on the root surface, causing a consequent stress for the plants. With this goal, plants of Helianthus annuus were previously grown in a hydroponic culture, and at age of 55 days, their roots were exposed to three different concentrations of nanomaghemite (NM) in the hydroponic solution for 5 days: control without NM; 50 and 100 mg l(-1) NM. The main effect was related to the reduction of the root hydraulic conductivity (Lo) and the nutrients uptake. The concentrations of the macronutrients Ca, K, Mg and S in the shoot were reduced relative to the control plants, which resulted in lower contents of chlorophyll pigments. Although stress was not detected in the plants, after the analysis of stress markers like the accumulation of proline or ascorbate in the tissues, reduction of the root functionality by nanoparticles has been identified here, manifested as the effect of NM on Lo. The treatment with 50 mg l(-1) NM significantly reduced the Lo, by up to 57% of its control value, and it was reduced by up to 26% at 100 mg l(-1) NM. These results will be an important factor to take into account with regard to the applicability of NM for long-term use in crops, particularly during privative water conditions.

  18. Ethylene-mediated regulation of gibberellin content and growth in helianthus annuus L

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.W.; Reid, D.M.; Pharis, R.P. )

    1991-04-01

    Elongation of hypocotyls of sunflower can be promoted by gibberellins (GAs) and inhibited by ethylene. The role of these hormones in regulating elongation was investigated by measuring changes in both endogenous GAs and in the metabolism of exogenous ({sup 3}H)- and ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA{sub 20} in the hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Delgren 131) seedlings exposed to ethylene. The major biologically active GAs identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were GA{sub 1}, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 44}. In hypocotyls of seedlings exposed to ethylene, the concentration of GA{sub 1}, known to be directly active in regulating shoot elongation in a number of species, was reduced. Ethylene treatment reduced the metabolism of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 20} and less ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA{sub 1} was found in the hypocotyls of those seedlings exposed to the higher ethylene concentrations. However, it is not known if the effect of ethylene on GA{sub 20} metabolism was direct or indirect. In seedlings treated with exogenous GA{sub 1} or GA{sub 3}, the hypocotyls elongated faster than those of controls, but the GA treatment only partially overcame the inhibitory effect of ethylene on elongation. The authors conclude that GA content is a factor which may limit elongation in hypocotyls of sunflower, and that while exposure to ethylene results in reduced concentration of GA{sub 1} this is not sufficient per se to account for the inhibition of elongation caused by ethylene.

  19. Oxygen toxicity and antioxidative responses in arsenic stressed Helianthus annuus L. seedlings against UV-B.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Geeta; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Parihar, Parul; Tiwari, Sanjesh; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2016-12-01

    In order to know the impact of elevated level of UV-B on arsenic stressed Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 plants, certain physiological (growth - root and shoot lengths, their fresh masses and leaf area; photosynthetic competence and respiration) and biochemical parameters (pigments - Chl a and b, Car, anthocyanin and flavonoids; reactive oxygen species - superoxide radicals, H2O2; reactive carbonyl group, electrolyte leakage; antioxidants - superoxide dismutase, peroxidise, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, proline) of their seedlings were analysed under the simultaneous exposures of two arsenic doses (6mgkg(-1) soil, As1; and 12mgkg(-1) soil, As2) and two UV-B doses (1.2kJm(-2)d(-1), UV-B1; and 3.6kJm(-2)d(-1), UV-B2). As1 and As2 alone declined all the studied growth parameters - along with photosynthetic pigments which were further aggravated after the simultaneous exposures of predefined levels of UV-B. Each As exposure was accompanied by significant accumulation of As in root, shoot and leaves and was substantiated by simultaneous exposures of UV-B doses which manifested into suppressed growth, decreased chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis. In similar conditions, other photo-shielding pigments, viz. carotenoids, anthocyanin and flavonoids along with respiration and oxidative stress markers such as O2(•)¯, H2O2; and indicators of cell membrane damage like MDA (malondialdehyde), RCG (reactive carbonyl group), electrolyte leakage were enhanced by As, and became more pronounced after the simultaneous exposures of UV-B doses. As doses stimulated the activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GST and Pro which got further accelerated after the simultaneous exposures of UV-B doses.

  20. Transport and Metabolism of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Scott A.; Foster, Kenneth R.; Reid, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Transport and metabolism of [2,3-14C] 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) from roots to shoots in 4-day-old sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings were studied. [14C]ACC was detected in, and 14C2H4 was evolved from, shoots 0.5 hours after [14C]ACC was supplied to roots. Ethylene emanation from the shoots returned to normal levels after 6 hours. The roots showed a similar pattern, although at 24 hours ethylene emanation was still slightly higher than in those plants that did not receive ACC. [14C]N-malonyl-ACC (MACC) was detected in both tissues at all times sampled. [14C]MACC levels surpassed [14C]ACC levels in the shoot at 2 hours, whereas [14C]MACC levels in the root remained below [14C]ACC levels until 6 hours, after which they were higher. Thin-layer chromatography analysis identified [14C] ACC in 1-hour shoot extracts, and [14C]MACC was identified in root tissues at 1 and 12 hours after treatment. [14C]ACC and [14C] MACC in the xylem sap of treated seedlings were identified by thin-layer chromatography. Xylem transport of [14C]ACC in treated seedlings, and transport of ACC in untreated seedlings, was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Some evidence for the presence of [14C]MACC in xylem sap in [14C]ACC-treated seedlings is presented. A substantial amount of radioactivity in both ACC and MACC fractions was detected leaking from the roots over 24 hours. A second radiolabeled volatile compound was trapped in a CO2-trapping solution but not in mercuric perchlorate. Levels of this compound were highest after the peak of ACC levels and before peak MACC levels in both tissues, suggesting that an alternate pathway of ACC metabolism was operating in this system. PMID:16668342

  1. Vein recovery from embolism occurs under negative pressure in leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    PubMed

    Nardini, Andrea; Ramani, Matteo; Gortan, Emmanuelle; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2008-08-01

    Leaf veins undergo cavitation at water potentials (Psi(leaf)) commonly experienced by field-growing plants. Theoretically, embolism reversal should not be possible until xylem pressures rise by several kilopascals of atmospheric pressure, but recent evidence suggests that embolized conduits can be refilled even when surrounded by others at substantial tension (novel refilling). The present study reports 'novel refilling' occurring in leaf veins of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) while at Psi(leaf) = -0.33 MPa. Sixty per cent loss of vein hydraulic conductance (K(vein)) was recorded at Psi(leaf) < -0.65 MPa, while stem hydraulic conductance (K(stem)) was unaffected even at Psi(leaf) = -1.1 MPa. Loss of K(vein) was accompanied by stomatal closure. Water-stressed plants (Psi(leaf) = -1.1 MPa) were rehydrated overnight to different target water potentials achieved by using PEG at different concentrations as irrigation medium. K(vein) recovered by 50% at Psi(leaf) = -0.47 MPa and vein refilling was complete at Psi(leaf) = -0.33 MPa, i.e. well below the theoretical limit for conduit refilling (-0.05 MPa as calculated for sunflower minor veins). Mercurials supplied to detached leaves had no effect on the refilling process. Upon rehydration, recovery of K(vein) was not paralleled by recovery of whole-plant hydraulic conductance or leaf conductance to water vapour (g(L)), as a likely consequence of hydraulic failure of other components of the water pathway (root system or extravascular leaf compartments) and/or root-to-leaf chemical signalling. This is the first study providing experimental evidence for 'novel refilling' in a herbaceous dicot and highlighting the importance of this process in the leaf.

  2. Hydraulic architecture of plants of Helianthus annuus L. cv. Margot: evidence for plant segmentation in herbs.

    PubMed

    Lo Gullo, M A; Castro Noval, L; Salleo, S; Nardini, A

    2004-07-01

    The hydraulic architecture of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Margot) was studied in terms of the partitioning of the hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) of leaves inserted at progressively more apical nodes both in growing plants (GP) and in plants at full anthesis (mature plants, MP). Leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), leaf water potential (PsiL), leaf water potential at zero turgor (Psi tlp), and leaf osmotic potential at full turgor (pi0) were also measured. Sunflower plants showed gL and Kleaf values significantly increasing in the acropetal direction, while PsiL of basal leaves was significantly more negative than that of distal leaves; Psi tlp markedly decreased in the acropetal direction in MP so that leaves of MP retained increasingly more turgor the more apical they were. This hydraulic pattern, already present in very young plants (GP), strongly favours apical leaves. These data suggest that the progressive leaf dieback starting from the stem base, as observed when the inflorescence of sunflower reached maturity, might be due to time-dependent loss of hydraulic conductance. In fact, Kleaf loss was correlated with PsiL drop and stomatal closure. Leaf dehydration was aggravated by solute exportation from the basal towards the apical leaves, as revealed by the acropetal decrease of pi0. Kleaf was shown to be linearly and positively related to the prevailing ambient irradiance during plant growth, thus suggesting that leaf hydraulics is very sensitive to environmental conditions. It was concluded that the pronounced apical dominance of some sunflower cultivars is determined, among other factors, by plant hydraulic architecture.

  3. Physiology and proteomics of drought stress acclimation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Fulda, S; Mikkat, S; Stegmann, H; Horn, R

    2011-07-01

    An easy and manageable in vitro screening system for drought tolerance of sunflower seedlings based on MS media supplemented with polyethylene glycol 6000 was evaluated. Morphological and physiological parameters were compared between control (-0.05 MPa) and drought-stressed (-0.6 MPa) seedlings of Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovick. There was a significant growth deficit in drought-stressed plants compared to control plants in terms of hypocotyl length, and shoot and root fresh mass. Shoot growth was more restricted than root growth, resulting in an increased root/shoot ratio of drought-stressed plants. Accumulation of osmolytes such as inositol (65-fold), glucose (58-fold), proline (55-fold), fructose (11-fold) and sucrose (eightfold), in leaves of drought-stressed plants could be demonstrated by gas-liquid chromatography. Soluble protein patterns of leaves were analysed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A set of 46 protein spots allowed identification of 19 marker proteins. Quantitative changes in protein expression of drought-stressed versus control plants were detected. In leaves of drought-stressed sunflower seedlings six proteins were significantly up-regulated more than twofold: a putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (4.5-fold), a fructokinase 3 (3.3-fold), a vegetative storage protein (2.5-fold), a glycine-rich RNA binding protein (2.2-fold), a CuZn-superoxide dismutase (2.1-fold) and an unknown low molecular weight protein (2.3-fold). These proteins represent general stress proteins induced under drought conditions or proteins contributing to basic carbon metabolism. The up-regulated proteins are interesting candidates for further physiological and molecular investigations regarding drought tolerance in sunflower.

  4. Effects of Boron on Proton Transport and Membrane Properties of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Cell Microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrol, N.; Belver, A.; Roldan, M.; Rodriguez-Rosales, M. P.; Donaire, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Boron deficiency and toxicity inhibit ATP-dependent H+ pumping and vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in sunflower roots and cell suspensions. The effects of boron on H+ pumping and on passive H+ conductance, as well as on fluorescence anisotropy in KI-washed microsomes isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Enano) cell suspensions, have been investigated. Boron deficiency reduced the total and vanadate-sensitive ATPase activities as well as the vanadate-sensitive ATP-dependent H+ pumping without affecting the amount of antigenic ATPase protein as measured by immunoblotting with an Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane anti-H+-ATPase polyclonal antibody. Kinetic studies revealed that boron deficiency reduced Vmax of vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity with little change in the apparent Km for Mg2+-ATP. Proton leakage was greater in microsomal vesicles isolated from cells grown without boron and incubated in reaction medium without added boron, and this effect was reversed by addition of boron to the reaction medium. Fluorescence anisotropy indicated that diphenyl hexatriene and 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene probes were immobilized to a greater extent in microsomes from cells grown without boron than in those from cells grown with 100 [mu]M H3BO3. The apparent decrease of membrane fluidity in microsomes from cells grown without boron was reversed by the addition of boron to the reaction medium. Taken together these data suggest that inhibition of H+ gradient formation in microsomes from sunflower cells grown in the absence of boron could be due to the combined effects of reduced H+-ATPase activity and increased passive conductance across the membrane, possibly resulting from increased membrane rigidity. PMID:12231978

  5. Impact of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, on Yield of the Cultivated Sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.; Grant, Angela K.; Jyoti, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar and soil-drench insecticide treatments were used in attempts to manipulate infestation of cultivated sunflower plants, Helianthus annuus LeConte (Asterales: Asteraceae) by Dectes texanus LeConte, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) a serious pest of sunflowers in the High Plains of the USA. Seed yields were assessed on a per-plant basis for both oilseed and confection type sunflower hybrids in two years. Both insecticide treatments (foliar ë-cyhalothrin and soil-drench carbofuran) improved yield of oilseed sunflowers in 2004, but not in 2005. Yield of confection hybrids was improved by a systemic fungicide (thiophanate methyl) in 2005, but insecticides did not improve yield in either year. Both insecticide treatments gave good control of various stalk-boring insects such as Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), and Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but neither gave better than 50% control of D. texanus. Plants were sorted according to the presence or absence of D. texanus larvae and no reduction was found in total seed weight, seed size, or oil content as a result of infestation. However, mature larvae of D. texanus girdle stalks at the base in preparation for overwintering, a behavior that reduced stalk breakage force by 34–40%, leading to yield losses through lodging. At harvest in 2005, there were differences between cultivars and among treatments in the proportions of D. texanus larvae that had girdled their plants at harvest. It was concluded that further research aimed at reducing crop losses to D. texanus should focus on means of delaying stalk desiccation and/or deterioration, factors that appear to trigger girdling behavior. PMID:20307233

  6. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Staton, S Evan; Bakken, Bradley H; Blackman, Benjamin K; Chapman, Mark A; Kane, Nolan C; Tang, Shunxue; Ungerer, Mark C; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2012-10-01

    Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well-documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence reads and assembled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, we show that it is composed of over 81% transposable elements, 77% of which are long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Moreover, the LTR retrotransposon fraction in BAC clones harboring genes is disproportionately composed of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons ('chromoviruses'), and the majority of the intact chromoviruses contain tandem chromodomain duplications. We show that there is a bias in the efficacy of homologous recombination in removing LTR retrotransposon DNA, thereby providing insight into the mechanisms associated with transposable element (TE) composition in the sunflower genome. We also show that the vast majority of observed LTR retrotransposon insertions have likely occurred since the origin of this species, providing further evidence that biased LTR retrotransposon activity has played a major role in shaping the chromatin and DNA landscape of the sunflower genome. Although our findings on LTR retrotransposon age and structure could be influenced by the selection of the BAC clones analyzed, a global analysis of random sequence reads indicates that the evolutionary patterns described herein apply to the sunflower genome as a whole.

  7. Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspacesolid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. α-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives.

  8. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sclerotinia stalk rot is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers based on the Sclerotinia disease resistance gene will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologus to Arabidopsis thaliana defense ge...

  9. Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl19 in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed...

  10. Effects of copper on chlorophyll, proline, protein and abscisic acid level of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Fikriye Kirbag; Kirbag, Sevda

    2007-07-01

    The effect of copperchloride (CuCl2) on the level of chlorophyll (a+b), proline, protein and abscisic acid in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings were investigated Control and copper treated (0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mM) seedlings were grown for ten days in Hoagland solution. Abscisic acid content was determined in root, shoot and leaf tissues of seedlings by HPLC. Copper stress caused significant increase of the abscisic acid contents in roots, shoots and leaves of seedlings. The increase was dependent on the copper salt concentration. Enhanced accumulation of proline in the leaves of seedlings exposed to copper was determined, as well as a decrease of chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was observed that the level of chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) remarkably decreased as copper concentration increased to 0.6 mM, although the levels of proline and abscisic acid in the leaves of plants were increased--a dose-depended behavior The same trends were also observed with the level of abscisic acid of stems and roots. Copper has dose- depended effects on chlorophyll, proline, protein and abscisic acid level of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Thus, we assumed that copper levels increase above some critical points seedling growth get negative effects. This assumption is in line with previous findings.

  11. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the activity of SOD decreased gradually with the increase of the volume fraction of sawdust, indicating that sawdust had the most significant effect in comparison with cinder, zeolite, desulfurization gypsum under salinization condition. The crude oil pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress.

  12. Response to salinity in the homoploid hybrid species Helianthus paradoxus and its progenitors H. annuus and H. petiolaris

    PubMed Central

    Karrenberg, Sophie; Edelist, Cécile; Lexer, Christian; Rieseberg, Loren

    2008-01-01

    Summary To contribute to the understanding of ecological differentiation in speciation, we compared salinity responses of the halophytic diploid hybrid species Helianthus paradoxus and its glycophytic progenitors Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris. Plants of three populations of each species were subjected to a control (nonsaline) and three salinity treatments, including one simulating the ion composition in the habitat of H. paradoxus. Relative to the control, saline treatments led to a 17% biomass increase in H. paradoxus while its progenitors suffered 19–33% productivity reductions and only in H. paradoxus, leaf contents of potassium, calcium, and magnesium were strongly reduced. Under all treatments, H. paradoxus allocated more resources to roots, was more succulent, and had higher leaf contents of sodium (> 200 mmol l−1 tissue water) and sulfur than its progenitor species. These results suggest that salt tolerance and thus speciation of H. paradoxus is related to sodium replacing potassium, calcium and magnesium as vacuolar osmotica. The evolutionary and genetic mechanisms likely to be involved are discussed. PMID:16626481

  13. The physiological and biochemical effects of salicylic acid on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) exposed to flurochloridone.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Armagan; Yigit, Emel

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of the flurochloridone as well as flurochloridone and exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on Helianthus annuus L. to find out herbicide-induced toxicity reducing influence of SA. We examined and compared the physiological and biochemical effects of different concentrations of flurochloridone (11, 32 and 72 mM) in both the SA pre-treated and non-treated plants. The plants treated with flurochloridone exhibited reduced total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and relative water content compared to the control group, whereas the plants that were pre-treated with SA exhibited relatively higher values for the same physiological parameters. In the SA non-treated plants, the superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were increased in the treatment groups compared to the control group. In the treatment groups, these enzyme activities were decreased in the SA-pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. Ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in the flurochloridone-treated plants compared to the control plants. The ascorbate peroxidase activity increased in the control groups but decreased in the treatment groups in the SA pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. However, SA treatment decreased the activity of catalase in the control and treatment groups compared to the plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased the malondialdehyde content in the treated groups compared to the control groups, whereas SA-pretreatment decreased malondialdehyde content compared to plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased endogenous SA content compared to the control. Although the residual levels of herbicide in the plants increased proportionately with increasing herbicide concentrations, the SA-pre-treated plants exhibited reduced residual herbicide levels compared to the plants that were not treated

  14. Herbivory and natural selection on flowering phenology in wild sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Pilson, D

    2000-01-01

    Plant fitness is strongly affected by flowering phenology, and there are several ecological factors that are thought to shape the distribution of flowering times. One relatively underexamined factor is the timing and intensity of attack by herbivores that feed on flowers or developing seeds. This study tests the hypothesis that herbivores that feed on developing seeds of wild sunflower, Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae), impose selection on flowering phenology. First, the study population was found to contain genetic variation for mean date of flowering, so this trait could evolve if natural selection were operating. Next, the phenological pattern of abundance of five seed-feeding herbivores was documented. Damage by three herbivores, Haplorhynchites aeneus (Cucurlionidae), the head-clipping weevil, Homoeosoma electellum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the sunflower moth, and Suleima helianthana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), the sunflower bud moth, was highest early in the flowering season, and declined as the season progressed. Damage by one herbivore, the seed fly Gymnocarena diffusa (Diptera: Tephrididae), was lowest early in the flowering season and increased as the season progressed. Finally, damage by two seed weevils, Smicronyx fulvus and S. sordidus (Curculionidae), whose damage was not distinguished, was constant through the flowering period. Third, damage by Haplorhynchites, Homoeosoma, and Suleima was found to be detrimental to plant fitness, suggesting that plants that flower when these herbivores are not abundant should have higher fitness. Finally, two phenotypic selection analyses were performed. The first included damage by Homoeosoma and Suleima, as well as flowering date, leaf area, and inflorescence diameter, as characters predicting plant fitness. In this analysis directional selection was found to act to decrease damage by the two herbivores, but did not act on flowering date. The second selection analysis was identical except that damage by the two

  15. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: β-hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein] dehydratase genes.

    PubMed

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Sánchez, Rosario; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    Two sunflower hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein] dehydratases evolved into two different isoenzymes showing distinctive expression levels and kinetics' efficiencies. β-Hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein (ACP)]-dehydratase (HAD) is a component of the type II fatty acid synthase complex involved in 'de novo' fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. This complex, formed by four intraplastidial proteins, is responsible for the sequential condensation of two-carbon units, leading to 16- and 18-C acyl-ACP. HAD dehydrates 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP generating trans-2-enoyl-ACP. With the aim of a further understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydratase genes have been cloned from developing seeds, HaHAD1 (GenBank HM044767) and HaHAD2 (GenBank GU595454). Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single copy genes. Differences in their expression patterns across plant tissues were detected. Higher levels of HaHAD2 in the initial stages of seed development inferred its key role in seed storage fatty acid synthesis. That HaHAD1 expression levels remained constant across most tissues suggest a housekeeping function. Heterologous expression of these genes in E. coli confirmed both proteins were functional and able to interact with the bacterial complex 'in vivo'. The large increase of saturated fatty acids in cells expressing HaHAD1 and HaHAD2 supports the idea that these HAD genes are closely related to the E. coli FabZ gene. The proposed three-dimensional models of HaHAD1 and HaHAD2 revealed differences at the entrance to the catalytic tunnel attributable to Phe166/Val1159, respectively. HaHAD1 F166V was generated to study the function of this residue. The 'in vitro' enzymatic characterization of the three HAD proteins demonstrated all were active, with the mutant having intermediate K m and V max values to the wild-type proteins.

  16. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R(12) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Gong, L; Hulke, B S; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is resistant to both of the most predominant and most virulent rust races identified in the Northern Great Plains of the USA. The gene conditioning rust resistance in RHA 464 originated from wild Helianthus annuus L., but has not been molecularly marked or determined to be independent from other rust loci. The objectives of this study are to identify molecular markers linked to the rust resistance gene and to investigate the allelism of this gene with the unmapped rust resistance genes present in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397. Virulence phenotypes of seedlings for the F(2) population and F(2:3) families suggested that a single dominant gene confers rust resistance in RHA 464, and this gene was designated as R(12). Bulked segregant analysis identified ten markers polymorphic between resistant and susceptible bulks. In subsequent genetic mapping, the ten markers covered 33.4 cM of genetic distance on linkage group 11 of sunflower. A co-dominant marker CRT275-11 is the closest marker distal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 1.0 cM, while ZVG53, a dominant marker linked in the repulsion phase, is proximal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 9.6 cM. The allelism test demonstrated that R(12) is not allelic to the rust resistance genes in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397, and it is also not linked to any previously mapped rust resistance genes. Discovery of the R(12) novel rust resistance locus in sunflower and associated markers will potentially support the molecular marker-assisted introgression and pyramiding of R(12) into sunflower breeding lines.

  17. Linearity assumption in soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and radium in Helianthus annuus L.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, P Blanco; Tomé, F Vera; Fernández, M Pérez; Lozano, J C

    2006-05-15

    The linearity assumption of the validation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and (226)Ra was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) grown in a hydroponic medium. Transfer of natural uranium and (226)Ra was tested in both the aerial fraction of plants and in the overall seedlings (roots and shoots). The results show that the linearity assumption can be considered valid in the hydroponic growth of sunflowers for the radionuclides studied. The ability of sunflowers to translocate uranium and (226)Ra was also investigated, as well as the feasibility of using sunflower plants to remove uranium and radium from contaminated water, and by extension, their potential for phytoextraction. In this sense, the removal percentages obtained for natural uranium and (226)Ra were 24% and 42%, respectively. Practically all the uranium is accumulated in the roots. However, 86% of the (226)Ra activity concentration in roots was translocated to the aerial part.

  18. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    PubMed

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.

  19. Detection of herbicide effects on pigment composition and PSII photochemistry in Helianthus annuus by Raman spectroscopy and chlorophyll a fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vítek, Petr; Novotná, Kateřina; Hodaňová, Petra; Rapantová, Barbora; Klem, Karel

    2017-01-01

    The effects of herbicides from three mode-of-action groups - inhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (carfentrazone-ethyl), inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis (mesotrione, clomazone, and diflufenican), and inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (amidosulfuron) - were studied in sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus). Raman spectroscopy, chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) imaging, and UV screening of ChlF were combined to evaluate changes in pigment composition, photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, and non-photochemical quenching in plant leaves 6 d after herbicide application. The Raman signals of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophyll were evaluated and differences in their intensity ratios were observed. Strongly augmented relative content of phenolic compounds was observed in the case of amidosulfuron-treated plants, with a simultaneous decrease in the chlorophyll/carotenoid intensity ratio. The results were confirmed by in vivo measurement of flavonols using UV screening of ChlF. Herbicides from the group of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors significantly decreased both the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII and non-photochemical quenching as determined by ChlF. Resonance Raman imaging (mapping) data with high resolution (150,000-200,000 spectra) are presented, showing the distribution of carotenoids in H. annuus leaves treated by two of the herbicides acting as inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis (clomazone or diflufenican). Clear signs were observed that the treatment induced carotenoid depletion within sunflower leaves. The depletion spatial pattern registered differed depending on the type of herbicide applied.

  20. Modeled hydraulic redistribution by Helianthus annuus L. matches observed data only after model modification to include nighttime transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Rockwell, F. E.; Teshera-Levye, J.; Zwieniecki, M.; Holbrook, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical, and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, while the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two eco-types of Helianthus annuus L. in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modeling formulation developed by Ryel et al. (2002) could match experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive nighttime transpiration, and though over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that nighttime transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. (2002) formulation does not include the effect of nighttime transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of nighttime transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and nighttime stomatal behavior changed, both influencing HR.

  1. Detection of herbicide effects on pigment composition and PSII photochemistry in Helianthus annuus by Raman spectroscopy and chlorophyll a fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Vítek, Petr; Novotná, Kateřina; Hodaňová, Petra; Rapantová, Barbora; Klem, Karel

    2017-01-05

    The effects of herbicides from three mode-of-action groups - inhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (carfentrazone-ethyl), inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis (mesotrione, clomazone, and diflufenican), and inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (amidosulfuron) - were studied in sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus). Raman spectroscopy, chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) imaging, and UV screening of ChlF were combined to evaluate changes in pigment composition, photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, and non-photochemical quenching in plant leaves 6d after herbicide application. The Raman signals of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophyll were evaluated and differences in their intensity ratios were observed. Strongly augmented relative content of phenolic compounds was observed in the case of amidosulfuron-treated plants, with a simultaneous decrease in the chlorophyll/carotenoid intensity ratio. The results were confirmed by in vivo measurement of flavonols using UV screening of ChlF. Herbicides from the group of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors significantly decreased both the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII and non-photochemical quenching as determined by ChlF. Resonance Raman imaging (mapping) data with high resolution (150,000-200,000 spectra) are presented, showing the distribution of carotenoids in H. annuus leaves treated by two of the herbicides acting as inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis (clomazone or diflufenican). Clear signs were observed that the treatment induced carotenoid depletion within sunflower leaves. The depletion spatial pattern registered differed depending on the type of herbicide applied.

  2. Genome scan of hybridizing sunflowers from Texas (Helianthus annuus and H. debilis) reveals asymmetric patterns of introgression and small islands of genomic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Scascitelli, M; Whitney, K D; Randell, R A; King, Matthew; Buerkle, C A; Rieseberg, L H

    2010-02-01

    Although the sexual transfer of genetic material between species (i.e. introgression) has been documented in many groups of plants and animals, genome-wide patterns of introgression are poorly understood. Is most of the genome permeable to interspecific gene flow, or is introgression typically restricted to a handful of genomic regions? Here, we assess the genomic extent and direction of introgression between three sunflowers from the south-central USA: the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus ssp. annuus; a near-endemic to Texas, Helianthus debilis ssp. cucumerifolius; and their putative hybrid derivative, thought to have recently colonized Texas, H. annuus ssp. texanus. Analyses of variation at 88 genetically mapped microsatellite loci revealed that long-term migration rates were high, genome-wide and asymmetric, with higher migration rates from H. annuus texanus into the two parental taxa than vice versa. These results imply a longer history of intermittent contact between H. debilis and H. annuus than previously believed, and that H. annuus texanus may serve as a bridge for the transfer of alleles between its parental taxa. They also contradict recent theory suggesting that introgression should predominantly be in the direction of the colonizing species. As in previous studies of hybridizing sunflower species, regions of genetic differentiation appear small, whether estimated in terms of FST or unidirectional migration rates. Estimates of recent immigration and admixture were inconsistent, depending on the type of analysis. At the individual locus level, one marker showed striking asymmetry in migration rates, a pattern consistent with tight linkage to a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility.

  3. Triploid Production from Interspecific Crosses of Two Diploid Perennial Helianthus with Diploid Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Seiler, Gerald J.; Gulya, Thomas J.; Feng, Jiuhuan; Rashid, Khalid Y.; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2017-01-01

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. & G. and H. maximiliani Schr. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses indicated that the triploid F1s had two genomes from the wild pollen sources and one from the cultivated line. Mitotic chromosome analyses indicated that the frequency of triploid progenies from the crosses of cultivated lines × H. nuttallii accession 102 (N102) was significantly higher than those of unexpected polyploid progenies from the crosses of wild perennial species × N102, and no unexpected polyploids were obtained from the reverse crosses. Pollen stainability analysis suggested the existence of a low percentage of unreduced (2n) male gametes in some accessions, especially N102 and H. maximiliani accession 1113 (M1113), which were generated at the telophase II and tetrad stages of meiosis. The triploid F1s could be the results of preferred fertilization of the low frequency of 2n male gametes with the female gametes of the cultivated sunflower, due to the dosage factors related to recognition and rejection of foreign pollen during fertilization. The triploids have been used to produce amphiploids and aneuploids. Future studies of the male gametes’ fate from pollination through fertilization will further uncover the mechanism of this whole genome transmission. Studies of the genetic control of this trait will facilitate research on sunflower polyploidy speciation and evolution, and the utilization of this trait in sunflower breeding. PMID:28179393

  4. Triploid Production from Interspecific Crosses of Two Diploid Perennial Helianthus with Diploid Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Seiler, Gerald J; Gulya, Thomas J; Feng, Jiuhuan; Rashid, Khalid Y; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2017-02-07

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. &. G. and H. maximiliani Schr. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses indicated that the triploid F1s had two genomes from the wild pollen sources and one from the cultivated line. Mitotic chromosome analyses indicated that the frequency of triploid progenies from the crosses of cultivated lines × H. nuttallii accession 102 (N102) was significantly higher than those of unexpected polyploid progenies from the crosses of wild perennial species × N102, and no unexpected polyploids were obtained from the reverse crosses. Pollen stainability analysis suggested the existence of a low percentage of unreduced (2n) male gametes in some accessions, especially N102 and H. maximiliani accession 1113 (M1113), which were generated at the telophase II and tetrad stages of meiosis. The triploid F1s could be the results of preferred fertilization of the low frequency of 2n male gametes with the female gametes of the cultivated sunflower, due to the dosage factors related to recognition and rejection of foreign pollen during fertilization. The triploids have been used to produce amphiploids and aneuploids. Future studies of the male gametes' fate from pollination through fertilization will further uncover the mechanism of this whole genome transmission. Studies of the genetic control of this trait will facilitate research on sunflower polyploidy speciation and evolution, and the utilization of this trait in sunflower breeding.

  5. Molecular characterization of Helja, an extracellular jacalin-related protein from Helianthus annuus: Insights into the relationship of this protein with unconventionally secreted lectins.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, Marcela; Orts, Facundo; Carvalho, André de Oliveira; Regente, Mariana; Soares, Julia Ribeiro; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; de la Canal, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Jacalin-related lectins (JRLs) encompass cytosolic, nuclear and vacuolar members displaying the jacalin domain in one or more copies or in combination with unrelated domains. Helianthus annuus jacalin (Helja) is a mannose-specific JRL previously identified in the apoplast of Helianthus annuus seedlings, and this protein has been proposed to follow unconventional secretion. Here, we describe the full-length Helja cDNA sequence, which presents a unique jacalin domain (merolectin) and the absence of a signal peptide, confirming that the protein cannot follow the classical ER-dependent secretory pathway. Helja mRNA is present in seeds, cotyledons, roots and hypocotyls, but no transcripts were detected in the leaves. Searches for sequence similarity showed that Helja is barely similar to other JRLs present in H. annuus databases and less than 45% identical to other monocot or dicot JRLs. Strikingly, most of the merolectins recovered through data mining using Helja as a query were predicted as apoplastic, although most of these proteins lack the signal peptide required for classical secretion. Thus, Helja is the first bait identified to recover putative unconventionally secreted lectins. Because the recovered JRLs are widely distributed among the plant kingdom, an as yet unknown role for jacalin lectins in the apoplast is emerging.

  6. Analysis of transposons and repeat composition of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia; Zuccolo, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Jurman, Irena; Ferrillo, Veronica; Vitacolonna, Nicola; Sarri, Vania; Cattonaro, Federica; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cionini, Pier Giorgio; Morgante, Michele

    2010-02-01

    A sample-sequencing strategy combined with slot-blot hybridization and FISH was used to study the composition of the repetitive component of the sunflower genome. One thousand six hundred thirty-eight sequences for a total of 954,517 bp were analyzed. The fraction of sequences that can be classified as repetitive using computational and hybridization approaches amounts to 62% in total. Almost two thirds remain as yet uncharacterized in nature. Of those characterized, most belong to the gypsy superfamily of LTR-retrotransposons. Unlike in other species, where single families can account for large fractions of the genome, it appears that no transposon family has been amplified to very high levels in sunflower. All other known classes of transposable elements were also found. One family of unknown nature (contig 61) was the most repeated in the sunflower genome. The evolution of the repetitive component in the Helianthus genus and in other Asteraceae was studied by comparative analysis of the hybridization of total genomic DNAs from these species to the sunflower small-insert library and compared to gene-based phylogeny. Very little similarity is observed between Helianthus species and two related Asteraceae species outside of the genus. Most repetitive elements are similar in annual and perennial Helianthus species indicating that sequence amplification largely predates such divergence. Gypsy-like elements are more represented in the annuals than in the perennials, while copia-like elements are similarly represented, attesting a different amplification history of the two superfamilies of LTR-retrotransposons in the Helianthus genus.

  7. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of three phosphoglycerate kinase isoforms from developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Ponce, M A; Rivoal, J; Venegas-Calerón, M; Dorion, S; Sánchez, R; Cejudo, F J; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2012-07-01

    Three cDNAs encoding different phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK, EC 2.7.2.3) isoforms, two cytosolic (HacPGK1 and HacPGK2) and one plastidic (HapPGK), were cloned and characterized from developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. The expression profiles of these genes showed differences in heterotrophic tissues, such as developing seeds and roots, where HacPGK1 was predominant, while HapPGK was highly expressed in photosynthetic tissues. The cDNAs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding proteins purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and biochemically characterized. Despite the high level of identity between sequences, the HacPGK1 isoform showed strong differences in terms of specific activity, temperature stability and pH sensitivity in comparison to HacPGK2 and HapPGK. A polyclonal immune serum was raised against the purified HacPGK1 isoform, which showed cross-immunoreactivity with the other PGK isoforms. This serum allowed the localization of high expression levels of PGK isozymes in embryo tissues.

  8. Rampant gene exchange across a strong reproductive barrier between the annual sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Yoko; Kane, Nolan C; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2007-04-01

    Plant species may remain morphologically distinct despite gene exchange with congeners, yet little is known about the genomewide pattern of introgression among species. Here we analyze the effects of persistent gene flow on genomic differentiation between the sympatric sunflower species Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris. While the species are strongly isolated in testcrosses, genetic distances at 108 microsatellite loci and 14 sequenced genes are highly variable and much lower (on average) than for more closely related but historically allopatric congeners. Our analyses failed to detect a positive association between levels of genetic differentiation and chromosomal rearrangements (as reported in a prior publication) or proximity to QTL for morphological differences or hybrid sterility. However, a significant increase in differentiation was observed for markers within 5 cM of chromosomal breakpoints. Together, these results suggest that islands of differentiation between these two species are small, except in areas of low recombination. Furthermore, only microsatellites associated with ESTs were identified as outlier loci in tests for selection, which might indicate that the ESTs themselves are the targets of selection rather than linked genes (or that coding regions are not randomly distributed). In general, these results indicate that even strong and genetically complex reproductive barriers cannot prevent widespread introgression.

  9. Characterization of a small acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from Helianthus annuus L. and its binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Du, Zhi-Yan; Garcés, Rafael; Tanner, Julian A; Chye, Mee-Len; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2016-05-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) bind to acyl-CoA esters and promote their interaction with other proteins, lipids and cell structures. Small class I ACBPs have been identified in different plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana (AtACBP6), Brassica napus (BnACBP) and Oryza sativa (OsACBP1, OsACBP2, OsACBP3), and they are capable of binding to different acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids. Here we characterize HaACBP6, a class I ACBP expressed in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) tissues, studying the specificity of its corresponding recombinant HaACBP6 protein towards various acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids in vitro, particularly using isothermal titration calorimetry and protein phospholipid binding assays. This protein binds with high affinity to de novo synthetized derivatives palmitoly-CoA, stearoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA (Kd 0.29, 0.14 and 0.15 μM respectively). On the contrary, it showed lower affinity towards linoleoyl-CoA (Kd 5.6 μM). Moreover, rHaACBP6 binds to different phosphatidylcholine species (dipalmitoyl-PC, dioleoyl-PC and dilinoleoyl-PC), yet it displays no affinity towards other phospholipids like lyso-PC, phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid derivatives. In the light of these results, the possible involvement of this protein in sunflower oil synthesis is considered.

  10. Cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of plastidial sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Payá-Milans, Miriam; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    The acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:sn-1-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; E.C. 2.3.1.15) catalyzes the first step of glycerolipid assembly within the stroma of the chloroplast. In the present study, the sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.) stromal GPAT was cloned, sequenced and characterized. We identified a single ORF of 1344base pairs that encoded a GPAT sharing strong sequence homology with the plastidial GPAT from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATS1, At1g32200). Gene expression studies showed that the highest transcript levels occurred in green tissues in which chloroplasts are abundant. The corresponding mature protein was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli for purification and biochemical characterization. In vitro assays using radiolabelled acyl-ACPs and glycerol-3-phosphate as substrates revealed a strong preference for oleic versus palmitic acid, and weak activity towards stearic acid. The positional fatty acid composition of relevant chloroplast phospholipids from sunflower leaves did not reflect the in vitro GPAT specificity, suggesting a more complex scenario with mixed substrates at different concentrations, competition with other acyl-ACP consuming enzymatic reactions, etc. In summary, this study has confirmed the affinity of this enzyme which would partly explain the resistance to cold temperatures observed in sunflower plants.

  11. Secondary structure of oleosins in oil bodies isolated from seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Lacey, D J; Wellner, N; Beaudoin, F; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R

    1998-09-01

    Oil bodies were isolated from mature seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Oil body preparations containing only oleosin proteins could be obtained from safflower seeds by salt-washing followed by centrifugation on discontinuous sucrose density gradients. However, it was necessary to treat sunflower oil bodies with urea to obtain preparations of similar purity. Incubation of the oil bodies with proteinases gave two fragments with molecular masses of 6 and 8 kDa which were protected from digestion. These fragments represented the hydrophobic domain of the oleosins, as determined by N-terminal sequencing. Intact and proteinase-treated oil bodies of both species were analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, as dry films and in aqueous medium, the spectra being compared with those obtained for pure oil samples in order to identify the bands resulting from the oleosin proteins and protected peptides. This investigation showed that the hydrophobic domain of the oleosins in intact oil bodies is predominantly alpha-helical in structure and that the conformation was not greatly affected by washing the oil bodies with urea during preparation.

  12. Aseptic hydroponics to assess rhamnolipid-Cd and rhamnolipid-Zn bioavailability for sunflower (Helianthus annuus): a phytoextraction mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stacey, Samuel P; Kirby, Jason K

    2016-11-01

    The availability of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) to sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated in rhamnolipid- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-buffered solutions in order to evaluate the influence of aqueous speciation of the metals on their uptake by the plant, in relation to predictions of uptake by the free ion activity model (FIAM). Free metal ion activity was estimated using the chemical equilibrium program MINTEQ or measured by Donnan dialysis. The uptake of Cd followed the FIAM for the EDTA-buffered solution at EDTA concentrations below 0.4 μM; for the rhamnolipid-buffered solution, the uptake of both metals in roots was not markedly affected by increasing rhamnolipid concentrations in solution. This suggests rhamnolipid enhanced metal accumulation in plant roots (per unit free metal in solution) possibly through formation and uptake of lipophilic complexes. The addition of normal Ca concentrations (low millimetre range) to the rhamnolipid uptake solutions reduced Cd accumulation in shoots by inhibiting Cd translocation, whereas it significantly increased Zn accumulation in shoots. This study confirms that although rhamnolipid could enhance accumulation of Cd in plants roots at low Ca supply, it is not suitable for Cd phytoextraction in contaminated soil environments where Ca concentrations in soil solution are orders of magnitude greater than those of Cd.

  13. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferase from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Ouyang, Chao; Kou, Shanglong; Wang, Shenghua; Yao, Yunyi; Peng, Tong; Xu, Ying; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang

    2011-01-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a putative diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT; EC 2.3.1.20) was obtained from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. The 1524-bp open reading frame of this cDNA, designated as HaDGAT1, encodes a protein of 507 amino acids with a molecular mass of 58.5 kDa showing high homology to DGAT1 enzymes of other plants. The protein characters, such as a predicted structure with a long N-terminal hydrophilic domain followed by 9 transmembrane domains, acyl-CoA-binding signature, diacylglycerol (DAG)-binding and putative endoplasmic reticulum retrieval motifs (ER-DIR), also indicated that HaDGAT belongs to the DGAT1 family. HaDGAT1 is expressed in all plant tissues especially in developing seeds. Expression of recombinant HaDGAT1 in yeast showed an 1.76-fold increase of total fatty acids, especially unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitoleic acid (enhanced by 86.6%) and oleic acid (enhanced by 81.6%).

  14. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 microg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  15. Characterization and partial purification of acyl-CoA:glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) developing seeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-López, Noemí; Garcés, Rafael; Harwood, John L; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.1.15) from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) microsomes has been characterised and partially purified. The in vitro determination of activity was optimized, and the maximum value for GPAT activity identified between 15 and 20 days after flowering. The apparent Michaelis-Menten K(m) for the glycerol 3-phosphate was 354 muM. The preferred substrates were palmitoyl-CoA = linoleoyl-CoA > oleoyl-CoA with the lowest activity using stearoyl-CoA. High solubilisation was achieved using 0.75% Tween80 and the solubilised GPAT was partially purified by ion-exchange chromatography using a Hi-Trap DEAE FF column, followed by gel filtration chromatography using a Superose 12 HR column. The fraction containing the GPAT activity was analysed by SDS-PAGE and contained a major band of 60.1 kDa. Finally, evidence is provided which shows the role of GPAT in the asymmetrical distribution, between positions sn-1 and sn-3, of saturated fatty acids in highly saturated sunflower triacylglycerols. This work provides background information on the sunflower endoplasmic reticulum GPAT which may prove valuable for future modification of oil deposition in this important crop.

  16. Dyella thiooxydans sp. nov., a facultatively chemolithotrophic, thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Indira Gandhi, Pandiyan; Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Yi-Seul; Sa, Tong-Min; Kim, Yong-Ki; Jee, Hyeong-Jin

    2011-02-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium, designated ATSB10(T), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain ATSB10(T) was closely related to members of the genera Dyella (96.4-98.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Luteibacter (96.4-97.0 %) and Fulvimonas soli LMG 19981(T) (96.7 %) and Frateuria aurantia IFO 3245(T) (97.8 %). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c and iso-C(15 : 0). The major quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.0 mol%. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, an unknown phospholipid, unknown aminophospholipids and an unknown aminolipid. On the basis of phenotypic properties, phylogenetic distinctiveness and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain ATSB10(T) represents a novel species in the genus Dyella, for which the name Dyella thiooxydans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ATSB10(T) (=KACC 12756(T) =LMG 24673(T)).

  17. Cell wall water content has a direct effect on extensibility in growing hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Evered, Carol; Majevadia, Bhavita; Thompson, David Stuart

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that spacing between cellulose microfibrils within plant cell walls may be an important determinant of their mechanical properties. A consequence of this hypothesis is that the water content of cell walls may alter their extensibility and that low water potentials may directly reduce growth rates by reducing cell wall spacing. This paper describes a number of experiments in which the water potential of frozen and thawed growing hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were altered using solutions of high molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) or Dextran while their extension under constant stress was monitored using a creep extensiometer (frozen and thawed tissue was used to avoid confounding effects of turgor or active responses to the treatments). Clear reductions in extensibility were observed using both PEG and Dextran, with effects observed in hypocotyl segments treated with PEG 35 000 solutions with osmotic pressures of > or =0.21 MPa suggesting that the relatively mild stresses required to reduce water potentials of plants in vivo by 0.21 MPa may be sufficient to reduce growth rates via a direct effect on wall extensibility. It is noted, therefore, that the water binding capacity of plant cell walls may be of ecophysiological importance. Measurements of cell walls of sunflower hypocotyls using scanning electron microscopy confirmed that treatment of hypocotyls with PEG solutions reduced wall thickness, supporting the hypothesis that the spatial constraint of movement of cellulose microfibrils affects the mechanical properties of the cell wall.

  18. Spatio-temporal decoupling of stomatal and mesophyll conductance induced by vein cutting in leaves of Helianthus annuus

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, David T.; Green, Laura E.; Pockman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of hydraulic conductance to the canopy has been shown to result in stomatal responses to limit transpiration. To test for similar responses to perturbations of the hydraulic network in leaves, we simultaneously measured leaf gas exchange with spatially explicit chlorophyll-a fluorescence and leaf temperature to examine the effects of cutting a primary leaf vein in Helianthus annuus. We repeated the leaf treatment at each of three different vapor pressure deficits and monitored the short-term dynamics of gas exchange following the treatment. Immediately after treatment, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance (gs) showed a transient “wrong way” response in which photosynthesis declined despite increased gs. Comparisons of fluorescence and temperature across the leaf showed that both photosynthesis and gs were transiently patchy across the measured leaf area, but that the patchiness of the two processes did not correspond in space or time. This suggests that photosynthesis and gs respond to vein cutting-induced cavitation via different mechanisms. Because the stomatal response varied by vapor pressure difference condition but photosynthesis did not, it is likely that gs, but not photosynthesis, responded to a hydraulic signal. In contrast, we hypothesize that photosynthesis declined due to a wound-induced electrical signal that has recently been shown to transiently decrease mesophyll conductance to CO2. The interaction of epidermal hydraulics and the electrical signal across the leaf likely created a patchy pattern of chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf temperature that cannot be explained through the action of a single signal. PMID:24065972

  19. Effects of scrubber by-product-stabilized dairy lagoon sludge on growth and physiological responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carla N; Bauerle, William L; Chastain, John P; Owino, Tom O; Moore, Kathy P; Klaine, Stephen J

    2006-06-01

    Brick manufacturing industries are challenged to comply with clean air mandates. Dry air scrubbers have been used to remove acid gases from the exhaust air from brick manufacturing plants. The use of dry air scrubbers results in the production of large quantities of an alkaline powder by-product. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of using dairy lagoon sludge stabilized with the scrubber by-product as a soil amendment. Lagoon sludge was stabilized with scrubber by-product at an application rate of 20 gl(-1). The sludge-scrubber by-product mixture was applied to a sandy loam soil to provide amendments ranging between 28 and 168 kg of plant available nitrogen (PAN)/ha for the growth of Helianthus annuus (sunflower). Use of the sludge-scrubber by-product mixture as a nitrogen fertilizer did not adversely affect sunflower seedling emergence; however, significantly higher (p<0.05) plant volume indices, leaf area, dry shoot and root masses, and seed yields were obtained for mature plants grown in sludge-treated soil relative to the control or fertilizer treatment. The sludge amendment did not severely impact gas exchange or chlorophyll a fluorescence of the plants and nutrient content of the sunflower tissues was generally within a sufficient range. The increased growth and yield of sunflower plants indicated the potential of the sludge-scrubber by-product mixture as a soil amendment in agricultural crop production.

  20. Root biomass response to foliar application of imazapyr for two imidazolinone tolerant alleles of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Sala, Carlos A; Bulos, Mariano; Altieri, Emiliano; Ramos, María Laura

    2012-09-01

    Imisun and CLPlus are two imidazolinone tolerance traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) determined by the expression of two alleles at the locus Ahasl1. Both traits differed in their tolerance level to imazapyr -a type of imidazolinone herbicide- when aboveground biomass is considered, but the concomitant herbicide effect over the root system has not been reported. The objective of this work was to quantify the root biomass response to increased doses of imazapyr in susceptible (ahasl1/ahasl1), Imisun (Ahasl1-1/Ahasl1-1) and CLPlus (Ahasl1-3/Ahasl1-3) homozygous sunflower genotypes. These materials were sprayed at the V2-V4 stage with increased doses of imazapyr (from 0 to 480 g active ingredient ha(-1)) and 14 days after treatment root biomass of each plant was assessed. Genotype at the Ahasl1 locus, dose of imazapyr and their interaction significantly contributed (P < 0.001) to explain the reduction in root biomass accumulation after herbicide application. Estimated dose of imazapyr required to reduce root biomass accumulation by fifty percent (GR(50)) differed statistically for the three genotypes under study (P < 0.001). CLPlus genotypes showed the highest values of GR(50), 300 times higher on average than the susceptible genotypes, and almost 8 times higher than Imisun materials, demonstrating that both alleles differ in their root biomass response to foliar application of increased doses of imazapyr.

  1. Effect on germination and early growth characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds exposed to static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Ananta; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2010-01-15

    Seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were exposed in batches to static magnetic fields of strength from 0 to 250mT in steps of 50mT for 1-4h in steps of 1h. Treatment of sunflower seeds in these magnetic fields increased the speed of germination, seedling length and seedling dry weight under laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 50 and 200mT for 2h yielded the peak performance. Exposure of seeds to magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity and reduced the cellular leakage and electrical conductivity. Treated seeds planted in soil resulted in statistically higher seedling dry weight, root length, root surface area and root volume in 1-month-old seedlings. In germinating seeds, enzyme activities of alpha-amylase, dehydrogenase and protease were significantly higher in treated seeds in contrast to controls. The higher enzyme activity in magnetic-field-treated sunflower seeds could be triggering the fast germination and early vigor of seedlings.

  2. Rampant Gene Exchange Across a Strong Reproductive Barrier Between the Annual Sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris

    PubMed Central

    Yatabe, Yoko; Kane, Nolan C.; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2007-01-01

    Plant species may remain morphologically distinct despite gene exchange with congeners, yet little is known about the genomewide pattern of introgression among species. Here we analyze the effects of persistent gene flow on genomic differentiation between the sympatric sunflower species Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris. While the species are strongly isolated in testcrosses, genetic distances at 108 microsatellite loci and 14 sequenced genes are highly variable and much lower (on average) than for more closely related but historically allopatric congeners. Our analyses failed to detect a positive association between levels of genetic differentiation and chromosomal rearrangements (as reported in a prior publication) or proximity to QTL for morphological differences or hybrid sterility. However, a significant increase in differentiation was observed for markers within 5 cM of chromosomal breakpoints. Together, these results suggest that islands of differentiation between these two species are small, except in areas of low recombination. Furthermore, only microsatellites associated with ESTs were identified as outlier loci in tests for selection, which might indicate that the ESTs themselves are the targets of selection rather than linked genes (or that coding regions are not randomly distributed). In general, these results indicate that even strong and genetically complex reproductive barriers cannot prevent widespread introgression. PMID:17277373

  3. Secondary structure of oleosins in oil bodies isolated from seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, D J; Wellner, N; Beaudoin, F; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R

    1998-01-01

    Oil bodies were isolated from mature seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Oil body preparations containing only oleosin proteins could be obtained from safflower seeds by salt-washing followed by centrifugation on discontinuous sucrose density gradients. However, it was necessary to treat sunflower oil bodies with urea to obtain preparations of similar purity. Incubation of the oil bodies with proteinases gave two fragments with molecular masses of 6 and 8 kDa which were protected from digestion. These fragments represented the hydrophobic domain of the oleosins, as determined by N-terminal sequencing. Intact and proteinase-treated oil bodies of both species were analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, as dry films and in aqueous medium, the spectra being compared with those obtained for pure oil samples in order to identify the bands resulting from the oleosin proteins and protected peptides. This investigation showed that the hydrophobic domain of the oleosins in intact oil bodies is predominantly alpha-helical in structure and that the conformation was not greatly affected by washing the oil bodies with urea during preparation. PMID:9716507

  4. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress.

  5. Cloning, biochemical characterization and expression of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hexokinase associated with seed storage compounds accumulation.

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Ponce, M A; Rivoal, J; Dorion, S; Moisan, M-C; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2011-03-01

    A full-length hexokinase cDNA, HaHXK1, was cloned and characterized from Helianthus annuus L. developing seeds. Based on its sequence and phylogenetic relationships, HaHXK1 is a membrane-associated (type-B) hexokinase. The predicted structural model resembles known hexokinase structures, folding into two domains of unequal size: a large and a small one separated by a deep cleft containing the residues involved in the enzyme active site. A truncated version, without the 24 N-terminal residues, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and biochemically characterized. The purified enzyme behaved as a monomer on size exclusion chromatography and had a specific activity of 19.3 μmol/min/mg protein, the highest specific activity ever reported for a plant hexokinase. The enzyme had higher affinity for glucose and mannose relative to fructose, but the enzymatic efficiency was higher with glucose. Recombinant HaHXK1 was inhibited by ADP and was insensitive either to glucose-6-phosphate or to trehalose-6-phosphate. Its expression profile showed higher levels in heterotrophic tissues, developing seeds and roots, than in photosynthetic ones. A time course of HXK activity and expression in seeds showed that the highest HXK levels are found at the early stages of reserve compounds, lipids and proteins accumulation.

  6. Plant domestication and the assembly of bacterial and fungal communities associated with strains of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Leff, Jonathan W; Lynch, Ryan C; Kane, Nolan C; Fierer, Noah

    2017-04-01

    Root and rhizosphere microbial communities can affect plant health, but it remains undetermined how plant domestication may influence these bacterial and fungal communities. We grew 33 sunflower (Helianthus annuus) strains (n = 5) that varied in their extent of domestication and assessed rhizosphere and root endosphere bacterial and fungal communities. We also assessed fungal communities in the sunflower seeds to investigate the degree to which root and rhizosphere communities were influenced by vertical transmission of the microbiome through seeds. Neither root nor rhizosphere bacterial communities were affected by the extent of sunflower domestication, but domestication did affect the composition of rhizosphere fungal communities. In particular, more modern sunflower strains had lower relative abundances of putative fungal pathogens. Seed-associated fungal communities strongly differed across strains, but several lines of evidence suggest that there is minimal vertical transmission of fungi from seeds to the adult plants. Our results indicate that plant-associated fungal communities are more strongly influenced by host genetic factors and plant breeding than bacterial communities, a finding that could influence strategies for optimizing microbial communities to improve crop yields.

  7. Translatome profiling in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds highlights post-transcriptional regulation of germination.

    PubMed

    Layat, Elodie; Leymarie, Juliette; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Caius, José; Langlade, Nicolas; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    Seed dormancy, which blocks germination in apparently favourable conditions, is a key regulatory control point of plant population establishment. As germination requires de novo translation, its regulation by dormancy is likely to be related to the association of individual transcripts to polysomes. Here, the polysome-associated mRNAs, that is, the translatome, were fractionated and characterized with microarrays in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) embryos during their imbibition at 10°C, a temperature preventing germination of dormant embryos. Profiling of mRNAs in polysomal complexes revealed that the translatome differs between germinating and nongerminating embryos. Association of transcripts with polysomes reached a maximum after 15 h of imbibition; at this time-point 194 polysome-associated transcripts were specifically found in nondormant embryos and 47 in dormant embryos only. The proteins corresponding to the polysomal mRNAs in nondormant embryos appeared to be very pertinent for germination and were involved mainly in transport, regulation of transcription or cell wall modifications. This work demonstrates that seed germination results from a timely regulated and selective recruitment of mRNAs to polysomes, thus opening novel fields of investigation for the understanding of this developmental process.

  8. Residual effects of applied chemical fertilisers on growth and seed yields of sunflower (Helianthus annuus cv. high sun 33) after the harvests of initial main crops of maize (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    PubMed

    Srisa-ard, K

    2007-03-15

    The experiments consisted of two locations, i.e., the first one was carried out on a growers's upland area at Saraburi Province, Central Plane region of Thailand with the use of Chatturat soil series (Typic Haplustalfs, fine, mixed) and the second experiment was carried out at Suranaree Technology university Experimental Farm, Suranaree Technology University Northeast Thailand with the use of Korat soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The experiments aimed to investigate the effect of residual effects of applied chemical fertilisers on growth and seed yields of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) after the harvests of initial main crops of maize, soybean and sunflower. The experiments consisted of four cultural methods being practiced by growers in both regions. For Methods 1 and 2, each had four fertiliser treatments; Method 3 consisted of two fertiliser treatments and Method 4 was used as a control treatment. The results showed that soil pH, organic matter and nutrients of Korat soil series were most suited soil conditions for growth of sunflower plants, whilst that of Chatturat soil series at Saraburi province was an alkaline soil with a mean value of soil pH of 7.8. Chatturat soil series, in most cases, gave higher amounts of seed yields (1,943.75 kg ha(-1)) than Korat soil series. Residual effects of applied chemical fertilisers to main crops of soybean gave better growth and seed yields of sunflower plants and it is considered to be the first choice. The use of sunflower and maize as main crops gave a second choice for subsequent crop of sunflower.

  9. Foliar-applied glyphosate substantially reduced uptake and transport of iron and manganese in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Eker, Selim; Ozturk, Levent; Yazici, Atilla; Erenoglu, Bulent; Romheld, Volker; Cakmak, Ismail

    2006-12-27

    Evidence clearly shows that cationic micronutrients in spray solutions reduce the herbicidal effectiveness of glyphosate for weed control due to the formation of metal-glyphosate complexes. The formation of these glyphosate-metal complexes in plant tissue may also impair micronutrient nutrition of nontarget plants when exposed to glyphosate drift or glyphosate residues in soil. In the present study, the effects of simulated glyphosate drift on plant growth and uptake, translocation, and accumulation (tissue concentration) of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were investigated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants grown in nutrient solution under controlled environmental conditions. Glyphosate was sprayed on plant shoots at different rates between 1.25 and 6.0% of the recommended dosage (i.e., 0.39 and 1.89 mM glyphosate isopropylamine salt). Glyphosate applications significantly decreased root and shoot dry matter production and chlorophyll concentrations of young leaves and shoot tips. The basal parts of the youngest leaves and shoot tips were severely chlorotic. These effects became apparent within 48 h after the glyphosate spray. Glyphosate also caused substantial decreases in leaf concentration of Fe and Mn while the concentration of Zn and Cu was less affected. In short-term uptake experiments with radiolabeled Fe (59Fe), Mn (54Mn), and Zn (65Zn), root uptake of 59Fe and 54Mn was significantly reduced in 12 and 24 h after application of 6% of the recommended dosage of glyphosate, respectively. Glyphosate resulted in almost complete inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of 59Fe within 12 h and 54Mn within 24 h after application. These results suggest that glyphosate residues or drift may result in severe impairments in Fe and Mn nutrition of nontarget plants, possibly due to the formation of poorly soluble glyphosate-metal complexes in plant tissues and/or rhizosphere interactions.

  10. Toward a Molecular Cytogenetic Map for Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by Landed BAC/BIBAC Clones

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (∼100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC- fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)−derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources. PMID:23316437

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    PubMed

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  12. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  13. Effect of antioxidant butylated hydroxyl anisole on the thermal or oxidative stability of sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus) by ultrasonic.

    PubMed

    Murari, Satish Kumar; Shwetha, M V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) as an antioxidant in sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus). The oxidation stability of sunflower oil have been investigated by the effects of varying amounts of BHA. The antioxidant incorporated sunflower oil system and control edible oil were subjected to heating at 180 ± 5 °C continuously for a period of 4 h per day for consecutive 4 days. The parameters used to assess the thermal degradation and oxidation properties of the oils include ultrasonic velocity, viscosity, density and peroxide value. The fatty acid compositions of the oils were measured by gas chromatography. Adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relaxation time and acoustic impedance have been calculated from experimental data. Viscosity, density and ultrasonic velocity change in control oil is from 3.72 × 10(-2) to 13.2 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 918 to 994 kg/m3 and 1412 to 1484 m/s respectively and in sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA is from 3.88 × 10(-2) to 7.52 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 926 to 962 kg/m3 and 1418 to 1463 m/s respectively for 16 h of heat treated oil. The ultrasonic results obtained have shown reduction in thermal degradation and improvement in oxidation stability of antioxidant loaded oil in comparison to base oil. Hence, it can be recommended that sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA can be used for frying without adverse effect on physical properties. The ultrasonic velocity can be used for assessment of stability of frying oil.

  14. Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 19 in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z W; Ma, G J; Zhao, J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2017-01-01

    A new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 19 , was identified from wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414, introduced to confection sunflower, and genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed that a single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Bulked segregant analysis conducted in the BC1F2 population with 860 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicated that the resistance derived from wild H. annuus was associated with SSR markers located on linkage group (LG) 4 of the sunflower genome. To map and tag this resistance locus, designated Pl 19 , 140 BC1F2 individuals were used to construct a linkage map of the gene region. Two SSR markers, ORS963 and HT298, were linked to Pl 19 within a distance of 4.7 cM. After screening 27 additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers previously mapped to this region, two flanking SNP markers, NSA_003564 and NSA_006089, were identified as surrounding the Pl 19 gene at a distance of 0.6 cM from each side. Genetic analysis indicated that Pl 19 is different from Pl 17 , which had previously been mapped to LG4, but is closely linked to Pl 17 . This new gene is highly effective against the most predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in North America and is the first downy mildew resistance gene that has been transferred to confection sunflower. The selected resistant germplasm derived from homozygous BC2F3 progeny provides a novel gene for use in confection sunflower breeding programs.

  15. Development, Characterization and Experimental Validation of a Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Gene Expression Oligonucleotide Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01) allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement. PMID:23110046

  16. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01) allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of the interaction between Helianthus annuus and its obligate parasite Plasmopara halstedii shows single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRN sequences.

    PubMed

    As-sadi, Falah; Carrere, Sébastien; Gascuel, Quentin; Hourlier, Thibaut; Rengel, David; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Bordat, Amandine; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Brunel, Dominique; Gouzy, Jérôme; Godiard, Laurence; Vincourt, Patrick

    2011-10-11

    Downy mildew in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese et de Toni. Despite efforts by the international community to breed mildew-resistant varieties, downy mildew remains a major threat to the sunflower crop. Very few genomic, genetic and molecular resources are currently available to study this pathogen. Using a 454 sequencing method, expressed sequence tags (EST) during the interaction between H. annuus and P. halstedii have been generated and a search was performed for sites in putative effectors to show polymorphisms between the different races of P. halstedii. A 454 pyrosequencing run of two infected sunflower samples (inbred lines XRQ and PSC8 infected with race 710 of P. halstedii, which exhibit incompatible and compatible interactions, respectively) generated 113,720 and 172,107 useable reads. From these reads, 44,948 contigs and singletons have been produced. A bioinformatic portal, HP, was specifically created for in-depth analysis of these clusters. Using in silico filtering, 405 clusters were defined as being specific to oomycetes, and 172 were defined as non-specific oomycete clusters. A subset of these two categories was checked using PCR amplification, and 86% of the tested clusters were validated. Twenty putative RXLR and CRN effectors were detected using PSI-BLAST. Using corresponding sequences from four races (100, 304, 703 and 710), 22 SNPs were detected, providing new information on pathogen polymorphisms. This study identified a large number of genes that are expressed during H. annuus/P. halstedii compatible or incompatible interactions. It also reveals, for the first time, that an infection mechanism exists in P. halstedii similar to that in other oomycetes associated with the presence of putative RXLR and CRN effectors. SNPs discovered in CRN effector sequences were used to determine the genetic distances between the four races of P. halstedii. This work therefore provides valuable

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of the interaction between Helianthus annuus and its obligate parasite Plasmopara halstedii shows single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRN sequences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Downy mildew in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese et de Toni. Despite efforts by the international community to breed mildew-resistant varieties, downy mildew remains a major threat to the sunflower crop. Very few genomic, genetic and molecular resources are currently available to study this pathogen. Using a 454 sequencing method, expressed sequence tags (EST) during the interaction between H. annuus and P. halstedii have been generated and a search was performed for sites in putative effectors to show polymorphisms between the different races of P. halstedii. Results A 454 pyrosequencing run of two infected sunflower samples (inbred lines XRQ and PSC8 infected with race 710 of P. halstedii, which exhibit incompatible and compatible interactions, respectively) generated 113,720 and 172,107 useable reads. From these reads, 44,948 contigs and singletons have been produced. A bioinformatic portal, HP, was specifically created for in-depth analysis of these clusters. Using in silico filtering, 405 clusters were defined as being specific to oomycetes, and 172 were defined as non-specific oomycete clusters. A subset of these two categories was checked using PCR amplification, and 86% of the tested clusters were validated. Twenty putative RXLR and CRN effectors were detected using PSI-BLAST. Using corresponding sequences from four races (100, 304, 703 and 710), 22 SNPs were detected, providing new information on pathogen polymorphisms. Conclusions This study identified a large number of genes that are expressed during H. annuus/P. halstedii compatible or incompatible interactions. It also reveals, for the first time, that an infection mechanism exists in P. halstedii similar to that in other oomycetes associated with the presence of putative RXLR and CRN effectors. SNPs discovered in CRN effector sequences were used to determine the genetic distances between the four races of P. halstedii. This

  19. Uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L.): dependence on stomatal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, A.; Kley, D.; Wildt, J.; Segschneider, H. J.; Förstel, H.

    The uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers ( Helianthus annuus L. var. giganteus) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Bel W3), using concentrations representative for moderately polluted air, has been determined by gas exchange experiments. Conductivities for these trace gases were measured at different light fluxes ranging from 820 μEm -2s -1 to darkness. The conductivities to water vapor and the trace gases are highly correlated. It is concluded that the uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers and tobacco plants is linearly dependent on stomatal opening. While the uptake of NO is limited by the mesophyll resistance, the uptake of NO 2 is only by diffusion through the stomata. Loss processes by deposition to the leaf surfaces are more pronounced for O 3 than for NO and NO 2.

  20. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-11-24

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower.

  1. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes—7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars—of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. PMID:26608057

  2. Molecular demographic history of the annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris--large effective population sizes and rates of long-term gene flow.

    PubMed

    Strasburg, Jared L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2008-08-01

    Hybridization between distinct species may lead to introgression of genes across species boundaries, and this pattern can potentially persist for extended periods as long as selection at some loci or genomic regions prevents thorough mixing of gene pools. However, very few reliable estimates of long-term levels of effective migration are available between hybridizing species throughout their history. Accurate estimates of divergence dates and levels of gene flow require data from multiple unlinked loci as well as an analytical framework that can distinguish between lineage sorting and gene flow and incorporate the effects of demographic changes within each species. Here we use sequence data from 18 anonymous nuclear loci in two broadly sympatric sunflower species, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris, analyzed within an "isolation with migration" framework to make genome-wide estimates of the ages of these two species, long-term rates of gene flow between them, and effective population sizes and historical patterns of population growth. Our results indicate that H. annuus and H. petiolaris are approximately one million years old and have exchanged genes at a surprisingly high rate (long-term N(ef)m estimates of approximately 0.5 in each direction), with somewhat higher rates of introgression from H. annuus into H. petiolaris than vice versa. In addition, each species has undergone dramatic population expansion since divergence, and both species have among the highest levels of genetic diversity reported for flowering plants. Our results provide the most comprehensive estimate to date of long-term patterns of gene flow and historical demography in a nonmodel plant system, and they indicate that species integrity can be maintained even in the face of extensive gene flow over a prolonged period.

  3. MOLECULAR DEMOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE ANNUAL SUNFLOWERS HELIANTHUS ANNUUS AND H. PETIOLARIS—LARGE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZES AND RATES OF LONG-TERM GENE FLOW

    PubMed Central

    Strasburg, Jared L.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization between distinct species may lead to introgression of genes across species boundaries, and this pattern can potentially persist for extended periods as long as selection at some loci or genomic regions prevents thorough mixing of gene pools. However, very few reliable estimates of long-term levels of effective migration are available between hybridizing species throughout their history. Accurate estimates of divergence dates and levels of gene flow require data from multiple unlinked loci as well as an analytical framework that can distinguish between lineage sorting and gene flow and incorporate the effects of demographic changes within each species. Here we use sequence data from 18 anonymous nuclear loci in two broadly sympatric sunflower species, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris, analyzed within an “isolation with migration” framework to make genome-wide estimates of the ages of these two species, long-term rates of gene flow between them, and effective population sizes and historical patterns of population growth. Our results indicate that H. annuus and H. petiolaris are approximately one million years old and have exchanged genes at a surprisingly high rate (long-term Nef m estimates of approximately 0.5 in each direction), with somewhat higher rates of introgression from H. annuus into H. petiolaris than vice versa. In addition, each species has undergone dramatic population expansion since divergence, and both species have among the highest levels of genetic diversity reported for flowering plants. Our results provide the most comprehensive estimate to date of long-term patterns of gene flow and historical demography in a nonmodel plant system, and they indicate that species integrity can be maintained even in the face of extensive gene flow over a prolonged period. PMID:18462213

  4. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl18, introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower downy mildew is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflowe...

  5. Somatic embryogenesis from corolla tubes of interspecific amphiploids between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its wild species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Somatic embryogenesis in vitro provides an efficient means of plant multiplication, facilitating sunflower improvement and germplasm innovation. In the present study, using interspecific amphiploids (2n=4x=68) between cultivated sunflower and wild perennial Helianthus species as explant donors, soma...

  6. Genotyping-by-sequencing targeting of a novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 20 from wild Helianthus argophyllus for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, G J; Markell, S G; Song, Q J; Qi, L L

    2017-07-01

    Genotyping-by-sequencing revealed a new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 20 , from wild Helianthus argophyllus located on linkage group 8 of the sunflower genome and closely linked to SNP markers that facilitate the marker-assisted selection of resistance genes. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most devastating and yield-limiting diseases of sunflower. Downy mildew resistance identified in wild Helianthus argophyllus accession PI 494578 was determined to be effective against the predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii occurring in the United States. The evaluation of 114 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross between HA 89 and PI 494578 against P. halstedii race 734 revealed that single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Genotyping-by-sequencing analysis conducted in the BC1F2 population indicated that the DM resistance gene derived from wild H. argophyllus PI 494578 is located on the upper end of the linkage group (LG) 8 of the sunflower genome, as was determined single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with DM resistance. Analysis of 11 additional SNP markers previously mapped to this region revealed that the resistance gene, named Pl 20 , co-segregated with four markers, SFW02745, SFW09076, S8_11272025, and S8_11272046, and is flanked by SFW04358 and S8_100385559 at an interval of 1.8 cM. The newly discovered P. halstedii resistance gene has been introgressed from wild species into cultivated sunflower to provide a novel gene with DM resistance. The homozygous resistant individuals were selected from BC2F2 progenies with the use of markers linked to the Pl 20 gene, and these lines should benefit the sunflower community for Helianthus improvement.

  7. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant "GroZyme" resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.

  8. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

  9. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; ...

    2015-01-21

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn withinmore » the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO₄ alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.« less

  10. Simultaneous hyperaccumulation of multiple heavy metals by Helianthus annuus grown in a contaminated sandy-loam soil.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Teresa; Gunda, Nagaraju; Kurt, Firat

    2010-08-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising means for the treatment of contamination arising from heavy metal spills. Although several species have been identified as hyperaccumulators, most of the studies were performed with only one heavy metal. Experiments were conducted with two cultivars of H. annuus exposed to different combinations of metal contamination (30 mg/kg Cd, Cr, Ni, As, and/or Fe). Cultivar efficiency was based on total metal uptake, as well as translocation and selectivity of each metal. The results for each cultivar were also compared after 0.1 g/kg or 0.3 g/kg EDTA was added to enhance metal bioavailability. The key finding was that H. annuus achieved hyperaccumulator status for multiple metals simultaneously: Cd, Cr, and As.

  11. The effects of air flow and stem flexure on the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the stems of sunflowers Helianthus annuus L.

    PubMed

    Smith, V C; Ennos, A R

    2003-02-01

    Many studies have shown that wind affects plant development, causing them to develop shorter and usually stronger stems. Many of these effects have been shown to be due to a response to mechanical flexing of the stem which is known as thigmomorphogenesis. However, it is not known how wind affects the hydraulic properties of stems, nor have the effects of air flow past leaves been examined in isolation from mechanical flexing. This study, therefore, used a factorial experiment to distinguish between the effects of stem flexing and air flow, and examined the morphology, hydraulics and mechanics of developing sunflowers Helianthus annuus. It was found that flexure and air flow had opposite effects on several aspects of development; air flow increased plant height and length-specific stem hydraulic conductivity, k(h), and reduced stem rigidity and strength, while flexing did the reverse. There was also a clear trade-off between hydraulic and mechanical capability: as one increased the other decreased. A plant's response to wind must, therefore, be a complex response to at least two different stimuli and this might help explain why it varies with species and environment.

  12. Influence of drought acclimation and CO sub 2 enrichment on osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll a fluorescence of sunflower during drought. [Helianthus annuus var Hyson 30

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, J.P.; Virgona, J.M.; Smillie, R.M.; Barlow, E.W. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, North Ryde )

    1988-04-01

    Osmotic adjustment occurred during drought in expanded leaves of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus var Hysun 30) which had been continuously exposed to 660 microliters CO{sub 2} per liter or had been previously acclimated to drought. The effect was greatest when the treatments were combined and was negligible in nonacclimated plants grown at 340 microliters CO{sub 2} per liter. The concentrations of ethanol soluble sugars and potassium increased during drought but they did not account for the osmotic adjustment. The delay in the decline in conductance and relative water content and in the loss of structural integrity with increasing drought was dependent on the degree of osmotic adjustment. The relative water content remained constant at 85% for three days and fell to 36% on the sixth day. There was no evidence of leaf desiccation even on the eighth day. In contrast, the conductance of leaves showing minimal adjustment fell rapidly after the first day of drought and was negligible after the fourth, at which time the relative water content was 36%. By the sixth day of drought, areas near the margins of the leaves were desiccating and the plants did not recover upon rewatering. Despite the differences in the rate of change of conductance and relative water content during drought, photosynthetic electron transport activity, remained functional until desiccation occurred.

  13. Comparative study of SOS2 and a novel PMP3-1 gene expression in two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines differing in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Saadia, Mubshara; Jamil, Amer; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2013-06-01

    Gene expression pattern of two important regulatory proteins, salt overly sensitive 2 (SOS2) and plasma membrane protein 3-1 (PMP3-1), involved in ion homeostasis, was analyzed in two salinity-contrasting sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines, Hysun-38 (salt tolerant) and S-278 (moderately salt tolerant). The pattern was studied at selected time intervals (24 h) under 150 mM NaCl treatment. Using reverse transcription PCR, SOS2 gene fragment was obtained from young leaf and root tissues of opposing lines while that for PMP3-1 was obtained only from young root tissues. Both tolerant and moderately tolerant lines showed a gradual increase in SOS2 expression in sunflower root tissues. Leaf tissues showed the gradually increasing pattern of SOS2 expression in tolerant plants as compared to that for moderately tolerant ones that showed a relatively lower level of expression for this gene. We found the highest level of PMP 3-1 expression in the roots of tolerant sunflower line at 6 and 12 h postsalinity treatment. The moderately tolerant line showed higher expression of PMP3-1 at 12 and 24 h after salt treatment. Overall, the expression of genes for both the regulator proteins varied significantly in the two sunflower lines differing in salinity tolerance.

  14. Inoculating Helianthus annuus (sunflower) grown in zinc and cadmium contaminated soils with plant growth promoting bacteria--effects on phytoremediation strategies.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana P G C; Moreira, Helena; Franco, Albina R; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-06-01

    Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reducing the toxicity of heavy metals to plants in polluted environments. In this work the effects of inoculating metal resistant and plant growth promoting bacterial strains on the growth of Helianthus annuus grown in Zn and Cd spiked soils were assessed. The PGPR strains Ralstonia eutropha (B1) and Chrysiobacterium humi (B2) reduced losses of weight in metal exposed plants and induced changes in metal bioaccumulation and bioconcentration - with strain B2 decreasing up to 67% Zn accumulation and by 20% Zn bioconcentration factor (BCF) in the shoots, up to 64% Zn uptake and 38% Zn BCF in the roots, and up to 27% Cd uptake and 27% Cd BCF in plant roots. The impact of inoculation on the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of the plant was also assessed. Bacterial community diversity decreased with increasing levels of metal contamination in the soil, but in rhizosphere soil of plants inoculated with the PGPR strains, a higher bacterial diversity was kept throughout the experimental period. Inoculation of sunflower, particularly with C. humi (B2), appears to be an effective way of enhancing the short term stabilization potential of the plant in metal contaminated land, lowering losses in plant biomass and decreasing aboveground tissue contamination.

  15. The rate of CO(2) assimilation controls the expression and activity of glutamine synthetase through sugar formation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) leaves.

    PubMed

    Larios, B; Aguera, E; Cabello, P; Maldonado, J M; de la Haba, P

    2004-01-01

    The expression and activity of glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) were examined in relation to the rate of CO2 assimilation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. Intact plants were kept in the dark for 72 h and subsequently exposed to light under different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (100, 400 and 1200 microl l-1) for 6 h. The in vivo rates of net CO2 assimilation correlated with atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Stomatal conductances and transpiration rates remained largely unaffected by CO2 levels. Exposure of the plants to increasing CO2 concentrations in the light caused concomitant increases in the contents of starch and soluble sugars and a decrease in the nitrate content in leaves. Both cytosolic and chloroplastic (GS2) GS activities were higher at elevated CO2. A greater accumulation of GS2 mRNA was also observed under high CO2. Exogenous supply of sucrose to detached leaves greatly increased the levels of GS enzyme activity and of mRNA for chloroplastic GS in the dark. These results indicate that GS expression and activity in sunflower leaves are modulated by the rate of CO2 assimilation, and that photosynthesized sugars are presumably involved as regulatory metabolites.

  16. Induction of a photomixotrophic plant cell culture of Helianthus annuus and optimization of culture conditions for improved α-tocopherol production.

    PubMed

    Geipel, Katja; Song, Xue; Socher, Maria Lisa; Kümmritz, Sibylle; Püschel, Joachim; Bley, Thomas; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Steingroewer, Juliane

    2014-03-01

    Tocopherols, collectively known as vitamin E, are lipophilic antioxidants, which are synthesized only by photosynthetic organisms. Due to their enormous potential to protect cells from oxidative damage, tocopherols are used, e.g., as nutraceuticals and additives in pharmaceuticals. The most biologically active form of vitamin E is α-tocopherol. Most tocopherols are currently produced via chemical synthesis. Nevertheless, this always results in a racemic mixture of different and less effective stereoisomers because the natural isomer has the highest biological activity. Therefore, tocopherols synthesized in natural sources are preferred for medical purposes. The annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a well-known source for α-tocopherol. Within the presented work, sunflower callus and suspension cultures were established growing under photomixotrophic conditions to enhance α-tocopherol yield. The most efficient callus induction was achieved with sunflower stems cultivated on solid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 30 g l(-1) sucrose, 0.5 mg l(-1) of the auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid, and 0.5 mg l(-1) of the cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine. Photomixotrophic sunflower suspension cultures were induced by transferring previously established callus into liquid medium. The effects of light intensity, sugar concentration, and culture age on growth rate and α-tocopherol synthesis rate were characterized. A considerable increase (max. 230%) of α-tocopherol production in the cells was obtained within the photomixotrophic cell culture compared to a heterotrophic cell culture. These results will be useful for improving α-tocopherol yields of plant in vitro cultures.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  18. Spatio-temporal mapping of variation potentials in leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ using multi-electrode array.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yi; Huang, Lan; Jia, Yong-Peng; Leng, John Q

    2014-06-25

    Damaging thermal stimuli trigger long-lasting variation potentials (VPs) in higher plants. Owing to limitations in conventional plant electrophysiological recording techniques, recorded signals are composed of signals originating from all of the cells that are connected to an electrode. This limitation does not enable detailed spatio-temporal distributions of transmission and electrical activities in plants to be visualised. Multi-electrode array (MEA) enables the recording and imaging of dynamic spatio-temporal electrical activities in higher plants. Here, we used an 8 × 8 MEA with a polar distance of 450 μm to measure electrical activities from numerous cells simultaneously. The mapping of the data that were recorded from the MEA revealed the transfer mode of the thermally induced VPs in the leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ. These results suggest that MEA can enable recordings with high spatio-temporal resolution that facilitate the determination of the bioelectrical response mode of higher plants under stress.

  19. The effect of subambient to elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration on vascular function in Helianthus annuus: implications for plant response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Rico, Christopher; Pittermann, Jarmila; Polley, H Wayne; Aspinwall, Michael J; Fay, Phillip A

    2013-09-01

    Plant gas exchange is regulated by stomata, which coordinate leaf-level water loss with xylem transport. Stomatal opening responds to internal concentrations of CO₂ in the leaf, but changing CO₂ can also lead to changes in stomatal density that influence transpiration. Given that stomatal conductance increases under subambient concentrations of CO₂ and, conversely, that plants lose less water at elevated concentrations, can downstream effects of atmospheric CO₂ be observed in xylem tissue? We approached this problem by evaluating leaf stomatal density, xylem transport, xylem anatomy and resistance to cavitation in Helianthus annuus plants grown under three CO₂ regimes ranging from pre-industrial to elevated concentrations. Xylem transport, conduit size and stomatal density all increased at 290 ppm relative to ambient and elevated CO₂ concentrations. The shoots of the 290-ppm-grown plants were most vulnerable to cavitation, whereas xylem cavitation resistance did not differ in 390- and 480-ppm-grown plants. Our data indicate that, even as an indirect driver of water loss, CO₂ can affect xylem structure and water transport by coupling stomatal and xylem hydraulic functions during plant development. This plastic response has implications for plant water use under variable concentrations of CO₂, as well as the evolution of efficient xylem transport.

  20. Spatio-temporal mapping of variation potentials in leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ using multi-electrode array

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong-Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yi; Huang, Lan; Jia, Yong-Peng; Leng, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    Damaging thermal stimuli trigger long-lasting variation potentials (VPs) in higher plants. Owing to limitations in conventional plant electrophysiological recording techniques, recorded signals are composed of signals originating from all of the cells that are connected to an electrode. This limitation does not enable detailed spatio-temporal distributions of transmission and electrical activities in plants to be visualised. Multi-electrode array (MEA) enables the recording and imaging of dynamic spatio-temporal electrical activities in higher plants. Here, we used an 8 × 8 MEA with a polar distance of 450 μm to measure electrical activities from numerous cells simultaneously. The mapping of the data that were recorded from the MEA revealed the transfer mode of the thermally induced VPs in the leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ. These results suggest that MEA can enable recordings with high spatio-temporal resolution that facilitate the determination of the bioelectrical response mode of higher plants under stress. PMID:24961469

  1. Effects of an acute dose of gamma radiation exposure on stem diameter growth, carbon gain, and biomass partitioning in Helianthus annuus

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, M.E.

    1988-05-25

    Nineteen-day-old dwarf sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus, variety NK894) received a variable dose (0-40 Gy) from a cobalt-60 gamma source. A very sensitive stem monitoring device, developed at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington was used to measure real-time changes in stem diameter. Exposure of plants caused a significant reduction in stem growth and root biomass. Doses as low as 5 Gy resulted in a significant increase in leaf density, suggesting that nonreversible morphological growth changes could be induced by very low doses of radiation. Carbohydrate analysis of 40-Gy irradiated plants demonstrated significantly more starch content in leaves and significantly less starch content in stems 18 days after exposure than did control plants. In contrast, the carbohydrate content in roots of 40-Gy irradiated plants were not significantly different from unirradiated plants 18 days after exposure. These results indicate that radiation either decreased phloem transport or reduced the availability of sugar reducing enzymes in irradiated plants. 44 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota.

  3. Comparison of MP AES and ICP-MS for analysis of principal and selected trace elements in nitric acid digests of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Stefan; Sjöberg, Viktor; Ogar, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrogen as plasma gas for microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP AES) is an interesting development in analytical science since the running cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to the inductively coupled argon plasma. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument for the analysis of principal metals (Ca, K, Mg, and Na), lithogenic metals (Al, Fe, and Mn) and selected trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in nitric acid plant digests. The digests were prepared by microwave-assisted dissolution of dry plant material from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in concentrated nitric acid. Comparisons are made with analysis of the same solutions with ICP-MS (Agilent 7500cx) using the octopole reaction system (ORS) in the collision mode for As, Fe, and V. The limits of detection were usually in the low µg L(-1) range and all principal and lithogenic metals were successfully determined with the MP AES and provided almost identical results with the ICP-MS. The same applies for the selected trace metals except for As, Co and Mo where the concentrations were below the detection limit with the MP AES. For successful analysis we recommend that (i) only atom lines are used, (ii) ionization is minimized (e.g. addition of CsNO3) and (iii) the use of internal standards should be considered to resolve spectral interferences.

  4. [Analysis of mineral elements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on saline land in Hetao Irrigation District by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Tong, Wen-Jie; Chen, Fu; Wen, Xin-Ya

    2014-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of ten mineral elements in four kinds of organs (root, steam, leaf and flower disc) in Helianthus annuus L. plants cultured in Hetao Irrigation District under different level of salinity stress were determined by ICP-AES with wet digestion (HNO3 + HClO4). The results showed that: (1) The contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Na were highest in roots, so was K in stems, B and Mg in leaves and P in flower discs, while no significant difference was detected in the content of Cu among these organs; (2) The cumulants of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, B and Zn were highest in flower discs, so were Na, Fe and Mn in roots and K in stems; (3) In sunflower plants, the proportion of mineral element cumulant for K : Ca : Mg : P : Na was 16.71 : 5.23 : 3.86 : 1.23 : 1.00, and for Zn : Fe : B : Mn: Cu was 56.28 : 27.75 : 1.93 : 1.17 : 1.00, respectively; (4) The effect of salinity stress on absorption of mineral elements differed according to the kind of organ and element, root was the most sensitive to soil salt content, followed by stem and leaf, and the effect on flower disc seemed complex.

  5. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Foley, M E; Cai, X W; Gulya, T J

    2016-04-01

    A novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), was introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower and genetically mapped to linkage group 2 of the sunflower genome. The new germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. Sunflower downy mildew (DM) is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl 18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflower was mapped to linkage group (LG) 2 of the sunflower genome using bulked segregant analysis with 869 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Phenotyping 142 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of HA 89 and H. argophyllus confirmed the single gene inheritance of resistance. Since no other Pl gene has been mapped to LG2, this gene was novel and designated as Pl (18). SSR markers CRT214 and ORS203 flanked Pl(18) at a genetic distance of 1.1 and 0.4 cM, respectively. Forty-six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the Pl(18) region were surveyed for saturation mapping of the region. Six co-segregating SNP markers were 1.2 cM distal to Pl(18), and another four co-segregating SNP markers were 0.9 cM proximal to Pl(18). The new BC2F4-derived germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. This new line is highly resistant to all Plasmopara halstedii races identified in the USA providing breeders with an effective new source of resistance against downy mildew in sunflower. The molecular markers that were developed will be especially useful in marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of Pl resistance genes because of their close proximity to the gene and the availability of high-throughput SNP detection assays.

  6. Ectopic expression of LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE gene and localized auxin accumulation mark embryogenic competence in epiphyllous plants of Helianthus annuus × H. tuberosus

    PubMed Central

    Chiappetta, A.; Fambrini, M.; Petrarulo, M.; Rapparini, F.; Michelotti, V.; Bruno, L.; Greco, M.; Baraldi, R.; Salvini, M.; Pugliesi, C.; Bitonti, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The clone EMB-2 of the interspecific hybrid Helianthus annuus × H. tuberosus provides an interesting system to study molecular and physiological aspects of somatic embryogenesis. Namely, in addition to non-epiphyllous (NEP) leaves that expand normally, EMB-2 produces epiphyllous (EP) leaves bearing embryos on the adaxial surface. This clone was used to investigate if the ectopic expression of H. annuus LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (Ha-L1L) gene and auxin activity are correlated with the establishment of embryogenic competence. Methods Ha-L1L expression was evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. The endogenous level and spatial distribution of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were estimated by a capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–selected ion monitoring method and an immuno-cytochemical approach. Key Results Ectopic expression of Ha-L1L was detected in specific cell domains of the adaxial epidermis of EP leaves prior to the development of ectopic embryos. Ha-L1L was expressed rapidly when NEP leaves were induced to regenerate somatic embryos by in vitro culture. Differences in auxin distribution pattern rather than in absolute level were observed between EP and A-2 leaves. More precisely, a strong IAA immuno-signal was detected in single cells or in small groups of cells along the epidermis of EP leaves and accompanied the early stages of embryo development. Changes in auxin level and distribution were observed in NEP leaves induced to regenerate by in vitro culture. Exogenous auxin treatments lightly influenced Ha-L1L transcript levels in spite of an enhancement of the regeneration frequency. Conclusions In EP leaves, Ha-L1L activity marks the putative founder cells of ectopic embryos. Although the ectopic expression of Ha-L1L seems to be not directly mediated by auxin levels per se, it was demonstrated that localized Ha-L1L expression and IAA accumulation in leaf epidermis domains represent early events of

  7. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7.

  8. Physiological and biochemical responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) exposed to nano-CeO2 and excess boron: Modulation of boron phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tassi, E; Giorgetti, L; Morelli, E; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L; Barbafieri, M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with soil constituents and their effects in plants. Boron (B), an essential micronutrient that reduces crop production at both deficiency and excess, has not been investigated with respect to its interaction with cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO2). Considering conflicting results on the nano-CeO2 toxicity and protective role as antioxidant, their possible modulation on B toxicity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was investigated. Sunflower was cultivated for 30 days in garden pots containing original or B-spiked soil amended with nano-CeO2 at 0-800 mg kg(-1). At harvest, Ce and B concentrations in tissues, biomass, and activities of stress enzymes in leaves were determined. Results showed that in the original soil, Ce accumulated mainly in roots, with little translocation to stems and leaves, while reduced root Ce was observed in plants from B-spiked soil. In the original soil, higher levels of nano-CeO2 reduced plant B concentration. Although morphological effects were not visible, changes in biomass and oxidative stress response were observed. Sunflower leaves from B-spiked soil showed visible symptoms of B toxicity, such as necrosis and chlorosis in old leaves, as well as an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. However, at high nano-CeO2 level, SOD activity decreased reaching values similar to that of the control. This study has shown that nano-CeO2 reduced both the B nutritional status of sunflower in original soil and the B phytotoxicity in B-spiked soil.

  9. cDNA cloning, expression levels and gene mapping of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic ferredoxin genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Venegas-Calerón, M; Zambelli, A; Ruiz-López, N; Youssar, L; León, A; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acid desaturation in plastids and chloroplasts depends on the electron-donor activity of ferredoxins. Using degenerate oligonucleotides designed from known photosynthetic and heterotrophic plant ferredoxin sequences, two full-length ferredoxin cDNAs were cloned from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves and developing seeds, HaFd1 and HaFd2, homologous to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic ferredoxins, respectively. Based on these cDNAs, the respective genomic sequences were obtained and the presence of DNA polymorphisms was investigated. Complete sequencing of the HaFd1 and HaFd2 genes in different lines indicated the presence of two haplotypes for HaFd2 and their alignment showed that sequence polymorphisms are restricted to the 5'-NTR intron. In addition, specific DNA markers for the HaFd1 and HaFd2 genes were developed that enabled the genes to be mapped. Accordingly, the HaFd1 locus maps to linkage group 10 of the public sunflower map, while the HaFd2 locus maps to linkage group 11. Both ferredoxins display different spatial-temporal patterns of expression. While HaFd2 is expressed at similar levels in all tissues tested (leaves, stem, roots, cotyledons and developing seeds), HaFd1 is more strongly expressed in green tissues than in all the other tissues tested. Both photosynthetic- and heterotrophic-ferredoxins are present in sunflower seeds and may contribute to fatty acid desaturation during oil accumulation. Nevertheless, the levels of HaFd2 expression during seed formation are distinct in lines that only varied in the HaFd2 haplotypes they expressed.

  10. Comparisons of Photosynthetic Responses of Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus to Chronic and Acute Water Stress in Sun and Shade 1

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Gui-Ying; Osmond, C. Barry; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the effects of mild, chronic water stress and acute water stress on two water stress sensitive plants, Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus. Using a combination of the leaf disc O2 electrode to measure the light responses of photosynthesis and 77 K fluorescence to monitor damage to the primary photochemistry, we have found the following: (a) The CO2 saturated rate of photosynthesis at high light is the most water stress sensitive parameter measured. (b) The apparent quantum yield (moles O2 per mole photons) was slightly, if at all, affected by mild water stress (>−1.5 megapascals). (c) Severe water stress (<−1.5 megapascals) reduced the quantum yield of photosynthesis regardless of whether the stress was applied in sun or shade. The light independent reduction of quantum yield was not associated with a reduction in 77 K fluorescence (Fv/Fm) indicating that the quantum yield reduction was not the result of damage to primary photochemistry. (d) The diel fluctuation in 77 K fluorescence seen in sun-exposed control leaves was greatly exaggerated in water stressed leaves because of enhanced decline in 77 K fluorescence in the morning. The rate of recovery was similar in both control and water stressed leaves. Shaded leaves showed no change in 77 K fluorescence regardless of whether water stress was imposed or not. (e) The water stress sensitive plants used in these experiments did not recover from acute water stress severe enough to reduce the quantum yield or chronic water stress which lasted long enough that light dependent damage to primary photochemistry occurred. PMID:16665465

  11. Genetic variability for physiological traits under drought conditions and differential expression of water stress-associated genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Poormohammad Kiani, S; Grieu, P; Maury, P; Hewezi, T; Gentzbittel, L; Sarrafi, A

    2007-01-01

    Genotypic variation for water status and gas exchange parameters under different water treatments (well-watered and water-stressed plants before and after rehydration) were investigated in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Afterwards, four RILs and parental lines presenting contrasting responses to dehydration and rehydration were selected to determine the differential expression of four water-stress associated genes: aquaporin, dehydrin, leafy cotyledon1-like protein and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase. Water stress revealed a high genetic variability for water status and gas exchange parameters when compared with well-watered genotypes. Genetic gain when selected RILs were compared with the best parent was significant for most traits due to transgressive segregation. QTL mapping and graphical genotyping showed that RILs carrying different genomic regions for some QTLs presented also physiological different characteristics as well as gene expression patterns. The expression level of aquaporin genes in leaves of four RILs and their parents was down regulated by water stress and was associated with relative water content (RWC). Down-regulation was also associated with genomic regions having alleles with negative effects on plant water status. The level of dehydrin transcripts increased in leaves of all studied RILs in response to water stress. Transcript accumulations of dehydrin and leafy cotyledon1-like genes, likely involved in protective tolerance processes, were not correlated directly with plant water status or QTL effects. Down-regulation of fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase was observed under water stress. Net photosynthesis rate (P(n)) and the fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase gene expression levels were associated mainly after rehydration. This phenomenon indicates an association between physiological response to water stress and differential expression of water-stress related genes.

  12. In vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and phytochemical characterization of seeds oil of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower).

    PubMed

    de Mello Silva Oliveira, Nelma; Reis Resende, Marielly; Alexandre Morales, Daniel; de Ragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the genotoxic potential of the oil of H. annuus L. (sunflower) seeds via the Ames test as well as its oxidative properties and lipid composition. The pre-incubation method, system metabolic activation (S9 fraction) and five S. typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA102) were employed for the Ames test. The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were analyzed by standard methods and gas chromatography. A revertant analysis showed no significant differences between the treatment doses (10-200 μl/plate) and the negative controls, regardless of S9(+) and S9(-), and included all of the S. typhimurium strains. Chromatographic analysis showed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated, saturated and total trans-isomers. Among the polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids predominated. The results suggest that the sunflower oil is not genotoxic as indicated by frameshift mutations and base pair substitutions regardless of the treatment dose, but shows dose-dependent toxicity. The oxidative properties of the sunflower oil were consistent with the requirements of national and international standards. However, its composition could also indicate phytotherapeutic properties.

  13. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase.

  14. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  15. Uncoupling light quality from light irradiance effects in Helianthus annuus shoots: putative roles for plant hormones in leaf and internode growth.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Emery, R J Neil; Pharis, Richard P; Reid, David M

    2007-01-01

    An attempt has been made to uncouple the effects of the two primary components of shade light, a reduced red to far-red (R/FR) ratio and low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), on the elongation of the youngest internode of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings. Maximal internode growth (length and biomass) was induced by a shade light having a reduced R/FR ratio (0.85) under the low PAR of 157 micromol m(-2) s(-1). Reducing the R/FR ratio under normal PAR (421 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) gave similar growth trends, albeit with a reduced magnitude of the response. Leaf area growth showed a rather different pattern, with maximal growth occurring at the higher (normal) PAR of 421 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), but with variable effects being seen with changes in light quality. Reducing the R/FR ratio (by enrichment with FR) gave significant increases in gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents in both internodes and leaves. By contrast, a lower PAR irradiance had no significant effect on GA(1) and IAA levels in internodes or leaves, but did increase the levels of other GAs, including two precursors of GA(1). Interestingly, both leaf and internode hormone content (GAs, IAA) are positively and significantly correlated with growth of the internode, as are leaf levels of abscisic acid (ABA). However, changes in these three hormones bear little relationship to leaf growth. By implication, then, the leaf may be the major source of GAs and IAA, at least, for the rapidly elongating internode. Several other hormones were also assessed in leaves for plants grown under varying R/FR ratios and PARs. Leaf ethylene production was not influenced by changes in R/FR ratio, but was significantly reduced under the normal (higher) PAR, the irradiance treatment which increased leaf growth. Levels of the growth-active free base and riboside cytokinins were significantly increased in leaves under a reduced R/FR ratio, but only at the higher (normal) PAR irradiance; other

  16. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression patterns of LATERAL SUPPRESSOR-LIKE and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION-LIKE genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively. Typical amino acid residues and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL are the orthologs of the branching regulator LS and ROX/LAX1, involved in the growth habit of both dicot and monocot species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed a high accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts in roots, vegetative shoots, and inflorescence shoots. By contrast, in internodal stems and young leaves, a lower amount of Ha-LSL transcripts was observed. A comparison of transcription patterns between Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL revealed some analogies but also remarkable differences; in fact, the gene Ha-ROXL displayed a low expression level in all organs analyzed. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that Ha-ROXL transcription was strongly restricted to a small domain within the boundary zone separating the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia and in restricted regions of the inflorescence meristem, beforehand the separation of floral bracts from disc flower primordia. These results suggested that Ha-ROXL may be involved to establish a cell niche for the initiation of AMs as well as flower primordia. The accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts was not restricted to the boundary zones in vegetative and inflorescence shoots, but the mRNA activity was expanded in other cellular domains of primary shoot apical meristem as well as AMs. In addition, Ha

  17. Mineral status of female rats affects the absorption and organ distribution of dietary cadmium derived from edible sunflower kernels (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Reeves, P G; Chaney, R L

    2001-03-01

    The intake of food cadmium (Cd) in microg/day over time can increase the body burden of this element. Some human populations that consume subsistence rice-based diets low in calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) are more susceptible to Cd poisoning than populations that consume more nutritious diets. This study determined the effects of marginal deficiencies of these essential elements on the absorption and organ retention of Cd from a natural food that contains Cd, edible sunflower kernels (Helianthus annuus L.; SFK). Weanling female rats were fed diets containing 20% SFK in a 2x2x2 factorial design with marginal and adequate amounts of Ca, Zn, and Fe. Marginal Zn (11 mg/kg) and Fe (13 mg/kg), and Cd (0.18 mg/kg) were derived solely from 20% SFK. These amounts of Fe and Zn represented 39 and 90% of the NRC requirement for the rat, respectively. The marginal dietary Ca concentration (2.5 g/kg) was one-half the NRC requirement. After 5 weeks on the experiment, rats were fed 1 g of their respective diets containing SFK extrinsically labeled with 37 kBq 109Cd, and absorption was determined by whole-body counting techniques. Rats were then killed and organs collected for 109Cd assays. No effect of treatment on weight gain was observed; however, when dietary Zn was low, feeding marginal Ca elevated Cd absorption by 50% (P<0.05) over those fed adequate Ca and Zn. Feeding marginal Fe elevated Cd absorption >2.5-fold (P<0.001) over those fed adequate Fe. In contrast, the naturally occurring Zn in SFK that provided 90% of the rat's requirement was enough to deter excessive absorption of Cd and enough to alone prevent significant elevation of organ Cd. Organ content of 109Cd and Cd followed the same general pattern as whole-body absorption. These data show that marginal nutritional deficiencies of Ca and Fe can readily enhance the body burden of Cd that comes from the diet. Also, some natural competitors of Cd, such as Zn, contained in foods can independently minimize Cd

  18. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2015-01-21

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO₄ alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.

  19. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance.

  20. Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Tatarková, Veronika; Hiller, Edgar; Vaculík, Marek

    2013-06-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils might increase the sorption of herbicides, and therefore, affect other sorption-related processes such as leaching, dissipation and toxicity for plants. In this study, the impact of wheat straw biochar on the sorption, leaching and dissipation in a soil, and toxicity for sunflower of (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), a commonly used ionizable herbicide, was investigated. The results showed that MCPA sorption by biochar and biochar-amended soil (1.0wt% biochar) was 82 and 2.53 times higher than that by the non-amended soil, respectively. However, desorption of MCPA from biochar-amended soil was only 1.17 times lower than its desorption in non-amended soil. Biochar addition to soil reduced both MCPA leaching and dissipation. About 35% of the applied MCPA was transported through biochar-amended soil, while up to 56% was recovered in the leachates transported through non-amended soil. The half-life value of MCPA increased from 5.2d in non-amended soil to 21.5 d in biochar-amended soil. Pot experiments with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown in MCPA-free, but biochar-amended soil showed no positive effect of biochar on the growth of sunflower in comparison to the non-amended soil. However, biochar itself significantly reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) in sunflower. There was no significant difference in the phytotoxic effects of MCPA on sunflowers between the biochar-amended soil and the non-amended soil. Furthermore, MCPA had no effect on the photosynthetic pigment contents in sunflower.

  1. Molecular aspects of zygotic embryogenesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): correlation of positive histone marks with HaWUS expression and putative link HaWUS/HaL1L.

    PubMed

    Salvini, Mariangela; Fambrini, Marco; Giorgetti, Lucia; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The link HaWUS/ HaL1L , the opposite transcriptional behavior, and the decrease/increase in positive histone marks bond to both genes suggest an inhibitory effect of WUS on HaL1L in sunflower zygotic embryos. In Arabidopsis, a group of transcription factors implicated in the earliest events of embryogenesis is the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) protein family including WUSCHEL (WUS) and other 14 WOX protein, some of which contain a conserved WUS-box domain in addition to the homeodomain. WUS transcripts appear very early in embryogenesis, at the 16-cell embryo stage, but gradually become restricted to the center of the developing shoot apical meristem (SAM) primordium and continues to be expressed in cells of the niche/organizing center of SAM and floral meristems to maintain stem cell population. Moreover, WUS has decisive roles in the embryonic program presumably promoting the vegetative-to-embryonic transition and/or maintaining the identity of the embryonic stem cells. However, data on the direct interaction between WUS and key genes for seed development (as LEC1 and L1L) are not collected. The novelty of this report consists in the characterization of Helianthus annuus WUS (HaWUS) gene and in its analysis regarding the pattern of the methylated lysine 4 (K4) of the Histone H3 and of the acetylated histone H3 during the zygotic embryo development. Also, a parallel investigation was performed for HaL1L gene since two copies of the WUS-binding site (WUSATA), previously identified on HaL1L nucleotide sequence, were able to be bound by the HaWUS recombinant protein suggesting a not described effect of HaWUS on HaL1L transcription.

  2. Substitution of crude cell wall for neutral detergent fibre in the equations of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System that predict carbohydrate fractions: application to sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M A A; Fukushima, R S; Gomide, C A; Braga, M R

    2008-07-01

    Prediction of carbohydrate fractions using equations from the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) is a valuable tool to assess the nutritional value of forages. In this paper, these carbohydrate fractions were predicted using data from three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars, fresh or as silage. The CNCPS equations for fractions B2 and C include measurement of ash and protein-free neutral detergent fibre (NDF) as one of their components. However, NDF lacks pectin and other non-starch polysaccharides that are found in the cell wall (CW) matrix, so this work compared the use of a crude CW preparation instead of NDF in the CNCPS equations. There were no differences in the estimates of fractions B1 and C when CW replaced NDF; however, there were differences in fractions A and B2. Some of the CNCPS equations could be simplified when using CW instead of NDF. Notably, lignin could be expressed as a proportion of DM, rather than on the basis of ash and protein-free NDF, when predicting CNCPS fraction C. The CNCPS fraction B1 (starch + pectin) values were lower than pectin determined through wet chemistry. This finding, along with the results obtained by the substitution of CW for NDF in the CNCPS equations, suggests that pectin was not part of fraction B1 but present in fraction A. We suggest that pectin and other non-starch polysaccharides that are dissolved by the neutral detergent solution be allocated to a specific fraction (B2) and that another fraction (B3) be adopted for the digestible cell wall carbohydrates.

  3. Nongenotoxic effects and a reduction of the DXR-induced genotoxic effects of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower) seeds revealed by micronucleus assays in mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This research evaluated the genotoxicity of oil and tincture of H. annuus L. seeds using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between these preparations and the genotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DXR) was also analysed (antigenotoxicity test). Methods Experimental groups were evaluated at 24-48 h post treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (positive control – NEU), DXR (chemotherapeutic), NaCl (negative control), a sunflower tincture (THALS) and two sources of sunflower oils (POHALS and FOHALS). Antigenotoxic assays were carried out using the sunflower tincture and oils separately and in combination with NUE or DXR. Results For THALS, analysis of the MNPCEs showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250–2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. A significant reduction in MNPCE was observed when THALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) was administered in combination with DXR (5 mg.Kg-1). For POHALS or FOHALS, analysis of the MNPCEs also showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250–2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. However, the combination DXR + POHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) or DXR + FOHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) not contributed to the MNPCEs reduction. Conclusions This research suggests absence of genotoxicity of THALS, dose-, time- and sex-independent, and its combination with DXR can reduce the genotoxic effects of DXR. POHALS and FOHALS also showed absence of genotoxicity, but their association with DXR showed no antigenotoxic effects. PMID:24694203

  4. Progress on the introgression of Sclerotinia resistance genes from wild perennial Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary attacks sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) causing root, stalk, and head rot, and is one of the most damaging and difficult-to-control sunflower diseases. Some wild perennial Helianthus species have been identified to contain abundant res...

  5. Effect of asymmetric auxin application on Helianthus hypocotyl curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migliaccio, F.; Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid was applied asymmetrically to the hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. After 5 hours on a clinostat, auxin gradients as small as 1 to 1.3 produced substantial (more than 60 degrees) hypocotyl curvature. This result suggests the asymmetric growth underlying hypocotyl gravitropism can be explained by lateral auxin redistribution.

  6. Genome-wide genotyping-by-sequencing data provide a high-resolution view of wild Helianthus diversity, genetic structure, and interspecies gene flow.

    PubMed

    Baute, Gregory J; Owens, Gregory L; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-12-01

    Wild sunflowers harbor considerable genetic diversity and are a major resource for improvement of the cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus. The Helianthus genus is also well known for its propensity for gene flow between taxa. We surveyed genomic diversity of 292 samples of wild Helianthus from 22 taxa that are cross-compatible with the cultivar using genotyping by sequencing. With these data, we derived a high-resolution phylogeny of the taxa, interrogated genome-wide levels of diversity, explored H. annuus population structure, and identified localized gene flow between H. annuus and its close relatives. Our phylogenomic analyses confirmed a number of previously established interspecific relationships and indicated for the first time that a newly described annual sunflower, H. winteri, is nested within H. annuus. Principal component analyses showed that H. annuus has geographic population structure with most notable subpopulations occurring in California and Texas. While gene flow was identified between H. annuus and H. bolanderi in California and between H. annuus and H. argophyllus in Texas, this genetic exchange does not appear to drive observed patterns of H. annuus population structure. Wild H. annuus remains an excellent resource for cultivated sunflower breeding effort because of its diversity and the ease with which it can be crossed with cultivated H. annuus. Cases of interspecific gene flow such as those documented here also indicate wild H. annuus can act as a bridge to capture alleles from other wild taxa; continued breeding efforts with it may therefore reap the largest rewards. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  7. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    PubMed

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP.

  8. Chromosomal Evolution and Patterns of Introgression in Helianthus

    PubMed Central

    Barb, Jessica G.; Bowers, John E.; Renaut, Sebastien; Rey, Juan I.; Knapp, Steven J.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Burke, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the nature and extent of karyotypic differences between species provides insight into the evolutionary history of the genomes in question and, in the case of closely related species, the potential for genetic exchange between taxa. We constructed high-density genetic maps of the silverleaf sunflower (Helianthus argophyllus) and Algodones Dune sunflower (H. niveus ssp. tephrodes) genomes and compared them to a consensus map of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus) to identify chromosomal rearrangements between species. The genetic maps of H. argophyllus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes included 17 linkage groups each and spanned 1337 and 1478 cM, respectively. Comparative analyses revealed greater divergence between H. annuus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes (13 inverted segments, 18 translocated segments) than between H. annuus and H. argophyllus (10 inverted segments, 8 translocated segments), consistent with their known phylogenetic relationships. Marker order was conserved across much of the genome, with 83 and 64% of the H. argophyllus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes genomes, respectively, being syntenic with H. annuus. Population genomic analyses between H. annuus and H. argophyllus, which are sympatric across a portion of the natural range of H. annuus, revealed significantly elevated genetic structure in rearranged portions of the genome, indicating that such rearrangements are associated with restricted gene flow between these two species. PMID:24770331

  9. Chromosomal evolution and patterns of introgression in helianthus.

    PubMed

    Barb, Jessica G; Bowers, John E; Renaut, Sebastien; Rey, Juan I; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the nature and extent of karyotypic differences between species provides insight into the evolutionary history of the genomes in question and, in the case of closely related species, the potential for genetic exchange between taxa. We constructed high-density genetic maps of the silverleaf sunflower (Helianthus argophyllus) and Algodones Dune sunflower (H. niveus ssp. tephrodes) genomes and compared them to a consensus map of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus) to identify chromosomal rearrangements between species. The genetic maps of H. argophyllus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes included 17 linkage groups each and spanned 1337 and 1478 cM, respectively. Comparative analyses revealed greater divergence between H. annuus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes (13 inverted segments, 18 translocated segments) than between H. annuus and H. argophyllus (10 inverted segments, 8 translocated segments), consistent with their known phylogenetic relationships. Marker order was conserved across much of the genome, with 83 and 64% of the H. argophyllus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes genomes, respectively, being syntenic with H. annuus. Population genomic analyses between H. annuus and H. argophyllus, which are sympatric across a portion of the natural range of H. annuus, revealed significantly elevated genetic structure in rearranged portions of the genome, indicating that such rearrangements are associated with restricted gene flow between these two species.

  10. Evaluation of rare Helianthus eggertii achenes for oil concentration and fatty acid composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil has the potential to be improved for nutritional and industrial purposes through selection and breeding. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from wild species, resulting in a continuous improvement in agrono...

  11. Oil Concentration and Fatty Acid Profile of Wild Helianthus Species fron the Southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil has the potential to be improved for industrial and nutritional purposes through selection and breeding. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from wild species and agronomic traits have been enhanced. Interes...

  12. Reconstructing the Origin of Helianthus deserticola: Survival and Selection on the Desert Floor

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Briana L.; Kane, Nolan C.; Lexer, Christian; Ludwig, Fulco; Rosenthal, David M.; Donovan, Lisa A.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2008-01-01

    The diploid hybrid species Helianthus deserticola inhabits the desert floor, an extreme environment relative to its parental species Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris. Adaptation to the desert floor may have occurred via selection acting on transgressive, or extreme, traits in early hybrids between the parental species. We explored this possibility through a field experiment in the hybrid species’ native habitat using H. deserticola, H. annuus, H. petiolaris, and two populations of early-generation (BC2) hybrids between the parental species, which served as proxies for the ancestral genotype of the ancient hybrid species. Character expression was evaluated for each genotypic class. Helianthus deserticola was negatively transgressive for stem diameter, leaf area, and flowering date, and the latter two traits are likely to be advantageous in a desert environment. The BC2 hybrids contained a range of variation that overlapped these transgressive trait means, and an analysis of phenotypic selection revealed that some of the selective pressures on leaf size and flowering date, but not stem diameter, would move the BC2 population toward the H. deserticola phenotype. Thus, H. deserticola may have originated from habitat-mediated directional selection acting on hybrids between H. annuus and H. petiolaris in a desert environment. PMID:15278840

  13. Nutation of Helianthus Annuus in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to gather evidence to decide between the Darwinian concept of endogenously motivated nutation and the more mechanistic concept of gravity dependent nutation is described. If nutation persists in weightlessness, parameters describing the motion will be measured by recording in time lapse mode the video images of a population of seedlings that were grown at 1-g, but which will be observed at virtual zero gravity. Later, the plant images will be displayed on a video monitor in a laboratory, photographed on 16 millimeter film, and analyzed frame by frame to determine the kinetics of nutation for each specimen tested.

  14. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Daniel P.; Kane, Nolan C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence for sunflower and the first complete mitochondrial genome for any member of Asteraceae, the largest plant family, which includes over 23,000 named species. The master circle is 300,945-bp long and includes 27 protein-coding sequences, 18 tRNAs, and the 26S, 5S, and 18S rRNAs. PMID:27635002

  15. Nutation of Helianthus Annuus in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to gather evidence to decide between the Darwinian concept of endogenously motivated nutation and the more mechanistic concept of gravity dependent nutation is described. If nutation persists in weightlessness, parameters describing the motion will be measured by recording in time lapse mode the video images of a population of seedlings that were grown at 1-g, but which will be observed at virtual zero gravity. Later, the plant images will be displayed on a video monitor in a laboratory, photographed on 16 millimeter film, and analyzed frame by frame to determine the kinetics of nutation for each specimen tested.

  16. Hybridization and genome size evolution: timing and magnitude of nuclear DNA content increases in Helianthus homoploid hybrid species

    PubMed Central

    Baack, Eric J.; Whitney, Kenneth D.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hybridization and polyploidy can induce rapid genomic changes, including the gain or loss of DNA, but the magnitude and timing of such changes are not well understood. The homoploid hybrid system in Helianthus (three hybrid-derived species and their two parents) provides an opportunity to examine the link between hybridization and genome size changes in a replicated fashion. Flow cytometry was used to estimate the nuclear DNA content in multiple populations of three homoploid hybrid Helianthus species (Helianthus anomalus, Helianthus deserticola, and Helianthus paradoxus), the parental species (Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris), synthetic hybrids, and natural hybrid-zone populations. Results confirm that hybrid-derived species have 50% more nuclear DNA than the parental species. Despite multiple origins, hybrid species were largely consistent in their DNA content across populations, although H. deserticola showed significant interpopulation differences. First- and sixth-generation synthetic hybrids and hybrid-zone plants did not show an increase from parental DNA content. First-generation hybrids differed in DNA content according to the maternal parent. In summary, hybridization by itself does not lead to increased nuclear DNA content in Helianthus, and the evolutionary forces responsible for the repeated increases in DNA content seen in the hybrid-derived species remain mysterious. PMID:15998412

  17. Microsatellite signature of ecological selection for salt tolerance in a wild sunflower hybrid species, Helianthus paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Edelist, Cécile; Lexer, Christian; Dillmann, Christine; Sicard, Delphine; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2006-12-01

    The hybrid sunflower species Helianthus paradoxus inhabits sporadic salt marshes in New Mexico and southwest Texas, USA, whereas its parental species, Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris, are salt sensitive. Previous studies identified three genomic regions - survivorship quantitative trait loci (QTLs) - that were under strong selection in experimental hybrids transplanted into the natural habitat of H. paradoxus. Here we ask whether these same genomic regions experienced significant selection during the origin and evolution of the natural hybrid, H. paradoxus. This was accomplished by comparing the variability of microsatellites linked to the three survivorship QTLs with those from genomic regions that were neutral in the experimental hybrids. As predicted if one or more selective sweeps had occurred in these regions, microsatellites linked to the survivorship QTLs exhibited a significant reduction in diversity in populations of the natural hybrid species. In contrast, no difference in diversity levels was observed between the two microsatellite classes in parental populations.

  18. Plant response to lead in the presence or absence EDTA in two sunflower genotypes (cultivated H. annuus cv. 1114 and interspecific line H. annuus × H. argophyllus).

    PubMed

    Doncheva, Snezhana; Moustakas, Michael; Ananieva, Kalina; Chavdarova, Martina; Gesheva, Emiliya; Vassilevska, Rumyana; Mateev, Plamen

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the response of two sunflower genotypes (cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus cv. 1114 and newly developed genotype H. annuus × Helianthus argophyllus) to Pb medium-term stress and the role of exogenously applied EDTA in alleviating Pb toxicity in hydroponics. Plant growth, morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues, electrolyte leakage, total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, total flavonoid content, and superoxide dismutase isoenzyme profile were studied by conventional methods. Differential responses of both genotypes to Pb supplied in the nutrient solution were recorded. Pb treatment induced a decrease in the relative growth rate, disturbance of plasma membrane integrity, and changes in the morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues and in the antioxidant capacity, which were more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb when compared with the cultivar. This was mainly due to increased photosynthetically active area, maintenance of plasma membrane integrity, permanently high total antioxidant activity, and free radical scavenging capacity as well as total flavonoid content. The addition of EDTA into the nutrient solution led to limitation of the negative impact of Pb ions on the above parameters in both genotypes. This could be related to the reduced content of Pb in the roots, stems, and leaves, suggesting that the presence of EDTA limited the uptake of Pb. The comparative analysis of the responses to Pb treatment showed that the deleterious effect of Pb was more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype H. annuus × H. argophyllus was more productive and demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb medium-term stress, which could indicate that it may possess certain mechanisms to tolerate high Pb concentrations. This character could be inherited from the wild parent used in the

  19. Sorting through the chaff, nDNA gene trees for phylogenetic inference and hybrid identification of annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus).

    PubMed

    Moody, Michael L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    The annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus) present a formidable challenge for phylogenetic inference because of ancient hybrid speciation, recent introgression, and suspected issues with deep coalescence. Here we analyze sequence data from 11 nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes for multiple genotypes of species within the section to (1) reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, (2) explore the utility of nDNA gene trees for detecting hybrid speciation and introgression; and (3) test an empirical method of hybrid identification based on the phylogenetic congruence of nDNA gene trees from tightly linked genes. We uncovered considerable topological heterogeneity among gene trees with or without three previously identified hybrid species included in the analyses, as well as a general lack of reciprocal monophyly of species. Nonetheless, partitioned Bayesian analyses provided strong support for the reciprocal monophyly of all species except H. annuus (0.89 PP), the most widespread and abundant annual sunflower. Previous hypotheses of relationships among taxa were generally strongly supported (1.0 PP), except among taxa typically associated with H. annuus, apparently due to the paraphyly of the latter in all gene trees. While the individual nDNA gene trees provided a useful means for detecting recent hybridization, identification of ancient hybridization was problematic for all ancient hybrid species, even when linkage was considered. We discuss biological factors that affect the efficacy of phylogenetic methods for hybrid identification.

  20. Transitions in photoperiodic flowering are common and involve few loci in wild sunflowers (Helianthus; Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Henry, Lucas P; Watson, Ray H B; Blackman, Benjamin K

    2014-10-01

    • Evolutionary changes in how flowering time responds to photoperiod cues have been instrumental in expanding the geographic range of agricultural production for many crop species. Locally adaptive natural variation in photoperiod response present in wild relatives of crop plants could be leveraged to further improve the present and future climatic ranges of cultivation or to increase region-specific yields. Previous work has demonstrated ample variability in photoperiod response among wild populations of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Here, we characterize patterns of photoperiod response variation throughout the genus and examine the genetic architecture of intraspecific divergence.• The requirement of short day lengths for floral induction was characterized for a phylogenetically dispersed sample of Helianthus species. In addition, flowering time was assessed under short days and long days for a population of F3 individuals derived from crosses between day-neutral and short-day, wild H. annuus parents.• An obligate requirement for short-day induced flowering has evolved repeatedly in Helianthus, and this character was correlated with geographic ranges restricted to the southern United States. Parental flowering times under long days were recovered in high proportion in the F3 generation.• Together, these findings (1) reveal that substantial variation in the nature of flowering time responses to photoperiod cues has arisen during the evolution of wild sunflowers and (2) suggest these transitions may be largely characterized by simple genetic architectures. Thus, introgression of wild alleles may be a tractable means of genetically tailoring sunflower cultivars for climate-specific production. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  1. Comparative mapping and rapid karyotypic evolution in the genus helianthus.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John M; Lai, Zhao; Salmaso, Marzia; Nakazato, Takuya; Tang, Shunxue; Heesacker, Adam; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2004-01-01

    Comparative genetic linkage maps provide a powerful tool for the study of karyotypic evolution. We constructed a joint SSR/RAPD genetic linkage map of the Helianthus petiolaris genome and used it, along with an integrated SSR genetic linkage map derived from four independent H. annuus mapping populations, to examine the evolution of genome structure between these two annual sunflower species. The results of this work indicate the presence of 27 colinear segments resulting from a minimum of eight translocations and three inversions. These 11 rearrangements are more than previously suspected on the basis of either cytological or genetic map-based analyses. Taken together, these rearrangements required a minimum of 20 chromosomal breakages/fusions. On the basis of estimates of the time since divergence of these two species (750,000-1,000,000 years), this translates into an estimated rate of 5.5-7.3 chromosomal rearrangements per million years of evolution, the highest rate reported for any taxonomic group to date. PMID:15166168

  2. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-12-12

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  3. The origin of ecological divergence in Helianthus paradoxus (Asteraceae): selection on transgressive characters in a novel hybrid habitat.

    PubMed

    Lexer, Christian; Welch, Mark E; Raymond, Olivier; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2003-09-01

    Diploid hybrid speciation in plants is often accompanied by rapid ecological divergence between incipient neospecies and their parental taxa. One plausible means by which novel adaptation in hybrid lineages may arise is transgressive segregation, that is, the generation of extreme phenotypes that exceed those of the parental lines. Early generation (BC2) hybrids between two wild, annual sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris, were used to study directional selection on transgressive characters associated with the origin of Helianthus paradoxus, a diploid hybrid species adapted to extremely saline marshes. The BC2 plants descended from a single F1 hybrid backcrossed toward H. petiolaris. The strength of selection on candidate adaptive traits in the interspecific BC2 was measured in natural H. paradoxus salt marsh habitat. Positive directional selection was detected for leaf succulence and Ca uptake, two traits that are known to be important in salt stress response in plants. Strong negative directional selection operated on uptake of Na and correlated elements. A significant decrease in trait correlations over time was observed in the BC2 population for Na and Ca content, suggesting an adaptive role for increased Ca uptake coupled with increased net exclusion of Na from leaves. Patterns of directional selection in BC2 hybrids were concordant with character expression in the natural hybrid species, H. paradoxus, transplanted into the wild. Moreover, the necessary variation for generating the H. paradoxus phenotype existed only in the BC2 population, but not in samples of the two parental species, H. annuus and H. petiolaris. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that transgressive segregation of elemental uptake and leaf succulence contributed to the origin of salt adaptation in the diploid hybrid species H. paradoxus.

  4. Selective sweeps in the homoploid hybrid species Helianthus deserticola: evolution in concert across populations and across origins

    PubMed Central

    GROSS, BRIANA L.; TURNER, KATHRYN G.; RIESEBERG, LOREN H.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of different populations within a species in response to selective pressures can potentially happen in three different ways. It can occur in parallel, where similar changes occur independently in each population in response to selection; in concert, where the spread of an adaptive mutation across a species’ range results in a single allele fixing in each population; or populations can diverge in response to local selective pressures. We explored these possibilities in populations of the homoploid hybrid species Helianthus deserticola relative to its parental species Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris using an analysis of variation in 96 expressed sequence tag-based microsatellites. A total of nine loci showed evidence consistent with recent selection at either the species or population level, although two of these genes were discarded because the apparent sweep did not occur relative to the parent from which the locus was derived. Between one and five loci showed a putative sweep across the entire species range with the same microsatellite allele fixed in each population. This pattern is consistent with evolution in concert despite geographical isolation and potential independent origins of the populations. Only one population of H. deserticola showed candidate sweeps that were unique compared to the rest of the species, and this population has also potentially experienced recent admixture with the parental species. PMID:18092993

  5. Persistence of sunflower crop traits and fitness in Helianthus petiolaris populations.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, A; Cantamutto, M; Poverene, M

    2011-09-01

    Transgenic plants have increased interest in the study of crop gene introgression in wild populations. Genes (or transgenes) conferring adaptive advantages persist in introgressed populations, enhancing competitiveness of wild or weedy plants. This represents an ecological risk that could increase problems of weed control. Introgression of cultivar alleles into wild plant populations via crop-wild hybridisations is primarily governed by their fitness effect. To evaluate this, we studied the second generation of seven wild-crop interspecific hybrids between weedy Helianthus petiolaris and cultivated sunflower, H. annuus var. macrocarpus. The second generation comprised open-pollinated progeny and backcrosses to the wild parent, mimicking crosses that occur in natural situations. We compared a number of morphological, life history and fitness traits. Multivariate analysis showed that the parental species H. annuus and H. petiolaris differed in a number of morphological traits, while the second hybrid generation between them was intermediate. Sunflower crop introgression lowered fitness of interspecific hybrids, but fitness parameters tended to recover in the following generation. Relative frequency of wild/weedy and introgressed plants was estimated through four generations, based on male and female parent fitness. In spite of several negative selection coefficients observed in the second generation, introgressed plants could be detected in stands of <100 weedy H. petiolaris populations. The rapid recovery of fecundity parameters leads to prediction that any trait conferring an ecological advantage will diffuse into the wild or weedy population, even if F1 hybrids have low fitness.

  6. Effect of salinity and sodicity stresses on physiological response and productivity in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Fatma Aly; Radi, Abeer Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Dalia Ahmed; Hamada, Afaf Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity (alkalinity) are serious land degradation issues worldwide that are predicted to increase in the future. The objective of the present study is to distinguish the effects of NaCl and Na(2)CO(3) salinity in two concentrations on the growth, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, membrane integrity, total lipids, yield parameters and fatty acids (FAs) composition of seeds of sunflower cultivar Sakha 53. Plant growth, LOX activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were reduced by salts stresses. On the contrary, salinity and alkalinity stress induced stimulatory effects on membrane permeability, leakage of UV-metabolites from leaves and total lipids of sunflower shoots and roots. Crop yield (plant height, head diameter, seed index and number of seeds for each head) that is known as a hallmark of plant stress was decreased by increasing concentrations of NaCl and Na(2)CO(3) in the growth media. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) composition of salt-stressed sunflower seeds varied with different levels of NaCl and Na(2)CO(3).

  7. Rhizopus oryzae associated with Melanagromyza splendida and stem disease of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2012, a female parental line in a Yolo, CA in sunflower seed-production field began displaying external stem symptoms that could not be attributed to any known disease. Symptoms appeared to be associated with tunneling caused by an un-identified insect. Stems were collected and Rhizopu...

  8. Distribution of [(14)C]imidacloprid in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) following seed treatment.

    PubMed

    Laurent, François M; Rathahao, Estelle

    2003-12-31

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinic insecticide, has been used as a seed dressing (Gaucho) to protect crops against soil and aerial insects. However, French beekeepers observed abnormal behavior of bees foraging on sunflowers and suspected a link between the imidacloprid seed treatment and the observed bee syndrome. This work studies the distribution of [(14)C-imidazolidin]imidacloprid (1 mg/seed) in three stages of Gaucho-treated sunflowers grown in an outdoor lysimeter. Plants absorbed <10% of [(14)C]imidacloprid spiked on seeds, and 75% of that absorbed radioactivity was found in cotyledons. Concentrations in the upper leaves were 20 times lower than in the first leaves. From the extracted radioactivity, imidacloprid accounted for 50% and metabolites for the other 50%. Four major metabolites can be detected, in variable concentrations, among which the hydroxy- and olefin-imidacloprid have toxicities equivalent to that of imidacloprid. In pollen, concentrations of imidacloprid were 13 ng x g(-1). Thus, imidacloprid residues from Gaucho seed treatment contaminated sunflower pollen, involving the translocation of imidacloprid within the plant.

  9. Evaluation of proteome alterations induced by cadmium stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultures.

    PubMed

    Lopes Júnior, Cícero Alves; Barbosa, Herbert de Sousa; Moretto Galazzi, Rodrigo; Ferreira Koolen, Hector Henrique; Gozzo, Fábio Cesar; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluates, at a proteomic level, changes in protein abundance in sunflower leaves in the absence or presence (at 50 or 700mg) of cadmium (as CdCl2). At the end of the cultivation period (45 days), proteins are extracted from leaves with phenol, separated by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), and excised from the gels. The differential protein abundances (for proteins differing by more than 1.8 fold, which corresponds to 90% variation) are characterized using nESI-LC-MS/MS. The protein content decreases by approximately 41% in plants treated with 700mg Cd compared with control plants. By comparing all groups of plants evaluated in this study (Control vs. Cd-lower, Control vs. Cd-higher and Cd-lower vs. Cd-higher), 39 proteins are found differential and 18 accurately identified; the control vs. Cd-higher treatment is that presenting the most differential proteins. From identified proteins, those involved in energy and disease/defense (including stress), are the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain, transketolase, and heat shock proteins are the most differential abundant proteins. Thus, at the present study, photosynthesis is the main process affected by Cd in sunflowers, although these plants are highly tolerant to Cd.

  10. Hydroponic phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Ni, As, and Fe: can Helianthus annuus hyperaccumulate multiple heavy metals?

    PubMed

    January, Mary C; Cutright, Teresa J; Van Keulen, Harry; Wei, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Sundance sunflowers were subjected to contaminated solutions containing 3, 4, or 5 heavy metals, with and without EDTA. The sunflowers exhibited a metal uptake preference of Cd=Cr>Ni, Cr>Cd>Ni>As and Fe>As>Cd>Ni>Cr without EDTA and Cr>Cd>Ni, Fe>As>Cd>Cr>Ni with EDTA. As uptake was not affected by other metals, but it decreased Cd and Ni concentration in the stems. The presence of Fe improved the translocation of the other metals regardless of whether EDTA was present. In general, EDTA served as a hindrance to metal uptake. For the experiment with all five heavy metals, EDTA decreased Cd in the roots and stems from 2.11 to 1.36 and from 2.83 to 2.3 2mg g(-1) biomass, respectively. For the same conditions, Ni in the stems decreased from 1.98 to 0.94 mg g(-1) total metal uptake decreased from 14.95 mg to 13.89 mg, and total biomass decreased from 2.38 g to 1.99 g. These results showed an overall negative effect in addition of EDTA. However it is unknown whether the negative effect was due to toxicity posed by EDTA or the breaking of phytochelatin-metal bonds. The most important finding was the ability of Sundance sunflowers to achieve hyperaccumulator status for both As and Cd under all conditions studied. Ni hyperaccumulator status was only achieved in the presence of three metals without EDTA.

  11. Selenium alleviates cadmium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Issam; Chtourou, Yacine; Djebali, Wahbi

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of selenium (Se) in protecting plants from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. The exposure of sunflower seedlings to 20μM Cd inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations and strongly increased accumulation of Cd in both roots and shoots. Similarly, Cd enhanced hydrogen peroxides content and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking seeds with Se (5, 10 and 20μM) alleviated the negative effect of Cd on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Cd. Furthermore, Se enhanced the activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, but lowered that of superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. As important antioxidants, ascorbate and glutathione contents in sunflower leaves exposed to Cd were significantly decreased by Se treatment. The data suggest that the beneficial effect of Se during an earlier growth period could be related to avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Cd, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity.

  12. Estimation of diversity and combining abilities in Helianthus annuus L. under water stress and normal conditions.

    PubMed

    Saba, M; Khan, F A; Sadaqat, H A; Rana, I A

    2016-10-24

    Sunflower cannot produce high yields under water-limiting conditions. The aim of the present study was to prevent the impediments on yield and to develop varieties with high-yield potential under water scarce conditions. For achieving this objective, it is necessary to detect parents with desirable traits that mainly depend on the action of genes controlling the trait under improvement, combining ability, and genetic makeup of the parents. Heterosis can also be used to pool the desirable genes from genetically divergent varieties and these divergent parents could be detected by molecular studies. Ten tolerant and five susceptible tester lines were selected, crossed, and tested for genetic diversity using simple sequence repeat primers. We identified two parents (A-10.8 and G-60) that showed maximum (46.7%) genetic dissimilarity. On an average 3.1 alleles per locus were detected for twenty pair of primers. Evaluation of mean values revealed that under stress conditions the mean performances of the genotypes were reduced for all traits under study. Parent A-10.8 was consistent as a good general combiner for achene yield per plant under both non-stress and stress conditions. Line A-10.8 in the hybrid A-10.8 x G-60 proved to be a good combiner as it showed negative specific combining ability (SCA) effects for plant height and internodal length and positive SCA effects for head weight, achene yield per plant, and membrane stability index. Valuable information on gene action, combining ability, and heterosis was generated, which could be used in further breeding programs.

  13. Gravity Functions of Circumnutation by Hypocotyls of Helianthus annuus in Simulated Hypogravity 12

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, David K.; Venditti, Allen L.; Brown, Allan H.

    1980-01-01

    For more than a decade research on the botanical mechanism responsible for circumnutation has centered on whether or not these nearly ubiquitous oscillations can be attributed to a hunting process whereby the plant organ continuously responds to the gravity force and, by overshooting each stimulus, initiates a sustained oscillation or, driven by a not yet defined autogenic mechanism, performs oscillatory activities that require no external reinforcement to maintain the observed rhythms of differential growth. We explore here the effects of altered gravity force on parameters of circumnutation. Following our earlier publication on circumnutation in hypergravity we report here an exploration of circumnutation in hypogravity. Parameters of circumnutation are recorded as functions of the axially imposed gravity force. The same method was used (two-axes clinostat rotation) to produce sustained gravity forces referred to as hypergravity (1 < g), hypogravity (0 [unk] g < 1), and negative gravity (−1 < g < 0). In these three regions of the g-parameter nutational frequency and nutational amplitude were influenced in different ways. The results of our tests describe the gravity dependence of circumnutation over the full range of real or simulated gravity levels that are available in an earth laboratory. Our results demonstrated that nutational parameters are indeed gravity-dependent but are not inconsistent with the postulate that circumnutation can proceed in the absence of a significant gravity force. PMID:16661229

  14. Carbon conversion efficiency and central metabolic fluxes in developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) embryos.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Ana P; Goffman, Fernando D; Ohlrogge, John B; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2007-10-01

    The efficiency with which developing sunflower embryos convert substrates into seed storage reserves was determined by labeling embryos with [U-(14)C6]glucose or [U-(14)C5]glutamine and measuring their conversion to CO2, oil, protein and other biomass compounds. The average carbon conversion efficiency was 50%, which contrasts with a value of over 80% previously observed in Brassica napus embryos (Goffman et al., 2005), in which light and the RuBisCO bypass pathway allow more efficient conversion of hexose to oil. Labeling levels after incubating sunflower embryos with [U-(14)C4]malate indicated that some carbon from malate enters the plastidic compartment and contributes to oil synthesis. To test this and to map the underlying pattern of metabolic fluxes, separate experiments were carried out in which embryos were labeled to isotopic steady state using [1-(13)C1]glucose, [2-(13)C1]glucose, or [U-(13)C5]glutamine. The resultant labeling in sugars, starch, fatty acids and amino acids was analyzed by NMR and GC-MS. The fluxes through intermediary metabolism were then quantified by computer-aided modeling. The resulting flux map accounted well for the labeling data, was in good agreement with the observed carbon efficiency, and was further validated by testing for agreement with gas exchange measurements. The map shows that the influx of malate into oil is low and that flux through futile cycles (wasting ATP) is low, which contrasts with the high rates previously determined for growing root tips and heterotrophic cell cultures.

  15. Physiological and gene expression responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants differ according to irrigation placement.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Ana; Capote, Nieves; Romero, Fernando; Dodd, Ian C; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate effects of soil moisture heterogeneity on plant physiology and gene expression in roots and leaves, three treatments were implemented in sunflower plants growing with roots split between two compartments: a control (C) treatment supplying 100% of plant evapotranspiration, and two treatments receiving 50% of plant evapotranspiration, either evenly distributed to both compartments (deficit irrigation - DI) or unevenly distributed to ensure distinct wet and dry compartments (partial rootzone drying - PRD). Plants receiving the same amount of water responded differently under the two irrigation systems. After 3 days, evapotranspiration was similar in C and DI, but 20% less in PRD, concomitant with decreased leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and increased leaf xylem ABA concentration. Six water-stress responsive genes were highly induced in roots growing in the drying soil compartment of PRD plants, and their expression was best correlated with local soil water content. On the other hand, foliar gene expression differed significantly from that of the root and correlated better with xylem ABA concentration and Ψleaf. While the PRD irrigation strategy triggered stronger physiological and molecular responses, suggesting a more intense and systemic stress reaction due to local dehydration of the dry compartment of PRD plants, the DI strategy resulted in similar water savings without strongly inducing these responses. Correlating physiological and molecular responses in PRD/DI plants may provide insights into the severity and location of water deficits and may enable a better understanding of long-distance signalling mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R12 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is r...

  17. Induction of leaf senescence by low nitrogen nutrition in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Eloísa; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación

    2010-03-01

    Different parameters which vary during the leaf development in sunflower plants grown with nitrate (2 or 20 mM) for a 42-day period have been determined. The plants grown with 20 mM nitrate (N+) showed greater leaf area and specific leaf mass than the plants grown with 2 mM nitrate (N-). The total chlorophyll content decreased with leaf senescence, like the photosynthetic rate. This decline of photosynthetic activity was greater in plants grown with low nitrogen level (N-), showing more pronounced senescence symptoms than with high nitrogen (N+). In both treatments, soluble sugars increased with aging, while starch content decreased. A significant increase of hexose to sucrose ratio was observed at the beginning of senescence, and this raise was higher in N- plants than in N+ plants. These results show that sugar senescence regulation is dependent on nitrogen, supporting the hypothesis that leaf senescence is regulated by the C/N balance. In N+ and N- plants, ammonium and free amino acid concentrations were high in young leaves and decreased progressively in the senescent leaves. In both treatments, asparagine, and in a lower extent glutamine, increased after senescence start. The drop in the (Glu+Asp)/(Gln+Asn) ratio associated with the leaf development level suggests a greater nitrogen mobilization. Besides, the decline in this ratio occurred earlier and more rapidly in N- plants than in N+ plants, suggesting that the N- remobilization rate correlates with leaf senescence severity. In both N+ and N- plants, an important oxidative stress was generated in vivo during sunflower leaf senescence, as revealed by lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. In senescent leaves, the increase in hydrogen peroxide levels occurred in parallel with a decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In N+ plants, the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased to reach their highest values at 28 days, and later decreased during senescence, whereas in N- plants these activities started to decrease earlier, APX after 16 days and catalase after 22 days, suggesting that senescence is accelerated in N-leaves. It is probable that systemic signals, such as a deficit in amino acids or other metabolites associated with the nitrogen metabolism produced in plants grown with low nitrogen, lead to an early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves.

  18. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location.

    PubMed

    Sardiñas, Hillary S; Tom, Kathleen; Ponisio, Lauren Catherine; Rominger, Andrew; Kremen, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination coverage in agricultural regions utilize landscape-level estimates of floral availability and nesting incidence inferred from expert opinion, rather than direct assessments. Foraging distance is often derived from proxies of bee body size, rather than direct measurements of foraging that account for behavioral responses to floral resource type and distribution. The lack of direct measurements of nesting incidence and foraging distances may lead to inaccurate mapping of pollination services. We examined the role of local-scale floral resource presence from hedgerow plantings on nest incidence of ground-nesting bees in field margins and within monoculture, conventionally managed sunflower fields in California's Central Valley. We tracked bee movement into fields using fluorescent powder. We then used these data to simulate the distribution of pollination services within a crop field. Contrary to expert opinion, we found that ground-nesting native bees nested both in fields and edges, though nesting rates declined with distance into field. Further, we detected no effect of field-margin floral enhancements on nesting. We found evidence of an exponential decay rate of bee movement into fields, indicating that foraging predominantly occurred in less than 1% of medium-sized bees' predicted typical foraging range. Although we found native bees nesting within agricultural fields, their restricted foraging movements likely centralize pollination near nest sites. Our data thus predict a heterogeneous distribution of pollination services within sunflower fields, with edges receiving higher coverage than field centers. To generate more accurate maps of services, we advocate directly measuring the autecology of ecosystem service providers, which vary by crop system, pollinator species, and region. Improving estimates of the factors affecting pollinator populations can increase the accuracy of pollination service maps and help clarify the influence of farming practices on wild bees occurring in agricultural landscapes.

  19. Disturbances of stem circumnutations evoked by wound-induced variation potentials in Helianthus annuus L.

    PubMed

    Stolarz, Maria; Dziubińska, Halina; Krupa, Maciej; Buda, Agnieszka; Trebacz, Kazimierz; Zawadzki, Tadeusz

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between evoked electrical activity and stem movements in three-week old sunflowers was demonstrated. Electrical potential changes (recorded by Ag/AgCl extracellular electrodes) and time-lapse images (from a top view camera) were recorded and analyzed. A heat stimulus applied to the tip of one of the second pair of leaves evoked a variation potential, transmitted basipetally along one side of the stem. After stimulation, disturbances of circumnutations occurred. They included: changes in the period, disorders in the elliptical shape, and, in some cases, reversion of direction (of movement). We suggest that asymmetrically propagated variation potential induces asymmetric stem shrinking and bending, which strongly disturbs circumnutations. Our results confirm the involvement of electrical potential changes in the mechanism of stem nutations.

  20. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and...

  1. Growth under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration accelerates leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    de la Mata, Lourdes; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación; Agüera, Eloísa

    2012-09-15

    Some morphogenetic and metabolic processes were sensitive to a high atmospheric CO(2) concentration during sunflower primary leaf ontogeny. Young leaves of sunflower plants growing under elevated CO(2) concentration exhibited increased growth, as reflected by the high specific leaf mass referred to as dry weight in young leaves (16 days). The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased with leaf development, especially in plants grown under elevated CO(2) concentrations, suggesting that high CO(2) accelerates chlorophyll degradation, and also possibly leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased the oxidative stress in sunflower plants by increasing H(2)O(2) levels and decreasing activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The loss of plant defenses probably increases the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast, decreasing the photosynthetic pigment content as a result. Elevated CO(2) concentration was found to boost photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, especially in young leaves. High CO(2) also increased the starch and soluble sugar contents (glucose and fructose) and the C/N ratio during sunflower primary leaf development. At the beginning of senescence, we observed a strong increase in the hexoses to sucrose ratio that was especially marked at high CO(2) concentration. These results indicate that elevated CO(2) concentration could promote leaf senescence in sunflower plants by affecting the soluble sugar levels, the C/N ratio and the oxidative status during leaf ontogeny. It is likely that systemic signals produced in plants grown with elevated CO(2), lead to early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectral reflectance as an indicator of foliar concentrations of arsenic in common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandy, Yuridia Patricia Peralta De

    Studies were conducted to investigate the use of spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination of soil. Germination method was developed for sunflower seeds, and cohorts of sunflower seedlings in hydroponic tanks were established. The cohorts were exposed to 0 ppm, 5 ppm, 7.5 ppm, and 10 ppm treatments of As (V) and reflectance measurements of foliage were collected using a spectroradiometer during two experiments. Results demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination. In both experiments, arsenic concentrations in leaf tissues were directly proportional to arsenic concentrations in hydroponic solutions in which such plants were grown. Although the effect(s) of arsenic accumulation had minimal impact on reflectance of visible wavelengths, the effects on NIR reflectance were substantial and resulted in a progressive decrease in reflectance as arsenic concentrations in foliage increased.

  3. Molecular mapping of a new induced gene for nuclear male sterility in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new NMS line, NMS HA89-872, induced by mitomycin C and streptomycin carries a single recessive male-sterile gene ms6. An F2 population of 88 plants was obtained from a cross between nuclear male-sterile mutant NMS HA89-872 (msms) and male-fertile line RHA271 (MsMs). 225 SSR primers and 9 RFLP-deri...

  4. Molecular Evolution of Candidate Genes for Crop-Related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; McAssey, Edward V.; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations. PMID:24914686

  5. Protein targets of tyrosine nitration in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Mounira; Valderrama, Raquel; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana M; Carreras, Alfonso; López-Jaramillo, Javier; Luque, Francisco; Palma, José M; Pedrajas, José R; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Gómez-Rodríguez, María V; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine nitration is recognized as an important post-translational protein modification in animal cells that can be used as an indicator of a nitrosative process. However, in plant systems, there is scant information on proteins that undergo this process. In sunflower hypocotyls, the content of tyrosine nitration (NO(2)-Tyr) and the identification of nitrated proteins were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and proteomic approaches, respectively. In addition, the cell localization of nitrotyrosine proteins and peroxynitrite were analysed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) using antibodies against 3-nitrotyrosine and 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) as the fluorescent probe, in that order. The concentration of Tyr and NO(2)-Tyr in hypocotyls was 0.56 micromol mg(-1) protein and 0.19 pmol mg(-1) protein, respectively. By proteomic analysis, a total of 21 nitrotyrosine-immunopositive proteins were identified. These targets include proteins involved in photosynthesis, and in antioxidant, ATP, carbohydrate, and nitrogen metabolism. Among the proteins identified, S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) was selected as a model to evaluate the effect of nitration on SAHH activity using SIN-1 (a peroxynitrite donor) as the nitrating agent. When the hypocotyl extracts were exposed to 0.5 mM, 1 mM, and 5 mM SIN-1, the SAHH activity was inhibited by some 49%, 89%, and 94%, respectively. In silico analysis of the barley SAHH sequence, characterized Tyr448 as the most likely potential target for nitration. In summary, the present data are the first in plants concerning the content of nitrotyrosine and the identification of candidates of protein nitration. Taken together, the results suggest that Tyr nitration occurs in plant tissues under physiological conditions that could constitute an important process of protein regulation in such a way that, when it is overproduced in adverse circumstances, it can be used as a marker of nitrosative stress.

  6. Genetic analysis of proline concentration under osmotic stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Farghama; Rauf, Saeed; Monneveux, Philippe; Anwar, Shoaib; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Proline concentration has been often suggested as an indicator of osmotic stress. A better understanding of the genetics of this trait is however needed. In the present study, proline concentration has been assessed, together with root and stem growth, potassium, calcium and total soluble sugars concentration and stress injury symptoms, in seedlings of sunflower hybrids and their parents grown under control and osmotic conditions. Proline strongly accumulated with osmotic stress. Its concentration exhibited a large variation among genotypes and was higher in hybrids than in parental lines. A positive association was noted between proline concentration and osmotic adjustment that was reflected in a reduction of osmotic stress induced injury, as showed by the reduced number of calli in the hybrids with higher proline concentration. Broad and narrow sense heritability was higher under osmotic stress suggesting applying the selection in osmotic stress condition. In the control treatment, dominance effects explained most of the genetic variation for proline concentration while under osmotic stress both dominance and additive variance were high. The importance of dominance and additive effects suggested that several genomic regions are controlling this trait. Good general combiners, presumably carrying positive additive alleles affecting proline concentration, were identified. PMID:27795671

  7. Genetic analysis of organogenesis in the cotyledons of zygotic embryos of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Sarrafi, A; Roustan, J P; Fallot, J; Alibert, G

    1996-02-01

    Crosses were made between five cytoplasmic male-sterile and five restorer sunflower inbred lines. Twenty-five F1 hybrids and their parents were studied for their organogenesis ability in a randomized block design with four replications. Each replication per genotype consisted of ten petri dishes with four expiants. Regeneration medium consisted of full MS medium modified by the addition of hormones and solidified with 6 g/l agar. Statistical analysis showed that both general and specific combining abilities were significant for all of the organogenesis parameters studied, and both showed several significant positive or negative values. General combining ability values were usually higher than those of specific combining ability, indicating the importance of additive genetic control for organogenesis parameters in sunflower. Narrow-sense heritability for the number of explants producing shoots and roots was 65.8%, which suggests that organogenesis of currently inferior inbred lines in sunflower should be improved in a crossing program.

  8. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) in vivo assay for screening imidazolinone-resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Vega, T; Breccia, G; Gil, M; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L; Nestares, G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity response to imidazolinones and its possible use as a selection method for evaluating AHAS inhibitor resistance. In vivo AHAS assay and the comparison of parameters from dose-response curves have been used as a valid tool for comparing sunflower lines and hybrids differing in imidazolinone resistance. The sunflower resistant genotypes evaluated here were 100-fold and 20-fold more resistant compared with the susceptible line for imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. This assay also allowed discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous genotypes for I(mr1) locus that codify for the catalytic subunit of AHAS. The in vivo AHAS assay described in this study was useful for the selection of sunflower genotypes differing in herbicide resistance and could be a useful tool when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in sunflower.

  9. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  10. Effects of antimony on redox activities and antioxidant defence systems in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Alfonso; Garrido, Inmaculada; Casimiro, Ilda

    2017-01-01

    The alterations induced by the toxicity of antimony (Sb) in the roots and leaves of sunflower plants were determined. The plants were grown hydroponically with different concentrations of Sb, a heavy metal which reduces biomass production and growth. There was preferential accumulation of Sb in the tissues of the roots, with the concentrations in the leaves being much lower. The accumulation of other mineral elements was also altered, especially that of Fe and Zn. Chlorophyll content declined, as also did the photosynthetic efficiency, but the carotenoid content remained unaltered. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides rose, evidence of their participation in the defence response. Increases were observed in the amount of superoxide anion in both roots and leaves, and in lipid peroxidation levels, especially with the highest Sb concentration of 1.0 mM. The induced oxidative stress leads to a strong increase in the SOD, POX and APX antioxidant activities, while the GR activity was only increased in the leaves and at the 1.0 mM Sb concentration. In contrast, the DHAR activity increased considerably in both organs. The GSNOR activity increased only in roots, and the total RSNOs increased. The total amount of AsA + DHA increased in roots and remained unaltered in leaves, whereas that of GSH + GSSG decreased considerably in all cases. As a whole, these results are evidence for the development of a strong oxidative stress induced by Sb, with there being a clear imbalance in the content of the compounds that constitute the AsA/GSH cycle. 0.5 mM Sb enhances GST expression, especially in leaves. This, together with the increase that was observed in the amount of GSH, may play an important part in detoxification. This oxidative stress affects both the phenolic and the ROS/RNS metabolic processes, which seems to implicate their involvement in the plant's defence and response to the stress. PMID:28873463

  11. A unified SNP map of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) derived from current genomic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dense genetic maps are critical tools for plant breeders and geneticists. While many maps have been developed for sunflower in the last few decades, most have been based on low-throughput technologies and include markers numbers in the hundreds. However, two maps with reasonably dense coverage of a...

  12. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  13. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols.

  14. Molecular cloning and expression profile analysis of three sunflower (Helianthus annuus) diterpene synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Pugliesi, Claudio; Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela

    2011-02-01

    ent-Kaurene, a key precursor of gibberellins, is formed by the action of two diterpene synthases (diTPSs), ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), and ent-kaurene synthase (KS). The full-length cDNAs of CPS- (HaCPS1L) and KS-like (HaKS2L and HaKS3L) genes were isolated from sunflower. The amino acid sequences of HaCPS1L, HaKS2L, and HaKS3L exhibit structural features and homology to diTPSs of several plant species involved in gibberellin biosynthesis. RT-PCR analysis indicates that the expression of all genes (HaCPS1L, HaKS2L, and HaKS3L) is highly regulated during growth and development. All three diTPSs are preferentially expressed in rapidly growing tissues. HaKS2L is expressed at a much lower level than the other two diTPS genes. During seed development, the high level of both HaCPS1L and HaKS3L transcripts correlated with the period of rapid growth of the embryo. The three diTPS genes are not subjected to feedback regulation by gibberellin activity.

  15. Crop-weed competition between sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and Convolvulus arvensis L. in substitutive experiments.

    PubMed

    Kazinczi, G; Takács, A; Horváth, J

    2006-01-01

    The main characteristics of a substitutive experiment is that the proportions of two species in the mixtures are varied while the overall density of the two species is maintained constant - a replacement series. In our experiments early competition between sunflower and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) was studied in a replacement studies under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were set up with the following treatments: 1, sunflower 100% (6 plants pot(-1)); 2, sunflower 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)); 3, sunflower 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)); 4, C. arvensis 100% (6 plants pot(-1)). Sixty eight days after sowing dry weight of shoots and roots were measured and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content was also determined. Dry biomass production of sunflower was almost twice higher as compared to that of C. arvensis without interspecific competition. Dry weight of sunflower and C. arvensis shoots and roots for a plant continuously decreased by reducing their proportion in the mixtures. Higher biomass production of sunflower suggests, that its development is faster at the beginning of vegetation penod, therefore sunflower has better competitive ability in sunflower--C. arvensis mixtures in the early competition as compared to C. arvensis. Shoot:root ratio of plants did not change considerably in mixtures, but generally was ten times higher in sunflower plants, as compared to that of C. arvensis. Shoots generally contained macro elements at higher concentration as compared to those of roots. Total NPK content of sunflower was reduced by 53 and 82% for a pot, as its proportion decreased in the mixtures. More severe reduction in NPK content was observed in case of C. arvensis, which also proves stronger competitive ability of sunflower in the early vegetation.

  16. Ontogeny strongly and differentially alters leaf economic and other key traits in three diverse Helianthus species.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chase M; McGaughey, Sarah E; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-10-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes large cross-species variation in suites of leaf functional traits ranging from resource-acquisitive to resource-conservative strategies. Such strategies have been integral in explaining plant adaptation to diverse environments, and have been linked to numerous ecosystem processes. The LES has previously been found to be significantly modulated by climate, soil fertility, biogeography, growth form, and life history. One largely unexplored aspect of LES variation, whole-plant ontogeny, is investigated here using multiple populations of three very different species of sunflower: Helianthus annuus, Helianthus mollis, and Helianthus radula. Plants were grown under environmentally controlled conditions and assessed for LES and related traits at four key developmental stages, using recently matured leaves to standardize for leaf age. Nearly every trait exhibited a significant ontogenetic shift in one or more species, with trait patterns differing among populations and species. Photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen concentration, and leaf mass per area exhibited surprisingly large changes, spanning over two-thirds of the original cross-species LES variation and shifting from resource-acquisitive to resource-conservative strategies as the plants matured. Other traits being investigated in relation to the LES, such as leaf water content, pH, and vein density, also showed large changes. The finding that ontogenetic variation in LES strategy can be substantial leads to a recommendation of standardization by developmental stage when assessing 'species values' of labile traits for comparative approaches. Additionally, the substantial ontogenetic trait shifts seen within single individuals provide an opportunity to uncover the contribution of gene regulatory changes to variation in LES traits.

  17. Candidate gene polymorphisms associated with salt tolerance in wild sunflower hybrids: implications for the origin of Helianthus paradoxus, a diploid hybrid species

    PubMed Central

    Lexer, Christian; Lai, Zhao; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We have studied the origin of salt adaptation in wild sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus × H. petiolaris), the precursors of the diploid hybrid species H. paradoxus, at the level of phenotypic traits and quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, we review this work and present new results on candidate gene polymorphisms. Salt tolerance candidate genes were identified in expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of sunflower, based on homology to genes with known function, and on previous QTL results. EST polymorphisms were assayed by denaturing HPLC and for which fitness estimates in the wild genetically mapped in an interspecific BC2 were available. Out of 11 genes studied, one mapped to a salt tolerance QTL. This EST codes for a Ca-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and stems from stress-induced root tissue of Helianthus annuus. Two additional stress-induced genes exhibited a significant fitness effect in the wild: an ER-type calcium ATPase, and a transcriptional regulator. Our results suggest a possible adaptive role for Ca-dependent salt tolerance genes in wild sunflower hybrids. Also, transgressive segregation appears to be sufficient to explain the origin of adaptive genetic variation in hybrids. PMID:19079642

  18. SELECTION ON LEAF ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN A DESERT HYBRID HELIANTHUS SPECIES AND EARLY-GENERATION HYBRIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Fulco; Rosenthal, David M.; Johnston, Jill A.; Kane, Nolan; Gross, Briana L.; Lexer, Christian; Dudley, Susan A.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Donovan, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Leaf ecophysiological traits related to carbon gain and resource use are expected to be under strong selection in desert annuals. We used comparative and phenotypic selection approaches to investigate the importance of leaf ecophysiological traits for Helianthus anomalus, a diploid annual sunflower species of hybrid origin that is endemic to active desert dunes. Comparisons were made within and among five genotypic classes: H. anomalus, its ancestral parent species (H. annuus and H. petiolaris), and two backcrossed populations of the parental species (designated BC2ann and BC2pet) representing putative ancestors of H. anomalus. Seedlings were transplanted into H. anomalus habitat at Little Sahara Dunes, Utah, and followed through a summer growing season for leaf ecophysiological traits, phenology, and fitness estimated as vegetative biomass. Helianthus anomalus had a unique combination of traits when compared to its ancestral parent species, suggesting that lower leaf nitrogen and greater leaf succulence might be adaptive. However, selection on leaf traits in H. anomalus favored larger leaf area and greater nitrogen, which was not consistent with the extreme traits of H. anomalus relative to its ancestral parents. Also contrary to expectation, current selection on the leaf traits in the backcross populations was not consistently similar to, or resulting in evolution toward, the current H. anomalus phenotype. Only the selection for greater leaf succulence in BC2ann and greater water-use efficiency in BC2pet would result in evolution toward the current H. anomalus phenotype. It was surprising that the action of phenotypic selection depended greatly on the genotypic class for these closely related sunflower hybrids grown in a common environment. We speculate that this may be due to either phenotypic correlations between measured and unmeasured but functionally related traits or due to the three genotypic classes experiencing the environment differently as a result of

  19. Selection on leaf ecophysiological traits in a desert hybrid Helianthus species and early-generation hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Fulco; Rosenthal, David M; Johnston, Jill A; Kane, Nolan; Gross, Briana L; Lexer, Christian; Dudley, Susan A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Donovan, Lisa A

    2004-12-01

    Leaf ecophysiological traits related to carbon gain and resource use are expected to be under strong selection in desert annuals. We used comparative and phenotypic selection approaches to investigate the importance of leaf ecophysiological traits for Helianthus anomalus, a diploid annual sunflower species of hybrid origin that is endemic to active desert dunes. Comparisons were made within and among five genotypic classes: H. anomalus, its ancestral parent species (H. annuus and H. petiolaris), and two backcrossed populations of the parental species (designated BC2ann and BC2pet) representing putative ancestors of H. anomalus. Seedlings were transplanted into H. anomalus habitat at Little Sahara Dunes, Utah, and followed through a summer growing season for leaf ecophysiological traits, phenology, and fitness estimated as vegetative biomass. Helianthus anomalus had a unique combination of traits when compared to its ancestral parent species, suggesting that lower leaf nitrogen and greater leaf succulence might be adaptive. However, selection on leaf traits in H. anomalus favored larger leaf area and greater nitrogen, which was not consistent with the extreme traits of H. anomalus relative to its ancestral parents. Also contrary to expectation, current selection on the leaf traits in the backcross populations was not consistently similar to, or resulting in evolution toward, the current H. anomalus phenotype. Only the selection for greater leaf succulence in BC2ann and greater water-use efficiency in BC2pet would result in evolution toward the current H. anomalus phenotype. It was surprising that the action of phenotypic selection depended greatly on the genotypic class for these closely related sunflower hybrids grown in a common environment. We speculate that this may be due to either phenotypic correlations between measured and unmeasured but functionally related traits or due to the three genotypic classes experiencing the environment differently as a result of

  20. Linear glandular trichomes of Helianthus (Asteraceae): morphology, localization, metabolite activity and occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Horakh, Silke; Spring, Otmar

    2013-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes of sunflower are well investigated, but detailed studies are lacking for the linear glandular trichomes (LGT), a second type of physiologically active plant hair present on the surface of sunflowers. Light, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy as well as histochemical staining were used to investigate the structure and metabolite deposition of LGT. Consisting of 6–11 linearly arranged cells, LGT were found on the surface of most plant organs of Helianthus annuus. They were associated with the leaf vascular system, and also occurred along petioles, stems and the abaxial surface of chaffy bracts, ray and disc florets. The highest density was found on the abaxial surface of phyllaries. Phenotypically similar LGT were common in all species of the genus, but also occurred in most other genera of the Helianthinae so far screened. Brownish and fluorescent metabolites of an as yet unknown chemical structure, together with terpenoids, were produced and stored in apical cells of LGT. The deposition of compounds gradually progressed from the tip cell to the basal cells of older trichomes. This process was accompanied by nucleus degradation in metabolite-accumulating cells. The localization of these trichomes on prominent plant parts of the apical bud and the capitulum combined with the accumulation of terpenoids and other as yet unknown compounds suggests a chemo-ecological function of the LGT in plant–insect or plant–herbivore interaction.

  1. The genomic organization of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in Helianthus (Asteraceae) homoploid hybrid species.

    PubMed

    Staton, S Evan; Ungerer, Mark C; Moore, Richard C

    2009-09-01

    The origin of new diploid, or homoploid, hybrid species is associated with rapid genomic restructuring in the hybrid neospecies. This mode of speciation has been best characterized in wild sunflower species in the genus Helianthus, where three homoploid hybrid species (H. anomalus, H. deserticola, and H. paradoxus) have independently arisen via ancient hybridization events between the same two parental species (H. annuus and H. petiolaris). Most previous work examining genomic restructuring in these sunflower hybrid species has focused on chromosomal rearrangements. However, the origin of all three homoploid hybrid sunflower species also is associated with massive proliferation events of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in the hybrid species' genomes. We compared the genomic organization of these elements in the parent species and two of the homoploid hybrid species using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We found a significant expansion of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons confined to the pericentromeric regions of two hybrid sunflower species, H. deserticola and H. paradoxus. In contrast, we detected no significant increase in the frequency or extent of dispersed retrotransposon populations in the hybrid species within the resolution limits of our assay. We discuss the potential role that transposable element proliferation and localization plays in the evolution of homoploid hybrid species.

  2. Collection of Helianthus exilis, an endemic serpentine sunflower of California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Helianthus consists of 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all restricted to North America. Serpentine sunflower, Helianthus exilis A. Gray, is endemic to the serpentine soils of the Coastal Range and Sierra Nevada mountains of California and is a potential source of useful genes for ...

  3. Inheritance of resistance to sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) in an interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus and Helianthus debilis subsp. tardiflorus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) constrains sunflower cultivation in increasing areas of Europe and Asia. Populations classified as race G that overcome all known resistance genes have recently appeared. The objective of this research was to study the inheritance of resistance to broomr...

  4. Genotyping-by-sequencing targeting of a novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl20 from wild Helianthus argophyllus for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by Plasmopara halstedii is one of the most destructive diseases in the world that severely impacts sunflower production. Management tools for DM include the destruction of volunteer sunflower plants, fungicides applied as seed treatments, and planting DM-resistant hybrids; t...

  5. Biochemical Bases for the Loss of Basipetal IAA Transport with Advancing Physiological Age in Etiolated Helianthus Hypocotyls: Changes in IAA Movement, Net IAA Uptake, and Phytotropin Binding.

    PubMed

    Suttle, J C

    1991-07-01

    Basipetal transport of [(14)C]IAA in hypocotyl segments isolated from various regions of etiolated Helianthus annuus L. cv NK 265 seedlings declines with increasing physiological age. This decline was the result of a reduction in both transport capacity and apparent velocity. Net IAA uptake was greater and the abilities of auxin transport inhibitors to stimulate net IAA uptake were reduced in older tissues. Net IAA accumulation by microsomal vesicles exhibited a similar behavior with respect to age. Specific binding of [(3)H]N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) to microsomes prepared from young and older hypocotyl regions was saturable and consistent with a single class of binding sites. The apparent affinity constants for NPA binding in microsomes prepared from young versus older tissues were 6.4 and 10.8 nanomolar, respectively, and the binding site densities for young versus old tissues were 7.44 and 3.29 picomoles/milligram protein, respectively. Specific binding of [(3)H]NPA in microsomes prepared from both tissues displayed similar sensitivities toward unlabeled flurenol and exhibited only slight differences in sensitivity toward 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. These results demonstrate that the progressive loss of basipetal IAA transport capacity in etiolated Helianthus hypocotyls with advancing age is associated with substantial alterations in the phytotropin-sensitive, IAA efflux system and they suggest that these changes are, at least partially, responsible for the observed reduction of polar IAA transport with advancing tissue age.

  6. Glycolytic enzymatic activities in developing seeds involved in the differences between standard and low oil content sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Ponce, M Adrián; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-12-01

    As opposed to other oilseeds, developing sunflower seeds do not accumulate starch initially. They rely on the sucrose that comes from the mother plant to synthesise lipid precursors. Glycolysis is the principal source of carbon skeletons and reducing power for lipid biosynthesis. In this work, glycolytic initial metabolites and enzyme activities from developing seed of two different sunflower lines, of high and low oil content, were compared during storage lipid synthesis. These two lines showed different kinetic lipid accumulation in the developing embryos. Fatty acids levels during the initial and final stage of lipid synthesis were higher in CAS-6 than in ZEN-8. The analysis of the photosynthate and sugars content suggests that, although the hexoses levels were quite similar in both lines, the amount of sucrose produced by the mother plant and available for lipid synthesis was higher in CAS-6. Although, a smaller amount of sucrose is available in the ZEN-8 line, its seeds maintain the levels of intermediate sugars in the initial steps of glycolysis due to an increase in the levels of the invertase, hexokinase and phosphoglucose isomerase activities in ZEN-8, with respect to CAS-6. Also, a readjustment in the final part of this metabolic route took place, with the activities of phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase in CAS-6 being higher, allowing increased synthesis of phosphoenolpiruvate, the intermediate carbon donor for fatty acid synthesis. In addition, recently, it has been shown that Arabidopsis mutants with a lower fat content in their seeds have a higher amount of sucrose. These data together point to these last two enzymatic activities, phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase, as being responsible for the lower fat content in the ZEN-8 line.

  7. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables.

  8. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  9. A transposon-mediate inactivation of a CYCLOIDEA-like gene originates polysymmetric and androgynous ray flowers in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    In several eudicots, including members of the Asteraceae family, the CYCLOIDEA (CYC) genes, which belong to the TCP class of transcription factors, are key players for floral symmetry. The sunflower inflorescence is heterogamous (radiate capitulum) with sterile monosymmetric ray flowers located in the outermost whorl of the inflorescence and hermaphrodite polysymmetric disk flowers. In inflorescence of Heliantheae tribe, flower primordia development initiates from the marginal ray flowers while disk flowers develop later in an acropetal fashion in organized parastichies along a number found to be one of Fibonacci patterns. Mutants for inflorescence morphology can provide information on the role of CYC-like genes in radiate capitulum evolution. The tubular ray flower (turf) mutant of sunflower shows hermaphrodite ray flowers with a nearly polysymmetric tubular-like corolla. Here, we demonstrate that this mutation is caused by the insertion in the TCP motif of a sunflower CYC-like gene (HaCYC2c) of non-autonomous transposable element (TE), belonging to the CACTA superfamily of transposons. We named this element Transposable element of turf1 (Tetu1). The Tetu1 insertion changes the reading frame of turf-HaCYC2c for the encoded protein and leads to a premature stop codon. Although in Tetu1 a transposase gene is lacking, our results clearly suggest that it is an active TE. The excision of Tetu1 restores the wild type phenotype or generates stable mutants. Co-segregation and sequence analysis in progenies of F(2) and self-fertilized plants derived from reversion of turf to wild type clearly identify HaCYC2c as a key regulator of ray flowers symmetry. Also, HaCYC2c loss-of-function promotes the developmental switch from sterile to hermaphrodite flowers, revealing a novel and unexpected role for a CYC-like gene in the repression of female organs.

  10. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pl17 is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of...

  12. Protein and peroxidase modulations in sunflower seedlings (Helianthus annuus L.) treated with a toxic amount of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Jouili, Hager; Bouazizi, Houda; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of aluminium treatment on peroxidases activities and protein content in both soluble and cell-wall-bound fractions of sunflower leaves, stems and roots. Fourteen-day-old seedlings, grown in a nutrient solution, were exposed to a toxic amount of aluminium (500 μM AlNO(3)) for 72 h. Under stress conditions, biomass production, root length and leaf expansion were significantly reduced. Also, our results showed modulations on soluble and ionically cell-wall-bound peroxidases activities. In soluble fraction, peroxidases activities were enhanced in all investigated organs. This stimulation was also observed in ionically cell-wall-bound fraction in leaves and stems. Roots showed a differential behaviour: peroxidase activity was severely reduced. Lignifying peroxidases activities assayed using coniferyl alcohol and H(2)O(2) as substrates were also modulated. Significant stimulation was shown on soluble fraction in leaves, stems and roots. In ionically cell-wall-bound fraction lignifying peroxidases were enhanced only in stems but severely inhibited in roots. Also, aluminium toxicity caused significant increase on cell wall protein content in sunflower roots.

  13. An analysis of sequence variability in eight genes putatively involved in drought response in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Giordani, T; Buti, M; Natali, L; Pugliesi, C; Cattonaro, F; Morgante, M; Cavallini, A

    2011-04-01

    With the aim to study variability in genes involved in ecological adaptations, we have analysed sequence polymorphisms of eight unique genes putatively involved in drought response by isolation and analysis of allelic sequences in eight inbred lines of sunflower of different origin and phenotypic characters and showing different drought response in terms of leaf relative water content (RWC). First, gene sequences were amplified by PCR on genomic DNA from a highly inbred line and their products were directly sequenced. In the absence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, the gene was considered as unique. Then, the same PCR reaction was performed on genomic DNAs of eight inbred lines to isolate allelic variants to be compared. The eight selected genes encode a dehydrin, a heat shock protein, a non-specific lipid transfer protein, a z-carotene desaturase, a drought-responsive-element-binding protein, a NAC-domain transcription regulator, an auxin-binding protein, and an ABA responsive-C5 protein. Nucleotide diversity per synonymous and non-synonymous sites was calculated for each gene sequence. The π (a)/π (s) ratio range was usually very low, indicating strong purifying selection, though with locus-to-locus differences. As far as non-coding regions, the intron showed a larger variability than the other regions only in the case of the dehydrin gene. In the other genes tested, in which one or more introns occur, variability in the introns was similar or even lower than in the other regions. On the contrary, 3'-UTRs were usually more variable than the coding regions. Linkage disequilibrium in the selected genes decayed on average within 1,000 bp, with large variation among genes. A pairwise comparison between genetic distances calculated on the eight genes and the difference in RWC showed a significant correlation in the first phases of drought stress. The results are discussed in relation to the function of analysed genes, i.e. involved in gene regulation and signal transduction, or encoding enzymes and defence proteins.

  14. Accumulation of cadmium, zinc, and copper by Helianthus annuus L.: impact on plant growth and uptake of nutritional elements.

    PubMed

    Rivelli, Anna Rita; De Maria, Susanna; Puschenreiter, Markus; Gherbin, Piergiorgio

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effects on physiological response, trace elements and nutrients accumulation of sunflower plants grown in soil contaminated with: 5 mg kg(-1) of Cd; 5 and 300 mg kg(-1) of Cd and Zn, respectively; 5, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Zn, and Cu, respectively. Contaminants applied did not produce large effects on growth, except in Cd-Zn-Cu treatment in which leaf area and total dry matter were reduced, by 15%. The contamination with Cd alone did not affect neither growth nor physiological parameters, despite considerable amounts of Cd accumulated in roots and older leaves, with a high bioconcentration factor from soil to plant. By adding Zn and then Cu to Cd in soil, significant were the toxic effects on chlorophyll content and water relations due to greater accumulation of trace elements in tissues, with imbalances in nutrients uptake. Highly significant was the interaction between shoot elements concentration (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, K, Ca) and treatments. Heavy metals concentrations in roots always exceeded those in stem and leaves, with a lower translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting a strategy of sunflower to compartmentalise the potentially toxic elements in physiologically less active parts in order to preserve younger tissues.

  15. Enhanced Accumulation of Copper and Lead in Amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motior M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Methods/Principal Findings Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg−1 soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1–15.5 mg kg−1, for Cu 11.6–16.8 mg kg−1) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50–54%) and Cu (34–38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC) ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3–4.3 and 1.8–3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. Conclusions Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils. PMID:23667546

  16. Morphological variation of mutant sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) induced by space flight and their genetic background detection by SSR primers.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Shen, S; Zhang, T; Chen, G D; Liu, H; Ma, X B; Chen, W Y; Peng, Z S

    2012-09-25

    After sunflower seeds were exposed to space conditions, various mutant plants were screened from the descendent plants. The morphological characters of plants changed in flower color from golden to yellow, light yellow, or even to yellowish green. The ligulate petals of the unisexual floret broadened, or became thin, while the short tubular petals of bisexual floret elongated to some extent, or even turned into semi-ligulate petals or ligulate petals, making the phenotype of the whole inflorescence like a chrysanthemum. The shape and thickness of leaves varied in some of these plants. Absolute sterile plants in mutant plants were found to possess neither normal bisexual florets nor unisexual florets, but the "pseudo-floret" only consisted of pieces of shield-like bracts on protuberant floral disc. Thirty-five pairs of simple sequence of repeat primers were used to detect the genetic variation of the plants, and the results showed that only a variation was tested in the mutant plants from 4 primers. The different PCR products obtained were extracted for sequencing and alignment analysis, and the aligned results showed that the DNA sequence changed by deletion, insertion and replacement that occurred at some sites. The results proved the high mutagenic efficacy of space flight, and ways of DNA transformation due to space conditions.

  17. Changes in antioxidant and lignifying enzyme activities in sunflower roots (Helianthus annuus L.) stressed with copper excess.

    PubMed

    Jouili, Hager; el Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2003-07-01

    Treatment with 50 microM CuSO4 for five days caused significant decrease in dry-matter production and protein level of ten-day-old sunflower seedling roots. An increase of lipoperoxidation product rate was also observed. The involvement of some enzyme activities in the sunflower root defence against Cu-induced oxidative stress was studied. Copper treatment induced several changes in antioxidant enzymes. SOD (superoxide dismutase, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was reduced but CAT (catalase, EC 1.11.1.6) and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.7) activities were significantly enhanced. The lignifying peroxidase activities, assayed using coniferyl alcohol and syringaldazine, were also stimulated. Analysis by native gel electrophoresis of syringaldazine peroxidase activity showed the stimulation of an isoform (A2) and the induction of another one (A1) under cupric stress conditions. On the other hand, the activity of PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, EC 4.3.1.5), which plays an important role in plant defence, was also activated. The possible mechanisms by which Cu-induced growth delay and changes in enzymatic activities involved in plant defence processes are discussed.

  18. Selection on Crop-Derived Traits and QTL in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Crop-Wild Hybrids under Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Owart, Birkin R.; Corbi, Jonathan; Burke, John M.; Dechaine, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Locally relevant conditions, such as water stress in irrigated agricultural regions, should be considered when assessing the risk of crop allele introgression into wild populations following hybridization. Although research in cultivars has suggested that domestication traits may reduce fecundity under water stress as compared to wild-like phenotypes, this has not been investigated in crop-wild hybrids. In this study, we examine phenotypic selection acting on, as well as the genetic architecture of vegetative, reproductive, and physiological characteristics in an experimental population of sunflower crop-wild hybrids grown under wild-like low water conditions. Crop-derived petiole length and head diameter were favored in low and control water environments. The direction of selection differed between environments for leaf size and leaf pressure potential. Interestingly, the additive effect of the crop-derived allele was in the direction favored by selection for approximately half the QTL detected in the low water environment. Selection favoring crop-derived traits and alleles in the low water environment suggests that a subset of these alleles would be likely to spread into wild populations under water stress. Furthermore, differences in selection between environments support the view that risk assessments should be conducted under multiple locally relevant conditions. PMID:25048600

  19. He-Ne laser-induced improvement in biochemical, physiological, growth and yield characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Perveen, Rashida; Jamil, Yasir; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ali, Qasim; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza

    2011-01-01

    The water-soaked seeds of sunflower were exposed to low power continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation of energies 0, 100, 300 and 500 mJ to evaluate the effect on various biochemical, physiological, growth and yield parameters of sunflower. The experiments which consisted of four replicates arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) were carried out under the greenhouse conditions. The physiological attributes like, photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), intrinsic CO(2) concentration (C(i) ), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll a and b contents, relative membrane permeability and leaf water (ψ(w)), osmotic (ψ(s)) and turgor (ψ(p)) potentials, relative water contents and leaf area increased significantly as compared to control due to He-Ne treatment of seeds. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalases and contents of total soluble proteins, malondialdehyde, proline and leaf total phenolic also increased due to laser treatment. Significant increase in growth parameters of sunflower like shoot fresh and dry masses, root fresh and dry masses, root and shoot lengths, number of leaves per plant and stem diameter has also been observed. The contents of K, Ca and Mg in shoot and root were also increased and an overall increase of up to 28.12% was observed due to laser treatment.

  20. Effects of supplement with sanitary landfill leachate in gas exchange of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Nunes Junior, Francisco H; Freitas, Valdineia S; Mesquita, Rosilene O; Braga, Brennda B; Barbosa, Rifandreo M; Martins, Kaio; Gondim, Franklin A

    2017-09-06

    Sanitary landfill leachate is one of the major problems arising from disposal of urban waste. Sanitary landfill leachate may, however, have use in agriculture. This study, therefore, aimed to analyze initial plant growth and gas exchange in sunflower seedlings supplemented with sanitary landfill leachate and subjected to drought stress through variables of root fresh mass (RFM), shoot fresh mass (SFM), total fresh mass (TFM), relative chlorophyll content (CL), stomatal conductance (g s ), transpiration rate (E), net photosynthetic rate (A), ratio of internal to external CO2 concentration (Ci/Ca),water use efficiency (EUA), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci), and electron transport rate (ETR). The experimental design was a completely randomized 2 (irrigated and non-irrigated) × 4 (sand, sand + 100 kg N ha(-1) organic fertilizer, sand + 100 kg N ha(-1) sanitary landfill leachate, and sand + 150 kg N ha(-1) sanitary landfill leachate) factorial with five replicates. Under drought stress conditions, leachate treatment supplemented with 100 kg N ha(-1) exhibited higher plant fresh weights than those of the treatment containing 150 kg N ha(-1). Increases in fresh mass in plant treatments supplemented with 100 and 150 kg N ha(-1) sanitary landfill leachate were related to higher photosynthetic rates.

  1. Pl(17) is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Long, Y M; Jan, C C; Ma, G J; Gulya, T J

    2015-04-01

    Pl 17, a novel downy mildew resistance gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in sunflowers, was genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.). Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in the USA. To determine the chromosomal location of this resistance, 186 F 2:3 families derived from a cross of HA 458 with HA 234 were phenotyped for their resistance to race 734 of P. halstedii. The segregation ratio of the population supported that the resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene, Pl 17. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primers were used to identify molecular markers linked to Pl 17. Bulked segregant analysis using 849 SSR markers located Pl 17 to linkage group (LG) 4, which is the first DM gene discovered in this linkage group. An F2 population of 186 individuals was screened with polymorphic SSR and SNP primers from LG4. Two flanking markers, SNP SFW04052 and SSR ORS963, delineated Pl 17 in an interval of 3.0 cM. The markers linked to Pl 17 were validated in a BC3 population. A search for the physical location of flanking markers in sunflower genome sequences revealed that the Pl 17 region had a recombination frequency of 0.59 Mb/cM, which was a fourfold higher recombination rate relative to the genomic average. This region can be considered amenable to molecular manipulation for further map-based cloning of Pl 17.

  2. Integration of transcriptomic and metabolic data reveals hub transcription factors involved in drought stress response in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Moschen, Sebastián; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Higgins, Janet; Tohge, Takayuki; Watanabe, Mutsumi; González, Sergio; Rivarola, Máximo; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin; Hopp, H Esteban; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R; Paniego, Norma; Fernández, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2017-07-01

    By integration of transcriptional and metabolic profiles we identified pathways and hubs transcription factors regulated during drought conditions in sunflower, useful for applications in molecular and/or biotechnological breeding. Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that effects crop productivity in many agricultural regions. Sunflower is tolerant to drought conditions but the mechanisms involved in this tolerance remain unclear at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to characterize and integrate transcriptional and metabolic pathways related to drought stress in sunflower plants, by using a system biology approach. Our results showed a delay in plant senescence with an increase in the expression level of photosynthesis related genes as well as higher levels of sugars, osmoprotectant amino acids and ionic nutrients under drought conditions. In addition, we identified transcription factors that were upregulated during drought conditions and that may act as hubs in the transcriptional network. Many of these transcription factors belong to families implicated in the drought response in model species. The integration of transcriptomic and metabolomic data in this study, together with physiological measurements, has improved our understanding of the biological responses during droughts and contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved under this environmental condition. These findings will provide useful biotechnological tools to improve stress tolerance while maintaining crop yield under restricted water availability.

  3. Toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on growth and metabolism in germinating seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Sadiq, Rumana; Hussain, Mumtaz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, M Sajid Aqeel

    2011-12-01

    To assess the toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on the growth and some key metabolic processes in sunflower, varying levels of Ni as Ni(NO(3))(2) up to 60 mg L(-1) were applied once to sunflower cultivars SF-187 and Hysun-33 at sowing time in sand culture. An increase in Ni in the growth medium adversely affected growth parameters, sugar concentration (both reducing and non-reducing), as well as the activities of α-amylase and protease. It also slowed down mobilization of stored proteins and amino acids in the germinating seeds. However, an increase in the activities of α-amylase and protease was observed over time from 24 to 120 h after sowing. Cultivar Hysun-33 showed better performance than SF-187 in the presence of excess Ni. Overall, Ni-induced reduction in germination of sunflower seed appeared to be due to disturbance in biochemical metabolism as the availability of sugars for the synthesis of metabolic energy as well as necessary amino acids for the synthesis of proteins and enzymes essential for the growing embryo are generally reduced due to suppression in α-amylase and protease activities.

  4. Selection on crop-derived traits and QTL in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crop-wild hybrids under water stress.

    PubMed

    Owart, Birkin R; Corbi, Jonathan; Burke, John M; Dechaine, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Locally relevant conditions, such as water stress in irrigated agricultural regions, should be considered when assessing the risk of crop allele introgression into wild populations following hybridization. Although research in cultivars has suggested that domestication traits may reduce fecundity under water stress as compared to wild-like phenotypes, this has not been investigated in crop-wild hybrids. In this study, we examine phenotypic selection acting on, as well as the genetic architecture of vegetative, reproductive, and physiological characteristics in an experimental population of sunflower crop-wild hybrids grown under wild-like low water conditions. Crop-derived petiole length and head diameter were favored in low and control water environments. The direction of selection differed between environments for leaf size and leaf pressure potential. Interestingly, the additive effect of the crop-derived allele was in the direction favored by selection for approximately half the QTL detected in the low water environment. Selection favoring crop-derived traits and alleles in the low water environment suggests that a subset of these alleles would be likely to spread into wild populations under water stress. Furthermore, differences in selection between environments support the view that risk assessments should be conducted under multiple locally relevant conditions.

  5. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-08-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile bacterium, producing 4.5 μg mL(-1) indole acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium. It utilized 27 out of 95 substrates in BIOLOG GN2 micro plate system. It was able to convert insoluble tri-calcium phosphate to soluble phosphorus up to 43.5 μg mL(-1) with decrease in pH of the medium up to 4.5 after 10 days incubation at 28 ± 2 °C in the Pikovskaya's broth. High performance liquid chromatography of cell free supernatant showed that Fs-11 produced malic acid and gluconic acid (2.43 and 16.64 μg mL(-1), respectively) in Pikovskaya's broth. Analysis of 900 bp fragment of pyrroloquinoline quinine pqqE gene sequence showed 98 % homology with that of E. cloacae pqqE gene. Confocal laser scanning microscope revealed strong colonization of fluorescently labeled Fs-11 with sunflower roots. Sunflower inoculation with Fs-11 and its rifampicin resistant derivative in sterile sand and natural soil showed that Fs-11 colonized sunflower roots up to 30 days after transplanting in both sterile sand as well as natural soil. Moreover, Fs-11 inoculation resulted in increased plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and total phosphorus contents as compared to un-inoculated plants. The data showed that Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 is an efficient phosphate solubilizing and plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and has great potential to be used as bio-inoculant for sunflower under phosphorus deficient conditions.

  6. Rhizosphere colonization and arsenic translocation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by arsenate reducing Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L.

    PubMed

    Cavalca, Lucia; Corsini, Anna; Bachate, Sachin Prabhakar; Andreoni, Vincenza

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, six arsenic-resistant strains previously isolated were tested for their plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, in order to choose one model strain as an inoculum for sunflower plants in pot experiments. The aim was to investigate the effect of arsenic-resistant strain on sunflower growth and on arsenic uptake from arsenic contaminated soil. Based on plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L was chosen as an inoculum. Beside the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite via an Ars operon, the strain exhibited 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity and it was also able to produce siderophore and indole acetic acid. Pot experiments were conducted with an agricultural soil contaminated with arsenic (214 mg kg⁻¹). A real time PCR method was set up based on the quantification of ACR3(2) type of arsenite efflux pump carried by Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L, in order to monitor presence and colonisation of the strain in the bulk and rhizospheric soil. As a result of strain inoculation, arsenic uptake by plants was increased by 53 %, whereas ACR3(2) gene copy number in rhizospheric soil was 100 times higher in inoculated than in control pots, indicating the colonisation of strain. The results indicated that the presence of arsenate reducing strains in the rhizosphere of sunflower influences arsenic mobilization and promotes arsenic uptake by plant.

  7. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases expressed at high levels in developing seeds.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Mullen, Robert; Gidda, Satinder K; Salas, Joaquín J

    2014-03-01

    Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression experiments in tobacco cells. The HaLACS1 protein associated with the external envelope of tobacco chloroplasts, whereas HaLACS2 was strongly bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, both proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and recovered as active enzymes in the bacterial membranes. Both enzymes displayed similar substrate specificities, with a very high preference for oleic acid and weaker activity toward stearic acid. On the basis of our findings, we discuss the role of these enzymes in sunflower oil synthesis.

  8. Ecological patterns and genetic analysis of post-dispersal seed predation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crop-wild hybrids.

    PubMed

    Dechaine, Jennifer M; Burger, Jutta C; Burke, John M

    2010-08-01

    Crop-wild hybridization has been documented in many cultivated species, but the ecological and genetic factors that influence the likelihood or rate that cultivar alleles will introgress into wild populations are poorly understood. Seed predation is one factor that could mitigate the spread of otherwise advantageous cultivar alleles into the wild by reducing seedling recruitment of crop-like individuals in hybrid populations. Seed predation has previously been linked to several seed characters that differ between cultivated and wild sunflower, such as seed size and oil content. In this study, seed morphological and nutritional characters were measured in a segregating population of sunflower crop-wild hybrids and wild and cultivated lines. Seed predation rates among lines were then assessed in the field. The relationship between seed predation and seed characters was investigated and quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped for all traits. There was no effect of seed type (hybrid vs. parents) on seed predation, although a trend toward more early predation of wild seeds was observed. Within the hybrids, seed predators preferred seeds that contained more oil and energy but were lower in fibre. The relationship between seed predation and oil content was supported by co-localized QTL for these traits on one linkage group. These results suggest that oil content may be a more important determinant of seed predation than seed size and provide molecular genetic evidence for this relationship. The cultivar allele was also found to increase predation at all QTL, indicating that post-dispersal seed predation may mitigate the spread of cultivar alleles into wild populations.

  9. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    PubMed

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  10. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools. Methodology Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry. Results Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease. Conclusion Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level, which substantiated the clinical evidence of sunflower allergy. Further purification and recombinant expression of these allergens will improve component-resolved diagnosis and therapy of pollen allergy. PMID:26418046

  11. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome.

    PubMed

    Gill, Navdeep; Buti, Matteo; Kane, Nolan; Bellec, Arnaud; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Berges, Hélène; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-04-16

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are "novel" to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence.

  12. Spermidine Uptake by Mitochondria of Helianthus tuberosus.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, R; Antognoni, F; Bagni, N; Zannoni, D

    1990-03-01

    In the present work evidence is provided that spermidine, a polyamine largely present in plant tissues, may be transported, at physiological concentrations, into the matrix space of mitochondria isolated from tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. cv OB1 (Jerusalem artichoke). It is concluded that the movement of spermidine strictly depends on membrane potential, since it is drastically blocked by valinomycin and only slightly sensitive to nigericin. Mg(2+) and K(+) inhibit the transport of spermidine in line with the general concept that these cations compete for the same binding sites on the mitochondrial membrane. In contrast to previous data on mammalian mitochondria, spermidine uptake by plant mitochondria does not depend on the presence of inorganic phosphate. This latter result, along with evidence that Ca(2+) does not affect accumulation of spermidine, indicates that the control of the polyamine uptake mechanism in plant mitochondria is distinct from that of mammalian systems.

  13. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR.

  14. Partial Hybridization in Wide Crosses between Cultivated Sunflower and the Perennial Helianthus Species H. mollis and H. orgyalis

    PubMed Central

    FAURE, N.; SERIEYS, H.; CAZAUX, E.; KAAN, F.; BERVILLÉ, A.

    2002-01-01

    To obtain introgressed sunflower lines with improved disease resistance, interspecific crosses were performed with foreign perennial species. We report on several unusual features displayed by these hybrid plants. The methods used to produce the kernels affected yield and genotypes of progeny. Phenotypic traits and DNA markers were investigated in 97 plants derived from cross‐pollination between annual diploid cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and the perennial diploid species H. mollis or H. orgyalis, and the reverse reciprocal crosses. The level of hybridization in progeny was determined using RAPD and RFLP markers. Hybridization was performed by leaving embryos to develop normally on the head (classical crossing) or using embryo rescue. All observed plants derived from H. mollis were diploid (2n = 34). Phenotypes were predominantly similar to the female when cultivated sunflower was the female parent. Progeny from crosses using a wild species as the female parent resembled that parent. Thus, reciprocal crosses led to different progeny. F1 sister progeny shared different sets of molecular markers representing a few of those of the wild species used as the pollen donor. Our results indicate mechanisms leading to the unusual event of partial hybridization. Possible mechanisms behind these unusual events and their possible impact on evolution are discussed. PMID:12096817

  15. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    PubMed

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1.

  16. Transferring Sclerotinia Resistance Genes from Wild Helianthus into Cultivated Sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To enhance resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot in cultivated sunflower, mining and introgression of Sclerotinia resistance genes from diverse wild Helianthus accessions into cultivated sunflower has been conducted using backcrossing method since 2004. During the last four years, numerous in...

  17. Developing Sclerotinia Resistant Sunflower Germplasm Utilizing Wild Perennial Helianthus Species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated sunflower lacks a sufficient level of resistance to both Sclerotinia stalk and head rot, but abundant resistance in perennial Helianthus species has been confirmed. The objectives of this project were to transfer Sclerotinia head and stalk rot resistance genes from wild perennial hexaploi...

  18. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance breeding utilizing wild Helianthus species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild Helianthus species possess valuable resistance genes for sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.), especially the 39 largely under-utilized perennial species. Resistance to race F has been transferred into cultivated background via bridging of interspecific amphiploids. More recently, a si...

  19. Species tree estimation of diploid Helianthus (Asteraceae) using target enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jessica D; Rogers, Willie L; Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A; Malmberg, Russell L

    2015-06-01

    The sunflower genus Helianthus has long been recognized as economically significant, containing species of agricultural and horticultural importance. Additionally, this genus displays a large range of phenotypic and genetic variation, making Helianthus a useful system for studying evolutionary and ecological processes. Here we present the most robust Helianthus phylogeny to date, laying the foundation for future studies of this genus. We used a target enrichment approach across 37 diploid Helianthus species/subspecies with a total of 103 accessions. This technique garnered 170 genes used for both coalescent and concatenation analyses. The resulting phylogeny was additionally used to examine the evolution of life history and growth form across the genus. Coalescent and concatenation approaches were largely congruent, resolving a large annual clade and two large perennial clades. However, several relationships deeper within the phylogeny were more weakly supported and incongruent among analyses including the placement of H. agrestis, H. cusickii, H. gracilentus, H. mollis, and H. occidentalis. The current phylogeny supports three major clades including a large annual clade, a southeastern perennial clade, and another clade of primarily large-statured perennials. Relationships among taxa are more consistent with early phylogenies of the genus using morphological and crossing data than recent efforts using single genes, which highlight the difficulties of phylogenetic estimation in genera known for reticulate evolution. Additionally, conflict and low support at the base of the perennial clades may suggest a rapid radiation and/or ancient introgression within the genus. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Patterns of genetic diversity and candidate genes for ecological divergence in a homoploid hybrid sunflower, Helianthus anomalus.

    PubMed

    Sapir, Yuval; Moody, Michael L; Brouillette, Larry C; Donovan, Lisa A; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2007-12-01

    Natural hybridization accompanied by a shift in niche preference by hybrid genotypes can lead to hybrid speciation. Natural selection may cause the fixation of advantageous alleles in the ecologically diverged hybrids, and the loci experiencing selection should exhibit a reduction in allelic diversity relative to neutral loci. Here, we analyzed patterns of genetic diversity at 59 microsatellite loci associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in a homoploid hybrid sunflower species, Helianthus anomalus. We used two indices, ln RV and ln RH, to compare variation and heterozygosity (respectively) at each locus between the hybrid species and its two parental species, H. annuus and H. petiolaris. Mean values of ln RV and ln RH were significantly lower than zero, which implies that H. anomalus experienced a population bottleneck during its recent evolutionary history. After correcting for the apparent bottleneck, we found six loci with a significant reduction in variation or with heterozygosity in the hybrid species, compared to one or both of the parental species. These loci should be viewed as a ranked list of candidate loci, pending further sequencing and functional analyses. Sequence data were generated for two of the candidate loci, but population genetics tests failed to detect deviations from neutral evolution at either locus. Nonetheless, a greater than eight-fold excess of nonsynonymous substitutions was found near a putative N-myristoylation motif at the second locus (HT998), and likelihood-based models indicated that the protein has been under selection in H. anomalus in the past and, perhaps, in one or both parental species. Finally, our data suggest that selective sweeps may have united populations of H. anomalus isolated by a mountain range, indicating that even low gene-flow species may be held together by the spread of advantageous alleles.

  1. Patterns of genetic diversity and candidate genes for ecological divergence in a homoploid hybrid sunflower, Helianthus anomalus

    PubMed Central

    SAPIR, YUVAL; MOODY, MICHAEL L.; BROUILLETTE, LARRY C.; DONOVAN, LISA A.; RIESEBERG, LOREN H.

    2008-01-01

    Natural hybridization accompanied by a shift in niche preference by hybrid genotypes can lead to hybrid speciation. Natural selection may cause the fixation of advantageous alleles in the ecologically diverged hybrids, and the loci experiencing selection should exhibit a reduction in allelic diversity relative to neutral loci. Here, we analyzed patterns of genetic diversity at 59 microsatellite loci associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in a homoploid hybrid sunflower species, Helianthus anomalus. We used two indices, ln RV and ln RH, to compare variation and heterozygosity (respectively) at each locus between the hybrid species and its two parental species, H. annuus and H. petiolaris. Mean values of ln RV and ln RH were significantly lower than zero, which implies that H. anomalus experienced a population bottleneck during its recent evolutionary history. After correcting for the apparent bottleneck, we found six loci with a significant reduction in variation or with heterozygosity in the hybrid species, compared to one or both of the parental species. These loci should be viewed as a ranked list of candidate loci, pending further sequencing and functional analyses. Sequence data were generated for two of the candidate loci, but population genetics tests failed to detect deviations from neutral evolution at either locus. Nonetheless, a greater than eight-fold excess of nonsynonymous substitutions was found near a putative N-myristoylation motif at the second locus (HT998), and likelihood-based models indicated that the protein has been under selection in H. anomalus in the past and, perhaps, in one or both parental species. Finally, our data suggest that selective sweeps may have united populations of H. anomalus isolated by a mountain range, indicating that even low gene-flow species may be held together by the spread of advantageous alleles. PMID:17944850

  2. Introgression and molecular tagging of Rf (4), a new male fertility restoration gene from wild sunflower Helianthus maximiliani L.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2008-07-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and its fertility restoration (Rf) genes are critical tools for hybrid seed production to utilize heterosis. In sunflower, CMS PET1 and the associated Rf gene Rf (1) is the only source extensively used in commercial hybrid production. The objective of this research was to develop new sources of CMS and fertility restorers to broaden the genetic diversity of hybrid seed production. We identified a new type of CMS, named as CMS GIG2, from an interspecific cross between Helianthus giganteus accession1934 and H. annuus cv. HA 89. Based on reactions to a set of standard Rf testers, CMS GIG2 is different from all previously reported CMS types, including the CMS GIG1 from another H. giganteus accession. We also identified an Rf gene for CMS GIG2 from wild species H. maximiliani accession 1631. The CMS GIG2 and its restoration gene were introduced into HA 89 background through recurrent backcross and single plant selection techniques. Genetic analysis revealed that the CMS GIG2-Rf system is controlled by a completely dominant gene, named as Rf (4), and the gene additive and dominance effects were estimated as 39.9 and 42.2%, respectively, in the HA 89 background. The gene Rf (4) was mapped onto linkage group 3 with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and RFLP-derived STS-marker, and is about 0.9 cM away from the SSR marker ORS1114 based on a segregation population of 933 individuals. The CMS GIG2-Rf (4) system tagged by molecular markers provides an alternative genetic source for hybrid breeding in the sunflower crop.

  3. Impacts of T-Phylloplanin Gene Knockdown and of Helianthus and Datura Phylloplanins on Peronospora tabacina Spore Germination and Disease Potential1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Kroumova, Antoaneta B.; Shepherd, Ryan W.; Wagner, George J.

    2007-01-01

    T-phylloplanin proteins secreted to aerial surfaces of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by short procumbent trichomes inhibit spore germination and blue mold disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Peronospora tabacina. Many other plants were found to contain water-washed leaf surface proteins (phylloplanins), but the functions and properties of these are not known. Here we extend earlier evidence for the antifungal activity of T-phylloplanins using a reverse genetics approach. RNA interference of the T-phylloplanin gene in tobacco ‘T.I. 1068’ resulted in loss of T-phylloplanin mRNA and protein, loss of in vitro spore germination inhibition activity, and leaf infection inhibition activity of leaf water washes from RNA interference plants, and young knockdown plants were susceptible to disease. The glycoprotein character, adaxial-leaf-surface enrichment of, and renewability of T-phylloplanins are also described. We also report that leaf water washes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and jimson weed (Datura metel), but not soybean (Glycine max), like that of tobacco, possess ProteinaseK- and boiling-sensitive P. tabacina spore germination and tobacco leaf infection inhibition activities. Results establish that T-phylloplaninins of tobacco are active in P. tabacina inhibition, and indicate that leaf surface proteins of certain non-Nicotiana species that are not susceptible to P. tabacina disease can inhibit germination of spores of this oomycete pathogen and inhibit tobacco leaf infection by this pathogen. PMID:17573541

  4. Impacts of T-Phylloplanin gene knockdown and of Helianthus and Datura phylloplanins on Peronospora tabacina spore germination and disease potential.

    PubMed

    Kroumova, Antoaneta B; Shepherd, Ryan W; Wagner, George J

    2007-08-01

    T-phylloplanin proteins secreted to aerial surfaces of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) by short procumbent trichomes inhibit spore germination and blue mold disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Peronospora tabacina. Many other plants were found to contain water-washed leaf surface proteins (phylloplanins), but the functions and properties of these are not known. Here we extend earlier evidence for the antifungal activity of T-phylloplanins using a reverse genetics approach. RNA interference of the T-phylloplanin gene in tobacco 'T.I. 1068' resulted in loss of T-phylloplanin mRNA and protein, loss of in vitro spore germination inhibition activity, and leaf infection inhibition activity of leaf water washes from RNA interference plants, and young knockdown plants were susceptible to disease. The glycoprotein character, adaxial-leaf-surface enrichment of, and renewability of T-phylloplanins are also described. We also report that leaf water washes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and jimson weed (Datura metel), but not soybean (Glycine max), like that of tobacco, possess ProteinaseK- and boiling-sensitive P. tabacina spore germination and tobacco leaf infection inhibition activities. Results establish that T-phylloplaninins of tobacco are active in P. tabacina inhibition, and indicate that leaf surface proteins of certain non-Nicotiana species that are not susceptible to P. tabacina disease can inhibit germination of spores of this oomycete pathogen and inhibit tobacco leaf infection by this pathogen.

  5. Phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits in Helianthus.

    PubMed

    Donovan, L A; Ludwig, F; Rosenthal, D M; Rieseberg, L H; Dudley, S A

    2009-08-01

    Habitats that differ in soil resource availability are expected to differ for selection on resource-related plant traits. Here, we examined spatial and temporal variation in phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits for 10 Helianthus populations, including two species of hybrid origin, Helianthus anomalus and Helianthus deserticola, and artificial hybrids of their ancestral parents. Leaf traits assessed were leaf size, succulence, nitrogen (N) concentration and water-use efficiency (WUE). Biomass and leaf traits of artificial hybrids indicate that the actively moving dune habitat of H. anomalus was more growth limiting, with lower N availability but higher relative water availability than the stabilized dune habitat of H. deserticola. Habitats differed for direct selection on leaf N and WUE, but not size or succulence, for the artificial hybrids. However, within the H. anomalus habitat, direct selection on WUE also differed among populations. Across years, direct selection on leaf traits did not differ. Leaf N was the only trait for which direct selection differed between habitats but not within the H. anomalus habitat, suggesting that nutrient limitation is an important selective force driving adaptation of H. anomalus to the active dune habitat.

  6. Transferring sclerotinia resistance genes from wild perennial Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the lack of highly tolerant cultivated sunflower germplasm, new sources of Sclerotinia resistance from wild Helianthus species need to be identified and incorporated into a cultivated background. Wild perennial Helianthus species are highly resistant to Sclerotinia and have provided good sou...

  7. Triploid production from interspecific crosses of two diploid perennial Helianthus with cultivated sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic source for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. &. G. ...

  8. Evaluation of achene oil of Helianthus porteri for fatty acid composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Confederate daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri (A. Gray) Pruski, formerly known as Viguiera porteri (A. Gray) S.F. Blake, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and Sou...

  9. Evaluation of Helianthus porteri Achenes for Oil Concentration and Fatty Acid Composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Confederate daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It is an endemic species that occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina,...

  10. Helianthus porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  11. Helianthus Porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing the Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  12. Genetics and mapping of the R11 gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes a 20% yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in Nor...

  13. Relocation of a rust resistance gene R2 and its marker-assisted gene pyramiding in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rust (caused by Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) is a major disease of sunflower worldwide. Due to the frequent evolution of new pathogen races, the disease is a recurring threat to sunflower production especially in North America, Argentina, and Australia. The inbred line MC29 carries the rust resistan...

  14. Map saturation and SNP marker development for the rust resistance genes (R4, R5, R13a, and R13b) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower rust, which is incited by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein., is the most common disease in Australia, Argentina, South Africa, and North America. Three independent genes, R5, R4, and R13 with two alleles R13a and R13b, were discovered in sunflower and are promising sources of resistan...

  15. Influence of substituting dietary soybean for air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal on egg production and steroid hormones in early-phase laying hens.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Nahashon, S N; Introna, M; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-02-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least-cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air-classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20-week-old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air-classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air-classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p < 0.05) by SFM treatment. Egg production rate was improved in hens fed the SFM diet (p < 0.05), as well as the percentage of medium-size eggs that was higher for SFM treatment (p < 0.05). Steroid hormones levels were affected by dietary treatment (p < 0.01). From our findings, it could be effective to include air-classified SFM in early-phase laying hen diets as an alternative protein source substituting SBM, without negative influence on productive performance and egg traits, reducing also the production costs. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Oleate Coated Magnetic Cores Based on Magnetite, Zn Ferrite and Co Ferrite Nanoparticles - Preparation, Physical Characterization and Biological Impact on Helianthus Annuus Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ursache-Oprisan, Manuela; Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Cirlescu, Aurelian; Caltun, Ovidiu; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-02

    Sodium oleate was used as coating shell for magnetite, Zn ferrite and Co ferrite powders to stabilize them in the form of aqueous magnetic suspensions. The physical characterization was carried out by applying X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Both crystallite size and magnetic core diameter ranged between 7 and 11 nm. The influence of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions (corresponding to magnetic nanoparticle levels of 10{sup -14}-10{sup -15}/cm{sup 3}) on sunflower seedlings was studied considering the changes in the photosynthesis pigment levels. Similar responses were obtained for magnetite and cobalt ferrite nanoparticle treatment consisting in the apparent inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis while for zinc ferrite nanoparticles some concentrations seemed to have stimulatory effects on the chlorophylls as well as on the carotene levels. But the chlorophyll ratio was diminished in the case of all three types of magnetic nanoparticles meaning their slight negative effect on the light harvesting complex II (LHC II) from the chloroplast membranes and consequently on the photosynthesis efficiency.

  17. The effect of subambient to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on vascular function in Helianthus annuus: Implications for plant response to climate change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant gas-exchange is regulated by stomata, which co-ordinate leaf-level water loss with xylem transport. Stomatal opening responds to internal levels of CO2 in the leaf but changing CO2 can also lead to changes in stomatal density that influence transpiration. Given that stomatal conductance increa...

  18. Potential of Brassic rapa, Cannabis sativa, Helianthus annuus and Zea mays for phytoextraction of heavy metals from calcareous dredged sediment derived soils.

    PubMed

    Meers, E; Ruttens, A; Hopgood, M; Lesage, E; Tack, F M G

    2005-10-01

    Remediation of soil pollution is one of the many current environmental challenges. Anthropogenic activity has resulted in the contamination of extended areas of land, the remediation of which is both invasive and expensive by conventional means. Phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils has the prospect of being a more economic in situ alternative. In addition, phytoextraction targets ecotoxicologically the most relevant soil fraction of these metals, i.e. the bioavailable fraction. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the potential of four high biomass crop species in their potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals, with or without with the use of soil amendments (EDTA or EDDS). A calcareous dredged sediment derived surface soil, with high organic matter and clay content and moderate levels of heavy metal pollution, was used in the experiments. No growth depression was observed in EDTA or EDDS treated pots in comparison to untreated controls. Metal accumulation was considered to be low for phytoextraction purposes, despite the use of chelating agents. The low observed shoot concentrations of heavy metals were attributed to the low phytoavailability of heavy metals in this particular soil substrate. The mobilising effects induced by EDTA in the soil were found to be too long-lived for application as a soil amendment in phytoextraction. Although EDDS was found to be more biodegradable, higher effect half lives were observed than reported in literature or observed in previous experiments. These findings caution against the use of any amendment, biodegradable or otherwise, without proper investigation of its effects and the longevity thereof.

  19. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in response to salt stress in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings raised from seed treated with chitosan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Nusrat; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2013-05-01

    Salt tolerance is a complex trait which involves the coordinated action of many genes that perform a variety of functions, such as ion sequestration, metabolic adjustment, osmotic adjustment and antioxidative defence. In this article, the growth and the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under normal (ECiw [Electrical conductivity of irrigation water] = 0.5 dS m(-1)) and salt stress conditions (ECiw = 3.4, 6.1, 8.6 and 10.8 dS m(-1) ) in relation to the priming of seeds of the two important oil yielding crops, i.e. safflower and sunflower, with different concentrations of chitosan [0% (control), 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%] is discussed. Induced salinity stress significantly decreased germination percentage, germination rate, length and weight of root and shoot, and protein content. Proline content, malondialdehyde content (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) activity increased at 10.8 dS m(-1). Under control conditions there were no significant differences in germination percentage among different concentrations of chitosan, whereas CAT and POX activity were increased by low concentrations of chitosan. With increasing salt stress, low concentrations of chitosan increased germination percentage but decreased MDA and proline contents and CAT and POX activity. Generation of ROS seems to be unavoidable under normal conditions and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in plants varies in terms of ROS generation under salt stress. However, the data indicate that plants subjected to salt stress-induced oxidative stress and the low concentrations of chitosan exhibited positive effects on salt stress alleviation through the reduction of enzyme activity in both crops. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Local infiltration of high- and low-molecular-weight RNA from silenced sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants triggers post-transcriptional gene silencing in non-silenced plants.

    PubMed

    Hewezi, Tarek; Alibert, Gilbert; Kallerhoff, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Using grafting procedures, we have characterized post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in transgenic sunflower expressing beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity. Silencing was observed as early as 2 weeks after grafting of non-silenced scions on to silenced rootstock. Transmission of the systemic signal occurs solely from stock to scion, is independent of the physiological age of the rootstock and is not heritable. Furthermore, we report, for the first time in plants, an easy and low-cost method of activating RNA silencing by infiltration of purified RNA from silenced plants. Local application of total RNA derived from silenced sunflower plants to leaves of non-silenced plants induces PTGS in newly developed leaves above the point of infiltration, as shown by reduced GUS activity and mRNA levels. Silenced plants contain 21-23-nucleotide RNAs hybridizing to transgene target sequences, in contrast with leaves of non-silenced plants. However, de novo production of GUS-specific short RNA in non-silenced plants can be activated by leaf infiltration of low-molecular-weight RNAs isolated from leaves of silenced plants. Significant levels were detected as early as 2 weeks after infiltration, peaked at 3 weeks and declined 5 weeks after infiltration. Our results provide evidence that RNA infiltration in sunflower induces transient silencing and is not transmitted to offspring. This approach could be of major use in dissecting the mechanisms involved in PTGS.

  1. Malic acid or orthophosphoric acid-heat treatments for protecting sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal proteins against ruminal degradation and increasing intestinal amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J M; González, J; Ouarti, M; Silván, J M; Ruiz del Castillo, M L; de la Peña Moreno, F

    2013-02-01

    The protection of sunflower meal (SFM) proteins by treatments with solutions of malic acid (1 M) or orthophosphoric acid (0.67 M) and heat was studied in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design using three diets and three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers. Acid solutions were applied to SFM at a rate of 400 ml/kg under continuous mixing. Subsequently, treated meals were dried in an oven at 150°C for 6 h. Diets (ingested at 75 g/kg BW0.75) were isoproteic and included 40% Italian ryegrass hay and 60% concentrate. The ratio of untreated to treated SFM in the concentrate was 100 : 0 in the control diet and around 40 : 60 in diets including acid-treated meals. The use of acid-treated meals did not alter either ruminal fermentation or composition of rumen contents and led to moderate reductions of the rumen outflow rates of untreated SFM particles, whereas it did not affect their comminution and mixing rate. In situ effective estimates of by-pass (BP) and its intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of dry matter (DM), CP and amino acids (AAs) were obtained considering both rates and correcting the particle microbial contamination in the rumen using 15N infusion techniques. Estimates of BP and IED decreased applying microbial correction, but these variations were low in agreement with the small contamination level. Protective treatments increased on average the BP of DM (48.5%) and CP (267%), mainly decreasing both the soluble fraction and the degradation rate but also increasing the undegradable fraction, which was higher using orthophosphoric acid. Protective treatments increased the IED of DM (108%) and CP, but this increase was lower using orthophosphoric acid (11.8%) than malic acid (20.7%). Concentrations of AA were similar among all meals, except for a reduction in lysine concentrations using malic acid (16.3%) or orthophosphoric acid (20.5%). Protective treatments also increased on average the BP of all AA, as well as the IED of most of them. Evidence of higher increases for those AA showing a high resistance to degradation in the untreated meal were also observed. The total supply of metabolisable AA was increased by 3.87 times for sulphur-containing AA, whereas that of lysine was increased by 2.5 times, mainly because of lysine losses with heat treatments. These treatments and especially that with malic acid would be useful to increase the protein value of these meals but their combined use with lysine-rich protein concentrates would improve the metabolisable protein profile.

  2. Genetic Control of Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Subjected to Two Drought Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Muños, Stephane; Langlade, Nicolas B.; Lamaze, Thierry; Grieu, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    High water use efficiency (WUE) can be achieved by coordination of biomass accumulation and water consumption. WUE is physiologically and genetically linked to carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in leaves of plants. A population of 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower derived from a cross between XRQ and PSC8 lines was studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling WUE and CID, and to compare QTL associated with these traits in different drought scenarios. We conducted greenhouse experiments in 2011 and 2012 by using 100 balances which provided a daily measurement of water transpired, and we determined WUE, CID, biomass and cumulative water transpired by plants. Wide phenotypic variability, significant genotypic effects, and significant negative correlations between WUE and CID were observed in both experiments. A total of nine QTL controlling WUE and eight controlling CID were identified across the two experiments. A QTL for phenotypic response controlling WUE and CID was also significantly identified. The QTL for WUE were specific to the drought scenarios, whereas the QTL for CID were independent of the drought scenarios and could be found in all the experiments. Our results showed that the stable genomic regions controlling CID were located on the linkage groups 06 and 13 (LG06 and LG13). Three QTL for CID were co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. We found that CID and WUE are highly correlated and have common genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic control of these traits showed an interaction with the environment (between the two drought scenarios and control conditions). Our results open a way for breeding higher WUE by using CID and marker-assisted approaches and therefore help to maintain the stability of sunflower crop production. PMID:24992022

  3. What limits the use of crop wild relatives for crop improvement? Contrasting case studies (Zea mays and Helianthus annuus L.) provide clues to identify and overcome limiting factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The vast genetic potential present in crop wild relatives (CWR) is often difficult to tap, as identification and transfer of superior alleles into breeding pools to create new crop cultivars is challenging. Conservation of CWR has always been predicated on the promise of new and useful traits, and t...

  4. Influence of thiourea application on some physiological and molecular criteria of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants under conditions of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Akladious, Samia Ageeb

    2014-05-01

    High temperature is a major factor limiting the growth of plant species during summer. Understanding the mechanisms of plant tolerance to high temperature would help in developing effective management practices and heat-tolerant cultivars through breeding or biotechnology. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of thiourea in enhancing the tolerance of sunflower plants to heat stress. Sunflower plants were subjected to temperature stress by exposing plants to 35 or 45 °C for 12 h. Two levels of thiourea (10 and 20 mM) were applied before sowing (seed treatment). The results indicated that the plants exposed to temperature stress exhibited a significant decline in growth parameters, chlorophylls, relative leaf water content, oil content, leaf nutrient status, and nitrate reductase activity. Treatment with thiourea, especially when applied at 10 mM, improved the above parameters and induced non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants responsible for antioxidation. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that high-temperature treatments alone or in combination with thiourea were associated with the disappearance of some bands or the appearance of unique ones. The result of RAPD analysis using five primers showed variable qualitative and quantitative changes. These findings confirm the effectiveness of applying thiourea on alleviating heat injuries in sunflower plants.

  5. Mechanical wounding induces a nitrosative stress by down-regulation of GSNO reductase and an increase in S-nitrosothiols in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Chaki, Mounira; Valderrama, Raquel; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana M.; Carreras, Alfonso; Gómez-Rodríguez, Maria. V.; Pedrajas, José R.; Begara-Morales, Juan C.; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Luque, Francisco; Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and related molecules such as peroxynitrite, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and nitrotyrosine, among others, are involved in physiological processes as well in the mechanisms of response to stress conditions. In sunflower seedlings exposed to five different adverse environmental conditions (low temperature, mechanical wounding, high light intensity, continuous light, and continuous darkness), key components of the metabolism of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including the enzyme activities L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS), S-nitrosogluthathione reductase (GSNOR), nitrate reductase (NR), catalase, and superoxide dismutase, the content of lipid hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide, S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), the cellular level of NO, GSNO, and GSNOR, and protein tyrosine nitration [nitrotyrosine (NO2-Tyr)] were analysed. Among the stress conditions studied, mechanical wounding was the only one that caused a down-regulation of NOS and GSNOR activities, which in turn provoked an accumulation of SNOs. The analyses of the cellular content of NO, GSNO, GSNOR, and NO2-Tyr by confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed these biochemical data. Therefore, it is proposed that mechanical wounding triggers the accumulation of SNOs, specifically GSNO, due to a down-regulation of GSNOR activity, while NO2-Tyr increases. Consequently a process of nitrosative stress is induced in sunflower seedlings and SNOs constitute a new wound signal in plants. PMID:21172815

  6. The influences of Cr-tolerant rhizobacteria in phytoremediation and attenuation of Cr (VI) stress in agronomic sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Ali; Ahmad, Rizwan; Afzal, Aftab; Feng, Huyuan; Suthar, Vishandas; Batool, Asfa; Khan, Aman; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Chromium contamination of agronomic soil has to turn into a serious global problem. This research was pointed to assess the effects of three Cr-tolerant rhizobacteria (SS1, SS3, and SS6) on sunflower growth and heavy metal uptake under Cr smog i.e. 20, 30 and 40 ppm using K2Cr2O7. Root promotion assay and pot experiment were conducted to investigate and evaluate the effects of Cr tolerance rhizobacteria and Cr accumulation capacity of sunflower. From root promotion assay non-significant variation was observed in the root length between SS1 and SS3 compared with un-inoculated whereas SS6 enhanced the root length in the absence and presence of chromium. In addition, inoculation with rhizobacteria alleviated the Cr concentration and endorsed plant growth by enhancing Cr accumulation in sunflower. At different Cr levels, the Cr concentration in shoot was improved by each rhizobacterium though their difference was non-significant with each other, while the percentage increase was half as the Cr level doubled. Different rhizobacterium inoculation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the physiological and morphological characteristics of sunflower and increased the plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, grain yield, oil content of seeds, and total biomass, and among them, SS6 observed best followed by SS1 and SS3 comparing with un-inoculated. Our study illustrates an assessment about Cr-tolerant bacteria and their influences and recommends that these bacteria can effectively be used for crop improvement which provides a potential approach for Cr phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acyl carrier proteins from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and their influence on FatA and FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase activities.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2016-08-01

    The kinetics of acyl-ACP thioesterases from sunflower importantly changed when endogenous ACPs were used. Sunflower FatB was much more specific towards saturated acyl-ACPs when assayed with them. Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are small (~9 kDa), soluble, acidic proteins involved in fatty acid synthesis in plants and bacteria. ACPs bind to fatty acids through a thioester bond, generating the acyl-ACP lipoproteins that are substrates for fatty acid synthase (FAS) complexes, and that are required for fatty acid chain elongation, acting as important intermediates in de novo fatty acid synthesis in plants. Plants, usually express several ACP isoforms with distinct functionalities. We report here the cloning of three ACPs from developing sunflower seeds: HaACP1, HaACP2, and HaACP3. These proteins were plastidial ACPs expressed strongly in seeds, and as such they are probably involved in the synthesis of sunflower oil. The recombinant sunflower ACPs were expressed in bacteria but they were lethal to the prokaryote host. Thus, they were finally produced using the GST gene fusion system, which allowed the apo-enzyme to be produced and later activated to the holo form. Radiolabelled acyl-ACPs from the newly cloned holo-ACP forms were also synthesized and used to characterize the activity of recombinant sunflower FatA and FatB thioesterases, important enzymes in plant fatty acids synthesis. The activity of these enzymes changed significantly when the endogenous ACPs were used. Thus, FatA importantly increased its activity levels, whereas FatB displayed a different specificity profile, with much high activity levels towards saturated acyl-CoA derivatives. All these data pointed to an important influence of the ACP moieties on the activity of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis.

  8. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of pH and ionic strength modifications on thermal denaturation of the 11S globulin of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    PubMed

    Molina, María Isabel; Petruccelli, Silvana; Añón, María Cristina

    2004-09-22

    Helianthinin, the main storage protein of sunflowers, has low water solubility and does not form a gel when heated; this behavior is different from other 11S globulins and limits its food applications. To understand this particular behavior, changes on helianthinin association-dissociation state induced by modifications in pH and ionic strength were analyzed. The influence of these different medium conditions on its thermal stability and tendency to form aggregates was also studied. Helianthinin behavior at different pH values and ionic strengths is similar to other 11S globulins except that it remains in a trimeric form at pH 11. Helianthinin thermal stability is higher than other 11S globulins but is lower than oat 11S globulin. Alkaline pH produces a 10 degrees C decrease of its denaturation temperature and also of the cooperativity of denaturation process, but it does not affect the denaturation activation energy. The decrease in thermal stability with the pH increase is also manifested by its tendency to form aggregates by SH/SS interchange reactions. When thermal treatments at alkaline pH are performed, all helianthinin subunits form aggregates, characterized by a higher proportion of beta-polypeptides than alpha-polypeptides, which is an indication that aggregation is accompanied by dissociation. Treatments at 80 degrees C are sufficient to induce aggregation but not to produce denaturation, and in these conditions hexameric forms remain after the treatment.

  10. Genetic control of water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope discrimination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) subjected to two drought scenarios.

    PubMed

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Muños, Stephane; Langlade, Nicolas B; Lamaze, Thierry; Grieu, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    High water use efficiency (WUE) can be achieved by coordination of biomass accumulation and water consumption. WUE is physiologically and genetically linked to carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in leaves of plants. A population of 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower derived from a cross between XRQ and PSC8 lines was studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling WUE and CID, and to compare QTL associated with these traits in different drought scenarios. We conducted greenhouse experiments in 2011 and 2012 by using 100 balances which provided a daily measurement of water transpired, and we determined WUE, CID, biomass and cumulative water transpired by plants. Wide phenotypic variability, significant genotypic effects, and significant negative correlations between WUE and CID were observed in both experiments. A total of nine QTL controlling WUE and eight controlling CID were identified across the two experiments. A QTL for phenotypic response controlling WUE and CID was also significantly identified. The QTL for WUE were specific to the drought scenarios, whereas the QTL for CID were independent of the drought scenarios and could be found in all the experiments. Our results showed that the stable genomic regions controlling CID were located on the linkage groups 06 and 13 (LG06 and LG13). Three QTL for CID were co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. We found that CID and WUE are highly correlated and have common genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic control of these traits showed an interaction with the environment (between the two drought scenarios and control conditions). Our results open a way for breeding higher WUE by using CID and marker-assisted approaches and therefore help to maintain the stability of sunflower crop production.

  11. [Polymorphism among RFL-PPR homologs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines with varying ability for the suppression of the cytoplasmic male sterility phenotype].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, I N; Alpatieva, N V; Rozhkova, V T; Kuznetsova, E B; Pinaev, A G; Gavrilova, V A

    2014-07-01

    A complex comparative genetic approach was used for the investigation of the structural and functional diversity of genes for the restoration of sunflower pollen fertility. It includes (i) hybridological analysis; (ii) analysis of polymorphism among EST fragments.homologous to the known Rf genes that contain repeated motives of 35 amino acids (RFL-PPR); (iii) the development of molecular markers. Monogenic segregation in three interline cross combinations and the results of molecular marker analysis confirmed the allelic differences of parental lines in the Mendelian locus for CMS PET1 pollen fertility restoration. Introns were found in two RFL-PPR fragments. Two allelic variants of the QHL12D20 fragment were detected among the sixty lines of the sunflower genetic collection. An intron of QHL12D20 fragment was homologous to an intron of the AHBP-1B gene; the product of this gene-has a similarity with the transcription factor of the bZIP-family of Arabidopsis. A relationship between the QHL12D20 polymorphism and the functional state of the Rfl locus was revealed.

  12. Sphingolipid base modifying enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cloning and characterization of a C4-hydroxylase gene and a new paralogous Δ8-desaturase gene.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2011-05-15

    Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids. These modifications are due to the action of C4-hydroxylases and Δ8-long chain base desaturases, and they are important for complex sphingolipids finally becoming functional. The long chain bases of sunflower sphingolipids have high levels of hydroxylated and unsaturated moieties. Here, a C4-long chain base hydroxylase was functionally characterized in sunflower plant, an enzyme that could complement the sur2Δ mutation when heterologously expressed in this yeast mutant deficient in hydroxylation. This hydroxylase was ubiquitously expressed in sunflower, with the highest levels found in the developing cotyledons. In addition, we identified a new Δ8-long base chain desaturase gene that displays strong homology to a previously reported desaturase gene. This desaturase was also expressed in yeast and was able to change the long chain base composition of the transformed host. We studied the expression of this desaturase and compared it with that of the other isoform described in sunflower. The desaturase form studied in this paper displayed higher expression levels in developing seeds.

  13. Mechanical wounding induces a nitrosative stress by down-regulation of GSNO reductase and an increase in S-nitrosothiols in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Mounira; Valderrama, Raquel; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana M; Carreras, Alfonso; Gómez-Rodríguez, Maria V; Pedrajas, José R; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Luque, Francisco; Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2011-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and related molecules such as peroxynitrite, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and nitrotyrosine, among others, are involved in physiological processes as well in the mechanisms of response to stress conditions. In sunflower seedlings exposed to five different adverse environmental conditions (low temperature, mechanical wounding, high light intensity, continuous light, and continuous darkness), key components of the metabolism of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including the enzyme activities L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS), S-nitrosogluthathione reductase (GSNOR), nitrate reductase (NR), catalase, and superoxide dismutase, the content of lipid hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide, S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), the cellular level of NO, GSNO, and GSNOR, and protein tyrosine nitration [nitrotyrosine (NO(2)-Tyr)] were analysed. Among the stress conditions studied, mechanical wounding was the only one that caused a down-regulation of NOS and GSNOR activities, which in turn provoked an accumulation of SNOs. The analyses of the cellular content of NO, GSNO, GSNOR, and NO(2)-Tyr by confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed these biochemical data. Therefore, it is proposed that mechanical wounding triggers the accumulation of SNOs, specifically GSNO, due to a down-regulation of GSNOR activity, while NO(2)-Tyr increases. Consequently a process of nitrosative stress is induced in sunflower seedlings and SNOs constitute a new wound signal in plants.

  14. Low Agrobacterium tumefaciens inoculum levels and a long co-culture period lead to reduced plant defense responses and increase transgenic shoot production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhifen; Finer, John J

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is typically conducted by inoculating plant tissues with an Agrobacterium suspension containing approximately 10(8)-10(9) bacteria mL(-1), followed by a 2-3-d co-culture period. Use of longer co-culture periods could potentially increase transformation efficiencies by allowing more time for Agrobacterium to interact with plant cells, but bacterial overgrowth is likely to occur, leading to severe tissue browning and reduced transformation and regeneration. Low bacterial inoculum levels were therefore evaluated as a means to reduce the negative outcomes associated with long co-culture. The use of low inoculum bacterial suspensions (approximately 6 × 10(2) bacteria mL(-1)) followed by long co-culture (15 d) led to the production of an average of three transformed sunflower shoots per explant while the use of high inoculum (approximately 6 × 10(8) bacteria mL(-1)) followed by short co-culture (3 d) led to no transformed shoots. Low inoculum and long co-culture acted synergistically, and both were required for the improvement of sunflower transformation. Gene expression analysis via qRT-PCR showed that genes related to plant defense response were generally expressed at lower levels in the explants treated with low inoculum than those treated with high inoculum during 15 d of co-culture, suggesting that low inoculum reduced the induction of plant defense responses. The use of low inoculum with long co-culture (LI/LC) led to large increases in sunflower transformation efficiency. This method has great potential for improving transformation efficiencies and expanding the types of target tissues amenable for transformation of different plant species.

  15. The behaviour of (14)C profiles in Helianthus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Whittle, C M

    1971-06-01

    The log. (14)C activity/distance profile in the stems of Helianthus seedlings consists of two main parts: region 1, the linear advancing front and region 2, which is also linear but with a less steep slope. As the front passes down the stem, the slope of region 1 remains constant but the amplitude of the front becomes attenuated. The attenuation increases with temperature. The apparent velocity of the profile, which can be derived from the position of the front, is also temperature dependent. Small amounts of (14)C occur in the stem ahead of the profile; these amounts increase with a rise of temperature. Region 2 behaves differently: its slope decreases steadily with time but it is insensitive to temperature. The behaviour of this region is dependent on the movement of tracer into an immobile fraction as well as on the longitudinal movement of tracer in the translocation stream.

  16. COMPARATIVE GENOMIC AND POPULATION GENETIC ANALYSES INDICATE HIGHLY POROUS GENOMES AND HIGH LEVELS OF GENE FLOW BETWEEN DIVERGENT HELIANTHUS SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Nolan C.; King, Matthew G.; Barker, Michael S.; Raduski, Andrew; Karrenberg, Sophie; Yatabe, Yoko; Knapp, Steven J.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2009-01-01

    While speciation can be found in the presence of gene flow, it is not clear what impact this gene flow has on genome- and range-wide patterns of differentiation. Here we examine gene flow across the entire range of the common sunflower, H. annuus, its historically allopatric sister species H. argophyllus and a more distantly related, sympatric relative H. petiolaris. Analysis of genotypes at 26 microsatellite loci in 1015 individuals from across the range of the three species showed substantial introgression between geographically proximal populations of H. annuus and H. petiolaris, limited introgression between H. annuus and H. argophyllus, and essentially no gene flow between the allopatric pair, H. argophyllus and H. petiolaris. Analysis of sequence divergence levels among the three species in 1420 orthologs identified from EST databases identified a subset of loci showing extremely low divergence between H. annuus and H. petiolaris and extremely high divergence between the sister species H. annuus and H. argophyllus, consistent with introgression between H. annuus and H. petiolaris at these loci. Thus, at many loci, the allopatric sister species are more genetically divergent than the more distantly related sympatric species, which have exchanged genes across much of the genome while remaining morphologically and ecologically distinct. PMID:19473382

  17. Transferring Sclerotinia Resistance Genes from Wild Helianthus Species into Cultivated Sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated sunflower lacks a sufficient level of resistance to both Sclerotinia stalk and head rot, but abundant resistance in perennial Helianthus species has been confirmed. The objectives of this project were to transfer Sclerotinia head and stalk rot resistance from resistant wild perennial hexa...

  18. The importance of competition in the isolation and establishment of Helianthus paradoxus (Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    Oscar W. Van Auken; Janis. K. Bush

    2007-01-01

    Helianthus paradoxus (the Pecos or puzzle sunflower) is a threatened, federally listed annual species that is found in a few locations in west Texas and New Mexico. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of H. paradoxus to compete with its progenitors and a with potential ecosystem competitor, ...

  19. Comparison of fatty acid composition of oil from original and regenerated populations of wild Helianthus species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Monitoring and protecting germplasm in genebanks using in situ collections while preserving its original genetic integrity is a priority of germplasm curation. Many germplasm accessions need to be regenerated from seed due to demand and/or seed condition. The regeneration of wild Helianthus species ...

  20. Collection of Helianthus porteri, an endemic sunflower of granite outcrops in the southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species, 14 annual and 37 perennial, all native to North America. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. Confederate dai...

  1. Collection and evaluation of wild perennial Helianthus pumilus achenes for oil concentration and fatty acid composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Helianthus consists of 52 species and 19 subspecies with 14 annual and 38 perennial species. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. There has ...

  2. Collection and evaluation of wild perennial Helianthus pumilus achenes for oil concentration and fatty acid composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Helianthus consists of 51 species and 19 subspecies with 14 annual and 37 perennial species. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. There has ...

  3. Collection and evaluation of Helianthus verticillatus, an endemic sunflower of the Southeast US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species, 14 annual and 37 perennial, and all native to North America. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. Whorled sun...

  4. [Cloning and analysis of the resistance gene fragments from silverleaf sunflower Helianthus agrophyllus].

    PubMed

    Danilova, T V; Kuklev, M Iu; Andeeva, G N; Shevelukha, V S; Karlov, G I

    2007-04-01

    Using a combination of degenerate primers designed from the NBS domains of the resistance genes, amplification and subsequent cloning of the resistance gene fragments from sunflower (Helianthus agrophyllus) was conducted. Sequences of cloned PCR products differed from one another and displayed homology to NBS domain fragments of the already known plant resistance genes, as well as to the analogous genes from different classes. The highest homology was shown to the NBS domain regions of cultivated sunflower and the other members of the family Compositae. Two cloned fragments had open reading frames, while the other sequences carried stop codons and seemed to belong to pseudogenes. Amino acid sequences of Helianthus agrophyllus analyzed contained conservative regions typical of NBS domains of the resistance gene products.

  5. Genomic variation in Helianthus: learning from the past and looking to the future.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Michael B; Baute, Gregory J; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-07-01

    Helianthus is an economically important and genetically diverse genus, containing both evolutionary model species and cultivated species. Genetic variation within this genus has been examined at many different scales, from genome size changes to chromosomal structure to nucleotide variation. The growing amount of genomic resources within the genus has yielded insights into the importance of paleopolyploid events, and how transposable elements can cause rapid genome size increases. The rapidly evolving chromosomes in Helianthus have provided a system whereby it has been possible to study how chromosomal rearrangements impact speciation, adaptation and introgression. Population and quantitative genetic studies have used the abundant nucleotide variation to identify a number of candidate genes which may be involved in both local adaptation and domestication. The results from these investigations have provided basic knowledge about evolution and how to utilize genetic resources for both agriculture and conservation. Targeting Helianthus for further study as new technologies emerge will allow for a better understanding of how different types of genomic variation interact and contribute to phenotypic variation in a complex system that is ecologically and economically significant.

  6. Volatiles from intact and Lygus-damaged Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. are highly attractive to ovipositing Lygus and its parasitoid Peristenus relictus Ruthe.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Sean T; Mauck, Kerry E; Fleischer, Shelby J; Fleisher, Shelby F; Tumlinson, James H

    2013-08-01

    Trap cropping and biological control can provide a sustainable means of controlling insect pests. Insects in the genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are major pests on cotton and horticultural crops throughout the United States, and pesticide resistance within Lygus populations necessitates more sustainable long-term management techniques. Here, we explore behavioral responses of Lygus bugs (L. rubrosignatus Knight) and an introduced parasitoid, Peristenus relictus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to a common field edge plant, Erigeron annuus, which has the potential to serve as a trap host. Erigeron annuus is attractive to Lygus in the field, with Lygus preferentially moving to Erigeron patches compared to more abundant cotton plants. To determine the role of odor cues in mediating this attraction, we collected volatiles from E. annuus with and without Lygus damage, and then tested the attractiveness of these volatiles vs. those of cotton to Lygus females and female P. relictus wasps using Y-tube and wind tunnel bioassays. We found that undamaged E. annuus emits high concentrations of a complex volatile blend (60+ compounds), with novel compounds induced and constitutive compounds up-regulated in response to damage. Additionally, both female Lygus bugs and female P. relictus wasps are highly attracted to E. annuus volatiles over those of cotton in almost every combination of damage treatments. Our results suggest that Erigeron annuus would be an effective trap plant to control Lygus in cotton, since it is highly attractive to both the pest and its natural enemy.

  7. Lateral movement out of the sieve tubes and its effect on the (14)C translocation profile in Helianthus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Whittle, C M

    1970-09-01

    The profile of (14)C, that is the plot of log (radioactivity) against distance, down the stem of Helianthus seedlings was studied over the course of the first hour after feeding (14)C to a leaf. These seedlings are shown to accumulate a large proportion of the total (14)C present in the stem in an ethanol insoluble form. The effect of this accumulation on the shape of the profile is considered. The steep advancing front is similar in shape and behaviour in Helianthus and in plants which show little accumulation of insoluble (14)C but the later part of the profile is different in the two groups. This difference would be expected if lateral movement of (14)C out of the translocation stream were mainly irreversible in these Helianthus plants but mainly reversible in plants of the other group.

  8. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  9. Five new sesquiterpenoids and a new diterpenoid from Erigeron annuus (L.) PERS., Erigeron philadelphicus L. and Erigeron sumatrensis RETZ.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takeyoshi; Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao

    2003-05-01

    The aerial parts of Erigeron annuus (L.) PERS., E. philadelphicus L. and E. sumatrensis RETZ. (Compositae) have been investigated chemically. A new sesquiterpenoid, 6beta,14-epoxyeudesm-4(15)-en-1beta-ol (1), and a new diterpenoid, philadelphinone (6), have been isolated from E. philadelphicus. Four new sesquiterpenoids, (7R*)-opposit-4(15)-ene-1beta,7-diol (2), 11-methoxyopposit-4(15)-en-1beta-ol (3), 15-methoxyisodauc-3-ene-1beta,5alpha-diol (4) and 10alpha-hydroxycadin-4-en-15-al (5), have been isolated from E. annuus. Compounds 2 and 4 were also isolated from E. sumatrensis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered whorled sunflower, Helianthus verticillatus, at two sites in Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Helianthus verticillatus, the whorled sunflower, is an endangered species endemic to only a few locations in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia. This sunflower is an aggressive grower and attractive to both plant enthusiasts and pollinators with its multiple, small yellow flowers in late fall. There is...

  11. Evaluation of achenes of Helianthus verticillatus, an endemic sunflower of the southeastern US for oil concentration and fatty acid composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species, 14 annual and 37 perennial, all native to North America. Whorled sunflowe...

  12. Macroevolution of leaf defenses and secondary metabolites across the genus Helianthus.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chase M; Bowsher, Alan W; Crowell, Breanna L; Celoy, Rhodesia M; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    Leaf defenses are widely recognized as key adaptations and drivers of plant evolution. Across environmentally diverse habitats, the macroevolution of leaf defenses can be predicted by the univariate trade-off model, which predicts that defenses are functionally redundant and thus trade off, and the resource availability hypothesis, which predicts that defense investment is determined by inherent growth rate and that higher defense will evolve in lower resource environments. Here, we examined the evolution of leaf physical and chemical defenses and secondary metabolites in relation to environmental characteristics and leaf economic strategy across 28 species of Helianthus (the sunflowers). Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we found few evolutionary trade-offs among defenses and no evidence for defense syndromes. We also found that leaf defenses are strongly related to leaf economic strategy, with higher defense in more resource-conservative species, although there is little support for the evolution of higher defense in low-resource habitats. A wide variety of physical and chemical defenses predict resistance to different insect herbivores, fungal pathogens, and a parasitic plant, suggesting that most sunflower defenses are not redundant in function and that wild Helianthus represents a rich source of variation for the improvement of crop sunflower.

  13. Comparison of five DNA extraction methods for molecular analysis of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus).

    PubMed

    Mornkham, T; Wangsomnuk, P P; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Pattanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2012-03-08

    DNA extraction is an essential step for molecular analysis of an organism, but it is difficult to acquire a sufficient amount of pure DNA from plant tissue with high levels of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, proteins, and secondary metabolites. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) has high levels of such substances. We compared five commonly used methods of extracting genomic DNA in tests made with leaves and seed of four Jerusalem artichoke genotypes: 1) modified method of Tai and Tanksley, 2) method of Doyle and Doyle, 3) method of Porebski, 4) modified method of Štorchová, and 5) Plant DNA Kit of Omega Bio-tek. The quality and quantity of extracted DNAs were assessed by photometric assay, electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel and a PCR-based technique. The modified method of Tai and Tanksley was found to be superior for both young leaves and seed. The quality of the extracted DNA was confirmed by sequence-related amplified polymorphism. This information will be useful for molecular analyses of Jerusalem artichoke and other related Helianthus species.

  14. High genetic diversity and low population structure in Porter's sunflower (Helianthus porteri).

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Scott D; Mandel, Jennifer R; Burke, John M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Granite outcrops in the southeastern United States are rare and isolated habitats that support edaphically controlled communities dominated by herbaceous plants. They harbor rare and endemic species that are expected to have low genetic variability and high population structure due to small population sizes and their disjunct habitat. We test this expectation for an annual outcrop endemic, Helianthus porteri (Porter's sunflower). Contrary to expectation, H. porteri has relatively high genetic diversity (H e = 0.681) and relatively low genetic structure among the native populations (F ST = 0.077) when compared to 5 other Helianthus species (N = 288; 18 expressed sequence tag-SSR markers). These findings suggest greater gene flow than expected. The potential for gene flow is supported by the analysis of transplant populations established with propagules from a common source in 1959. One population established close to a native population (1.5 km) at the edge of the natural range is genetically similar to and shares rare alleles with the adjacent native population and is distinct from the central source population. In contrast, a transplant population established north of the native range has remained similar to the source population. The relatively high genetic diversity and low population structure of this species, combined with the long-term success of transplanted populations, bode well for its persistence as long as the habitat persists.

  15. Talc based exopolysaccharides formulation enhancing growth and production of Hellianthus annuus under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Arora, K

    2014-12-24

    Stress tolerating strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF07 possessing plant growth promoting activity was screened for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS production was monitored in the cell free culture supernatant (CFCS) and extracted EPS was further purified by thin layer chromatography. EPS producing cells were taken to design talc based formulation and its efficacy was checked on oilseed crop sunflower (Hellianthus annuus), under in vivo saline conditions (soil irrigated with 125 mM of saline water). Application of bioformulation significantly enhanced the yield and growth attributes of the plant in comparison to control (untreated seeds) under stress and non—stress conditions. Germination rate, plant length, dry weight and seed weight increased remarkably. The above findings suggest the application and benefits of utilizing EPS formulation in boosting early seedling emergence, enhancing plant growth parameters, increasing seed weight and mitigating stress in saline affected regions. Such bioformulation may enhance RAS/RT (Root Adhering Soil to Root Tissue ratio), texture of the soil, increase porosity, improve uptake of nutrients, and hence may be considered as commercially important formulation for renovation of stressed sites and enhancing plant growth.

  16. Effects of different doses of low power continuous wave he-ne laser radiation on some seed thermodynamic and germination parameters, and potential enzymes involved in seed germination of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Perveen, Rashida; Ali, Qasim; Ashraf, Muhammad; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Jamil, Yasir; Raza Ahmad, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    In this study, water-soaked seeds of sunflower were exposed to He-Ne laser irradiation of different energies to determine whether or not He-Ne laser irradiation caused changes to seed thermodynamic and germination parameters as well as effects on the activities of germination enzymes. The experiment comprised four energy levels: 0 (control), 100, 300 and 500mJ of laser energy and each treatment replicated four times arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimentation was performed under the greenhouse conditions in the net-house of the Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The seed thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to seed germination thermograms determined with a calorimeter at 25.8°C for 72h. Various thermodynamic parameters of seed (ΔH, (ΔS)(e), (ΔS)(c), (ΔS)(e) /Δt and (ΔS)(c) /Δt) were affected significantly due to presowing laser treatment. Significant changes in seed germination parameters and enzyme activities were observed in seeds treated with He-Ne laser. The He-Ne laser seed treatment resulted in increased activities of amylase and protease. These results indicate that the low power continuous wave He-Ne laser light seed treatment has considerable biological effects on seed metabolism. This seed treatment technique can be potentially employed to enhance agricultural productivity.

  17. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes PlArg and Pl8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Downy mildew, which is caused by fungus Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese & de Toni, is one of the most important diseases that affect sunflower production globally. Two downy mildew resistance genes, PlArg and Pl8, were discovered in the late 1980s. Over two decades, PlArg is still effective aga...

  18. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes Pl Arg and Pl 8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Talukder, Z I; Hulke, B S; Foley, M E

    2017-02-03

    Diagnostic DNA markers are an invaluable resource in breeding programs for successful introgression and pyramiding of disease resistance genes. Resistance to downy mildew (DM) disease in sunflower is mediated by Pl genes which are known to be effective against the causal fungus, Plasmopara halstedii. Two DM resistance genes, Pl Arg and Pl 8 , are highly effective against P. halstedii races in the USA, and have been previously mapped to the sunflower linkage groups (LGs) 1 and 13, respectively, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In this study, we developed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps encompassing the Pl arg and Pl 8 genes and identified diagnostic SNP markers closely linked to these genes. The specificity of the diagnostic markers was validated in a highly diverse panel of 548 sunflower lines. Dissection of a large marker cluster co-segregated with Pl Arg revealed that the closest SNP markers NSA_007595 and NSA_001835 delimited Pl Arg to an interval of 2.83 Mb on the LG1 physical map. The SNP markers SFW01497 and SFW06597 delimited Pl 8 to an interval of 2.85 Mb on the LG13 physical map. We also developed sunflower lines with homozygous, three gene pyramids carrying Pl Arg , Pl 8 , and the sunflower rust resistance gene R 12 using the linked SNP markers from a segregating F2 population of RHA 340 (carrying Pl 8 )/RHA 464 (carrying Pl Arg and R 12 ). The high-throughput diagnostic SNP markers developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding, and the pyramided sunflower lines will provide durable resistance to downy mildew and rust diseases.

  19. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    PubMed

    Bach, Vibe; Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten R; Bertram, Hanne C; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-11-15

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical parameters investigated could explain the discolouration of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolomics reveals drastic compositional changes during overwintering of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Morten R; Bach, Vibe; Edelenbos, Merete; Bertram, Hanne C

    2012-09-19

    Metabolic changes were investigated in overwintering Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) metabolomics. Three varieties were studied; as a result of overwintering, the amount of inulin was found to decrease in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. This was mainly due to its conversion to sucrose and, at the same time, formation of inulin with a lower degree of polymerization. Major effects on the concentration of citric acid, malic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and adenosine were also found. Intriguingly, malic acid concentration increased and citric acid concentration decreased. These changes, together with an increase in sucrose and GABA concentrations, were ascribed to mobilization of nutrients prior to sprouting, suggesting that malic acid and GABA serve as carbon and nitrogen sources during sprouting of Jerusalem artichokes.

  1. Chemical composition of the tuber essential oil from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Đorđević, Miljana R

    2014-03-01

    Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke) is cultivated in Europe and other parts of the world as a food crop and ornamental plant. The volatile oils of the aerial parts of H. tuberosus were investigated more than 30 years ago, but no study could be found to date on the constituents of the tuber essential oil. Herein, the first characterization by GC-FID, GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses of a hydrodistilled essential oil of Jerusalem artichoke tubers was reported. Fresh plant material collected in Serbia (Sample A) and a commercial sample (Sample B) yielded only small amounts of oil (0.0014 and 0.0021% (w/w), resp.). In total, 195 constituents were identified, representing 88.2 and 93.6% of the oil compositions for Samples A and B, respectively. The main constituents identified were β-bisabolene (1; 22.9-30.5%), undecanal (0-12.7%), α-pinene (7.6-0.8%), kauran-16-ol (2; 6.9-9.8%), 2-pentylfuran (0.0-5.7%), and (E)-tetradec-2-enal (0.0-4.9%). Several rare compounds characteristic for Helianthus ssp. were also detected: helianthol A (6; 2.1-1.9%), dihydroeuparin (10; 0.0-2.3%), euparin (9; 0.0-0.4%), desmethoxyencecalin (7; traces - 0.2%), desmethylencecalin (8; 0.0-0.4%), and an isomer of desmethylencecalin (0.0%-traces). The essential oils isolated from the tuber and the aerial parts share the common major component 1.

  2. Local adaptation, patterns of selection, and gene flow in the Californian serpentine sunflower (Helianthus exilis).

    PubMed

    Sambatti, Julianno B M; Rice, Kevin J

    2006-04-01

    The traditional view of the species as the fundamental unit of evolution has been challenged by observations that in heterogeneous environments, gene flow may be too restricted to overcome the effects of local selection. Whether a species evolves as a cohesive unit depends critically on the dynamic balance between homogenizing gene flow among populations and potentially disruptive local adaptation. To examine this evolutionary balance between "global" gene flow and local selection, we studied northern Californian populations of Helianthus exilis, the serpentine sunflower, within a mosaic of contrasting serpentine and nonserpentine areas that differ considerably in soil chemistry and water availability. Local adaptation to riparian and serpentine habitats was studied in Helianthus exilis along with an analysis of gene flow patterns among populations within these habitats. Local adaptation was assessed in H. exilis during 2002 and 2003 using reciprocal transplant experiments at multiple locations within serpentine and riparian habitats. Effects of competition and germination date on the expression of local adaptation were also examined within the reciprocal transplant experiments. Local adaptation was detected in both years at the local site level and at the level of habitat. The analysis of the transplanted populations indicated that the patterns of selection differed considerably between riparian and serpentine sites. Differential survivorship occurred in serpentine habitats, whereas selection on reproductive output predominated in riparian habitats. Local adaptation was expressed only in the absence of competition. Local adaptation in terms of survivorship was most strongly expressed in treatments with delayed seed germination. Microsatellite markers were used to quantify population genetic parameters and examine the patterns of gene flow among sampled populations. Analysis of molecular markers revealed a system of population patches that freely exchange genes

  3. Coyote, Canis latrans, use of commercial sunflower, Helianthus spp., Seeds as a food source in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Telesco, D.J.; Roy, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Food habits of Coyotes (Canis latrans) were determined by analysis of scats collected in western Kansas in 1996. Mammals were the most frequently occurring food of Coyotes (100% of scats), followed by plants (39%), insects (30%) and birds (9%). Commercial sunflower (Helianthus spp.) seeds were found in 9 of 23 scats. When present, they composed a high volume of individual scats (X= 31%). Substantial use of commercial sunflower seeds as a food source by Coyotes has not been previously documented.

  4. Stichodactyla helianthus peptide, a pharmacological tool for studying Kv3.2 channels.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lizhen; Herrington, James; Goldberg, Ethan; Dulski, Paula M; Bugianesi, Randal M; Slaughter, Robert S; Banerjee, Priya; Brochu, Richard M; Priest, Birgit T; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; Rudy, Bernardo; Garcia, Maria L

    2005-05-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels regulate many physiological functions and represent important therapeutic targets in the treatment of several clinical disorders. Although some of these channels have been well-characterized, the study of others, such as Kv3 channels, has been hindered because of limited pharmacological tools. The current study was initiated to identify potent blockers of the Kv3.2 channel. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells stably expressing human Kv3.2b (CHO-K1.hKv3.2b) were established and characterized. Stichodactyla helianthus peptide (ShK), isolated from S. helianthus venom and a known high-affinity blocker of Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels, was found to potently inhibit 86Rb+ efflux from CHO-K1.hKv3.2b (IC50 approximately 0.6 nM). In electrophysiological recordings of Kv3.2b channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes or in planar patch-clamp studies, ShK inhibited hKv3.2b channels with IC50 values of approximately 0.3 and 6 nM, respectively. Despite the presence of Kv3.2 protein in human pancreatic beta cells, ShK has no effect on the Kv current of these cells, suggesting that it is unlikely that homotetrameric Kv3.2 channels contribute significantly to the delayed rectifier current of insulin-secreting cells. In mouse cortical GABAergic fast-spiking interneurons, however, application of ShK produced effects consistent with the blockade of Kv3 channels (i.e., an increase in action potential half-width, a decrease in the amplitude of the action potential after hyperpolarization, and a decrease in maximal firing frequency in response to depolarizing current injections). Taken together, these results indicate that ShK is a potent inhibitor of Kv3.2 channels and may serve as a useful pharmacological probe for studying these channels in native preparations.

  5. Preliminary enrichment and separation of chlorogenic acid from Helianthus tuberosus L. leaves extract by macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Ying; Yi, Yue-Tao; Li, Hong-Juan; Fan, Ping; Xia, Chuan-Hai

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, a simple and efficient method for the preparative separation of 3-CQA from the extract of Helianthus tuberosus leaves with macroporous resins was studied. ADS-21 showed much higher adsorption capacity and better adsorption/desorption properties for 3-CQA among the tested resins. The adsorption of 3-CQA on ADS-21 resin at 25°C was fitted best to the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments were carried out in a glass column packed with ADS-21 to optimise the separation process of 3-CQA from H. tuberosus leaves extract. After one treatment with ADS-21, the content of 3-CQA in the product was increased 5.42-fold, from 12.0% to 65.2%, with a recovery yield of 89.4%. The results demonstrated that the method was suitable for large-scale separation and manufacture of 3-CQA from H. tuberosus leaves.

  6. Transcriptome resources for the perennial sunflower Helianthus maximiliani obtained from ecologically divergent populations.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Darby, Brian J; Ungerer, Mark C

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a rapid means to generate genomic resources for species exhibiting interesting ecological and evolutionary variation but for which such resources are scant or nonexistent. In the current report, we utilize 454 pyrosequencing to obtain transcriptome information for multiple individuals and tissue types from geographically disparate and ecologically differentiated populations of the perennial sunflower species Helianthus maximiliani. A total of 850 275 raw reads were obtained averaging 355 bp in length. Reads were assembled, postprocessing, into 16 681 unique contigs with an N50 of 898 bp and a total length of 13.6 Mb. A majority (67%) of these contigs were annotated based on comparison with the Arabidopsis thaliana genome (TAIR10). Contigs were identified that exhibit high similarity to genes associated with natural variation in flowering time and freezing tolerance in other plant species and will facilitate future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of clinal life history variation and adaptive differentiation in H. maximiliani. Large numbers of gene-associated simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also were identified that can be deployed in mapping and population genomic analyses.

  7. Ultrasound assisted pectic polysaccharide extraction and its characterization from waste heads of Helianthus annus.

    PubMed

    Ponmurugan, K; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Maran, J Prakash; Karthikeyan, K; Moothy, I Ganesh; Sivarajasekar, N; Manoj, J Jony Blessing

    2017-10-01

    The main aim of this current work is to extract pectin from waste heads of Helianthus annus by ultrasound and optimize the process variables (ultrasound power (USP), pH, time of sonication (TS) and ratio of solid to liquid (RSL) on maximal recovery of pectin using central composite statistical experimental design. In addition to that, extracted pectin at optimal condition was characterized and compared with commercial pectin. The optimal extraction process condition was USP of 375w, pH of 3.2, TS of 32min and RSL of 1:15g/ml. Mean experimental pectin yield of 8.89±0.024% was well accord with predicted pectin yield (8.91%). Analysis of chemical composition and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of extracted pectin did not show any significant difference with commercial pectin. XRD analysis illustrated a similar crystalline profile in both extracted and commercial pectin. Morphological analysis was performed on fresh and extracted samples using scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of calcium on the hemolytic activity of Stichodactyla helianthus toxin sticholysin II on human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Celedón, Gloria; González, Gustavo; Lissi, Eduardo; Cerda, Tania; Martinez, Diana; Soto, Carmen; Pupo, Mario; Pazos, Fabiola; Lanio, Maria E; Alvarez, Carlos

    2009-11-01

    Sticholysin II (St II) is a toxin from the sea anemona Stichodactyla helianthus that produces erythrocytes lysis at low concentration and its activity depends on the presence of calcium. Calcium may act modifying toxin interaction with erythrocyte membranes or activating cellular processes which may result in a modified St II lytic action. In this study we are reporting that, in the presence of external K(+), extracellular calcium decreased St II activity on erythrocytes. On the other hand an increase of intracellular calcium promotes Sty II lytic activity. The effect of intracellular calcium was specifically studied in relation to membrane lipid translocation elicited by scramblases and how this action influence St II lytic activity on erythrocytes. We used 0.5 mmol/L calcium and 10 mmol/L A23187, as calcium ionophore, for scramblases activation and found increased St II activity associated to increase of intracellular calcium. N-ethyl maleimide (activator) and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (inhibitor) were used as scramblases modulators in the assays which produced an increase and a decrease of the calcium effect, respectively. Results reported suggest an improved St II membrane pore-forming capacity promoted by intracellular calcium associated to membrane phospholipids translocation.

  9. Natural selection drives clinal life history patterns in the perennial sunflower species, Helianthus maximiliani.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Morgan, Theodore J; Nippert, Jesse B; Ocheltree, Troy W; Keith, Rose; Dhakal, Preeti; Ungerer, Mark C

    2011-06-01

    In plants, ecologically important life history traits often display clinal patterns of population divergence. Such patterns can provide strong evidence for spatially varying selection across environmental gradients but also may result from nonselective processes, such as genetic drift, population bottlenecks and spatially restricted gene flow. Comparison of population differentiation in quantitative traits (measured as Q(ST) ) with neutral molecular markers (measured as F(ST) ) provides a useful tool for understanding the relative importance of adaptive and nonadaptive processes in the formation and maintenance of clinal variation. Here, we demonstrate the existence of geographic variation in key life history traits in the diploid perennial sunflower species Helianthus maximiliani across a broad latitudinal transect in North America. Strong population differentiation was found for days to flowering, growth rate and multiple size-related traits. Differentiation in these traits greatly exceeds neutral predictions, as determined both by partial Mantel tests and by comparisons of global Q(ST) values with theoretical F(ST) distributions. These findings indicate that clinal variation in these life history traits likely results from local adaptation driven by spatially heterogeneous environments.

  10. Economically viable components from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Hovmalm, Helena Persson

    2015-04-22

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals.

  11. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  12. Evidence of correlated evolution and adaptive differentiation of stem and leaf functional traits in the herbaceous genus, Helianthus.

    PubMed

    Pilote, Alex J; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Patterns of plant stem traits are expected to align with a "fast-slow" plant economic spectrum across taxa. Although broad patterns support such tradeoffs in field studies, tests of hypothesized correlated trait evolution and adaptive differentiation are more robust when taxa relatedness and environment are taken into consideration. Here we test for correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits and their adaptive differentiation across environments in the herbaceous genus, Helianthus. Stem and leaf traits of 14 species of Helianthus (28 populations) were assessed in a common garden greenhouse study. Phylogenetically independent contrasts were used to test for evidence of correlated evolution of stem hydraulic and biomechanical properties, correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits, and adaptive differentiation associated with source habitat environments. Among stem traits, there was evidence for correlated evolution of some hydraulic and biomechanical properties, supporting an expected tradeoff between stem theoretical hydraulic efficiency and resistance to bending stress. Population differentiation for suites of stem and leaf traits was found to be consistent with a "fast-slow" resource-use axis for traits related to water transport and use. Associations of population traits with source habitat characteristics supported repeated evolution of a resource-acquisitive "drought-escape" strategy in arid environments. This study provides evidence of correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits consistent with the fast-slow spectrum of trait combinations related to water transport and use along the stem-to-leaf pathway. Correlations of traits with source habitat characteristics further indicate that the correlated evolution is associated, at least in part, with adaptive differentiation of Helianthus populations among native habitats differing in climate. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Evolutionary Divergences in Root Exudate Composition among Ecologically-Contrasting Helianthus Species.

    PubMed

    Bowsher, Alan W; Ali, Rifhat; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots exude numerous metabolites into the soil that influence nutrient availability. Although root exudate composition is hypothesized to be under selection in low fertility soils, few studies have tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we examined root exudates of three pairs of Helianthus species chosen as phylogenetically-independent contrasts with respect to native soil nutrient availability. Under controlled environmental conditions, seedlings were grown to the three-leaf-pair stage, then transferred to either high or low nutrient treatments. After five days of nutrient treatments, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of root exudates, and detected 37 metabolites across species. When compared in the high nutrient treatment, species native to low nutrient soils exhibited overall higher exudation than their sister species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs, providing support for repeated evolutionary shifts in response to native soil fertility. Species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils responded similarly to low nutrient treatments with increased exudation of organic acids (fumaric, citric, malic acids) and glucose, potentially as a mechanism to enhance nutrition acquisition. However, species native to low nutrient soils also responded to low nutrient treatments with a larger decrease in exudation of amino acids than species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs. This indicates that species native to low nutrient soils have evolved a unique sensitivity to changes in nutrient availability for some, but not all, root exudates. Overall, these repeated evolutionary divergences between species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils provide evidence for the adaptive value of root exudation, and its plasticity, in contrasting soil environments.

  14. Suborganellar localisation and effect of light on Helianthus tuberosus chloroplast transglutaminases and their substrates.

    PubMed

    Dondini, L; Del Duca, S; Dall'Agata, L; Bassi, R; Gastaldelli, M; Della Mea, M; Di Sandro, A; Claparols, I; Serafini-Fracassini, D

    2003-05-01

    The light stimulation of transglutaminase (TGase EC 2.3.2.13) activity was verified by incubating isolated chloroplasts of Helianthus tuberosus L. continuously or for alternate periods of light or dark (light/dark and dark/light). The first 10 min of incubation always represented the critical period. Light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHCII) were more intensely labelled by (14)C-polyamines under light and light/dark than under dark and dark/light conditions. Chloroplasts were fractionated into thylakoid- and stroma-enriched fractions in which multiple TGase forms and substrates were found. Antibodies against TGase recognised 58- and 24-kDa bands in thylakoids and a 150-kDa band in the stroma. The latter, and its 150-kDa fraction, catalysed the conjugation of 14C-polyamines to Rubisco. In both fractions (thylakoid-pre and stroma-pre) the analysis of polyamine glutamyl derivatives showed a significant light-affected conjugation of polyamines to endogenous proteins. Alternatively, entire chloroplasts were incubated and afterwards their sub-fractions were isolated (thylakoid-post and stroma-post). The PSII and LHCII complexes were more intensely immunodetected in thylakoid-post than in thylakoid-pre, especially under dark conditions. Conversely, the conjugation of polyamines to thylakoid proteins was clearly light-stimulated in thylakoid-post, and much less in thylakoid-pre. Stroma-pre proteins were poorly polyamine-conjugated and not light-affected; on the contrary, stroma-post proteins were much more polyamine-modified and strongly light-stimulated. Thus, the light-activated conjugation depends mainly on the presence of the thylakoid fraction during the assay. The protective effect on chloroplasts under photo-damage, stress or senescence conditions attributed in the literature to free polyamines is discussed with regard to the occurrence of polyamine conjugates catalysed by TGases.

  15. Expression of different forms of transglutaminases by immature cells of Helianthus tuberosus sprout apices.

    PubMed

    Beninati, Simone; Iorio, Rosa Anna; Tasco, Gianluca; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Casadio, Rita; Del Duca, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Immature cells of etiolated apices of sprouts growing from Helianthus tuberosus (H. t.) tubers showed Ca(2+)-dependent transglutaminase (TG, EC 2.3.2.13) activity on fibronectin (more efficiently) and dimethylcasein as substrates. Three main TG bands of about 85, 75 and 58 kDa were isolated from the 100,000×g apices supernatant through a DEAE-cellulose column at increasing NaCl concentrations and immuno-identified by anti-TG K and anti-rat prostate gland TG antibodies. These three fractions had catalytic activity as catalyzed polyamine conjugation to N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-γ-glutaminyl-L-leucine (Z-L-Gln-L-Leu) and the corresponding glutamyl-derivatives were identified. The amino acid composition of these TG proteins was compared with those of several sequenced TGs of different origin. The composition of the two larger bands presented great similarities with annotated TGs; in particular, the 75 kDa form was very similar to mammalian inactive EPB42. The 58 kDa form shared a low similarity with other TGs, including a maize sequence of similar molecular mass, which, however, did not present the catalytic triad in the position of all annotated TGs. A 3D model of the H. t. TGs was built adopting TG2 as template. These novel plant TGs are hypothesized to be constitutive and discussed in relation to their possible roles in immature cells. These data suggest that in plants, multiple TG forms are active in the same organ and that plant and animal enzymes probably are very close not only for their catalytic activity but also structurally.

  16. Evolutionary Divergences in Root Exudate Composition among Ecologically-Contrasting Helianthus Species

    PubMed Central

    Bowsher, Alan W.; Ali, Rifhat; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots exude numerous metabolites into the soil that influence nutrient availability. Although root exudate composition is hypothesized to be under selection in low fertility soils, few studies have tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we examined root exudates of three pairs of Helianthus species chosen as phylogenetically-independent contrasts with respect to native soil nutrient availability. Under controlled environmental conditions, seedlings were grown to the three-leaf-pair stage, then transferred to either high or low nutrient treatments. After five days of nutrient treatments, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of root exudates, and detected 37 metabolites across species. When compared in the high nutrient treatment, species native to low nutrient soils exhibited overall higher exudation than their sister species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs, providing support for repeated evolutionary shifts in response to native soil fertility. Species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils responded similarly to low nutrient treatments with increased exudation of organic acids (fumaric, citric, malic acids) and glucose, potentially as a mechanism to enhance nutrition acquisition. However, species native to low nutrient soils also responded to low nutrient treatments with a larger decrease in exudation of amino acids than species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs. This indicates that species native to low nutrient soils have evolved a unique sensitivity to changes in nutrient availability for some, but not all, root exudates. Overall, these repeated evolutionary divergences between species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils provide evidence for the adaptive value of root exudation, and its plasticity, in contrasting soil environments. PMID:26824236

  17. Pseudoxanthomonas helianthi sp. nov., isolated from roots of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus).

    PubMed

    Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Thawai, Chitti

    2016-12-01

    A bacterium designated as strain roo10T was isolated from roots of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). Cells were Gram-stain-negative and non-motile rods. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that it represented a member of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas, and its close relatives included Pseudoxanthomonas kalamensis JA40T (97.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Pseudoxanthomonas sangjuensis 5GH38-5T (97.7 %) and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis TR6-08T (97.1 %). Growth of roo10T occurred at pH 7-9. The temperature for growth ranged from 20 to 37 °C. Tolerance to NaCl was observed from 0.005 to 5 % (w/v) concentration. Predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (23.5 %), iso-C16 : 0 (18.9 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (11.5 %). Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine were the major polar lipids. The predominant quinone was ubiquinone 8 (Q-8). The DNA G+C content was 65.7 mol% [from melting temperature (Tm)]. Comparison of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics indicated that roo10T was distinguishable from its close relatives. Additionally, the DNA-DNA relatedness levels between roo10T and P. kalamensis DSM 18571T (22±0.5 %), P. sangjuensis 5GH38-5T (21±0.2 %) and P. daejeonensis DSM 17801T (3±1 %) were lower than 70 %. These results indicated that roo10T represented a novel species of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas, for which the name Pseudoxanthomonas helianthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is roo10T (=BCC 70700T=NBRC 110414T).

  18. Diamine Oxidase Activity in Different Physiological Stages of Helianthus tuberosus Tuber.

    PubMed

    Torrigiani, P; Serafini-Fracassini, D; Fara, A

    1989-01-01

    Diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity was examined in relation to polyamine content in Helianthus tuberosus L. during the first synchronous cell cycle induced in vitro by 2,4,-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid in tuber slices and during the in vivo formation of the tuber. The optimal pH, buffer and dithiothreitol concentrations for the enzyme extraction and assay were determined. When added in the assay mixture, catalase enhanced DAO activity, while polyvinylpyrrolidone had no effect; both aminoguanidine and hydrazine inhibited enzyme activity. The time course of the reaction, based on the recovery of Delta(1)-pyrroline from labeled putrescine in lipophilic solvents, showed that it was linear up to 30 minutes; the K(m) of the enzyme for putrescine was of the order of 10(-4) molar. During the first cell cycle, DAO activity exhibited a peak at 15 hours of activation while putrescine content gave a peak at 12 hours. During tuber formation (from August till October) DAO activity was relatively high during the first phase of growth (cell division), decreased until flowering (end of September-early October), and then newly increased during the cell enlargement phase preceding the entry into dormancy (November). Maximum putrescine content was observed at the end of October. The increase in DAO activity paralleled the accumulation of putrescine. This indicates a direct correlation between the biosynthesis and oxidation of putrescine which, as already demonstrated in animal systems, occur simultaneously in physiological stages of intense metabolism such as cell division or organ formation.

  19. Diamine Oxidase Activity in Different Physiological Stages of Helianthus tuberosus Tuber 1

    PubMed Central

    Torrigiani, Patrizia; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Fara, Angela

    1989-01-01

    Diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity was examined in relation to polyamine content in Helianthus tuberosus L. during the first synchronous cell cycle induced in vitro by 2,4,-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid in tuber slices and during the in vivo formation of the tuber. The optimal pH, buffer and dithiothreitol concentrations for the enzyme extraction and assay were determined. When added in the assay mixture, catalase enhanced DAO activity, while polyvinylpyrrolidone had no effect; both aminoguanidine and hydrazine inhibited enzyme activity. The time course of the reaction, based on the recovery of Δ1-pyrroline from labeled putrescine in lipophilic solvents, showed that it was linear up to 30 minutes; the Km of the enzyme for putrescine was of the order of 10−4 molar. During the first cell cycle, DAO activity exhibited a peak at 15 hours of activation while putrescine content gave a peak at 12 hours. During tuber formation (from August till October) DAO activity was relatively high during the first phase of growth (cell division), decreased until flowering (end of September-early October), and then newly increased during the cell enlargement phase preceding the entry into dormancy (November). Maximum putrescine content was observed at the end of October. The increase in DAO activity paralleled the accumulation of putrescine. This indicates a direct correlation between the biosynthesis and oxidation of putrescine which, as already demonstrated in animal systems, occur simultaneously in physiological stages of intense metabolism such as cell division or organ formation. PMID:16666548

  20. RNA-seq analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne).

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke.

  1. Environmental Impact Research Program and Defense Natural Resources Program: Maximilian Sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani), Section 7.4.3, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Manhattan. 402 pp. 1977. Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains. Iowa State Univ., Ames. 600 pp. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Univ. Kans. Press...Helianthus). Memoirs Torrey Club 22:1-218. Hitchcock, C. L., and A. Cronquist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Univ. Wash. Press, Seattle. 730 pp

  2. Evolution of the leaf economics spectrum in herbs: Evidence from environmental divergences in leaf physiology across Helianthus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes a major axis of plant functional trait variation worldwide, defining suites of leaf traits aligned with resource-acquisitive to resource-conservative ecological strategies. The LES has been interpreted to arise from leaf-level trade-offs among ecophysiological traits common to all plants. However, it has been suggested that the defining leaf-level trade-offs of the LES may not hold within specific functional groups (e.g., herbs) nor within many groups of closely related species, which challenges the usefulness of the LES paradigm across evolutionary scales. Here, we examine the evolution of the LES across 28 species of the diverse herbaceous genus Helianthus (the sunflowers), which occupies a wide range of habitats and climate variation across North America. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we find repeated evolution of more resource-acquisitive LES strategies in cooler, drier, and more fertile environments. We also find macroevolutionary correlations among LES traits that recapitulate aspects of the global LES, but with one major difference: leaf mass per area is uncorrelated with leaf lifespan. This indicates that whole-plant processes likely drive variation in leaf lifespan across Helianthus, rather than leaf-level trade-offs. These results suggest that LES patterns do not reflect universal physiological trade-offs at small evolutionary scales. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Analysis of phenolic acids of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) responding to salt-stress by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fujia; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW) were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu). Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW) than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals.

  4. Analysis of Phenolic Acids of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Responding to Salt-Stress by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW) were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu). Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW) than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals. PMID:25302328

  5. Localization of Fructan Metabolism in the Vacuoles Isolated from Protoplasts of Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    PubMed

    Frehner, M; Keller, F; Wiemken, A

    1984-09-01

    Protoplasts were prepared from tubers of Helianthus tuberosus in the developing and in the resting stage of development. Vacuoles were isolated from the protoplasts and purified by sedimentation through a density gradient of glycine betaine. All the fructan (inulin) with a DP ⩾ 3 (i.e. the trisaccharide isokestose and larger polymers of fructose) was found to be located exclusively in the vacuoles whilst sucrose, glucose, and fructose were located only partially there. The vacuoles were also found to be the sole cell compartments containing fructan synthesizing enzyme activities (sucrose-sucrose-fructosyl-transferase and fructan-fructan-fructosyl-transferase) and fructan degrading enzyme activity (fructan exohydrolase), depending on the stage of development of the tubers. The vacuole is therefore proposed to be the cell organelle for fructan storage and metabolism. Copyright © 1984 Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposon diversity and its impact on the evolution of the genus Helianthus (L.).

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Flavia; Giordani, Tommaso; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2017-08-18

    Genome divergence by mobile elements activity and recombination is a continuous process that plays a key role in the evolution of species. Nevertheless, knowledge on retrotransposon-related variability among species belonging to the same genus is still limited. Considering the importance of the genus Helianthus, a model system for studying the ecological genetics of speciation and adaptation, we performed a comparative analysis of the repetitive genome fraction across ten species and one subspecies of sunflower, focusing on long terminal repeat retrotransposons at superfamily, lineage and sublineage levels. After determining the relative genome size of each species, genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to Illumina sequencing. Then, different assembling and clustering approaches allowed exploring the repetitive component of all genomes. On average, repetitive DNA in Helianthus species represented more than 75% of the genome, being composed mostly by long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Also, the prevalence of Gypsy over Copia superfamily was observed and, among lineages, Chromovirus was by far the most represented. Although nearly all the same sublineages are present in all species, we found considerable variability in the abundance of diverse retrotransposon lineages and sublineages, especially between annual and perennial species. This large variability should indicate that different events of amplification or loss related to these elements occurred following species separation and should have been involved in species differentiation. Our data allowed us inferring on the extent of interspecific repetitive DNA variation related to LTR-RE abundance, investigating the relationship between changes of LTR-RE abundance and the evolution of the genus, and determining the degree of coevolution of different LTR-RE lineages or sublineages between and within species. Moreover, the data suggested that LTR-RE abundance in a species was affected by the annual or perennial

  7. The content of protein and of amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety Rote Zonenkugel.

    PubMed

    Cieślik, Ewa; Gębusia, Agnieszka; Florkiewicz, Adam; Mickowska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is grown primarily for its edible tubers, which were first cultivated by native Americans before the arrival of the Europeans. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae, the tubers store fructans instead of starch. Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates considered functional food ingredients because they affect body processes in ways that result in better health and in many diseases prevention. However, the Jerusalem artichoke deserves attention not only because of the content of fructans, recent studies also indicate a high protein content, including essential amino acids. The aim of the work was to establish the content of protein and amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety--Rote Zonenkugel. The content of protein was estimated by Dumas method. The amino acids composition was analysed with ion-change chromatography with postcolumn derivatisation and detection of ninhydryn reaction with automatic amino acids analyser. The assessed liophylisate was characterised by high protein content (6.36%) in comparison to chicory (which is the main industrial source of fructans) and to commonly consumed potatoes. There was shown a few times higher content of essential amino acids (also of methionine) in comparison to chicory and potato. The examined essential amino acids were present in very advantagenous proportions. In Jerusalem artichoke tubers of Rote Zonenkugel variety of the high content of protein was established in comparison to other plant sources. The high content was found of amino acids with special stress on essential amino acids (esp. sulphur ones).

  8. Host plant effects on development and reproduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thu...

  9. Biomass, extracted liquid yields, sugar content or seed yields of biofuel feedstocks as affected by fertilizer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harvesting products from plants for conversion into renewable resources is increasing in importance. Determination of nutrition requirements for the applicable crops is necessary, especially in regions where the biofuel feedstock crops have not been grown historically. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus...

  10. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  11. Quarry Creek - Excavation, Analysis and Prospect of a Kansas City Hopewell Site, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    earliest farmers of that region (Smith 1992). Relying on the cultivation of small gardens of indigenous plants such as sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ...such as marshelder (Iva annua) and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) and starchy seeded annuals like chenopod (Chenopodium berlandeiri), little barley...DTI7 C’E l BY- Aveitbllty Cdous f~:1and/Or Dist j Special iii L I’ ••: TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ............................................. i

  12. Functional analyses of a putative plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter gene isolated from salt tolerant Helianthus tuberosus.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Tang, Zhong; Hu, Yibing; Yu, Ling; Liu, Zhaopu; Xu, Guohua

    2014-08-01

    Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) can tolerate relatively higher salinity, drought and heat stress. In this paper, we report the cloning of a Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encoding a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter from a highly salt-tolerant genotype of H. tuberosus, NY1, named HtSOS1 and characterization of its function in yeast and rice. The amino acid sequence of HtSOS1 showed 83.4% identity with the previously isolated SOS1 gene from the Chrysanthemum crassum. The mRNA level in the leaves of H. tuberosus was significantly up-regulated by presence of high concentrations of NaCl. Localization analysis using rice protoplast expression showed that the protein encoded by HtSOS1 was located in the plasma membrane. HtSOS1 partially suppressed the salt sensitive phenotypes of a salt sensitive yeast strain. In comparison with wild type (Oryza sativa L., ssp. Japonica. cv. Nipponbare), the transgenic rice expressed with HtSOS1 could exclude more Na(+) and accumulate more K(+). Expression of HtSOS1 decreased Na(+) content much larger in the shoot than in the roots, resulting in more water content in the transgenic rice than WT. These data suggested that HtSOS1 may be useful in transgenic approaches to improving the salinity tolerance of glycophyte.

  13. Cultivar and Metal-Specific Effects of Endophytic Bacteria in Helianthus tuberosus Exposed to Cd and Zn.

    PubMed

    Montalbán, Blanca; Thijs, Sofie; Lobo, Mª Carmen; Weyens, Nele; Ameloot, Marcel; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Pérez-Sanz, Araceli

    2017-09-21

    Plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPB) isolated from Brassica napus were inoculated in two cultivars of Helianthus tuberosus (VR and D19) growing on sand supplemented with 0.1 mM Cd or 1 mM Zn. Plant growth, concentrations of metals and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive compounds were determined. Colonization of roots of H. tuberosus D19 by Pseudomonas sp. 262 was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Pseudomonas sp. 228, Serratia sp. 246 and Pseudomonas sp. 262 significantly enhanced growth of H. tuberosus D19 exposed to Cd or Zn. Pseudomonas sp. 228 significantly increased Cd concentrations in roots. Serratia sp. 246, and Pseudomonas sp. 256 and 228 resulted in significantly decreased contents of TBA reactive compounds in roots of Zn exposed D19 plants. Growth improvement and decrease of metal-induced stress were more pronounced in D19 than in VR. Pseudomonas sp. 262-green fluorescent protein (GFP) colonized the root epidermis/exodermis and also inside root hairs, indicating that an endophytic interaction was established. H. tuberosus D19 inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. 228, Serratia sp. 246 and Pseudomonas sp. 262 holds promise for sustainable biomass production in combination with phytoremediation on Cd and Zn contaminated soils.

  14. Analysis of Essential Oil in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Leaves and Tubers by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, Zead; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Tsymbalista, Yuliya; Ghazleh, Refat Abo; Shaibah, Hassan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate, for the first time, the chemical composition of essential oil of the tubers and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), a species of sunflower native to eastern North America, growing in Ukraine. Methods: A hydrodistillation apparatus was used for the extraction of volatile components and then it was analysed by gas chromatography equipped with a split-splitless injector (split ratio, 1:50) and flame ionization detector (FID). The oil was analyzed under linear temperature programming applied at 4°C/min from 50°C - 340°C. Temperatures of the injector and FID detector were maintained at 280°C and 300°C, respectively. The chemical analysis of the oil was carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to determine the chemical composition of the volatile fraction. Results: The essential oils content ranged from 0.00019 to 0.03486 and 0.00011 to 0.00205 (g/100g), in leaves and tubers, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis led to the identification of 17 components in both species samples. The major component found in leaves and tubers was (-)-β-bisabolene with 70.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Essential oil profile of Jerusalem artichoke species showed significant differences between leaves and tubers species. Additionally, the leaves of Jerusalem artichoke are a promising source of natural β-bisabolene. PMID:25671184

  15. Analysis of Essential Oil in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Leaves and Tubers by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Helmi, Zead; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Tsymbalista, Yuliya; Ghazleh, Refat Abo; Shaibah, Hassan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate, for the first time, the chemical composition of essential oil of the tubers and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), a species of sunflower native to eastern North America, growing in Ukraine. A hydrodistillation apparatus was used for the extraction of volatile components and then it was analysed by gas chromatography equipped with a split-splitless injector (split ratio, 1:50) and flame ionization detector (FID). The oil was analyzed under linear temperature programming applied at 4°C/min from 50°C - 340°C. Temperatures of the injector and FID detector were maintained at 280°C and 300°C, respectively. The chemical analysis of the oil was carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to determine the chemical composition of the volatile fraction. The essential oils content ranged from 0.00019 to 0.03486 and 0.00011 to 0.00205 (g/100g), in leaves and tubers, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis led to the identification of 17 components in both species samples. The major component found in leaves and tubers was (-)-β-bisabolene with 70.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Essential oil profile of Jerusalem artichoke species showed significant differences between leaves and tubers species. Additionally, the leaves of Jerusalem artichoke are a promising source of natural β-bisabolene.

  16. Stressed Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) excrete a protein fraction with specific cytotoxicity on plant and animal tumour cell.

    PubMed

    Griffaut, B; Debiton, E; Madelmont, J C; Maurizis, J C; Ledoigt, G

    2007-09-01

    Wounds from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers excrete bioactive metabolites from a variety of structural classes, including proteins. Here we describe a protein specifically active against tumour cells arising either from human, animal or plant tissues. The non-tumour animal cells or the plant callus cells are not sensitive to these excreta. The active product was only obtained after a wound-drought stress of plant tubers. The cytotoxicity varies according to the tumour cell type. For instance, some human tumour cell lines and especially the human mammary tumour cells MDA-MB-231 were shown to be very susceptible to the active product. The active agent is shown to contain an 18-kDa polypeptide with homology to a superoxide dismutase (SOD). A 28-kDa polypeptide, related to an alkaline phosphatase (AP), was shown to be tightly linked to this 18-kDa polypeptide. The excreted 28-kDa polypeptide also displayed a consensus sequence similar to the group of DING proteins, but with a smaller molecular weight. The superoxide dismutase polypeptide was shown to be involved in the antitumour activity, but the presence of smaller factors (MW<10 kDa), such as salicylic acid, can enhance this activity.

  17. Two variants of the major serine protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Rossana; Ziegelmüller, Patrick; González, Lidice; Mansur, Manuel; Machado, Yoan; Redecke, Lars; Hahn, Ulrich; Betzel, Christian; Chávez, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-07-01

    The major protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (ShPI-1) is a non-specific inhibitor that binds trypsin and other trypsin-like enzymes, as well as chymotrypsin, and human neutrophil elastase. We performed site-directed mutagenesis of ShPI-1 to produce two variants (rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S) that were expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized. After a single purification step, 65 mg and 15 mg of protein per liter of culture supernatant were obtained for rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S, respectively. Functional studies demonstrated a 100-fold decreased trypsin inhibitory activity as result of the K13L substitution at the reactive (P1) site. This protein variant has a novel tight-binding inhibitor activity of pancreatic elastase and increased activity toward neutrophil elastase in comparison to rShPI-1A. In contrast, the substitution Y15S at P2' site did not affect the Ki value against trypsin, but did reduce activity 10-fold against chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase. Our results provide two new ShPI-1 variants with modified inhibitory activities, one of them with increased biomedical potential. This study also offers new insight into the functional impact of the P1 and P2' sites on ShPI-1 specificity.

  18. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: Is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the US Southwest?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower stem weevils (Cylindrocopturus adspersus) and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states in 2003 and 2005. Native H. annuus constituted the major...

  19. Evaluating perennial sunflower for wildlife and food uses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research is to use current genetics and plant breeding techniques to introgress genes for perennial habit from Helianthus tuberosus L. (2n=6x=102) into domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=2x=34). H. tuberosusis part of the secondary gene pool of sunflower and has b...

  20. Monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against purified cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from Helianthus tuberosus. Immunopurification, immunoquantitation, and interspecies cross-reactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Werck-Reichhart, D; Batard, Y; Kochs, G; Lesot, A; Durst, F

    1993-01-01

    We recently reported the purification of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (CA4H), a cytochrome P-450 catalyzing the second reaction of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) (B. Gabriac, D. Werck-Reichhart, H. Teutsch, F. Durst [1991] Arch Biochem Biophys 288: 302-309). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the native and denaturated nitrocellulose-bound enzyme. Only the immunoglobulins G (IgGs) elicited upon immunization with native enzyme produced strong inhibition of catalytic activity and good cross-reactivity on western blots. In microsomes from H. tuberosus tissues induced by wounding and various chemicals, a positive correlation between catalytic activity and amounts of immunoreactive protein on western blots was observed. When coupled to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose, purified IgGs selectively retained CA4H activity from solubilized plant microsomes. Acid elution from the immunoaffinity matrix provided a rapid procedure for high-yield purification of the CA4H protein. The same IgGs immunoprecipitated a single protein from the in vitro translation products of mRNA isolated from wounded tissues. The apparent molecular weight (57,000) of this polypeptide was identical to that of CA4H purified from tuber microsomes. Immunochemical relatedness between CA4H from different plant species was demonstrated by strong inhibition of catalytic activity and immunopurification of several orthologous enzymes, using IgGs directed against CA4H from H. tuberosus. However, only limited interspecies cross-reactivity was observed on western blots. A careful immunochemical analysis indicates that CA4H immunoreactivity significantly differs from plant to plant. Results are discussed in terms of antibody specificity, enzyme glycosylation, and CA4H regulation. PMID:8278549

  1. Cloning and functional characterization of two abiotic stress-responsive Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEHs).

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanhuan; Liang, Mingxiang; Xu, Li; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xi; Kang, Jian; Zhao, Qingxin; Zhao, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Two fructan hydrolases were previously reported to exist in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and one native fructan-β-fructosidase (1-FEH) was purified to homogeneity by SDS-PAGE, but no corresponding cDNA was cloned. Here, we cloned two full-length 1-FEH cDNA sequences from Jerusalem artichoke, named Ht1-FEH I and Ht1-FEH II, which showed high levels of identity with chicory 1-FEH I and 1-FEH II. Functional characterization of the corresponding recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris X-33 demonstrated that both Ht1-FEHs had high levels of hydrolase activity towards β(2,1)-linked fructans, but low or no activity towards β(2,6)-linked levan and sucrose. Like other plant FEHs, the activities of the recombinant Ht1-FEHs were greatly inhibited by sucrose. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that Ht1-FEH I transcripts accumulated to high levels in the developing leaves and stems of artichoke, whereas the expression levels of Ht1-FEH II increased in tubers during tuber sprouting, which implies that the two Ht1-FEHs play different roles. The levels of both Ht1-FEH I and II transcript were significantly increased in the stems of NaCl-treated plants. NaCl treatment also induced transcription of both Ht1-FEHs in the tubers, while PEG treatments slightly inhibited the expression of Ht1-FEH II in tubers. Analysis of sugar-metabolizing enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentration via HPLC showed that the enzyme activities of 1-FEHs were increased but the fructose content was decreased under NaCl and PEG treatments. Given that FEH hydrolyzes fructan to yield Fru, we discuss possible explanations for the inconsistency between 1-FEH activity and fructan dynamics in artichokes subjected to abiotic stress.

  2. Fine root tradeoffs between nitrogen concentration and xylem vessel traits preclude unified whole-plant resource strategies in Helianthus.

    PubMed

    Bowsher, Alan W; Mason, Chase M; Goolsby, Eric W; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-02-01

    Recent work suggests variation in plant growth strategies is governed by a tradeoff in resource acquisition and use, ranging from a rapid resource acquisition strategy to a resource-conservative strategy. While evidence for this tradeoff has been found in leaves, knowledge of root trait strategies, and whether they reflect adaptive differentiation across environments, is limited. In the greenhouse, we investigated variation in fine root morphology (specific root length and tissue density), chemistry (nitrogen concentration and carbon:nitrogen), and anatomy (root cross-sectional traits) in populations of 26 Helianthus species and sister Phoebanthus tenuifolius. We also compared root trait variation in this study with leaf trait variation previously reported in a parallel study of these populations. Root traits varied widely and exhibited little phylogenetic signal, suggesting high evolutionary lability. Specific root length and root tissue density were weakly negatively correlated, but neither was associated with root nitrogen, providing little support for a single axis of root trait covariation. Correlations between traits measured in the greenhouse and native site characteristics were generally weak, suggesting a variety of equally viable root trait combinations exist within and across environments. However, high root nitrogen was associated with lower xylem vessel number and cross-sectional area, suggesting a tradeoff between nutrient investment and water transport capacity. This led to correlations between root and leaf traits that were not always consistent with an acquisition-conservation tradeoff at the whole-plant level. Given that roots must balance acquisition of water and nutrients with functions like anchorage, exudation, and microbial symbioses, the varied evidence for root trait covariation likely reflects the complexity of interacting selection pressures belowground. Similarly, the lack of evidence for a single acquisition-conservation tradeoff at the

  3. Development and characterization of novel EST-SSR markers and their application for genetic diversity analysis of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    PubMed

    Mornkham, T; Wangsomnuk, P P; Mo, X C; Francisco, F O; Gao, L Z; Kurzweil, H

    2016-10-24

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is a perennial tuberous plant and a traditional inulin-rich crop in Thailand. It has become the most important source of inulin and has great potential for use in chemical and food industries. In this study, expressed sequence tag (EST)-based simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from 40,362 Jerusalem artichoke ESTs retrieved from the NCBI database. Among 23,691 non-redundant identified ESTs, 1949 SSR motifs harboring 2 to 6 nucleotides with varied repeat motifs were discovered from 1676 assembled sequences. Seventy-nine primer pairs were generated from EST sequences harboring SSR motifs. Our results show that 43 primers are polymorphic for the six studied populations, while the remaining 36 were either monomorphic or failed to amplify. These 43 SSR loci exhibited a high level of genetic diversity among populations, with allele numbers varying from 2 to 7, with an average of 3.95 alleles per loci. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.096 to 0.774, with an average of 0.536; polymorphic index content ranged from 0.096 to 0.854, with an average of 0.568. Principal component analysis and neighbor-joining analysis revealed that the six populations could be divided into six clusters. Our results indicate that these newly characterized EST-SSR markers may be useful in the exploration of genetic diversity and range expansion of the Jerusalem artichoke, and in cross-species application for the genus Helianthus.

  4. Mechanism of membrane permeabilization by sticholysin I, a cytolysin isolated from the venom of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed

    Tejuca, M; Serra, M D; Ferreras, M; Lanio, M E; Menestrina, G

    1996-11-26

    Actinaria cytolysins are very potent basic toxins isolated from the venom of sea anemones, which are supposed to exert their toxic activity through formation of oligomeric pores in the host plasma membrane. To gain insight into their mechanism of action, the interaction of Stichodactyla helianthus sticholysin I (St-I) with lipid bilayers was studied. St-I increased the permeability of calcein-loaded lipid vesicles composed of different phospholipids. The rate of permeabilization improved when sphingomyelin (SM) was introduced into phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles, reaching an optimum value at equimolar concentrations of these two phospholipids. It was also a function of the pH, showing a local maximum of activity between pH 8 and 9 and a marked decrease at pH 10 and 11. Under optimal conditions (e.g., PC:SM 1:1, pH 8, toxin to vesicle ratio < 200), most of the toxin is bound to the lipid phase. The reduced toxin effect at low and high SM content, or at high pH, is principally due to a decreased toxin binding. From the dose dependence of the permeabilization, at constant lipid concentration, it was inferred that St-I increases membrane permeability by forming oligomeric pores comprising at least three cytolysin monomers. The involvement of oligomers was also suggested by the dependence of calcein release on the vesicle concentration at constant toxin dose. In fact, the time course of dye release was well described under all circumstances by a kinetic model which assumes that trimerization leads to a conductive pore. All the relevant equilibrium and rate constants were derived. Addition of St-I to one side of a planar lipid membrane increased the conductivity of the film in discrete steps of defined amplitude, indicating the formation of ion channels. The dose dependence of this effect was the same as with LUV. The channel was cation-selective and its conductance suggested a functional radius of about 1.0 nm, consistent with the size of the lesion previously

  5. Sticholysins, two pore-forming toxins produced by the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus: their interaction with membranes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carlos; Mancheño, José M; Martínez, Diana; Tejuca, Mayra; Pazos, Fabiola; Lanio, María E

    2009-12-15

    Sticholysins (Sts) I and II (StI/II) are pore-forming toxins (PFTs) produced by the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus belonging to the actinoporin family, a unique class of eukaryotic PFTs exclusively found in sea anemones. As for the rest of the members of this family, Sts are cysteine-less proteins, with molecular weights around 20 kDa, high isoelectric points (>9.5), and a preference for sphingomyelin-containing membranes. A three-dimensional structure of StII, solved by X-ray crystallography, showed that it is composed of a hydrophobic beta-sandwich core flanked on the opposite sides by two alpha helices comprising residues 14-23 and 128-135. A variety of experimental results indicate that the first thirty N-terminal residues, which include one of the helices, are directly involved in pore formation. This region contains an amphipathic stretch, well conserved in all actinoporins, which is the only portion of the molecule that can change conformation without perturbing the general protein fold; in fact, binding to model membranes only produces a slight increase in the regular secondary structure content of Sts. Sts are produced in soluble form but they readily bind to different cell and model membrane systems such as lipidic monolayers, micelles, and lipid vesicles. Remarkably, both the binding and pore-formation steps are critically dependent on the physico-chemical nature of the membrane. In fact, a large population of toxin irreversibly binds with high affinity in membranes containing sphingomyelin whereas binding in membranes lacking this sphingolipid is relatively low and reversible. The joint presence of SM and cholesterol largely promotes binding and pore formation. Minor amounts of lipids favoring a non-lamellar organization also augment the efficiency of pore formation. The functional pore formed in cellular and model membranes has a diameter of approximately 2.0 nm and is presumably formed by the N-terminal alpha helices of four monomers

  6. Elicitation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) cell suspension culture for enhancement of inulin production and altered degree of polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunquan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Haitao; Han, Dongming; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell suspension cultures have emerged as a potential source of secondary metabolites for food additives and pharmaceuticals. In this study inulin accumulation and its degree of polymerisation (DP) in the treated cells in the same medium were investigated after treatment with six types of elicitors. An in vitro cell suspension culture of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) was optimised by adding an extra nitrogen source. According to the growth kinetics, a maximum biomass of 5.48 g L(-1) was obtained from the optimal cell suspension medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog basic medium (MS) + 1.0 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) + 0.5 mg L(-1) proline + 1.0 mg L(-1) glutamine. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 µmol L(-1) ) treatment for 15 days led to the highest levels of inulin (2955.27 ± 9.81 mg L(-1) compared to control of 1217.46 ± 0.26 mg L(-1) ). The elicited effect of five elicitors to the suspension cells of Jerusalem artichoke is as follows: AgNO3 (Ag, 10 µmol L(-1) ), salicylic acid (SA, 75 µmol L(-1) ), chitosan (KJT, 40 mg L(-1) ), Trichoderma viride (Tv, 90 mg L(-1) ), yeast extract (YE, 0.25 mg L(-1) ), and the corresponding content of inulin is increased by 2.05-, 1.93-, 1.76-, 1.44- and 1.18-fold compared to control, respectively. The obvious effect on the percentage of lower DP in inulin was observed in cells treated with 40 mg L(-1) KJT, 0.25 mg L(-1) YE and 10 µmol L(-1) Ag. Among the six types of elicitors, the descending order of inulin content is MeJA > Ag > SA > KJT > Tv > YE. For the purpose inulin with lower DP and its application to prebiotic food, three elicitors, including KJT, YE and Ag, can be used for the elicitation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effects of lipid composition on membrane permeabilization by sticholysin I and II, two cytolysins of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed

    Valcarcel, C A; Dalla Serra, M; Potrich, C; Bernhart, I; Tejuca, M; Martinez, D; Pazos, F; Lanio, M E; Menestrina, G

    2001-06-01

    Sticholysin I and II (St I and St II), two basic cytolysins purified from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, efficiently permeabilize lipid vesicles by forming pores in their membranes. A general characteristic of these toxins is their preference for membranes containing sphingomyelin (SM). As a consequence, vesicles formed by equimolar mixtures of SM with phosphatidylcholine (PC) are very good targets for St I and II. To better characterize the lipid dependence of the cytolysin-membrane interaction, we have now evaluated the effect of including different lipids in the composition of the vesicles. We observed that at low doses of either St I or St II vesicles composed of SM and phosphatidic acid (PA) were permeabilized faster and to a higher extent than vesicles of PC and SM. As in the case of PC/SM mixtures, permeabilization was optimal when the molar ratio of PA/SM was ~1. The preference for membranes containing PA was confirmed by inhibition experiments in which the hemolytic activity of St I was diminished by pre-incubation with vesicles of different composition. The inclusion of even small proportions of PA into PC/SM LUVs led to a marked increase in calcein release caused by both St I and St II, reaching maximal effect at ~5 mol % of PA. Inclusion of other negatively charged lipids (phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), or cardiolipin (CL)), all at 5 mol %, also elicited an increase in calcein release, the potency being in the order CL approximately PA > PG approximately PI approximately PS. However, some boosting effect was also obtained, including the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or even, albeit to a lesser extent, the positively charged lipid stearylamine (SA). This indicated that the effect was not mediated by electrostatic interactions between the cytolysin and the negative surface of the vesicles. In fact, increasing the ionic strength of the medium had only a small inhibitory

  8. Effects of lipid composition on membrane permeabilization by sticholysin I and II, two cytolysins of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed Central

    Valcarcel, C A; Dalla Serra, M; Potrich, C; Bernhart, I; Tejuca, M; Martinez, D; Pazos, F; Lanio, M E; Menestrina, G

    2001-01-01

    Sticholysin I and II (St I and St II), two basic cytolysins purified from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, efficiently permeabilize lipid vesicles by forming pores in their membranes. A general characteristic of these toxins is their preference for membranes containing sphingomyelin (SM). As a consequence, vesicles formed by equimolar mixtures of SM with phosphatidylcholine (PC) are very good targets for St I and II. To better characterize the lipid dependence of the cytolysin-membrane interaction, we have now evaluated the effect of including different lipids in the composition of the vesicles. We observed that at low doses of either St I or St II vesicles composed of SM and phosphatidic acid (PA) were permeabilized faster and to a higher extent than vesicles of PC and SM. As in the case of PC/SM mixtures, permeabilization was optimal when the molar ratio of PA/SM was ~1. The preference for membranes containing PA was confirmed by inhibition experiments in which the hemolytic activity of St I was diminished by pre-incubation with vesicles of different composition. The inclusion of even small proportions of PA into PC/SM LUVs led to a marked increase in calcein release caused by both St I and St II, reaching maximal effect at ~5 mol % of PA. Inclusion of other negatively charged lipids (phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), or cardiolipin (CL)), all at 5 mol %, also elicited an increase in calcein release, the potency being in the order CL approximately PA >> PG approximately PI approximately PS. However, some boosting effect was also obtained, including the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or even, albeit to a lesser extent, the positively charged lipid stearylamine (SA). This indicated that the effect was not mediated by electrostatic interactions between the cytolysin and the negative surface of the vesicles. In fact, increasing the ionic strength of the medium had only a small

  9. Hybrid zones as a tool for identifying adaptive genetic variation in outbreeding forest trees: lessons from wild annual sunflowers (Helianthus spp.).

    PubMed

    Lexer, Christian; Heinze, Berthold; Alia, Ricardo; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2004-08-01

    The identification and study of adaptively important genes in forest trees represents a formidable challenge because of their long generation spans. In annual or perennial herbs, formal genetic studies can be employed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and/or candidate genes that underlie important traits, and the segregating populations can be transplanted into natural populations to measure the strength and direction of selection. However, the application of these methods to forest trees is difficult, because the creation of appropriate genetic material is extremely time-consuming in long-lived, woody plants, and lifetime fitness estimates are difficult or impossible to obtain. Although QTL mapping should in principle be feasible in wild intraspecific populations (as an alternative to artificial crosses), this approach is less likely to be successful in trees because LD (linkage disequilibrium) will decay quickly in large outbreeding plant populations. Within the present paper, we discuss a modified approach based on natural hybrid zones. We describe the use of wild annual sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) as a model for exploring the hybrid zone approach. Transplanted experimental hybrids allowed us to assess the adaptive value of individual chromosomal blocks in nature, and data on natural Helianthus hybrids suggest that similar approaches are possible in natural hybrid zones. Our results allowed us to test the role of hybridization in the origin of ecological divergence in wild sunflowers. In addition, they have practical implications for identifying adaptively important genes or QTLs in trees. This is exemplified by three temperate forest taxa, Populus (poplars, aspens, cottonwoods), Fraxinus (ash), and Quercus (oak). All three are diploid and important genomic tools are under development. Moreover, all three offer extensive hybrid zones whose likely age can be inferred from fossil data. Age data enables estimates of the size and frequency of

  10. Genotyping-by-Sequencing Uncovers the Introgression Alien Segments Associated with Sclerotinia Basal Stalk Rot Resistance from Wild Species—I. Helianthus argophyllus and H. petiolaris

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lili; Long, Yunming; Talukder, Zahirul I.; Seiler, Gerald J.; Block, Charles C.; Gulya, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Basal stalk rot (BSR), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease in sunflower worldwide. The progress of breeding for Sclerotinia BSR resistance has been hampered due to the lack of effective sources of resistance for cultivated sunflower. Our objective was to transfer BSR resistance from wild annual Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower and identify the introgressed alien segments associated with BSR resistance using a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. The initial crosses were made between the nuclear male sterile HA 89 with the BSR resistant plants selected from wild Helianthus argophyllus and H. petiolaris populations in 2009. The selected resistant F1 plants were backcrossed to HA 458 and HA 89, respectively. Early generation evaluations of BSR resistance were conducted in the greenhouse, while the BC2F3 and subsequent generations were evaluated in the inoculated field nurseries. Eight introgression lines; six from H. argophyllus (H.arg 1 to H.arg 6), and two from H. petiolaris (H.pet 1 and H.pet 2), were selected. These lines consistently showed high levels of BSR resistance across seven environments from 2012 to 2015 in North Dakota and Minnesota, USA. The mean BSR disease incidence (DI) for H.arg 1 to H.arg 6, H.pet 1, and H.pet 2 was 3.0, 3.2, 0.8, 7.2, 7.7, 1.9, 2.5, and 4.4%, compared to a mean DI of 36.1% for Cargill 270 (susceptible hybrid), 31.0% for HA 89 (recurrent parent), 19.5% for HA 441 (resistant inbred), and 11.6% for Croplan 305 (resistant hybrid). Genotyping of the highly BSR resistant introgression lines using GBS revealed the presence of the H. argophyllus segments in linkage groups (LGs) 3, 8, 9, 10, and 11 of the sunflower genome, and the H. petiolaris segments only in LG8. The shared polymorphic SNP loci in the introgression lines were detected in LGs 8, 9, 10, and 11, indicating the common introgression regions potentially associated with BSR resistance. Additionally, a downy mildew resistance gene, Pl17

  11. Hybrid zones as a tool for identifying adaptive genetic variation in outbreeding forest trees: lessons from wild annual sunflowers (Helianthus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Lexer, Christian; Heinze, Berthold; Alia, Ricardo; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2008-01-01

    The identification and study of adaptively important genes in forest trees represents a formidable challenge because of their long generation spans. In annual or perennial herbs, formal genetic studies can be employed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and/or candidate genes that underlie important traits, and the segregating populations can be transplanted into natural populations to measure the strength and direction of selection. However, the application of these methods to forest trees is difficult, because the creation of appropriate genetic material is extremely time-consuming in long-lived, woody plants, and lifetime fitness estimates are difficult or impossible to obtain. Although QTL mapping should in principle be feasible in wild intraspecific populations (as an alternative to artificial crosses), this approach is less likely to be successful in trees because LD (linkage disequilibrium) will decay quickly in large outbreeding plant populations. Within the present paper, we discuss a modified approach based on natural hybrid zones. We describe the use of wild annual sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) as a model for exploring the hybrid zone approach. Transplanted experimental hybrids allowed us to assess the adaptive value of individual chromosomal blocks in nature, and data on natural Helianthus hybrids suggest that similar approaches are possible in natural hybrid zones. Our results allowed us to test the role of hybridization in the origin of ecological divergence in wild sunflowers. In addition, they have practical implications for identifying adaptively important genes or QTLs in trees. This is exemplified by three temperate forest taxa, Populus (poplars, aspens, cottonwoods), Fraxinus (ash), and Quercus (oak). All three are diploid and important genomic tools are under development. Moreover, all three offer extensive hybrid zones whose likely age can be inferred from fossil data. Age data enables estimates of the size and frequency of

  12. Genotyping-by-Sequencing Uncovers the Introgression Alien Segments Associated with Sclerotinia Basal Stalk Rot Resistance from Wild Species-I. Helianthus argophyllus and H. petiolaris.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lili; Long, Yunming; Talukder, Zahirul I; Seiler, Gerald J; Block, Charles C; Gulya, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Basal stalk rot (BSR), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease in sunflower worldwide. The progress of breeding for Sclerotinia BSR resistance has been hampered due to the lack of effective sources of resistance for cultivated sunflower. Our objective was to transfer BSR resistance from wild annual Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower and identify the introgressed alien segments associated with BSR resistance using a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. The initial crosses were made between the nuclear male sterile HA 89 with the BSR resistant plants selected from wild Helianthus argophyllus and H. petiolaris populations in 2009. The selected resistant F1 plants were backcrossed to HA 458 and HA 89, respectively. Early generation evaluations of BSR resistance were conducted in the greenhouse, while the BC2F3 and subsequent generations were evaluated in the inoculated field nurseries. Eight introgression lines; six from H. argophyllus (H.arg 1 to H.arg 6), and two from H. petiolaris (H.pet 1 and H.pet 2), were selected. These lines consistently showed high levels of BSR resistance across seven environments from 2012 to 2015 in North Dakota and Minnesota, USA. The mean BSR disease incidence (DI) for H.arg 1 to H.arg 6, H.pet 1, and H.pet 2 was 3.0, 3.2, 0.8, 7.2, 7.7, 1.9, 2.5, and 4.4%, compared to a mean DI of 36.1% for Cargill 270 (susceptible hybrid), 31.0% for HA 89 (recurrent parent), 19.5% for HA 441 (resistant inbred), and 11.6% for Croplan 305 (resistant hybrid). Genotyping of the highly BSR resistant introgression lines using GBS revealed the presence of the H. argophyllus segments in linkage groups (LGs) 3, 8, 9, 10, and 11 of the sunflower genome, and the H. petiolaris segments only in LG8. The shared polymorphic SNP loci in the introgression lines were detected in LGs 8, 9, 10, and 11, indicating the common introgression regions potentially associated with BSR resistance. Additionally, a downy mildew resistance gene, Pl17

  13. Two-dimensional crystallization on lipid monolayers and three-dimensional structure of sticholysin II, a cytolysin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Benito, J; Gavilanes, F; de Los Ríos, V; Mancheño, J M; Fernández, J J; Gavilanes, J G

    2000-01-01

    Sticholysin II (Stn II), a potent cytolytic protein isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, has been crystallized on lipid monolayers. With Fourier-based methods, a three-dimensional (3D) model of Stn II, up to a resolution of 15 A, has been determined. The two-sided plane group is p22(1)2, with dimensions a = 98 A, b = 196 A. The 3D model of Stn II displays a Y-shaped structure, slightly flattened, with a small curvature along its longest dimension (51 A). This protein, with a molecular mass of 19. 2 kDa, is one of the smallest structures reconstructed with this methodology. Two-dimensional (2D) crystals of Stn II on phosphatidylcholine monolayers present a unit cell with two tetrameric motifs, with the monomers in two different orientations: one with its longest dimension lying on the crystal plane and the other with this same axis leaning at an angle of approximately 60 degrees with the crystal plane. PMID:10827995

  14. The Use of Fura-2 Fluorescence to Monitor the Movement of Free Calcium Ions into the Matrix of Plant Mitochondria (Pisum sativum and Helianthus tuberosus).

    PubMed

    Zottini, M.; Zannoni, D.

    1993-06-01

    Purified mitochondria isolated from pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) stems and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv OB1) tubers were loaded with the acetoxymethyl ester of the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2. This made possible the continuous monitoring of free [Ca2+] in the matrix ([Ca2+]m) without affecting the apparent viability of the mitochondria. Pea stem mitochondria contained an initial [Ca2+]m of approximately 60 to 100 nM, whereas [Ca2+]m was severalfold higher (400-600 nM) in mitochondria of Jerusalem artichoke tubers. At low extramitochondrial Ca2+ concentrations ([greater than or equal to]100 nM), there was an energy-dependent membrane potential increase in [Ca2+]m; the final [Ca2+]m was phosphate-dependent in Jerusalem artichoke but was phosphate-independent in pea stem mitochondria. The data presented indicate that (a) there is no absolute requirement for phosphate in Ca2+ uptake; (b) plant mitochondria can accumulate external free Ca2+ by means of an electrophoretic Ca2+ uniporter with an apparent affinity for Ca2+ (Km approximately 150 nM) that is severalfold lower than that measured by conventional methods (isotopes and Ca2+-sensitive electrodes); and (c) [Ca2+]m is within the regulatory range of mammalian intramitochondrial dehydrogenases.

  15. Demonstration of an intramitochondrial invertase activity and the corresponding sugar transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Szarka, András; Horemans, Nele; Passarella, Salvatore; Tarcsay, Akos; Orsi, Ferenc; Salgó, András; Bánhegyi, Gábor

    2008-10-01

    Genetic evidences indicate that alkaline/neutral invertases are present in plant cell organelles, and they might have a novel physiological function in mitochondria. The present study demonstrates an invertase activity in the mitochondrial matrix of Helianthus tuberosus tubers. The pH optimum, the kinetic parameters and the inhibitor profile of the invertase activity indicated that it belongs to the neutral invertases. In accordance with this topology, transport activities responsible for the mediation of influx/efflux of substrate/products were studied in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The transport of sucrose, glucose and fructose was shown to be bidirectional, saturable and independent of the mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential. Sucrose transport was insensitive to the inhibitors of the proton-sucrose symporters. The different kinetic parameters and inhibitors as well as the absence of cross-inhibition suggest that sucrose, glucose and fructose transport are mediated by separate transporters in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrial invertase system composed by an enzyme activity in the matrix and the corresponding sugar transporters might have a role in both osmoregulation and intermediary metabolism.

  16. Fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase and inulin hydrolase activities relating to inulin and soluble sugars in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linn.) tubers during storage.

    PubMed

    Maicaurkaew, Sukanya; Jogloy, Sanun; Hamaker, Bruce R; Ningsanond, Suwayd

    2017-03-01

    Influences of harvest time and storage conditions on activities of fructan:fructan1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and inulin hydrolase (InH) in relation to inulin and soluble sugars of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers were investigated. Maturity affected 1-FFT-activity, inulin contents, and inulin profiles of the tubers harvested between 30 and 70 days after flowering (DAF). Decreases in 1-FFT activity, high molecular weight inulin, and inulin content were observed in late-harvested tubers. The tubers harvested at 50 DAF had the highest inulin content (734.9 ± 20.5 g kg(-1) DW) with a high degree of polymerization (28% of DP >30). During storage of the tubers, increases in InH activity (reached its peak at 15 days of storage) and gradual decreases in 1-FFT activity took placed. These changes were associated with inulin depolymerization, causing decreases in inulin content and increases in soluble sugars. As well, decreasing storage temperatures would retain high inulin content and keep low soluble sugars; and freezing at -18 °C would best retard 1-FFT, InH, and inulin changes.

  17. Effective Population Size, Gene Flow, and Species Status in a Narrow Endemic Sunflower, Helianthus neglectus, Compared to Its Widespread Sister Species, H. petiolaris

    PubMed Central

    Raduski, Andrew R.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Strasburg, Jared L.

    2010-01-01

    Species delimitation has long been a difficult and controversial process, and different operational criteria often lead to different results. In particular, investigators using phenotypic vs. molecular data to delineate species may recognize different boundaries, especially if morphologically or ecologically differentiated populations have only recently diverged. Here we examine the genetic relationship between the widespread sunflower species Helianthus petiolaris and its narrowly distributed sand dune endemic sister species H. neglectus using sequence data from nine nuclear loci. The two species were initially described as distinct based on a number of minor morphological differences, somewhat different ecological tolerances, and at least one chromosomal rearrangement distinguishing them; but detailed molecular data has not been available until now. We find that, consistent with previous work, H. petiolaris is exceptionally genetically diverse. Surprisingly, H. neglectus harbors very similar levels of genetic diversity (average diversity across loci is actually slightly higher in H. neglectus). It is extremely unlikely that such a geographically restricted species could maintain these levels of genetic variation in isolation. In addition, the two species show very little evidence of any genetic divergence, and estimates of interspecific gene flow are comparable to gene flow estimates among regions within H. petiolaris. These results indicate that H. petiolaris and H. neglectus likely do not represent two distinct, isolated gene pools; H. neglectus is probably more accurately thought of as a geographically restricted, morphologically and ecologically distinct subspecies of H. petiolaris rather than a separate species. PMID:20386650

  18. Role of the Tryptophan Residues in the Specific Interaction of the Sea Anemone Stichodactyla helianthus's Actinoporin Sticholysin II with Biological Membranes.

    PubMed

    García-Linares, Sara; Maula, Terhi; Rivera-de-Torre, Esperanza; Gavilanes, José G; Slotte, J Peter; Martínez-Del-Pozo, Álvaro

    2016-11-22

    Actinoporins are pore-forming toxins from sea anemones. Upon interaction with sphingomyelin-containing bilayers, they become integral oligomeric membrane structures that form a pore. Sticholysin II from Stichodactyla helianthus contains five tryptophans located at strategic positions; its role has now been studied using different mutants. Results show that W43 and W115 play a determinant role in maintaining the high thermostability of the protein, while W146 provides specific interactions for protomer-protomer assembly. W110 and W114 sustain the hydrophobic effect, which is one of the major driving forces for membrane binding in the presence of Chol. However, in its absence, additional interactions with sphingomyelin are required. These conclusions were confirmed with two sphingomyelin analogues, one of which had impaired hydrogen bonding properties. The results obtained support actinoporins' Trp residues playing a major role in membrane recognition and binding, but their residues have an only minor influence on the diffusion and oligomerization steps needed to assemble a functional pore.

  19. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.05) and percentage of large-size eggs (P < 0.05) that were improved in hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results suggest that the replacement of conventional soybean with low-fiber sunflower meal may be a valid alternative in diets for laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Improved purification and enzymatic properties of a mixture of Sticholysin I and II: isotoxins with hemolytic and phospholipase A(2) activities from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed

    del Monte-Martínez, Alberto; González-Bacerio, Jorge; Romero, Lázara; Aragón, Carlos; Martínez, Diana; de Los Á Chávez, María; Álvarez, Carlos; Lanio, María E; Guisán, José M; Díaz, Joaquín

    2014-03-01

    Sticholysin I and Sticholysin II (StI and StII) are two potent hemolysins which form pores in natural and model membranes at nanomolar concentrations. These proteins were purified from the aqueous extract of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, Ellis 1768, by gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography. This procedure rendered StI and StII with high purity (purification factors: 36 and 50, respectively) but a low yield of hemolytic activity, HA (<3%). Additionally, these toxins exhibited very low phospholipase activity (10(-3)U/mg of protein). In this work, a mixture StI-StII was obtained (yield >95%, with an increase in specific activity: 14 times) from the animal extract using an oxidized phospholipid-based affinity chromatographic matrix binding phospholipases. Cytolysin identification in the mixture was performed by immunoblotting and N-terminal sequence analyses. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of StI-StII was relatively high (1.85U/mg) and dependent of Ca(2+). The activity resulted optimum when was measured with the mostly unsaturated soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC), when compared to the less unsaturated egg PC or completely saturated dipalmitoyl PC, in the presence of 40mM Ca(2+) at pH 8.0. This Ca(2+) concentration did not exert any effect on binding of StI-StII with soybean PC monolayers. Then, PLA2 activity seems not be required to binding to membranes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prebiotic potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in Wistar rats: effects of levels of supplementation on hindgut fermentation, intestinal morphology, blood metabolites and immune response.

    PubMed

    Samal, Lipismita; Chaturvedi, Vishwa Bandhu; Saikumar, Guttula; Somvanshi, Ramesh; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted using purified prebiotics such as inulin or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as nutraceuticals, but there is very little information available on the prebiotic potential of raw products rich in inulin and FOS, such as Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus L.). The present experiment aimed to evaluate the prebiotic effects of JA tubers in rats. Seventy-two Wistar weanling rats divided into four groups were fed for 12 weeks on a basal diet fortified with pulverized JA tubers at 0 (control), 20, 40 and 60 g kg(-1) levels. Enhanced cell-mediated immunity in terms of skin indurations (P = 0.082) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population (P = 0.002) was observed in the JA-supplemented groups compared with the control group. Blood haemoglobin (P = 0.017), glucose (P = 0.001), urea (P = 0.004) and calcium (P = 0.048) varied favourably upon inclusion of JA. An increasing trend (P = 0.059) in the length of large intestine was apparent in the JA-fed groups. The tissue mass of caecum (P = 0.069) and colon (P = 0.003) was increased in the JA-supplemented groups, accompanied by higher (P = 0.007) caecal crypt depth. The pH and ammonia concentrations of intestinal digesta decreased and those of lactate and total volatile fatty acids increased in the JA-fed groups. The results suggest that JA had beneficial effects on immunity, blood metabolites, intestinal morphometry and hindgut fermentation of rats. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Newly emerged populations of Plasmopara halstedii infecting rudbeckia exhibit unique genotypic profiles and are distinct from sunflower-infecting strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oomycete Plasmopara halstedii emerged at the onset of the 21st century as a destructive new pathogen causing downy mildew disease of ornamental Rudbeckia fulgida (rudbeckia) in the U.S.A. The pathogen is also a significant global problem of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and is widely regarded a...

  3. Development of insect resistant sunflowers: Updates and challenges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. is one of the major oil seed crops grown in the USA. with a highest estimated cultivated acreage of 975,000 acres in North Dakota. Besides diseases and weeds, insects are one of the major causes for yield losses. An average of 9-10% yield losses was attributed to insec...

  4. Isolation of three diterpenoid acids from sunflowers, as oviposition stimulants for the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banded sunflower moth (BSFM), Cochylis hospes Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae) is a specialist insect, the larvae of which feed on sunflowers, Helianthus spp., and a few other species of Compositae. It is one of the most important pests of sunflower in the USA. Previous work on H. annuus, t...

  5. 2009 Sunflower Insect Pest Problems and Insecticide Update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) are native to North America and a number of insect pests cause economic losses to sunflower production. Head-infesting insects include the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte, banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, sunflower moth, Homoeos...

  6. Sesquiterpene lactone composition of wild and cultivated sunflowers and biological activity against an insect pest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds and insects. Across a broad range of H. annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers, but also between d...

  7. First Report of Pathogenicity of Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium acuminatum on Sunflowers in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Widespread infection of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid) was observed in a commercial sunflower field (Helianthus annuus L. cv. 'Pioneer 63M82') in Todd County, MN in September 2009. Stem sections of the basal portion of infected plants were harvested and dissected. In addition to...

  8. Natural Rubber Quantification in Sunflower Using an Automated Solvent Extractor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) produce a small amount of low molecular weight natural rubber (NR) and this species has potential as a rubber-producing crop plant. Quantifying NR in plant tissue has traditionally been accomplished using Soxhlet or gravimetric methodologies. Accelerated solve...

  9. Evapotranspiration of irrigated sunflower in a semi-arid environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an alternative crop for the Southern High Plains typically produced under dryland; however irrigation offers greater potential for enhanced productivity and quality. Sunflower [cv, S 672 NuSun (Triumph Dwarf)] was grown in 2009 at Bushland, Texas, on two 4.2 ha fiel...

  10. Thiamethoxam seed treatments hav no impact on pest numbers or yield in cultivated sunflowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of neonicotinoid seed treatments is a nearly ubiquitous practice in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pest management. Sunflowers have a speciose pest complex, but also harbor a diverse and abundant community of beneficial, non-target organisms which may be negatively affected by pest management...

  11. Registration of two double rust resistant germplasms, HA-R12 and HA-R13 for confection sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms HA-R12 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673104) and HA-R13 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673105) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and released in Jul...

  12. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  13. Accelerating Silphium domestication: an opportunity to develop new crop ideotypes and breeding strategies informed by multiple disciplines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Silphium perfoliatum L. (cup plant, silphie) and S. integrifolium Michx. (rosinweed, silflower) are in the same sub-family and tribe as sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). S. perfoliatum has been grown in many countries a forage or bioenergy crop with forage quality approaching that of alfalfa and bio...

  14. Intercropping sunflower varieties with bell pepper: effect on populations of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and thrips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight varieties of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) (Bashful, Double Quick Orange, Pro Cut Bicolor, Pro Cut Lemon, Sundance Kid, Sunrich Lemon, Teddy Bear and Zebulon) were evaluated for attractiveness to predators, mostly the minute pirate bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemipte...

  15. Sources of resistance to sunflower diseases in a global collection of domesticated USDA plant introductions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) and head rot (HR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary are traditionally major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the United States, while Phomopsis stem canker (PSC) caused by Phomopsis helianthi Munt.-Cvet. et. al. has increasingly become damaging in...

  16. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  17. Sunflower water productivity in four Great Plains soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a drought-adapted crop whose short growing season reduces irrigation requirements, makes it ideal for regions with limited irrigation water supplies. Our objectives were to a) evaluate the yield (Y) potential of sunflower under full and deficit irrigation (IR) b)...

  18. Seed moisture at physiological maturity in oilseed and confectionary sunflower hybrids in the Northern U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Desiccating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to hasten harvest has become a common practice in the northern U.S. and can aid in reducing yield loss associated with severe weather and bird predation. Currently, it is recommended to apply desiccants to sunflower at 35% or less seed moisture correspond...

  19. Genetic mapping of rust resistance genes in confection sunflower line HA-R6 and oilseed line RHA 397

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Few widely effective resistance sources to sunflower rust, incited by Puccinia helianthi Schwein., have been identified in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The USDA inbred line HA-R6 is one of the few confection sunflower lines resistant to rust. A previous allelism test indicated that r...

  20. Measured soil water evaporation as a function of the square root of time and reference ET

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a drought-adapted crop with a short growing season that reduces irrigation requirements and makes it ideal for regions with limited irrigation water supplies. Our objectives were a) to evaluate the yield potential of sunflower under deficit irrigation and b) det...

  1. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficients for irrigated sunflower in the southern high plains.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is diverse crop grown for oil or confectionary uses in the Southern High Plains often under irrigation. Crop water use (evapotranspiration or ET) was measured in 2009 and 2011 in two 4-ha fields using two precision 9 m**2 weighing lysimeters containing 2.3-m deep mo...

  2. Evapotranspiration, water productivity and crop coefficients for irrigated sunflower in the U.S. Southern High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is diverse crop grown for oil or confectionary uses in the Southern High Plains often under irrigation. Crop water use (evapotranspiration or ET) was measured in 2009 and 2011 in two 4-ha fields using two precision 9 m**2 weighing lysimeters containing 2.3-m deep mo...

  3. First Report of Charcoal Rot of Sunflower in Minnesota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field of oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid 'Pioneer 63M82') was observed with uneven maturation in west central Minnesota near Aldrich (Todd County) in late September, 2009. The field's soil type was sandy loam and cropping history was oats in 2008 preceded by four years of alfalfa. M...

  4. Potential for Introduction of Invasive Species into Louisiana from Illinois River Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    FACW Eragrostis hypnoides Creeping love grass OBL Hibiscus laevis Halberd-leaved rose mallow OBL Ipomoea lacunosa Small white morning glory FACW...Eupatorium serotinum Late Boneset * FAC+ ▪ Helianthus annuus* Garden Sunflower * FAC- Hibuscus laevis Halberd-lvd. Rose Mallow * OBL Hibuscus

  5. Post-anthesis development of oil content and composition with respect to seed moisture in two high-oleic sunflower hybrids in the northern US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Desiccating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) at physiological maturity (PM) or as early as possible can be used to hasten harvest and thus, reduce yield loss associated with severe weather, plant degradation, and bird predation. Previous work showed that two modern oilseed sunflower hybrids studied ...

  6. Consumptive Water Use and Crop Coefficients of Irrigated Sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In semi-arid environments, the use of irrigation is necessary for sunflower production to reach its maximum potential. The aim of this study was to quantify the consumptive water use and crop coefficients of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) without soil water limitations during two growing...

  7. Interspecific amphiploid-derived alloplasmic male sterility with defective anthers, narrow disk florets, and small ray flowers in sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS)/fertility-restoration system is important for hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed production. Two novel alloplasmic CMSs, designated CMS GRO1 and CMS MAX3 with defective anthers, narrow disk florets with no swollen corolla, and short, narrow ray flowers,...

  8. Sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a species native to North America. It is a relatively new crop in the USA with commercialization starting around 1970. The high oil content sunflower seed changed the economics of producing and crushing sunflower seed for oil, making it attractive for growers. A n...

  9. Resistance of Sunflower Germplasm to the Sunflower Stem Weevil and Red Sunflower Seed Weevil and Evaluation of Commercial Hybrids for Resistance to the Sunflower Midge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the central and northern Plains, cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is attacked by a number of insect pests resulting in yield losses for sunflower producers. Host-plant resistance can provide a long-term solution to managing these insects with reduced input costs and with potentially lo...

  10. Update on Host Plant Resistance Studies of Banded Sunflower Moth and Sunflower Moth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeding pest-resistance crop cultivars to insects and diseases is one of the primary goals of integrated pest management programs worldwide. Host plant resistance is a tactic that uses the plant's own defenses to reduce injury from pest attack. Among the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) insect pest...

  11. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  12. Oil productivity and composition of sunflower as a function of hybrid and planting date

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is potential cash crop for the southeastern United States for production of cooking oil or biodiesel. Two years of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of location (five locations in Mississippi), planting date (April 20, May 20, and June 20), and hybrid...

  13. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  14. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm line HA-BSR1 highly tolerant to Sclerotinia basal stalk rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a devastating disease that causes a significant damage to worldwide sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production by reducing seed yield and quality. The objective of this research was to develop highly BSR tolerant sunflower g...

  15. SNP discovery and QTL mapping of Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a serious disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbr...

  16. Sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is a relatively new crop among the world field crops, grown as an oilseed crop worldwide in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries. It is one of only a few crops (cranberries, blueberries, and pecans are others) to have originated from the United States. Sunflo...

  17. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  18. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  19. Registration of a male fertility restorer oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-R9 resistant to sunflower rust

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm HA-R9 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 667595) was developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the Agricultural Experiment Station of North Dakota State University and released in January, 2013. Sunflower rust (caused by P...

  20. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  1. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Red Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...

  2. Peptide fingerprinting of the neurotoxic fractions isolated from the secretions of sea anemones Stichodactyla helianthus and Bunodosoma granulifera. New members of the APETx-like family identified by a 454 pyrosequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Armando Alexei; Cassoli, Juliana Silva; Sa, Fei; Dong, Zhi Qiang; de Freitas, José Carlos; Pimenta, Adriano M C; de Lima, Maria Elena; Konno, Katsuhiro; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Garateix, Anoland; Zaharenko, André J

    2012-03-01

    Sea anemones are known to contain a wide diversity of biologically active peptides, mostly unexplored according to recent peptidomic and transcriptomic studies. In the present work, the neurotoxic fractions from the exudates of Stichodactyla helianthus and Bunodosoma granulifera were analyzed by reversed-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry. The first peptide fingerprints of these sea anemones were assessed, revealing the largest number of peptide components (156) so far found in sea anemone species, as well as the richer peptide diversity of B. granulifera in relation to S. helianthus. The transcriptomic analysis of B. granulifera, performed by massive cDNA sequencing with 454 pyrosequencing approach allowed the discovery of five new APETx-like peptides (U-AITX-Bg1a-e - including the full sequences of their precursors for four of them), which together with type 1 sea anemone sodium channel toxins constitute a very distinguishable feature of studied sea anemone species belonging to genus Bunodosoma. The molecular modeling of these new APETx-like peptides showed a distribution of positively charged and aromatic residues in putative contact surfaces as observed in other animal toxins. On the other hand, they also showed variable electrostatic potentials, thus suggesting a docking onto their targeted channels in different spatial orientations. Moreover several crab paralyzing toxins (other than U-AITX-Bg1a-e), which induce a variety of symptoms in crabs, were isolated. Some of them presumably belong to new classes of crab-paralyzing peptide toxins, especially those with molecular masses below 2kDa, which represent the smallest peptide toxins found in sea anemones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plant growth promotion properties of bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) adapted to saline-alkaline soils and their effect on wheat growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Xiangyue; Li, Yan; Li, Runzhi; Xie, Zhihong

    2017-03-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus), known to be tolerant to saline-alkaline soil conditions, has been cultivated for many years in the Yellow River delta, Shandong Province coastal zone, in China. The aim of our study was to isolate nitrogen-fixing bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of JA and to characterize other plant growth promotion properties. The ultimate goal was to identify isolates that could be used as inoculants benefiting an economic crop, in particular for improving wheat growth production in the Yellow River delta. Bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of JA on the basis of growth on nitrogen-free Ashby medium. Identification and phylogenetic analysis was performed after nucleotide sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Plant-growth-promoting traits, such as nitrogen fixation activity, phosphate solubilization activity, indole-3-acetic acid production, were determined using conventional methods. Eleven strains were isolated and 6 of them were further examined for their level of salt tolerance and their effect on plant growth promotion. Inoculation of Enterobacter sp. strain N10 on JA and wheat led to significant increases in both root and shoot dry mass and shoot height. Enterobacter sp. strain N10 appeared to be the best plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria to increase wheat productivity in future field applications.

  4. Germination and Early Growth of Sunflowers in Weak ELF Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    fields on the frequency of germination of sunflower seeds ( Helianthus annuus ) and on early growth of seedlings and older plants were performed in 1971...brought about by an, other micro-environmental factors. L1) D C AR 16 1976 L m) D D I OVA 1473 _________ NC.1 IXE UNCIASSIFIED ___se.. curity...brought about by any other micro- environmental factors. I • .1 L 2. INTRODUCTION Experiments seeking to determine the effects of weak elec- tromagnetic

  5. Re-creating ancient hybrid species' complex phenotypes from early-generation synthetic hybrids: three examples using wild sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David M; Rieseberg, Loren H; Donovan, Lisa A

    2005-07-01

    Can the complex phenotypes that characterize naturally occurring hybrid species be re-created in early-generation artificial hybrids? We address this question with three homoploid hybrid species (Helianthus anomalus, Helianthus deserticola, Helianthus paradoxus) and their ancestral parents (Helianthus annuus, Helianthus petiolaris) that are phenotypically distinct and ecologically differentiated. These species, and two synthetic hybrid populations of the ancestral parents, were characterized for morphological, physiological, and life-history traits in greenhouse studies. Among the synthetic hybrids, discriminant analysis identified a few individuals with the multitrait phenotype of the natural hybrid species: 0.7%-1.1% were H. anomalus-like, 0.5%-13% were H. deserticola-like, and only 0.4% were H. paradoxus-like. These relative frequencies mirror previous findings that genetic correlations are favorable for generating the hybrid species' phenotypes, and they correspond well with phylogeographic evidence that demonstrates multiple natural origins of H. deserticola and H. anomalus but a single origin for H. paradoxus. Even though synthetic hybrids with hybrid species phenotypes are rare, their phenotypic correlation matrices share most of the same principal components (eigenvectors), setting the stage for predictable recovery of hybrid species' phenotypes from different hybrid populations. Our results demonstrate past hybridization could have generated hybrid species-like multitrait phenotypes suitable for persistence in their respective environments in just three generations after initial hybridization.

  6. Re-creating Ancient Hybrid Species’ Complex Phenotypes from Early-Generation Synthetic Hybrids: Three Examples Using Wild Sunflowers

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, David M.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Donovan, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Can the complex phenotypes that characterize naturally occurring hybrid species be re-created in early-generation artificial hybrids? We address this question with three homoploid hybrid species (Helianthus anomalus, Helianthus deserticola, Helianthus paradoxus) and their ancestral parents (Helianthus annuus, Helianthus petiolaris) that are phenotypically distinct and ecologically differentiated. These species, and two synthetic hybrid populations of the ancestral parents, were characterized for morphological, physiological, and life-history traits in greenhouse studies. Among the synthetic hybrids, discriminant analysis identified a few individuals with the multitrait phenotype of the natural hybrid species: 0.7%–1.1% were H. anomalus-like, 0.5%–13% were H. deserticola-like, and only 0.4% were H. paradoxus-like. These relative frequencies mirror previous findings that genetic correlations are favorable for generating the hybrid species’ phenotypes, and they correspond well with phylogeographic evidence that demonstrates multiple natural origins of H. deserticola and H. anomalus but a single origin for H. paradoxus. Even though synthetic hybrids with hybrid species phenotypes are rare, their phenotypic correlation matrices share most of the same principal components (eigenvectors), setting the stage for predictable recovery of hybrid species’ phenotypes from different hybrid populations. Our results demonstrate past hybridization could have generated hybrid species-like multitrait phenotypes suitable for persistence in their respective environments in just three generations after initial hybridization. PMID:15937787

  7. Revisiting a classic case of introgression: hybridization and gene flow in Californian sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gregory L; Baute, Gregory J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-06-01

    During invasion, colonizing species can hybridize with native species, potentially swamping out native genomes. However, theory predicts that introgression will often be biased into the invading species. Thus, empirical estimates of gene flow between native and invasive species are important to quantify the actual threat of hybridization with invasive species. One classic example of introgression occurs in California, where Helianthus bolanderi was thought to be a hybrid between the serpentine endemic Helianthus exilis and the congeneric invader Helianthus annuus. We used genotyping by sequencing to look for signals of introgression and population structure. We find that H. bolanderi and H. exilis form one genetic clade, with weak population structure that is associated with geographic location rather than soil composition and likely represent a single species, not two. Additionally, while our results confirmed early molecular analysis and failed to support the hybrid origin of H. bolanderi, we did find evidence for introgression mainly into the invader H. annuus, as predicted by theory.

  8. High-resolution non-contact measurement of the electrical activity of plants in situ using optical recording

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong-Jie; Chen, Yang; Wang, Zi-Yang; Xue, Lin; Mao, Tong-Lin; Liu, Yi-Min; Wang, Zhong-Yi; Huang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    The limitations of conventional extracellular recording and intracellular recording make high-resolution multisite recording of plant bioelectrical activity in situ challenging. By combining a cooled charge-coupled device camera with a voltage-sensitive dye, we recorded the action potentials in the stem of Helianthus annuus and variation potentials at multiple sites simultaneously with high spatial resolution. The method of signal processing using coherence analysis was used to determine the synchronization of the selected signals. Our results provide direct visualization of the phloem, which is the distribution region of the electrical activities in the stem and leaf of H. annuus, and verify that the phloem is the main action potential transmission route in the stems of higher plants. Finally, the method of optical recording offers a unique opportunity to map the dynamic bioelectrical activity and provides an insight into the mechanisms of long-distance electrical signal transmission in higher plants. PMID:26333536

  9. Further investigations into hormone-directed transport in stems.

    PubMed

    Bowen, M R; Wareing, P F

    1971-06-01

    The effect of IAA and three synthetic auxins on the upward movement of (32)P-orthophosphate and (14)C-sucrose has been investigated in decapitated stems of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., Coleus blumci L. and Helianthus annuus L. IAA greatly enhanced the accumulation of (32)P-orthophosphate in Phaseolus vulgaris and Pisum sativum, whereas in C. blumei and H. annuus it did not. 2,4-D like IAA, caused an increase in (14)C-sucrose and (32)P-orthophosphate accumulation in Phaseolus vulgaris but, unlike IAA, caused no increase in Pisum sativum. The downward transport of (14)C-IAA, (14)C-NAA, (14)C-2,4-D and (14)C-2,4,5-T from the decapitated apex was also studied. Results are discussed in terms of current theories of hormone-directed transport.

  10. Sesquiterpene Lactone Composition of Wild and Cultivated Sunflowers and Biological Activity against an Insect Pest.

    PubMed

    Prasifka, Jarrad R; Spring, Otmar; Conrad, Jürgen; Cook, Leonard W; Palmquist, Debra E; Foley, Michael E

    2015-04-29

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds, and insects. Across a broad range of Helianthus annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from disc florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers and also between distinct groups of inbreds used to produce sunflower hybrids. Discriminant function analysis showed the presence and relative abundance of argophyllone B, niveusin B, and 15-hydroxy-3-dehydrodesoxyfruticin were usually (75%) effective at classifying wild sunflowers, cultivated inbreds, and hybrids. Argophyllone B reduced the larval mass of the sunflower moth, Homeosoma electellum, by >30%, but only at a dose greater than that found in florets. Low doses of mixed extracts from cultivated florets produced a similar (≈40%) reduction in larval mass, suggesting combinations of sesquiterpene lactones act additively. Although the results support a role for sesquiterpene lactones in herbivore defense of cultivated sunflowers, additional information is needed to use these compounds purposefully in breeding.

  11. Ecological selection maintains cytonuclear incompatibilities in hybridizing sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Sambatti, Julianno B M; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Baack, Eric J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2008-10-01

    Despite the recent renaissance in studies of ecological speciation, the connection between ecological selection and the evolution of reproductive isolation remains tenuous. We tested whether habitat adaptation of cytoplasmic genomes contributes to the maintenance of reproductive barriers in hybridizing sunflower species, Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris. We transplanted genotypes of the parental species, reciprocal F1 hybrids and all eight possible backcross combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes into the contrasting xeric and mesic habitats of the parental species. Analysis of survivorship across two growing seasons revealed that the parental species' cytoplasms were strongly locally adapted and that cytonuclear interactions (CNIs) significantly affected the fitness and architecture of hybrid plants. A significant fraction of the CNIs have transgenerational effects, perhaps due to divergence in imprinting patterns. Our results suggest a common means by which ecological selection may contribute to speciation and have significant implications for the persistence of hybridizing species.

  12. Ecological selection maintains cytonuclear incompatibilities in hybridizing sunflowers

    PubMed Central

    Sambatti, Julianno B. M.; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Baack, Eric J.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recent renaissance in studies of ecological speciation, the connection between ecological selection and the evolution of reproductive isolation remains tenuous. We tested whether habitat adaptation of cytoplasmic genomes contributes to the maintenance of reproductive barriers in hybridizing sunflower species, Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris. We transplanted genotypes of the parental species, reciprocal F1 hybrids and all eight possible backcross combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes into the contrasting xeric and mesic habitats of the parental species. Analysis of survivorship across two growing seasons revealed that the parental species’ cytoplasms were strongly locally adapted and that cytonuclear interactions (CNIs) significantly affected the fitness and architecture of hybrid plants. A significant fraction of the CNIs have transgenerational effects, perhaps due to divergence in imprinting patterns. Our results suggest a common means by which ecological selection may contribute to speciation and have significant implications for the persistence of hybridizing species. PMID:18643842

  13. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the U.S. Southwest?

    PubMed

    Ode, Paul J; Charlet, Laurence D; Seiler, Gerald J

    2011-02-01

    Classical biological control programs often target a pest's region of origin as a likely source for new biological control agents. Here, we use this approach to search for biological control agents of the sunflower stem weevil (Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte), an economically important pest of commercial sunflower. We conducted surveys of weevil natural enemy diversity and abundance across a transect running from the northern Great Plains to the southwestern U.S. (the presumed area of endemism of annual sunflower species in the genus Helianthus). Accordingly, natural enemy diversity and abundance were expected to be greater in the southwestern U.S. C. adspersus and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states. Native H. annuus constituted the majority of the sunflower populations. Mean weevil densities were significantly higher in sunflower stalks that were larger in diameter. Mean weevil densities within sites did not differ across the range of longitudes and latitudes sampled. After accounting for the effects of stalk diameter and location, weevil densities did not differ among the four sunflower species nor did they differ as a function of elevation. C. adspersus in H. annuus and H. petiolaris were attacked by seven species of parasitoids. No parasitoids were found attacking C. adspersus in H. nuttallii or H. pauciflorus stalks. C. adspersus were twice as likely to be attacked by a parasitoid when feeding on H. petiolaris than H. annuus. Furthermore, the likelihood that C. adspersus would be parasitized decreased with increasing elevation and increasing stem diameters. All parasitoid species have been previously reported attacking C. adspersus larvae in cultivated sunflower. Species richness was less diverse in these collections than from previous studies of cultivated sunflower. Our findings suggest that the species

  14. Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, J.; Galiová, M.; Novotný, K.; Červenka, R.; Reale, L.; Novotný, J.; Liška, M.; Samek, O.; Kanický, V.; Hrdlička, A.; Stejskal, K.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized for mapping the accumulation of Pb, Mg and Cu with a resolution up to 200 μm in a up to cm × cm area of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The results obtained by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS are compared with the outcomes from Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). It is shown that laser-ablation based analytical methods can substitute or supplement these techniques mainly in the cases when a fast multi-elemental mapping of a large sample area is needed.

  15. New monoterpene glycosides from sunflower seeds and their protective effects against H2O2-induced myocardial cell injury.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yonghe; Zhao, Jianping; Liu, Yanli; Li, Xiaoran; Xu, Qiongming; Wang, Taoyun; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Shilin

    2015-11-15

    Three new monoterpene glycosides (1-3) and eleven known compounds (4-14) were isolated from seeds of Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. All the compounds were isolated from sunflower seeds for the first time. Protective effects of compounds 1-14 against H2O2-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury were evaluated, and compounds 1 and 2 showed some cell-protective effects. No significant DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed for compounds 1-14.

  16. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Marvey, Bassie B.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported. PMID:19325810

  17. Comparison of Water Potentials Measured by In Situ Psychrometry and Pressure Chamber in Morphologically Different Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Neil C.; Spurway, R. A.; Schulze, E.-D.

    1984-01-01

    Leaf water potentials measured by in situ psychrometry were compared with leaf water potentials measured by the pressure chamber technique at various values of water potential in Helianthus annuus, Helianthus nuttallii, Vigna unguiculata, Nerium oleander, Pistacia vera, and Corylus avellana. In V. unguiculata, the leaf water potentials measured by the in situ psychrometer oscillated at the same periodicity as, and proportional to, the leaf conductance. In all species, potentials measured by in situ psychrometers operating in the psychrometric mode were linearly correlated with potentials measured with the pressure chamber. However, the in situ psychrometers underestimated the leaf water potential in the two Helianthus species at low water potentials and overestimated the water potential in P. vera, N. oleander, and C. avellana. The underestimation in the two Helianthus species at low water potentials resulted from differences in water potential across the leaf. The overestimation in P. vera, N. oleander, and C. avellana was considered to arise from low epidermal conductances in these species even after abrasion of the cuticle. Pressure-volume studies with Lycopersicon esculentum showed that less water was expressed from distal than proximal leaflets when the whole leaf was slowly pressurized. The implication of this for water relations characteristics obtained by pressure-volume techniques is discussed. We conclude that in situ psychrometers are suitable for following dynamic changes in leaf water potential, but should be used with caution on leaves with low epidermal conductances. PMID:16663415

  18. Microarray analysis reveals differential gene expression in hybrid sunflower species

    PubMed Central

    LAI, ZHAO; GROSS, BRIANA L.; YIZOU; ANDREWS, JUSTEN; RIESEBERG, LOREN H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of a cDNA microarray for annual sunflowers and its use to elucidate patterns of gene expression in Helianthus annuus, Helianthus petiolaris, and the homoploid hybrid species Helianthus deserticola. The array comprises 3743 ESTs (expressed sequence tags) representing approximately 2897 unique genes. It has an average clone/EST identity rate of 91%, is applicable across species boundaries within the annual sunflowers, and shows patterns of gene expression that are highly reproducible according to real-time RT–PCR (reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction) results. Overall, 12.8% of genes on the array showed statistically significant differential expression across the three species. Helianthus deserticola displayed transgressive, or extreme, expression for 58 genes, with roughly equal numbers exhibiting up- or down-regulation relative to both parental species. Transport-related proteins were strongly over-represented among the transgressively expressed genes, which makes functional sense given the extreme desert floor habitat of H. deserticola. The potential adaptive value of differential gene expression was evaluated for five genes in two populations of early generation (BC2) hybrids between the parental species grown in the H. deserticola habitat. One gene (a G protein-coupled receptor) had a significant association with fitness and maps close to a QTL controlling traits that may be adaptive in the desert habitat. PMID:16626449

  19. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  20. Genome skimming reveals the origin of the Jerusalem Artichoke tuber crop species: neither from Jerusalem nor an artichoke.

    PubMed

    Bock, Dan G; Kane, Nolan C; Ebert, Daniel P; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-02-01

    The perennial sunflower Helianthus tuberosus, known as Jerusalem Artichoke or Sunchoke, was cultivated in eastern North America before European contact. As such, it represents one of the few taxa that can support an independent origin of domestication in this region. Its tubers were adopted as a source of food and forage when the species was transferred to the Old World in the early 1600s, and are still used today. Despite the cultural and economic importance of this tuber crop species, its origin is debated. Competing hypotheses implicate the occurrence of polyploidization with or without hybridization, and list the annual sunflower H. annuus and five distantly related perennial sunflower species as potential parents. Here, we test these scenarios by skimming the genomes of diverse populations of Jerusalem Artichoke and its putative progenitors. We identify relationships among Helianthus taxa using complete plastomes (151 551 bp), partial mitochondrial genomes (196 853 bp) and 35S (8196 bp) and 5S (514 bp) ribosomal DNA. Our results refute the possibility that Jerusalem Artichoke is of H. annuus ancestry. We provide the first genetic evidence that this species originated recursively from perennial sunflowers of central-eastern North America via hybridization between tetraploid Hairy Sunflower and diploid Sawtooth Sunflower. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Entyloma helianthi: identification and characterization of the causal agent of sunflower white leaf smut.

    PubMed

    Rooney-Latham, Suzanne; Lutz, Matthias; Blomquist, Cheryl L; Romberg, Megan K; Scheck, Heather J; Piątek, Marcin

    2017-08-01

    White leaf smut is a minor foliar disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States. The disease occurs primarily in greenhouse-grown sunflowers in California and causes leaf spot, defoliation, and a reduction in yield and crop value. Historically, many Entyloma specimens with similar morphological characters, but infecting diverse plant genera including Helianthus, were called Entyloma polysporum. Recent comparative morphological and molecular work has shown that Entyloma species infect hosts within a single genus or species, suggesting that the sunflower Entyloma species may not be E. polysporum. In 2015, sunflower leaf smut material was collected from ornamental sunflowers in a greenhouse in Santa Barbara County, California. Morphologically, this species differed from E. polysporum in having smaller, more regular-shaped teliospores and prominently developed conidiophores with cylindrical conidia. The rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) region of the sunflower leaf smut was phylogenetically distinct from all previously sequenced Entyloma species and found only on H. annuus. This study confirms that the sunflower leaf smut pathogen represents a novel species, Entyloma helianthi. Possible misidentification of the anamorphic stage of Entyloma helianthi as another leaf spot pathogen, Ramularia helianthi, is also discussed.

  2. Serine proteinase inhibitors in the Compositae: distribution, polymorphism and properties.

    PubMed

    Konarev, Alexander V; Anisimova, Irina N; Gavrilova, V A; Vachrusheva, T E; Konechnaya, G Yu; Lewis, Mervyn; Shewry, Peter R

    2002-02-01

    Multiple molecular forms of inhibitors of trypsin (TI) and chymotrypsin (CI), which are typical digestive enzymes of insects, mammals and micro-organisms, and subtilisin (SI), a proteinase of many bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi, were identified in seeds and vegetative organs of the majority of 128 wild and cultivated species representing 65 genera of three of the subfamilies of the Compositae. Inhibitors with M(r) ranging from 7450 to 7800 and combining activities towards subtilisin and trypsin and/or chymotrypsin (T/C/SI) had the widest distribution and may be involved in plant defense mechanisms. They were found in many species of the subfamilies Carduoideae (genera Carthamus, Centaurea, Cirsium), Cichorioideae (Lactuca, Taraxacum) and Asteroideae (Helianthus, Cosmos, Bidens). Partial amino acid sequencing showed that the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) T/C/SI and Cosmos bipinnatus T/C/SI, T/SI and C/SI belonged to the potato I inhibitor family. The most active, variable and heterogeneous inhibitors were found in species of the tribe Heliantheae, which is placed in the evolutionary advanced subfamily Asteroideae. Seeds of Helianthus species, Eclipta prostrata, Gailardia aristata, Zinnia elegans and Silphium perfoliatum contained various TI with M(r) ranging from 1500 to 14,750, with some also containing SI. H. annuus seeds contain a unique cyclic TI of M(r) 1514 and similar TI were also present in other Helianthus spp. and the related species Tithonia diversifolia. Zinnia elegans contained a TI with M(r) 11,350 which appeared to represent a novel type of inhibitor distantly related to the cereal subgroup of Bowman-Birk inhibitors. TI and T/SI varied widely in H. annuus lines and wild Helianthus species in their presence or absence and composition. Similar T/SI components were found in the cultivated diploid H. annuus and annual diploid species with the B genome but not in perennials with the A genome. Some T/SI, SI and TI were detected in vegetative organs

  3. Cryopreservation of lipid-rich seeds: effect of moisture content and cooling rate on germination.

    PubMed

    González-Benito, E M; Pérez-García, F

    2001-01-01

    The effect of fast and slow cooling on germination of seeds from two Brassicaceae species (Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav., Brassica napus L. var. oleifera (Moench) DC cv. Bingo) and cypselas from three Compositae species (Onopordum nervosum Boiss., Onopordum acanthium L., Helianthus annuus L. cv. Viky) at different moisture contents was studied. Seed lipid content (dry weight basis) ranged from 15% (O. nervosum) to 41% (H. annuus). For each species, seeds with four moisture contents were cryopreserved either by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen or by previous cooling at 10 degrees C/min from room temperature to -50 degrees C. In three species (E. vesicaria, B. napus, and H. annuus) germination of air-dried (6.2-8.9% moisture content) seeds cooled by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen was not significantly different from germination of control seeds (air-dried, non-cooled). In the two Onorpordum species the best response among cooling treatments was observed when air-dried seeds were slowly cooled.

  4. Genetic architecture of species differences in annual sunflowers: implications for adaptive trait introgression.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S C; Rieseberg, L H

    1999-01-01

    Genetic architecture may profoundly influence the ability of adaptive traits to spread between species via introgressive hybridization. Here, we examine the genomic location of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with pollen sterility and morphological traits distinguishing two annual sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and H. debilis ssp. cucumerifolius. These species are of particular interest since they hybridize naturally, and the form of H. annuus in Texas (called ssp. texanus) is thought to have arisen through introgression. Analysis of 226 BC(1) progeny from a cross between H. annuus and H. debilis revealed 56 QTL for 15 morphological traits and 2 QTL for pollen sterility. Four morphological QTL are tightly linked (<10 cM) to one or more sterility factors and 7 are closely allied with underrepresented and presumably negatively selected chromosomal blocks. Although these 11 QTL seem unlikely to move between the species, no barrier to introgression was detected for the remaining 45 morphological QTL. In fact, due to widespread pleiotropy (or tight linkage), the introgression of just three small chromosomal blocks appears sufficient to largely recover the phenotype of ssp. texanus. Subsequent work will test for the occurrence and fitness consequences of the identified QTL in natural populations of ssp. texanus. PMID:10511571

  5. Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon Content in Eight Diploid Sunflower Species Inferred from Next-Generation Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Tetreault, Hannah M.; Ungerer, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The most abundant transposable elements (TEs) in plant genomes are Class I long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons represented by superfamilies gypsy and copia. Amplification of these superfamilies directly impacts genome structure and contributes to differential patterns of genome size evolution among plant lineages. Utilizing short-read Illumina data and sequence information from a panel of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) full-length gypsy and copia elements, we explore the contribution of these sequences to genome size variation among eight diploid Helianthus species and an outgroup taxon, Phoebanthus tenuifolius. We also explore transcriptional dynamics of these elements in both leaf and bud tissue via RT-PCR. We demonstrate that most LTR retrotransposon sublineages (i.e., families) display patterns of similar genomic abundance across species. A small number of LTR retrotransposon sublineages exhibit lineage-specific amplification, particularly in the genomes of species with larger estimated nuclear DNA content. RT-PCR assays reveal that some LTR retrotransposon sublineages are transcriptionally active across all species and tissue types, whereas others display species-specific and tissue-specific expression. The species with the largest estimated genome size, H. agrestis, has experienced amplification of LTR retrotransposon sublineages, some of which have proliferated independently in other lineages in the Helianthus phylogeny. PMID:27233667

  6. Comparative analysis of the complete sequence of the plastid genome of Parthenium argentatum and identification of DNA barcodes to differentiate Parthenium species and lines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Parthenium argentatum (guayule) is an industrial crop that produces latex, which was recently commercialized as a source of latex rubber safe for people with Type I latex allergy. The complete plastid genome of P. argentatum was sequenced. The sequence provides important information useful for genetic engineering strategies. Comparison to the sequences of plastid genomes from three other members of the Asteraceae, Lactuca sativa, Guitozia abyssinica and Helianthus annuus revealed details of the evolution of the four genomes. Chloroplast-specific DNA barcodes were developed for identification of Parthenium species and lines. Results The complete plastid genome of P. argentatum is 152,803 bp. Based on the overall comparison of individual protein coding genes with those in L. sativa, G. abyssinica and H. annuus, we demonstrate that the P. argentatum chloroplast genome sequence is most closely related to that of H. annuus. Similar to chloroplast genomes in G. abyssinica, L. sativa and H. annuus, the plastid genome of P. argentatum has a large 23 kb inversion with a smaller 3.4 kb inversion, within the large inversion. Using the matK and psbA-trnH spacer chloroplast DNA barcodes, three of the four Parthenium species tested, P. tomentosum, P. hysterophorus and P. schottii, can be differentiated from P. argentatum. In addition, we identified lines within P. argentatum. Conclusion The genome sequence of the P. argentatum chloroplast will enrich the sequence resources of plastid genomes in commercial crops. The availability of the complete plastid genome sequence may facilitate transformation efficiency by using the precise sequence of endogenous flanking sequences and regulatory elements in chloroplast transformation vectors. The DNA barcoding study forms the foundation for genetic identification of commercially significant lines of P. argentatum that are important for producing latex. PMID:19917140

  7. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R inf.) and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55, 0.65, 0.85, 1.65, and 2.20 microns. The R inf. of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85 micron wavelength were significantly (p = 0.05) higher than for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), ragweed parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 micron chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, johnsongrass, ragweed parthenium, and London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, whereas annual sowthistle and Palmer amaranth were usually lowest.

  8. Nutations of sunflower seedlings on tilted clinostats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics of hypocotyl nutations in Helianthus annuus L. were measured on plants which were rotated on clinostats with axes of rotation inclined at various angles, alpha, away from the vertical. The g-force component acting in the direction of the plant axis was taken as g cos alpha. The average period and average amplitude of nutation were constant for all such axially directed g-forces between 1.0 and 0.2 g (vertical to about 80 inclination). On the horizontal clinostat (90 inclination) nutation was neither initiated nor sustained. The g-force just sufficient fully to activate nutational oscillations should be sought for g-force parameter values ranging from 0 to 0.2.

  9. Wall extensibility and gravitropic curvature of sunflower hypocotyls: correlation between timing of curvature and changes in extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagshaw, S. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Gravitropic curvature results from unequal growth rates on the upper and lower sides of horizontal stems. These unequal growth rates could be due to differences in wall extensibility between the two sides. To test this, the time course of curvature of horizontal sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hypocotyls was determined and compared with the time courses of changes in Instron-measured wall extensibility (PEx) of the upper and lower epidermal layers. As gravicurvature developed, so did the difference in PEx between the upper and lower epidermis. The enhanced growth rate on the lower side during the period of maximum increase in curvature was matched by PEx values greater than those of the vertical control, while the inhibited growth rate on the upper side was accompanied by PEx values below that of the control. The close correlation between changes in growth rates and alterations in PEx demonstrates that changes in wall extensibility play a major role in controlling gravicurvature.

  10. Effects of sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron applications on sunflower yield and plant nutrient concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, B.R.; Zubriski, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron application did not affect the seed yield or oil percentage of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on both dryland and irrigated soils in North Dakota in 1981. Field averages indicated significant Zn, Mn, and B uptake by sunflower at the 12-leaf stage as a result of fertilization with these elements. Increased Zn uptake was also observed in the uppermost mature leaf at anthesis from zinc fertilization. Although sunflower yield from boron fertilization was not significantly different from the check, a trend was observed in which boron fertilization seemed to decrease sunflower yield. Sunflower yields from the boron treatment were the lowest out of seven treatments in three out of four fields. Also, sunflower yield from the boron treatment was significantly lower than both iron and sulfur treatments when all fields were combined.

  11. Short-period circumnutations found in sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit. A reappraisal of data from Spacelab-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardal, Tom Kr; Johnsson, Anders; Chapman, David K.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We have further analysed data from an experiment performed in satellite orbit, in Spacelab-1. In micro-gravity the hypocotyls of Helianthus annuus, cv. "Teddy Bear", showed short period circumnutations (periods around 30 minutes) as well as the already reported long period nutations (with an average period of about 115 minutes). We applied various types of signal analysis (Fourier and wavelet analysis) to the data series. The long period circumnutations have a larger amplitude than the short term circumnutations. Both short and long period circumnutations exist in one and the same hypocotyl. (This is in contrast to our ground control experiments, where were found only the long-period nutations.) The period of the nutations changed throughout the experiment. These results are extending the conclusions drawn after the Spacelab experiment (Brown et al. 1990). In particular they emphasize the existence of both short- and long-period circumnutations in micro-gravity.

  12. Isolation of three diterpenoid acids from sunflowers, as oviposition stimulants for the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes.

    PubMed

    Morris, Bruce D; Charlet, Laurence D; Foster, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    The banded sunflower moth (BSFM), Cochylis hospes Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Cochylidae) is a specialist insect, the larvae of which feed on sunflowers, Helianthus spp., and a few other species of Compositae. It is one of the most important pests of sunflower in the USA. Previous work on H. annuus, the cultivated sunflower, revealed two diterpenoids that function as oviposition stimulants for female BSFM, and that other, more polar compounds also stimulated oviposition. Using a bioassay-guided approach, we isolated three additional diterpenoids, grandifloric acid (1), 15beta-hydroxy-ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid (2), and 17-hydroxy-16alpha-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), from polar fractions of pre-bloom sunflower head extracts. In laboratory bioassays, purified natural samples of each of these compounds stimulated oviposition by female BSFM. Structure-activity relationships of the five diterpenoids known to stimulate oviposition by female BSFM are discussed.

  13. Tracking photosynthetic efficiency with narrow-band spectroradiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Field, Christopher B.

    1992-01-01

    Narrow-waveband spectroradiometry presents the possibility of detecting subtle signals closely related to the current physiological state of vegetation. One such signal related to the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin is discussed. Recent advances in plant ecophysiology demonstrated a close relationship between these pigments and the regulatory state of photosystem 2 in photosynthesis. Our recent field studies of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and oak (Quercus agrifolia) demonstrated that a 'xanthophyll signal' can be isolated from the diurnal reflectance spectra of intact canopies. Furthermore, the xanthophyll signal can be used to derive a 'physiological reflectance index' (PRI) that closely correlates with the actual photosynthetic efficiency (defined as the photosynthetic rate divided by the incident PAR) in closed canopies. If these signals were detectable in Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images, they could lead to improved remote estimates of photosynthetic fluxes.

  14. Comparative Cytogenetic Study on the Toxicity of Magnetite and Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles in Sunflower Root Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Capraru, Gabriela; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-01

    In this experimental study the authors present their results regarding the cellular division rate and the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in the root meristematic cells of Helianthus annuus cultivated in the presence of different volume fractions of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, ranging between 20 and 100 microl/l. The aqueous magnetic colloids were prepared from chemically co-precipitated ferrites coated in sodium oleate. Tissue samples from the root meristeme of 2-3 day old germinated seeds were taken to prepare microscope slides following Squash method combined with Fuelgen techniques. Microscope investigation (cytogenetic tests) has resulted in the evaluation of mitotic index and chromosomal aberration index that appeared diminished and respectively increased following the addition of magnetic nanoparticles in the culture medium of the young seedlings. Zinc ferrite toxic influence appeared to be higher than that of magnetite, according to both cytogenetic parameters.

  15. Investigation of heavy-metal accumulation in selected plant samples using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiová, M.; Kaiser, J.; Novotný, K.; Novotný, J.; Vaculovič, T.; Liška, M.; Malina, R.; Stejskal, K.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R.

    2008-12-01

    Single-pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were applied for mapping the silver and copper distribution in Helianthus Annuus L. samples treated with contaminant in controlled conditions. For Ag and Cu detection the 328.07 nm Ag(I) and 324.75 nm Cu(I) lines were used, respectively. The LIBS experimental conditions (mainly the laser energy and the observation window) were optimized in order to avoid self-absorption effect in the measured spectra. In the LA-ICP-MS analysis the Ag 107 and Cu 63 isotopes were detected. The capability of these two analytical techniques for high-resolution mapping of selected trace chemical elements was demonstrated.

  16. Plant development in the absence of epiphytic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, U.; Koopmann, V.; Grotha, R.

    2002-05-01

    Microorganisms (bacteria, fungi) are common residents of the roots, stems and leaves of higher plants. In order to explore the dependency of plant development on the presence of epiphytic microorganisms, the achenes (seeds) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were sterilized and germinated under aseptic conditions. The sterility of the seedlings was determined with the agar impression method. In seedlings from non-sterile seeds (control) that were likewise raised in a germ-free environment, all plant organs investigated (stem, cotyledons and primary leaves) were contaminated with bacteria. Hypocotyl elongation was not affected by epiphytic microorganisms. However, the growth rates of the cotyledons and primary leaves were higher in sterile seedlings compared with the control. The implications of this differential inhibition of organ development by epiphytic bacteria that are transmitted via the outer surface of the seed coat are discussed. We conclude that epiphytes in the above-ground phytosphere are not necessary for the development of the sunflower seedling.

  17. Changes in Cell Membrane Permeability in Sunflower Hypocotyls Infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum1

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Joseph G.

    1972-01-01

    Influx and efflux of water and urea and electrolyte leakage are less for sunflower (Helianthus annuus) hypocotyl sections above lesions caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than for those from healthy plants. Urea uptake by sections above lesions is reduced (celery, squash, and tomato) or unchanged (bean) in other hosts after Sclerotinia infection. Efflux of urea from sunflower hypocotyls is biphasic, suggesting diffusion in series from two cellular compartments (cytoplasm and vacuole). Efflux during the fast phase was 7 to 20 times greater than that during the slow phase. No difference was noted in urea efflux from healthy and diseased tissues during the slow phase. However, efflux during the fast phase from diseased tissues was slower than from healthy tissues, suggesting that the increased resistance to diffusion of urea in host cells above lesions resides in the plasmalemma. Water movement across cell membranes of healthy and diseased sunflower hypocotyls was reduced when tissues were treated with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. PMID:16657961

  18. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect.

  19. Changes in Cell Membrane Permeability in Sunflower Hypocotyls Infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Hancock, J G

    1972-03-01

    Influx and efflux of water and urea and electrolyte leakage are less for sunflower (Helianthus annuus) hypocotyl sections above lesions caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than for those from healthy plants. Urea uptake by sections above lesions is reduced (celery, squash, and tomato) or unchanged (bean) in other hosts after Sclerotinia infection. Efflux of urea from sunflower hypocotyls is biphasic, suggesting diffusion in series from two cellular compartments (cytoplasm and vacuole). Efflux during the fast phase was 7 to 20 times greater than that during the slow phase. No difference was noted in urea efflux from healthy and diseased tissues during the slow phase. However, efflux during the fast phase from diseased tissues was slower than from healthy tissues, suggesting that the increased resistance to diffusion of urea in host cells above lesions resides in the plasmalemma. Water movement across cell membranes of healthy and diseased sunflower hypocotyls was reduced when tissues were treated with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate.

  20. Effects of Abscisic Acid and of Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient on Water Movement through Excised Sunflower Roots.

    PubMed

    Glinka, Z

    1977-05-01

    The effect of abscisic acid on the exudation rate from decapitated roots of sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) was investigated in the presence and absence of an imposed hydrostatic pressure gradient. The magnitude of the abscisic acid effect was constant even when suctions up to 60 cm Hg were applied to the cut stumps.When roots were bathed in a THO-labeled nutrient solution, the course of the appearance of radioactivity in the exudate, expressed as a function of exudate volume, was not affected by abscisic acid treatment but was strongly speeded up by applying suction.The implications of those findings with regard to the water pathway through the root and the location of the abscisic acid effect are discussed.

  1. Low proton conductance of plant cuticles and its relevance to the Acid-growth theory.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, S A; Seymour, V; Cleland, R E

    1981-09-01

    Evidence obtained on the relation between the pH of the medium and the growth of intact stem sections is compatible with the acid-growth theory only if the proton conductance of the cuticle is so low that the cuticle is an effective barrier to the entry or exit of protons from the tissue. By measuring the rate at which protons cross frozen-thawed epidermal strips of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean hypocotyls (Glycine max Morr.) and enzymically isolated cuticles of Berberis aquifolium Persh. and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) fruit, we have now demonstrated the low proton conductance of the cuticular layer. Unless the conductance is enhanced by abrasion of the cuticle or by removal of the cuticular waxes, proton movement into and out of a tissue across the cuticle will be significant only over long time periods.

  2. Short-period circumnutations found in sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit. A reappraisal of data from Spacelab-1.

    PubMed

    Bardal, Tom Kr; Johnsson, Anders; Chapman, David K

    2003-12-01

    We have further analysed data from an experiment performed in satellite orbit, in Spacelab-1. In micro-gravity the hypocotyls of Helianthus annuus, cv. "Teddy Bear", showed short period circumnutations (periods around 30 minutes) as well as the already reported long period nutations (with an average period of about 115 minutes). We applied various types of signal analysis (Fourier and wavelet analysis) to the data series. The long period circumnutations have a larger amplitude than the short term circumnutations. Both short and long period circumnutations exist in one and the same hypocotyl. (This is in contrast to our ground control experiments, where were found only the long-period nutations.) The period of the nutations changed throughout the experiment. These results are extending the conclusions drawn after the Spacelab experiment (Brown et al. 1990). In particular they emphasize the existence of both short- and long-period circumnutations in micro-gravity.

  3. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bruce D

    2006-08-15

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North America and Mexico regarding the spatial and temporal context of initial domestication of the four plant species identified as potential eastern North American domesticates: marshelder (Iva annua), chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Genetic and archaeological evidence provides strong support for the independent domestication of all four of these plant species in the eastern United States and reconfirms the region as one of the world's independent centers of domestication.

  4. Evaluation of terrestrial plants extracts for uranium sorption and characterization of potent phytoconstituents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Thulasidas, S K; Kulkarni, Madhuri J; Natarajan, V; Manchanda, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Sorption capacity of four plants (Funaria hygrometrica, Musa acuminata, Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) extracts/fractions for uranium, a radionuclide was investigated by EDXRF and tracer studies. The maximum sorption capacity, i.e., 100% (complete sorption) was observed in case of Musa acuminata extract and fractions. Carbohydrate, proteins, phenolics and flavonoids contents in the active fraction (having maximum sorption capacity) were also determined. Further purification of the most active fraction provided three pure molecules, mannitol, sorbitol and oxo-linked potassium oxalate. The characterization of isolated molecules was achieved by using FTIR, NMR, GC-MS, MS-MS, and by single crystal-XRD analysis. Of three molecules, oxo-linked potassium oxalate was observed to have 100% sorption activity. Possible binding mechanism of active molecule with the uranyl cation has been purposed.

  5. Short-period circumnutations found in sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit. A reappraisal of data from Spacelab-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardal, Tom Kr; Johnsson, Anders; Chapman, David K.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We have further analysed data from an experiment performed in satellite orbit, in Spacelab-1. In micro-gravity the hypocotyls of Helianthus annuus, cv. "Teddy Bear", showed short period circumnutations (periods around 30 minutes) as well as the already reported long period nutations (with an average period of about 115 minutes). We applied various types of signal analysis (Fourier and wavelet analysis) to the data series. The long period circumnutations have a larger amplitude than the short term circumnutations. Both short and long period circumnutations exist in one and the same hypocotyl. (This is in contrast to our ground control experiments, where were found only the long-period nutations.) The period of the nutations changed throughout the experiment. These results are extending the conclusions drawn after the Spacelab experiment (Brown et al. 1990). In particular they emphasize the existence of both short- and long-period circumnutations in micro-gravity.

  6. Does triacylglycerol biosynthesis require diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DAGAT)?

    PubMed

    Fraser, T; Waters, A; Chatrattanakunchai, S; Stobart, K

    2000-12-01

    Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) catalyse the conversion of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and acyl-CoA to triacylglycerol via phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. The formation of diacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid was Mg2+ dependent and in the presence of EDTA phosphatidic acid accumulated. This property was used to generate large quantities of endogenous radioactive phosphatidic acid in the membranes. On addition of Mg2+ the phosphatidic acid was used in triacylglycerol formation. Acyl-CoA had little effect on the label which accumulated in triacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase, therefore, may not play a major role in oil formation as originally envisaged and other enzymes, including diacylglycerol:diacylglycerol transacylase [Stobart, Mancha, Lenman, Dahlqvist and Stymne (1997) Planta 203, 58-66] may have important biosynthetic functions.

  7. Structural stability and surface activity of sunflower 2S albumins and nonspecific lipid transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Berecz, Bernadett; Mills, E N Clare; Tamás, László; Láng, Ferenc; Shewry, Peter R; Mackie, Alan R

    2010-05-26

    The structural and interfacial properties of five different fractions of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) seed storage proteins were studied. The fractions comprised lipid transfer protein (LTP), the methionine-rich 2S albumin SFA8 (sunflower albumin 8), and three mixtures of non-methionine-rich 2S albumins called Alb1 and Alb2 proteins (sunflower albumins 1 and 2). Heating affected all of the proteins studied, with SFA8 and LTP becoming more surface active than the native proteins after heating and cooling. LTP appeared to be less thermostable than homologous LTPs from other plant species. SFA8 generated the greatest elastic modulus and formed the most stable emulsions, whereas LTP showed poorer emulsification properties. The mixed 2S albumin fractions showed moderate levels of surface activity but had the poorest emulsification properties among the proteins studied.

  8. Circumnutation Tracker: novel software for investigation of circumnutation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An endogenous, helical plant organ movement named circumnutation is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Plant shoots, stems, tendrils, leaves, and roots commonly circumnutate but their appearance is still poorly described. To support such investigations, novel software Circumnutation Tracker (CT) for spatial-temporal analysis of circumnutation has been developed. Results CT works on time-lapse video and collected circumnutation parameters: period, length, rate, shape, angle, and clockwise- and counterclockwise directions. The CT combines a filtering algorithm with a graph-based method to describe the parameters of circumnutation. The parameters of circumnutation of Helianthus annuus hypocotyls and the relationship between cotyledon arrangement and circumnutation geometry are presented here to demonstrate the CT options. Conclusions We have established that CT facilitates and accelerates analysis of circumnutation. In combination with the physiological, molecular, and genetic methods, this software may be a powerful tool also for investigations of gravitropism, biological clock, and membrane transport, i.e. processes involved in the mechanism of circumnutation.

  9. Tyrosine nitration provokes inhibition of sunflower carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) activity under high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Mounira; Carreras, Alfonso; López-Jaramillo, Javier; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Valderrama, Raquel; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2013-02-28

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a post-translational modification (PTM) mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and it is a new area of research in higher plants. Previously, it was demonstrated that the exposition of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings to high temperature (HT) caused both oxidative and nitrosative stress. The nitroproteome analysis under this stress condition showed the induction of 13 tyrosine-nitrated proteins being the carbonic anhydrase (CA) one of these proteins. The analysis of CA activity under high temperature showed that this stress inhibited the CA activity by a 43%. To evaluate the effect of nitration on the CA activity in sunflower it was used 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (peroxynitrite donor) as the nitrating agent. Thus the CA activity was inhibited by 41%. In silico analysis of the pea CA protein sequence suggests that Tyr(205) is the most likely potential target for nitration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The fly ash influenced the heavy metal status of the soil and the seeds of sunflower. A case study.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shazia; Ahmad, A; Hayat, S

    2004-01-01

    In this study, four cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were grown in the sandy loam soil, supplemented with graded (v/v) quantity (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%) of the fly ash, released by the combustion of the coal from the thermal power plant. The presence of fly ash in the soil increased its porosity, water holding capacity, pH, E.C., C.E.C., the content of sulphate, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and various trace elements. However, in the seeds, except Fe, Pb, Mn and Zn, and other heavy metals remained untraced up to 40% of the fly ash, above that their quantity slightly increased but the values are very much under the permissible limits.

  11. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and phytotoxic activity of corn (Zea mays) extracts against some indicator species.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hiwa M

    2017-05-31

    Allelopathic effects of corn (Zea mays) extracts was studied, against seed germination and seedling growth of Phalaris minor, Helianthus annuus, Triticumaestivum, Sorghum halepense, Z. mays. Bioassay results showed that aqueous extracts of corn root and shoot, markedly affected seed germination, and other parameters compared with related controls. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various phytochemicals such as tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids in both roots and shoot aqueous extracts. However, saponins were only present in the shoot aqueous extract, while in shoot ethanol extracts, only terpenoids and alkaloids were detected. Additionally, total polyphenolic (TPC) content in aqueous extracts of corn root and shoot, plus ethanol extracts of corn shoot were determined using an Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Results revealed TPC content of the corn shoot aqueous extract showed the highest yield, compared to other extracts. These findings suggest that phytochemicals present in Z. mays extracts may contribute to allelopathy effect.

  12. Plant gnotobiology: Epiphytic microbes and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Khanna, Rajnish

    2016-12-01

    In 1963, a monograph by Thomas D. Luckey entitled Germfree Life and Gnotobiology was published, with a focus on animals treated with microbes and reference to the work of Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). Here, we review the history and current status of plant gnotobiology, which can be traced back to the experiments of Jean-Baptiste Boussingault (1801-1887) published in 1838. Since the outer surfaces of typical land plants are much larger than their internal areas, embryophytes "wear their guts on the outside." We describe the principles of gnotobiological analyses, with reference to epiphytic metylobacteria, and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) as well as Arabidopsis as model dicots. Finally, a Californian field experiment aiming to improve crop yield in strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) is described to document the practical value of this novel research agenda.

  13. Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2010-08-26

    Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] – soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] – peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

  14. Wall extensibility and gravitropic curvature of sunflower hypocotyls: correlation between timing of curvature and changes in extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagshaw, S. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Gravitropic curvature results from unequal growth rates on the upper and lower sides of horizontal stems. These unequal growth rates could be due to differences in wall extensibility between the two sides. To test this, the time course of curvature of horizontal sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hypocotyls was determined and compared with the time courses of changes in Instron-measured wall extensibility (PEx) of the upper and lower epidermal layers. As gravicurvature developed, so did the difference in PEx between the upper and lower epidermis. The enhanced growth rate on the lower side during the period of maximum increase in curvature was matched by PEx values greater than those of the vertical control, while the inhibited growth rate on the upper side was accompanied by PEx values below that of the control. The close correlation between changes in growth rates and alterations in PEx demonstrates that changes in wall extensibility play a major role in controlling gravicurvature.

  15. Hydroquinone; A novel bioactive compound from plant-derived smoke can cue seed germination of lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Imran, Qari M.; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-05-01

    Plant-derived smoke has been known to play an important role in distribution and growth of vegetation. Using a proficiently designed furnace, we extracted smoke from the leaves of four plant viz. Helianthus annuus, Aloe vera, Ginkgo biloba, and Cymbopogon jwarancusa. Smoke dilutions obtained from these plants were obtained in different concentrations to identify potential lettuce growth promoting smoke solution. Results revealed that smoke obtained from Ginkgo biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then partitioned into ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, n-hexane, chloroform and ether fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques to obtain compound 1. This compound was identified as hydroquinone using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. At low concentrations (5, 10 and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations inhibited its growth as compared to control.

  16. Apparent Catalase Synthesis in Sunflower Cotyledons during the Change in Microbody Function: A Mathematical Approach for the Quantitative Evaluation of Density-labeling Data.

    PubMed

    Betsche, T; Gerhardt, B

    1978-10-01

    Density-labeling with 10 mm K(15)NO(3)/70% (2)H(2)O has been used to investigate catalase synthesis in different developmental stages of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cotyledons. A mathematical approach is introduced for the quantitative evaluation of the density-labeling data. The method allows, in the presence of preexisting enzyme activity, calculation of this synthesized activity (apparent enzyme synthesis) which results from the balance between actual enzyme synthesis and the degradation of newly synthesized enzyme at a given time. During greening of the cotyledons, when the catalase activity declines and the population of leaf peroxisomes is formed, the apparent catalase synthesis is lower than, or at best equal to, that occurring during a developmental stage when the leaf peroxisome population is established and catalase synthesis and degradation of total catalase are in equilibrium. This result suggests a formation, in fatty cotyledons, of the leaf peroxisomes by transformation of the glyoxysomes rather than by de novo synthesis.

  17. Auxin transport: a new synthetic inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Beyer, E M

    1972-09-01

    The new synthetic plant growth regulator DPX1840 (3,3a-dihydro-2-(p-methoxyphenyl)-8H-pyrazolo [5,1-a] isoindol-8-one) was examined for its effects on auxin transport. At a concentration of 0.5 mm in the receiver agar cylinders DPX1840 significantly inhibited the basipetal transport of naphthaleneacetic acid-1-(14)C in stem sections of Vigna sinensis Endl., Pisum sativum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Glycine max L., Helianthus annuus L., Gossypium hirsutum L., and Zea mays L. without significantly reducing total auxin uptake or recovery. The time sequence of the effect varied with the plant species. A similar inhibition of the basipetal movement of indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C was observed in intact seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. In contrast to basipetal auxin transport DPX1840 had no significant effect on the acropetal movement of indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C in stem sections of Gossypium hirsutum L. Qualitatively the effect of DPX1840 on basipetal auxin transport was similar to that of other known auxin transport inhibitors. Quantitative differences, however, suggested the following order of activity: Naptalam>morphactin[unk]DPX1840>2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid.DPX1840 also inhibited the lateral displacement of auxin. In horizontally placed stem sections of Helianthus annuus L. pretreated with DPX1840, the ratio of radioactivity from indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C in the upper versus the lower halves of the sections following basipetal indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C transport was approximately 50:50, whereas in the corresponding controls it was approximately 40:60.The data indicate that many of the characteristic effects of DPX1840 on plants, especially those which are known to involve auxin (e.g., epinasty, abscission, apical dominance, tropism), are due, at least in part, to its effects on auxin transport.

  18. Cavitation Fatigue. Embolism and Refilling Cycles Can Weaken the Cavitation Resistance of Xylem1

    PubMed Central

    Hacke, Uwe G.; Stiller, Volker; Sperry, John S.; Pittermann, Jarmila; McCulloh, Katherine A.

    2001-01-01

    Although cavitation and refilling cycles could be common in plants, it is unknown whether these cycles weaken the cavitation resistance of xylem. Stem or petiole segments were tested for cavitation resistance before and after a controlled cavitation-refilling cycle. Cavitation was induced by centrifugation, air drying of shoots, or soil drought. Except for droughted plants, material was not significantly water stressed prior to collection. Cavitation resistance was determined from “vulnerability curves” showing the percentage loss of conductivity versus xylem pressure. Two responses were observed. “Resilient” xylem (Acer negundo and Alnus incana stems) showed no change in cavitation resistance after a cavitation-refilling cycle. In contrast, “weakened” xylem (Populus angustifolia, P. tremuloides, Helianthus annuus stems, and Aesculus hippocastanum petioles) showed considerable reduction in cavitation resistance. Weakening was observed whether cavitation was induced by centrifugation, air dehydration, or soil drought. Observations from H. annuus showed that weakening was proportional to the embolism induced by stress. Air injection experiments indicated that the weakened response was a result of an increase in the leakiness of the vascular system to air seeding. The increased air permeability in weakened xylem could result from rupture or loosening of the cellulosic mesh of interconduit pit membranes during the water stress and cavitation treatment. PMID:11161035

  19. Microbially assisted phytoremediation approaches for two multi-element contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Langella, Francesca; Grawunder, Anja; Stark, Romy; Weist, Aileen; Merten, Dirk; Haferburg, Götz; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an environmental friendly, cost-effective technology for a soft restoration of abandoned mine sites. The grasses Agrostis capillaris, Deschampsia flexuosa and Festuca rubra, and the annual herb Helianthus annuus were combined with microbial consortia in pot experiments on multi-metal polluted substrates collected at a former uranium mine near Ronneburg, Germany, and a historic copper mine in Kopparberg, Sweden, to test for phytoextraction versus phytostabilization abilities. Metal uptake into plant biomass was evaluated to identify optimal plant-microbe combinations for each substrate. Metal bioavailability was found to be plant species and element specific, and influenced by the applied bacterial consortia of 10 strains, each isolated from the same soil to which it was applied. H. annuus showed high extraction capacity for several metals on the German soil independent of inoculation. Our study could also show a significant enhancement of extraction for F. rubra and A. capillaris when combined with the bacterial consortium, although usually grasses are considered metal excluder species. On the Swedish mixed substrate, due to its toxicity, with 30 % bark compost, A. capillaris inoculated with the respective consortium was able to extract multi-metal contaminants.

  20. Transpiration and CO/sub 2/ fixation of selected desert shrubs as related to soil-water potential

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Letey, J. Jr.; Lunt, O.R.; Wallace, A.; Kleinkopf, G.E.; Romney, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    In desert plants, transpiration rates decreased before photosynthetic rates when plants were entering a period of water stress. This may have adaptive consequences. A difference of -5 bars in the soil-moisture potential had considerable importance in reducing the rate of transpiration. In Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) the photosynthetic rate decreased before the transpiration rate in contrast to Great Basin-Mojave Desert plants, and the changes occurred with a -1 bar difference in soil-moisture potential. Morphological changes in three desert plant species (Artemisia tridentata Nutt., Ambrosia dumosa (Gray) Payne, Larrea tridentata (Ses. Moc. ex DC) Cov.) as the soil-moisture potential decreased are given. With a mesic species, H. annuus, 20% reduction in photosynthesis and transpiration was reached at higher soil-moisture potentials than with the desert plants. Loss of net photosynthesis occurred in A. dumosa (a summer deciduous shrub) as PSI soil reached -48 bars in the field, whereas L. tridentata (an evergreen shrub) at the same time was able to maintain a water potential difference between soil and plant of -10 to -15 bars and continue net CO/sub 2/ gain well into the summer months.