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Sample records for helicobacter pylori moves

  1. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  2. Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B E; Cohen, H; Blaser, M J

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium which causes chronic gastritis and plays important roles in peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. H. pylori has been found in the stomachs of humans in all parts of the world. In developing countries, 70 to 90% of the population carries H. pylori. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is lower. There appears to be no substantial reservoir of H. pylori aside from the human stomach. Transmission can occur by iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes. H. pylori is able to colonize and persist in a unique biological niche within the gastric lumen. All fresh isolates of H. pylori express significant urease activity, which appears essential to the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium. A variety of tests to diagnose H. pylori infection are now available. Histological examination of gastric tissue, culture, rapid urease testing, DNA probes, and PCR analysis, when used to test gastric tissue, all require endoscopy. In contrast, breath tests, serology, gastric juice PCR, and urinary excretion of [15N]ammonia are noninvasive tests that do not require endoscopy. In this review, we highlight advances in the detection of the presence of the organism and methods of differentiating among types of H. pylori, and we provide a background for appropriate chemotherapy of the infection. PMID:9336670

  3. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two- ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of ...

  4. Helicobacter pylori in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Hojsak, Iva; Kolaček, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    This review summarizes important pediatric studies published from April 2011 up to March 2012. Proteomics profile of ulcerogenic Helicobacter pylori strains was defined in the most interesting study of the last year. The antigen stool test is becoming the "gold standard" in prevalence studies, and according to the last epidemiologic studies, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in childhood is not decreasing any more in the developed world. The resistance rate of H. pylori strains is high in children. Therefore, among other important issues concerning H. pylori in pediatrics, guidelines published by ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN last year also recommended culture and susceptibility testing before first-line treatment in areas with high or unknown antibiotic resistance rates.

  5. Helicobacter pylori and hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Calam, J.

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori affects gastric acid secretion via several mechanisms. One of these is by changing gastric regulatory physiology. The infection elevates plasma gastrin levels and decreases gastric mucosal expression of the inhibitory peptide somatostatin. These changes may be due to products of H. pylori itself or inflammatory cytokines released in H. pylori infection: acid secretion is inhibited less by a low intra-gastric pH, infusions of cholecystokinin and gastric distention in infected persons. Eradication of H. pylori rapidly decreases basal acid secretion and gastrin-releasing, peptide-stimulated acid secretion. There are now reports that maximally-stimulated acid secretion, a measure of the parietal cell mass, falls significantly six and 12 months after eradication of H. pylori from duodenal ulcer patients. This might be due to withdrawal of the trophic effect of gastrin. However H. pylori can also decrease gastric acid secretion, both through the mechanisms described in Dr. Cave's paper and by causing gastric mucosal atrophy with loss of parietal cells. The net effect on acid presumably depends on which mechanism predominates. The processes involved may be crucial determinants of clinical outcome. For example, infection with little atrophy and high acid secretion is associated with duodenal ulcers, while infection with atrophy and low acid secretion increases the risk of gastric cancer of the intestinal-type. PMID:9041688

  6. Helicobacter pylori in children.

    PubMed

    Sustmann, Andrea; Okuda, Masumi; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in early childhood may differ in many aspects compared to infection in adulthood: the immune response in the gut, the type and prevalence of complications within and outside the stomach, and the impact on long-term health. In high prevalence countries, transient infections seem to be common in infants and toddlers, and the consequences of this phenomenon on the short- and long-term immune response are still unclear. Other controversial issues are related to the question of which H. pylori-infected children benefit from treatment and which is the best regimen to eradicate the infection in the presence of a worldwide increasing antibiotic resistance. The first large-scale randomized placebo-controlled vaccination trial in schoolchildren indicates that prevention of the infection may be possible. PMID:27531540

  7. [Helicobacter pylori and Arteriosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Teruaki

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-related diseases are known to include gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron-deficient anemia, urticaria, reflux esophagitis, and some lifestyle-related diseases. It is indicated that homocysteine involved with arteriosclerosis induces lifestyle-related diseases. Homocysteine is decomposed to methionine and cysteine (useful substances) in the liver, through the involvement of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) and folic acid. However, deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid induces an increase in unmetabolized homocysteine stimulating active oxygen and promoting arteriosclerosis. VB₁₂ and folic acid are activated by the intrinsic factors of gastric parietal cells and gastric acid. The question of whether homocysteine, as a trigger of arteriosclerosis, was influenced by H. pylori infection was investigated. H. pylori infection induces atrophy of the gastric mucosa, and the function of parietal cells decreases with the atrophy to inactivate its intrinsic factor. The inactivation of the intrinsic factor causes a deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid to increase homocysteine's chances of triggering arteriosclerosis. The significance and usefulness of H. pylori eradication therapy was evaluated for its ability to prevent arteriosclerosis that induces lifestyle-related diseases. Persons with positive and negative results of H. pylori infection were divided into a group of those aged 65 years or more (early and late elderly) and a group of those under 65 years of age, and assessed for gastric juice. For twenty-five persons from each group who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, the degree of atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed. Blood homocysteine was measured as a novel index of arteriosclerosis, as well as VB₁₂ and folic acid that affect the metabolism of homocysteine, and then activated by gastric acid and intrinsic factors. Their

  8. Probiotics and Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, E; Francavilla, R; Castellazzi, A M; Arrigo, T; Labò, E; Leonardi, S; Ciprandi, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Salpietro, V; Salpietro, C; La Rosa, M

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 50 percent of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), with the highest prevalence rates in developing countries. The current guidelines suggest the use of triple therapy as first choice treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, although the eradication failure rate is more than 30 percent. Current interest in probiotics as therapeutic agents against Helicobacter pylori is stimulated by the increasing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics, thus the interest for alternative therapies is a real actual topic. Available data in children indicate that probiotics seem to be efficacious for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects, and might be of help for the prevention of Helicobacter pylori complications by decreasing Helicobacter pylori density and gastritis, and for the prevention of Helicobacter pylori colonization or re-infection by inhibiting adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. There is no clear evidence that probiotics may increase the Helicobacter pylori eradication rate.

  9. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26372825

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Zara, Tuba; Engin, Burhan; Serdaroğlu, Server; Tüzün, Yalçin; Yilmaz, Erkan; Eren, Bülent

    2014-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been linked to peptic ulcer disease, gastric lymphoma, and gastric carcinoma. Apart from its well-demonstrated role in gastroduodenal diseases, some authors have suggested a potential role of Helicobacter pylori infection in several extra-intestinal pathologies including haematological, cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, autoimmune, and dermatological diseases. Some studies suggest an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and skin diseases such as chronic idiopathic urticaria and rosacea. There have also been few case reports documenting association between Helicobacter pylori and psoriasis vulgaris, Behçet's disease, alopecia areata, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and Sweet's syndrome. However, more systematic studies are required to clarify the proposed association between Helicobacter pylori and skin diseases; most of the studies do not show relevant relationships of these diseases with Helicobacter pylori infections. This review discusses skin diseases that are believed to be associated with Helicobacter pylori.

  12. Helicobacter pylori Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... pylori stool antigen test; H. pylori breath test; Urea breath test; CLO test; Rapid urease test (RUT) ... of H. pylori antigen in a stool sample Urea breath test A person drinks a liquid containing ...

  13. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Shmuely, Haim; Katicic, Miroslava; Filipec Kanizaj, Tajana; Niv, Yaron

    2012-09-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer disease has declined over the last few decades, particularly in Western populations, most likely as a result of the decrease in Helicobacter pylori infection and the widespread use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) in patients with dyspepsia. The hospital admission rate for uncomplicated duodenal and gastric ulcers has significantly decreased worldwide. In contrast, admissions for complicated ulcer disease, such as bleeding peptic ulcers and perforation, remained relatively stable. Prophylactic H. pylori eradication was found to be associated with a reduced risk of both gastric and duodenal ulcers and their complications, including bleeding in chronic users of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The recent Helicobacter Eradication Relief of Dyspeptic Symptoms trial presented important data relating to symptoms and quality of life of H. pylori-positive patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and also demonstrated significant benefits from eradication compared with the control group. The new Asian consensus report on FD recommended that dyspepsia accompanied by H. pylori infection should be considered a separate disease entity from FD and that H. pylori infection should be eradicated before diagnosing FD. The association of H. pylori with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is still controversial. Treatment for H. pylori does not seem to increase GERD symptoms or reflux esophagitis. However, documented eradication of H. pylori appears to significantly improve GERD symptoms. Additional long-term intervention studies are needed to provide more information on which to base clinical decisions.

  14. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ramos, Alberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Since its discovery and identification in gastric tissue by Marshall and Warren in 1983, our knowledge about the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection has grown considerably. Its role in the multifactorial pathology of peptic ulcer disease (gastrodudodenal ulcer disease), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma is now widely accepted while its involvement in extraintestinal disease is still controversial.The correlation between the colonization of the stomach by H. pylori and gastric lymphoma has been demonstrated in multiple studies. Between 65 and 80% of distal gastric adenocarcinomas are attributed to H. pylori infection. However, gastric carcinogenesis cannot be explained by H. pylori infection alone. Among those individuals infected by this bacteria, only a small percentage (2-5%) ever develops gastric cancer, the majority exhibit benign lesions. There is a wide individual variation in the outcome of this infection in patients. This individual and population specific variation is due to the intricate relationship between genetics, the environment, bacterial virulence, diet, and socio-economic status and it explains the multiple outcomes of this infection. In this article, we conduct a review of the widely accepted theories regarding gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori, the correlations and enigmas between them, the reported geographical variations, and the various proposed hypotheses on the carcinogenic mechanism of Helicobacter pylori.

  15. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Maaroos, H I

    1994-01-01

    In connection with longitudinal ulcer studies and the demonstration of Helicobacter pylori as the main cause of chronic gastritis, new aspects of gastric ulcer recurrences and healing become evident. This extends the possibilities to prognosticate the course of gastric ulcer and to use more effective treatment. PMID:7937016

  16. Toxicosis in Helicobacter Pylori infection - a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    BELASCU, MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim We present a new clinical entity in relation to the Helicobacter pylori infection characterized by complex and varied clinical extra-digestive manifestations. Clinical findings such as asthenia, adynamia, sleep disorders, hair and nails modifications, digestive symptoms and heart rhythm disorders describe the clinical aspect of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods The clinical presentation and therapy of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection were analyzed. Results Combined drug therapy: antibiotics + proton pump inhibitors + colloidal bismuth compound determinate remission of the symptoms in the first 3 to 5 days. The characteristic of the relation between Helicobacter pylori and the mucus-epithelial cell complex, the properties of the bacterial cell components, and the inflammatory and immunological response targeting other organs describe the immuno-pathological outbreak of Helicobacter pylori. Conclusion We support the term of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in selected cases. PMID:26527950

  17. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by Chloramination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were studied to determine their resistance to chloramination. H. pylori is an organism listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Contaminant Control List (CCL). H. pylori was exposed to 2ppm of pre-formed monoc...

  18. Helicobacter pylori and Nonmalignant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Georgios S; Axon, Anthony T R

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for most peptic ulcers, plays a role in functional dyspepsia and is thought by some to influence the course of gastroesophageal reflux disease. This article addresses recent studies that have been published in connection with these diseases. H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer is declining in prevalence but the incidence of perforation and bleeding remains high especially in the elderly. All H. pylori associated peptic ulcers should be treated by eradication of the infection. Dyspepsia is a common disorder that affects up to 25% of the population. About 8% of cases that are infected with H. pylori will respond to treatment of the infection. The association between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease continues to be debated, a number of studies have shown that there is a negative association between H. pylori infection and Gastroesophageal reflux disease but treatment of H. pylori has not been shown to induce reflux or to affect the response to medication. Gastric atrophy is known to extend when acid suppression is used in infected patients implying that H. pylori treatment should be used in infected patients who are to undergo long-term Proton Pump Inhibitor therapy.

  19. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event.

  20. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, Enzo; Goni, Elisabetta; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Di Mario, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding and recurrence rate are strongly linked to Helicobacter pylori infection even if nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play a relevant role in this setting. Further studies confirm that H. pylori eradication lowers the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. Therefore, a test-and-treat strategy appears to be mandatory for patients with a history of ulcer bleeding and NSAIDs and/or aspirin use. Concerning gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), evidence clearly shows that H. pylori status has no effect on symptoms and treatment. Therefore, H. pylori treatment is not contraindicated in patients with GERD. The exact role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia (FD) remains controversial. Novel possible mechanisms by which H. pylori may elicit dyspeptic symptoms include alterations of gastric motility, as well as endocrine and acid-secretory abnormalities. Hunger sensations, acid secretion, and gastrointestinal motility are regulated by ghrelin, particularly produced by the gastric enteroendocrine cell compartment. The improvement of symptoms correlates with enhanced plasma ghrelin levels. Apart from the need for more trials on this topic, these findings may give insight into the underlying pathophysiology of FD symptoms. Recent reports suggest that the presence of bacterial DNA in the oral cavity may be relevant to its transmission. A potential protective role of H. pylori on inflammatory bowel diseases needs to be better elucidated.

  1. Helicobacter pylori: management in 2013.

    PubMed

    Alahdab, Yesim Ozen; Kalayci, Cem

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a prevalent, worldwide, chronic infection. Choice of treatment can be modified according to antibiotic-resistance rates of H. pylori. The ideal therapeutic regimen for H. pylori infection should achieve an eradication rate of ≥ 80%. In some countries, triple therapy with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin, and amoxicillin or metronidazole is still the best option. Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy consisting of bismuth salts, tetracycline, metronidazole and PPI, may be the preferred option in countries with clarithromycin resistance > 20%. Sequential therapy including a PPI and amoxicillin given for the first 5 d, followed by triple therapy including a PPI, clarithromycin, and nitroimidazole antimicrobial (all twice daily) for the remaining 5 d, can be another option for the first-line treatment of H. pylori. Recent data suggest that treatment with PPI, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin for 10 d is a good choice for second-line therapy. Concomitant therapy consisting of PPI, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole is another option for second-line treatment. If second-line treatment also fails, it is recommended to culture H. pylori from biopsy specimens and perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Rescue treatment should be based on antimicrobial susceptibility.

  2. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, G; Acuña, R; Troncoso, M; Portell, D P; Toledo, M S; Valenzuela, J

    1997-11-01

    This article summarizes studies designed to evaluate the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile, described in 21 reports from nine centers in various Chilean regions published between 1985 and 1995. According to their data, H. pylori infection is quite frequent among patients with a variety of gastric conditions, including adults (43%-92%) and children (6%-100%). Levels of specific IgG antibodies to H. pylori are also elevated among patients with duodenal ulcers (100%) and gastritis (86%) as well as asymptomatic adults (75%). Combination therapy with three (but not two) drugs has been proved effective, with clinical improvement, ulcer cure, and H. pylori eradication occurring in well-controlled studies. Available evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance is not a major problem in treatment. The H. pylori reinfection rate is low (4.2% per year), suggesting that combination therapy with three drugs constitutes a cost-effective alternative for treating colonized symptomatic patients. Concurrent preliminary studies revealed that antibodies to VacA but not CagA proteins correlate with disease severity in Chilean patients. It can be concluded that local research assists local administrators of health resources to implement adequate policies to prevent, control, and treat H. pylori-related pathologies.

  4. Diet and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Imiela, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Our diet contains many substances with potent antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Dietary interventions enable a decrease in H. pylori colonisation and result in a decrease in gastritis prevalence, thus potentially lowering the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development. PMID:27713775

  5. Laryngopharyngeal reflux and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Taner; Bajin, Münir Demir; Günaydın, Rıza Önder; Ozer, Serdar; Sözen, Tevfik

    2014-07-21

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) occurs when gastric contents pass the upper esophageal sphincter, causing symptoms such as hoarseness, sore throat, coughing, excess throat mucus, and globus. The pattern of reflux is different in LPR and gastroesophageal reflux. LPR usually occurs during the daytime in the upright position whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease more often occurs in the supine position at night-time or during sleep. Ambulatory 24-h double pH-probe monitoring is the gold standard diagnostic tool for LPR. Acid suppression with proton pump inhibitor on a long-term basis is the mainstay of treatment. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is found in many sites including laryngeal mucosa and interarytenoid region. In this paper, we aim to present the relationship between LPR and H. pylori and review the current literature. PMID:25083069

  6. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection. PMID:27531531

  7. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection.

  8. Non-pharmacological treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Shmuely, Haim; Domniz, Noam; Yahav, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Many food and plant extracts have shown in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity, but are less effective in vivo. The anti-H. pylori effects of these extracts are mainly permeabilitization of the membrane, anti-adhesion, inhibition of bacterial enzymes and bacterial grown. We, herein, review treatment effects of cranberry, garlic, curcumin, ginger and pistacia gum against H. pylori in both in vitro, animal studies and in vivo studies. PMID:27158532

  9. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Oya

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infections worldwide. Although infection rates are falling in the developed and developing countries, H. pylori is still widespread in the world. This article has reviewed the important publications on H. pylori in childhood with a focus on its evolving transmission route and the source of infection and preventive strategies in childhood, PubMed was searched up to identify eligible studies. Relevant publications were searched using the following. PMID:25132751

  10. Non-pharmacological treatment of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Shmuely, Haim; Domniz, Noam; Yahav, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Many food and plant extracts have shown in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity, but are less effective in vivo. The anti-H. pylori effects of these extracts are mainly permeabilitization of the membrane, anti-adhesion, inhibition of bacterial enzymes and bacterial grown. We, herein, review treatment effects of cranberry, garlic, curcumin, ginger and pistacia gum against H. pylori in both in vitro, animal studies and in vivo studies. PMID:27158532

  11. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Axon, Anthony T. R.

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter gastroduodenitis is a serious chronic infectious disease that is responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. An understanding of the way in which it spreads is fundamentally important when considering measures for its control. Its prevalence is highest in the developing world and in individuals with a disadvantaged socio-economic childhood. The disease is believed to be contracted during the early years of life. A faeco-oral mode of transmission is considered by many to be the most likely mode of spread, however, the organism is difficult to culture both from faeces and from the environment and unlike other enteric organisms Helicobacter does not give rise to a diarrhoeal illness that would facilitate its transmission. An orooral route of spread has also been suggested, however, Helicobacter cannot be cultured from saliva, and if it was spread orally there is no reason why childhood should be the most frequent age for its acquisition. A third possibility is that the bacterium is transmitted gastro-orally. In favor of this hypothesis, the infection is easily acquired following gastric intubation with inadequately disinfected equipment. Children have a greater tendency to vomit than adults, and tend to explore with their fingers and place foreign objects in their mouths. Initial Helicobacter infection causes a dyspeptic illness characterised by mucousy vomiting, which may provide a vehicle for transmission. Furthermore, during the acute infection the organism induces achlorhydria in the host, possibly enabling the organism to survive longer in vomited mucus in the absence of acid. This theory fits best with the epidemiological data. Those most at risk are children living in an overcrowded environment who share beds with one another and live in houses that do not possess a fixed hot water supply (thus making cleaning up of vomit more difficult). It is also commoner in institutionalized children and is associated with school catchment areas.

  12. Helicobacter pylori and extragastric diseases.

    PubMed

    Goni, Elisabetta; Franceschi, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    During the past year, many articles were published on the extragastric diseases related to Helicobacter pylori infection. This supports the theory that some microorganisms may cause diseases even far from the primary site of infection by interfering with different biologic processes. The role of H. pylori on idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, sideropenica anemia, and vitamin B12 deficiency is well known. On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the bacterium's association with cardiovascular, neurologic, hematologic, dermatologic, head and neck, and uro-gynecologic diseases, as well as diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, with very promising results. This review has been aimed at summarizing the results of the most relevant studies published over the last year on this fascinating topic. PMID:27531539

  13. Amoxycillin tolerance in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Dore, M P; Osato, M S; Realdi, G; Mura, I; Graham, D Y; Sepulveda, A R

    1999-01-01

    Resistance to amoxycillin in Helicobacter pylori has only recently been reported. To demonstrate the existence of resistance, and to test for the presence of tolerance, 17 amoxycillin-resistant strains of H. pylori, first isolated in Sardinia (Italy) and the USA, were studied. Four amoxycillin-sensitive strains were used as controls. Primary isolates of all test strains exhibited amoxycillin resistance; beta-lactamase activity was not detected. Amoxycillin resistance was lost after storage of strains at -80 degrees C but could be rescued by plating these strains on to amoxycillin gradient plates. MICs and MBCs from rescued isolates ranged from 0.5 to 32 mg/L and from 32 to > 1024 mg/L, respectively. MBC/MIC ratios > or = 32 are characteristic of antibiotic tolerance. The ratios of MBC/MIC of amoxycillin ranged from 32 to > 1024 for the test strains, indicating that these strains were tolerant to the antibiotic. Amoxycillin resistance does occur in H. pylori. Amoxycillin susceptibility testing of H. pylori isolates in patients who fail therapy should include determination of the MBC to detect tolerance. PMID:10381100

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Barbara; Francavailla, Ruggiero

    2014-09-01

    This review concerns important pediatric studies published from April 2013 to March 2014. New data on pathogenesis have demonstrated that Th1 type cytokine secretion at the gastric level is less intense in children compared with adults. They have also shown that the most significant risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection is the parents' origin and frequency of childcare in settings with a high prevalence of infection. A new hypothesis on the positive relationship between childhood H. pylori infection and the risk of gastric cancer in adults has been suggested which calls for an implementation of preventive programs to reduce the burden of childhood H. pylori infection in endemic areas. Several studies have investigated the role of H. pylori infection in iron-deficiency anemia, and results support the role of the bacterium in this condition. Antibiotic resistance is an area of intense research with data confirming an increase in antibiotic resistance, and the effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on proton-pump inhibitor metabolism should be further investigated as cure rates are lower in extensive metabolizers. Studies confirmed that probiotic supplementation may have beneficial effects on eradication and therapy-related side effects, particularly diarrhea in children.

  15. [Helicobacter pylori-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from the presentations on Helicobacter pylori at Digestive Disease Week 2013. Knowledge of this infection among the general population continues to be extremely limited. H. pylori is the main cause of "aging" of the human stomach. In developed countries, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has decreased but continues to be considerable. In most countries, clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance rates are markedly high. H. pylori eradication improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia, but only in a minority of patients. The frequency of idiopathic peptic ulcers seems to be rising and their prognosis is worse. Most patients with gastric cancer have, or have had, prior H. pylori infection. The risk of developing preneoplastic lesions depends on the type (strain) of the microorganism. To prevent the development of gastric cancer, eradication therapy should be administered early (before the development of intestinal metaplasia). Among H. pylori-infected patients, those who receive long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors more frequently develop preneoplastic lesions. In patients who undergo endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer, H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of metachronous tumors. Eradication therapy induces regression of MALT lymphoma in most patients and tumoral recurrence in the long term is exceptional; eradication is a reasonable option even when H. pylori infection has not been identified in patients with MALT lymphoma. Several diagnostic innovations were presented, such as some polymerase chain reaction techniques for use in gastric biopsy specimens or gastric juice. The efficacy of triple standard therapy is clearly inadequate. The superiority of "sequential" therapy over standard triple therapy has not been definitively established. "Concomitant" therapy is more effective and is simpler than "sequential" therapy. After failure of standard triple therapy, second

  16. [Helicobacter pylori-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from the presentations on Helicobacter pylori at Digestive Disease Week 2013. Knowledge of this infection among the general population continues to be extremely limited. H. pylori is the main cause of "aging" of the human stomach. In developed countries, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has decreased but continues to be considerable. In most countries, clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance rates are markedly high. H. pylori eradication improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia, but only in a minority of patients. The frequency of idiopathic peptic ulcers seems to be rising and their prognosis is worse. Most patients with gastric cancer have, or have had, prior H. pylori infection. The risk of developing preneoplastic lesions depends on the type (strain) of the microorganism. To prevent the development of gastric cancer, eradication therapy should be administered early (before the development of intestinal metaplasia). Among H. pylori-infected patients, those who receive long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors more frequently develop preneoplastic lesions. In patients who undergo endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer, H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of metachronous tumors. Eradication therapy induces regression of MALT lymphoma in most patients and tumoral recurrence in the long term is exceptional; eradication is a reasonable option even when H. pylori infection has not been identified in patients with MALT lymphoma. Several diagnostic innovations were presented, such as some polymerase chain reaction techniques for use in gastric biopsy specimens or gastric juice. The efficacy of triple standard therapy is clearly inadequate. The superiority of "sequential" therapy over standard triple therapy has not been definitively established. "Concomitant" therapy is more effective and is simpler than "sequential" therapy. After failure of standard triple therapy, second

  17. [Helicobacter pylori infection and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino

    2005-03-01

    There are increasing data on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and the significant increase in platelet count after bacterial eradication. The aim of this review was to consider the studies so far published on Helicobacter pylori infection and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in order to evaluate a possible correlation between these two conditions. A review of the literature showed that 306 out of the 524 patients investigated (54.8%) were positive for Helicobacter pylori infection and that the bacterium was eradicated in 83% of cases. Eradication therapy was accompanied by a complete or partial platelet response in approximately half the cases. Overall, these data show that Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is effective in increasing platelet count. However, since the studies so far published are few, sometimes controversial and involve small series of patients, further studies on larger numbers of patients with longer followup are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  18. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Backert, Steffen; Neddermann, Matthias; Maubach, Gunter; Naumann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is estimated to infect more than half of the worlds human population and represents a major risk factor for chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, MALT lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori infection and clinical consequences are controlled by highly complex interactions between the host, colonizing bacteria, and environmental parameters. Important bacterial determinants linked with gastric disease development include the cag pathogenicity island encoding a type IV secretion system (T4SS), the translocated effector protein CagA, vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, adhesin BabA, urease, serine protease HtrA, secreted outer membrane vesicles, and many others. The high quantity of these factors and allelic changes in the corresponding genes reveals a sophisticated picture and problems in evaluating the impact of each distinct component. Extensive work has been performed to pinpoint molecular processes related to H. pylori-triggered pathogenesis using Mongolian gerbils, mice, primary tissues, as well as novel in vitro model systems such as gastroids. The manipulation of host signaling cascades by the bacterium appears to be crucial for inducing pathogenic downstream activities and gastric disease progression. Here, we review the most recent advances in this important research area. PMID:27531534

  19. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kusters, Johannes G; van Vliet, Arnoud H M; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2006-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is the result of the complex interplay between the host and the bacterium. Host immune gene polymorphisms and gastric acid secretion largely determine the bacterium's ability to colonize a specific gastric niche. Bacterial virulence factors such as the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island-encoded protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA aid in this colonization of the gastric mucosa and subsequently seem to modulate the host's immune system. This review focuses on the microbiological, clinical, immunological, and biochemical aspects of the pathogenesis of H. pylori.

  20. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  1. [Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2015-09-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions of the studies presented at Digestive Disease Week this year (2015) related to Helicobacter pylori infection. Despite the undeniable widespread reduction in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, developing countries continue to have substantial infection rates. The prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance is markedly higher in most countries and continues to rise. Although H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma, it does not completely prevent its development; the presence of precancerous lesions--intestinal atrophy and metaplasia--is associated with a higher risk of developing this neoplasm, despite H. pylori eradication. The use of molecular diagnostic methods (polymerase chain reaction) in faecal samples could allow non-invasive evaluation of the antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori. The effectiveness of standard triple therapy is clearly insufficient and continues to decrease. The effectiveness of sequential therapy in recent studies is lower than initially described and consequently this treatment cannot be recommended in clinical practice. Concomitant therapy is more effective and simpler than sequential therapy. In penicillin-allergic patients, quadruple therapy with bismuth is the treatment of choice in our environment. After the failure of standard triple therapy, second-line therapy with levofloxacin is effective and, moreover, is simpler and better tolerated than quadruple therapy with bismuth. Quadruple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, bismuth, levofloxacin and amoxicillin is an effective (≥ 90% eradication), simple and safe second-line therapy if triple or quadruple therapy without bismuth (sequential or concomitant) fails to eradicate the infection. The new-generation quinolones, such as moxifloxacin or sitafloxacin, could be useful in second- or third-line rescue eradication therapy. Even after the failure of 3 eradication treatments, a

  2. Gastric and enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters.

    PubMed

    Flahou, Bram; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Smet, Annemieke; Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2013-09-01

    A substantial number of reports published in the last year have contributed to a better understanding of both human and animal infection with non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). Gastric infection of humans with Helicobacter suis and Helicobacter felis as well as unidentified NHPH has been described to cause a chronic gastritis and a variety of clinical symptoms, whereas enterohepatic NHPH, including Helicobacter cinaedi, Helicobacter bilis, and Helicobacter canis, have been reported to be associated with human diseases such as bacteremia, cellulitis, cutaneous diseases, and fever of unknown origin in immunocompromised hosts. In various animal species, including dogs and laboratory mice, high rates of infection with NHPH were described. For gastric NHPH, mainly H. suis and H. felis infection was studied, revealing that differences in the immune response evoked in the host do exist when compared to Helicobacter pylori. Pathogenic mechanisms of infection with Helicobacter pullorum, H. bilis, and Helicobacter hepaticus were investigated, as well as immune responses involved in H. bilis-, Helicobacter typhlonius-, and H. hepaticus-induced intestinal inflammation. Complete genome sequences of Helicobacter heilmannii strain ASB1 and a H. cinaedi strain isolated in a case of human bacteremia were published, as well as comparative genomics of a human-derived Helicobacter bizzozeronii strain and proteome or secretome analyses for H. hepaticus and Helicobacter trogontum, respectively. Molecular analysis has revealed a function for type VI secretion systems of H. hepaticus and H. pullorum, the Helicobacter mustelae iron urease, and several other functional components of NHPH. In each section of this chapter, new findings on gastric NHPH will first be discussed, followed by those on enterohepatic Helicobacter species.

  3. Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Other tests.

    PubMed

    Bravos, E D; Gilman, R H

    2000-12-01

    The application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with respect to Helicobacter pylori is useful for molecular epidemiologic aspects and detection purposes. The authors address the current detection methods by PCR aimed at detecting H. pylori in clinical samples collected by less invasive methods, such as gastric juice, saliva, dental plaque, and feces. Enzyme immunoassay also is discussed.

  4. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    León-Barúa, R; Recavarren-Arce, S; Berendson, R; Gilman, R H

    1995-01-01

    A review is done on the evidence in favor of a link between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer of the intestinal type. In countries at high risk of gastric cancer, like Perú, Hp infection begins early in life and is highly frequent and persistent. When Hp colonizes the gastric mucosa, it causes active chronic gastritis. Initially, the gastritis is of the superficial type. With time, and probably as a result of the concurrent action of nutritional, epidemiologic and immunologic modulating factors, chronic superficial gastritis may give rise to a progressive gastric pathology that leads to gastric premalignant lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa) and increases the predisposition to gastric cancer. The principal modulating factors are described. The epidemiology of gastric premalignant lesions in Perú is also described. Finally, a discussion is done on the effect that eradication of Hp infection might have on the prevalence of gastric cancer.

  5. Diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Mégraud, Francis; Floch, Pauline; Labenz, Joachim; Lehours, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    There is progress in endoscopy techniques. While it is not yet possible to detect Helicobacter pylori directly in the stomach, it becomes easier to detect the mucosal changes induced by the bacteria. Some small changes can also increase the sensitivity of the invasive tests, for example culture or histology, but the wide use of proton-pump inhibitors has a negative impact on these tests. Only molecular methods are able to detect a limited load of bacteria, especially by using real-time PCR but also with new methods, for example dual-priming oligonucleotide-based PCR, loop-medicated isothermal amplification, droplet-digital PCR or a multiple genetic analysis system. Among the noninvasive tests, urea breath test remains a test of major interest, while there are attempts to develop an ammonia breath test and other nanosensor devices. A new antigen stool test, a chemoluminescence immunoassay using the LIAISON apparatus has also been tested for the first time with success. Despite its limitations, serology remains the most popular test to detect H. pylori antibodies. It also allows pepsinogen dosage which is of interest for detecting atrophy. PMID:27531532

  6. Acid, protons and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, G.; Meyer-Rosberg, K.; Scott, D. R.; Melchers, K.

    1996-01-01

    The anti-ulcer drugs that act as covalent inhibitors of the gastric acid pump are targeted to the gastric H+/K+ ATPase by virtue of accumulation in acid and conversion to the active sulfenamide. This results in extremely effective inhibition of acid secretion. Appropriate dosage is able to optimize acid control therapy for reflux and peptic ulcer disease as compared to H2 receptor antagonists. However, clinical data on recurrence show that Helicobacter pylori eradication should accompany treatment of the lesion. These drugs have been found to synergize with many antibiotics for eradication. The survival of aerobes depends on their ability to maintain a driving force for protons across their inner membrane, the sum of a pH and potential difference gradient, the protonmotive force (pmf). The transmembrane flux of protons across the F1F0 ATPase, driven by the pmf, is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. The internal pH of H. pylori was measured using the fluorescent dye probe, BCECF, and the membrane potential defined by the uptake of the carbocyanine dye, DiSC3 [5] at different pHs to mimic the gastric environment. The protonmotive force at pH 7.0 was composed of a delta pH of 1.4 (-84mV) and a delta potential difference of -131mV, to give a pmf of -215 mV. The effect of variations in external pH on survival of the bacteria in the absence of urea correlated with the effect of external pH on the ability of the bacteria to maintain a pmf. The effect of the addition of 5 mM urea on the pmf was measured at different medium pH values. Urea restored the pmf at pH 3.0 or 3.5, but abolished the pmf at pH 7.0 or higher, due the production of the alkalinizing cation, NH3. Hence H. pylori is an acid-tolerant neutrophile due to urease activity, but urease activity also limits its survival to an acidic environment. These data help explain the occupation of the stomach by the organism and its distribution between fundus and antrum. This distribution and its alteration by proton pump

  7. 3rd Brazilian Consensus on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Maguinilk, Ismael; Zaterka, Schlioma; Parente, José Miguel; do Carmo Friche Passos, Maria; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P

    2013-04-01

    Signicant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  8. Helicobacter pylori-associated immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino

    2006-03-01

    Idiopatic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), a disorder characterized by autoantibody-mediated platelet destruction, may be primary or secondary to various illnesses including lymphoproliferative, autoimmune, or infectious diseases. There are increasing data on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and the significant increase in platelet count after bacterial eradication. The aim of this review is to consider the studies so far published on Helicobacter pylori infection and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in order to evaluate a possible pathogenic correlation between these two conditions. A review of the literature data show that Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is effective in increasing platelet count in approximately half of the cases. However, since the studies so far published are few, sometimes controversial and involve small series of patients, further controlled studies on larger numbers of patients with longer follow-up are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  9. Helicobacter pylori activation of PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Nossa, Carlos W

    2010-01-01

    Chronic infection of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastric cancer. H. pylori produces a cache of virulence factors that promote colonization and persistence, which, in turn, contributes to a robust inflammatory response at the host-pathogen interface. Recently, we reported that H. pylori activates the abundant nuclear regulator poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, resulting in the production of the catabolite poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARP-1 is emerging as a key player in establishing homeostasis at the host-pathogen interface. In this article, we summarize the discovery of H. pylori-dependent PARP-1 activation, and discuss potential roles for PARP-1 in H. pylori-mediated gastric disease. In light of the remarkable successes that have reported for treating inflammatory disorders and cancers with PARP-1 inhibitors, we discuss the prospects of targeting PARP-1 for treatment of H. pylori-associated gastric disease. PMID:21468218

  10. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Carolina-Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Zina, Lívia-Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a recurrent painful ulcerative disorder that commonly affects the oral mucosa. Local and systemic factors such as trauma, food sensitivity, nutritional deficiencies, systemic conditions, immunological disorders and genetic polymorphisms are associated with the development of the disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophile bacteria, that colonizes the gastric mucosa and it was previously suggested to be involved in RAS development. In the present paper we reviewed all previous studies that investigated the association between RAS and H. pylori. Material and Methods A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) databases was made of articles published up until July 2015 using the following keywords: Helicobacter Pylori or H. pylori and RAS or Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Results Fifteen experimental studies that addressed the relationship between infection with H. pylori and the presence of RAS and three reviews, including a systematic review and a meta-analysis were included in this review. The studies reviewed used different methods to assess this relationship, including PCR, nested PCR, culture, ELISA and urea breath test. A large variation in the number of patients included in each study, as well as inclusion criteria and laboratorial methods was observed. H. pylori can be detected in the oral mucosa or ulcerated lesion of some patients with RAS. The quality of the all studies included in this review was assessed using levels of evidence based on the University of Oxford’s Center for Evidence Based Medicine Criteria. Conclusions Although the eradication of the infection may affect the clinical course of the oral lesions by undetermined mechanisms, RAS ulcers are not associated with the presence of the bacteria in the oral cavity and there is no evidence that H. pylori infection drives RAS development. Key words:Campylobacter, elisa, h. pylori, Helicobacter Pylori, RAS, recurrent aphthous

  11. Helicobacter Pylori Bacteremia: An Unusual Finding

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Concetta; Mancin, Annalisa; Calabrò, Maria; Daleno, Cristina; Ferrario, Antonella; Renzulli, Raffaella; Scuderi, Cristina; Casari, Erminia

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Helicobacter pylori transient bacteremia in a woman with ulcerated antral gastric cancer. The patient was hospitalized for laparoscopy and subtotal gastrectomy. After surgery she developed fever (39°C) and was empirically treated with levofloxacin. Blood cultures, collected and sent immediately to Laboratory, were positive for a spiral Gram-negative bacterium. This isolate was identified as H. pylori and the specific susceptibility test was performed. One day after the fever was decreased but antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin was continued and it was maintained until discharge. In summary, H. pylori transient bacteremia may occur as a rare complication after stomach surgery. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the potential role of Helicobacter pylori presence in blood.

  12. Helicobacter spp. other than H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2012-09-01

    Significant advances have been made over the last 12 months in the understanding of the biology of non-H. pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). Several studies have investigated the association between NHPH and human disease, including Crohn's disease, lithiasis, liver disease, coronary disease, gastritis, and pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers. Novel Helicobacter taxa were identified in new vertebrate hosts, and new methodologies in the fields of identification of Helicobacter spp. and evaluation of antibiotic resistance were described. The genome of the first human-derived gastric NHPH strain (Helicobacter bizzozeronii CIII-1) was sequenced, and several studies elucidated functions of different genes in NHPH. A number of important investigations regarding pathogenesis and immunopathobiology of NHPH infections have been published including the description of a new urease in Helicobacter mustelae. Finally, the effects of the gut microbiota and probiotics on NHPH infections were investigated.

  13. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer. PMID:27573782

  14. Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Moyat, Mati; Velin, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infections in human beings worldwide. H. pylori express lipopolysaccharides and flagellin that do not activate efficiently Toll-like receptors and express dedicated effectors, such as γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), arginase, that actively induce tolerogenic signals. In this perspective, H. pylori can be considered as a commensal bacteria belonging to the stomach microbiota. However, when present in the stomach, H. pylori reduce the overall diversity of the gastric microbiota and promote gastric inflammation by inducing Nod1-dependent pro-inflammatory program and by activating neutrophils through the production of a neutrophil activating protein. The maintenance of a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa and the direct action of virulence factors (vacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A) confer pro-carcinogenic activities to H. pylori. Hence, H. pylori cannot be considered as symbiotic bacteria but rather as part of the pathobiont. The development of a H. pylori vaccine will bring health benefits for individuals infected with antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains and population of underdeveloped countries. PMID:24914318

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and drugs malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Lahner, Edith; Virili, Camilla; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Annibale, Bruno; Centanni, Marco

    2014-08-14

    Drug absorption represents an important factor affecting the efficacy of oral drug treatment. Gastric secretion and motility seem to be critical for drug absorption. A causal relationship between impaired absorption of orally administered drugs and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been proposed. Associations have been reported between poor bioavailability of l-thyroxine and l-dopa and H. pylori infection. According to the Maastricht Florence Consensus Report on the management of H. pylori infection, H. pylori treatment improves the bioavailability of both these drugs, whereas the direct clinical benefits to patients still await to be established. Less strong seems the association between H. pylori infection and other drugs malabsorption, such as delavirdine and ketoconazole. The exact mechanisms forming the basis of the relationship between H. pylori infection and impaired drugs absorption and/or bioavailability are not fully elucidated. H. pylori infection may trigger a chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa, and impaired gastric acid secretion often follows. The reduction of acid secretion closely relates with the wideness and the severity of the damage and may affect drug absorption. This minireview focuses on the evidence of H. pylori infection associated with impaired drug absorption.

  16. Helicobacter pylori and allergy: Update of research

    PubMed Central

    Daugule, Ilva; Zavoronkova, Jelizaveta; Santare, Daiga

    2015-01-01

    Recently a lot of literature has been published about the possible preventive action of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) against allergy. The present review summarizes research data about the association between H. pylori and allergic diseases, as well as discusses possible hypotheses about the preventive action of H. pylori against atopy. There is evidence from observational studies to support a weak inverse association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and allergy. However, confounders like some unidentified socioeconomic factors, antibiotic use and others could bias the association. Although data from cohort studies point to a possible association of H. pylori with some of the allergic diseases, no definite proof for causal relationship has been clearly demonstrated yet. A biological mechanism proposed to explain the preventive action of H. pylori to allergy is reduced exposure to a major stimulus for the generation of Treg cells in individuals without H. pylori infection. In addition, H. pylori could be an indicator for changes in gut microbiome, reflecting the complex interaction between microbes and immune system. PMID:26713280

  17. Recent "omics" advances in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Berthenet, Elvire; Sheppard, Sam; Vale, Filipa F

    2016-09-01

    The development of high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies is changing the face of microbiology, facilitating the comparison of large numbers of genomes from different lineages of a same organism. Our aim was to review the main advances on Helicobacter pylori "omics" and to understand how this is improving our knowledge of the biology, diversity and pathogenesis of H. pylori. Since the first H. pylori isolate was sequenced in 1997, 510 genomes have been deposited in the NCBI archive, providing a basis for improved understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of this important pathogen. This review focuses on works published between April 2015 and March 2016. Helicobacter "omics" is already making an impact and is a growing research field. Ultimately these advances will be translated into a routine clinical laboratory setting in order to improve public health. PMID:27531533

  18. Helicobacter pylori and pre-neoplastic and neoplastic gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    De Boni, M; De Bona, M; Cielo, R

    1994-01-01

    The spiral bacterium Helicobacter pylori has gained increasing interest as an important gastroduodenal pathogen since its isolation from the gastric mucosa. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in the human stomach is closely associated with chronic gastric inflammatory disease and growing evidence suggests an aetiologic role of this organism in peptic disease. Moreover, epidemiological and histological studies suggest that Helicobacter pylori may be a risk factor for gastric carcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Evidence supporting the role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of pre-cancerous lesions are reviewed here.

  19. Helicobacter pylori eradication for preventing gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Li, Meng

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue.

  20. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects.

  1. Helicobacter pylori and skin autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Magen, Eli; Delgado, Jorge-Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune skin diseases are characterized by dysregulation of the immune system resulting in a loss of tolerance to skin self-antigen(s). The prolonged interaction between the bacterium and host immune mechanisms makes Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) a plausible infectious agent for triggering autoimmunity. Epidemiological and experimental data now point to a strong relation of H. pylori infection on the development of many extragastric diseases, including several allergic and autoimmune diseases. H. pylori antigens activate cross-reactive T cells and induce autoantibodies production. Microbial heat shock proteins (HSP) play an important role of in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases because of the high level of sequence homology with human HSP. Eradication of H. pylori infection has been shown to be effective in some patients with chronic autoimmune urticaria, psoriasis, alopecia areata and Schoenlein-Henoch purpura. There is conflicting and controversial data regarding the association of H. pylori infection with Behçet’s disease, scleroderma and autoimmune bullous diseases. No data are available evaluating the association of H. pylori infection with other skin autoimmune diseases, such as vitiligo, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. The epidemiological and experimental evidence for a possible role of H. pylori infection in skin autoimmune diseases are the subject of this review. PMID:24587626

  2. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  3. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  4. Helicobacter Pylori associated global gastric cancer burden

    PubMed Central

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Hisada, Michie; El-Omar, Emad M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection is ubiquitous, infecting close to one-half of the world's population, but its prevalence is declining in developed countries. Chronic H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to gastric adenocarcinoma, especially non-cardia type (63% of all stomach cancer or ∼5.5% of the global cancer burden: ∼25% of cancers associated with infectious etiology), and to gastric mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which accounts for up to 8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiological, clinical, and animal studies have established a central role for H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis and provided insights into the mechanisms and biologic relationships between bacterial infection, host genetics, nutrition, and environmental factors. These discoveries invite strategies to prevent infection to be the logical primary goals in a multi-pronged effort to curtail suffering and death from H. pylori infection-associated cancers. PMID:19273142

  5. Vaccination of gnotobiotic piglets against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Eaton, K A; Ringler, S S; Krakowka, S

    1998-11-01

    To determine the effect of oral adjuvant-assisted and parenteral vaccination, germ-free piglets were vaccinated orally with and without labile toxin adjuvant or parenterally and challenged with viable Helicobacter pylori. All prechallenge vaccination regimens induced anti-H. pylori antibodies and suppressed bacterial colonization, but no vaccination regime completely prevented infection. Parenteral vaccination given after infection had no effect on bacterial colonization. Lymphocytic gastritis was present in all piglets challenged with live bacteria regardless of vaccination status. Neutrophilic gastritis was present in vaccinated challenged piglets but not in infected, unvaccinated piglets. Gastritis was not present in uninfected control piglets regardless of vaccination status. In gnotobiotic piglets, vaccination suppresses but does not prevent infection by H. pylori, and parenteral vaccination does not cure infected piglets. Vaccination does not ameliorate gastritis due to H. pylori in piglets but does induce neutrophilic gastric inflammation in some infected piglets.

  6. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Mentis, Andreas; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2015-09-01

    During the period reviewed, prevalence studies were essentially performed in less economically advanced countries and a high prevalence was found. The traditional risk factors for Helicobacter pylori positivity were mostly found. Transmission studied by molecular typing showed a familial transmission. The eventual role of water transmission was explored in several studies with controversial results. Concerning diagnosis, most of the invasive and noninvasive methods used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection are long standing with efficient performance. The most interesting recent improvements in H. pylori diagnosis include advances in endoscopy, developments in molecular methods, and the introduction of omics-based techniques. Interpretation of old or newer method should take into account the pretest probability and the prevalence of H. pylori in the population under investigation.

  7. Oral Helicobacter pylori: can we stomach it?

    PubMed

    Dowsett, S A; Kowolik, M J

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common in man. The bacterium primarily resides in the human stomach, where it plays a significant role in gastric disease. If the spread of H. pylori is to be prevented, an understanding of the transmission process is essential. The oral cavity has been proposed as a reservoir for gastric H. pylori, which has been detected by culture and PCR in both dental plaque and saliva. This review will discuss the evidence for the role of the oral cavity in the transmission of gastric H. pylori. Moreover, the difficulties encountered in addressing this topic, possible directions for future research, and the implications for the dental profession are discussed.

  8. Helicobacter pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Michele; Cadeddu, Federica; Villa, Massimo; Attinà, Grazia Maria; Muzi, Marco Gallinella; Nigro, Casimiro; Rulli, Francesco; Farinon, Attilio M

    2008-01-01

    Background The nature of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and reflux oesophagitis is still not clear. To investigate the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and GERD taking into account endoscopic, pH-metric and histopathological data. Methods Between January 2001 and January 2003 a prospective study was performed in 146 patients with GERD in order to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection at gastric mucosa; further the value of the De Meester score endoscopic, manometric and pH-metric parameters, i.e. reflux episodes, pathological reflux episodes and extent of oesophageal acid exposure, of the patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection were studied and statistically compared. Finally, univariate analysis of the above mentioned data were performed in order to evaluate the statistical correlation with reflux esophagitis. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups, HP infected and HP negative patients, regarding age, gender and type of symptoms. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding severity of symptoms and manometric parameters. The value of the De Meester score and the ph-metric parameters were similar in both groups. On univariate analysis, we observed that hiatal hernia (p = 0,01), LES size (p = 0,05), oesophageal wave length (p = 0,01) and pathological reflux number (p = 0,05) were significantly related to the presence of reflux oesophagitis. Conclusion Based on these findings, it seems that there is no significant evidence for an important role for H. pylori infection in the development of GERD and erosive esophagitis. Nevertheless, current data do not provide sufficient evidence to define the relationship between HP and GERD. Further assessments in prospective large studies are warranted. PMID:18601740

  9. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Shogo

    2002-01-01

    Findings in epidemiological studies of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer have been inconsistent: many studies have yielded a positive relationship, whereas several studies have shown no relationship. The inconsistency arises because of the occurrence of seroreversion during the period between the time that H. pylori exerts a carcinogenic effect and the time of blood sampling. When this seroreversion is taken into account, there is an epidemiologically positive association between H. pylori status and the risk for gastric cancer. In addition to the epidemiological evidence, experimental studies using Mongolian gerbils have shown that H. pylori infection elevates the risk for gastric cancer. It is concluded that H. pylori is a causal factor for gastric cancer. In the creation of preventive strategies against gastric cancer by the eradication of H. pylori, determination of the time at which H. pylori plays a role as a carcinogen is important. Three hypotheses have been proposed in regard to this timing: that H. pylori infection in childhood or the teenage years acts as a factor that produces precancerous lesions with irreversible damage in the gastric mucosa, that in adulthood it acts as an initiator, and also in adulthood, that it acts as a promoter. As these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, the extent to which each hypothesis plays a part in explaining gastric carcinogenesis should be evaluated. Only a small proportion of subjects infected with H. pylori have gastric cancer during their lifetime. Interleukin-1 polymorphism, a host factor, and CagA, a virulence factor of H. pylori, are suspected to be risk factors for gastric cancer in subjects with H. pylori infection. Dietary factors, especially vitamin C, and patterns of precancerous lesions also seem to influence the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer. H. pylori seems to reduce the risk for esophageal and for some gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. This finding, as

  10. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Pandey, Renu; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium. PMID:24587625

  11. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Pandey, Renu; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium.

  12. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-09-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  13. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  14. Metalloregulation of Helicobacter pylori physiology and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Kathryn P.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes over half of the world's population. Chronic H. pylori infection is associated with increased risk for numerous disease outcomes including gastritis, dysplasia, neoplasia, B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), and invasive adenocarcinoma. The complex interactions that occur between pathogen and host are dynamic and exquisitely regulated, and the relationship between H. pylori and its human host are no exception. To successfully colonize, and subsequently persist, within the human stomach H. pylori must temporally regulate numerous genes to ensure localization to the gastric lumen and coordinated expression of virulence factors to subvert the host's innate and adaptive immune response. H. pylori achieves this precise gene regulation by sensing subtle environmental changes including host-mediated alterations in nutrient availability and responding with dramatic global changes in gene expression. Recent studies revealed that the presence or absence of numerous metal ions encountered in the lumen of the stomach, or within host tissues, including nickel, iron, copper and zinc, can influence regulatory networks to alter gene expression in H. pylori. These expression changes modulate the deployment of bacterial virulence factors that can ultimately influence disease outcome. In this review we will discuss the environmental stimuli that are detected by H. pylori as well as the trans regulatory elements, specifically the transcription regulators and transcription factors, that allow for these significant transcriptional shifts. PMID:26388855

  15. Metalloregulation of Helicobacter pylori physiology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Haley, Kathryn P; Gaddy, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes over half of the world's population. Chronic H. pylori infection is associated with increased risk for numerous disease outcomes including gastritis, dysplasia, neoplasia, B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), and invasive adenocarcinoma. The complex interactions that occur between pathogen and host are dynamic and exquisitely regulated, and the relationship between H. pylori and its human host are no exception. To successfully colonize, and subsequently persist, within the human stomach H. pylori must temporally regulate numerous genes to ensure localization to the gastric lumen and coordinated expression of virulence factors to subvert the host's innate and adaptive immune response. H. pylori achieves this precise gene regulation by sensing subtle environmental changes including host-mediated alterations in nutrient availability and responding with dramatic global changes in gene expression. Recent studies revealed that the presence or absence of numerous metal ions encountered in the lumen of the stomach, or within host tissues, including nickel, iron, copper and zinc, can influence regulatory networks to alter gene expression in H. pylori. These expression changes modulate the deployment of bacterial virulence factors that can ultimately influence disease outcome. In this review we will discuss the environmental stimuli that are detected by H. pylori as well as the trans regulatory elements, specifically the transcription regulators and transcription factors, that allow for these significant transcriptional shifts.

  16. Oral carriage of Helicobacter pylori: a review.

    PubMed

    Madinier, I M; Fosse, T M; Monteil, R A

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic, motile bacterium, especially adapted to life in the human stomach. The presence of H. pylori in the stomach is strongly associated with chronic gastritis and ulcer disease and is a risk factor for gastric cancers. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque, saliva, and feces, but the hypothesis that oral microflora may be a permanent reservoir of H. pylori is still controversial. A review of the literature suggests that the recovery of H. pylori in the mouth is probably intermittent, associated with gastroesophageal reflux but not with specific oral disease. Nonetheless, the PCR identification of oral H. pylori may become helpful, particularly in cases of gastritis or ulcer relapse after antimicrobial therapy. Eradication of oral H. pylori by local medication or periodontal procedures would rely on the precise identification of its ecological niche. Within family groups, prophylactic methods should be practiced to avoid oral carriage of H. pylori. The risk of iatrogenic transmission during dental care, however, is already circumscribed by standard professional hygiene procedures.

  17. [Relation between Helicobacter pylori and atopic diseases].

    PubMed

    López Pérez, Gerardo; Alcántara Rodríguez, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    The rise in the incidence of atopic diseases in the last years is associated to a greater prevalence of viral and bacterial infections. The infections facilitate a chronic inflammatory process that is directly related to the sensibilization of mast cells which favors manifestations of allergic diseases. Within the proposed bacteriological agents as causes of is Helicobacter pylori. This work is a bibliographical revision and concludes that there is not evidence of the direct causal relation between infection by Helicobacter and allergic diseases; however, it can play an indirect role. Controlled and randomized studies are necessary to know accurately this relation because the eradication treatment could be a real alternative in these patients handling.

  18. A fluid model for Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reigh, Shang-Yik; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Swimming microorganisms and self-propelled nanomotors are often found in confined environments. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori survives in the acidic environment of the human stomach and is able to penetrate gel-like mucus layers and cause infections by locally changing the rheological properties of the mucus from gel-like to solution-like. In this talk we propose an analytical model for the locomotion of Helicobacter pylori as a confined spherical squirmer which generates its own confinement. We solve analytically the flow field around the swimmer, and derive the swimming speed and energetics. The role of the boundary condition in the outer wall is discussed. An extension of our model is also proposed for other biological and chemical swimmers. Newton Trust.

  19. Helicobacter pylori and the learning disabled.

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, M; Duff, M; Baddeley, P; Cooper, M; Hoghton, M; Harrison, J

    2000-01-01

    Those with a learning disability previously cared for in institutions have now been discharged into smaller community homes. This has meant that an increased burden has been placed on general practitioners (GPs) to evaluate and treat those who have symptoms that may be difficult to interpret. This report presents the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in those still awaiting discharge and discusses the possible symptoms that GPs may encounter. PMID:11127173

  20. Helicobacter pylori inhibits gastric cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A; Smoot, D; Littleton, G; Tackey, R; Walters, C S; Kashanchi, F; Allen, C R; Ashktorab, H

    2000-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa is associated with changes in gastric epithelial cell proliferation. In vitro studies have shown that exposure to H. pylori inhibits proliferation of gastric cells. This study sought to investigate the cell cycle progression of gastric epithelial cell lines in the presence and absence of H. pylori. Unsynchronized and synchronized gastric epithelial cell lines AGS and KatoIII were exposed to H. pylori over a 24-h period. Cell cycle progression was determined by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI), and by analysis of cyclin E, p21, and p53 protein expression using Western blots. In the absence of H. pylori 40, 45, and 15% of unsynchronized AGS cells were in G(0)-G(1), S, and G(2)-M phases, respectively, by flow cytometry analysis. When AGS cells were cultured in the presence of H. pylori, the S phase decreased 10% and the G(0)-G(1) phase increased 17% after 24 h compared with the controls. KatoIII cells, which have a deleted p53 gene, showed little or no response to H. pylori. When G1/S synchronized AGS cells were incubated with media containing H. pylori, the G(1) phase increased significantly (25%, P < 0.05) compared with controls after 24 h. In contrast, the control cells were able to pass through S phase. The inhibitory effects of H. pylori on the cell cycle of AGS cells were associated with a significant increase in p53 and p21 expression after 24 h. The expression of cyclin E was downregulated in AGS cells following exposure of AGS cells to H. pylori for 24 h. This study shows that H. pylori-induced growth inhibition in vitro is predominantly at the G(0)-G(1) checkpoint. Our results suggest that p53 may be important in H. pylori-induced cell cycle arrest. These results support a role for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in the G(1) cell cycle arrest exerted by H. pylori and its involvement in changing the regulatory proteins, p53, p21, and cyclin E in the cell cycle. PMID:11008106

  1. Helicobacter pylori: a poor man's gut pathogen?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the human pathogens with highest prevalence around the world; yet, its principal mode of transmission remains largely unknown. The role of H. pylori in gastric disease and cancer has not been established until the end of the 20th century. Since then, its epidemiology has been extensively studied, and an accruing body of literature suggests that not all humans are equally at risk of infection by this gut pathogen. Here, we briefly review the different epidemiological aspects of H. pylori infection with emphasis on those factors related to human poverty. The epidemiology of H. pylori infection is characterized by marked differences between developing and developed countries, notably among children. In addition, congruent lines of evidence point out to socioeconomic factors and living standards as main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. These data are alarming in the light of the changing global climate and birth rate, which are expected to change the demography of our planet, putting more children at risk of H. pylori and its complications for years to come. PMID:20356368

  2. Helicobacter pylori: a poor man's gut pathogen?

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohammed Mahdy; Sharaf, Radwa Raed; Aziz, Ramy Karam

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the human pathogens with highest prevalence around the world; yet, its principal mode of transmission remains largely unknown. The role of H. pylori in gastric disease and cancer has not been established until the end of the 20th century. Since then, its epidemiology has been extensively studied, and an accruing body of literature suggests that not all humans are equally at risk of infection by this gut pathogen. Here, we briefly review the different epidemiological aspects of H. pylori infection with emphasis on those factors related to human poverty. The epidemiology of H. pylori infection is characterized by marked differences between developing and developed countries, notably among children. In addition, congruent lines of evidence point out to socioeconomic factors and living standards as main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. These data are alarming in the light of the changing global climate and birth rate, which are expected to change the demography of our planet, putting more children at risk of H. pylori and its complications for years to come.

  3. Helicobacter pylori screening: options and challenges.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Goni, Elisabetta; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori gastritis is the most frequent infectious disease in the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical sequelae of the infection including peptic ulcer disease, sporadic gastric cancer (GC) and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (MALT-lymphoma) may develop in up to 20% of the infected individuals. The H. pylori screen-and-treat strategy is addressed to members of communities with high GC incidence, and first-degree relatives of GC patients. For primary GC prevention, H. pylori screen-and-treat is most effective in patients without precancerous conditions. In populations at moderate risk, strategies for GC prevention need to be explored. A special clinical scenario for primary and secondary prevention of H. pylori related benign complications are patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and low-dose aspirin. Vaccination represents another option for eliminating H. pylori infection in the population and a new H. pylori vaccine has shown promising results. However, long-term effects with the use of vaccine are not available. PMID:26619972

  4. Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori in gastric brushing cytology.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, P R; Carrozza, M J; Ruggiero, F M; Calafati, S A; Jann, R C

    1992-01-01

    Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori is frequently associated with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and has been implicated as an etiologic agent. Identification of H. pylori is important for specific treatment with antibiotics and bismuth compounds. We studied 27 patients who presented with symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer on whom paired gastric biopsies and gastric brushings for cytology had been performed. Biopsies were stained with H & E and Warthin-Starry or Giemsa for H. pylori. Previously, Papanicolaou-stained brushings were restained with Giemsa and reviewed blindly by two cytologists. Cytologic examination revealed the characteristic 1-3 mu curved or spiral gram-negative bacilli embedded in mucus in 12 of 27 (44%) of cases. Biopsies showed H. pylori in 13 of 27 (48%) of cases. Cytology and histology were concordant in 22 of 27 (81%) of cases. Three cases were positive on biopsy, negative on cytology; two of these were unsatisfactory cytology specimens. Two cases were positive on cytology, negative on biopsy, apparently sampling artifacts. Papanicolaou-stained slides were scored for several morphologic parameters; numbers of acute and chronic inflammatory cells and degree of cytologic atypia. None of these were predictive of the presence of H. pylori. We conclude that Giemsa-stained gastric brushings are a useful complement to gastric biopsies in establishing the diagnosis of H. pylori.

  5. Virulence Factors of Helicobacter pylori: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Roesler, Bruna M.; Rabelo-Gonçalves, Elizabeth M.A.; Zeitune, José M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and can establish a long-term infection of the gastric mucosa, a condition that affects the relative risk of developing various clinical disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori presents a high-level of genetic diversity, which can be an important factor in its adaptation to the host stomach and also for the clinical outcome of infection. There are important H. pylori virulence factors that, along with host characteristics and the external environment, have been associated with the different occurrences of diseases. This review is aimed to analyzing and summarizing the main of them and possible associations with the clinical outcome. PMID:24833944

  6. Helicobacter pylori: new developments and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J; Sherman, P M; Hunt, R H

    1997-01-01

    The authors highlight new developments in research on Helicobacter pylori. There is now consensus that all patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent duodenal or gastric ulcers who have a positive test result for H. pylori should be treated for the infection. Patients presenting with complications of ulcers, such as bleeding, should also be treated. H. pylori has recently been classified as a definite human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In treatment, new combination regimens, consisting of 3 or 4 different drugs, cure the infection in more than 80% of patients. Currently, the best combinations are: (1) omeprazole (or another proton-pump inhibitor), clarithromycin and metronidazole, (2) omeprazole (or another proton-pump inhibitor), clarithromycin and amoxicillin, (3) bismuth subsalicylate, tetracycline and metronidazole, and (4) omeprazole, bismuth subsalicylate, tetracycline and metronidazole. PMID:9176424

  7. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2016.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anthony; Fischbach, Wolfgang; Gisbert, Javier P; O'Morain, Colm

    2016-09-01

    Many interesting articles have been published from different parts of the world over the last year assessing various issues around Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. This article will address the published literature over the last year pertaining to the topic of treatment of H. pylori infection. The main themes that emerge are assessing the efficacy of standard triple therapy, as well as exploring new first-line treatments, mainly optimized nonbismuth-containing and bismuth-containing quadruple therapies with some promising data also emerging on dual therapy. There was also considerable progress in investigating antibiotic resistance rates with much more data emerging from varied parts of the world compared to recent years. Advances in the use of adjunctive therapies, especially probiotic therapies have also been made. Undoubtedly, the eradication of H. pylori remains a worthwhile goal to alleviate the burden of diseases caused by the complications of this infection, including dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. PMID:27531541

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection and related gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Makola, Diklar; Peura, David A; Crowe, Sheila E

    2007-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of digestive tract disorders, such as chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is dependent on many factors, including bacterial genotype, host physiology and genetics, and environmental factors such as diet. Researchers continue to explore the complexities of H. pylori infection, seeking to explain why some individuals have asymptomatic infection, whereas others experience clinical disease. The importance of treating H. pylori infection in patients with gastrointestinal problems has been confirmed in recent years, with clinical trials showing that cure of infection can prevent duodenal ulcer and, to a lesser extent, gastric ulcer recurrence; cure early stage mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; and reduce the chances of developing gastric cancer in high-risk individuals.

  9. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection 2015.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anthony; Gisbert, Javier P; O'Morain, Colm; Ladas, Spiros

    2015-09-01

    Many interesting articles have been published from many parts of the world over the last year assessing different issues around Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. This article will address the published literature over the last year pertaining to the topic of treatment of H. pylori infection. The main themes that emerge are assessing the efficacy of standard triple therapy, as well as exploring new first-line treatments, mainly optimized nonbismuth- and bismuth-containing quadruple therapies with some promising data also emerging on dual therapy. There was also considerable progress in investigating antibiotic resistance rates with much more data emerging from varied parts of the world compared to recent years. There have also been advances in the use of adjunctive therapies, especially probiotic therapies. Undoubtedly, the eradication of H. pylori remains a worthwhile goal to alleviate the burden of diseases caused by the complications of this infection, including dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Detection and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    PubMed Central

    Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori in 1982 was the starting point of a revolution concerning the concepts and management of gastroduodenal diseases. It is now well accepted that the most common stomach disease, peptic ulcer disease, is an infectious disease, and all consensus conferences agree that the causative agent, H. pylori, must be treated with antibiotics. Furthermore, the concept emerged that this bacterium could be the trigger of various malignant diseases of the stomach, and it is now a model for chronic bacterial infections causing cancer. Most of the many different techniques involved in diagnosis of H. pylori infection are performed in clinical microbiology laboratories. The aim of this article is to review the current status of these methods and their application, highlighting the important progress which has been made in the past decade. Both invasive and noninvasive techniques will be reviewed. PMID:17428887

  11. Impact of Helicobacter Pylori on Mucus Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan; Keates, Sarah; Kelly, Ciaran; Turner, Bradley; Bansil, Rama; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2006-03-01

    It is well known that the viscoelastic properties of gastric mucin are crucial to the protection of the lining of the stomach against its own acidic secretions and other agents. Helicobacter Pylori, a rod shaped, gram-negative bacteria that dwells in the mucus layer of approximately 50% of the world's population is a class I carcinogen and is associated with gastric ulcers and severe gastritis. The structural damage to the mucus layer caused by H. Pylori is an important aspect of infection with this bacteria. We are examining the impact of H. Pylori on mucin and mucus rheology quantitatively using a combination of dynamic light scattering and multiple particle tracking experiments. Video microscopy data will also be presented on the motility of this bacteria in mucin at different pH and in other viscoelastic gels.

  12. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori and idiopathic chronic urticaria: effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Mogaddam, Majid Rostami; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Ardabili, Nastaran Safavi; Isazadeh, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined as the presence of urticaria on most days of the week for a period of 6 weeks or longer. Some studies have reported an association between CU and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Aim To determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection using the stool antigen test in patients with idiopathic CU and to investigate the infected patients with CU following eradication of H. pylori. Material and methods One hundred patients with idiopathic CU and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic between May 2012 and June 2013 and were tested for H. pylori antigen. The patients infected with H. pylori received quadruple therapy for 2 weeks. To assess eradication efficacy, a repeated H. pylori stool antigen test was performed in each patient 6 weeks after the end of anti-H. pylori therapy. The effectiveness of eradication therapy on CU was assessed 3 months after treatment. Results Thirty-six percent patients with idiopathic CU were infected with H. pylori while 23% of the controls were infected. Response to eradication therapy was evident in 33 (91.67%) patients in whom H. pylori was eradicated while 3 (8.33%) patients showed no response despite eradication of H. pylori. Clinical follow-up of 33 successfully treated patients 3 months later revealed complete remission of urticaria in 54.5%, partial remission in 18.2%, and no improvement in 27.3%. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that H. pylori infection should be included in diagnostic workup of patients with no response to habitual treatment for CU or symptomatic gastrointestinal patients. For the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, one should consider the costs and accessibility of the population to the HpSA® stool antigen test and Urea breath test (UBT). PMID:25821422

  13. Rare Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genotypes in Bhutan

    PubMed Central

    Matsunari, Osamu; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Both the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer are high in Bhutan. The high incidence of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer suggest the phylogeographic origin of an infection with a more virulent strain of H. pylori. More than 90% of Bhutanese strains possessed the highly virulent East Asian-type CagA and all strains had the most virulent type of vacA (s1 type). More than half also had multiple repeats in East Asian-type CagA, which are rare in other countries and are reported characteristictly found in assciation with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer consistent with Bhutanese strains having multiple H. pylori virulence factors associated with an increase in gastric cancer risk. Phylogeographic analyses showed that most Bhutanese strains belonged to the East Asian population type with some strains (17.5%) sharing East Asian and Amerindian components. Only 9.5% belonged to the European type consistant with H. pylori in Bhutan representing an intermediate evolutionary stage between H. pylori from European and East Asian countries. PMID:26931643

  14. Helicobacter pylori defense against oxidative attack.

    PubMed

    Stent, Andrew; Every, Alison L; Sutton, Philip

    2012-03-15

    Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic, gram-negative pathogen of the human stomach. Despite the chronic active gastritis that develops following colonization, H. pylori is able to persist unharmed in the stomach for decades. Much of the damage caused by gastric inflammation results from the accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species within the stomach environment, which can induce oxidative damage in a wide range of biological molecules. Without appropriate defenses, this oxidative damage would be able to rapidly kill nearby H. pylori, but the organism employs a range of measures, including antioxidant enzymes, biological repair systems, and inhibitors of oxidant generation, to counter the attack. Despite the variety of measures employed to defend against oxidative injury, these processes are intimately interdependent, and any deficiency within the antioxidant system is generally sufficient to cause substantial impairment of H. pylori viability and persistence. This review provides an overview of the development of oxidative stress during H. pylori gastritis and examines the methods the organism uses to survive the resultant damage.

  15. Helicobacter pylori Sequences Reflect Past Human Migrations.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Y; Linz, B

    2009-01-01

    The long association between the stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori and humans, in combination with its predominantly within-family transmission route and its exceptionally high DNA sequence diversity, make this bacterium a reliable marker for discerning both recent and ancient human population movements. As much of the diversity in H. pylori sequences is generated by recombination and mutation on a local scale, the partitioning of H. pylori sequences from a large globally distributed data set into six geographic populations enabled the detection of recent ( < 500 years) human population movements including the European colonial expansion and the slave trade. The further separation of bacterial populations into distinct sub-populations traced prehistoric population movements like the settlement of the Americas by Asians across the Bering Strait and the Bantu migrations in Africa. The ability to deduce ancestral population structure from modern sequences was a key development that allowed the detection of zones of admixture, such as Europe, and the inference of multiple migration waves into these zones. The significantly similar global population structure of both H. pylori and humans confirmed not only an evolutionary time-scale association between host and parasite, but also that humans had carried H. pylori in their stomachs on their migrations out of Africa. PMID:19696494

  16. Gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Armelle; Péré-Védrenne, Christelle; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2014-09-01

    During the past year, research on non-Helicobacter pylori species has intensified. H. valdiviensis was isolated from wild birds, and putative novel species have been isolated from Bengal tigers and Australian marsupials. Various genomes have been sequenced: H. bilis, H. canis, H. macacae, H. fennelliae, H. cetorum, and H. suis. Several studies highlighted the virulence of non-H. pylori species including H. cinaedi in humans and hyperlipidemic mice or H. macacae in geriatric rhesus monkeys with intestinal adenocarcinoma. Not surprisingly, increased attention has been paid to the position of Helicobacter species in the microbiota of children and animal species (mice, chickens, penguins, and migrating birds). A large number of experimental studies have been performed in animal models of Helicobacter induced typhlocolitis, showing that the gastrointestinal microbial community is involved in modulation of host pathways leading to chronic inflammation. Animal models of H. suis, H. heilmannii, and H. felis infection have been used to study the development of severe inflammation-related pathologies, including gastric MALT lymphoma and adenocarcinoma.

  17. Gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Armelle; Péré-Védrenne, Christelle; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2014-09-01

    During the past year, research on non-Helicobacter pylori species has intensified. H. valdiviensis was isolated from wild birds, and putative novel species have been isolated from Bengal tigers and Australian marsupials. Various genomes have been sequenced: H. bilis, H. canis, H. macacae, H. fennelliae, H. cetorum, and H. suis. Several studies highlighted the virulence of non-H. pylori species including H. cinaedi in humans and hyperlipidemic mice or H. macacae in geriatric rhesus monkeys with intestinal adenocarcinoma. Not surprisingly, increased attention has been paid to the position of Helicobacter species in the microbiota of children and animal species (mice, chickens, penguins, and migrating birds). A large number of experimental studies have been performed in animal models of Helicobacter induced typhlocolitis, showing that the gastrointestinal microbial community is involved in modulation of host pathways leading to chronic inflammation. Animal models of H. suis, H. heilmannii, and H. felis infection have been used to study the development of severe inflammation-related pathologies, including gastric MALT lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. PMID:25167947

  18. Helicobacter pylori modulation of gastric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Calam, J.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori plays major causative roles in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Elevated acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcers (DUs) contributes to duodenal injury, and diminished acid secretion in patients with gastric cancer allows carcinogen-producing bacteria to colonize the stomach. Eradication of H. pylori normalizes acid secretion both in hyper-secreting DU patients and hypo-secreting relatives of gastric cancer patients. Therefore, we and others have asked how H. pylori causes these disparate changes in acid secretion. H. pylori gastritis more or less restricted to the gastric antrum in DU patients is associated with increased acid secretion. This is probably because gastritis increases release of the antral acid-stimulating hormone gastrin and diminished mucosal expression of the inhibitory peptide somatostatin. Bacterial products and inflammatory cytokines including TNFalpha may cause these changes in endocrine function. Gastritis involving the gastric corpus tends to diminish acid secretion, probably because bacterial products and cytokines including IL-1 inhibit parietal cells. Pharmacological inhibition of acid secretion increases corpus gastritis in H. pylori-infected subjects, so it is envisaged that gastric hypo-secretion of any cause might become self-perpetuating. H. pylori-associated mucosal atrophy will also contribute to acid hypo-secretion and is more likely in when the diet is high in salt or lacking in antioxidant vitamins. Data on gastric acid secretion in patients with esophagitis are limited but suggest that acid secretion is normal or slightly diminished. Nevertheless, H. pylori infection may be relevant to the management of esophagitis because: (i) H. pylori infection increases the pH-elevating effect of acid inhibiting drugs; (ii) proton pump inhibitors may increase the tendency of H. pylori to cause atrophic gastritis; and (iii) successful eradication of H. pylori is reported to increase the likelihood of

  19. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  20. Molecular diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Westblom, T U

    1997-01-01

    H. pylori infection can be diagnosed with many different tests. If the patient is undergoing endoscopy with gastric biopsies, culture and histology remain the diagnostic methods of choice. Indirect tests include rapid urease tests, urea breath tests, and serology. Molecular methods such as PCR offer marginal improvements when done on biopsy material, but has the advantage of being able to accurately identify H. pylori in areas outside the stomach where cultures usually fail. PCR can detect low numbers of organisms in gastric juice, bile, stool and oral secretions. Because of its high sensitivity it can also be used for epidemiologic investigations of environmental sources. However, the largest role for PCR may be in molecular fingerprinting. Arbitrary Primer PCR (RAPD) on the whole bacterial genome can reliably and accurately distinguish between isolates. PCR-based RFLP analysis can separate isolates based on restriction fragment sizes in a smaller amplified genome segment. REP-PCR can group isolates into clusters that appear to have different clinical expressions. These methods promise to shed new light on the transmission and pathogenicity of H. pylori. PMID:9037621

  1. Association between Parkinson's Disease and Helicobacter Pylori

    PubMed Central

    Oğuz, Sıdıka

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a common infection of the gastrointestinal system that is usually related to peptic ulcers. However, recent studies have revealed relationships between HP and many other diseases. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, HP can prevent the absorption of certain drugs. A high prevalence of HP has been found in patients with Parkinson's disease, and this bacterium causes motor fluctuations by affecting the absorption of levodopa, which is the main drug used to treat Parkinson's disease. Eradicating HP from patients with Parkinson's disease by applying antibiotic treatment will increase the absorption of levodopa and decrease their motor fluctuations. PMID:26932258

  2. Helicobacter pylori: the Middle East scenario.

    PubMed Central

    Novis, B. H.; Gabay, G.; Naftali, T.

    1998-01-01

    A review of Helicobacter pylori in the Middle East is presented. Prevalence studies have been performed in asymptomatic population groups from Algeria, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Turkey. These showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is similar to that of the developing countries of the world with a high level of infection in childhood (40 to 70 percent), which increases with age to 85 to 90 percent. Israel, however, has a low prevalence in children (10 percent), but there is a rapid rise in the second decade of life to 39 percent, reaching 79 percent in those over 60 years old. The prevalence rates were higher in those living in communal settlements (72 percent) than in urban dwellers (65 percent). The infection rates were higher in persons of Mediterranean and Asian origin (89 percent) compared to those of Western European/North American origin (57 percent). The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in patients undergoing endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms has now been reported from many Middle Eastern countries, including Egypt, Iran, Israel, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. These studies showed that patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease had similar rates of infection as reported from Europe, United States and Africa (71 to 92 percent). However, patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia had higher rates of infection (61 to 89 percent). The H. pylori scenario from the prevalence rates, treatment protocols and responses to treatment does not differ very much from other developing areas of the world. PMID:10378359

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection - recent developments in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Ana Isabel; Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Considering the recommended indications for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy and the broad spectrum of available diagnostic methods, a reliable diagnosis is mandatory both before and after eradication therapy. Only highly accurate tests should be used in clinical practice, and the sensitivity and specificity of an adequate test should exceed 90%. The choice of tests should take into account clinical circumstances, the likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests, the cost-effectiveness of the testing strategy and the availability of the tests. This review concerns some of the most recent developments in diagnostic methods of H. pylori infection, namely the contribution of novel endoscopic evaluation methodologies for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, such as magnifying endoscopy techniques and chromoendoscopy. In addition, the diagnostic contribution of histology and the urea breath test was explored recently in specific clinical settings and patient groups. Recent studies recommend enhancing the number of biopsy fragments for the rapid urease test. Bacterial culture from the gastric biopsy is the gold standard technique, and is recommended for antibiotic susceptibility test. Serology is used for initial screening and the stool antigen test is particularly used when the urea breath test is not available, while molecular methods have gained attention mostly for detecting antibiotic resistance. PMID:25071324

  4. Current Status and Prospects for a Helicobacter pylori Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Thomas G; Czinn, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to a variety of gastric diseases. H pylori-associated gastric cancer is diagnosed in advanced stages, and a vaccine against H pylori is desirable in parts of the world where gastric cancer remains a common form of cancer. Some of the strategies of vaccine development used in animals have been tested in several phase 3 clinical trials; these trials have been largely unsuccessful, although H pylori-specific immune responses have been induced. New insights into promoting immunity and overcoming the immunosuppressive nature of H pylori infection are required to improve the efficacy of an H pylori vaccine.

  5. [Helicobacter pylori antibiotic sensitivity by microdilution].

    PubMed

    Rivas, F; Rivera, P; Hernández, F; Hevia, F; Guillén, F; Tamayo, G

    2000-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has been recognized as the major aetiologic agent of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers and also a risk factor for gastric cancer; eradication of H pylori prevents peptic ulcer recurrence and may also decrease the prevalence of gastric cancer in high risk populations around the world. Currently the only accepted indication for treatment is ulcer disease and maltosa, infected with Helicobacter pilory. However treatment is difficult and easily develops resistance. The elaboration of an antibiotic profile is recommended after a treatment failure. There is a lack of information in developing countries so the aim of this work was to determine the antibiotic profile of 51 strains isolated from patients gastric biopsies attended at Hospital San Juan de Dios in Costa Rica, using egg yolk broth and finding a resistance of 63.0% to metronidazole with a breakpoint of 8.0 microg/ml and 20.0% resistance to tetracycline (MIC1.0 microg/ml), 6.0% to clarithromicyn with a MIC of 0.125 microg/ml. There was no resistance to amoxicilin (MIC 0.015 microg/ml). The microdilution technique is very laborious, but highly reproducible with results accordingly to previous work, and we recommended it for the designing of therapeutical scheme.

  6. Immunobiological activities of Helicobacter pylori porins.

    PubMed Central

    Tufano, M A; Rossano, F; Catalanotti, P; Liguori, G; Capasso, C; Ceccarelli, M T; Marinelli, P

    1994-01-01

    Studies were carried out on some biological activities of Helicobacter pylori porins in vitro. We extracted and purified a porin with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated with H. pylori porins showed a decrease of chemotaxis, of adherence to nylon wool, and of chemiluminescence. Used as chemotaxins in place of zymosan-activated serum or as chemotaxinogens in place of zymosan, the porins induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration. Human monocytes and lymphocytes cultivated in the presence of H. pylori porins released cytokines. Release of the various cytokines studied was obtained with differentiated kinetics and at various porin concentrations. Starting only 3 h after culture, tumor necrosis factor alpha is released quickly, reaching a peak at 18 h, at a porin concentration of 1 microgram/ml/10(6) cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) appears later, with a peak at 10 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells, while IL-8 is released after 6 h of culture, with a peak at 24 h, at a porin concentration of 10 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells, while IL-8 is released after 6 h of culture, with a peak at 24 h, at a porin concentration of 10 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells. Lymphocytes stimulated by H. pylori porins release gamma interferon after 18 h of culture at higher concentrations of porins (20 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells). Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor is released from 6 to 48 h at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml/10(6) cells, while both IL-3 and IL-4 are released after 18 h of culture at different porin concentrations (0.1 and 1 microgram/ml/10(6) cells, respectively). Our results lead us to think that during H. pylori infection, surface components, porins in particular, are able to induce a series of chain reactions ranging from the inflammatory to the immunological responses. Images PMID:8132346

  7. Exploring alternative treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos Felipe; Romero, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a successful pathogen that can persist in the stomach of an infected person for their entire life. It provokes chronic gastric inflammation that leads to the development of serious gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. It is known that these ailments can be avoided if the infection by the bacteria can be prevented or eradicated. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available. However, these therapies have several inherent problems, including the appearance of resistance to the antibiotics used and associated adverse effects, the risk of re-infection and the high cost of antibiotic therapy. The delay in developing a vaccine to prevent or eradicate the infection has furthered research into new therapeutic approaches. This review summarises the most relevant recent studies on vaccine development and new treatments using natural resources such as plants, probiotics and nutraceuticals. In addition, novel alternatives based on microorganisms, peptides, polysaccharides, and intragastric violet light irradiation are presented. Alternative therapies have not been effective in eradicating the bacteria but have been shown to maintain low bacterial levels. Nevertheless, some of them are useful in preventing the adverse effects of antibiotics, modulating the immune response, gastroprotection, and the general promotion of health. Therefore, those agents can be used as adjuvants of allopathic anti-H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:24587621

  8. Diagnosis and epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Calvet, Xavier; Ramírez Lázaro, María-José; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2013-09-01

    A limited amount of new information was published in the field of diagnosis and epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori this last year. Besides some improvement in current tests, it is interesting to note the attempts to identify severe disease, for example gastric cancer, by breath analysis using nanomaterial-based sensors. In contrast, the predictive value for gastric cancer and atrophy of pepsinogen determinations was found inadequate. Prevalence studies of H. pylori infection have been carried out in adults and children around the world in the general population but also in specific communities. The usual risk factors were found. In addition, a Japanese study highlighted the role of grandmothers in the familial transmission of H. pylori. A study showed that the infection may not always readily establish itself in children, given the number of transient infections observed. It was also noted that after eradication, a first-year relapse is likely to be a recurrence of the previous infection, while later on it is probably a reinfection with a new strain.

  9. Antimicrobial Nanotherapeutics Against Helicobacter pylori Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. The first area of this research, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. We found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and dormant forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance toward LipoLLA. Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. The next step, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of LipoLLA for the treatment of H. pylori infection. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated due to the H. pylori infection. Finally, toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this work indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The second area is stimuli-responsive liposomes development. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (AuChi) onto the outer surface of liposomes, we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have

  10. [Peptic Ulcer Disease Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection].

    PubMed

    Yeo, Se-Hwan; Yang, Chang-Hun

    2016-06-25

    Although the global prevalence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is decreasing, PUD is still one of the most common upper gastrointestinal diseases in the world due to Helicobacter pylori infection and increased use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In Korea, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is also declining, but it is still the major cause of PUD. The outcomes of H. pylori infection are caused by imbalances between bacterial virulence factors, host factors, and environmental influences. In this review, we describe the prevalence trends of H. pylori infection in Korea, the mechanism of H. pylori infection-related PUD, and treatment strategies.

  11. Molecular Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-Related Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Norihiko; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays a crucial role in gastric carcinogenesis. H pylori exerts oncogenic effects on gastric mucosa through complex interaction between bacterial virulence factors and host inflammatory responses. On the other hand, gastric cancer develops via stepwise accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in H pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Recent comprehensive analyses of gastric cancer genomes indicate a multistep process of genetic alterations as well as possible molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis. Both genetic processes of gastric cancer development and molecular oncogenic pathways related to H pylori infection are important to completely understand the pathogenesis of H pylori-related gastric cancer.

  12. Helicobacter pylori and its interaction with chief and parietal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cave, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been shown, along with other Helicobacter species to produce effector molecules that induce substantial physiological changes on acid and pepsin secretion. The effects are clinically evident, and long-term achlorhydria may be a risk factor for gastric cancer. Further identification and characterization of the factors may lead to additional understanding of gastric physiology. PMID:9041695

  13. OVERVIEW: DISINFECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND AEROMONAS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori and Aeromonas hydrophila are contaminants listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).The sensitivity of H. pylori to chlorine and of Aeromonas spp. to inactivation by free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) was examined. Selective and...

  14. SURVIVAL OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN A NATURAL FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode by which Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of most gastric ulcers, is transmitted remains undetermined. Epidemiological evidence suggests these organisms are waterborne; however, H. pylori has rarely been grown from potential water sources. This may be due to th...

  15. Allergies, Helicobacter pylori and the continental enigmas

    PubMed Central

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a gastric pathogen, is known to be associated with gastric and duodenal ulcers, and is also a strong risk factor for the development of gastric cancer and lymphoma of the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue. Ordinarily, this should make a strong case for its eradication at par with any other infectious disease. However, the unique biology of H. pylori and the complexity of its interactions with humans, its only known natural host, do not permit the recommendation of unambiguous preventive and therapeutic measures. Moreover, this organism has co-evolved with humans as a practically universal member of the natural gastric microbiota over at least 100,000 years. H. pylori persists for a lifetime in mostly asymptomatic hosts, and causes clinical disease only in a minority of infections. Therefore, its potential contribution to the maintenance of human immune homeostasis, as is the case with the better-studied members of the intestinal microbiota, is certainly worthy of serious investigation. In this paper, we summarize some interesting and often anecdotal data drawn from recent studies, and examine their significance in the context of the hygiene hypothesis. We also examine whether the lower incidence of gastric cancer over large parts of the world in spite of a high prevalence of infection (the Asian and African enigmas) may be re-interpreted in terms of the hygiene hypothesis. Finally, it is suggested that an evolutionary-ecological approach to the study of H. pylori infection may help in the formulation of strategies for the management of this infection. This may well be an infectious disease wherein medical interventions may have to be personalized to ensure optimal outcomes. PMID:26106380

  16. Helicobacter pylori in human oral cavity and stomach.

    PubMed

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Reischl, Udo; Behr, Anke; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Lehn, Norbert; Schmalz, Gottfried; Ruhl, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    The oral cavity has been suspected as an extra-gastroduodenal reservoir for Helicobacter pylori infection and transmission, but conflicting evidence exists regarding the occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth, independently of stomach colonization. Ninety-four gastric biopsy patients were analysed for the concurrent presence of H. pylori in the mouth and stomach. Samples were collected from different areas within the mouth and H. pylori DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and verified by sequencing. Helicobacter pylori-specific serology was performed, and stomach colonization was determined by culture. In addition, relevant dental and periodontal parameters, as well as general health parameters, were recorded. Helicobacter pylori was found in the stomach of 29 patients and in the oral cavity of 16 patients. In only six patients was the bacterium detected simultaneously in the stomach and mouth. Notably, the 10 patients in whom the bacterium was found solely in the mouth did not have serum antibodies to H. pylori. The occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth was found to be correlated neither to any general or oral health parameters, nor to any particular site of collection. This study shows that H. pylori can occur in the oral cavity independently of stomach colonization.

  17. Helicobacter pylori research: historical insights and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Fock, Kwong Ming; Graham, David Y.; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori leads to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. With increasing issues of antibiotic resistance and changing epidemiology of this pathogen, new approaches are needed for effective management. In 1984, Dr Barry Marshall and Dr Robin Warren reported the association of Helicobacter pylori with peptic ulcers in The Lancet—a discovery that earned them the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2005—but what progress have we made since then? Here, we have invited three international experts to give their insights into the advances in H. pylori research over the past 30 years and where research should be focused in the future. PMID:23752823

  18. [Diseases linked to Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2014-09-01

    Below is a summary of the main conclusions that came from reports presented at this year's Digestive Disease Week (2014) relating to Helicobacter pylori infection. Despite the undeniable decline of the infection's frequency, in the near future, developed countries--or at least some sub-populations--will continue to have a significant prevalence of the infection. Clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance rates are considerably high in most countries and these rates are on the rise. The eradication of H. pylori improves symptoms of functional dyspepsia, although only in a minority of patients; adding antidepressants to eradication therapy could improve long-term response. In patients who were admitted with gastrointestinal bleeding from peptic ulcers, it is necessary to thoroughly study the presence of H. pylori infection and administer eradication therapy as early as possible. Eradication of H. pylori in patients undergoing endoscopic resection of early-stage gastric cancer reduces incidence of metachronous tumors. We have some diagnostic innovations, such as carrying out various techniques--a rapid urease test, culture or PCR--based on gastric samples obtained by scraping the mucosa. The effectiveness of conventional triple therapy is clearly insufficient and continues to decline. The superiority of sequential therapy over conventional triple therapies has not been definitively established. Concomitant therapy is simpler and more effective than sequential therapy. Optimized concomitant therapy (with high doses of proton-pump inhibitors [PPI] and over 14 days) is highly effective, more so than standard concomitant therapy. For patients who are allergic to penicillin, 2 treatment options were essentially described: PPI-clarithromycin-metronidazole (clarithromycin-sensitive strains) and quadruple therapy with bismuth (when the bacterial sensitivity is unknown). If conventional triple therapy fails, second-line therapy with levofloxacin is effective and is

  19. [Diseases linked to Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2014-09-01

    Below is a summary of the main conclusions that came from reports presented at this year's Digestive Disease Week (2014) relating to Helicobacter pylori infection. Despite the undeniable decline of the infection's frequency, in the near future, developed countries--or at least some sub-populations--will continue to have a significant prevalence of the infection. Clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance rates are considerably high in most countries and these rates are on the rise. The eradication of H. pylori improves symptoms of functional dyspepsia, although only in a minority of patients; adding antidepressants to eradication therapy could improve long-term response. In patients who were admitted with gastrointestinal bleeding from peptic ulcers, it is necessary to thoroughly study the presence of H. pylori infection and administer eradication therapy as early as possible. Eradication of H. pylori in patients undergoing endoscopic resection of early-stage gastric cancer reduces incidence of metachronous tumors. We have some diagnostic innovations, such as carrying out various techniques--a rapid urease test, culture or PCR--based on gastric samples obtained by scraping the mucosa. The effectiveness of conventional triple therapy is clearly insufficient and continues to decline. The superiority of sequential therapy over conventional triple therapies has not been definitively established. Concomitant therapy is simpler and more effective than sequential therapy. Optimized concomitant therapy (with high doses of proton-pump inhibitors [PPI] and over 14 days) is highly effective, more so than standard concomitant therapy. For patients who are allergic to penicillin, 2 treatment options were essentially described: PPI-clarithromycin-metronidazole (clarithromycin-sensitive strains) and quadruple therapy with bismuth (when the bacterial sensitivity is unknown). If conventional triple therapy fails, second-line therapy with levofloxacin is effective and is

  20. Evidence for ethnic tropism of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, S; Fraser, A; Holliss, B; Schmid, J; O'Toole, P W

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is linked to gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. Peptic ulcer disease, as distinct from chronic asymptomatic infection, is strongly associated with expression of bacterial virulence markers, including a major antigen, CagA, and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. We have previously described significant differences in colonization rates, independent of socioeconomic status, among ethnic groups in New Zealand. To evaluate relative risks for peptic ulcer disease, we examined the frequency of two virulence markers in H. pylori strains infecting these ethnic groups. Although these markers occurred significantly more frequently in strains isolated from Polynesians than in strains from Europeans, this frequency was not reflected in the incidence of peptic ulcer disease in the two groups. DNA fingerprinting of the urease gene showed that Polynesians are more frequently infected by a group of strains which are genetically distinct from those affecting European New Zealanders. Our data suggest that separate bacterial lineages may have evolved in parallel with race-specific specialization. PMID:9284141

  1. Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tarique, K F; Devi, S; Abdul Rehman, S A; Gourinath, S

    2016-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily bind nucleotides and use the histidine triad motif to carry out dinucleotidyl hydrolase, nucleotidyltransferase and phosphoramidite hydrolase activities. Five different branches of this superfamily are known to exist. Defects in these proteins in humans are linked to many diseases such as ataxia, diseases of RNA metabolism and cell-cycle regulation, and various types of cancer. The histidine triad nucleotide protein (HINT) is nearly identical to proteins that have been classified as protein kinase C-interacting proteins (PKCIs), which also have the ability to bind and inhibit protein kinase C. The structure of HINT, which exists as a homodimer, is highly conserved from humans to bacteria and shares homology with the product of fragile histidine triad protein (FHit), a tumour suppressor gene of this superfamily. Here, the structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori (HpHINT) in complex with AMP is reported at a resolution of 3 Å. The final model has R and Rfree values of 26 and 28%, respectively, with good electron density. Structural comparison with previously reported homologues and phylogenetic analysis shows H. pylori HINT to be the smallest among them, and suggests that it branched out separately during the course of evolution. Overall, this structure has contributed to a better understanding of this protein across the animal kingdom. PMID:26750483

  2. Helicobacter pylori and gastric or duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, treatment of the infection improves healing and prevents complications and recurrences. The drug regimen generally consists of a high-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) such as omeprazole plus antibiotics. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we conducted a review of the literature in order to determine the standard empirical antibiotic regimen for H. pylori infection in adults with gastric or duodenal ulcer in France. In 2015, due to an increase in H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, a 7-day course of the PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin combination is effective in only about 70% of cases. A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of trials involving thousands of patients suggests that prolonging treatment with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin or a PPI + amoxicillin + metronidazole to 10 or 14 days improves the rate of H. pylori eradication by 5% to 10%. A metanalysis of seven trials including a total of about 1000 patients showed that combination therapy with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days eradicates H. pylori in about 90% of cases, compared to about 80% of cases with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin given for 7 days. Sequential treatment with amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days, has also been tested in thousands of patients. Efficacy and adverse effects were similar to those observed when the same antibiotics were taken simultaneously for 5 days. In randomised trials, replacing clarithromycin or amoxicillin with a fluoroquinolone yielded conflicting results. In 2009, nearly 20% of H. pylori isolates were resistant to levofloxacin in France. Tetracycline has only been evaluated in combination with bismuth. The few available data on doxycycline suggest that its efficacy is similar to that of tetracycline. A fixed-dose combination of bismuth subcitrate potassium + metronidazole

  3. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: therapies and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    This review presents a critical evaluation of the role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the management of peptic ulcer disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia. On current evidence, H. pylori eradication therapy seems likely to emerge as the most rational and cost-effective treatment for duodenal ulcer. The role of H. pylori eradication in the treatment of gastric ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia is unclear and requires further study. The emerging problem of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is of major clinical importance and a prime cause of treatment failure. There is increasing evidence of a link between H. pylori and gastric cancer but it is premature to recommend large-scale eradication of H. pylori as a valid strategy for the primary prevention of gastric cancer. The search continues for the ideal H. pylori eradication regimen. PMID:1437952

  4. Inflammation, immunity, and vaccines for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Velin, Dominique; Straubinger, Kathrin; Gerhard, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The tight control of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the stomach mucosa during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is of prime importance for the bacteria to persist and for the host to prevent inflammation-driven diseases. This review summarizes recent data on the roles of innate and adaptive immune responses during H. pylori/host interactions. In addition, the latest preclinical developments of H. pylori vaccines are discussed with a special focus on the clinical trial reported by Zeng et al., who provided evidence that oral vaccination significantly reduces the acquisition of natural H. pylori infection in children. PMID:27531535

  5. [Progress in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Tu, Sha; Yang, Huixiang

    2014-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is highly associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. It is a key strategy to prevent and treat these diseases by eradicating H. pylori. Due to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance of clarithromycin and metronidazole, the eradication rate of standard triple therapy is less than 80% in recent years. On the basis of traditional triple therapy, combination with some treatments, such as probiotics, mucoprotective agents, Chinese medicine and oral clean, can improve the H. pylori eradication rate. PMID:25269503

  6. Culturing Helicobacter pylori from clinical specimens: review of microbiologic methods.

    PubMed

    Ndip, Roland N; MacKay, William G; Farthing, Michael J G; Weaver, Lawrence T

    2003-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori is probably the most common chronic bacterial infection of humankind, and is usually acquired first in childhood. Microbiologic culture of H. pylori is the "gold standard" for diagnosis in a patient with suspected infection. Although not currently recommended for routine use, culture allows testing for susceptibility to antimicrobials, especially in populations with a high prevalence of drug resistance. Gastric biopsies are the specimens most commonly used to culture H. pylori, but stool, vomitus, saliva, and dental plaque offer opportunities. This review examines the current methods used to culture H. pylori from biologic specimens and suggests useful hints to enhance its recovery rate.

  7. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic Ghanaian patients

    PubMed Central

    Archampong, Timothy Nii Akushe; Asmah, Richard Harry; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Gyasi, Richard Kwasi; Nkrumah, Kofi Nyaako; Rajakumar, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative urease-producing bacterium causally linked with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Infection is more frequent and acquired at an earlier age in developing countries compared to European populations. The incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic Ghanaian patients was 75.4%. However, epidemiological factors associated with infection vary across populations. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to consecutively sample dyspeptic patients at the Endoscopy Unit of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra between 2010 and 2012. The study questionnaire elicited their epidemiological clinical characteristics. Helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by rapid-urease examination of antral biopsies at upper Gastro-intestinal endoscopy. Results The sample population of dyspeptic patients attending the Endoscopy Unit for upper GI endoscopy yielded 242 patients of which 47.5% were females. The age distribution of H. pylori-infection was even across most age – groups, ranging from 69.2% (61 – 70) years to 80% (21 – 30) years. Helicobacter pylori prevalence decreased across areas mapping to the three residential classes in accordance with increasing affluence with rural areas having the highest prevalence. The unemployed and patients in farming had relatively high Helicobacter pylori infection rates of 92.3% and 91.7% respectively. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is endemic in Ghana but the persistently high prevalence across age groups despite significant community anti-microbial use suggests likely re-crudescence or re-infection from multiple sources in a developing country. Socio-cultural factors such as residential class and farming may be facilitating factors for its continued prevalence. PMID:26430475

  8. [Does Helicobacter pylori infection play a role in extragastric diseases?].

    PubMed

    de Korwin, Jean-Dominique

    2008-03-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), numerous studies have considered the possibility that it plays a role in different extragastric diseases. Most of these studies may be classified as epidemiological studies or investigations of H. pylori eradication, but there are also case reports and in vitro studies. This review reveals the limitations common to most of them. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is the disease for which the strongest association with H. pylori infection has been shown. Data are also accumulating about the role of H. pylori infection in idiopathic iron deficiency anemia and chronic idiopathic urticaria. Interesting results show that H. pylori infection affects atherosclerosis and is weakly associated with ischemic heart disease and stroke. Moreover, CagA-positive H. pylori strains may play a role in the natural history of atherosclerotic stroke. Recent studies suggest a link between H. pylori and Parkinson's disease. Preliminary data indicate that H. pylori infection impairs gastric ghrelin production and may influence nutritional status. The association between H. pylori infection and other extragastric diseases remains controversial. H. pylori infection may cause extragastric manifestations directly or indirectly, by various mechanisms including atrophic gastritis, the release of inflammatory mediators, molecular mimicry, and systemic immune response. Evidence suggests that anti-H. pylori therapy improves idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (significant increase of platelet count in half of the cases), iron-deficiency anemia, and chronic urticaria (30% remission rate), but the data from randomized controlled trials are insufficient to confirm these positive effects.

  9. Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter; Kandulski, Arne

    2016-09-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been further decreased over the last decades along with decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated PUD. A delayed H. pylori eradication has been associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcer and reemphasized the importance of eradication especially in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). PUB associated with NSAID/aspirin intake and H. pylori revealed an additive interaction in gastric pathophysiology which favors the "test-and-treat" strategy for H. pylori in patients with specific risk factors. The H. pylori-negative and NSAID-negative "idiopathic PUD" have been increasingly observed and associated with slower healing tendency, higher risk of recurrence, and greater mortality. Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia has been further investigated and finally defined by the Kyoto consensus. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is advised as first option in this group of patients. Only in the case of symptom persistence or recurrence after eradication therapy, dyspeptic patients should be classified as functional dyspepsia (FD). There were few new data in 2015 on the role of H. pylori infection in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and in particular Barrett's esophagus. A lower prevalence of gastric atrophy with less acid output in patients with erosive esophagitis confirmed previous findings. In patients with erosive esophagitis, no difference was observed in healing rates neither between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients nor between patients that underwent eradication therapy compared to patients without eradication. These findings are in line with the current consensus guidelines concluding that H. pylori eradication has no effects on symptoms and does not aggravate preexisting GERD. PMID:27531536

  10. Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter; Kandulski, Arne

    2016-09-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been further decreased over the last decades along with decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated PUD. A delayed H. pylori eradication has been associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcer and reemphasized the importance of eradication especially in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). PUB associated with NSAID/aspirin intake and H. pylori revealed an additive interaction in gastric pathophysiology which favors the "test-and-treat" strategy for H. pylori in patients with specific risk factors. The H. pylori-negative and NSAID-negative "idiopathic PUD" have been increasingly observed and associated with slower healing tendency, higher risk of recurrence, and greater mortality. Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia has been further investigated and finally defined by the Kyoto consensus. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is advised as first option in this group of patients. Only in the case of symptom persistence or recurrence after eradication therapy, dyspeptic patients should be classified as functional dyspepsia (FD). There were few new data in 2015 on the role of H. pylori infection in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and in particular Barrett's esophagus. A lower prevalence of gastric atrophy with less acid output in patients with erosive esophagitis confirmed previous findings. In patients with erosive esophagitis, no difference was observed in healing rates neither between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients nor between patients that underwent eradication therapy compared to patients without eradication. These findings are in line with the current consensus guidelines concluding that H. pylori eradication has no effects on symptoms and does not aggravate preexisting GERD.

  11. Vacuoles of Candida yeast as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are resistant to hostile gastric environments and antibiotic therapy, reflecting the possibility that they are protected by an ecological niche, such as inside the vacuoles of human epithelial and immune cells. Candida yeast may also provide such an alternative niche, as fluorescently labeled H. pylori were observed as fast-moving and viable bacterium-like bodies inside the vacuoles of gastric, oral, vaginal and foodborne Candida yeasts. In addition, H. pylori-specific genes and proteins were detected in samples extracted from these yeasts. The H. pylori present within these yeasts produce peroxiredoxin and thiol peroxidase, providing the ability to detoxify oxygen metabolites formed in immune cells. Furthermore, these bacteria produce urease and VacA, two virulence determinants of H. pylori that influence phago-lysosome fusion and bacterial survival in macrophages. Microscopic observations of H. pylori cells in new generations of yeasts along with amplification of H. pylori-specific genes from consecutive generations indicate that new yeasts can inherit the intracellular H. pylori as part of their vacuolar content. Accordingly, it is proposed that yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population. This Topic Highlight reviews and discusses recent evidence regarding the evolutionary adaptation of H. pylori to thrive in host cell vacuoles. PMID:24833856

  12. Vacuoles of Candida yeast as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are resistant to hostile gastric environments and antibiotic therapy, reflecting the possibility that they are protected by an ecological niche, such as inside the vacuoles of human epithelial and immune cells. Candida yeast may also provide such an alternative niche, as fluorescently labeled H. pylori were observed as fast-moving and viable bacterium-like bodies inside the vacuoles of gastric, oral, vaginal and foodborne Candida yeasts. In addition, H. pylori-specific genes and proteins were detected in samples extracted from these yeasts. The H. pylori present within these yeasts produce peroxiredoxin and thiol peroxidase, providing the ability to detoxify oxygen metabolites formed in immune cells. Furthermore, these bacteria produce urease and VacA, two virulence determinants of H. pylori that influence phago-lysosome fusion and bacterial survival in macrophages. Microscopic observations of H. pylori cells in new generations of yeasts along with amplification of H. pylori-specific genes from consecutive generations indicate that new yeasts can inherit the intracellular H. pylori as part of their vacuolar content. Accordingly, it is proposed that yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population. This Topic Highlight reviews and discusses recent evidence regarding the evolutionary adaptation of H. pylori to thrive in host cell vacuoles.

  13. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins—including the previously unknown DUF466 family—in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  14. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins-including the previously unknown DUF466 family-in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  15. Successful culture techniques for Helicobacter species: general culture techniques for Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Whitmire, Jeannette M; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-01-01

    Half of the world's population is persistently infected with Helicobacter pylori. The chronicity of this infection ultimately elicits clinical manifestations ranging from gastritis and peptic ulcers to adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Laboratory research following the initial observations of Helicobacter species was greatly hindered by an inability to isolate and culture the bacteria. Thus, the ability to culture bacterial species from this genus is an extremely important step in expanding clinical knowledge and development of therapies. This chapter describes successful techniques for culturing H. pylori on selective horse blood agar media and in Brucella broth liquid media. Additionally, the specific growth requirements of other Helicobacter species are noted.

  16. Extraintestinal manifestations of Helicobacter pylori: A concise review

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Frank; Rayner-Hartley, Erin; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been clearly linked to peptic ulcer disease and some gastrointestinal malignancies. Increasing evidence demonstrates possible associations to disease states in other organ systems, known as the extraintestinal manifestations of H. pylori. Different conditions associated with H. pylori infection include those from hematologic, cardiopulmonary, metabolic, neurologic, and dermatologic systems. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of the evidence that supports or refutes the associations of H. pylori and its proposed extraintestinal manifestations. Based on data from the literature, PUD, mucosal associated lymphoid tumors lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma has well-established links. Current evidence most supports extraintestinal manifestations with H. pylori in immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, urticaria, Parkinson’s, migraines and rosacea; however, there is still plausible link with other diseases that requires further research. PMID:25232230

  17. Regression of fundic gland polyps following acquisition of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, N; Seno, H; Nakajima, T; Yazumi, S; Miyamoto, S; Matsumoto, S; Itoh, T; Kawanami, C; Okazaki, K; Chiba, T

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is very low in patients with fundic gland polyps (FGPs) of the stomach. We report here two cases with multiple FGPs that regressed following new H pylori acquisition. Patient Nos I and II had multiple FGPs in normal fundic mucosa without inflammatory changes or atrophy. Both were not infected with H pylori. Following acquisition of H pylori infection however, all FGPs in both patients completely disappeared except for one FGP in patient No I. Although the size of the remaining polyp in patient No I was greatly reduced after H pylori acquisition, it became enlarged again after eradication. Interestingly, in the remaining polyp, we found an activating β-catenin gene mutation whereas no such mutations were detected in FGPs of patient No II. Thus H pylori infection may have an inhibitory effect on the development of FGPs. PMID:12377817

  18. Helicobacter pylori in Cholecystectomy Specimens-Morphological and Immunohistochemical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Venkatarami; Jena, Amitabh; Gavini, Siva; Thota, Asha; Nandyala, Rukamangadha; Chowhan, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Current literature describes presence of H.pylori in various extra-gastric locations and its association with many diseases. Apart from the conventional location of gastric and duodenal mucosa, H.pylori have been isolated and cultured from gallbladder. Aim Analysis of cholecystectomy specimens to detect H.pylori by means of immunohistochemical staining. Materials and Methods There were a total of 118 cholecystectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology in three months duration. We have performed immunostaining for H.pylori in 45 consecutive cases of cholecystectomy specimen. Clinical and other investigational information were retrieved from the medical records department. For each case, routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain was studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was done using purified polyclonal Helicobacter pylori antiserum. Results Majority of the patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the presenting complaint of right hypochondrial pain. Multiple pigmented stones were present in majority (27/45) of them. Immunostain for H.pylori was positive in ten cases. Six of these cases had pigmented gall stones, two had stones not specified and in two of the cases there were no stones. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is present in gall bladder and is commonly seen in association with stones. A more detailed study of cholecystectomy cases (both neoplastic and non-neoplastic) with serological, culture and molecular data of H.pylori is desirable to study the pathogenesis of cholecystitis, its association with gall stones and other gall bladder disorders. PMID:27437221

  19. Five month persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sjunnesson, Hakan; Sturegard, Erik; Hynes, Sean; Willen, Roger; Feinstein, Ricardo; Wadstrom, Torkel

    2003-06-01

    Seven Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were infected with the Sydney strain of H. pylori (SS1). Gastric histopathology was evaluated and serum antibody response to H. pylori cell-surface proteins was analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunoblot. Tissue and faecal samples from five control animals were analysed for the presence of naturally occurring Helicobacter spp. infection by culture and Helicobacter genus-specific PCR. The H. pylori infection persisted for 5 months, in most animals accompanied by a histologically severe antral gastritis, exhibiting focal degeneration and necrosis of gastric crypt epithelium. Increased numbers of mitotic figures were observed in the gastric epithelium, indicating a regenerative process. Infected animals displayed specific antibodies towards H. pylori cell-surface proteins in immunoblot, whereas EIA was of dubious value creating false-positive results. Serum complement C3 and cholesterol levels appeared to be elevated in infected animals. Helicobacter spp. infection was not detected in the control animals. The persistent infection, accompanied by severe gastritis and a prominent serum antibody response, and the apparent absence of a natural Helicobacter spp. infection makes the guinea pig model useful in H. pylori research.

  20. Local Immune Response in Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak Salim, Derya; Sahin, Mehmet; Köksoy, Sadi; Adanir, Haydar; Süleymanlar, Inci

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There have been few studies concerning the cytokine profiles in gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori–infected patients with normal mucosa, chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma (GAC). In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the genomic expression levels and immune pathological roles of cytokines—interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, IL-17A, IL-32—in H pylori–infected patients with normal gastric mucosa (NGM; control), chronic active gastritis (CAG), and GAC. Genomic expression levels of these cytokines were assayed by real-time PCR analysis in gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 93 patients. We found that the genomic expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A mRNA were increased in the CAG group and those of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, TGF-β mRNA were increased in the GAC group with reference to H pylori–infected NGM group. This study is on the interest of cytokine profiles in gastric mucosa among individuals with normal, gastritis, or GAC. Our findings suggest that the immune response of gastric mucosa to infection of H pylori differs from patient to patient. For individual therapy, levels of genomic expression of IL-6 or other cytokines may be tracked in patients. PMID:27196487

  1. Helicobacter pylori bab genes during chronic colonization

    PubMed Central

    Matteo, Mario J; Armitano, Rita I; Romeo, Mariela; Wonaga, Andres; Olmos, Martín; Catalano, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori BabA adhesin metastability could yield variants with potential for periodic activation and deactivation of their mediated adherence. babA/B or babB/A chimeras could play an important role in translational regulation. We investigated the frequency of different bab gene profiles in paired isolates from antrum and corpus recovered from patients with chronic gastritis. Isolates from 174 biopsies from 34 patients were included, and bab genes at the three common chromosomal loci were investigated. Inter-micro-niche variation was found in 1/4 patients, counting duplicate copies of babA or babB, babB/A or babA/B chimeras, opposite location of babA and babB or babC and babB, and absence of babB ATG translational codon. Truncated BabA was identified in 2/34 patients without inter-micro-niche variation. Isolates from 12/34 patients harbored babA/B or babB/A chimeras -either in one, several or all micro-niches indicating that chimera formation is a common mechanism to control BabA expression. To note, babA gene was absent in 11/34 patients, and in this population, babA/B chimeras which lack expression predominated over babB/A, able to exhibit Leb binding phenotype. PMID:21915366

  2. Helicobacter pylori isolated from the domestic cat: public health implications.

    PubMed Central

    Handt, L K; Fox, J G; Dewhirst, F E; Fraser, G J; Paster, B J; Yan, L L; Rozmiarek, H; Rufo, R; Stalis, I H

    1994-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been directly linked with active chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Although a substantial portion of the human population is colonized with H. pylori, the patterns of transmission of the organism remain in doubt, and reservoir hosts have not been identified. This study documents the isolation of H. pylori from domestic cats obtained from a commercial vendor. The isolation of H. pylori from these cats was confirmed by morphologic and biochemical evaluations, fatty acid analysis, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. H. pylori was cultured from 6 cats and organisms compatible in appearance with H. pylori were observed in 15 additional cats by histologic examination. In most animals, H. pylori was present in close proximity to mucosal epithelial cells or in mucus layers of the glandular or surface epithelium. Microscopically, H. pylori-infected cat stomachs contained a mild to severe diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with small numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils in the subglandular and gastric mucosae. Lymphoid follicles were also noted, particularly in the antrum, and often displaced glandular mucosal tissue. Thus, the domestic cat may be a potential model for H. pylori disease in humans. Also, the isolation of H. pylori from domestic cats raises the possibility that the organism may be a zoonotic pathogen, with transmission occurring from cats to humans. Images PMID:8188360

  3. Global burden of gastric cancer attributable to Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Martyn; Franceschi, Silvia; Vignat, Jérôme; Forman, David; de Martel, Catherine

    2015-01-15

    We previously estimated that 660,000 cases of cancer in the year 2008 were attributable to the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), corresponding to 5.2% of the 12.7 million total cancer cases that occurred worldwide. In recent years, evidence has accumulated that immunoblot (western blot) is more sensitive for detection of anti-H. pylori antibodies than ELISA, the detection method used in our previous analysis. The purpose of this short report is to update the attributable fraction (AF) estimate for H. pylori after briefly reviewing new evidence, and to reassess the global burden of cancer attributable to H. pylori. We therefore reviewed the literature for studies comparing the risk of developing non-cardia gastric cancer (NCGC) in cases and controls, using both ELISA and multiple antigen immunoblot for detection of H. pylori. The results from prospective studies were combined, and the new pooled estimates were applied to the calculation of the AF for H. pylori in NCGC, then to the burden of infection-related cancers worldwide. Using the immunoblot-based data, the worldwide AF for H. pylori in NCGC increased from 74.7% to 89.0%. This implies approximately 120,000 additional cases of NCGC attributable to H. pylori infection for a total of around 780,000 cases (6.2% instead of 5.2% of all cancers). These updated estimates reinforce the role of H. pylori as a major cause of cancer.

  4. Helicobacter pylori's cholesterol uptake impacts resistance to docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Correia, Marta; Casal, Susana; Vinagre, João; Seruca, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette; Machado, José C

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world population and is associated with gastric cancer. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, directly inhibits H. pylori growth in vitro and in mice. Nevertheless, the concentration of DHA shown to reduce H. pylori mice gastric colonization was ineffective in vitro. Related to the auxotrophy of H. pylori for cholesterol, we hypothesize that other mechanisms, in addition to DHA direct antibacterial effect, must be responsible for the reduction of the infection burden. In the present study we investigated if DHA affects also H. pylori growth, by reducing the availability of membrane cholesterol in the epithelial cell for H. pylori uptake. Levels of cholesterol in gastric epithelial cells and of cholesteryl glucosides in H. pylori were determined by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The consequences of epithelial cells' cholesterol depletion on H. pylori growth were assessed in liquid cultures. We show that H. pylori uptakes cholesterol from epithelial cells. In addition, DHA lowers cholesterol levels in epithelial cells, decreases its de novo synthesis, leading to a lower synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides by H. pylori. A previous exposition of H. pylori to cholesterol influences the bacterium response to the direct inhibitory effect of DHA. Overall, our results suggest that a direct effect of DHA on H. pylori survival is modulated by its access to epithelial cell cholesterol, supporting the notion that cholesterol enhances the resistance of H. pylori. The cholesterol-dependent resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobial compounds raises new important aspects for the development of new anti-bacterial strategies. PMID:24447914

  5. Helicobacter pylori's cholesterol uptake impacts resistance to docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Correia, Marta; Casal, Susana; Vinagre, João; Seruca, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette; Machado, José C

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world population and is associated with gastric cancer. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, directly inhibits H. pylori growth in vitro and in mice. Nevertheless, the concentration of DHA shown to reduce H. pylori mice gastric colonization was ineffective in vitro. Related to the auxotrophy of H. pylori for cholesterol, we hypothesize that other mechanisms, in addition to DHA direct antibacterial effect, must be responsible for the reduction of the infection burden. In the present study we investigated if DHA affects also H. pylori growth, by reducing the availability of membrane cholesterol in the epithelial cell for H. pylori uptake. Levels of cholesterol in gastric epithelial cells and of cholesteryl glucosides in H. pylori were determined by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The consequences of epithelial cells' cholesterol depletion on H. pylori growth were assessed in liquid cultures. We show that H. pylori uptakes cholesterol from epithelial cells. In addition, DHA lowers cholesterol levels in epithelial cells, decreases its de novo synthesis, leading to a lower synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides by H. pylori. A previous exposition of H. pylori to cholesterol influences the bacterium response to the direct inhibitory effect of DHA. Overall, our results suggest that a direct effect of DHA on H. pylori survival is modulated by its access to epithelial cell cholesterol, supporting the notion that cholesterol enhances the resistance of H. pylori. The cholesterol-dependent resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobial compounds raises new important aspects for the development of new anti-bacterial strategies.

  6. Preliminary study of pancreatic cancer associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Ai, Fulu; Hua, Xiangdong; Liu, Yefu; Lin, Jie; Feng, Zhaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship about Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and pancreatic, and this study was set to investigate how H. pylori infection is correlated with pancreatic cancer and provide references for the clinical prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. 56 cases of pancreatic cancer patients admitted to the hospital from August 2012 to August 2013 were collected as the observation group. The anti-Hp IgG (H. pylori-specific antibodies), Hp IgM (H. pylori antibodies), and CagA-Hp-IgG (H. pylori serotoxin-associated protein a antibody) in the serum were measured and compared with the related indicators of control group (60 cases of healthy subjects). The H. pylori infection rate was 64.29% in the observation group, and that in the control group was 46.67%. Our results showed that the H. pylori infection rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, which was statistically different (P < 0.01). The positive rate of CagA-Hp in the observation group was 38.88, and 21.53% in the control group, for which the observation group was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). The occurrence of H. pylori infection in patients with pancreatic cancer was also positively correlated with the smoking history and the history of chronic pancreatitis (P < 0.05). Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and the patients with positive CagA-Hp have the higher risk, so the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection would be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  7. "Helicobacter Pylori" Infection in Five Inpatient Units for People with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David; Vemuri, Murali; Gunatilake, Deepthi; Tewari, Sidhartha

    2008-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of "Helicobacter pylori" infection has been reported among people with intellectual disability, especially those residing in hospital and similar settings. Surveys of inpatients have found unusually high rates of gastrointestinal malignancy, to which "H. pylori" infection predisposes. Methods: "Helicobacter pylori"…

  8. Helicobacter pylori-associated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Vescovi, Pier Paolo; Garofano, Massimo; Veneri, Dino

    2012-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori has a well-demonstrated role in several gastroduodenal diseases, including peptic ulcer disease, chronic active gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. In addition, more recently, several studies have focused on the possible causal role of H. pylori in various extragastric disorders, such as cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, skin, and autoimmune conditions. The current status of the research on the pathogenesis, clinical and therapeutic aspects of H. pylori-associated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults and children will be addressed in this narrative review.

  9. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in oral aphthous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Birek, C; Grandhi, R; McNeill, K; Singer, D; Ficarra, G; Bowden, G

    1999-05-01

    A causative role for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal ulcerations has been suggested previously. We have adopted the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a rapid and sensitive means to detect H. pylori in swabs of recurrent oral aphthous ulcers and in samples of other oral sites. Of the oral aphthous ulcer samples, 32 (71.8%) were found to be positive, while the saliva and plaque samples (most of them taken from the patients with aphthous ulcers) were consistently negative for H. pylori DNA, as detected by the PCR assay. Only two of the swab samples from the tongue (collected at the time of concurrent, H. pylori-positive oral aphthous ulcers) were found to be positive. The data suggest that H. pylori may be associated frequently with recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, and are consistent with previous studies indicating that saliva and plaque are not likely sources of contamination with this microorganism. There was no apparent correlation with HIV status (infection with human immunodeficiency virus). The possible pathogenic significance of Helicobacter pylori in oral ulcerations is discussed.

  10. Helicobacter pylori - a seasoned pathogen by any other name

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a well known inhabitant of human stomach which is linked to peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. It was recently shown in several studies that H. pylori can be harnessed as a surrogate marker of human migration and that its population structure and stratification patterns exactly juxtapose to those of Homo sapiens. This is enough a testimony to convey that H. pylori may have coevolved with their host. Several protective effects of H. pylori colonization have been considered as evidence of a presumed symbiotic relationship. Contrary to this assumption is the presence of a strong virulence apparatus within H. pylori; why a co-evolved parasite would try inflicting its host with serious infection and even causing cancer? The answer is perhaps embedded in the evolutionary history of both the bacterium and the host. We discuss a hypothetical scenario wherein H. pylori may have acquired virulence genes from donors within its environment that varied with change in human history and ecology. The H. pylori genomes sequenced to date portray fairly high abundance of such laterally acquired genes which have no assigned functions but could be linked to inflammatory responses or other pathogenic attributes. Therefore, the powerful virulence properties and survival strategies of Helicobacter make it a seasoned pathogen; thus the efforts to portray it as a commensal or a (harmless) 'bacterial parasite' need rethinking. PMID:20030808

  11. Catechins and Sialic Acid Attenuate Helicobacter pylori-Triggered Epithelial Caspase-1 Activity and Eradicate Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jyh-Chin; Yang, Hung-Chih; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wang, Teh-Hong; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Kao, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    The inflammasome/caspase-1 signaling pathway in immune cells plays a critical role in bacterial pathogenesis; however, the regulation of this pathway in the gastric epithelium during Helicobacter pylori infection is yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of catechins (CAs), sialic acid (SA), or combination of CA and SA (CASA) on H. pylori-induced caspase-1-mediated epithelial damage, as well as H. pylori colonization in vitro (AGS cells) and in vivo (BALB/c mice). Our results indicate that the activity of caspase-1 and the expression of its downstream substrate IL-1β were upregulated in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. In addition, we observed increased oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase gp91phox, CD68, caspase-1/IL-1β, and apoptosis, but decreased autophagy, in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected mice. We have further demonstrated that treatment with CASA led to synergistic anti-H. pylori activity and was more effective than treatment with CA or SA alone. In particular, treatment with CASA for 10 days eradicated H. pylori infection in up to 95% of H. pylori-infected mice. Taken together, we suggest that the pathogenesis of H. pylori involves a gastric epithelial inflammasome/caspase-1 signaling pathway, and our results show that CASA was able to attenuate this pathway and effectively eradicate H. pylori infection. PMID:23653660

  12. [Prevention of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori eradication].

    PubMed

    Asaka, Masahiro

    2009-08-01

    Though the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric cancer has been proved in epidemiological studies and animal experiments, the prophylactic effect of H. pylori eradication is controversial in human studies. A large-scale clinical study performed by the JAPANGAST Study Group has confirmed that the eradication of H. pylori undoubtedly decreases the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic mucosal resection as published in The Lancet (372: 392-397, 2008). This study shows gastric cancer is a kind of infectious disease, not a lifestyle-related disease, and can thus be averted by preventing or curing the infection, suggesting the eradication of H. pylori might be indicated to prevent development of gastric cancers. PMID:19692758

  13. Helicobacter pylori Genomic Microevolution during Naturally Occurring Transmission between Adults

    PubMed Central

    Linz, Bodo; Windsor, Helen M.; Gajewski, John P.; Hake, Caylie M.; Drautz, Daniela I.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Marshall, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is usually acquired during childhood and, in the absence of treatment, chronic infection persists through most of the host's life. However, the frequency and importance of H. pylori transmission between adults is underestimated. Here we sequenced the complete genomes of H. pylori strains that were transmitted between spouses and analysed the genomic changes. Similar to H. pylori from chronic infection, a significantly high proportion of the determined 31 SNPs and 10 recombinant DNA fragments affected genes of the hop family of outer membrane proteins, some of which are known to be adhesins. In addition, changes in a fucosyltransferase gene modified the LPS component of the bacterial cell surface, suggesting strong diversifying selection. In contrast, virulence factor genes were not affected by the genomic changes. We propose a model of the genomic changes that are associated with the transmission and adaptation of H. pylori to a new human host. PMID:24340004

  14. Vaccinating against Helicobacter pylori in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Zawahir, Shamila; Czinn, Steven J; Nedrud, John G; Blanchard, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than half the world's population and in developing nations the incidence can be over 90%. The morbidity and mortality associated with H. pylori-associated diseases including ulcers and gastric cancer therefore, disproportionately impact the developing world. Mice have been used extensively to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a vaccine for H. pylori infection, and for testing antigens, routes of immunization, dose, and adjuvants. These successes however, have not translated well in clinical trials. Although there are examples where immune responses have been activated, there are few instances of achieving a reduced bacterial load. In vivo and in vitro analyses in both mice and humans demonstrates that the host responds to H. pylori infection through the activation of immunoregulatory mechanisms designed to suppress the anti-H. pylori response. Improved vaccine efficacy therefore, will require the inclusion of factors that over-ride or re-program these immunoregulatory rersponse mechanisms. PMID:24253617

  15. Association Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Samarai, V.; Sharifi, N.; Nateghi, Sh.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the prevalence of Pylori infection in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and control group with cataract. Methods: This is a prospective case-control study. The participants were organized in two groups. First group (case) consisted of 35 patients with POAG and second group consisted of 35 age matched participants with cataract whose optic disk could be evaluated. Serum levels of anti H. pylori IgG antibody were evaluated with the method of ELISA. Results: The seroprevalence of Pylori infection was 89.1 % (33 of 37) in patients with POAG and 59.5 % (25 of 42) in the control group. The difference was significant (P=0.008). The odds ratio for association between Pylori and POAG was 5.69 and the range of 95% confidence interval was from 1.58 to 20.50. Conclusion: This study suggests that Helicobacter Pylori infection might be associated with primary open angle glaucoma. PMID:25363173

  16. Identification of Helicobacter pylori in skin biopsy of prurigo pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Missall, Tricia A; Pruden, Samuel; Nelson, Christine; Fohn, Laurel; Vidal, Claudia I; Hurley, M Yadira

    2012-06-01

    A 23-year-old Chinese man presented with a 3-year history of a pruritic eruption. On examination, pink urticarial papules associated with hyperpigmented reticulated patches were noted on his neck, back, and upper chest. Histopathology revealed vacuolar interface dermatitis and numerous gram-negative rods within a dilated hair follicle. The organisms were reactive with anti-Helicobacter pylori immunohistochemisty. The histologic findings and clinical presentation support the diagnosis of prurigo pigmentosa. Additional testing demonstrated a positive urease breath test and serum H. pylori IgG antibodies. The patient was referred to gastroenterology and treated with appropriate antibiotics. After treatment, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed chronic gastritis without evidence of H. pylori infection and his skin showed reticulated hyperpigmented patches without evidence of active inflammatory papules. Although previous reports have associated prurigo pigmentosa to H. Pylori gastritis, this is the first report of H. pylori organisms identified in a skin biopsy of prurigo pigmentosa.

  17. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  18. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  19. Ultrastructural study of Helicobacter pylori adherence properties in gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Rudmann, D G; Eaton, K A; Krakowka, S

    1992-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of gastric mucosa from Helicobacter pylori-infected gnotobiotic piglets identified four general adherence patterns comparable to those observed in human patients. Intimate associations between the bacterial and mucosal cell membranes, including cuplike invaginations and adherence pedestals, were present and were accompanied by alterations to microvilli and cell membrane morphology. Images PMID:1563801

  20. Effects of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, R. A.; Schluter, P. J.; Webb, P. M.

    2004-01-01

    Compared to the general population, Helicobacter pylori infection is more common among adults with intellectual disability (ID) and is associated with greater levels of disability, maladaptive behaviour, and institutionalization. Little information exists about the effects of eradication therapy in this group, so we aimed to evaluate: (1) success…

  1. A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection and expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Vahid; Molaei, Mahsa; Shalmani, Hamid Mohaghegh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of DNA (MMR) proteins, including hMLH1 and hMSH2, in gastric epithelial cells in the patients with or without Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-infected gastritis. METHODS: Fifty H pylori-positive patients and 50 H pylori-negative patients were enrolled in the study. During endoscopy of patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, two antral and two corpus biopsies were taken for histological examination (Giemsa stain) and for immunohistochemical staining of hMLH1 and hMSH2. RESULTS: The percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMLH1 staining was 84.14 ± 7.32% in H pylori-negative patients, while it was 73.34 ± 10.10% in H pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001). No significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding the percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMSH2 staining (81.16 ± 8.32% in H pylori-negative versus 78.24 ± 8.71% in H pylori-positive patients; P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that H pylori might promote development of gastric carcinoma at least in part through its ability to affect the DNA MMR system. PMID:19034977

  3. [Helicobacter pylori and the mouth cavity--overview and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Schein, W; Meryn, S

    1994-01-01

    In view of the possibility of reinfection after successful treatment and the pitfalls in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) from gastric mucosa, it is of great interest to identify natural reservoirs for this organism, other than the stomach. This review discusses the results of investigations as to whether H. pylori can be harboured in the microaerobic environment of dental plaques in saliva. Only few data are available on the prevalence of H. pylori in the mouth. Data from conventional microbiological technique studies are contradictory, with the prevalence varying from 3.4% to 100%. Different diagnostic procedures were used to identify H. pylori, but only a few seem to be reliable enough to detect H. pylori in clinical samples taken from the mouth. Moreover, insufficient information is provided on the role of hygienic conditions in the investigated oral cavity and the existence of gingival or periodontal disease. The mechanisms of oral colonisation with H. pylori are still unknown. Human periodontal disease is associated with a complex microflora in which more than 350 microbial species can be encountered. The periodontal pocket may be important as a natural reservoir for H. pylori, because it can provide microaerobic conditions. Recently reported molecular techniques such as the highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may help to clarify the prevalence of oral carriage of H. pylori in future.

  4. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori in Different Surgical Diseases: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Nada

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in different surgical diseases in patients with six different cancer types. We analyzed sixty consecutive patients with malignancy (gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular cancer, intestinal cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer). Detection of specific IgA and IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in human serum was determined by Enzygnost Anti-Helicobacter pylori II/IgA (IgG) using ELISA processor (Siemens, Germany). This study confirmed statistically significant association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and all types of cancer included in the study. All patients had elevated levels of Helicobacter pylori IgA and IgG antibodies. Patients with examined cancer types that underwent abdominal surgery exibited a strong antibody reaction to Helicobacter pylori.

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ESOPHAGITIS GRADES AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Patrícia Fernanda Saboya; KUBRUSLY, Luiz Fernandao; NASSIF, Paulo Afonso Nunes; RIBEIRO, Irma Cláudia Saboya; BERTOLDI, Andressa de Souza; BATISTÃO, Venessa Caroline

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Helicobacter pylori infection (HP) is related to the development of gastric lesions and lymphoma; however, it is not known if there is a relation with gastroesophageal reflux disease and reflux esophagitis. Aim: To evaluate HP's relationship with esophagitis in patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Methods: Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, being evaluated 9576 patients undergoing outpatient endoscopic examination during the period between January and December 2015. Were included patients with any esophageal alteration at the examination; greater than 18; of both genders; independent of the complaint or the reason for the examination, illness or drug use. Were excluded those with active bleeding during the examination and in use of anticoagulants. The variables gender, age, esophagitis and result of the urease test, were studied. For statistical analysis was used the Epi Info software 7.1.5.2. Results: Most of the samples consisted of women and the overall average age was 46.54±16.32 years. The presence of infection was balanced for gender: 1204 (12.56%) women and 952 (13.92%) men. Relating degree of esophagitis HP- and HP+ was observed that the type A was the most common (58.79%, n=1460); 604 (24.32%) had grade B; 334 (13.45%) grade C, and 85 (3.42%) grade D. In the relation between the grade of esophagitis with gender, esophagitis A was predominant in women and present in 929 (63.33%), followed by type B, 282 (46.68%), 136 C (40.71%) and D 30 (35.29%). In men 531 (36.36%) showed type A, 322 (53.31%) B, 198 (59.28%) C, and 55 (64.70%) D. Among the groups 40-50 and over 60 years there was a significant difference in whether have or not have HP+. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between HP infection and the different grades of esophagitis. PMID:27759772

  6. [On the rating of Helicobacter pylori in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Fedichkina, T P; Solenova, L G; Zykova, I E

    2014-01-01

    There are considered the issues related to the possibility to rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) content in drinking water. There is described the mechanism of of biofilm formation. The description refers to the biofilm formation mechanism in water supply systems and the existence of H. pylori in those systems. The objective premises of the definition of H. pylori as a potential limiting factor for assessing the quality of drinking water have been validated as follows: H. pylori is an etiologic factor associated to the development of chronic antral gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer either, in the Russian population the rate of infection with H. pylori falls within range of 56 - 90%, water supply pathway now can be considered as a source of infection of the population with H. pylori, the existence of WHO regulatory documents considering H. pylori as a candidate for standardization of the quality of the drinking water quite common occurrence of biocorrosion, the reduction of sanitary water network reliability, that creates the possibility of concentrating H. pylori in some areas of the water system and its delivery to the consumer of drinking water, and causes the necessity of the prevention of H. pylori-associated gastric pathology of the population. A comprehensive and harmonized approach to H. pylori is required to consider it as a candidate to its rating in drinking water. Bearing in mind the large economic losses due to, on the one hand, the prevalence of disease caused by H. pylori, and, on the other hand, the biocorrosion of water supply system, the problem is both relevant in terms of communal hygiene and economy.

  7. Linezolid susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori, including strains with multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Gergova, Galina; Yaneva, Penka; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to linezolid. The aim of the present study was to assess linezolid susceptibility in H. pylori, including strains with double/multidrug resistance. The susceptibility of 53 H. pylori strains was evaluated by Etest and a breakpoint susceptibility testing method. Helicobacter pylori resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin, 1.9%; metronidazole, 37.7%; clarithromycin, 17.0%; tetracycline, 1.9%; levofloxacin, 24.5%; and linezolid (>4 mg/L), 39.6%. The linezolid MIC50 value was 31.2-fold higher than that of clarithromycin and 10.5-fold higher than that of levofloxacin; however, 4 of 11 strains with double/multidrug resistance were linezolid-susceptible. The MIC range of the oxazolidinone agent was larger (0.125-64 mg/L) compared with those in the previous two reports. The linezolid resistance rate was 2.2-fold higher in metronidazole-resistant strains and in strains resistant to at least one antibiotic compared with the remaining strains. Briefly, linezolid was less active against H. pylori compared with clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and linezolid resistance was linked to resistance to metronidazole as well as to resistance to at least one antibiotic. However, linezolid activity against some strains with double/multidrug resistance may render the agent appropriate to treat some associated H. pylori infections following in vitro susceptibility testing of the strains. Clinical trials are required to confirm this suggestion.

  8. Antigenic proteins of Helicobacter pylori of potential diagnostic value.

    PubMed

    Khalilpour, Akbar; Santhanam, Amutha; Wei, Lee Chun; Saadatnia, Geita; Velusamy, Nagarajan; Osman, Sabariah; Mohamad, Ahmad Munir; Noordin, Rahmah

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori antigen was prepared from an isolate from a patient with a duodenal ulcer. Serum samples were obtained from culture-positive H. pylori infected patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers and gastritis (n=30). As controls, three kinds of sera without detectable H. pylori IgG antibodies were used: 30 from healthy individuals without history of gastric disorders, 30 from patients who were seen in the endoscopy clinic but were H. pylori culture negative and 30 from people with other diseases. OFF-GEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and Western blots of individual serum samples were used to identify protein bands with good sensitivity and specificity when probed with the above sera and HRP-conjugated anti-human IgG. Four H. pylori protein bands showed good (≥ 70%) sensitivity and high specificity (98-100%) towards anti-Helicobacter IgG antibody in culture- positive patients sera and control sera, respectively. The identities of the antigenic proteins were elucidated by mass spectrometry. The relative molecular weights and the identities of the proteins, based on MALDI TOF/ TOF, were as follows: CagI (25 kDa), urease G accessory protein (25 kDa), UreB (63 kDa) and proline/pyrroline- 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (118 KDa). These identified proteins, singly and/or in combinations, may be useful for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in patients.

  9. Relation between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms and syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, S; Kay, L; Rosenstock, C; Andersen, L; Bonnevie, O; Jorgensen, T

    1997-01-01

    Background—Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen that colonises the gastric mucosa and causes permanent gastric inflammation. 
Aims—To assess the symptoms of H pylori infection in an adult unselected population. 
Subjects—A random sample of 3589 adult Danes who were examined in 1982 and 1987 (n=2987). 
Methods—Abdominal symptoms within the preceding year were recorded at both attendances. Circulating IgG antibodies against H pylori in serum samples drawn in 1982 were measured by using in-house indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). 
Results—People with increased levels of IgG antibodies to H pylori were more likely than uninfected individuals to report heartburn (odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.54) and abdominal pain characterised by daily length (OR= 1.33, 95% CI 0.92-1.91), nocturnal occurrence (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.19-2.19), spring aggravation (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 0.70-4.05), and no relation to meals (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.91) or stress (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.95). The inclusion of people with increased levels of IgG antibodies to H pylori, but without upper dyspepsia, at study entry significantly increased the likelihood of reporting upper dyspepsia at follow up (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.24-2.36). People with epigastric pain and increased levels of IgM antibodies to H pylori only indicative of acute H pylori infection were more likely to report nocturnal pain, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting. 
Conclusions—H pylori infection may precede the development of dyspepsia and is associated with a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms in people with no history of peptic ulcer disease. 

 Keywords: epidemiology; Helicobacter pylori; non-ulcer dyspepsia; symptomatology; upper dyspepsia PMID:9301494

  10. Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-21

    The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication methods. Components that may be used either as a monotherapy or, in combination with antimicrobials, resulting in a more effective anti-H. pylori therapy have been investigated in depth by several researchers. One of the potential therapies is probiotic cultures; promising results have been observed in initial studies with numerous probiotic strains. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we comprehensively review the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics on H. pylori infection, and present the results of published studies using probiotics as possible agents to control H. pylori infection in children. The effect of the addition of probiotics to the standard H. pylori eradication therapy for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects is also discussed.

  11. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  12. Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication methods. Components that may be used either as a monotherapy or, in combination with antimicrobials, resulting in a more effective anti-H. pylori therapy have been investigated in depth by several researchers. One of the potential therapies is probiotic cultures; promising results have been observed in initial studies with numerous probiotic strains. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we comprehensively review the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics on H. pylori infection, and present the results of published studies using probiotics as possible agents to control H. pylori infection in children. The effect of the addition of probiotics to the standard H. pylori eradication therapy for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects is also discussed. PMID:24574741

  13. Helicobacter pylori and oral pathology: relationship with the gastric infection.

    PubMed

    Adler, Isabel; Muiño, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muiño, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria

    2014-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma, burning and halitosis. Record selection focused on the highest quality studies and meta-analyses. We selected 48 articles reporting on the association between saliva and plaque and H. pylori-infection. In order to assess periodontal disease data, we included 12 clinical trials and 1 meta-analysis. We evaluated 13 published articles that addressed the potential association with RAS, and 6 with squamous cell carcinoma. Fourteen publications focused on our questions on burning and halitosis. There is a close relation between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and the stomach. The mouth is the first extra-gastric reservoir. Regarding the role of H. pylori in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma, no evidence is still available.

  14. Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Cruz, Modesto; Abreu, José A Jiménez; Mitsui, Takahiro; Terao, Hideo; Disla, Mildre; Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Miyuki; Uchida, Tomohisa; Tronilo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-09-01

    Although the incidence of gastric cancer in the Dominican Republic is not high, the disease remains a significant health problem. We first conducted a detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori status in the Dominican Republic. In total, 158 patients (103 females and 55 males; mean age 47.1±16.2 years) were recruited. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on four tests: rapid urease test, culture test, histological test and immunohistochemistry. The status of cagA and vacA genotypes in H. pylori was examined using PCR and gene sequencing. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 58.9 %. No relationship was found between the H. pylori infection rate and the age range of 17-91 years. Even in the youngest group (patients aged <29 years), the H. pylori infection rate was 62.5 %. Peptic ulcer was found in 23 patients and gastric cancer was found in one patient. The H. pylori infection rate in patients with peptic ulcer was significantly higher than that in patients with gastritis (82.6 versus 54.5 %, P<0.01). The cagA-positive/vacA s1m1 genotype was the most prevalent (43/64, 67.2 %). Compared with H. pylori-negative patients, H. pylori-positive patients showed more severe gastritis. Furthermore, the presence of cagA was related to the presence of more severe gastritis. All CagA-positive strains had Western-type CagA. In conclusion, we found that H. pylori infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer in the Dominican Republic. Patients with cagA-positive H. pylori could be at higher risk for severe inflammation and atrophy.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic gastritis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sipponen, P.; Kosunen, T. U.; Valle, J.; Riihelä, M.; Seppälä, K.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: Serum IgG antibodies for H pylori were determined in 54 consecutive patients with gastric carcinoma. The prevalence of H pylori in gastric mucosa was also examined histologically (modified Giemsa) in 32 patients from whom adequate biopsy specimens of the antrum and corpus were available. Thirty five patients with gastrointestinal tumours outside the stomach and 48 with non-gastrointestinal malignancies served as controls. RESULTS: Of the 54 patients, 38 (70%) had H pylori antibodies (IgG) in their serum (three additional patients had H pylori antibodies IgA, class specific but not IgG specific). This prevalence was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than that (49%) in the 35 controls. No differences in prevalence of H pylori antibodies were found between gastric cancer cases of intestinal (IGCA) or diffuse (DGCA) type, both these types showing H pylori antibodies (IgG) in 71% of the patients. In the subgroup of 32 subjects, five patients had normal gastric mucosa and four showed corpus limited atrophy ("pernicious anaemia type" atrophy of type A). All of these nine patients had no evidence of current or previous H pylori infection in serum (no IgG antibodies) or in tissue sections (negative Giemsa staining). The remaining 23 patients had antral or pangastritis, and all had evidence of current or previous H pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: H pylori associated chronic gastritis was the associated disease in 75% of the patients with gastric cancer occurring equally often in both IGCA and DGCA groups. About 25% of cases seem to have a normal stomach or severe corpus limited atrophy, neither of which showed evidence of concomitant H pylori infection. PMID:1577969

  16. Oral and Gastric Helicobacter Pylori: Effects and Associations

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Nélio; Pereira, Carlos; Resende, Carlos; Amaral, Odete; Ferreira, Manuela; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Claudia; Duarte, João; Cirnes, Luis; Machado, José Carlos; Ferreira, Paula; Correia, Ilídio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study consisted in the comparison of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) present in the stomach and in saliva of a sample of Portuguese adolescents and the assessment of the association between H. pylori infection with socio-demographic variables and prevalence of dental caries. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed including a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors was applied. Gastric H. pylori infection was determined using the urease breath test (UBT). Saliva collection was obtained and DNA was extracted by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in order to detect the presence of oral H. pylori. Results The prevalence of gastric H. pylori detected by UBT was 35.9%. Within the adolescents with a gastric UBT positive, only 1.9% were positive for oral H. pylori. The presence of gastric H. pylori was found to be associated with age (>15years, Odds ratio (OR)=1.64,95%CI=1.08-2.52), residence area (urban,OR=1.48,95%CI=1.03-2.29) and parents´ professional situation (unemployed,OR=1.22,95%CI=1.02-1.23). Among those with detected dental caries during the intra-oral observation, 37.4% were positive for gastric H. pylori and 40.2% negative for the same bacterial strain (p=0.3). Conclusions The oral cavity cannot be considered a reservoir for infection of H. pylori. Gastric H. pylori infection was found to be associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, residence area and socioeconomic status. PMID:26010595

  17. [Peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori. Comments on the authors' cases].

    PubMed

    Dallera, F; Gendarini, A; Scanzi, G

    1993-01-01

    The presence of Helicobacter was tested on a group with antral or duodenal ulcer with or without gastritis, versus a group without gastric or duodenal pathology. Furthermore an open trial was performed between omeprazole and colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) on patients similarly affected by peptic disease. Although CBS did eliminate Helicobacter in more than a half of patients, what was not obtained by omeprazole, this result did not mean a better control of peptic disease: in fact the omeprazole was remarkably more active in our series on clinical and endoscopic ground, whether the Helicobacter was present or not, and further studies are required to assess the real significance of Helicobacter pylori in the above conditions.

  18. Ethnic and Geographic Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori within Iran

    PubMed Central

    Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Siavoshi, Farideh; Linz, Bodo; Massarrat, Sadegh; Khegay, Tanya; Salmanian, Ali-Hatef; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Masoodi, Mohsen; Ghanadi, Koroush; Ganji, Azita; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Achtman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach, with individual infections persisting for decades. The spread of the bacterium has been shown to reflect both ancient and recent human migrations. We have sequenced housekeeping genes from H. pylori isolated from 147 Iranians with well-characterized geographical and ethnic origins sampled throughout Iran and compared them with sequences from strains from other locations. H. pylori from Iran are similar to others isolated from Western Eurasia and can be placed in the previously described HpEurope population. Despite the location of Iran at the crossroads of Eurasia, we found no evidence that the region been a major source of ancestry for strains across the continent. On a smaller scale, we found genetic affinities between the H. pylori isolated from particular Iranian populations and strains from Turks, Uzbeks, Palestinians and Israelis, reflecting documented historical contacts over the past two thousand years. PMID:20339588

  19. Helicobacter pylori Associated Lymphocytic Gastritis in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Eom, Dae Woon

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis (LG) is a rare subtype of chronic gastritis. It is defined as dense proliferation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) more than 25 lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells. The known major causes of LG are celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori associated LG (HpLG) has more enhanced cytotoxic and apoptotic tendencies than chronic H. pylori gastritis. A 12-year-old girl with postprandial epigastric pain was diagnosed HpLG on endoscopic biopsy. After the 1st eradication therapy, H. pylori bacilli were still found, and urea breathing test was positive. Although the endoscopic finding was partially improved, clinical symptoms and histologic finding were persisted. We could achieve the improvement of clinical symptoms and disappearance of IELs after the 2nd eradication. The discordant of histopathologic and endoscopic improvement occurred after the 1st eradication therapy of HpLG. Therefore the clinical and histopathologic evaluation should be considered as well as endoscopic findings. PMID:25349835

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection and immune thrombocytopenic purpura: an update.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino

    2004-08-01

    Data are accumulating on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and the significant increase in platelet count after bacterial eradication. The aim of this review was to consider the studies so far published on H. pylori infection and ITP in order to evaluate a possible correlation between these two conditions. A review of the literature showed that 278 out of the 482 ITP patients investigated (58%) were positive for H. pylori infection and that the bacterium was eradicated in 88% of cases. Eradication therapy was accompanied by a complete or partial platelet response in approximately half the cases. Overall, these data show that H. pylori eradication in patients with ITP is effective in increasing platelet count. However, because the studies so far published are few, are sometimes controversial and involve small series of patients, further studies on larger numbers of patients with longer follow-up are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  1. The role of the gastrointestinal microbiome in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sheh, Alexander; Fox, James G

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori overturned the conventional dogma that the stomach was a sterile organ and that pH values<4 were capable of sterilizing the stomach. H. pylori are an etiological agent associated with gastritis, hypochlorhydria, duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. It is now appreciated that the human stomach supports a bacterial community with possibly 100s of bacterial species that influence stomach homeostasis. Other bacteria colonizing the stomach may also influence H. pylori-associated gastric pathogenesis by creating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and modulating inflammatory responses. In this review, we summarize the available literature concerning the gastric microbiota in humans, mice, and Mongolian gerbils. We also discuss the gastric perturbations, many involving H. pylori, that facilitate the colonization by bacteria from other compartments of the gastrointestinal tract, and identify risk factors known to affect gastric homeostasis that contribute to changes in the microbiota.

  2. Helicobacter pylori in North and South America before Columbus.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yoshio; Orito, Etsuro; Mizokami, Masashi; Gutierrez, Oscar; Saitou, Naruya; Kodama, Tadashi; Osato, Michael S; Kim, Jong G; Ramirez, Francisco C; Mahachai, Varocha; Graham, David Y

    2002-04-24

    We present a molecular epidemiologic study, based on an analysis of vacA, cagA and cag right end junction genotypes from 1042 Helicobacter pylori isolates, suggesting that H. pylori was present in the New World before Columbus. Eight Native Colombian and Alaskan strains possessed novel vacA and/or cagA gene structures and were more closely related to East Asian than to non-Asian H. pylori. Some Native Alaskan strains appear to have originated in Central Asia and to have arrived after strains found in South America suggesting that H. pylori crossed the Bering Strait from Asia to the New World at different times. PMID:12062433

  3. Attempts to isolate Helicobacter from cattle and survival of Helicobacter pylori in beef products.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, T H; Bauer, N; Lucia, L M; Acuff, G R

    2000-02-01

    This study focused on important factors related to the potential of cattle and beef products to transmit Helicobacter pylori to humans. Mucosal samples were collected from the rumen and abomasum of 105 cattle and were plated on a selective medium to isolate Helicobacter spp.; none of the samples examined contained these bacteria. Studies were also conducted to determine how long H. pylori survives in refrigerated or frozen ground beef; results indicated that the microorganism dies rapidly in ground beef, whether refrigerated or frozen. Packaging in vacuum or air had little effect on survival of the organism. The number of H. pylori decreased in refrigerated samples from 3.3 log10 CFU/g on day 0 to 1.4 log10 CFU/g on day 6. H. pylori died even more rapidly when frozen, decreasing from 3.3 log10 CFU/g on day 0 to 0.5 log10 CFU/g on day 6. Retail beef cuts (n = 20) were also examined for the presence of H. pylori by direct plating on a selective medium and by incubation in an enriched broth followed by plating on a selective medium. None of the retail samples contained H. pylori. This research suggests that transmission of H. pylori from beef and beef products is not a primary factor in the high prevalence of this bacterium in humans. PMID:10678420

  4. In vitro antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus casei against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Enany, Shymaa; Abdalla, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in humans. Curing H. pylori infection is difficult because of the habitat of the organism below the mucus adherent layer of gastric mucosa. Lactobacilli are known as acid-resistant bacteria and can remain in stomach for a long time than any other organism, we aimed in this study to examine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic against H. pylori in humans. Particularly, L. casei was opted as it is considered to be one of the widely used probiotics in dairy products. One hundred and seven strains of H. pylori were isolated from dyspeptic patients and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole (MTZ), clarithromycin (CLR), tetracycline (TET), and amoxicillin (AMX) by the disc diffusion method. The strains were examined for their susceptibility toward L. casei - present in fermented milk products - by well diffusion method. It was found that 74.7% strains were resistant to MTZ; 1.8% to MTZ, TET, and CLR; 3.7% to MTZ and CLR; 4.6% to MTZ and TET; and 0.9% were resistant to MTZ, TET, and AMX. The antibacterial activity of L. casei against H. pylori was determined on all the tested H. pylori isolates including antibiotic resistant strains with different patterns. Our study proposed the use of probiotics for the treatment of H. pylori infection as an effective approach.

  5. Food Allergy and Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng Feei; Majid, Noorizan A.; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the hygiene hypothesis, a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may explain the recent high prevalence of allergic diseases including food allergy. However, there are very few studies that investigate the relationship between H. pylori and food allergy. Summary: We searched for PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published in English from inception to November 2015. The inverse relationship between H. pylori and food allergy remains unproven because of contradictory and limited evidence at the moment. Likewise, only limited studies have examined the relationship between CagA; one of H. pylori virulence factor and food allergy. On the other hand, in vitro evidence seems to point out a role of H. pylori in the causation of food allergy. The inconsistent results from epidemiological data may be due to small sample size, heterogeneous populations and unstandardised methods or food allergens. Conclusion: Available studies do not support the role of H. pylori in food allergy. PMID:27047479

  6. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  7. Helicobacter pylori vaccination: Is there a path to protection?

    PubMed Central

    Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogenic, extracellular bacterium that colonizes the stomach in approximately 50% of the world population. It strongly interacts with the gastric epithelium and mostly causes asymptomatic gastritis. The colonization of H. pylori leads to ulcer development in around 20% of infected patients and may progress to gastric cancer or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in 1%. Thus, H. pylori is the major cause of gastric cancer worldwide. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Since its discovery in the early eighties by Warren and Marshall, research has been focused on the investigation of H. pylori biology, host-pathogen interaction, prevention and treatment. Although H. pylori induces a strong humoral and local cellular immune response, the pathogen is not cleared and establishes a chronic infection after encounters in childhood. The ability to colonize the stomach is mediated by several virulence factors that change the host environment, promote adhesion to the epithelium, influence the gastric inflammation and induce immune evasion. H. pylori can be eradicated by antibiotic treatment in combination with a proton-pump inhibitor, but efficacy is decreasing. Current therapies are expensive, have side effects and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance, underlining the need for novel therapeutics. PMID:25232229

  8. Lipid Profile in Cardiac Syndrome X: Association with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalzadeh, Javad; Shirpoor, Alireza; Seyedmohammadzad, Mirhossein; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection has a pathogenic role in Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX). In addition, it has shown that bacterial infection may affect blood lipids. Aim To assess if H.pylori affects the level of lipid profile in CSX. Materials and Methods Eighty-eight CSX patients and 97 healthy controls were enrolled. The Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Lipoprotein A (LP{A}), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Apoprotein A1 (APOA1), and Apoprotein B (APOB) was estimated colorimetrically. In addition, the presence of IgG antibody to H.pylori was tested in plasma samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Results TC, LP{A}, LDL, APOA1 and APOB levels in CSX group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). But, these parameters in H.pylori positive and H.pylori negative, among CSX and control groups were not significant. Conclusion Increased plasma level of lipid profile and H.pylori infection were associated with CSX; it seems that plasma lipid disorders have a significant role in the development of CSX. PMID:27630835

  9. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection on nutrition and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Franceschi, Francesco; Annalisa, Tortora; Teresa, Di Rienzo; Giovanna, D’Angelo; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franco, Scaldaferri; Viviana, Gerardi; Valentina, Tesori; Riccardo, Lopetuso Loris; Antonio, Gasbarrini

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world’s population. It is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and shows a deep association with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Recently, the medical research focused on the modification of the gastric environment induced by H. pylori infection, possibly affecting the absorption of nutrients and drugs as well as the production of hormones strongly implicated in the regulation of appetite and growth. Interestingly, the absorption of iron and vitamin B12 is impaired by H. pylori infection, while infected subjects have lower basal and fasting serum levels of ghrelin and higher concentration of leptin compared to controls. Since leptin is an anorexigenic hormone, and ghrelin stimulates powerfully the release of growth hormone in humans, H. pylori infection may finally induce growth retardation if acquired very early in the childhood and in malnourished children. This review is focused on the nutritional effects of H. pylori infection, such as the reduced bioavailability or the malabsorbption of essential nutrients, and of gastrointestinal hormones, as well as on the relationship between H. pylori and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25278679

  10. Serologic Evidence for Fecal-Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Brown, Heidi E; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal-oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal-oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread.

  11. Helicobacter pylori and Antibiotic Resistance, A Continuing and Intractable Problem.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Bin; Dai, Jinfeng

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen with a high global prevalence, is the causative pathogen for multiple gastrointestinal diseases, especially chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric malignancies. Antibiotic therapies remain the mainstay for H. pylori eradication; however, this strategy is hampered by the emergence and spread of H. pylori antibiotic resistance. Exploring the mechanistic basis of this resistance is becoming one of the major research questions in contemporary biomedical research, as such knowledge could be exploited to devise novel rational avenues for counteracting the existing resistance and devising strategies to avoid the development of a novel anti-H. pylori medication. Encouragingly, important progress in this field has been made recently. Here, we attempt to review the current state and progress with respect to the molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance for H. pylori. A picture is emerging in which mutations of various genes in H. pylori, resulting in decreased membrane permeability, altered oxidation-reduction potential, and a more efficient efflux pump system. The increased knowledge on these mechanisms produces hope that antibiotic resistance in H. pylori can ultimately be countered.

  12. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current and future insights

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Maliheh; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma worldwide. H. pylori treatment still remains a challenge, since many determinants for successful therapy are involved such as individual primary or secondary antibiotics resistance, mucosal drug concentration, patient compliance, side-effect profile and cost. While no new drug has been developed, current therapy still relies on different mixture of known antibiotics and anti-secretory agents. A standard triple therapy consisting of two antibiotics and a proton-pump inhibitor proposed as the first-line regimen. Bismuth-containing quadruple treatment, sequential treatment or a non-bismuth quadruple treatment (concomitant) are also an alternative therapy. Levofloxacin containing triple treatment are recommended as rescue treatment for infection of H. pylori after defeat of first-line therapy. The rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance reduces the effectiveness of any regimens involving these remedies. Therefore, adding probiotic to the medications, developing anti-H. pylori photodynamic or phytomedicine therapy, and achieving a successful H. pylori vaccine may have the promising to present synergistic or additive consequence against H. pylori, because each of them exert different effects. PMID:26798626

  13. Fluoroquinolone-based protocols for eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Rispo, Antonio; Capone, Pietro; Castiglione, Fabiana; Pasquale, Luigi; Rea, Matilde; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a widespread pathogen infecting about 40% of people living in urban areas and over 90% of people living in the developing regions of the world. H. pylori is well-documented as the main factor in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease, chronic gastritis, and gastric malignancies such as cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-lymphoma; hence, its eradication is strongly recommended. The Maastricht IV consensus, which focused on the management of H. pylori infection, set important new strategies in terms of treatment approaches, particularly with regards to first- and second-line treatment protocols and led to improved knowledge and understanding of H. pylori resistance to antibiotics. In recent years, various fluoroquinolone-based protocols, mainly including levofloxacin, have been proposed and effectively tested at all therapeutic lines for H. pylori eradication. The aim of the present paper is to review the scientific literature focused on the use of fluoroquinolones in eradicating H. pylori. PMID:25083067

  14. Anti-Helicobacter pylori Potential of Artemisinin and Its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Suchandra; Chinniah, Annalakshmi; Pal, Anirban; Kar, Sudip K.

    2012-01-01

    The antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua demonstrated remarkably strong activity against Helicobacter pylori, the pathogen responsible for peptic ulcer diseases. In an effort to develop a novel antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agent containing such a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide, a series of analogues (2 natural and 15 semisynthetic molecules), including eight newly synthesized compounds, were investigated against clinical and standard strains of H. pylori. The antimicrobial spectrum against 10 H. pylori strains and a few other bacterial and fungal strains indicated specificity against the ulcer causing organism. Of five promising molecules, a newly synthesized ether derivative β-artecyclopropylmether was found to be the most potent compound, which exhibited MIC range, MIC90, and minimum bactericidal concentration range values of 0.25 to 1.0 μg/ml, 1.0 μg/ml, and 1 to 16 μg/ml, respectively, against both resistant and sensitive strains of H. pylori. The molecule demonstrated strong bactericidal kinetics with extensive morphological degeneration, retained functional efficacy at stomach acidic pH unlike clarithromycin, did not elicit drug resistance unlike metronidazole, and imparted sensitivity to resistant strains. It is not cytotoxic and exhibits in vivo potentiality to reduce the H. pylori burden in a chronic infection model. Thus, β-artecyclopropylmether could be a lead candidate for anti-H. pylori therapeutics. Since the recurrence of gastroduodenal ulcers is believed to be mainly due to antibiotic resistance of the commensal organism H. pylori, development of a candidate drug from this finding is warranted. PMID:22687518

  15. Consequences of Helicobacter pylori cure in ulcer patients.

    PubMed

    Labenz, J

    2000-02-01

    In the complex pathogenesis of genuine ulcer disease Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an essential, although not on its own sufficient, causal factor. Eradication of the infection heals the active ulcer and, in the long term, leads to a drastic reduction in ulcer recurrence and attendant complications. Some patients remain symptomatic even without ulcer recurrence, and in these, pre-existing, exacerbated or induced gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is probably of some significance. Possible causes of ulcer relapse are reinfection, the use of ulcerogenic drugs and persistent gastric hypersecretion. In adults, and probably also in children from the age of six years, H. pylori reinfection is rare, provided that a sensitive and specific test for H. pylori is carried out at the earliest 4 weeks after concluding anti-bacterial treatment. The most common cause of the reappearance of H. pylori is recrudescence - true reinfection hardly ever occurs. The healing of H. pylori-associated ulcer disease improves the patient's quality of life and possibly also life expectancy. Computer-aided calculations, together with a randomized controlled study, have shown not only that individual patients benefit, but that also the health system profits financially. The hypothetical negative effects of H. pylori eradication treatment are still being controversially discussed.

  16. Structure, function and localization of Helicobacter pylori urease.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B. E.; Phadnis, S. H.

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of most cases of gastritis. Once acquired, H. pylori establishes chronic persistent infection; it is this long-term infection that, is a subset of patients, leads to gastric or duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer or gastric MALT lymphoma. All fresh isolates of H. pylori express significant urease activity, which is essential to survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium. A significant fraction of urease is associated with the surface of H. pylori both in vivo and in vitro. Surface-associated urease is essential for H. pylori to resist exposure to acid in the presence of urea. The mechanism whereby urease becomes associated with the surface of H. pylori is unique. This process, which we term "altruistic autolysis," involves release of urease (and other cytoplasmic proteins) by genetically programmed autolysis with subsequent adsorption of the released urease onto the surface of neighboring intact bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of essential communal behavior in pathogenic bacteria; such behavior is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of H. pylori. PMID:10378351

  17. Metachronous gastric cancer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken; Graham, David Y

    2014-09-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan initially resulted in establishment of a country-wide gastric cancer screening program to detect early and treatable cancers. In 2013 countrywide Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication was approved coupled with endoscopy to assess for the presence of chronic gastritis. Current data support the notion that cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will prevent development of gastric cancer. However, while progression to more severe damage is halted in those who have already developed, atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy remain at risk for subsequent development of gastric cancer. That risk is directly related to the extent and severity of atrophic gastritis. Methods to stratify cancer risk include those based on endoscopic assessment of the atrophic border, histologic grading, and non-invasive methods based on serologic testing of pepsinogen levels. Continued surveillance is required because those with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy retain considerable gastric cancer risk even after H. pylori eradication. Those who have already experienced a resectable early gastric cancer are among those at highest risk as metachronous lesions are frequent even after H. pylori eradication. We review the role of H. pylori and effect of H. pylori eradication indicating the incidence and the predictive factors on development of metachronous cancer after endoscopic therapy of early gastric cancer. Studies to refine risk markers to stratify for risk, surveillance methods, intervals, and duration after successful H. pylori eradication, and whether adjuvant therapy would change risk are needed.

  18. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection on nutrition and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Francesco; Annalisa, Tortora; Teresa, Di Rienzo; Giovanna, D'Angelo; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franco, Scaldaferri; Viviana, Gerardi; Valentina, Tesori; Riccardo, Lopetuso Loris; Antonio, Gasbarrini

    2014-09-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. It is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and shows a deep association with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Recently, the medical research focused on the modification of the gastric environment induced by H. pylori infection, possibly affecting the absorption of nutrients and drugs as well as the production of hormones strongly implicated in the regulation of appetite and growth. Interestingly, the absorption of iron and vitamin B12 is impaired by H. pylori infection, while infected subjects have lower basal and fasting serum levels of ghrelin and higher concentration of leptin compared to controls. Since leptin is an anorexigenic hormone, and ghrelin stimulates powerfully the release of growth hormone in humans, H. pylori infection may finally induce growth retardation if acquired very early in the childhood and in malnourished children. This review is focused on the nutritional effects of H. pylori infection, such as the reduced bioavailability or the malabsorbption of essential nutrients, and of gastrointestinal hormones, as well as on the relationship between H. pylori and the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Severe gastritis in guinea-pigs infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Sturegård, E; Sjunnesson, H; Ho, B; Willén, R; Aleljung, P; Ng, H C; Wadström, T

    1998-12-01

    An appropriate animal model is essential to study Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if H. pylori can colonise the guinea-pig stomach and whether the infection causes gastritis and a serological response similar to that observed in man. Guinea-pigs were infected either with fresh H. pylori isolates from human gastric biopsies or with a guinea-pig passaged strain. When the animals were killed, 3 and 7 weeks after inoculation, samples were taken for culture, histopathology and serology. H. pylori was cultured from 22 of 29 challenged animals. All culture-positive animals exhibited a specific immune response against H. pylori antigens in Western blotting and gastritis in histopathological examination. Antibody titres in enzyme immunoassay were elevated among animals challenged with H. pylori. The inflammatory response was graded as severe in most animals and consisted of both polymorphonuclear leucocytes and lymphocytes. Erosion of the gastric epithelium was found in infected animals. These results suggest that the guinea-pig is suitable for studying H. pylori-associated diseases. Moreover, guinea-pigs are probably more similar to man than any other small laboratory animal as regards gastric anatomy and physiology.

  20. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in experimentally infected conventional piglets.

    PubMed

    Poutahidis, T; Tsangaris, T; Kanakoudis, G; Vlemmas, I; Iliadis, N; Sofianou, D

    2001-11-01

    A conventional nonmutant animal that could be experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori isolates would be a useful animal model for human H. pylori-associated gastritis. Gnotobiotic and barrier-born pigs are susceptible to H. pylori infection, but attempts to infect conventional pigs with this bacterium have been unsuccessful. In the present study, a litter of eight 20-day-old crossbreed piglets were purchased from a commercial farm. Six of them were orally challenged two to five times at different ages, between 29 and 49 days, with doses of H. pylori inoculum containing approximately 10(9) bacterial cells. Two animals served as controls. The inoculation program began 2 days postweaning when the piglets were 29 days of age. Prior to every inoculation, the piglets were fasted and pretreated with cimetidine, and prior to the first and second inoculation each piglet also was pretreated with dexamethasone. The challenged piglets were euthanasized between 36 and 76 days of age. H. pylori colonized all six inoculated piglets. The pathology of the experimentally induced gastritis was examined macroscopically and by light and electron microscopy. H. pylori induced a severe lymphocytic gastritis in the conventional piglets and reproduced the large majority of the pathologic features of the human disease. Therefore, the conventional piglet represents a promising new model for study of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of lesions of the human H. pylori-associated gastritis.

  1. Metachronous gastric cancer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan initially resulted in establishment of a country-wide gastric cancer screening program to detect early and treatable cancers. In 2013 countrywide Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication was approved coupled with endoscopy to assess for the presence of chronic gastritis. Current data support the notion that cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will prevent development of gastric cancer. However, while progression to more severe damage is halted in those who have already developed, atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy remain at risk for subsequent development of gastric cancer. That risk is directly related to the extent and severity of atrophic gastritis. Methods to stratify cancer risk include those based on endoscopic assessment of the atrophic border, histologic grading, and non-invasive methods based on serologic testing of pepsinogen levels. Continued surveillance is required because those with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy retain considerable gastric cancer risk even after H. pylori eradication. Those who have already experienced a resectable early gastric cancer are among those at highest risk as metachronous lesions are frequent even after H. pylori eradication. We review the role of H. pylori and effect of H. pylori eradication indicating the incidence and the predictive factors on development of metachronous cancer after endoscopic therapy of early gastric cancer. Studies to refine risk markers to stratify for risk, surveillance methods, intervals, and duration after successful H. pylori eradication, and whether adjuvant therapy would change risk are needed. PMID:25206262

  2. Serologic Evidence for Fecal-Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Brown, Heidi E; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal-oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal-oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread. PMID:26598563

  3. In vitro antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus casei against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Enany, Shymaa; Abdalla, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in humans. Curing H. pylori infection is difficult because of the habitat of the organism below the mucus adherent layer of gastric mucosa. Lactobacilli are known as acid-resistant bacteria and can remain in stomach for a long time than any other organism, we aimed in this study to examine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic against H. pylori in humans. Particularly, L. casei was opted as it is considered to be one of the widely used probiotics in dairy products. One hundred and seven strains of H. pylori were isolated from dyspeptic patients and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole (MTZ), clarithromycin (CLR), tetracycline (TET), and amoxicillin (AMX) by the disc diffusion method. The strains were examined for their susceptibility toward L. casei - present in fermented milk products - by well diffusion method. It was found that 74.7% strains were resistant to MTZ; 1.8% to MTZ, TET, and CLR; 3.7% to MTZ and CLR; 4.6% to MTZ and TET; and 0.9% were resistant to MTZ, TET, and AMX. The antibacterial activity of L. casei against H. pylori was determined on all the tested H. pylori isolates including antibiotic resistant strains with different patterns. Our study proposed the use of probiotics for the treatment of H. pylori infection as an effective approach. PMID:26691482

  4. Celecoxib inhibits Helicobacter pylori colonization-related factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jiang; Liu, Fang-Xun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization-related factors and its mechanism. METHODS: After co-incubation with celecoxib, morphology of H. pylori strain 26695 was observed under a transmission electron microscope. Flagella motility was assessed by stab agar motility test. Adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of mRNA expression in flagellar genes (flaA, flaB), urease genes (ureA, ureB) and adhesin genes (babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Separation and non-integrity of bacterial cell wall, rarefaction and asymmetry of cytoplasm, and even lysis of H. pylori were observed in the presence of celecoxib. When H. pylori strains were incubated in the presence of celecoxib, their flagellar motility and adherence to AGS cells were inhibited. The expression of ureA, ureB, babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ was up-regulated while the expression of flaA, flaB was down-regulated in the presence of celecoxib. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib inhibits flagellar motility and adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells, and destructs their normal structure in vitro. PMID:20143463

  5. Persistence of Helicobacter pylori in heterotrophic drinking-water biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gião, M S; Azevedo, N F; Wilks, S A; Vieira, M J; Keevil, C W

    2008-10-01

    Although the route of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains unknown, drinking water has been considered a possible transmission vector. It has been shown previously that, in water, biofilms are a protective niche for several pathogens, protecting them from stressful conditions, such as low carbon concentration, shear stress, and less-than-optimal temperatures. In this work, the influence of these three parameters on the persistence and cultivability of H. pylori in drinking-water biofilms was studied. Autochthonous biofilm consortia were formed in a two-stage chemostat system and then inoculated with the pathogen. Total numbers of H. pylori cells were determined by microscopy using a specific H. pylori 16S rRNA peptide nucleic acid probe, whereas cultivable cells were assessed by standard plating onto selective H. pylori medium. Cultivable H. pylori could not be detected at any time point, but the ability of H. pylori cells to incorporate, undergo morphological transformations, persist, and even agglomerate in biofilms for at least 31 days without a noticeable decrease in the total cell number (on average, the concentration was between 1.54 x 10(6) and 2.25 x 10(6) cells cm(-2)) or in the intracellular rRNA content may indicate that the loss of cultivability was due to entry into a viable but noncultivable state. Unlike previous results obtained for pure-culture H. pylori biofilms, shear stress did not negatively influence the numbers of H. pylori cells attached, suggesting that the autochthonous aquatic bacteria have an important role in retaining this pathogen in the sessile state, possibly by providing suitable microaerophilic environments or linking biomolecules to which the pathogen adheres. Therefore, biofilms appear to provide not only a safe haven for H. pylori but also a concentration mechanism so that subsequent sloughing releases a concentrated bolus of cells that might be infectious and that could escape routine grab sample microbiological

  6. Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer: Updates

    PubMed Central

    Khatoon, Jahanarah; Rai, Ravi Prakash; Prasad, Kashi Nath

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is highly prevalent in human, affecting nearly half of the world’s population; however, infection remains asymptomatic in majority of population. During its co-existence with humans, H. pylori has evolved various strategies to maintain a mild gastritis and limit the immune response of host. On the other side, presence of H. pylori is also associated with increased risk for the development of various gastric pathologies including gastric cancer (GC). A complex combination of host genetics, environmental agents, and bacterial virulence factors are considered to determine the susceptibility as well as the severity of outcome in a subset of individuals. GC is one of the most common cancers and considered as the third most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Many studies had proved H. pylori as an important risk factor in the development of non-cardia GC. Although both H. pylori infection and GC are showing decreasing trends in the developed world, they still remain a major threat to human population in the developing countries. The current review attempts to highlight recent progress in the field of research on H. pylori induced GC and aims to provide brief insight into H. pylori pathogenesis, the role of major virulence factors of H. pylori that modulates the host environment and transform the normal gastric epithelium to neoplastic one. This review also emphasizes on the mechanistic understanding of how colonization and various virulence attributes of H. pylori as well as the host innate and adaptive immune responses modulate the diverse signaling pathways that leads to different disease outcomes including GC. PMID:26909129

  7. Does Helicobacter pylori eradication play a role in immune thrombocytopenia?

    PubMed

    Llovet, Valentina; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-09-05

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been implicated as trigger or disease modifier in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). So, eradication treatment for this agent could have clinical benefits. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified four systematic reviews comprising 40 studies addressing the question of this article overall, including one randomized controlled trial. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded Helicobacter eradication might decrease risk of bleeding in patients with immune thrombocytopenia but the certainty of the evidence is low.

  8. Does Helicobacter pylori eradication play a role in immune thrombocytopenia?

    PubMed

    Llovet, Valentina; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been implicated as trigger or disease modifier in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). So, eradication treatment for this agent could have clinical benefits. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified four systematic reviews comprising 40 studies addressing the question of this article overall, including one randomized controlled trial. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded Helicobacter eradication might decrease risk of bleeding in patients with immune thrombocytopenia but the certainty of the evidence is low. PMID:27603101

  9. Helicobacter pylori: epidemiology and routes of transmission.

    PubMed

    Brown, L M

    2000-01-01

    H. pylori is a common bacterium, and approximately 50 percent of the world's population has been estimated to be infected (198). Humans are the principal reservoir. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, race, ethnicity, and SES. Rates appear to be higher in developing than in developed countries, with most of the infections occurring during childhood, and they seem to be decreasing with improvements in hygiene practices. H. pylori causes chronic gastritis and has been associated with several serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. Since its "discovery" in 1982 by Warren and Marshall (1), H. pylori has been the topic of extensive research. A number of studies have used questionnaire components to investigate factors possibly related to the etiology of H. pylori infection. The majority of recent studies have not found tobacco use or alcohol consumption to be risk factors for H. pylori infection. Adequate nutritional status, especially frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables and of vitamin C, appears to protect against infection with H. pylori. In contrast, food prepared under less than ideal conditions or exposed to contaminated water or soil may increase the risk. Overall, inadequate sanitation practices, low social class, and crowded or high-density living conditions seem to be related to a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection. This finding suggests that poor hygiene and crowded conditions may facilitate transmission of infection among family members and is consistent with data on intrafamilial and institutional clustering of H. pylori infection. Understanding the route of H. pylori transmission is important if public health measures to prevent its spread are to be implemented. Iatrogenic transmission of H. pylori following endoscopy is the only proven mode. For the general population, the most likely mode of transmission is from person to person, by either the

  10. Is There a Role for Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori Therapy?

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria P; Goni, Elisabetta; Di Mario, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The role of probiotics in Helicobacter pylori therapy remains unclear. Lactobacilli can be shown to inhibit H pylori in vitro. Some strains of Lactobacilli may exert specific antimicrobial effects. There is no strong evidence of a benefit on eradication rate when probiotics are added to a regimen. Despite promising results obtained using compounds of L reuteri and S boulardii, high-quality trials are needed to define the role of probiotics as adjuvant therapy. Variables that remain to be studied with L reuteri, currently the most promising strain, include dosage, frequency of administration, administration in relation to meals, and duration of therapy.

  11. Helicobacter pylori Eradication to Eliminate Gastric Cancer: The Japanese Strategy.

    PubMed

    Asaka, Masahiro; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Matsushima, Rumiko; Tsuda, Momoko

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for chronic gastritis achieved world-first coverage by the Japanese national health insurance scheme in 2013, making a dramatic decrease of gastric cancer-related deaths more realistic. Combining H pylori eradication therapy with endoscopic surveillance can prevent the development of gastric cancer. Even if it develops, most patients are likely to be diagnosed at an early stage, possibly resulting in fewer gastric cancer deaths. Success with the elimination of gastric cancer in Japan could lead other countries with a high incidence to consider a similar strategy, suggesting the potential for elimination of gastric cancer around the world.

  12. [Eradication therapy of antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakov, P L; Belousova, N L; Shcherbakova, M Iu; Kashnikov, V S

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the upper digestive tract, associated with Helicobacter pylori has recently greatly complicated by the presence of significant number of resistant strains of this microorganism to traditionally used drugs for eradication therapy. Average resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Russia is about 30 and 25% respectively. The article presents the experience of treating patients with metronidazole resistant strains of H. pylori with using triple therapy, which included a drug used nitrofurans--nifuroxazide in suspension, proton pump inhibitors and clarithromycin. PMID:21485525

  13. Gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori in gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed

    Krakowka, S; Eaton, K A; Rings, D M; Morgan, D R

    1991-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has recently been recognized as a gastric pathogen in humans. Experimental oral inoculation of gnotobiotic piglets with this organism results in gastritis that exhibits many features of the corresponding disease in humans. In piglets the organism is restricted to the gastric microenvironment and persists in that location despite prompt humoral and cellular responses to antigens of H. pylori. The gnotobiotic piglet model is useful for delineation of the role of suspected bacterial virulence factors (i.e., motility and urease production) in gastric colonization and for preclinical determination of the efficacy of various antimicrobial substances.

  14. The Multiple Carbohydrate Binding Specificities of Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teneberg, Susann

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Adhesion of microbes to the target tissue is an important determinant for successful initiation, establishment and maintenance of infection, and a variety of different candidate carbohydrate receptors for H. pylori have been identified. Here the different the binding specifities, and their potential role in adhesion to human gastric epithelium are described. Finally, recent findings on the roles of sialic acid binding SabA adhesin in interactions with human neutrophils and erythrocytes are discussed.

  15. Biomarkers of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Cara L; Torres, Javier; Solnick, Jay V

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is predicted to become even more common in developing countries as the population ages. Since gastric cancer develops slowly over years to decades, and typically progresses though a series of well-defined histologic stages, cancer biomarkers have potential to identify asymptomatic individuals in whom surgery might be curative, or even those for whom antibiotics to eradicate H. pylori could prevent neoplastic transformation. Here we describe some of the challenges of biomarker discovery, summarize current approaches to biomarkers of gastric cancer, and explore some recent novel strategies. PMID:23851317

  16. Current European concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. The Maastricht Consensus Report. European Helicobacter Pylori Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable confusion over the management of Helicobacter pylori infection, particularly among primary care physicians, and numerous European countries lack national guidelines in this rapidly growing area of medicine. The European Helicobacter Pylori Study Group therefore organised a meeting in Maastricht of H pylori experts, primary care physicians and representatives of National Societies of Gastroenterology from Europe to establish consensus guidelines on the management of H pylori at the primary care and specialist levels, and to consider general health care issues associated with the infection. As in previous guidelines, eradication therapy was recommended in all H pylori positive patients with peptic ulcer disease. Additionally, at the primary care level in dyspeptic patients < 45 years old and with no alarm symptoms, diagnosis is recommended by non-invasive means (13C urea breath test, serology) and if H pylori positive the patient should be treated. Moreover, at the specialist level the indications for eradication of H pylori were also broadened to include H pylori positive patients with functional dyspepsia in whom no other possible causes of symptoms are identified by the specialist (after a full investigation including endoscopy, ultrasound and other necessary investigations), patients with low grade gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (managed in specialised centres) and those with gastritis with severe macro- or microscopic abnormalities. There was consensus that treatment regimens should be simple, well tolerated and achieve an eradication rate of over 80% on an intention to treat basis. It was strongly recommended, therefore, that eradication treatment should be with proton pump inhibitor based triple therapy for seven days, using a proton pump inhibitor and two of the following: clarithromycin, a nitroimidazole (metronidazole or tinidazole) and amoxycillin. PMID:9274464

  17. Eradication of Helicobacter mustelae from the ferret stomach: an animal model of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Otto, G; Fox, J G; Wu, P Y; Taylor, N S

    1990-01-01

    Colonization of the ferret stomach by Helicobacter mustelae has been suggested as a possible animal model for Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal disease of humans. Our study was designed to determine whether antimicrobial chemotherapy could eradicate H. mustelae from ferrets. Triple antimicrobial therapy combining amoxicillin, metronidazole, and bismuth subsalicylate was successful in eradicating the organism from 5 of 7 (71%) adult ferrets. Despite apparent in vitro susceptibility, neither chloramphenicol monotherapy nor a polytherapeutic regimen combining tetracycline, metronidazole, and bismuth subsalicylate proved effective in the eradication of H. mustelae. Several strains isolated after unsuccessful polytherapy showed markedly increased resistance to metronidazole. These preliminary findings are similar to results of H. pylori treatment trials with humans and suggest that the ferret may be a useful model for evaluating and comparing potential antimicrobial modalities for the eradication of H. pylori. PMID:2393285

  18. [Alzheimer's disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: a possible link?].

    PubMed

    Roubaud Baudron, Claire; Varon, Christine; Mégraud, Francis; Salles, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with Aß peptide and Tau protein deposits, but the initial process inducing the disease and ultimately neurodegeneration has not yet been elucidated. An infectious hypothesis is suggested by the alteration of the blood-brain barrier and the activation of neuroinflammation in the brain, which could play a role, especially in the decrease of Aß peptide clearance. Several viral or bacterial agents have been incriminated, including Helicobacter pylori. Infection by H. pylori is acquired during childhood and often lifetime persisting, inducing a chronic gastric inflammation, which remains asymptomatic in approximately 80% of cases. However H. pylori infection can induce systemic inflammation and increase homocysteine levels, contributing to worsen AD lesions. Association between H. pylori and AD is suggested by 1) epidemiologic studies, which show higher AD prevalence and more pronounced cognitive impairment in infected than in non-infected subjects; 2) experimental studies in murine models: a) in a first study we evaluated the impact of H. pylori infection on the brain of non-AD predisposed C57BL/6J mice. After an 18-month infection, H. pylori induced a significant gastric inflammation but no brain Aβ deposit nor increased neuroinflammation was observed in their brain; b) we currently study the impact of Helicobacter species infection on behavior and cerebral lesions of AD transgenic (APPswe/PS1dE9) mice and their wild type littermate. The results of these studies do not allow to conclude a significant association between AD and H. pylory infection but may contribute to a better understanding of the role of brain neuroinflammation in AD. PMID:27005340

  19. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ismail; Erkul, E; Berber, U; Kucukodaci, Z; Narli, G; Haholu, A; Demirel, D

    2016-03-01

    A definitive relationship between Helicobacter pylori (HP) and upper respiratory tract disorders has not been established. In this case-control study, we investigated the relationship between HP and laryngeal carcinoma by real-time PCR method in Turkey. 74 subjects were enrolled from patients who were admitted to the Otolaryngology Department. Formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded tissue samples with laryngeal cancer were used and all samples were evaluated by real-time PCR method. Our study population included 72 males and 2 females with a mean age range of 62.7 years. Helicobacter Pylori was detected in only one case. The positive case was also investigated with histopathologic evaluation and HP immunohistochemistry. However, we could not detect HP in this case with both methods. This study revealed that HP might not contribute to the pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma. A definitive relationship between HP and upper respiratory tract disorders has not been established.

  20. [Antibacterial constituents against Helicobacter pylori of Brazilian medicinal plant, Pariparoba].

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takahiko; Ohsaki, Ayumi; Nagata, Kumiko

    2002-04-01

    Four known compounds have been isolated from the aerial parts of the Brazilian medicinal plant Pariparoba (Pothomorphe umbellata). They were an alkaloid, a flavone, a dihydrocalcone, and a steroid. The chemical structures were established to be N-benzoylmescaline, wogonin, uvangoletin, and beta-sitosterol glucoside using spectral methods. Among these compounds, the main component N-benzoylmescaline showed significant antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori.

  1. [Helicobacter pylori at Hospital Santo Tomás].

    PubMed

    Pérez Ferrari, R; Lambraño, L; Aranda, R; Ferrabone, L

    1993-09-01

    We studied the incidence of infection with Helicobacter pylori in Panamanians with chronic dyspepsia, gastric or duodenal ulcer, gastritis or gastric cancer. The histopathology was positive in 54 (81%) of 66 patients; the urea test was positive in 52 (82.5%) of 63 cases; the impromptu was positive in 51 (79.6) of 64 patients; the endoscopic examination was positive in 64 (82.9%) of 77 examinations.

  2. Activation of Helicobacter pylori causes either autoimmune thyroid diseases or carcinogenesis in the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Astl, J; Šterzl, I

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in stimulation of immune system, development of autoimmune endocrinopathies as autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and on other hand induction of immunosupresion activates gastric and extra-gastric diseases such as gastric ulcer or cancer. It causes persistent lifelong infection despite local and systemic immune response. Our results indicate that Helicobacter pylori might cause inhibition of the specific cellular immune response in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with or without autoimmune diseases such as AT. We cannot also declare the carcinogenic effect in oropharynx. However the association of any infection agents and cancerogenesis exists. The adherence of Helicobacter pylori expression and enlargement of benign lymphatic tissue and the high incidence of the DNA of Helicobacter pylori in laryngopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cancer is reality. LTT appears to be a good tool for detection of immune memory cellular response in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and AT. All these complications of Helicobacter pylori infection can be abrogated by successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  3. Molecular epidemiology, population genetics, and pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rumiko; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to various gastroduodenal diseases; however, only approximately 20% of infected individuals develop severe diseases. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in Africa and South Asia, the incidence of gastric cancer in these areas is much lower than in other countries. Furthermore, the incidence of gastric cancer tends to decrease from north to south in East Asia. Such geographic differences in the pathology can be explained, at least in part, by the presence of different types of H. pylori virulence factors, especially cagA, vacA, and the right end of the cag pathogenicity island. The genotype of the virulence genes is also useful as a tool to track human migration utilizing the high genetic diversity and frequent recombination between different H. pylori strains. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using 7 housekeeping genes can also help predict the history of human migrations. Population structure analysis based on MLST has revealed 7 modern population types of H. pylori, which derived from 6 ancestral populations. Interestingly, the incidence of gastric cancer is closely related to the distribution of H. pylori populations. The different incidence of gastric cancer can be partly attributed to the different genotypes of H. pylori circulating in different geographic areas. Although approaches by MLST and virulence factors are effective, these methods focus on a small number of genes and may miss information conveyed by the rest of the genome. Genome-wide analyses using DNA microarray or whole-genome sequencing technology give a broad view on the genome of H. pylori. In particular, next-generation sequencers, which can read DNA sequences in less time and at lower costs than Sanger sequencing, enabled us to efficiently investigate not only the evolution of H. pylori, but also novel virulence factors and genomic changes related to drug resistance. PMID:22197766

  4. Helicobacter pylori associated Asian enigma: Does diet deserve distinction?

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most widespread infections in humans worldwide that chronically infects up to 50% of the world’s population. The infection is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer, therefore, it has been classified as class I definite carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Despite the established etiological role of H. pylori, its actual distribution and association with related diseases is controversial and there is a large intercountry variation especially among Asian countries. H. pylori infection is more frequent in developing countries like India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as compared to developed Asian countries like Japan, China and South Korea. However, the frequency of gastric cancer is comparatively lower in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh with that of Japan, China and South Korea. Such phenomenon of clinical diversity, defined as enigma, is judged by genetic variability of the infecting H. pylori strains, differences in the host genetic background in various ethnic groups, and environmental factors such as dietary habits. Most of the studies have so far focused on the bacterial factor while environmental issues, including dietary components, were not given due attention as one of the factors related with H. pylori associated gastric carcinogenesis. The dietary factor has been suggested to play an important role in H. pylori related carcinogenesis, and in this respect several studies have corroborated the intake of various dietary components as modulatory factors for gastric cancer risk. In this review, such studies, from in vitro experiments to clinical trials, are being focused in detail with respect to enigma associated with H. pylori. It may be conceivably concluded from the available evidence that dietary factor can be a game changer in the scenario of Asian enigma, particularly in high risk population infected with

  5. Helicobacter pylori associated Asian enigma: Does diet deserve distinction?

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal

    2016-04-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most widespread infections in humans worldwide that chronically infects up to 50% of the world's population. The infection is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer, therefore, it has been classified as class I definite carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Despite the established etiological role of H. pylori, its actual distribution and association with related diseases is controversial and there is a large intercountry variation especially among Asian countries. H. pylori infection is more frequent in developing countries like India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as compared to developed Asian countries like Japan, China and South Korea. However, the frequency of gastric cancer is comparatively lower in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh with that of Japan, China and South Korea. Such phenomenon of clinical diversity, defined as enigma, is judged by genetic variability of the infecting H. pylori strains, differences in the host genetic background in various ethnic groups, and environmental factors such as dietary habits. Most of the studies have so far focused on the bacterial factor while environmental issues, including dietary components, were not given due attention as one of the factors related with H. pylori associated gastric carcinogenesis. The dietary factor has been suggested to play an important role in H. pylori related carcinogenesis, and in this respect several studies have corroborated the intake of various dietary components as modulatory factors for gastric cancer risk. In this review, such studies, from in vitro experiments to clinical trials, are being focused in detail with respect to enigma associated with H. pylori. It may be conceivably concluded from the available evidence that dietary factor can be a game changer in the scenario of Asian enigma, particularly in high risk population infected with

  6. Regulation of IL-18 in Helicobacter pylori Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Kazuyoshi; Choi, Il-Ju; Lu, Hong; Ogiwara, Hiroaki; Graham, David Y.; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    The gastric mucosal immune response is thought to be comprised predominantly of the Th1 type; however, there are limited data regarding the role of IL-18 in Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation. We investigated IL-18 levels in gastric mucosal biopsy specimens as well as in isolated gastric epithelial cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells. We also investigated IL-18 levels in gastric epithelial cells and the monocyte cell line THP-1 cocultured with H. pylori. In both systems, IL-18 levels were markedly enhanced in H. pylori-infected epithelial cells and monocytes. IL-18 levels in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa were well correlated with the severity of gastric inflammation, confirming that H. pylori-induced IL-18 plays an important role in gastric injury. Virulence factors of H. pylori; the cag pathogenicity island and OipA affected IL-18 induction in different manners. Up-regulation of IL-18 mRNA/protein in epithelial cells was dependent on both virulence factors. Interestingly, up-regulation of IL-18 mRNA in monocytes was independent of both factors, whereas IL-18 protein was OipA dependent – cag pathogenicity island independent, indicating that OipA regulates IL-18 induction in monocytes at the posttranscriptional level. IL-18 levels in the gastric biopsy specimens showed similar patterns to those in lamina propria mononuclear cells with respect to virulence factors, suggesting that submucosal monocytes/macrophages are the main source of IL-18 induced by H. pylori infection. H. pylori appeared to regulate the ERK/JNK→AP-1 pathway in both cell types. In addition, OipA and its related p38 pathway may be closely involved in IL-18 induction in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa and may contribute to gastric injury. PMID:18178861

  7. Optimizing enrichment culture conditions for detecting Helicobacter pylori in foods.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiuping; Doyle, Michael P

    2002-12-01

    The survival and growth of Helicobacter pylori under enrichment conditions in fresh, autoclaved and irradiated ground beef were determined. H. pylori grew in autoclaved ground beef at 37 degrees C under microaerobic conditions in brain heart infusion broth with 7% horse serum at pH 7.3 after 3 to 7 days of lag time but did not grow within 7 days in irradiated (10 kGy) ground beef under the same enrichment conditions. Adjustment of the enrichment broth to pH 5.5 enabled the growth (ca. 2 log10 CFU/ml) of H. pylori within 7 days in the presence of irradiated ground beef and the prolific growth (ca. 3 to 4 log10 CFU/ml) of H. pylori within 3 days in the presence of autoclaved beef. H. pylori in fresh ground beef could not be isolated from enrichment media with antibiotics; however. H. pylori ureA could be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in such enrichment media after 1 to 3 days of incubation at 37 degrees C. The addition of supplements, i.e., 0.3% mucin, 0.05% ferrous sulfate, and 0.05% sodium pyruvate or 0.008 M urea, or the adjustment of the enrichment broth pH to 5.5 or 4.5 enabled the detection of H. pylori ureA in enrichment media incubated for 1, 2, 3, and/or 7 days at 37 degrees C. H. pylori in sterile milk refrigerated at 4 degrees C at an initial level of 10(6) CFU/ml was inactivated to an undetectable level within 6 days; however, H. pylori was not detected either by a PCR assay or by the plating of enrichment cultures of 120 raw bovine milk samples. PMID:12495015

  8. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie S W; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-10-28

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection in India from a western perspective

    PubMed Central

    Thirumurthi, Selvi; Graham, David Y.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common bacterial infectious disease whose manifestations predominately affect the gastrointestinal tract. India is the prototypical developing country as far as H. pylori infection is concerned and more than 20 million Indians are estimated to suffer from peptic ulcer disease. Considering the high level of medical research and of the pharmaceutical industry, one would expect that India would be the source of much needed information regarding new therapies and approaches that remain effective in the presence of antimicrobial resistance, new methods to reliably prevent reinfection, and the development of therapeutic and preventive vaccines. Here we discuss H. pylori as a problem in India with an emphasis on H. pylori infection as a serious transmissible infectious disease. We discuss the pros and cons of eradication of H. pylori from the entire population and come down on the side of eradication. The available data from India regarding antimicrobial use and resistance as well as the effectiveness of various treatments are discussed. Rigorous ongoing studies to provide current regional antibiotic resistance patterns coupled with data concerning the success rate with different treatment regimens are needed to guide therapy. A systematic approach to identify reliably effective (e.g., 90% or greater treatment success) cost-effective regimens is suggested as well as details of regimens likely to be effective in India. H. pylori is just one of the health care problems faced in India, but one where all the resources are on hand to understand and solve it. PMID:23168695

  10. Helicobacter pylori Update: Gastric Cancer, Reliable Therapy, and Possible Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to development of diverse gastric and extra-gastric diseases. The infection is necessary but not sufficient for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Its eradication would eliminate a major worldwide cause of cancer death, so there is much interest in identifying how, if, and when this can be accomplished. There are several mechanisms by which H pylori contributes to development of gastric cancer. Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of many cancers associated with inflammation, which is induced by H pylori infection, yet the bacteria also cause genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells. H pylori eradication reduces both. However, many factors must be considered in determining whether treating this bacterial infection will prevent cancer or only reduce its risk—these must be considered in designing reliable and effective eradication therapies. Furthermore, H pylori infection has been proposed to provide some benefits, such as reducing the risks of obesity or childhood asthma, although there are no convincing data to support the benefits of H pylori infections. PMID:25655557

  11. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori: a role for food?

    PubMed Central

    van Duynhoven, Y. T.; de Jonge, R.

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes and grows in human gastric epithelial tissue and mucus. Its presence is associated with gastritis and there is substantial evidence that it causes peptic and duodenal ulcers and chronic gastritis. Since 1994, H. pylori has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. In industrialized countries, as many as 50% of adults are infected with the pathogen, while in the developing world, prevalence values of about 90% have been reported. As little is known about the mode of transmission, a literature search was carried out to determine whether food acts a reservoir or vehicle in the transmission of H. pylori. Although growth of the pathogen should be possible in the gastrointestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, the human stomach is its only known reservoir. Under conditions where growth is not possible, H. pylori can enter a viable, but nonculturable state. H. pylori has been detected in such states in water, but not in food. Person-to-person contact is thought to be the most likely mode of transmission, and there is no direct evidence that food is involved in the transmission of H. pylori. PMID:11417041

  12. Helicobacter pylori increases proliferation of gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, X G; Kelleher, D; Fan, X J; Xia, H X; Keeling, P W

    1996-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of helicobacter pylori on cell kinetics of gastric epithelial cell line AGS were investigated by flow cytometric analysis of Ki-67 positive cells and by MTT assay. Flow cytometric analysis of Ki-67 positivity permits detection of cells that are in S-phase, whereas the MTT assay is a colometric measure of the number of viable cells. In the absence of added stimulants, 23.06 (4.88)% mean (SD) of AGS cells were Ki-67 positive. When cells were preincubated in the presence of H pylori, there was a significant increase in Ki-67 positivity (66.20 (7.89)%, p < 0.001). This increase was not seen in cells cultured in the presence of Campylobacter jejuni (24.63 (8.11)% or Escherichia coli (21.66 (9.78)%). Pre-incubation of AGS cells with supernatants from both H pylori and mitogen activated peripheral blood lymphocytes also increased the per cent of cells that were Ki-67 positive (72.93 (8.68) and 69.96 (12.35)%; p, 0.001) respectively. Similar results were also found in MTT assay. These data show that both H pylori directly and the immune/inflammatory response to H pylori indirectly can influence the rate of epithelial cell proliferation, suggesting this bacterium may be an initiating step in gastric carcinogenesis and an important co-carcinogenic factor in H pylori positive subjects.

  13. Testing for Helicobacter pylori in primary care: trouble in store?

    PubMed Central

    Foy, R.; Parry, J. M.; Murray, L.; Woodman, C. B.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of testing for Helicobacter pylori in the management of dyspeptic patients in primary care. DESIGN: Selective review of literature frequently quoted to support use of H pylori testing. MAIN RESULTS: Testing for H pylori and referral of only positive cases for endoscopy aims to reduce the number of "unnecessary" endoscopies. Patients with negative results may receive short-term reassurance and subsequently place fewer demands on health services. However, studies to date have only assessed this practice in secondary care settings. Given the relatively high prevalence of both dyspepsia and H pylori infection, the transfer of this practice to primary care may lead to a paradoxical increase in endoscopy referrals. Identification of H pylori and prescribing of eradication treatment also aims to reduce endoscopy referrals. No primary care trials have yet assessed this approach. Given that fewer than one in four of dyspeptic patients have peptic ulceration, a high proportion may fail to respond to eradication treatment and subsequently require referral for endoscopy. The longer term clinical and psychosocial sequelae of treating or labelling patients with an infection associated with gastric cancer remain unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Given uncertainty concerning the possible adverse effects of H pylori testing in primary care, we suggest a moratorium on its use in this setting until results from relevant clinical trials become available.   PMID:9764281

  14. Role of metronidazole resistance in therapy of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    PubMed Central

    Rautelin, H; Seppälä, K; Renkonen, O V; Vainio, U; Kosunen, T U

    1992-01-01

    Susceptibility to metronidazole was determined by disk diffusion tests for 559 strains of Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients. The overall metronidazole resistance was 26%. In males metronidazole-resistant strains made 18% of all H. pylori strains, and in females the corresponding figure was 40% (P less than 0.001). MICs of metronidazole were determined for H. pylori strains from 86 patients undertaking triple therapy, i.e., treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate, amoxicillin, and metronidazole. Of the nonresponders who remained culture positive despite the therapy, 69% had strains with metronidazole MICs of greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml before the therapy, and all nonresponders had metronidazole-resistant strains after the therapy. Metronidazole resistance was, however, also found in 27% of responders before therapy. To find whether the MICs of metronidazole for H. pylori strains remained constant for longer periods, consecutive isolates sampled several years apart from the same patients were tested in parallel and no changes in the MICs were found. H. pylori was successfully eradicated by the triple therapy from 91% of patients with metronidazole-susceptible pretreatment strains and from 63% of patients with metronidazole-resistant strains before the therapy (P less than 0.01). Although resistance to metronidazole has a significant role in treatment failures in H. pylori infections, high eradication rates can be achieved with the use of the present triple therapy even in populations with a high overall metronidazole resistance rate. PMID:1590683

  15. Antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori: Is the end coming?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Young; Choi, Duck Joo; Chung, Jun-Won

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been associated with gastro-duodenal disease and the importance of H. pylori eradication is underscored by its designation as a group I carcinogen. The standard triple therapy consists of a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, although many other regimens are used, including quadruple, sequential and concomitant therapy regimens supplemented with metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Despite these efforts, current therapeutic regimens lack efficacy in eradication due to antibiotic resistance, drug compliance and antibiotic degradation by the acidic stomach environment. Antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole is particularly problematic and several approaches have been proposed to overcome this issue, such as complementary probiotic therapy with Lactobacillus. Other studies have identified novel molecules with an anti-H. pylori effect, as well as tailored therapy and nanotechnology as viable alternative eradication strategies. This review discusses current antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections, limitations of this type of therapy and predicts the availability of newly developed therapies for H. pylori eradication. PMID:26558152

  16. Dormant phages of Helicobacter pylori reveal distinct populations in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Vale, F. F.; Vadivelu, J.; Oleastro, M.; Breurec, S.; Engstrand, L.; Perets, T. T.; Mégraud, F.; Lehours, P.

    2015-01-01

    Prophages of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium known to co-evolve in the stomach of its human host, were recently identified. However, their role in the diversity of H. pylori strains is unknown. We demonstrate here and for the first time that the diversity of the prophage genes offers the ability to distinguish between European populations, and that H. pylori prophages and their host bacteria share a complex evolutionary history. By comparing the phylogenetic trees of two prophage genes (integrase and holin) and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-based data obtained for seven housekeeping genes, we observed that the majority of the strains belong to the same phylogeographic group in both trees. Furthermore, we found that the Bayesian analysis of the population structure of the prophage genes identified two H. pylori European populations, hpNEurope and hpSWEurope, while the MLST sequences identified one European population, hpEurope. The population structure analysis of H. pylori prophages was even more discriminative than the traditional MLST-based method for the European population. Prophages are new players to be considered not only to show the diversity of H. pylori strains but also to more sharply define human populations. PMID:26387443

  17. Cure of duodenal ulcer associated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Rauws, E A; Tytgat, G N

    1990-05-26

    50 patients with intractable duodenal ulcer were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) alone (26 patients) or with amoxicillin and metronidazole (24 patients). 5 patients (all on triple therapy) withdrew because of side-effects. In 17 of the 45 patients who completed the treatment, Helicobacter pylori was eradicated, and there was no ulcer relapse during the first 12 months of follow-up. The ulcer relapse rate was significantly higher (17 of 21 [89%]) among patients who remained positive for H pylori. 9 patients who remained positive for H pylori and had ulcer relapses within 6 months of treatment with CBS alone, were subsequently given triple therapy. 7 of the 9 showed H pylori eradication and no relapses within the next 12 months. The 2 patients still H pylori-positive after triple therapy had further ulcer relapses. H pylori eradication, without altering acid output, will become the mainstay of duodenal ulcer treatment because it cures the disease.

  18. Helicobacter pylori: a pathogenic threat to the gastric mucosal barrier.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, F S

    2015-12-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is a multi-factorial disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with a global prevalence affecting about 4.6 million people annually and having a mortality of one death per 10,000 cases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a profound role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, including gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and carcinoma. Any compromise to the gastric mucosal barrier will greatly affect the integrity of the stomach. H. pylori is an organism which mediates a compromise of the gastric mucosal barrier by stimulating increased gastric acid secretion, causing alteration of certain immune factors, penetration of the mucosal layer and provoking persistent inflammation even without invading the mucus membrane. All the different lines of therapy have not shown maximal efficacy in the eradication/cure of the infection in patients. Consequently, alternative therapies including phytomedicines and probiotics have been introduced both in the quest for better eradication therapies and in addressing the problem of H. pylori relapse. In the light of the increasing antibiotic resistance associated with current therapies, the use of herbal preparations or its concomitant use with current therapy has the potential to contribute additive and synergistic effect in the eradication of the H. pylori infection. This review highlights the anti-H. pylori herbal preparations tested and in current use.

  19. Evaluating the potential for a Helicobacter pylori drinking water guideline.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michael; Hamilton, Kerry; Hamilton, Michael; Haas, Charles N

    2014-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic, gram-negative bacterium that is linked to adverse health effects including ulcers and gastrointestinal cancers. The goal of this analysis is to develop the necessary inputs for a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) needed to develop a potential guideline for drinking water at the point of ingestion (e.g., a maximum contaminant level, or MCL) that would be protective of human health to an acceptable level of risk while considering sources of uncertainty. Using infection and gastric cancer as two discrete endpoints, and calculating dose-response relationships from experimental data on humans and monkeys, we perform both a forward and reverse risk assessment to determine the risk from current reported surface water concentrations of H. pylori and an acceptable concentration of H. pylori at the point of ingestion. This approach represents a synthesis of available information on human exposure to H. pylori via drinking water. A lifetime risk of cancer model suggests that a MCL be set at <1 organism/L given a 5-log removal treatment because we cannot exclude the possibility that current levels of H. pylori in environmental source waters pose a potential public health risk. Research gaps include pathogen occurrence in source and finished water, treatment removal rates, and determination of H. pylori risks from other water sources such as groundwater and recreational water.

  20. Methods for Detecting the Environmental Coccoid Form of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri Assadi, Mahnaz; Chamanrokh, Parastoo; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Huq, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: (1) spiral-shaped bacillus and (2) coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission, and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency. PMID:26075197

  1. Brush cytology: a reliable method to detect Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Dalla Libera, M; Pazzi, P; Carli, G; Contato, E; Piva, I; Scagliarini, R; Merighi, A; Ricci, N; Gullini, S

    1996-06-01

    This study was conducted to verify the reliability of brush cytology in detecting Helicobacter pylori in an unselected group of patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD). Endoscopy was performed on 416 consecutive patients: group A, 94 with active DU; group B, 176 patients with DU after omeprazole (n = 78), ranitidine (n = 43), or triple anti-H. pylori therapy (n = 55); and group C, 146 patients with NUD. During endoscopy, the gastric mucosa was brushed and two biopsy samples from the antrum and body were obtained for histology. In 65 patients, culture of the brush-collected materials also was performed as was that from of biopsy samples. The overall frequency of H. pylori presence detected by brush cytology was significantly higher compared with that of histology (p < 0.001), particularly in group A (p < 0.05), group C (p < 0.05), and in patients with DU after omeprazole treatment (p < 0.01), but not in patients with DU after ranitidine or anti-H. pylori treatment. The overall frequency of H. pylori-positive cultures from the brush-collected material was higher compared with cultures from the biopsy samples (38.5% vs. 24.6%), particularly in the NUD group (32.6% vs. 16.3%). Brush cytology is more sensitive than histology, besides being faster and cheaper, for the assessment of H. pylori infection, particularly when the density of the bacteria is low.

  2. Helicobacter pylori: a pathogenic threat to the gastric mucosal barrier.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, F S

    2015-12-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is a multi-factorial disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with a global prevalence affecting about 4.6 million people annually and having a mortality of one death per 10,000 cases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a profound role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, including gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and carcinoma. Any compromise to the gastric mucosal barrier will greatly affect the integrity of the stomach. H. pylori is an organism which mediates a compromise of the gastric mucosal barrier by stimulating increased gastric acid secretion, causing alteration of certain immune factors, penetration of the mucosal layer and provoking persistent inflammation even without invading the mucus membrane. All the different lines of therapy have not shown maximal efficacy in the eradication/cure of the infection in patients. Consequently, alternative therapies including phytomedicines and probiotics have been introduced both in the quest for better eradication therapies and in addressing the problem of H. pylori relapse. In the light of the increasing antibiotic resistance associated with current therapies, the use of herbal preparations or its concomitant use with current therapy has the potential to contribute additive and synergistic effect in the eradication of the H. pylori infection. This review highlights the anti-H. pylori herbal preparations tested and in current use. PMID:27462690

  3. Biochemical and functional characterization of Helicobacter pylori vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Annelie; Vallström, Anna; Petzold, Katja; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Schleucher, Jürgen; Carlsson, Sven; Haas, Rainer; Backert, Steffen; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Gröbner, Gerhard; Arnqvist, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause peptic ulcer disease and/or gastric cancer. Adhesion of bacteria to the stomach mucosa is an important contributor to the vigour of infection and resulting virulence. H. pylori adheres primarily via binding of BabA adhesins to ABO/Lewis b (Leb) blood group antigens and the binding of SabA adhesins to sialyl-Lewis x/a (sLex/a) antigens. Similar to most Gram-negative bacteria, H. pylori continuously buds off vesicles and vesicles derived from pathogenic bacteria often include virulence-associated factors. Here we biochemically characterized highly purified H. pylori vesicles. Major protein and phospholipid components associated with the vesicles were identified with mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. A subset of virulence factors present was confirmed by immunoblots. Additional functional and biochemical analysis focused on the vesicle BabA and SabA adhesins and their respective interactions to human gastric epithelium. Vesicles exhibit heterogeneity in their protein composition, which were specifically studied in respect to the BabA adhesin. We also demonstrate that the oncoprotein, CagA, is associated with the surface of H. pylori vesicles. Thus, we have explored mechanisms for intimate H. pylori vesicle–host interactions and found that the vesicles carry effector-promoting properties that are important to disease development. PMID:20659286

  4. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of a complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data have indicated that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect the risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness show the sophisticated relationship between H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori's activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism.

  5. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. )

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  6. Dormant phages of Helicobacter pylori reveal distinct populations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vale, F F; Vadivelu, J; Oleastro, M; Breurec, S; Engstrand, L; Perets, T T; Mégraud, F; Lehours, P

    2015-01-01

    Prophages of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium known to co-evolve in the stomach of its human host, were recently identified. However, their role in the diversity of H. pylori strains is unknown. We demonstrate here and for the first time that the diversity of the prophage genes offers the ability to distinguish between European populations, and that H. pylori prophages and their host bacteria share a complex evolutionary history. By comparing the phylogenetic trees of two prophage genes (integrase and holin) and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-based data obtained for seven housekeeping genes, we observed that the majority of the strains belong to the same phylogeographic group in both trees. Furthermore, we found that the Bayesian analysis of the population structure of the prophage genes identified two H. pylori European populations, hpNEurope and hpSWEurope, while the MLST sequences identified one European population, hpEurope. The population structure analysis of H. pylori prophages was even more discriminative than the traditional MLST-based method for the European population. Prophages are new players to be considered not only to show the diversity of H. pylori strains but also to more sharply define human populations. PMID:26387443

  7. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D; Karatapanis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major human pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, after decades of efforts, treatment of H. pylori remains a challenge for physicians, as there is no universally effective regimen. Due to the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, mainly to clarithromycin, efficacy of standard triple therapies has declined to unacceptably low levels in most parts of the world. Novel regimens, specifically experimented to improve the therapeutic outcome against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains, are now recommended as first-line empirical treatment options providing high efficacy (reportedly > 90% in intention to treat analysis) even in high clarithromycin resistance settings. These include the bismuth quadruple, concomitant, sequential and hybrid therapies. Due to the rapid development of quinolone resistance, levofloxacin-based regimens should be reserved as second-line/rescue options. Adjunct use of probiotics has been proposed in order to boost eradication rates and decrease occurrence of treatment-related side effects. Molecular testing methods are currently available for the characterization of H. pylori therapeutic susceptibility, including genotypic detection of macrolide resistance and evaluation of the cytochrome P450 2C19 status known to affect the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors. In the future, use of these techniques may allow for culture-free, non-invasive tailoring of therapy for H. pylori infection. PMID:25400982

  8. Association of Helicobacter pylori Infection with Coronary Artery Disease: Is Helicobacter pylori a Risk Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Seyyed Fakhroldin; Damanpak, Vahid; Vahedian, Mostafa; Sattari, Mohammadamin

    2014-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is the most common infection in the world and coronary artery disease (CAD) is probably associated with it. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the association between HP infection and CAD in suspected patients referred for coronary angiography. The coronary angiography was performed using Judkins method and patients were assigned to participate in CAD positive (>50% luminal diameter stenosis) and negative groups. The serum HP IgG antibody was checked. Results. Positive and negative CAD groups consisted of 62 and 58 patients, respectively. HP was more prevalent among CAD+ patients, and with increasing the number of coronary arteries with stenosis, the HP seropositivity increased so that 76.3% of patients with multiple vessel diseases (MVD) and 70% of patients with single vessel diseases (SVD) were HP seropositive versus 50% in control group (P = 0.006). Positive CAD was significantly associated with HDL level (P = 0.01) and ESR level (P = 0.006). Also, CAD+ patients had higher CRP levels than controls and it was statistically different between SVD group and controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion. HP infection is more prevalent in CAD positive patients and, in case of proving causal relationship, it can be considered as a reversible risk factor for CAD. PMID:24574896

  9. Helicobacter pylori and food products: a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major human pathogen causing gastritis and chronic superficial infection (CSG). It colonizes the stomach of more than 50% of humans and causes disease. This microorganism is associated with the gastric antral epithelium in patients with active chronic gastritis, peptic (gastric) or duodenal ulcers, and gastric adenocarcinoma H. pylori is present in feces, sewage, and water but is killed by routine chlorination. Therefore, in developing countries, consumption of sewage-contaminated drinking water and vegetables may pose a risk; properly cooking foods and chlorinating water reduces the risk of transmitting H. pylori to humans. In South America the consumption of raw vegetables fertilized with human feces has been found to be a risk factor for infection, and consumption of water from a municipal supply has been suggested as a risk factor for children. Epidemiological studies have found that H. pylori organisms colonize the stomach and duodenum of humans and many animal species and family clusters; it is believed to be orally transmitted person to person. This transmission is the major, if not exclusive, source of infection.H. pylori has been detected in the mouth from dental plaque. Recent observations in persons infected with H. pylori caused to vomit or have diarrhea showed that an actively unwell person with these symptoms could spread H. pylori in the immediate vicinity by aerosol, splashing of vomitus, infected vomitus, and infected diarrhea. In summary, H. pylori is usually spread by the fecal-oral route but possibly also by the oral-oral route and the spread of contaminated secretions. Thus, in developing countries, individuals catch H. pylori at a very young age from other persons (children) in their environment. In developed countries, H. pylori is more difficult to acquire and is usually transmitted from one family member to another, possibly by the fecal-oral route, or by the oral-oral route, e.g., kissing, vomitus. On occasion

  10. Helicobacter pylori: Genomic Insight into the Host-Pathogen Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Kathryn P.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of genomic analyses has revolutionized the study of human health. Infectious disease research in particular has experienced an explosion of bacterial genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data complementing the phenotypic methods employed in traditional bacteriology. Together, these techniques have revealed novel virulence determinants in numerous pathogens and have provided information for potential chemotherapeutics. The bacterial pathogen, Helicobacter pylori, has been recognized as a class 1 carcinogen and contributes to chronic inflammation within the gastric niche. Genomic analyses have uncovered remarkable coevolution between the human host and H. pylori. Perturbation of this coevolution results in dysregulation of the host-pathogen interaction, leading to oncogenic effects. This review discusses the relationship of H. pylori with the human host and environment and the contribution of each of these factors to disease progression, with an emphasis on features that have been illuminated by genomic tools. PMID:25722969

  11. Personal review: Helicobacter pylori, NSAIDs and cognitive dissonance.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C J

    1999-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) each cause peptic ulcers but by different mechanisms. As a result, the effect of both of these risk factors together is not a synergistic enhancement of injury, ulceration or rates of complications. Indeed, there are circumstances under which patients infected with H. pylori are less prone to NSAID-induced ulcers than those who are not infected or who have undergone eradication treatment. This may be because of opposite effects on gastric mucosal prostaglandin synthesis or for other reasons. Reluctance to accept that there may be specific circumstances where H. pylori is beneficial may arise because of the psychological process of cognitive dissonance.

  12. The protein-protein interaction map of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Rain, J C; Selig, L; De Reuse, H; Battaglia, V; Reverdy, C; Simon, S; Lenzen, G; Petel, F; Wojcik, J; Schächter, V; Chemama, Y; Labigne, A; Legrain, P

    2001-01-11

    With the availability of complete DNA sequences for many prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, and soon for the human genome itself, it is important to develop reliable proteome-wide approaches for a better understanding of protein function. As elementary constituents of cellular protein complexes and pathways, protein-protein interactions are key determinants of protein function. Here we have built a large-scale protein-protein interaction map of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We have used a high-throughput strategy of the yeast two-hybrid assay to screen 261 H. pylori proteins against a highly complex library of genome-encoded polypeptides. Over 1,200 interactions were identified between H. pylori proteins, connecting 46.6% of the proteome. The determination of a reliability score for every single protein-protein interaction and the identification of the actual interacting domains permitted the assignment of unannotated proteins to biological pathways.

  13. Relapsed duodenal ulcer after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Miwa, H; Matsushima, H; Terai, T; Tanaka, H; Kawabe, M; Namihisa, A; Watanabe, S; Sato, N

    1998-08-01

    We report a patient--a 42-year-old man--who had suffered from recurrent duodenal ulcer for about 20 years. Successful curative therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection was performed for 2 weeks with new triple omeprazole, anoxicillin, clarithromycin (OAC) treatment in October 1995, and cure of the infection was repeatedly confirmed by histology, culture, and the 13C urea breath test. One month after the curative therapy, recurrence of a small duodenal ulcer was observed and in February another duodenal ulcer and reflux esophagitis occurred, with severe symptoms, despite the continuous administration of ranitidine. None of the examinations to reconfirm cure of the infection revealed the presence of H. pylori. As the patient experienced continual psychological stress and smoked more frequently during the recurrent episode and had not used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, stress and smoking appeared to play important roles in the relapse of duodenal ulcer in this patient after cure of H. pylori infection.

  14. The Influence of Mucus Microstructure and Rheology in Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bansil, Rama; Celli, Jonathan P.; Hardcastle, Joseph M.; Turner, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), has evolved to survive in the highly acidic environment of the stomach and colonize on the epithelial surface of the gastric mucosa. Its pathogenic effects are well known to cause gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. In order to infect the stomach and establish colonies on the mucus epithelial surface, the bacterium has to move across the gel-like gastric mucus lining of the stomach under acidic conditions. In this review we address the question of how the bacterium gets past the protective mucus barrier from a biophysical perspective. We begin by reviewing the molecular structure of gastric mucin and discuss the current state of understanding concerning mucin polymerization and low pH induced gelation. We then focus on the viscoelasticity of mucin in view of its relevance to the transport of particles and bacteria across mucus, the key first step in H. pylori infection. The second part of the review focuses on the motility of H. pylori in mucin solutions and gels, and how infection with H. pylori in turn impacts the viscoelastic properties of mucin. We present recent microscopic results tracking the motion of H. pylori in mucin solutions and gels. We then discuss how the biochemical strategy of urea hydrolysis required for survival in the acid is also relevant to the mechanism that enables flagella-driven swimming across the mucus gel layer. Other aspects of the influence of H. pylori infection such as, altering gastric mucin expression, its rate of production and its composition, and the influence of mucin on factors controlling H. pylori virulence and proliferation are briefly discussed with references to relevant literature. PMID:24133493

  15. Age of the Association between Helicobacter pylori and Man

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Robert P.; Nieuwoudt, Martin; Soodyall, Himla; Schlebusch, Carina M.; Bernhöft, Steffi; Hale, James; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Mugisha, Lawrence; van der Merwe, Schalk W.; Achtman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya), they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88–116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43–56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36–52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya. PMID:22589724

  16. Molecular Evidence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S.; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Abri, Aisha O.; Venkiteswaran, Krishna P.; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim; Shareef, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Rahman, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar; Gupta, Ishita; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is detectable in both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between infective chronic prostatitis and prostatic carcinoma. Many bacteria have been found in the prostate of patients with chronic prostatitis, BPH, and PCa. Methods One hundred consecutive patients with prostate diseases were enrolled in the study. Detection of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue from patients with BPH and PCa was performed using both immunohistochemistry and PCR, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Odds ratios and the Fisher Exact test were used for the analysis of the associations between the variables. Results Among the patients, 78% had BPH and 19% had PCa. While immunohistochemistry showed no positive sample for H. pylori, PCR combined with sequencing detected H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue samples from 5 patients. However, statistical analysis of the data showed that BPH and PCa are not significantly associated with the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval = 0.09–23.34, one-tailed Chi-square value = 0.660, p > 0.05). The limitation of this study was the small number of PCa patients. Conclusions This study provides, for the first time, molecular evidence of the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostatic tissue of patients with BPH and PCa. It paves the way for further comprehensive studies to examine the association of H. pylori infection with BPH and PCa. PMID:26889133

  17. Relatedness of Helicobacter pylori populations to gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Quan-Jiang; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Wang, Li-Li; Xin, Yong-Ning; Jiang, Man; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects half of the human population. The infection is associated with chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and peptic ulcers. It is also a major risk factor for gastric cancer. Phylogenetic analysis of global strains reveals there are seven populations of H. pylori, including hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, hpEastAsia, hpEurope, hpNEAfrica, hpAsia2 and hpSahul. These populations are consistent with their geographical origins, and possibly result from geographical separation of the bacterium leading to reduced bacterial recombination in some populations. For each population, H. pylori has evolved to possess genomic contents distinguishable from others. The hpEurope population is distinct in that it has the largest genome of 1.65 mbp on average, and the highest number of coding sequences. This confers its competitive advantage over other populations but at the cost of a lower infection rate. The large genomic size could be a cause of the frequent occurrence of the deletion of the cag pathogenicity island in H. pylori strains from hpEurope. The incidence of gastric cancer varies among different geographical regions. This can be attributed in part to different rates of infection of H. pylori. Recent studies found that different populations of H. pylori vary in their carcinogenic potential and contribute to the variation in incidence of gastric cancer among geographical regions. This could be related to the ancestral origin of H. pylori. Further studies are indicated to investigate the bacterial factors contributing to differential virulence and their influence on the clinical features in infected individuals. PMID:23236231

  18. Helicobacter Pylori Gastritis, a Presequeale to Coronary Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Shrikant C.; Patil, Vinayak W.; Dalvi, Shubhangi M.; Bakhshi, Girish D.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are considered the most common human pathogen colonizing gastric mucosa. Gastritis with or without H. pylori infection is associated with increase in levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) but a more pronounced increase is noted in gastritis with H. pylori infection. Increasing level of homocysteine, due to decreased absorption of vitamin B12 and folic acid, together with increased CRP levels in gastritis with H. pylori infection may be the earliest event in the process of atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Retrospective study conducted at tertiary care hospital in Mumbai by Department of Biochemistry in association with Department of Surgery. Eighty patients who underwent gastroscopy in view of gastritis were subjected to rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and hs-CRP were analyzed using chemiluminescence immuno assay. Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation and linear regression used for statistical analysis. Patients with H. pylori gastritis had significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 (271.6±101.3 vs 390.6±176.7 pg/mL; P=0.0005), as well as higher levels of homocysteine (17.4±7.4 vs 13.8±7.8 µmol/L; P=0.037) and hs-CRP (2.5±2.9 vs 1.2±1.1 mg/L; P=0.017), than in patients without H. pylori gastritis. However, folic acid showed (8.9±3.2 vs 10.0±3.6 ng/mL; P=0.171) no significant difference. Elevated homocysteine and hs-CRP in H. pylori gastritis may independently induce endothelial dysfunction, leading to cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25918633

  19. Biofilm and Helicobacter pylori: From environment to human host

    PubMed Central

    García, Apolinaria; Salas-Jara, María José; Herrera, Carolina; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative pathogen that selectively colonizes the human gastric epithelium. Over 50% of the world population is infected with H. pylori reaching up to 90% of infected individuals in developing countries. Nonetheless the increased impact upon public health care, its reservoir and the transmission pathway of the species has not been clearly established yet. Molecular studies allowed the detection of H. pylori in various aquatic environments, even forming biofilm in tap water distribution systems in several countries, suggesting a role of water as a possible reservoir of the pathogen. The persistence of human infection with H. pylori and the resistance of clinical isolates to commonly used antibiotics in eradication therapy have been related to the genetic variability of the species and its ability to develop biofilm, demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Thus, during the last years, experimental work with this pathogen has been focused in the search for biofilm inhibitors and biofilm destabilizing agents. However, only two anti- H. pylori biofilm disrupting agents have been successfully used: Curcumin - a natural dye - and N-acetyl cysteine - a mucolytic agent used in respiratory diseases. The main goal of this review was to discuss the evidences available in the literature supporting the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm upon various surfaces in aquatic environments, both in vivo and in vitro. The results published and our own observations suggest that the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm may be important for surviving under stress conditions or in the spread of the infection among humans, mainly through natural water sources and water distribution systems. PMID:24914322

  20. Accurate, noninvasive detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA from stool samples: potential usefulness for monitoring treatment.

    PubMed

    Shuber, Anthony P; Ascaño, Jennifer J; Boynton, Kevin A; Mitchell, Anastasia; Frierson, Henry F; El-Rifai, Wa'el; Powell, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    A novel DNA assay demonstrating sensitive and accurate detection of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples is reported. Moreover, in three individuals tested for therapeutic response, the assay showed the disappearance of H. pylori DNA during treatment. Thus, this noninvasive molecular biology-based assay has the potential to be a powerful diagnostic tool given its ability to specifically identify H. pylori DNA.

  1. Immune Responses to "Helicobacter pylori" Infection in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included who were permanent resident of…

  2. Effects of prolonged chlorine exposures upon PCR detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of low doses of free chlorine on the detection by qPCR of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cells by qPCR in tap water was monitored. H. pylori target sequences (within suspended, intact cells at densities of 102 to 103 cells /ml) were rendered undetectable by qPCR an...

  3. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in benign gastric ulcers in a cohort of Sri Lankan patients.

    PubMed

    Wijetunge, S; Kotakadeniya, R; Noordeen, F; Buharideen, S M; Samarasinghe, B; Dharmapala, A; Galketiya, K B

    2015-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori prevalence is decreasing globally and prevalence of non H. pylori gastric ulcers is increasing. The following study was conducted to assess the prevalence of H. pylori in benign gastric ulcers in a sample of Sri Lankan patients. This was a cross-sectional study of 59 dyspeptic patients with benign gastric ulcers. Multiple endoscopic gastric biopsies were obtained and histology, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction were performed for H. pylori detection. An immunochromatography assay was performed to detect blood anti H. pylori antibodies. Four (6.8%) were positive for H. pylori. Therefore, it is likely that most benign gastric ulcers are of non-H. pylori aetiology.

  4. Helicobacter pylori and Egyptian infantile colic.

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel S A; Borei, Maher B M

    2013-08-01

    Excessive infant crying is a common and often stress-inducing condition for parents that can ultimately result in infant abuse. Although the infantile colic is reported commonly and causes appreciable distress for both parents and pediatricians, its pathogenesis remains unclear, despite 40 years of research. This work studied the role of H. pylori in infantile colic. This study was conducted in a primary health care office in Sharkia Governorate. The study included 50 infants with infantile colic according to Wessel's criteria, along with age and sex matched 50 healthy controls. All-infants without apparent cause for their colic underwent full history taking, clinical examination and H. pylori antigen in their stools. This study supports the new evidence for the role of H. pylori in the pathogenesis of infantile colic. H. pylori stool antigen was present in 31 (62%) of cases in contrast to 10 (20%) of controls (P<0.0001). Normal vaginal delivery, male, vomiting and breast feeding may be risk factors for H. pylori infection in this age period.

  5. Mucoadhesive Microspheres Containing Amoxicillin for Clearance of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Nagahara, Naoki; Akiyama, Yohko; Nakao, Masafumi; Tada, Mayumi; Kitano, Megumi; Ogawa, Yasuyuki

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to augment the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of amoxicillin, mucoadhesive microspheres, which have the ability to reside in the gastrointestinal tract for an extended period, were prepared. The microspheres contained the antimicrobial agent and an adhesive polymer (carboxyvinyl polymer) powder dispersed in waxy hydrogenated castor oil. The percentage of amoxicillin remaining in the stomach both 2 and 4 h after oral administration of the mucoadhesive microspheres to Mongolian gerbils under fed conditions was about three times higher than that after administration in the form of a 0.5% methylcellulose suspension. The in vivo clearance of H. pylori following oral administration of the mucoadhesive microspheres and the 0.5% methylcellulose suspension to infected Mongolian gerbils was examined under fed conditions. The mucoadhesive microspheres and the 0.5% methylcellulose suspension both showed anti-H. pylori effects in this experimental model of infection, but the required dose of amoxicillin was effectively reduced by a factor of 10 when the mucoadhesive microspheres were used. In conclusion, the mucoadhesive microspheres more effectively cleared H. pylori from the gastrointestinal tract than the 0.5% methylcellulose suspension due to the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time resulting from mucoadhesion. A dosage form consisting of mucoadhesive microspheres containing an appropriate antimicrobial agent should be useful for the eradication of H. pylori. PMID:9756746

  6. Contemporary Diagnostic Strategies for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Elfant, Adam B.; Howden, Colin W.; Stollman, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent, affecting approximately half of the world’s population. While the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, H. pylori infection is associated with certain diseases, including peptic ulcers (either duodenal or gastric), gastritis, and 2 malignancies—gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Many of the epidemiologic associations between these diseases and H. pylori infection have been further validated by treatment studies, which show that effective eradication therapy correlates with a decreased risk of disease. A variety of testing strategies are used to detect H. pylori infection. Serologic techniques are widely available and inexpensive, but they are no longer preferred as they have low sensitivities and specificities, and they may show a positive result for a long period following effective therapy. The remaining testing methods are divided into 2 categories: invasive tests (which require endoscopy) and noninvasive tests. Noninvasive test methods such as the urea breath test and stool antigen test have gained popularity due to their high sensitivities and specificities. Further, both of these methods may be used to confirm the absence of infection following eradication therapy. Due to the increasing incidence of treatment failure (caused in part by antibiotic resistance), post-treatment testing is recommended to confirm H. pylori eradication. PMID:24847180

  7. Detection of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori cell surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Guruge, J L; Schalén, C; Nilsson, I; Ljungh, A; Tyszkiewicz, T; Wikander, M; Wadström, T

    1990-01-01

    Serum IgG antibodies of Helicobacter pylori were detected in single-dilution ELISA using glycine extracted material. Among 148 endoscopy patients 59% displayed antibodies; as expected, a higher occurrence (90%) was found in patients with positive gastric culture for H. pylori than in culture negative patients (37%). Among 68 blood donors the frequency of H. pylori antibodies was 28%. In 73 children less than 15 years of age examined for unrelated disorders the occurrence was 4%. By immunoblotting using the same extract, 3 prominent bands, 29K, 54K and 60K and several weak bands were identified. These were formed by 57%, 92%, and 65%, respectively, of the ELISA positive patient sera. Comparing culture positive and negative patients, the 3 bands occurred more often among the culture positive subjects though between 18 and 61% of the sera from culture negative patients gave either of the bands. When comparing the glycine extracts of 4 different H. pylori strains with separate haemagglutinating patterns no differences in the position of the major bands emerged. By absorption experiments no immunological cross-reactivity with components of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni or C. fetus was found. Thus, the glycine extract seemed specific for the detection of antibodies to H. pylori.

  8. Chinese Helicobacter pylori vaccine: Solution for an old challenge?

    PubMed Central

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause for gastric cancer in high risk individuals. H. pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world’s population and associated peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy have important public health implications. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen in 1994 by the World Health Organization. Clinicians are often prompted to eliminate the infection the moment it is detected. This also, unfortunately, led to reckless use of antibiotics and reports of increasing resistance are now worldwide. Each year, many of people die from gastric cancer; thus application of effective vaccine can reduce this relatively high mortality worldwide. H. pylori can be eliminated by antibiotics but efficacy is sharply decreasing. Moreover, current therapy is also expensive and with side effects. Vaccine may be the best solution to the above problem but there are many challenges in producing such an effective therapeutic vaccine. Recently, the Chinese group published in Lancet, a single-center, randomized, phase III study of an oral recombinant vaccine (Urease B subunit fused with heat-labile enterotoxin B derived from Escherichia coli) prescribed in the Chinese children (6-15 years) without a history of H. pylori infection. This review provides an insight into this new solution for an old challenge. PMID:27602242

  9. Endoscopic gastritis, serum pepsinogen assay, and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27604795

  10. Endoscopic gastritis, serum pepsinogen assay, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27604795

  11. Chinese Helicobacter pylori vaccine: Solution for an old challenge?

    PubMed

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause for gastric cancer in high risk individuals. H. pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world's population and associated peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy have important public health implications. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen in 1994 by the World Health Organization. Clinicians are often prompted to eliminate the infection the moment it is detected. This also, unfortunately, led to reckless use of antibiotics and reports of increasing resistance are now worldwide. Each year, many of people die from gastric cancer; thus application of effective vaccine can reduce this relatively high mortality worldwide. H. pylori can be eliminated by antibiotics but efficacy is sharply decreasing. Moreover, current therapy is also expensive and with side effects. Vaccine may be the best solution to the above problem but there are many challenges in producing such an effective therapeutic vaccine. Recently, the Chinese group published in Lancet, a single-center, randomized, phase III study of an oral recombinant vaccine (Urease B subunit fused with heat-labile enterotoxin B derived from Escherichia coli) prescribed in the Chinese children (6-15 years) without a history of H. pylori infection. This review provides an insight into this new solution for an old challenge. PMID:27602242

  12. Cure of duodenal ulcer after eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    George, L L; Borody, T J; Andrews, P; Devine, M; Moore-Jones, D; Walton, M; Brandl, S

    1990-08-01

    Eighty-two patients, whose duodenal ulcers were recurrent or resistant to H2-receptor antagonist therapy, were entered in a treatment protocol of ranitidine followed by a four-week "triple therapy" course to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. The triple therapy consisted of colloidal bismuth subcitrate, tetracycline and metronidazole. Duodenal ulcer healed in all 78 patients available for endoscopy and H. pylori infection was shown to be eliminated in 75 patients (96%) at rebiopsy four weeks after cessation of therapy. In these 75 remaining patients the relapse rates for H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer were studied endoscopically, yearly and at any recurrence of symptoms. At Year 1, 71 of 73 patients remained free of H. pylori infection (HP-negative) and duodenal ulcer. The corresponding figures subsequently were: Year 2, 57/57; Year 3, 34/34; Year 4, 15/15. No duodenal ulcers recurred in HP-negative patients who were followed for up to four years. Two patients of the original cohort of 75 HP-negative patients were HP-positive with endoscopic duodenitis at 12 months, and one at 36 months, but all were without reulceration. Distorted duodenal caps gradually returned to near-normal appearance in 80% of patients by two years. From this four-year follow-up study we conclude that duodenal ulcer disease will not recur provided the patient remains free of H. pylori.

  13. Cure of Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcer disease through eradication.

    PubMed

    Malfertheiner, P; Leodolter, A; Peitz, U

    2000-02-01

    The eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has led to a dramatic benefit for patients with gastroduodenal ulcer disease, as the majority of these patients receive a lifelong cure. Relapses after successful H. pylori cure may be caused by either recrudescence or reinfection, both rare events nowadays, or be attributed to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin intake. In certain geographical areas, H. pylori-negative relapses are proposed as a new, pathophysiological and not yet elucidated entity. The cure of H. pylori infection in uncomplicated duodenal ulcer diseases consists of 7 days of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) based triple therapy, containing two antibiotics from clarithromycin, amoxicillin and metronidazole. In gastric ulcer, it is recommended that the PPI is continued for a further 3 weeks as these ulcers have a prolonged healing time. Rescue therapies after failure need to take into consideration the resistance pattern of the micro-organism and are offered in the form of quadruple therapy or a high-dose PPI with amoxicillin.

  14. Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase: a candidate Helicobacter pylori vaccine.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, Avril A; Morales, Veronica Athie; Mulligan, Linda; Faheem, Nazia; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot P

    2012-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important etiological agent of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) and mannosylated AhpC (mAhpC) as candidate vaccines in the C57BL/6J mouse model of H. pylori infection. Recombinant AhpC was cloned, over-expressed and purified in an unmodified form and was also engineered to incorporate N and C-terminal mannose residues when expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Mice were immunized systemically and mucosally with AhpC and systemically with mAhpC prior to challenge with H. pylori. Serum IgG responses to AhpC were determined and quantitative culture was used to determine the efficacy of vaccination strategies. Systemic prophylactic immunization with AhpC/alum and mAhpC/alum conferred protection against infection in 55% and 77.3% of mice, respectively. Mucosal immunization with AhpC/cholera toxin did not protect against infection and elicited low levels of serum IgG in comparison with systemic immunization. These data support the use of AhpC as a potential vaccine candidate against H. pylori infection. PMID:22512976

  15. Hepatic encephalopathy and Helicobacter pylori: a critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Morini, Sergio

    2003-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis, and plasma ammonia plays a pivotal role in its pathogenesis. Ammonia disposal in cirrhotics depend on intricately balanced enzyme and transport systems, involving liver, large and small bowel, muscle, and kidney. Recently, it has been suggested that Helicobacter pylori could contribute to hyperammonemia in cirrhotics, but conflicting data are available in the literature. This is a systematic review of experimental (animals and humans), epidemiological, case-control, and prospective studies, to evaluate the arguments in favor and against the role of H. pylori in HE pathogenesis. Although H. pylori produces ammonia in the stomach, several studies have shown that both basal ammonia levels and HE prevalence did not significantly differ between cirrhotics with and without infection. Moreover, some prospective studies have documented that both blood ammonia levels and mental status in HE cirrhotics are not significantly affected by H. pylori eradication. Even if a small sub-group of cirrhotics with both a high bacterial density and more severe hepatic impairment seems to benefit by bacterial eradication, data indicate that ammonia production in the stomach by H. pylori urease appears to be inadequate to clinically affect ammonia disposal in the majority of cirrhotic patients. Further studies are warranted in this field.

  16. Endoscopic surveillance of gastric cancers after Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer remains high in East Asian countries. Current data suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication might be more effective for preventing gastric cancer in young people before they develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. However, the long-term effect of H. pylori eradication on metachronous cancer prevention after endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer remains controversial, with some discordance between results published for Japanese and Korean studies. The detection ability of synchronous lesions before ER and eradication of H. pylori directly influences these results. After eradication, some gastric cancers are more difficult to diagnose by endoscopy because of morphologic changes that lead to a flat or depressed appearance. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) is expected to be useful for identifying metachronous cancers. However, some gastric cancers after eradication show a "gastritis-like" appearance under NBI-ME. The gastritis-like appearance correlates with the histological surface differentiation of the cancer tubules and superficial non-neoplastic epithelium atop or interspersed with the cancer. Till date, it remains unclear whether H. pylori eradication could prevent progression of gastric cancer. Until we can establish more useful endoscopic examination methodologies, regular endoscopic surveillance of high-risk groups is expected to be the most beneficial approach for detection.

  17. [Animal models for the study of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Miszczyk, Eliza; Walencka, Maria; Mikołajczyk-Chmiela, Magdalena

    2014-05-15

    The Gram-negative bacillus Helicobacter pylori is widely recognized as a major etiologic agent responsible for chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, the development of gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Still, little is known about the natural history of H. pylori infection, since patients usually after many years of not suffering from symptoms of the infection are simply asymptomatic. Since the research investigators carried out on human models has many limitations, there is an urgent need for the development of an animal model optimal and suitable for the monitoring of H. pylori infections. This review summarizes the recent findings on the suitability of animal models used in H. pylori research. Several animal models are useful for the assessment of pathological, microbiological and immunological consequences of infection, which makes it possible to monitor the natural history of H. pylori infection. Preclinical investigations on animal models are an essential stage of research which enrich the knowledge on treatment and prevention strategies.

  18. Should quinolones come first in Helicobacter pylori therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Berning, Marco; Krasz, Susanne; Miehlke, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    New generations of fluoroquinolones, like levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, exhibit a broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and have been successfully introduced into the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Based on a large body of evidence, current guidelines recommend the use of levofloxacin- or moxifloxacin-containing proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) triple therapies in second-line or rescue treatment of H. pylori infection. The efficacy of standard PPI triple therapies has substantially declined during the last decade, mainly due to increasing resistance against the key antibiotics clarithromycin and metronidazole. Therefore, alternative strategies for first-line therapy of H. pylori infection have been evaluated in a considerable number of clinical trials including sequential regimens, nonbismuth quadruple regimens, and quinolone-containing PPI triple therapy regimens. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current body of evidence of levofloxacin- and moxifloxacin-containing regimens in first-line treatment of H. pylori infection, and to discuss the risks and benefits of these strategies in the light of increasing resistance of H. pylori to quinolones. PMID:21694812

  19. Does Helicobacter pylori exhibit corkscrew motion while swimming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantino, Maira; Hardcastle, Joseph; Bansil, Rama

    2015-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a spiral shaped bacterium associated with ulcers, gastric cancer, gastritis among other diseases. In order to colonize the harsh acidic environment of the stomach H. pylori has to go across the viscoelastic mucus layer of the stomach. Many studies have been conducted on the swimming of H. pylori in viscous media however none have taken into account the influence of cell-body shape on the trajectory. We present an experimental study of the effects of body shape in the swimming trajectory of H. pylori in viscous media by a quantitative analysis of the bacterium rotation and translation in gels using phase contrast microscopy and particle tracking techniques. Preliminary microscopic tracking measurements show very well defined helical trajectories in the spiral-shaped wild type H. pylori. These helical trajectories are not seen in rod-shaped mutants which sometimes display whirling motion about one end acting as a hinge. We will present an analysis of the different trajectories for bacteria swimming in media with different viscoelastic parameters. Supported by the National Science Foundation PHY PoLS.

  20. PCR detection of Helicobacter pylori in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Rimbara, Emiko; Sasatsu, Masanori; Graham, David Y

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen whose primary niche is the human stomach. H. pylori is etiologically associated with gastric inflammation (gastritis), peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Both noninvasive (e.g., urea breath and stool antigen tests) and invasive (gastric biopsy for histology, culture, or PCR) tests are used for diagnosis. PCR detection of H. pylori has been reported using a variety of clinical samples including gastric biopsy, gastric juice, saliva, dental plaque, and stools as well as environmental samples. Whenever possibly, noninvasive tests are preferred over invasive tests. H. pylori are excreted in the stool. Culture from stool is variable whereas stool antigen testing is widely used. Stool consists of a complicated mixture of commensal bacteria and chemicals and often includes inhibitors of PCR. Nevertheless, simple extraction methods are available to efficiently extract DNA from human stools and nested-PCR targeting the 23S rRNA gene have proven to be highly sensitive for the detection of H. pylori. Detection of clarithromycin susceptibility/resistance is important clinically and the mutation of the 23S rRNA gene responsible for resistance can also be detected using stool. This described method can be modified for other clinical samples such as gastric juice or biopsy material.

  1. Endoscopic surveillance of gastric cancers after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer remains high in East Asian countries. Current data suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication might be more effective for preventing gastric cancer in young people before they develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. However, the long-term effect of H. pylori eradication on metachronous cancer prevention after endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer remains controversial, with some discordance between results published for Japanese and Korean studies. The detection ability of synchronous lesions before ER and eradication of H. pylori directly influences these results. After eradication, some gastric cancers are more difficult to diagnose by endoscopy because of morphologic changes that lead to a flat or depressed appearance. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) is expected to be useful for identifying metachronous cancers. However, some gastric cancers after eradication show a “gastritis-like” appearance under NBI-ME. The gastritis-like appearance correlates with the histological surface differentiation of the cancer tubules and superficial non-neoplastic epithelium atop or interspersed with the cancer. Till date, it remains unclear whether H. pylori eradication could prevent progression of gastric cancer. Until we can establish more useful endoscopic examination methodologies, regular endoscopic surveillance of high-risk groups is expected to be the most beneficial approach for detection. PMID:26457015

  2. Recent Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori by Baka Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Montano, Valeria; Maady, Ayas; Nkwescheu, Armand; Siri, Jose; Elamin, Wael F.; Falush, Daniel; Linz, Bodo; Achtman, Mark; Moodley, Yoshan; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Both anatomically modern humans and the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori originated in Africa, and both species have been associated for at least 100,000 years. Seven geographically distinct H. pylori populations exist, three of which are indigenous to Africa: hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, and hpNEAfrica. The oldest and most divergent population, hpAfrica2, evolved within San hunter-gatherers, who represent one of the deepest branches of the human population tree. Anticipating the presence of ancient H. pylori lineages within all hunter-gatherer populations, we investigated the prevalence and population structure of H. pylori within Baka Pygmies in Cameroon. Gastric biopsies were obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy from 77 Baka from two geographically separated populations, and from 101 non-Baka individuals from neighboring agriculturalist populations, and subsequently cultured for H. pylori. Unexpectedly, Baka Pygmies showed a significantly lower H. pylori infection rate (20.8%) than non-Baka (80.2%). We generated multilocus haplotypes for each H. pylori isolate by DNA sequencing, but were not able to identify Baka-specific lineages, and most isolates in our sample were assigned to hpNEAfrica or hpAfrica1. The population hpNEAfrica, a marker for the expansion of the Nilo-Saharan language family, was divided into East African and Central West African subpopulations. Similarly, a new hpAfrica1 subpopulation, identified mainly among Cameroonians, supports eastern and western expansions of Bantu languages. An age-structured transmission model shows that the low H. pylori prevalence among Baka Pygmies is achievable within the timeframe of a few hundred years and suggests that demographic factors such as small population size and unusually low life expectancy can lead to the eradication of H. pylori from individual human populations. The Baka were thus either H. pylori-free or lost their ancient lineages during past demographic fluctuations. Using coalescent simulations

  3. Histological identification of Helicobacter pylori: comparison of staining methods

    PubMed Central

    Rotimi, O; Cairns, A; Gray, S; Moayyedi, P; Dixon, M

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To determine whether two recently described staining methods (the modified McMullen's and the Helicobacter pylori silver stain HpSS methods) used for the histological identification of H pylori organisms are superior to two established techniques (the modified Giemsa and anti-H pylori antibody immunostain) in terms of availability, reproducibility, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost. Methods—Histological sections from 63 paired gastric biopsies from adult patients previously investigated for dyspepsia were stained with the four methods and these were assessed blindly and independently by two observers. Of the 63 patients, 30 were originally negative in all tests for H pylori infection, 30 were positive, and the remaining three cases had discordant results using a combination of five tests (rapid biopsy urease test, urea breath test, culture, serology, and histology). Results—Interobserver agreement was best with the antibody method (98%), followed by the McMullen's (90%), Giemsa (87%), and HpSS (85%). Of the 60 "gold standard" positive and negative cases, 30 were positive by the modified Giemsa stain, 29 by the McMullen's method, 29 by HpSS, and 30 by the antibody stain. However, there were two false positives with the HpSS method. The modified Giemsa is the cheapest and easiest to perform technically. Conclusions—When H pylori are present, careful examination will almost always reveal them, whichever of these stains is used. However, the modified Giemsa stain is the method of choice because it is sensitive, cheap, easy to perform, and reproducible. Key Words: Helicobacter organisms • histological identification • staining methods PMID:11064668

  4. Overview of the phytomedicine approaches against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) successfully colonizes the human stomach of the majority of the human population. This infection always causes chronic gastritis, but may evolve to serious outcomes, such as peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori first line therapy recommended by the Maastricht-4 Consensus Report comprises the use of two antibiotics and a proton-pomp inhibitor, but in some regions failure associated with this treatment is already undesirable high. Indeed, treatment failure is one of the major problems associated with H. pylori infection and is mainly associated with bacterial antibiotic resistance. In order to counteract this situation, some effort has been allocated during the last years in the investigation of therapeutic alternatives beyond antibiotics. These include vaccines, probiotics, photodynamic inactivation and phage therapy, which are briefly revisited in this review. A particular focus on phytomedicine, also described as herbal therapy and botanical therapy, which consists in the use of plant extracts for medicinal purposes, is specifically addressed, namely considering its history, category of performed studies, tested compounds, active principle and mode of action. The herbs already experienced are highly diverse and usually selected from products with a long history of employment against diseases associated with H. pylori infection from each country own folk medicine. The studies demonstrated that many phytomedicine products have an anti-H. pylori activity and gastroprotective action. Although the mechanism of action is far from being completely understood, current knowledge correlates the beneficial action of herbs with inhibition of essential H. pylori enzymes, modulation of the host immune system and with attenuation of inflammation. PMID:24914319

  5. Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Boltin, Doron

    2016-02-01

    The ideal treatment regimen for the eradication Helicobacter pylori infection has yet to be identified. Probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces, have been suggested as adjuncts to antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori. There is in vitro evidence that probiotics dampen the Th1 response triggered by H. pylori, attenuate H. pylori associated hypochlorhydria and secrete bacteriocidal metabolites. Probiotics interact with the innate host immune system through adherence to the gastric epithelium and secretion of bacterial adhesins. In prospective human studies, probiotic monotherapy effectively decrease H. pylori density (expired (13)CO2) by 2.0%-64.0%. Probiotic monotherapy has also been shown to eradicate H. pylori in up to 32.5%, although subsequent recrudescence is likely. Eleven meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics as adjuvants to antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. The addition of a probiotic increased treatment efficacy, OR 1.12-2.07. This benefit is probably strain-specific and may only be significant with relatively ineffective antibiotic regimens. The pooled prevalence of adverse effects was 12.9%-31.5% among subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with 24.3%-45.9% among controls. Diarrhea in particular was significantly reduced in subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with controls (OR 0.16-0.47). A reduction in adverse events other than diarrhea is variable. Despite the apparent benefit on efficacy and side effects conferred by probiotics, the optimal probiotic species, dose and treatment duration has yet to be determined. Further studies are needed to identify the probiotic, antibiotic and patient factors which might predict benefit from probiotic supplementation.

  6. Identification of the Helicobacter pylori anti-sigma28 factor.

    PubMed

    Colland, F; Rain, J C; Gounon, P; Labigne, A; Legrain, P; De Reuse, H

    2001-07-01

    Flagellar motility is essential for colonization of the human gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori. The flagellar filament is composed of two subunits, FlaA and FlaB. Transcription of the genes encoding these proteins is controlled by the sigma28 and sigma54 factors of RNA polymerase respectively. The expression of flagellar genes is regulated, but no sigma28-specific effector was identified. It was also unclear whether H. pylori possessed a checkpoint for flagellar synthesis, and no gene encoding an anti-sigma28 factor, FlgM, could be identified by sequence similarity searches. To investigate the sigma28-dependent regulation, a new approach based on genomic data was used. Two-hybrid screening with the H. pylori proteins identified a protein of unknown function (HP1122) interacting with the sigma28 factor and defined the C-terminal part of HP1122 (residues 48-76) as the interaction domain. HP1122 interacts with region 4 of sigma28 and prevents its association with the beta-region of H. pylori RNA polymerase. Thus, HP1122 presented the characteristics of an anti-sigma28 factor. This was confirmed in H. pylori by RNA dot-blot hybridization and electron microscopy. The level of sigma28-dependent flaA transcription was higher in a HP1122-deficient strain and was decreased by the overproduction of HP1122. The overproduction of HP1122 also resulted in H. pylori cells with highly truncated flagella. These results demonstrate that HP1122 is the H. pylori anti-sigma28 factor, FlgM, a major regulator of flagellum assembly. Potential anti-sigma28 factors were identified in Campylobacter jejuni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Thermotoga maritima by sequence homology with the C-terminal region of HP1122.

  7. Experimental Helicobacter pylori gastric infection in miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Sato, K; Takahashi, K; Kikuchi; Miura, T; Takenouchi, T; Narita, T; Iwata, M

    2002-03-01

    An experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in miniature pigs was developed and investigated. Eighteen miniature pigs were inoculated with an H. pylori strain that has high virulence in mice at c. 5 x 10(10) cfu. H. pylori infection in miniature pigs was achieved by the administration of agar 1% in brucella broth with fetal bovine serum 10% just before inoculation. The bacterial colonisation and distribution were analysed by mapping of viable cell counts in the stomach in pigs of three different ages. The mapping assay was achieved on post-infection day 3 for the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, and between days 41 and 43 for 3-month-old pigs. The highest cell counts were observed in 5-day-old pigs, which averaged 4.9 x 10(6) cfu/g of mucosa (n = 4). The bacteria were colonised mainly in the cardiac and fundus gland region in the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, whereas the colonisation sites did not depend on the region in the 3-month-old pigs. Biopsy assay of the antral mucosa of a 3-month-old pig after H. pylori infection showed that this infection persisted for >22 months. Serum antibody against H. pylori was detected in the infected pigs but not in the uninfected animal. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the epithelial surface of the infected pigs. A microscopic finding common to all the infected pigs, focal gastritis with infiltration of lymphocytes detected on the lesser curvature of the stomach, resembled the microscopic appearance in H. pylori-infected human patients. These results suggest that miniature pigs might be a suitable model for studying H. pylori infection.

  8. [Gastrointestinal giardiasis associated with Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Isaeva, G Sh; Efimova, N G

    2010-01-01

    The study involved 160 patients with chronic cholecystitis associated with chronic gastroduodenitis. Obtaining biopsy specimens of gastric mucosa and bile samples allowed to compare the microbial picture and the morphological structure of gastric mucosa in the same patient, to identify patterns of colonization of the stomach, 12 duodenal ulcer and gall bladder various microorganisms. At cytological examination was detected in the gall bladder G. lamblia in 47.5 +/- 3.95% of cases in the stomach--in 29.09 +/- 6.12% of cases. The frequency of H. pylori detection in biopsy of gastric mucosa amounted to 98.18 +/- 1.8% of cases, in 12-duodenum--93.75 +/- 1.9%, in the gall bladder--to 54.38 +/- 3.94%, in the bile duct--in 54.38 +/- 3.94%. It was found strict association between the detection of H. pylori and G. lamblia in the stomach--100% of H. pylori-infection combined with giardiasis. Morphological changes of gastric mucosa in the form of lymphoid infiltration detected mainly in the mixed-infection H. pylori and G. lamblia. PMID:20731162

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, G N; Noach, L A; Rauws, E A

    1993-03-01

    H. pylori is undoubtedly the dominant factor in the multifactorial peptic ulcer diathesis. We should not ignore the other contributing factors but rather try to identify how they interact with the organism and initiate the ulcerative process. The interplay of acid attack and mucosal defence is modulated by genetics, gender, blood group, smoking, age, and various physiologic considerations, which include acid output. These and other considerations probably explain the discrepancy between the high frequency of H. pylori infection in the population and the comparatively small proportion of individuals who develop a DU. Most agents used in DU are aimed at reducing acid secretion and achieve healing by minimizing acid attack. Such treatments, however, have no effect on H. pylori status and do not remedy the underlying gastroduodenitis. The mucosa therefore remains ill and vulnerable. After cessation of acid suppressive therapy, ulcer relapse is likely. Goodwin has likened the inflamed mucosa to a leaking roof, in which temporary dryness (healing) is assured if the rain (acid) is removed but permanent protection can be achieved only by mending the roof through healing of the mucosa. Therefore, therapy that fails to address the role of H. pylori in the causation of the mucosal inflammation, which predisposes to ulceration, is likely to confer only short-term benefit. Eradication of the infection has been shown beyond doubt to markedly alter the natural history of the disease, a number of series showing no recurrence at the end of 1 year, compared with a natural recurrence of > 70%. The economic savings after not only eradication but even suppression of H. pylori in DU disease have been estimated to be enormous. Despite these striking findings indicating H. pylori inflammation as the dominant factor in the DU diathesis and the possibilities of cure after H. pylori eradication, a large proportion of the medical community is still not willing to accept the consequences

  10. Helicobacter pylori in gastroduodenal diseases: rapid identification by endoscopic brush cytology.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, F; Nicòtina, P A; Picciotto, M; Martines, F; Ferlazzo, G; d'Aquino, A

    1993-08-01

    Previous reports showed Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in type B gastritis-affected stomachs. This study was carried out to compare H. pylori staining effectiveness on biopsy to brush cytology. Tissue and brush parallel samples of gastric mucosa with abnormal or normal appearances were examined: 57.6% H. pylori-positive pieces from the antrum and 19.2% from the body were found, versus 65.3% and 25% H. pylori-positive brush smears, respectively. H. pylori resembling organisms were mainly related to chronic and acute antral inflammations and were often associated with higher amounts of round-shaped cocco-bacteria. In addition, H. pylori direct stain on brushing is proposed as the most rapid and reliable method for the routine diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection, in both ulcer or nonulcer gastritis.

  11. A virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori: role of heat shock protein in mucosal inflammation after H. pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, S; Yamaguchi, H; Osaki, T; Taguchi, H

    1998-01-01

    Among the various virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori the role of its heat shock protein 60 (HSP60, HspB) in mucosal inflammation after H. pylori infection was examined. In flow cytometric analysis, the expression of HSP60 on the cell surface was different, depending on the H. pylori strain used. The HSP60 epitope was also detected on the surface of both human gastric cancer cells (MKN45, KATOIII, and MKN28) and human gastric biopsy specimens. The intensity of the expression of HSP60 on the cell surface correlated significantly with the adhesion of H. pylori to MKN45 cells, but not with urease activity and production of vacuolating cytotoxin. A monoclonal antibody to H. pylori HSP60 inhibited the adhesion of H. pylori to MKN45 cells. These results suggest that HSP60 of H. pylori might act as an important virulence factor after H. pylori infection. PMID:9872496

  12. [ABO BLOOD GROUPS AS RISK FACTOR IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    PubMed

    Gonzáles Flores, Pedro Alejandro; Díaz Ferrer, Javier Omar; Monge Salgado, Eduardo; Watanabe Varas T, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    TITLE: ABO blood groups as risk factor in Helicobacter pylori infection.OBJECTIVE: To asses the relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. METHODS: The present is a case and control study. A study population of dyspeptic patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was selected. Four biopsies were taken from the antrum and the body of the stomach and blood group was typified. Patients with gastrectomy, gastric cancer, treated for Hp infection in the previous six months or without blood group typification were excluded. The population sample was found using EPIINFO 5.1 program. We called case to every patient with Hp (+) biopsy and control all with Hp (-) biopsy. The risk of the infection was calculated with the OR (Odds ratio) and the study sample was compared with the blood bank control group using the Chi-square test (p<0.005).RESULTS: 367 patients were included (202 female). Age average was 45,06 years. 276 (75,2%) were Hp (+). There were not statistically significant differences in the distribution of ABO blood groups between the study population and the blood bank control. When we compared the ABO blood distribution between patients Hp (+) and Hp (-) we found significant differences for blood group O (p=0.004) and blood group A (p=0.03). Statistical analysis revealed an OR=2,22 for the blood group O and OR=0,5 for the blood group A.CONCLUSIONS: 1) The ABO blood group distribution is different in patients with Hp infection compared with those without Hp infection. 2) Blood group O would be a moderate risk factor for infection by Helicobacter pylori. PMID:12140571

  13. Helicobacter pylori treatment: Still a work in progress.

    PubMed

    Senatore, Frank J; Wilmot, Jonathan; Birk, John W

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common worldwide bacterium, possessing adaptability that has created difficulty achieving eradication. While the standard treatment was thought to be triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, growing rates of treatment failure and antibiotic resistance have stimulated research into novel regimens. Quadruple therapy with bismuth has been compared for both first- and second-line treatments, but eradication still has not reached expected goals. Innovative regimens including sequential and concomitant therapy, as well as the introduction of new antibiotics into previous treatment schedules, have shown promising improvements in eradication rates. We discuss and compare these unique regimens, reviewing the current literature to deduce those which are most likely to provide the highest success in curing H. pylori infection.

  14. Supporting data for analysis of the Helicobacter pylori exoproteome.

    PubMed

    Snider, Christina A; Voss, Bradley J; McDonald, W Hayes; Cover, Timothy L

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the composition of the Helicobacter pylori exoproteome at multiple phases of bacterial growth (Snider et al., 2015) [1]. H. pylori was grown in a serum-free medium and at serial time points, aliquots were centrifuged and fractionated to yield culture supernatant, a soluble cellular fraction, and a membrane fraction. Samples were analyzed by single dimensional LC-MS/MS analyses and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Here we present data showing the numbers of assigned spectra and proportional abundance of individual proteins in each of the samples analyzed, along with a calculation of the level of enrichment of individual proteins in the supernatant compared to the soluble cellular fraction. PMID:26958609

  15. Activity of east African medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Fabry, W; Okemo, P; Ansorg, R

    1996-01-01

    The activity of extracts from the East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (leaves and stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were evaluated against 12 strains of Helicobacter pylori. The most active extracts were those derived from T. spinosa with an MIC50 of 125 micrograms/ml, an MIC90 of 250 micrograms/ml and an MIC range of 62.5-500 micrograms/ml. An MIC50 of 250 micrograms/ml and an MIC90 of > 4,000 micrograms/ml was reached by H. abyssinica with a range of 125-->4,000 micrograms/ml and by X. caffra with a range of 62.5-->4,000 micrograms/ml, respectively. It is concluded that these plants contain compounds with antimicrobial activity against H. pylori. PMID:8874968

  16. DNA damage triggers genetic exchange in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Dorer, Marion S; Fero, Jutta; Salama, Nina R

    2010-01-01

    Many organisms respond to DNA damage by inducing expression of DNA repair genes. We find that the human stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori instead induces transcription and translation of natural competence genes, thus increasing transformation frequency. Transcription of a lysozyme-like protein that promotes DNA donation from intact cells is also induced. Exogenous DNA modulates the DNA damage response, as both recA and the ability to take up DNA are required for full induction of the response. This feedback loop is active during stomach colonization, indicating a role in the pathogenesis of the bacterium. As patients can be infected with multiple genetically distinct clones of H. pylori, DNA damage induced genetic exchange may facilitate spread of antibiotic resistance and selection of fitter variants through re-assortment of preexisting alleles in this important human pathogen. PMID:20686662

  17. Metabolic consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication

    PubMed Central

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is still the most prevalent infection of the world. Colonization of the stomach by this agent will invariably induce chronic gastritis which is a low-grade inflammatory state leading to local complications (peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, lymphoma) and remote manifestations. While H. pylori does not enter circulation, these extragastric manifestations are probably mediated by the cytokines and acute phase proteins produced by the inflammed mucosa. The epidemiologic link between the H. pylori infection and metabolic changes is inconstant and controversial. Growth delay was described mainly in low-income regions with high prevalence of the infection, where probably other nutritional and social factors contribute to it. The timely eradication of the infection will lead to a more healthy development of the young population, along with preventing peptic ulcers and gastric cancer An increase of total, low density lipoprotein and high density liporotein cholesterol levels in some infected people creates an atherogenic lipid profile which could promote atherosclerosis with its complications, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Well designed and adequately powered long-term studies are required to see whether eradication of the infection will prevent these conditions. In case of glucose metabolism, the most consistent association was found between H. pylori and insulin resistance: again, proof that eradication prevents this common metabolic disturbance is expected. The results of eradication with standard regimens in diabetics are significantly worse than in non-diabetic patients, thus, more active regimens must be found to obtain better results. Successful eradication itself led to an increase of body mass index and cholesterol levels in some populations, while in others no such changes were encountered. Uncertainities of the metabolic consequences of H. pylori infection must be clarified in the future. PMID:24833852

  18. Metabolic consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication.

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is still the most prevalent infection of the world. Colonization of the stomach by this agent will invariably induce chronic gastritis which is a low-grade inflammatory state leading to local complications (peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, lymphoma) and remote manifestations. While H. pylori does not enter circulation, these extragastric manifestations are probably mediated by the cytokines and acute phase proteins produced by the inflammed mucosa. The epidemiologic link between the H. pylori infection and metabolic changes is inconstant and controversial. Growth delay was described mainly in low-income regions with high prevalence of the infection, where probably other nutritional and social factors contribute to it. The timely eradication of the infection will lead to a more healthy development of the young population, along with preventing peptic ulcers and gastric cancer An increase of total, low density lipoprotein and high density liporotein cholesterol levels in some infected people creates an atherogenic lipid profile which could promote atherosclerosis with its complications, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Well designed and adequately powered long-term studies are required to see whether eradication of the infection will prevent these conditions. In case of glucose metabolism, the most consistent association was found between H. pylori and insulin resistance: again, proof that eradication prevents this common metabolic disturbance is expected. The results of eradication with standard regimens in diabetics are significantly worse than in non-diabetic patients, thus, more active regimens must be found to obtain better results. Successful eradication itself led to an increase of body mass index and cholesterol levels in some populations, while in others no such changes were encountered. Uncertainities of the metabolic consequences of H. pylori infection must be clarified in the future.

  19. The Association of Age and Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter Pylori

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zizhong; Han, Feng; Meng, Fei; Tu, Miaoying; Yang, Ningmin; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is steadily increasing worldwide, resulting in the low efficiency of the current therapeutic approaches for eradication. In this study, we investigated the relationship between antibiotic resistances, the year of sample collection, and the ages of the infected individuals. A total of 29,034 gastric mucosa biopsy samples were randomly collected from January 1, 2009 to December 9, 2014 in Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province, China. An antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined using an agar-dilution method. The statistical significance was tested using the chi-squared (χ2) test. A total of 9687 strains were isolated. The resistance rate to clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole were 17.76%, 19.66%, and 95.5%, respectively. Resistance was rare against amoxicillin, gentamicin, and furazolidone. The metronidazole resistance rate stayed at a consistently high level. In contrast, the resistance rates of clarithromycin and levofloxacin increased rapidly from 2009 to 2011, gradually decreased from 2012 to 2013, and then increased again in 2014. Although patients ages 31 to 50 and 71 to 80 years had lower infection rates of H pylori, they also had higher resistance rates to clarithromycin and levofloxacin. The highest antibiotic resistance rate was observed in patients’ ages 71 to 80 years old. Younger patients (below 30 years old) had a lower resistance to levofloxacin. Patients’ ages 51 to 60 years old may thus represent an important category for the future study of H pylori infection. Age plays a key element in H pylori resistance to clarithromycin and levofloxacin. It is therefore necessary to consider individualized therapy for the optimized treatment of H pylori-infected patients. PMID:26937912

  20. The design of vaccines against Helicobacter pylori and their development.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, G; Covacci, A; Telford, J L; Montecucco, C; Rappuoli, R

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative, spiral, microaerophylic bacterium that infects the stomach of more than 50% of the human population worldwide. It is mostly acquired during childhood and, if not treated, persists chronically, causing chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and in some individuals, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric B cell lymphoma. The current therapy, based on the use of a proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotics, is efficacious but faces problems such as patient compliance, antibiotic resistance, and possible recurrence of infection. The development of an efficacious vaccine against H. pylori would thus offer several advantages. Various approaches have been followed in the development of vaccines against H. pylori, most of which have been based on the use of selected antigens known to be involved in the pathogenesis of the infection, such as urease, the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), the cytotoxin-associated antigen (CagA), the neutrophil-activating protein (NAP), and others, and intended to confer protection prophylactically and/or therapeutically in animal models of infection. However, very little is known of the natural history of H. pylori infection and of the kinetics of the induced immune responses. Several lines of evidence suggest that H. pylori infection is accompanied by a pronounced Th1-type CD4(+) T cell response. It appears, however, that after immunization, the antigen-specific response is predominantly polarized toward a Th2-type response, with production of cytokines that can inhibit the activation of Th1 cells and of macrophages, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The exact effector mechanisms of protection induced after immunization are still poorly understood. The next couple of years will be crucial for the development of vaccines against H. pylori. Several trials are foreseen in humans, and expectations are that most of the questions being asked now on the host-microbe interactions will be answered.

  1. [Helicobacter pylori in the development of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Moseeva, M V; Belova, E V; Vakhrushev, Ia M

    2010-01-01

    It is shown, that in patients with erosive and ulcer defects of gastroduodenal zone at settling Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in an oral cavity in 100% of cases caries develops at intensity 13.6 +/- 1.4 teeth. Produced Hp protease and ammonia cause disintegration connected to protein silica acids and reduce activity lysocim, worsening, thus, fluid and protective properties of a saliva. In the subsequent infringement of autopurification of a teeth results in accumulation of a dental strike where protease activity conditionally pathogenic microflora conducts to depolymerization and demineralization enamels of a teeth.

  2. Helicobacter pylori and gastric acid: an intimate and reciprocal relationship

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L.; Kleveland, Per M.; Sørdal, Øystein F.

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. There are still unanswered questions related to the interaction between Hp and man, like what determines the susceptibility for the initial infection and the mechanisms for the carcinogenic effect. The initial infection seems to require a temporal gastric hypoacidity. For Hp to survive in the gastric mucous layer, some acidity is necessary. Hp itself is probably not directly carcinogenic. Only when inducing oxyntic mucosal inflammation and atrophy with hypoacidity, Hp predisposes for gastric cancer. Gastrin most likely plays a central role in the Hp pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. PMID:27803738

  3. Structural Insights into Polymorphic ABO Glycan Binding by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Gideonsson, Pär; Subedi, Suresh; Bugaytsova, Jeanna; Romaõ, Ema; Mendez, Melissa; Nordén, Jenny; Fallah, Mahsa; Rakhimova, Lena; Shevtsova, Anna; Lahmann, Martina; Castaldo, Gaetano; Brännström, Kristoffer; Coppens, Fanny; Lo, Alvin W; Ny, Tor; Solnick, Jay V; Vandenbussche, Guy; Oscarson, Stefan; Hammarström, Lennart; Arnqvist, Anna; Berg, Douglas E; Muyldermans, Serge; Borén, Thomas; Remaut, Han

    2016-01-13

    The Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA binds mucosal ABO/Le(b) blood group (bg) carbohydrates. BabA facilitates bacterial attachment to gastric surfaces, increasing strain virulence and forming a recognized risk factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. High sequence variation causes BabA functional diversity, but the underlying structural-molecular determinants are unknown. We generated X-ray structures of representative BabA isoforms that reveal a polymorphic, three-pronged Le(b) binding site. Two diversity loops, DL1 and DL2, provide adaptive control to binding affinity, notably ABO versus O bg preference. H. pylori strains can switch bg preference with single DL1 amino acid substitutions, and can coexpress functionally divergent BabA isoforms. The anchor point for receptor binding is the embrace of an ABO fucose residue by a disulfide-clasped loop, which is inactivated by reduction. Treatment with the redox-active pharmaceutic N-acetylcysteine lowers gastric mucosal neutrophil infiltration in H. pylori-infected Le(b)-expressing mice, providing perspectives on possible H. pylori eradication therapies.

  4. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shan; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Bing; Lv, Guo-Jun; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogenic bacterial infections and is found in the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. It is the primary known cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, combined drug therapy as the general treatment in the clinic, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, adverse reactions and poor patient compliance are major obstacles to the eradication of H. pylori. Oral site-specific drug delivery systems that could increase the longevity of the treatment agent at the target site might improve the therapeutic effect and avoid side effects. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems potentially prolong the gastric retention time and controlled/sustained release of a drug, thereby increasing the concentration of the drug at the application site, potentially improving its bioavailability and reducing the necessary dosage. Recommended gastroretentive drug delivery systems for enhancing local drug delivery include floating systems, bioadhesive systems and expandable systems. In this review, we summarize the important physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract that affect the gastric residence time. We then focus on various aspects useful in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems, including current trends and the progress of novel forms, especially with respect to their application for the treatment of H. pylori infections. PMID:25071326

  5. Helicobacter pylori associated gastric intestinal metaplasia: Treatment and surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kevin Sze-Hang; Wong, Irene Oi-Ling; Leung, Wai K

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in the world, particularly in East Asia. According to the Correa’s cancer cascade, non-cardia GC is usually developed through a series of mucosal changes from non-atrophic gastritis to atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Atrophic gastritis and IM are therefore generally considered to be pre-neoplastic gastric lesions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important initiating and promoting step of this gastric carcinogenesis cascade. Emerging long-term data showed that eradication of H. pylori reduced the risk of subsequent cancer development. It however remains confusing whether eradication of the bacterium in individuals with pre-neoplastic gastric lesions could regress these changes as well as in preventing cancer. Whilst H. pylori eradication could likely regress AG, the presence of IM may be a point of no return in this cascade. Hence, surveillance by endoscopy may be indicated in those with extensive IM or those with incomplete IM, particularly in populations with high GC risk. The optimal interval and the best tool of surveillance endoscopy remains to be determined in future studies. PMID:26811668

  6. Helicobacter pylori Physiology Predicted from Genomic Comparison of Two Strains

    PubMed Central

    Doig, Peter; de Jonge, Boudewijn L.; Alm, Richard A.; Brown, Eric D.; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Noonan, Brian; Mills, Scott D.; Tummino, Peter; Carmel, Gilles; Guild, Braydon C.; Moir, Donald T.; Vovis, Gerald F.; Trust, Trevor J.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacteria which colonizes the gastric mucosa of humans and is implicated in a wide range of gastroduodenal diseases. This paper reviews the physiology of this bacterium as predicted from the sequenced genomes of two unrelated strains and reconciles these predictions with the literature. In general, the predicted capabilities are in good agreement with reported experimental observations. H. pylori is limited in carbohydrate utilization and will use amino acids, for which it has transporter systems, as sources of carbon. Energy can be generated by fermentation, and the bacterium possesses components necessary for both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Sulfur metabolism is limited, whereas nitrogen metabolism is extensive. There is active uptake of DNA via transformation and ample restriction-modification activities. The cell contains numerous outer membrane proteins, some of which are porins or involved in iron uptake. Some of these outer membrane proteins and the lipopolysaccharide may be regulated by a slipped-strand repair mechanism which probably results in phase variation and plays a role in colonization. In contrast to a commonly held belief that H. pylori is a very diverse species, few differences were predicted in the physiology of these two unrelated strains, indicating that host and environmental factors probably play a significant role in the outocme of H. pylori-related disease. PMID:10477312

  7. Inflammation, Immunity, and Vaccines for Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Walduck, Anna; Andersen, Leif P; Raghavan, Sukanya

    2015-09-01

    During the last year, a variety of studies have been published that increases our understanding of the basic mechanisms of immunity and inflammation in Helicobacter pylori infection and progression to gastric cancer. Innate immune regulation and epithelial cell response were covered by several studies that contribute with new insights in the host response to H. pylori infection. Also, the adaptive immune response to H. pylori and particularly the role of IL-22 have been addressed in some studies. These advances may improve vaccine development where new strategies have been published. Two major studies analyzed H. pylori genomes of 39 worldwide strains and looked at the protein profiles. In addition, multi-epitope vaccines for therapeutic use have been investigated. Studies on different adjuvants and delivery systems have also given us new insights. This review presents articles from the last year that reveal detailed insight into immunity and regulation of inflammation, the contribution of immune cells to the development of gastric cancer, and understanding mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection.

  8. Differences in Genotypes of Helicobacter pylori from Different Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Velapatiño, Billie; Su, WanWen; Pan, ZhiJun; Garcia, Claudia; Hernandez, Virginia; Valdez, Yanet; Mistry, Rajesh S.; Gilman, Robert H.; Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Hua; Alarcón, Teresa; López-Brea, Manuel; Balakrish Nair, G.; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Datta, Simanti; Shirai, Mutsunori; Nakazawa, Teruko; Ally, Reidwaan; Segal, Isidore; Wong, Benjamin C. Y.; Lam, S. K.; Olfat, Farzad O.; Borén, Thomas; Engstrand, Lars; Torres, Olga; Schneider, Roberto; Thomas, Julian E.; Czinn, Steven; Berg, Douglas E.

    2000-01-01

    DNA motifs at several informative loci in more than 500 strains of Helicobacter pylori from five continents were studied by PCR and sequencing to gain insights into the evolution of this gastric pathogen. Five types of deletion, insertion, and substitution motifs were found at the right end of the H. pylori cag pathogenicity island. Of the three most common motifs, type I predominated in Spaniards, native Peruvians, and Guatemalan Ladinos (mixed Amerindian-European ancestry) and also in native Africans and U.S. residents; type II predominated among Japanese and Chinese; and type III predominated in Indians from Calcutta. Sequences in the cagA gene and in vacAm1 type alleles of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) of strains from native Peruvians were also more like those from Spaniards than those from Asians. These indications of relatedness of Latin American and Spanish strains, despite the closer genetic relatedness of Amerindian and Asian people themselves, lead us to suggest that H. pylori may have been brought to the New World by European conquerors and colonists about 500 years ago. This thinking, in turn, suggests that H. pylori infection might have become widespread in people quite recently in human evolution. PMID:10809702

  9. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends

    PubMed Central

    Olokoba, A. B.; Obateru, O. A.; Bojuwoye, M. O.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line “rescue,” and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy. PMID:23661891

  10. Cell-Cycle Inhibition by Helicobacter pylori L-Asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, Claudia; Sommi, Patrizia; Pasquetto, Maria Valentina; Cappelletti, Donata; Stivala, Simona; Mignosi, Paola; Savio, Monica; Chiarelli, Laurent Roberto; Valentini, Giovanna; Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M.; Merrell, Douglas Scott; Franchini, Silvia; Verona, Maria Luisa; Bolis, Cristina; Solcia, Enrico; Manca, Rachele; Franciotta, Diego; Casasco, Andrea; Filipazzi, Paola; Zardini, Elisabetta; Vannini, Vanio

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major human pathogen causing chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. One of the mechanisms whereby it induces damage depends on its interference with proliferation of host tissues. We here describe the discovery of a novel bacterial factor able to inhibit the cell-cycle of exposed cells, both of gastric and non-gastric origin. An integrated approach was adopted to isolate and characterise the molecule from the bacterial culture filtrate produced in a protein-free medium: size-exclusion chromatography, non-reducing gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, mutant analysis, recombinant protein expression and enzymatic assays. L-asparaginase was identified as the factor responsible for cell-cycle inhibition of fibroblasts and gastric cell lines. Its effect on cell-cycle was confirmed by inhibitors, a knockout strain and the action of recombinant L-asparaginase on cell lines. Interference with cell-cycle in vitro depended on cell genotype and was related to the expression levels of the concurrent enzyme asparagine synthetase. Bacterial subcellular distribution of L-asparaginase was also analysed along with its immunogenicity. H. pylori L-asparaginase is a novel antigen that functions as a cell-cycle inhibitor of fibroblasts and gastric cell lines. We give evidence supporting a role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-related diseases and discuss its potential diagnostic application. PMID:21085483

  11. Caveolin-1 Protects B6129 Mice against Helicobacter pylori Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Hitkova, Ivana; Yuan, Gang; Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus; Kirchner, Thomas; Reu, Simone; Röcken, Christoph; Schäfer, Claus; Schmid, Roland M.; Vogelmann, Roger; Ebert, Matthias P. A.; Burgermeister, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC) where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES) but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS), infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies (“humming bird”) compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1). Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1) to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87) and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs) in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells. PMID:23592983

  12. Caveolin-1 protects B6129 mice against Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    PubMed

    Hitkova, Ivana; Yuan, Gang; Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus; Kirchner, Thomas; Reu, Simone; Röcken, Christoph; Schäfer, Claus; Schmid, Roland M; Vogelmann, Roger; Ebert, Matthias P A; Burgermeister, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC) where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES) but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS), infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies ("humming bird") compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1). Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1) to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87) and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs) in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells.

  13. Structure-Based Inhibitors Exhibit Differential Activities against Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli Undecaprenyl Pyrophosphate Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chih-Jung; Guo, Rey-Ting; Lu, I-Lin; Liu, Hun-Ge; Wu, Su-Ying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Liang, Po-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and causes diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancer. Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS), which catalyzes consecutive condensation reactions of farnesyl pyrophosphate with eight isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form lipid carrier for bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis, represents a potential target for developing new antibiotics. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of H. pylori UPPS and performed virtual screening of inhibitors from a library of 58,635 compounds. Two hits were found to exhibit differential activities against Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli UPPS, giving the possibility of developing antibiotics specially targeting pathogenic H. pylori without killing the intestinal E. coli. PMID:18382620

  14. Detection of Helicobacter pylori and fecal indicator bacteria in five North American rivers.

    PubMed

    Voytek, Mary A; Ashen, Jon B; Fogarty, Lisa R; Kirshtein, Julie D; Landa, Edward R

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as a predictor of the presence of Helicobacter spp. A combination of standard culture and molecular techniques were used to detect and quantify FIB, Helicobacter spp. and H. pylori from five North American rivers of different size and with different land use characteristics. Primers designed to amplify genes specific to Helicobacter spp. and H. pylori were evaluated for their efficacy in detection and quantification in environmental samples. Helicobacter spp. were detected in 18/33 (55%) of river samples. H. pylori was detected in 11/33 (33%) of river samples. FIB were found in 32/33 (96%) of river samples. When FIB abundance exceeded USEPA water quality standards for single samples, Helicobacter or H. pylori were detected in 7/15 (47%) cases. No numerical correlation was found between the presence of FIB and either Helicobacter spp. or H. pylori. This suggests that the presence of FIB will be of limited use for detection of Helicobacter spp. or H. pylori by public health agencies.

  15. Detection of Helicobacter pylori and fecal indicator bacteria in five North American rivers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voytek, M.A.; Ashen, J.B.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Landa, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as a predictor of the presence of Helicobacter spp. A combination of standard culture and molecular techniques were used to detect and quantify FIB, Helicobacter spp. and H. pylori from five North American rivers of different size and with different land use characteristics. Primers designed to amplify genes specific to Helicobacter spp. and H. pylori were evaluated for their efficacy in detection and quantification in environmental samples. Helicobacter spp. were detected in 18/33 (55%) of river samples. H. pylori was detected in 11/33 (33%) of river samples. FIB were found in 32/33 (96%) of river samples. When FIB abundance exceeded USEPA water quality standards for single samples, Helicobacter or H. pylori were detected in 7/15 (47%) cases. No numerical correlation was found between the presence of FIB and either Helicobacter spp. or H. pylori. This suggests that the presence of FIB will be of limited use for detection of Helicobacter spp. or H. pylori by public health agencies.

  16. pH-Regulated Gene Expression of the Gastric Pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Merrell, D. Scott; Goodrich, Maria L.; Otto, Glen; Tompkins, Lucy S.; Falkow, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Colonization by the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has been shown to be intricately linked to the development of gastritis, ulcers, and gastric malignancy. Little is known about mechanisms employed by the bacterium that help it adapt to the hostile environment of the human stomach. In an effort to extend our knowledge of these mechanisms, we utilized spotted-DNA microarrays to characterize the response of H. pylori to low pH. Expression of approximately 7% of the bacterial genome was reproducibly altered by shift to low pH. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes led to the discovery that acid exposure leads to profound changes in motility of H. pylori, as a larger percentage of acid-exposed bacterial cells displayed motility and moved at significantly higher speeds. In contrast to previous publications, we found that expression of the bacterial virulence gene cagA was strongly repressed by acid exposure. Furthermore, this transcriptional repression was reflected at the level of protein accumulation in the H. pylori cell. PMID:12761138

  17. Helicobacter pylori: the mouth, stomach, and gut axis.

    PubMed

    Oshowo, A; Gillam, D; Botha, A; Tunio, M; Holton, J; Boulos, P; Hobsley, M

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the natural reservoir and route of transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection. Two hundred eight (208) dyspeptic patients (114 males, 94 females; peak age of cohort, 50-59.9) were recruited. Specimens were collected from saliva, supra- and subgingival dental plaque, tongue scrapings, and oropharyngeal swabs. At subsequent endoscopy, gastric antral biopsy was performed for the rapid urease test (RUT), microbiological culture, and, in some patients, histology. Gastric juice samples were aspirated, and in 50 patients duodenal aspirate was collected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers targeted to the 16S rRNA sequence of H. pylori was also employed for each of the specimens. In those patients where H. pylori was detected from multiple sites (dental plaque, gastric juice, gastric biopsy, and duodenal aspirate), restriction endonuclease digestion with Hae III was performed to determine if they were epidemiologically linked. The results indicated that 15/208 patients (7%) tested positively for H. pylori by PCR in dental plaque; only 2 samples were positive by culture. In none of the other oral sites sampled was H. pylori detected by any test used in the study. Gastric juice and gastric biopsy specimens from 36/ 208 patients (17%) and 114/208 patients (55%), respectively, were positive by PCR. Duodenal aspirate from 6/50 patients (12%) also tested positively by PCR. All specimens tested by restriction endonuclease digestion with Hae III (15/15 patients) were positive in both antral biopsy and gastric juice specimens, as well as 5 specimens from the duodenal aspirate. Four of the dental plaque strains had restriction patterns similar to those of the stomach and duodenal sites, providing evidence that these sites were infected with the same strain of H. pylori. In conclusion, the results suggest that H. pylori selects the gastric mucosa as its preferred site. The detection in dental plaque could indicate that the oral cavity

  18. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  19. Serum zinc status and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Niu, Jing-Xiu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xin-Zhuo; Yin, Xiao-Dong; Pang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori status and serum zinc value in gastric disease patients and healthy controls were investigated. Cases used in this work were 45 gastric cancer patients, 44 with peptic ulcers, 52 suffering gastritis and 64 healthy controls, all diagnosed histologically with the controls undergoing medical checkups. Helicobacter pylori status and serum levels of Zn were determined by 13C-urea breath test and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. Our study showed that Helicobacter pylori infection has no change in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer group, on the contrast, serum levels of Zn were significantly reduced in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer group, compared with healthy controls, and the higher the Zn levels are, the more increased risk of gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori infection is a cause of gastritis, peptic ulcers and even gastric cancer, while serum zinc level is an indicator of protection of gastric membranes against damage. PMID:23244107

  20. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer: characteristics and endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yorimasa; Fujisaki, Junko; Omae, Masami; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Igarashi, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) leads to chronic gastritis and eventually causes gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection is gradually decreasing with improvement of living conditions and eradication therapy. However, some reports have described cases of H. pylori-negative gastric cancers (HpNGC), and the prevalence was 0.42-5.4% of all gastric cancers. Diagnostic criteria of HpNGC vary among the different reports; thus, they have not yet been definitively established. We recommend negative findings in two or more methods that include endoscopic or pathological findings or serum pepsinogen test, and negative urease breath test or serum immunoglobulin G test and no eradication history the minimum criteria for diagnosis of HpNGC. The etiology of gastric cancers, excluding H. pylori infection, is known to be associated with several factors including lifestyle, viral infection, autoimmune disorder and germline mutations, but the main causal factor of HpNGC is still unclear. Regarding the characteristics of HpNGC, the undifferentiated type (UD-type) is more frequent than the differentiated type (D-type). The UD-type is mainly signet ring-cell carcinoma that presents as a discolored lesion in the lower or middle part of the stomach in relatively young patients. The gross type is flat or depressed. The D-type is mainly gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type that presents as a submucosal tumor-like or flat or depressed lesion in the middle and upper part of the stomach in relatively older patients. Early detection of HpNGC enables minimally invasive treatment which preserves the patient's quality of life. Endoscopists should fully understand the characteristics and endoscopic findings of HpNGC.

  1. Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Genotypes in Afghani and Iranian Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dabrii, Hossein; Bolfion, Mehdi; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Jafari, Fereshteh; Shokrzadeh, Leila; Sahebekhtiari, Navid; Zojaji, Homayon; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mirsattari, Darioush; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    The geographical variation in Helicobacter pylori genotypes is an observed phenomenon. Cytotoxin associated genes A (cagA) and E (cagE), and vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes of H. pylori are associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). This study compared the distribution of these genotypes in Iranian and Afghani isolates and their association with clinical outcomes. H. pylori infected patients, as proven by positive culture, were recruited prospectively. A total of 70 patients, 55 Iranian (26 men and 29 women, mean age 48±18 years) and 15 Afghani immigrants (13 men and 2 women, mean age 34.8±11 years) living in Tehran, Iran were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from isolated H. pylori and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine the cagA and cagE status and vacA alleles. The number of gastric cancer, peptic ulcer and gastritis cases was 11, 23 and 36, respectively. The cagA positive isolates were more common in Iranian (67%) than Afghani isolates (60%). cagE was positive in 53% of Afghani compared to 51% of Iranian isolates. The most common vacA s-region genotype was s1; 80% in Afghani and 67% in Iranian. The s1m1 was a frequently observed genotype in Afghani strains (53%) while s1m2 (47%) was more common in strains isolated from Iranian patients. There is a difference in the H. pylori strains between Iranian and Afghani groups, for instance Iranian isolates were similar to European isolates while Afghani isolates were similar to isolates from India. However, there was no significant association between cagA, cagE and vacA genotypes and clinical outcomes in Iranian and Afghani patients. PMID:20568532

  2. The Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on the Levels of Essential Trace Elements

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Yi; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Wang, Sophie S. W.; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Liu, Chung-Jung; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Lu, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to compare the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection treatment on serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels. Patients and Methods. We measured the serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. We also evaluated the serum levels of these trace elements after H. pylori eradication. These serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results. Sixty-three H. pylori-positive patients and thirty H. pylori-negative patients were studied. Serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels had no significant difference between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups. There were 49 patients with successful H. pylori eradication. The serum selenium levels were lower after successful H. pylori eradication, but not significantly (P = 0.06). There were 14 patients with failed H. pylori eradication. In this failed group, the serum selenium level after H. pylori eradication therapy was significantly lower than that before H. pylori eradication therapy (P < 0.05). The serum zinc and copper levels had no significant difference between before and after H. pylori eradication therapies. Conclusion. H pylori eradication regimen appears to influence the serum selenium concentration (IRB number: KMUH-IRB-20120327). PMID:25548772

  3. Esophageal Helicobacter pylori colonization aggravates esophageal injury caused by reflux

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yun-Xiang; Wang, Wei-Hong; Dai, Yun; Teng, Gui-Gen; Wang, Shu-Jun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate esophageal Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization on esophageal injury caused by reflux and the related mechanisms. METHODS: An esophagitis model, with acid and bile reflux, was surgically produced in male rats. The rats were randomly divided into either: (1) an esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA) group; (2) an EGDA with H. pylori infection group; (3) a pseudo-operation with H. pylori infection group; or (4) a pseudo-operation group. All rats were kept for 36 wk. Based on the location of H. pylori colonization, the EGDA rats with H. pylori infection were subdivided into those with concomitant esophageal H. pylori colonization or those with only gastric H. pylori colonization. The esophageal injuries were evaluated grossly and microscopically. The expressions of CDX2 and MUC2 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 antigen expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of cyclin D1, c-Myc, Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by RT-PCR. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method. RESULTS: Esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) developed in rats that underwent EGDA. When comparing rats with EGDA and concomitant esophageal H. pylori colonization to EGDA-only rats, the severity of injury (87.9 ± 5.2 vs 77.2 ± 8.6, macroscopically, 92.5 ± 8.0 vs 83.8 ± 5.5, microscopically, both P < 0.05) and the incidences of BE (80.0% vs 33.3%, P = 0.055) and EAC (60.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.05) were increased. These increases were associated with upregulation of CDX2 and MUC2 mRNA (10.1 ± 5.4 vs 3.0 ± 2.9, 8.4 ± 4.6 vs 2.0 ± 3.2, respectively, Ps < 0.01) and protein (8.1 ± 2.3 vs 3.3 ± 3.1, 7.3 ± 4.0 vs 1.8 ± 2.7, respectively, all P < 0.05). The expression of Ki-67 (8.9 ± 0.7 vs 6.0 ± 1.7, P < 0.01) and the presence of apoptotic cells (8.3 ± 1.1 vs 5.3 ± 1.7, P < 0.01) were also increased

  4. Gastric cancer development after the successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kaname; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) develops as a result of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis due to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and subsequent defects in genetic/epigenetic events. Although the indication for eradication therapy has become widespread, clinical studies have revealed its limited effects in decreasing the incidence of GC. Moreover, research on biopsy specimens obtained by conventional endoscopy has demonstrated the feasibility of the restoration of some genetic/epigenetic alterations in the gastric mucosa. Practically, the number of sporadic cases of primary/metachronous GC that emerge after successful eradication has increased, while on-going guidelines recommend eradication therapy for patients with chronic gastritis and those with background mucosa after endoscopic resection for GC. Accordingly, regular surveillance of numerous individuals who have received eradication therapy is recommended despite the lack of biomarkers. Recently, the focus has been on functional reversibility after successful eradication as another cue to elucidate the mechanisms of restoration as well as those of carcinogenesis in the gastric mucosa after H. pylori eradication. We demonstrated that Congo-red chromoendoscopy enabled the identification of the multi-focal distribution of functionally irreversible mucosa compared with that of restored mucosa after successful eradication in individuals at extremely high risk for GC. Further research that uses functional imaging may provide new insights into the mechanisms of regeneration and carcinogenesis in the gastric mucosa post-eradication and may allow for the development of useful biomarkers. PMID:26989462

  5. Helicobacter pylori-binding gangliosides of human gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roche, N; Larsson, T; Angström, J; Teneberg, S

    2001-11-01

    Acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids were isolated from a human gastric adenocarcinoma, and binding of Helicobacter pylori to the isolated glycosphingolipids was assessed using the chromatogram binding assay. The isolated glycosphingolipids were characterized using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and by binding of antibodies and lectins. The predominating neutral glycosphingolipids were found to migrate in the di- to tetraglycosylceramide regions as revealed by anisaldehyde staining and detection with lectins. No binding of H. pylori to these compounds was obtained. The most abundant acidic glycosphingolipids, migrating as the GM3 ganglioside and sialyl-neolactotetraosylceramide, were not recognized by the bacteria. Instead, H. pylori selectively interacted with slow-migrating, low abundant gangliosides not detected by anisaldehyde staining. Binding-active gangliosides were isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and lectin binding as sialyl-neolactohexaosylceramide (NeuAcalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer) and sialyl-neolactooctaosylceramide (NeuAcalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer).

  6. CagA-mediated pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tohidpour, Abolghasem

    2016-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been described as the main etiologic agent of gastric cancer, causing a considerable rate of mortality and morbidity in human population across the world. Although the infection mainly begins asymptomatically, but simply develops to peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, lymphoma of the gastric mucosa and eventually adenocarcinoma. The major pathological feature of H. pylori infection is due to the activity of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), a 125-140 kDa protein encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI). CagA is also known as the first bacterial onco-protein, ranking the H. pylori-mediated adenocarcinoma as the second most deadly cancer type worldwide. Upon cytoplasmic translocation CagA undergoes interacting with numerous proteins in phosphorylation dependent and independent manners within the gastric epithelial cells. The profound effect of CagA on multiple intracellular pathways causes major consequences such as perturbation of intracellular actin trafficking, stimulation of inflammatory responses and disruption of cellular tight junctions. Such activities of CagA further participate in development of the hummingbird phenotype and gastric cancer. This review is sought to provide a structural and functional analysis of the CagA protein with focus on demonstrating the molecular basis of the mechanism of CagA intracellular translocation and its interaction with intracellular targets. PMID:26796299

  7. Structural and functional aspects of the Helicobacter pylori secretome

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Giuseppe; Cendron, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Proteins secreted by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), an important human pathogen responsible for severe gastric diseases, are reviewed from the point of view of their biochemical characterization, both functional and structural. Despite the vast amount of experimental data available on the proteins secreted by this bacterium, the precise size of the secretome remains unknown. In this review, we consider as secreted both proteins that contain a secretion signal for the periplasm and proteins that have been detected in the external medium in in vitro experiments. In this way, H. pylori’s secretome appears to be composed of slightly more than 160 proteins, but this number must be considered very cautiously, not only because the definition of secretome itself is ambiguous but also because the included proteins were observed as secreted in in vitro experiments that were not representative of the environmental situation in vivo. The proteins that appear to be secreted can be grouped into different classes: enzymes (48 proteins), outer membrane proteins (43), components of flagella (11), members of the cytotoxic-associated genes pathogenicity island or other toxins (8 and 5, respectively), binding and transport proteins (9), and others (11). A final group, which includes 28 members, is represented by hypothetical uncharacterized proteins. Despite the large amount of data accumulated on the H. pylori secretome, a considerable amount of work remains to reach a full comprehension of the system at the molecular level. PMID:24587618

  8. CagA-mediated pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tohidpour, Abolghasem

    2016-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been described as the main etiologic agent of gastric cancer, causing a considerable rate of mortality and morbidity in human population across the world. Although the infection mainly begins asymptomatically, but simply develops to peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, lymphoma of the gastric mucosa and eventually adenocarcinoma. The major pathological feature of H. pylori infection is due to the activity of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), a 125-140 kDa protein encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI). CagA is also known as the first bacterial onco-protein, ranking the H. pylori-mediated adenocarcinoma as the second most deadly cancer type worldwide. Upon cytoplasmic translocation CagA undergoes interacting with numerous proteins in phosphorylation dependent and independent manners within the gastric epithelial cells. The profound effect of CagA on multiple intracellular pathways causes major consequences such as perturbation of intracellular actin trafficking, stimulation of inflammatory responses and disruption of cellular tight junctions. Such activities of CagA further participate in development of the hummingbird phenotype and gastric cancer. This review is sought to provide a structural and functional analysis of the CagA protein with focus on demonstrating the molecular basis of the mechanism of CagA intracellular translocation and its interaction with intracellular targets.

  9. Metabolism and Genetics of Helicobacter pylori: the Genome Era

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Armelle; Mendz, George L.; Hazell, Stuart L.; Mégraud, Francis

    1999-01-01

    The publication of the complete sequence of Helicobacter pylori 26695 in 1997 and more recently that of strain J99 has provided new insight into the biology of this organism. In this review, we attempt to analyze and interpret the information provided by sequence annotations and to compare these data with those provided by experimental analyses. After a brief description of the general features of the genomes of the two sequenced strains, the principal metabolic pathways are analyzed. In particular, the enzymes encoded by H. pylori involved in fermentative and oxidative metabolism, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and iron and nitrogen assimilation are described, and the areas of controversy between the experimental data and those provided by the sequence annotation are discussed. The role of urease, particularly in pH homeostasis, and other specialized mechanisms developed by the bacterium to maintain its internal pH are also considered. The replicational, transcriptional, and translational apparatuses are reviewed, as is the regulatory network. The numerous findings on the metabolism of the bacteria and the paucity of gene expression regulation systems are indicative of the high level of adaptation to the human gastric environment. Arguments in favor of the diversity of H. pylori and molecular data reflecting possible mechanisms involved in this diversity are presented. Finally, we compare the numerous experimental data on the colonization factors and those provided from the genome sequence annotation, in particular for genes involved in motility and adherence of the bacterium to the gastric tissue. PMID:10477311

  10. Role of vacuolating cytotoxin in gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori in gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed

    Eaton, K A; Cover, T L; Tummuru, M K; Blaser, M J; Krakowka, S

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the role of the Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gnotobiotic piglets were colonized with either toxigenic H. pylori or a nontoxigenic isogenic mutant. Only piglets given the toxigenic strain developed toxin-neutralizing antibodies (indicating that toxin is expressed in vivo), but there was no difference in bacterial colonization, epithelial vacuolation, or gastritis between the two groups of piglets.

  11. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27–2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57–0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  12. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT FOR INACTIVATING HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light from a low-pressure source to determine log inactivation versus applied fluence. Results indicate that H. pylori is readily inactivated at UV fluences typically used in water treatment r...

  13. Repeat-associated plasticity in the Helicobacter pylori RD Gene Family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    epetitive DNA facilitates genomic flexibility via increased recombination, deletion, and insertion. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is remarkable for its ability to persist in the human stomach for decades without provoking sterilizing immunity. Examining the genomes of two H. pylori strains, we d...

  14. Rate heterogeneity in the evolution of Helicobacter pylori and the behavior of homoplasious sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helicobacter pylori are bacteria with substantial strain-to-strain variability. Although frequent recombination events have been proposed as contributing to the variability, the effects of nucleotide substitution rate heterogeneities on the reconstruction of H. pylori genealogies have not been stud...

  15. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27-2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  16. Two Cases of Chronic Gastritis with non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter Infection.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Satoka; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Yoshii, Shinji; Takakuwa, Yasunari; Sato, Masaaki; Nakamura, Masahiko; Kudo, Takahiko; Kato, Mototsugu; Asaka, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Two men, 48 and 54 years of age, were referred for medical checkups without any particular symptoms. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a normal gastric body, but white marbled appearance in the lesser curvature of the gastric angle and antrum. Biopsy specimens revealed relatively long and tightly coiled organisms. The two patients were diagnosed as having non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacter (NHPH) infection according to the findings of pathological and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses. After triple therapy (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and rabeprazole), endoscopy showed an improvement of the white marbled lesions and biopsy specimens showed no NHPH. The white marbled appearance limited to the gastric angle and antrum may be a potential characteristic finding of NHPH-infected gastritis. PMID:27432094

  17. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. Results All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. Conclusions A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. PMID:26187502

  18. Genomic Methylation: a Tool for Typing Helicobacter pylori Isolates▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Filipa F.; Vítor, Jorge M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The genome sequences of three Helicobacter pylori strains revealed an abundant number of putative restriction and modification (R-M) systems within a small genome (1.60 to 1.67 Mb). Each R-M system includes an endonuclease that cleaves a specific DNA sequence and a DNA methyltransferase that methylates either adenosine or cytosine within the same DNA sequence. These are believed to be a defense mechanism, protecting bacteria from foreign DNA. They have been classified as selfish genetic elements; in some instances it has been shown that they are not easily lost from their host cell. Possibly because of this phenomenon, the H. pylori genome is very rich in R-M systems, with considerable variation in potential recognition sequences. For this reason the protective aspect of the methyltransferase gene has been proposed as a tool for typing H. pylori isolates. We studied the expression of H. pylori methyltransferases by digesting the genomic DNAs of 50 strains with 31 restriction endonucleases. We conclude that methyltransferase diversity is sufficiently high to enable the use of the genomic methylation status as a typing tool. The stability of methyltransferase expression was assessed by comparing the methylation status of genomic DNAs from strains that were isolated either from the same patient at different times or from different stomach locations (antrum and corpus). We found a group of five methyltransferases common to all tested strains. These five may be characteristic of the genetic pool analyzed, and their biological role may be important in the host/bacterium interaction. PMID:17483255

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with selective immunoglobulin E deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Magen, Eli; Schlesinger, Menachem; Ben-Zion, Itzhak; Vardy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected dyspeptic patients with selective immunoglobulin E deficiency (IgEd). METHODS: All individuals who underwent serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) measurement at the Leumit Healthcare Services (Israel) in 2012 were identified in an electronic database search (n = 18487). From these, selected case group subjects were ≥ 12 years of age and had serum total IgE < 2 kIU/L (n = 158). The control group was selected from a random sampling of the remaining subjects ≥ 12 years of age to obtain a case-control ratio of 1:20 (n = 3160). Dyspeptic diseases, diagnosed no more than 5 years before serum total IgE testing, were identified and retrieved from the electronic database using specific International Classification of Diseases diagnostic codes. Results of C13-urea breath tests were used to identify subjects infected with H. pylori. Categorical variables between case and control subjects were analyzed using Fisher’s exact tests, whereas continuous variables were analyzed using χ2 tests. RESULTS: Dyspepsia was present in 27.2% (43/158) of case subjects and 22.7% (718/3160) of controls. Of these, significantly more case subjects (32/43, 74.4%) than controls (223/718, 31.1%) were positive for H. pylori (P < 0.01). Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in 19 case and 94 control subjects, revealing that gastritis was more prevalent in IgEd case subjects than in controls (57.9% vs 29.8%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, a significantly greater proportion of case subjects presented with peptic duodenal ulcers (63.2% vs 15.9%, P < 0.01). Histopathologic examination showed marked chronic inflammation, lymphoid follicle formation and prominent germinal centers, with polymorphonuclear cell infiltration of gastric glands, that was similar in case and control biopsy tissues. Finally, IgEd case subjects that underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy were more likely to exhibit treatment

  20. Is Helicobacter pylori infection a risk factor for disease severity in systemic sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Radić, Mislav; Kaliterna, Dušanka Martinović; Bonacin, Damir; Vergles, Jadranka Morović; Radić, Josipa; Fabijanić, Damir; Kovačić, Vedran

    2013-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is suspected to be one of the factors triggering systemic sclerosis (SSc). Data on the possible role of H. pylori are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori infection in SSc patients. Forty-two SSc patients without dyspeptic symptoms were recruited--26 were H. pylori-positive and 16 were H. pylori-negative on the basis of invasive test. We evaluated the disease severity using clinical and laboratory parameters according to the Medsger Severity Scale. The level of SSc activity was evaluated according to Valentini activity score. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in population of SSc patients is 62%. Severity of skin, gastrointestinal, and joint/tendon involvement was different between H. pylori-positive and -negative SSc patients (p < 0.001 for skin involvement, p = 0.002 and p = 0.03 for gastrointestinal and joint/tendon involvement, respectively) as well as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.002). Severity score according to Medsger was higher in the H. pylori-positive than in the H. pylori-negative SSc patients (p < 0.001). Our data suggest that H. pylori infection correlates with severity of skin, gastrointestinal, and joint/tendon involvement in SSc patients. H. pylori-positive SSc patients showed higher severity score compared to H. pylori-negative. Therefore, H. pylori infection may play a role in the pathogenesis of SSc and also can provide some prognostic information.

  1. Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer: advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wenbo; Bai, Bing; Sheng, Liang; Li, Yan; Yue, Ping; Li, Xun; Qiao, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers of digestive system globally and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is believed to be a major risk factor. HP can be classified into different types based on the presence and expression level of CagA and VacA, and, when exposed to adverse environment, HP changes its phenotype from helical type to coccoid type, with each having different pathogenicity. The mechanisms of HP-induced gastric carcinogenesis and progression are complicated, including DNA nitration and oxidation induced by mutagenic factors, HP-induced epigenetic modifications, HP-induced disruption of the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, and HP-induced cancer cell invasion and metastasis. HP may also affect the biological function of cancer stem cells and induction of cell autophagy. The lipopolysaccharide produced by HP can act through toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) to induce gastric mucosal inflammation and is thereby linked to the development of gastric cancer.

  2. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhangyong; Ren, Binbin; Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body.

  3. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body. PMID:26814481

  4. Population-based strategies for Helicobacter pylori-associated disease management: a Japanese perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is decreasing gradually in Japan mainly owing to an improvement in sanitary conditions. The guidelines for H. pylori management by the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research, initially established in 2000 and revised in 2003, were revised dramatically in January 2009. The new guidelines accepted the use of new drugs and recommended trying the second-line eradication regimen. Moreover, the revised guidelines reflected the recent knowledge in Japan that metachronous gastric cancer prevalance is decreased significantly by the eradication of H. pylori infection. The Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research proposed that the cure of H. pylori infection should be presupposed to prevent gastric cancer from active gastritis universally developed in the infected subjects. Overall, the most important and dramatic revision is that all infected people are recommended to receive eradication therapy irrespective of the clinical outcomes in the Japanese population. PMID:20350262

  5. The results of Helicobacter pylori eradication on repeated bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola

    2005-06-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding.

  6. Genomes of Two Chronological Isolates (Helicobacter pylori 2017 and 2018) of the West African Helicobacter pylori Strain 908 Obtained from a Single Patient▿

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Tiruvayipati Suma; Devi, Singamaneni Haritha; Taylor, Todd D.; Kumar, Narender; Baddam, Ramani; Kondo, Shinji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Lamouliatte, Hervé; Mégraud, Francis; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2011-01-01

    The diverse clinical outcomes of colonization by Helicobacter pylori reflect the need to understand the genomic rearrangements enabling the bacterium to adapt to host niches and exhibit varied colonization/virulence potential. We describe the genome sequences of the two serial isolates, H. pylori 2017 and 2018 (the chronological subclones of H. pylori 908), cultured in 2003 from the antrum and corpus, respectively, of an African patient who suffered from recrudescent duodenal ulcer disease. When compared with the genome of the parent strain, 908 (isolated from the antrum of the same patient in 1994), the genome sequences revealed genomic alterations relevant to virulence optimization or host-specific adaptation. PMID:21515762

  7. An Overview of Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin Biology

    PubMed Central

    Foegeding, Nora J.; Caston, Rhonda R.; McClain, Mark S.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    The VacA toxin secreted by Helicobacter pylori enhances the ability of the bacteria to colonize the stomach and contributes to the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer disease. The amino acid sequence and structure of VacA are unrelated to corresponding features of other known bacterial toxins. VacA is classified as a pore-forming toxin, and many of its effects on host cells are attributed to formation of channels in intracellular sites. The most extensively studied VacA activity is its capacity to stimulate vacuole formation, but the toxin has many additional effects on host cells. Multiple cell types are susceptible to VacA, including gastric epithelial cells, parietal cells, T cells, and other types of immune cells. This review focuses on the wide range of VacA actions that are detectable in vitro, as well as actions of VacA in vivo that are relevant for H. pylori colonization of the stomach and development of gastric disease. PMID:27271669

  8. Failed Eradication for Helicobacter pylori. What Should Be Done?

    PubMed

    Mégraud, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Failed eradication of Helicobacter pylori occurs when the antibiotic concentration at the site where H. pylori is located is lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration of the antibiotic for this bacterium. The main reason for this is the acquisition of resistance; and in the context of the most common treatment, the main reason is the acquisition of resistance to clarithromycin. Several options can then be followed. The most rational option is to use a tailored therapy, that is, to look for clarithromycin resistance either by culture plus antibiogram or by a molecular method. The standard triple therapy is used only in the case of clarithromycin susceptibility. In case of resistance or if an empiric treatment must be given, a good option is to use a bismuth-based quadruple therapy. If unavailable, clarithromycin-based quadruple therapies can be used either as sequential or 'concomitant' or hybrid. The limit, especially for concomitant therapy, is the use of clarithromycin, which will be inactive in about 2/3 of the cases, adding to cost and adverse events. Recently, the dual therapy proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin has been revisited especially in the Far East, and increasing the dose and the frequency of administration gives excellent results. PMID:27332826

  9. Association of Helicobacter pylori antibodies and severity of migraine attack

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Behnaz; Basiri, Keivan; Meamar, Rokhsareh; Chitsaz, Ahmad; Nematollahi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown a positive correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and migraine headache. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of H. pylori infection in migraine headache with (MA) and without aura (MO). Methods: This is a case-control study containing information on 84 patients (including MA, MO) and 49 healthy individuals. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG,) immunoglobulin M (IgM) titer in two groups. Headache severity was evaluated according to Headache Impact Test (HIT6) questionnaire. Results: Mean ± SD of IgM antibody in Migrainous patients 26.3 (23.1) showed significantly difference with control group 17.5 (11.2) (P = 0.004). In addition, the mean ± SD HIT6 in Migrainous patients differed significantly between MA and MO groups 65.5 (4.7), 54.9 (5.3) respectively, P < 0.001). The only significant correlation was found for IgG antibody and HIT6 in MA patients (r = 0.407, P = 0.011) and MO group (r = 0.499, P = 0.002). The risk of migraine occurrence in patients did not significantly associate with the level of IgG and IgM antibodies. Conclusion: The results give a hope that definite treatment and eradication of this bacterium could be a cure or to reduce the severity and course of migraine headaches. PMID:26622976

  10. Characterization and inactivation of an agmatine deiminase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Justin E.; Causey, Corey P.; Lovelace, Leslie; Knuckley, Bryan; Flick, Heather; Lebioda, Lukasz; Thompson, Paul R.

    2010-11-12

    Helicobacter pylori encodes a potential virulence factor, agmatine deiminase (HpAgD), which catalyzes the conversion of agmatine to N-carbamoyl putrescine (NCP) and ammonia - agmatine is decarboxylated arginine. Agmatine is an endogenous human cell signaling molecule that triggers the innate immune response in humans. Unlike H. pylori, humans do not encode an AgD; it is hypothesized that inhibition of this enzyme would increase the levels of agmatine, and thereby enhance the innate immune response. Taken together, these facts suggest that HpAgD is a potential drug target. Herein we describe the optimized expression, isolation, and purification of HpAgD (10-30 mg/L media). The initial kinetic characterization of this enzyme has also been performed. Additionally, the crystal structure of wild-type HpAgD has been determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. This structure provides a molecular basis for the preferential deimination of agmatine, and identifies Asp198 as a key residue responsible for agmatine recognition, which has been confirmed experimentally. Information gathered from these studies led to the development and characterization of a novel class of haloacetamidine-based HpAgD inactivators. These compounds are the most potent AgD inhibitors ever described.

  11. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  12. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: are rifaximin-based regimens effective?

    PubMed

    Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Pelosini, Iva; Scarpignato, Carmelo

    2006-01-01

    Rifaximin is a non-absorbed semisynthetic rifamycin derivative with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, both aerobes and anaerobes. Although originally developed for the treatment of infectious diarrhea, the appreciation of the pathogenic role of gut bacteria in several organic and functional gastrointestinal diseases has increasingly broadened its clinical use. Being the antibiotic active against Helicobacter pylori, even towards clarithromycin-resistant strain, and being the primary resistance very rare, several investigations explored its potential use for eradication of the microorganism. Rifaximin alone proved to be effective, but even the highest dose (1,200 mg daily) gave a cure rate of only 30%. Dual and triple therapies were also studied, with the better results obtained with rifaximin-clarithromycin and rifaximin-clarithromycin-esomeprazole combinations. However, the eradication rates (60-70%) obtained with these regimens were still below the standard set by the Maastricht Consensus guidelines. Although rifaximin-based eradication therapies are promising, new antimicrobial combinations (with and without proton pump inhibitors) need to be explored in well-designed clinical trials including a large cohort of H. pylori-infected patients. The remarkable safety of rifaximin will allow high-dose regimens of longer duration (e.g. 10 or 14 days) to be tested with confidence in the hope of achieving better eradication rates. A drawback of rifaximin could be its inability to reach sufficiently high concentrations in the gastric mucus layer under and within which H. pylori is commonly located and this would likely affect eradication rate. Taking these considerations into account, bioadhesive rifaximin formulations able to better and persistently cover gastric mucosa, or combination with mucolytic agents, such as pronase or acetylcysteine, need to be evaluated in order to better define the place of this

  13. Antimicrobial Therapies for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gnotobiotic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Krakowka, Steven; Eaton, K. A.; Leunk, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Gnotobiotic piglets infected with Helicobacter pylori were treated with various antimicrobials as monotherapy and dual therapy, and the results were compared to those for piglets treated with a triple-therapy regimen (bismuth subsalicyclate at 5.7 mg/kg of body weight, metronidazole at 4.4 mg/kg, and amoxicillin at 6.8 mg/kg four times a day [QID]). Clearance of infection was assessed after 7 days of treatment, and eradication was assessed following 7 days of treatment and a 14-day posttreatment observation interval. Monotherapy with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and ciprofloxacin cleared and eradicated the organism from porcine stomachs; monotherapy with metronidazole cleared the infection and eradicated it from some piglets. Metronidazole-resistant microbes were recovered from treated piglets which cleared but did not eradicate the infection. Monotherapy with bismuth subsalicylate, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, and tetracycline in the dosage range of 5.0 to 7.1 mg/kg QID was less than 100% effective in clearance and eradication, in that these drugs cleared and/or eradicated the infection from some of the piglets but did not eradicate the infection from all of the piglets. Monotherapy with an H-2 receptor antagonist (ranitidine) or a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) was ineffective at either clearance or eradication. In vivo dose titrations with several effective monotherapies were performed to determine the lowest effective in vivo dose of drug. In piglets, eradication was associated with a statistically significant decline in serum H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies; the titers of both IgA and IgG also declined, but the values were not statistically significant. For many antimicrobials, piglets are more sensitive indicators of clearance and eradication than humans. These data establish the H. pylori-infected gnotobiotic piglet as a useful model for the identification of novel antimicrobials for the treatment of this disease and for drug

  14. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and extragastric disorders in children: A critical update

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John F; Tromba, Valeria; Romaggioli, Sara; Bascetta, Stefano; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a highly prevalent, serious and chronic infection that has been associated causally with a diverse spectrum of extragastric disorders including iron deficiency anemia, chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, growth retardation, and diabetes mellitus. The inverse relation of H. pylori prevalence and the increase in allergies, as reported from epidemiological studies, has stimulated research for elucidating potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Although H. pylori is most frequently acquired during childhood in both developed and developing countries, clinicians are less familiar with the pediatric literature in the field. A better understanding of the H. pylori disease spectrum in childhood should lead to clearer recommendations about testing for and treating H. pylori infection in children who are more likely to develop clinical sequelae. A further clinical challenge is whether the progressive decrease of H. pylori in the last decades, abetted by modern clinical practices, may have other health consequences. PMID:24587617

  16. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  17. Effects of daily telephone-based re-education before taking medicine on Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Hakan; Ozturk, Kadir; Kurt, Omer

    2016-04-21

    We read the article "Effects of daily telephone-based re-education before taking medicine on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication: A prospective single-center study from China" written by Wang et al with great interest. It is reported in American and European guidelines that there is no sufficient test for the diagnosis of H. pylori except culture and that using at least two different tests for diagnosis of H. pylori is recommended. Patients who used antibiotics or bismuth salts in the previous 2 wk were excluded from study. But patients who used probiotics and antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E were not excluded. PMID:27099453

  18. Evidence-based assessment of proton-pump inhibitors in Helicobacter pylori eradication: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Vinayak; Eslick, Guy D

    2014-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease continues to be issue especially due to its high prevalence in the developing world. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection associated duodenal ulcers should undergo eradication therapy. There are many regimens offered for H. pylori eradication which include triple, quadruple, or sequential therapy regimens. The central aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence for H. pylori therapy from a meta-analytical outlook. The consequence of the dose, type of proton-pump inhibitor, and the length of the treatment will be debated. The most important risk factor for eradication failure is resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole. PMID:25356018

  19. Screening to Identify and Eradicate Helicobacter pylori Infection in Teenagers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Taiji; Okamura, Takuma; Iwaya, Yugo; Suga, Tomoaki

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the prevalence and effect of Helicobacter pylori infection in Japanese teenagers. The study subjects were students ages 16 to 17 from one high school studied between 2007 and 2013. Students who tested positive on this screening examination underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy samples to determine their H pylori status using culture and histology. Cure of H pylori infections was determined by urea breath test. The low rate of prevalence of H pylori infection in present Japanese teenagers makes it possible and cost effective to perform examinations and carry out treatment of this infection in nationwide health screenings of high school students.

  20. Helicobacter pylori-Induced Signaling Pathways Contribute to Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sue, Soichiro; Shibata, Wataru; Maeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces chronic gastric inflammation, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and cancer. Although the risk of gastric cancer increases exponentially with the extent of atrophic gastritis, the precise mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. H. pylori induces genetic and epigenetic changes in gastric epithelial cells through activating intracellular signaling pathways in a cagPAI-dependent manner. H. pylori eventually induces gastric cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN) or microsatellite instability (MSI), which are classified as two major subtypes of gastric cancer. Elucidation of the precise mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis will also be important for cancer therapy. PMID:26064948

  1. Studies on the relationship between adhesive activity and haemagglutination by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Osaki, T; Yamaguchi, H; Taguchi, H; Kumada, J; Ogata, S; Kamiya, S

    1997-02-01

    The adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastric carcinoma cells (MKN45, KatoIII and MKN28) and Intestine-407 cells was tested by flow cytometric analysis. The mean adhesion rates of H. pylori strains to MKN45, KatoIII and Intestine-407 cells were 90.5, 42.7 and 15.1%, respectively. There was no statistical correlation between the adhesion rates to MKN45 cells and haemagglutination (HA) activity of H. pylori strains, although H. pylori strains with high HA activity with human type O erythrocytes tended to adhere effectively to MKN45 cells. No correlation between adhesion and production of vacuolating toxin was observed. PMID:9060870

  2. Development of a Mouse Model of Helicobacter pylori Infection that Mimics Human Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Marta; Arico, Beatrice; Burroni, Daniela; Figura, Natale; Rappuoli, Rino; Ghiara, Paolo

    1995-03-01

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. The pathogenesis of H. pylori infection in vivo was studied by adapting fresh clinical isolates of bacteria to colonize the stomachs of mice. A gastric pathology resembling human disease was observed in infections with cytotoxin-producing strains but not with noncytotoxic strains. Oral immunization with purified H. pylori antigens protected mice from bacterial infection. This mouse model will allow the development of therapeutic agents and vaccines against H. pylori infection in humans.

  3. Helicobacter pylori may induce bile reflux: link between H pylori and bile induced injury to gastric epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Ladas, S D; Katsogridakis, J; Malamou, H; Giannopoulou, H; Kesse-Elia, M; Raptis, S A

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and duodenogastric reflux are both recognised as playing aetiological roles in chronic gastritis. This study investigated whether H pylori colonisation of the antral mucosa and duodenogastric reflux are independent phenomena or have a causal relationship. Thirty eight patients (15 men, 23 women) aged (mean (SD)) 48 (17) years participated. Each patient underwent gastroscopy. Antral biopsy specimens were taken to investigate H pylori colonisation. In addition BrIDA-99mTc/111In-DTPA scintigraphy was used to quantify duodenogastric reflux. H pylori positive patients who were found to have duodenogastric reflux were treated with amoxycillin (1 g/d) and metronidazole (1.5 g/d) for seven days and four tablets of bismuth subcitrate daily for four weeks. Follow up antral biopsies and scintigraphy were repeated at six months. Duodenogastric reflux could not be found in 18 patients, including eight (44%) who were H pylori positive. Ten of the 11 patients who had duodenogastric reflux (reflux % 11.6 (9.2)), however, were H pylori positive (chi 2 = 6.26, p = 0.01). These 10 patients were given eradication treatment. At six months, in six patients who became H pylori negative, duodenogastric reflux was significantly reduced from a pretreatment value of 14.3% to 3.3% (two tail, paired t = 2.57, p = 0.016). These data suggest that H pylori may induced duodenogastric reflux which may be important in the pathogenesis of H pylori gastritis or carcinogenesis, or both. PMID:8566844

  4. Local immune response in Helicobacter pylori-infected cats and identification of H. pylori in saliva, gastric fluid and faeces.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, J G; Perkins, S; Yan, L; Shen, Z; Attardo, L; Pappo, J

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori-infected cats were screened by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of H. pylori in salivary secretions, gastric juice, gastric tissue and faeces. H. pylori was cultured from salivary secretions in six of 12 (50%) cats and from gastric fluid samples in 11 of 12 (91%) cats. A 298 base pair polymerase chain reactions (PCR) product specific for an H. pylori 26000 MW surface protein was amplified from dental plaque samples from five of 12 (42%) cats and from the faeces of four of five (80%) cats studied. Analyses of serum and mucosal secretions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed an H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, and elevated IgA anti-H. pylori antibody levels in salivary and local gastric secretions. Immunohistochemical analyses of gastric tissue revealed the presence of IgM+ B cells assembled into multiple lymphoid follicles surrounded by clusters of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The lamina propria also contained single cells or aggregates of IgA+ and IgM+ B cells. These observations show that H. pylori can be identified in feline mucosal secretions, and that a localized IgA immune response develops in gastric tissue of H. pylori-infected cats. The findings suggest a zoonotic risk from exposure to personnel handling H. pylori-infected cats in vivaria. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8774357

  5. Local immune response in Helicobacter pylori-infected cats and identification of H. pylori in saliva, gastric fluid and faeces.

    PubMed

    Fox, J G; Perkins, S; Yan, L; Shen, Z; Attardo, L; Pappo, J

    1996-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori-infected cats were screened by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of H. pylori in salivary secretions, gastric juice, gastric tissue and faeces. H. pylori was cultured from salivary secretions in six of 12 (50%) cats and from gastric fluid samples in 11 of 12 (91%) cats. A 298 base pair polymerase chain reactions (PCR) product specific for an H. pylori 26000 MW surface protein was amplified from dental plaque samples from five of 12 (42%) cats and from the faeces of four of five (80%) cats studied. Analyses of serum and mucosal secretions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed an H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, and elevated IgA anti-H. pylori antibody levels in salivary and local gastric secretions. Immunohistochemical analyses of gastric tissue revealed the presence of IgM+ B cells assembled into multiple lymphoid follicles surrounded by clusters of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The lamina propria also contained single cells or aggregates of IgA+ and IgM+ B cells. These observations show that H. pylori can be identified in feline mucosal secretions, and that a localized IgA immune response develops in gastric tissue of H. pylori-infected cats. The findings suggest a zoonotic risk from exposure to personnel handling H. pylori-infected cats in vivaria.

  6. [Clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori in children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura].

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Wang, Shu-Chun; Wang, Lu-Juan; Liu, Yong; Wang, Hai-Ying; Wang, Zhan-Ju

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the clinic significance of helicobacter pylori (HP) in children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The infection of HP in 92 ITP children was determined by (13) C-Urea Breath Test, the same test was also performed on 66 healthy children. The 68 children infected with HP were randomly divided into 2 groups: single drug group treated only with corticosteroid and; combined drug group treated with corticosteroid and anti-helicobacter pylori treatment. The results showed that 68 patients infected with HP were found in 92 ITP children (74.7%), 26 patients infected with HP were observed in 66 healthy children (39.4%), which was lower than that in ITP children (74.7%, P < 0.05). After anti-helicobacter pylori therapy, the total effective rate and cure rate of ITP patients increased respectively from 73.5% to 94.1%, and the total recurrence rate (17.0%) was much lower than single drug group (47.1%, P < 0.05). Otherwise, after therapy the platelet count in both two groups increased continuously, and at the same time point, the platelet count in anti-helicobacter pylori group was higher than that in the single drug group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the ITP children have a higher infection rate of HP, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of ITP. Anti-helicobacter pylori therapy would help to improve the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the recurrence of ITP children.

  7. Meta-analysis of the Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection among Children and Adults of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Afshari, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a common health problem related to many gastrointestinal disorders. This study aims to estimate the total and age specific prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori infection in Iran. We systematically reviewed all national and international databases and finally identified 21 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Each of them were assigned a quality score using STROBE checklist. Due to significant heterogeneity of the results, random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval of Helicobacter Pylori infection. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA. V11 software. The pooled prevalence (95% confidence interval) of Helicobacter Pylori infection among all population, children and adults were estimated as 54% (53%- 55%), 42% (41%- 44%) and 62% (61%- 64%) respectively. Helicobacter Pylori, has infected more than half of Iranian people during the last decade. Preventive strategies as well as taking into account this infection during clinical visits should be emphasized to reduce its transmission and prevalence within the community. PMID:27076886

  8. Helicobacter pylori Eradication for Prevention of Metachronous Recurrence after Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bang, Chang Seok; Baik, Gwang Ho; Shin, In Soo; Kim, Jin Bong; Suk, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-06-01

    Controversies persist regarding the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the development of metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer (EGC). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication after endoscopic resection of EGC for the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted using the core databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The rates of development of metachronous gastric cancer between the Helicobacter pylori eradication group vs. the non-eradication group were extracted and analyzed using risk ratios (RRs). A random effect model was applied. The methodological quality of the enrolled studies was assessed by the Risk of Bias table and by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Publication bias was evaluated through the funnel plot with trim and fill method, Egger's test, and by the rank correlation test. Ten studies (2 randomized and 8 non-randomized/5,914 patients with EGC or dysplasia) were identified and analyzed. Overall, the Helicobacter pylori eradication group showed a RR of 0.467 (95% CI: 0.362-0.602, P < 0.001) for the development of metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection of EGC. Subgroup analyses showed consistent results. Publication bias was not detected. Helicobacter pylori eradication after endoscopic resection of EGC reduces the occurrence of metachronous gastric cancer.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin against Helicobacter pylori isolates from India and during infections in mice.

    PubMed

    De, Ronita; Kundu, Parag; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Ramamurthy, T; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Nair, G Balakrish; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2009-04-01

    Treatment failure is a major cause of concern for the Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal diseases like gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Curcumin, diferuloylmethane from turmeric, has recently been shown to arrest H. pylori growth. The antibacterial activity of curcumin against 65 clinical isolates of H. pylori in vitro and during protection against H. pylori infection in vivo was examined. The MIC of curcumin ranges from 5 microg/ml to 50 microg/ml, showing its effectiveness in inhibiting H. pylori growth in vitro irrespective of the genetic makeup of the strains. The nucleotide sequences of the aroE genes, encoding shikimate dehydrogenase, against which curcumin seems to act as a noncompetitive inhibitor, from H. pylori strains presenting differential curcumin MICs showed that curcumin-mediated growth inhibition of Indian H. pylori strains may not be always dependent on the shikimate pathway. The antimicrobial effect of curcumin in H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice and its efficacy in reducing the gastric damage due to infection were examined histologically. Curcumin showed immense therapeutic potential against H. pylori infection as it was highly effective in eradication of H. pylori from infected mice as well as in restoration of H. pylori-induced gastric damage. This study provides novel insights into the therapeutic effect of curcumin against H. pylori infection, suggesting its potential as an alternative therapy, and opens the way for further studies on identification of novel antimicrobial targets of curcumin. PMID:19204190

  10. Association between TNF-α promoter polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori cagA subtype infection

    PubMed Central

    Yea, S; Yang, Y; Jang, W; Lee, Y; Bae, H; Paik, K

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To assess the importance of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) promoter polymorphism in relation to infection with the cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) subtype of Helicobacter pylori within a dyspeptic Korean population. Methods—Eighty three patients with gastric disease and 113 healthy controls were studied. The DNA from gastric biopsy specimens was analysed by H pylori specific and cagA specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To characterise TNF-α polymorphism at positions -308 and -238, PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. Results—Helicobacter pylori infection was closely correlated with G to A transition at position -308 of the TNF-α promoter when compared with healthy controls (odds ratio (OR), 2.912; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.082 to 7.836; p = 0.034). Although TNF-α -308 polymorphism in patients with H pylori was not significantly different from that in patients without H pylori, the -308A polymorphism was strongly associated with H pylori cagA subtype infection when compared with the polymorphism in cagA negative H pylori infection (OR, 8.757; 95% CI, 1.413 to 54.262; p = 0.019) and healthy controls (OR, 3.683; 95% CI, 1.343 to 10.101; p = 0.011). G to A genetic change at position -238 of the TNF-α gene was not significantly associated with H pylori cagA subtype infection. In addition, genetic polymorphisms at both sites of the TNF-α promoter in patients with H pylori infection did not correlate with the severity of disease. Conclusion—TNF-α -308A polymorphism was significantly related to infection with the H pylori cagA subtype in Korean patients with gastric disease. Key Words: Helicobacter pylori • cagA • tumour necrosis factor α • polymorphism PMID:11533078

  11. Urease from Helicobacter pylori is inactivated by sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wade, Kristina L.; Talalay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 280–340 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections. PMID:23583386

  12. Urease from Helicobacter pylori is inactivated by sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wade, Kristina L; Talalay, Paul

    2013-05-24

    Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 260-320 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections. PMID:23583386

  13. Diet, Helicobacter pylori strain-specific infection, and gastric cancer risk among Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Epplein, Meira; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Peek, Richard M; Correa, Pelayo; Gao, Jing; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the association of diet and gastric cancer is equivocal, and the majority of previous studies have not evaluated the interaction of diet and infection with Helicobacter pylori, the leading risk factor for gastric cancer. We examined these associations among 226 cases and 451 controls nested within a prospective cohort. Dietary intakes were calculated from validated food frequency questionnaires. Blood levels of 15 antibodies to Helicobacter pylori proteins were assessed using multiplex serology. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression. Among individuals infected with high-risk Helicobacter pylori (sero-positivity to 5-6 virulent H. pylori proteins), increasing intake of red meat, heme iron, and sodium increased risk (comparing highest tertile to lowest: ORs [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 1.85 [1.01-3.40]; 1.95 [1.06-3.57]; and 1.76 [0.91-3.43], respectively) while increasing intake of fruit decreased gastric cancer risk (comparing highest tertile of intake to lowest: OR [95% CI]: 0.52 [0.28-0.94]). No associations of diet with risk were found among individuals infected with low-risk H. pylori (P for interaction for red meat and sodium: 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). In this population with over 90% prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection, categorizing individuals using H. pylori multiplex serology may identify individuals for whom a diet intervention may be effective. PMID:24666234

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Helicobacter pylori Strain 29CaP Isolated from a Mexican Patient with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mucito-Varela, Eduardo; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Cevallos, Miguel A.; Lozano, Luis; Merino, Enrique; López-Leal, Gamaliel

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer and other gastroduodenal diseases. We report here the complete genome sequence of H. pylori strain 29CaP, isolated from a Mexican patient with gastric cancer. The genomic data analysis revealed a cag-negative H. pylori strain that contains a prophage sequence. PMID:26769924

  15. Lactoferrin Adsorbed onto Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals Controlling - In Vivo - the Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fulgione, Andrea; Nocerino, Nunzia; Iannaccone, Marco; Roperto, Sante; Capuano, Federico; Roveri, Norberto; Lelli, Marco; Crasto, Antonio; Calogero, Armando; Pilloni, Argenia Paola; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Background The resistance of Helicobacter pylori to the antibiotic therapy poses the problem to discover new therapeutic approaches. Recently it has been stated that antibacterial, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant properties of lactoferrin are increased when this protein is surface-linked to biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Objective Based on these knowledge, the aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of lactoferrin delivered by biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with cell free supernatant from probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei as an alternative therapy against Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Antibacterial and antinflammatory properties, humoral antibody induction, histopathological analysis and absence of side effects were evaluated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Results The tests carried out have been demonstrated better performance of lactoferrin delivered by biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles combined with cell free supernatant from probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei compared to both lactoferrin and probiotic alone or pooled. Conclusion These findings indicate the effectiveness and safety of our proposed therapy as alternative treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID:27384186

  16. [Comparison between invasive tests for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections].

    PubMed

    Morais, M; Macedo, E P; da Silva Júnior, M R; Rohr, M R; Ferraz, M L; Castro, R R; Della Libera, E; Siqueira, E S; Brant, C Q; Ferrari Junior, A P

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram negative bacteria that colonizes gastric epithelial cells. It has been associated with several gastric disease including chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis can be done with invasive and non-invasive methods. In invasive methods an endoscopic gastric mucosa biopsy specimen is used. In our study we compare the sensitivity, specificity, costs and applicability of four invasive diagnostic tests: culture, urease ultra-rapid test, histology (Giemsa and Hematoxilineosin stain) and fuchsin stained mucosal slides. Urease test was the easiest, fastest diagnostic test, with sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 100%, being also the cheapest test. We concluded that it should be the test of choice for Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis.

  17. Fluorescence tissue distribution of methylene blue used for photodynamic therapy of Helicobacter Pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millson, Charles E.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Mlkvy, Peter; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with a wide range of pathologies in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Current treatments employing antibiotics are disappointing, and an endoscopic PDT might offer a better alternative. Methylene blue is a widely known histological dye and has been in use for photodynamic therapy experimentally for some years. A prospective application of MB is photosensitization of Helicobacter pylori, but little is known about its effect with light on normal mucosa of the stomach. We studied the fluorescence microscopy of the stomachs of 3 ferrets which had been sensitized by oral route with three different concentrations of MB 1 hour prior to sacrifice. MB at all doses was seen to concentrate on the surface of the mucosa and shows little deeper penetration. As Helicobacter lie on the superficial mucosa, this study suggests that oral dosing with MB should sensitize these bacteria. These findings are an important preliminary to an in vivo trial of PDT for the treatment of H pylori.

  18. Genome, integration, and transduction of a novel temperate phage of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng-Hung; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Yang, Chiou-Ying; Lin, Nien-Tsung

    2012-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common human pathogen that has been identified to be carcinogenic. This study isolated the temperate bacteriophage 1961P from the lysate of a clinical strain of H. pylori isolated in Taiwan. The bacteriophage has an icosahedral head and a short tail, typical of the Podoviridae family. Its double-stranded DNA genome is 26,836 bp long and has 33 open reading frames. Only 9 of the predicted proteins have homologs of known functions, while the remaining 24 are only similar to unknown proteins encoded by Helicobacter prophages and remnants. Analysis of sequences proximal to the phage-host junctions suggests that 1961P may integrate into the host chromosome via a mechanism similar to that of bacteriophage lambda. In addition, 1961P is capable of generalized transduction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation, characterization, genome analysis, integration, and transduction of a Helicobacter pylori phage.

  19. Genome, Integration, and Transduction of a Novel Temperate Phage of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Cheng-Hung; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Yang, Chiou-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common human pathogen that has been identified to be carcinogenic. This study isolated the temperate bacteriophage 1961P from the lysate of a clinical strain of H. pylori isolated in Taiwan. The bacteriophage has an icosahedral head and a short tail, typical of the Podoviridae family. Its double-stranded DNA genome is 26,836 bp long and has 33 open reading frames. Only 9 of the predicted proteins have homologs of known functions, while the remaining 24 are only similar to unknown proteins encoded by Helicobacter prophages and remnants. Analysis of sequences proximal to the phage-host junctions suggests that 1961P may integrate into the host chromosome via a mechanism similar to that of bacteriophage lambda. In addition, 1961P is capable of generalized transduction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation, characterization, genome analysis, integration, and transduction of a Helicobacter pylori phage. PMID:22696647

  20. Biofilms and Helicobacter pylori: Dissemination and persistence within the environment and host

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Steven L; Suleman, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The presence of viable Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the environment is considered to contribute to the levels of H. pylori found in the human population, which also aids to increase its genetic variability and its environmental adaptability and persistence. H. pylori form biofilms both within the in vitro and in vivo environment. This represents an important attribute that assists the survival of this bacterium within environments that are both hostile and adverse to proliferation. It is the aim of this paper to review the ability of H. pylori to form biofilms in vivo and in vitro and to address the inherent mechanisms considered to significantly enhance its persistence within the host and in external environments. Furthermore, the dissemination of H. pylori in the external environment and within the human body and its impact upon infection control will be discussed. PMID:25133015

  1. Transforming growth factor-β: an important mediator in Helicobacter pylori-associated pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nianshuang; Xie, Chuan; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, helical bacillus that specifically colonizes the gastric mucosa. The interaction of virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors contributes to the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated conditions, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Infection with H. pylori has recently been recognized as the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer. As a pleiotropic cytokine, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β regulates various biological processes, including cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. Recent studies have shed new light on the involvement of TGF-β signaling in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. This review focuses on the potential etiological roles of TGF-β in H. pylori-mediated gastric pathogenesis. PMID:26583078

  2. [A new method for detection and erradication of Helicobacter pylori infection by stool antigens test].

    PubMed

    Amèndola, R; Doweck, J; Katz, J; Racca, J; Menendez, G; Schenone, L; Farìas, R; Barrantes, C; Quintanta, C; Zerbo, O; Kogan, Z; Valero, J; Bartellini, M A; Questa, U; Luna, P; Corti, R E

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays technics for Helicobacter pylori detection in stools like culture, and PCR, are expensive and difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to evaluate ELISA test efficacy for detection of H. Pylori antigens in stools comparing this results with standarized technics like histology (Giemsa), ureasa test and UBT C 14. 26 patients were evaluated in this study, ages between 15-75 with upper gastrointestinal symptoms; all of them required gastroduodenal endoscopy, status H. Pylori was determined with methods upon mentioned. 24 hours after endoscopy H. Pylori antigens in stools with the technique Premier Platinum Htsa, Elisa were determined. The detection of H. Pylori antigens in stools accurately identified active H. Pylori infection. The performance characteristics of this non-invasive method was similar in sensibility and specificity to conventional tests.

  3. Helicobacter pylori HP0231 Influences Bacterial Virulence and Is Essential for Gastric Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yu; Anderl, Florian; Kruse, Tobias; Schindele, Franziska; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna; Fischer, Wolfgang; Gerhard, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The Dsb protein family is responsible for introducing disulfide bonds into nascent proteins in prokaryotes, stabilizing the structure of many proteins. Helicobacter pylori HP0231 is a Dsb-like protein, shown to catalyze disulfide bond formation and to participate in redox homeostasis. Notably, many H. pylori virulence factors are stabilized by the formation of disulfide bonds. By employing H. pylori HP0231 deficient strains we analyzed the effect of lack of this bacterial protein on the functionality of virulence factors containing putative disulfide bonds. The lack of H. pylori HP0231 impaired CagA translocation into gastric epithelial cells and reduced VacA-induced cellular vacuolation. Moreover, H. pylori HP0231 deficient bacteria were not able to colonize the gastric mucosa of mice, probably due to compromised motility. Together, our data demonstrate an essential function for H. pylori HP0231 in gastric colonization and proper function of bacterial virulence factors related to gastric pathology. PMID:27138472

  4. Unintended consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Dulciene MM; Rocha, Andreia MC; Crabtree, Jean E

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is predominantly acquired early in life. The prevalence of the infection in childhood is low in developed countries, whereas in developing countries most children are infected by 10 y of age. In poor resource settings, where malnutrition, parasitic/enteropathogen and H. pylori infection co-exist in young children, H. pylori might have potentially more diverse clinical outcomes. This paper reviews the impact of childhood H. pylori infection in developing countries that should now be the urgent focus of future research. The extra-gastric manifestations in early H. pylori infection in infants in poor resource settings might be a consequence of the infection associated initial hypochlorhydria. The potential role of H. pylori infection on iron deficiency, growth impairment, diarrheal disease, malabsorption and cognitive function is discussed in this review. PMID:23988829

  5. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Eye Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Vagge, Aldo; Pulliero, Alessandra; Izzotti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The connection between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and eye diseases has been increasingly reported in the literature and in active research. The implication of this bacterium in chronic eye diseases, such as blepharitis, glaucoma, central serous chorioretinopathy and others, has been hypothesized. Although the mechanisms by which this association occurs are currently unknown, this review describes shared pathogenetic mechanisms in an attempt to identify a lowest common denominator between eye diseases and Hp infection. The aim of this review is to assess whether different studies could be compared and to establish whether or not Hp infection and Eye diseases share common pathogenetic aspects. In particular, it has been focused on oxidative damage as a possible link between these pathologies. Text word search in Medline from 1998 to July 2014. 152 studies were included in our review. Were taken into considerations only studies that related eye diseases more frequent and/or known. Likely oxidative stress plays a key role. All of the diseases studied seem to follow a common pattern that implicates a cellular response correlated with a sublethal dose of oxidative stress. These alterations seem to be shared by both Hp infections and ocular diseases and include the following: decline in mitochondrial function, increases in the rate of reactive oxygen species production, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations, increases in the levels of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids, and decreases in the capacity to degrade oxidatively damaged proteins and other macromolecules. This cascade of events appears to repeat itself in different diseases, regardless of the identity of the affected tissue. The trabecular meshwork, conjunctiva, and retina can each show how oxidative stress may acts as a common disease effector as the Helicobacter infection spreads, supported by the increased oxidative damage and other inflammation. PMID:25526440

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection and eye diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Vagge, Aldo; Pulliero, Alessandra; Izzotti, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    The connection between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and eye diseases has been increasingly reported in the literature and in active research. The implication of this bacterium in chronic eye diseases, such as blepharitis, glaucoma, central serous chorioretinopathy and others, has been hypothesized. Although the mechanisms by which this association occurs are currently unknown, this review describes shared pathogenetic mechanisms in an attempt to identify a lowest common denominator between eye diseases and Hp infection. The aim of this review is to assess whether different studies could be compared and to establish whether or not Hp infection and Eye diseases share common pathogenetic aspects. In particular, it has been focused on oxidative damage as a possible link between these pathologies. Text word search in Medline from 1998 to July 2014. 152 studies were included in our review. Were taken into considerations only studies that related eye diseases more frequent and/or known. Likely oxidative stress plays a key role. All of the diseases studied seem to follow a common pattern that implicates a cellular response correlated with a sublethal dose of oxidative stress. These alterations seem to be shared by both Hp infections and ocular diseases and include the following: decline in mitochondrial function, increases in the rate of reactive oxygen species production, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations, increases in the levels of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids, and decreases in the capacity to degrade oxidatively damaged proteins and other macromolecules. This cascade of events appears to repeat itself in different diseases, regardless of the identity of the affected tissue. The trabecular meshwork, conjunctiva, and retina can each show how oxidative stress may acts as a common disease effector as the Helicobacter infection spreads, supported by the increased oxidative damage and other inflammation. PMID:25526440

  7. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in biofilms by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Linke, S; Lenz, J; Gemein, S; Exner, M; Gebel, J

    2010-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a cause of peptic ulcer disease and a causative agent of gastric cancer. Currently, a possible waterborne route of transmission or a possible survival in drinking water biofilms is discussed. H. pylori, like many other bacterial strains, has the ability to enter the viable but nonculturable state (vbnc) in case of unfavorable conditions. Therefore it is necessary to develop new analysis tools for vbnc bacteria. We established a fast and reliable method to detect H. pylori in drinking water biofilms by quantitative real-time PCR which makes it redundant to use difficult cultivation methods for nonculturable bacteria. With this method it was possible to identify water biofilms as a niche for H. pylori. The real-time PCR analysis targets the ureA subunit of the Helicobacter pylori urea gene which showed high specificity and sensitivity. The quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect H. pylori in biofilms of different age, unspiked and spiked with predetermined levels of cells. The drinking water biofilms were generated in a silicone-tube model. The DNA-sequences for probe and primers showed no cross-homologies to other related bacteria and it was possible to detect less than 10 genomic units of H. pylori. This novel method is a useful tool for a fast screening of drinking water biofilms for H. pylori. The results suggest that drinking water biofilms may act as a reservoir for H. pylori which raises new concerns about the role of biofilms as vectors for pathogens like Helicobacter pylori.

  8. Helicobacter pylori status among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Colmers-Gray, Isabelle N.; Vandermeer, Ben; Greidanus, Robert I.; Kolber, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the Helicobacter pylori status of patients who underwent gastroscopy. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Peace River Community Health Centre in rural northwestern Alberta. Participants Data were collected from patients who had a gastroscopy performed by either of 2 family physicians between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012. Main outcome measures The proportion of patients who had positive test results for H pylori overall and among first-time gastroscopy patients. For first-time gastroscopy patients, the associations between H pylori infection and patient age, sex, residence, and procedural indications and findings were explored. Results A total of 251 gastroscopies were conducted in 229 unique patients during the study period. Overall, 12.4% (95% CI 8.3% to 16.4%) of patients had positive results for H pylori and among the 159 first-time gastroscopy patients, 17.6% (95% CI 11.7% to 23.5%) had positive test results for H pylori. Helicobacter pylori status did not differ significantly by geography, sex, or age. The prevalence of H pylori was higher among patients with H pylori–related indications for gastroscopy (such as dyspepsia and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding) than among patients with other indications; however, H pylori infection was not statistically significantly greater in patients diagnosed with peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion The prevalence of H pylori infection among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta appears lower than other Canadian estimates. In regions with low H pylori rates, patients with dyspepsia might be better served by acid suppression and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug cessation before investigating for H pylori infection. Population-based research is required to further describe regional differences in H pylori rates. PMID:27629690

  9. Co-existence of Sarcina Organisms and Helicobacter pylori Gastritis/Duodenitis in Pediatric Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Jennifer L.; Nayar, Suresh K.; Anders, Paige D.; D’Amico, Michael; Butnor, Kelly J.; Wilcox, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcina are gram-positive anaerobic bacteria found to be associated with delayed gastric emptying and gastric outlet obstruction. We describe two cases of Sarcina co-existing with Helicobacter pylori organisms in pediatric siblings presenting within four months of each other with pyloric obstruction secondary to severe gastritis/duodenitis. The co-existence of Sarcina and Helicobacter pylori has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. Its characteristic tetrad packeted morphology permits Sarcina to be readily identified on routine sections. Detection of these organisms in gastric biopsies should prompt consideration of gastric outlet obstruction and/or delayed gastric emptying as a possible etiologic factor. PMID:25664331

  10. Echoes of a Distant Past: The cag Pathogenicity Island of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Pacchiani, Nicola; Censini, Stefano; Buti, Ludovico; Covacci, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses the multiple roles of the CagA protein encoded by the cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori and highlights the CagA degradation activities on p53. By subverting the p53 tumor suppressor pathway CagA induces a strong antiapoptotic effect. Helicobacter pylori infection has been always associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The pro-oncogenic functions of CagA also target the tumor suppressor ASPP2. In the absence of tumor suppressor genes, cells survive and proliferate at times and in places where their survival and proliferation are inappropriate. PMID:24097901

  11. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Rural and Urban Dyspeptic Patients from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Monica; Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Reyes, Nelson; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Rojas, Héctor; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to assess the Helicobacter pylori prevalence in a rural mestizo population and compare it to an urban population from Venezuela. The study was performed in gastric juice samples of 71 dyspeptic patients from Caracas (urban) and 39 from Tucupita (rural), in the Orinoco Delta region. Helicobacter pylori was detected by amplification of 16S rRNA, glmM, and ureA genes in 55.0% patients from urban and 87.2% from rural populations. cagA was found positive in 51% and 62% urban and rural patients, respectively. Non-H. pylori Helicobacter species were not detected in the urban population, but was found in 7.7% of patients in the rural study site. Frequency values of the 16S rRNA, glmM, and ureA genes were higher in the rural population. The odds ratio for each gene was 15.18 for 16S rRNA, 2.34 for glmM, 2.89 for ureA, and 1.53 cagA, showing significant differences except for cagA when gene frequency was compared in both populations. These results demonstrate a higher frequency of H. pylori and gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infection in a rural mestizo population with low hygienic standards as compared with city dwellers, representing a potential risk for the development of gastroduodenal diseases. PMID:26195456

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer by the endoscopic phenol red test

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, K; Tatsuta, M; Iishi, H; Baba, M; Ishiguro, S

    1998-01-01

    Background—An endoscopic procedure that uses a pH indicator called phenol red to assess Helicobacter pylori infected gastric mucosa has recently been developed. This test makes it possible to take biopsy specimens from H pylori infected areas. 
Aim—This test was applied to patients with early gastric cancers to clarify the role of H pylori in gastric carcinogenesis. 
Subjects—Sixty five patients with early gastric cancer (50 with differentiated adenocarcinoma and 15 with undifferentiated adenocarcinoma). 
Methods—Patients with early gastric cancer underwent the endoscopic phenol red test before their operation. In this test, areas infected with H pylori can be observed as "coloured" areas where phenol red was turned from yellow to red. 
Results—H pylori infection was significantly (p<0.001) more frequent in patients with differentiated adenocarcinomas than in those with undifferentiated adenocarcinomas. Differentiated adenocarcinomas were usually located in areas of mucosa infected with H pylori, but undifferentiated adenocarcinomas were frequently located in non-infected areas. 
Conclusion—H pylori may be a strong risk factor for differentiated early gastric cancer. 

 Keywords: endoscopic phenol red test; Helicobacter pylori; gastric cancer; differentiated adenocarcinoma; high risk factor PMID:9505880

  13. Genetic determinants and clinico-pathological outcomes of helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Oluwasola, A O

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a spiral Gram-negative bacterium with a relatively small genome and is known to be the most common human bacterial infection worldwide, infecting about half of the world's population. The bacterium represents one of the most successful human pathogens, inducing severe clinical symptoms only in a small subset of individuals, thus signifying a highly balanced degree of co-evolution of H. pylori and humans. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection varies greatly among countries and among population groups within the same country, but is falling in most developed countries. The clinical course of H. pylori infection is highly variable and is influenced by both microbial and host factors including genetic susceptibility while the pattern and distribution of inflammation correlate strongly with the risk of clinical sequelae, namely duodenal or gastric ulcers, mucosal atrophy, gastric carcinoma, or gastric lymphoma. Cytokine gene polymorphisms directly influence inter-individual variation in the magnitude of cytokine response, and this clearly contributes to an individual's ultimate clinical outcome. Polymorphisms in genes coding for innate immune factors have also been incriminated in the pathogenesis of H. pylori related disease, while promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is considered an important factor in carcinogenesis and known to be present in H. pylori associated gastric tumors. Functional genomics may fill many of the gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection and accelerate the development of novel therapies, including H. pylori specific antimicrobial agents.

  14. GENETIC DETERMINANTS AND CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Oluwasola, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a spiral Gram-negative bacterium with a relatively small genome and is known to be the most common human bacterial infection worldwide, infecting about half of the world's population. The bacterium represents one of the most successful human pathogens, inducing severe clinical symptoms only in a small subset of individuals, thus signifying a highly balanced degree of co-evolution of H. pylori and humans. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection varies greatly among countries and among population groups within the same country, but is falling in most developed countries. The clinical course of H. pylori infection is highly variable and is influenced by both microbial and host factors including genetic susceptibility while the pattern and distribution of inflammation correlate strongly with the risk of clinical sequelae, namely duodenal or gastric ulcers, mucosal atrophy, gastric carcinoma, or gastric lymphoma. Cytokine gene polymorphisms directly influence inter-individual variation in the magnitude of cytokine response, and this clearly contributes to an individual's ultimate clinical outcome. Polymorphisms in genes coding for innate immune factors have also been incriminated in the pathogenesis of H. pylori related disease, while promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is considered an important factor in carcinogenesis and known to be present in H. pylori associated gastric tumors. Functional genomics may fill many of the gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection and accelerate the development of novel therapies, including H. pylori specific antimicrobial agents. PMID:25332697

  15. Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. 13C-urea breath test.

    PubMed

    Graham, D Y; Klein, P D

    2000-12-01

    The preferred schema for management of Helicobacter pylori infection is diagnosis, treatment, and confirmation of cure. The 13C-urea breath test is ideal for active H. pylori infection for those in whom endoscopy is not required (e.g., those in whom cancer is not suspected) because it offers the combination of simplicity, accuracy, reliability, and absence of exposure to radioactivity. New versions of the test also offer increasing simplicity and lower costs. PMID:11190073

  16. Pathogenesis, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of Helicobacter pylori-associated immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Plebani, Mario; Montagnana, Martina; Veneri, Dino; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a common autoimmune disease mediated by autoantibodies against platelet glycoproteins. This hemorrhagic disorder may be primary or secondary to various illnesses, including lymphoproliferative, autoimmune, or infectious diseases. Among the latter causes, there is increasing laboratory and clinical evidence that documents a pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori infection in ITP. The aim of this review is to analyze the current knowledge on the pathogenic, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of H. pylori-associated ITP.

  17. Association of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nanbakhsh, Fariba; Behrouzi-Lak, Tahereh; Tabean, Mahsa; Oshnouei, Sima; Mazlumi, Pooya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the importance of cytokine type in embryo implantation in uterus specified and activated macrophages interfere the tube movements and embryo retention in uterine tubes by smooth muscle relaxation and disrupting ciliary function. Therefore, increased risk of infection with HP during pregnancy, we investigated relation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and prevalence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in this study. Materials and methods: This is cross-sectional study from March 2012 to May 2013. Totally 207 women were enrolled randomly from which 101 had EP (Case group) and 106 were selected as control group with normal pregnancy. A 2-cc blood sample was taken from each patient to evaluate the specific IgG titer by ELISA method. All results of samples with positive H. pylori IgG were assayed for anti-CagA, IgG antibodies. A questionnaire was filled for each subject. The associations between CagA positive cases with odds of Ectopic pregnancy incidence were analyzed by using SPSS software, ver. 19 (Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Mean (± SD) of age were 21.0 ± 5.78 and 30.78 ± 5.10 years for cases and controls group respectively. These groups didn’t show any significance difference in age and parity.H. pylori IgG antibodies were positive among 99 and 103 (98.2% vs. 97.2%) in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Relationship between IgG status and EP was not significant (OR = 1.31: 95% CI = 0.7-2.52, Pvalue = 0.37). In particular anti-CagA antibodies were positive among 45 and 39(45.92% vs. 36.97%) in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Among women with CagA positive strains had higher odds of Ep (OR = 1.46: 95% CI = 0.8-2.65, Pvalue = 0.18), but it wasn’t significant. Conclusion: According to the result of this study there was not any association between HP infection and Ectopic pregnancy. We recommend more studies with larger sample size for determining the effect of CagA positive strains on EP. PMID:27648097

  18. Association of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nanbakhsh, Fariba; Behrouzi-Lak, Tahereh; Tabean, Mahsa; Oshnouei, Sima; Mazlumi, Pooya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the importance of cytokine type in embryo implantation in uterus specified and activated macrophages interfere the tube movements and embryo retention in uterine tubes by smooth muscle relaxation and disrupting ciliary function. Therefore, increased risk of infection with HP during pregnancy, we investigated relation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and prevalence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in this study. Materials and methods: This is cross-sectional study from March 2012 to May 2013. Totally 207 women were enrolled randomly from which 101 had EP (Case group) and 106 were selected as control group with normal pregnancy. A 2-cc blood sample was taken from each patient to evaluate the specific IgG titer by ELISA method. All results of samples with positive H. pylori IgG were assayed for anti-CagA, IgG antibodies. A questionnaire was filled for each subject. The associations between CagA positive cases with odds of Ectopic pregnancy incidence were analyzed by using SPSS software, ver. 19 (Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Mean (± SD) of age were 21.0 ± 5.78 and 30.78 ± 5.10 years for cases and controls group respectively. These groups didn’t show any significance difference in age and parity.H. pylori IgG antibodies were positive among 99 and 103 (98.2% vs. 97.2%) in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Relationship between IgG status and EP was not significant (OR = 1.31: 95% CI = 0.7-2.52, Pvalue = 0.37). In particular anti-CagA antibodies were positive among 45 and 39(45.92% vs. 36.97%) in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Among women with CagA positive strains had higher odds of Ep (OR = 1.46: 95% CI = 0.8-2.65, Pvalue = 0.18), but it wasn’t significant. Conclusion: According to the result of this study there was not any association between HP infection and Ectopic pregnancy. We recommend more studies with larger sample size for determining the effect of CagA positive strains on EP.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection--a boon or a bane: lessons from studies in a low-prevalence population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Mahendra Raj, Sundramoorthy; Graham, David Y

    2013-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is etiologically associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases which are both important public health burdens which could be largely eliminated by H. pylori eradication. However, some investigators urge caution based on the hypothesis that eradication of H. pylori may result in an increase in the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and childhood asthma. The ethnic Malays of northeastern Peninsular Malaysia have long had a low prevalence of H. pylori infection and, as expected, the incidence of gastric cancer and its precursor lesions is exceptionally low. The availability of a population with a low H. pylori prevalence and generally poor sanitation allows separation of H. pylori from the hygiene hypothesis and direct testing of whether absence of H. pylori is associated with untoward consequence. Contrary to predictions, in Malays, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, distal esophageal cancers, and childhood asthma are all of low incidence. This suggests that H. pylori is not protective rather the presence of H. pylori infection is likely a surrogate for poor hygiene and not an important source of antigens involved in the hygiene hypothesis. Helicobacter pylori in Malays is related to transmission from H. pylori-infected non-Malay immigrants. The factors responsible for low H. pylori acquisition, transmission, and burden of H. pylori infection in Malays remain unclear and likely involves a combination of environmental, host (gene polymorphisms), and strain virulence factors. Based on evidence from this population, absence of H. pylori infection is more likely to be boon than a bane.

  20. Role of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter suis and Helicobacter pylori infections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Ducatelle, Richard; De Bruyne, Ellen; Joosten, Myrthe; Bosschem, Iris; Smet, Annemieke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2015-03-13

    Helicobacter (H.) suis can colonize the stomach of pigs as well as humans, causing chronic gastritis and other gastric pathological changes including gastric ulceration and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Recently, a virulence factor of H. suis, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), has been demonstrated to play an important role in the induction of human gastric epithelial cell death and modulation of lymphocyte proliferation depending on glutamine and glutathione catabolism. In the present study, the relevance of GGT in the pathogenesis of H. suis infection was studied in mouse and Mongolian gerbil models. In addition, the relative importance of H. suis GGT was compared with that of the H. pylori GGT. A significant and different contribution of the GGT of H. suis and H. pylori was seen in terms of bacterial colonization, inflammation and the evoked immune response. In contrast to H. pyloriΔggt strains, H. suisΔggt strains were capable of colonizing the stomach at levels comparable to WT strains, although they induced significantly less overall gastric inflammation in mice. This was characterized by lower numbers of T and B cells, and a lower level of epithelial cell proliferation. In general, compared to WT strain infection, ggt mutant strains of H. suis triggered lower levels of Th1 and Th17 signature cytokine expression. A pronounced upregulation of B-lymphocyte chemoattractant CXCL13 was observed, both in animals infected with WT and ggt mutant strains of H. suis. Interestingly, H. suis GGT was shown to affect the glutamine metabolism of gastric epithelium through downregulation of the glutamine transporter ASCT2.

  1. Chromatographic immunoassays for Helicobacter pylori detection – are they reliable in Mali, West Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Austarheim, Ingvild; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Togola, Adiaratou; Diakité, Chiaka; Diallo, Drissa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal diseases are major reasons for morbidity in Mali. As Helicobacter pylori is known to play a major role in gastritis and gastric ulcer we wanted to find a simple method for detection. Methods Twenty-nine volunteers with confirmed gastric ulcer by gastroscopy and 59 randomly selected volunteers were diagnosed by using the rapid serological test Clearview® H. Pylori. The ImmunoCard STAT!® HpSA®test was applied on stool from 65 volunteers seeking help for gastrointestinal related ailments. Results A Helicobacter pylori prevalence of 21% was found among the individuals with confirmed gastric ulcer, 44% among the randomly selected volunteers and 14% in individuals with gastrointestinal related ailments. Conclusion According to what is already known about the aetiology of gastric ailments and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in neighboring countries, the infection rates in our study appear strikingly low. This might indicate that Clearview® H. Pylori and ImmunoCard STAT!® HpSA® have low sensitivities in the populations studied. Strain variability of H. Pylori may be an explanation. The tests need to be properly evaluated in Mali before they can be relied upon as diagnostic tools. PMID:23646208

  2. [Generalization of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and its future in Japan].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shin'ichi; Tokunaga, Kengo; Tanaka, Akifumi

    2006-05-01

    After official acceptance of eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori infected peptic ulcer disease in 2000, this treatment has been generalized as ulcer therapy in Japan. In 2003 the consensus statement of the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research (JSHR) for Helicobacter pylori infection was presented. According to this statement MALT lymphoma was recommended to treat H. pylori infection because of the efficacy of its out come. Atrophic gastritis was also advised to treat H. pylori infection for the purpose of preventing gastric cancer development. The extra alimentary disease such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was still under evaluation. In diagnostic method the importance of drug susceptibility test is rising because of the increase of drug resistant H. pylori strain in Japan. The false positive case of urea breath test, the accuracy of new Japanese original serology tests and the stool antigen test are also under investigation. The standard regimen of H. pylori eradication therapy in Japan is proton pomp inhibitor (PPI) + amoxicilin (AMPC) + clarithromycin (CAM). The problem of this regimen is the decrease of eradication rate. The reason of this trend might be increase of CAM resistant strain. JSHR recommended a rescue regimen as PPI + AMPC + metronidazole for the patient whose first eradication therapy was unsuccessful result. The eradication of this second line regimen was reported as about 90%.

  3. Tackling Critical Catalytic Residues in Helicobacter pylori l-Asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Maristella; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Valentini, Giovanna; Scotti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial asparaginases (amidohydrolases, EC 3.5.1.1) are important enzymes in cancer therapy, especially for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. They are tetrameric enzymes able to catalyze the deamination of l-ASN and, to a variable extent, of l-GLN, on which leukemia cells are dependent for survival. In contrast to other known l-asparaginases, Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 type II enzyme (HpASNase) is cooperative and has a low affinity towards l-GLN. In this study, some critical amino acids forming the active site of HpASNase (T16, T95 and E289) have been tackled by rational engineering in the attempt to better define their role in catalysis and to achieve a deeper understanding of the peculiar cooperative behavior of this enzyme. Mutations T16E, T95D and T95H led to a complete loss of enzymatic activity. Mutation E289A dramatically reduced the catalytic activity of the enzyme, but increased its thermostability. Interestingly, E289 belongs to a loop that is very variable in l-asparaginases from the structure, sequence and length point of view, and which could be a main determinant of their different catalytic features. PMID:25826146

  4. [Helicobacter pylori infection in children: a new focus].

    PubMed

    Yee, K-C

    2014-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a high prevalence of chronic infectious pathogens, though not necessarily lead to symptoms, but it can affect the immune system. More than of the world's population harbors the bacterium, and most adult Hp infection was obtained in childhood. Hp infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer, although children rarely suffer from peptic ulcer disease. Hp infection is closely related to chronic gastritis, dyspepsia, chronic diarrhea and recurrent abdominal pain in children. In recent years, Hp infection may also participate in some of non-digestive diseases, such as children's nutritional iron deficiency anemia, growth retardation, malnutrition, autoimmune idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, chronic urticaria, as well as the development of adult atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases and some nervous system diseases. Hp infection can be a lifetime issues of children. Hp infection of children will bring many socio-economic problems. In this paper, the correlation of Hp infection in stomach and oral cavity, and diagnostic technology, prevention as well as treatment strategies for Hp infection will be discussed.

  5. Influence of Helical Cell Shape on Motility of Helicobacter Pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, Joseph; Martinez, Laura; Salama, Nina; Bansil, Rama; Boston University Collaboration; University of Washington Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria's body shape plays an important role in motility by effecting chemotaxis, swimming mechanisms, and swimming speed. A prime example of this is the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori;whose helical shape has long been believed to provide an advantage in penetrating the viscous mucus layer protecting the stomach lining, its niche environment. To explore this we have performed bacteria tracking experiments of both wild-type bacteria along with mutants, which have a straight rod shape. A wide distribution of speeds was found. This distribution reflects both a result of temporal variation in speed and different shape morphologies in the bacterial population. Our results show that body shape plays less role in a simple fluid. However, in a more viscous solution the helical shape results in increased swimming speeds. In addition, we use experimentally obtained cell shape measurements to model the hydrodynamic influence of cell shape on swimming speed using resistive force theory. The results agree with the experiment, especially when we fold in the temporal distribution. Interestingly, our results suggest distinct wild-type subpopulations with varying number of half helices can lead to different swimming speeds. NSF PHY

  6. Second and third line treatment options for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingjun; Ang, Tiing Leong

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful bacterium with a high global prevalence and the infection carries significant disease burden. It is also becoming increasingly difficult to eradicate and the main reason for this is growing primary antibiotic resistance rates in a world where antibiotics are frequently prescribed and readily available. Despite knowing much more about the bacterium since its discovery, such as its genomic makeup and pathogenesis, we have seen declining treatment success. Therefore, clinicians today must be prepared to face one, two or even multiple treatment failures, and should be equipped with sufficient knowledge to decide on the appropriate salvage therapy when this happens. This article discusses the factors contributing to treatment failure and reviews the second and third-line treatment strategies that have been investigated. Established empiric second line treatment options include both bismuth based quadruple therapy and levofloxacin based triple therapy. Antibiotic testing is recommended prior to initiating third line treatment. In the event that antibiotic susceptibility testing is unavailable, third line treatment options include rifabutin, rifaximin and sitafloxacin based therapies. PMID:24587627

  7. Outer membrane biogenesis in Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, and Helicobacter pylori: paradigm deviations in H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Liechti, George; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is capable of colonizing the gastric mucosa of the human stomach using a variety of factors associated with or secreted from its outer membrane (OM). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and numerous OM proteins have been shown to be involved in adhesion and immune stimulation/evasion. Many of these factors are essential for colonization and/or pathogenesis in a variety of animal models. Despite this wide array of potential targets present on the bacterial surface, the ability of H. pylori to vary its OM profile limits the effectiveness of vaccines or therapeutics that target any single one of these components. However, it has become evident that the proteins comprising the complexes that transport the majority of these molecules to the OM are highly conserved and often essential. The field of membrane biogenesis has progressed remarkably in the last few years, and the possibility now exists for targeting the mechanisms by which β-barrel proteins, lipoproteins, and LPS are transported to the OM, resulting in loss of bacterial fitness and significant altering of membrane permeability. In this review, the OM transport machinery for LPS, lipoproteins, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are discussed. While the principal investigations of these transport mechanisms have been conducted in Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis, here these systems will be presented in the genetic context of ε proteobacteria. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that minimalist genomes, such as that of Helicobacter pylori, offer insight into the smallest number of components required for these essential pathways to function. Interestingly, in the majority of ε proteobacteria, while the inner and OM associated apparatus of LPS, lipoprotein, and OMP transport pathways appear to all be intact, most of the components associated with the periplasmic compartment are either missing or are almost unrecognizable when compared to their E. coli counterparts. Eventual

  8. Outer membrane biogenesis in Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, and Helicobacter pylori: paradigm deviations in H. pylori

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, George; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is capable of colonizing the gastric mucosa of the human stomach using a variety of factors associated with or secreted from its outer membrane (OM). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and numerous OM proteins have been shown to be involved in adhesion and immune stimulation/evasion. Many of these factors are essential for colonization and/or pathogenesis in a variety of animal models. Despite this wide array of potential targets present on the bacterial surface, the ability of H. pylori to vary its OM profile limits the effectiveness of vaccines or therapeutics that target any single one of these components. However, it has become evident that the proteins comprising the complexes that transport the majority of these molecules to the OM are highly conserved and often essential. The field of membrane biogenesis has progressed remarkably in the last few years, and the possibility now exists for targeting the mechanisms by which β-barrel proteins, lipoproteins, and LPS are transported to the OM, resulting in loss of bacterial fitness and significant altering of membrane permeability. In this review, the OM transport machinery for LPS, lipoproteins, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are discussed. While the principal investigations of these transport mechanisms have been conducted in Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis, here these systems will be presented in the genetic context of ε proteobacteria. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that minimalist genomes, such as that of Helicobacter pylori, offer insight into the smallest number of components required for these essential pathways to function. Interestingly, in the majority of ε proteobacteria, while the inner and OM associated apparatus of LPS, lipoprotein, and OMP transport pathways appear to all be intact, most of the components associated with the periplasmic compartment are either missing or are almost unrecognizable when compared to their E. coli counterparts. Eventual

  9. Beyond the stomach: An updated view of Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Testerman, Traci L; Morris, James

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an extremely common, yet underappreciated, pathogen that is able to alter host physiology and subvert the host immune response, allowing it to persist for the life of the host. H. pylori is the primary cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In the United States, the annual cost associated with peptic ulcer disease is estimated to be $6 billion and gastric cancer kills over 700000 people per year globally. The prevalence of H. pylori infection remains high (> 50%) in much of the world, although the infection rates are dropping in some developed nations. The drop in H. pylori prevalence could be a double-edged sword, reducing the incidence of gastric diseases while increasing the risk of allergies and esophageal diseases. The list of diseases potentially caused by H. pylori continues to grow; however, mechanistic explanations of how H. pylori could contribute to extragastric diseases lag far behind clinical studies. A number of host factors and H. pylori virulence factors act in concert to determine which individuals are at the highest risk of disease. These include bacterial cytotoxins and polymorphisms in host genes responsible for directing the immune response. This review discusses the latest advances in H. pylori pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Up-to-date information on correlations between H. pylori and extragastric diseases is also provided. PMID:25278678

  10. Effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba Extract Against Helicobacter pylori-Induced Inflammation in Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeong Hoon; Khin, Phyu Phyu; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the characteristics of Helicobacter pylori and the effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extract on the expression of cytokines in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Cultured human adenocarcinoma gastric cells (AGS) were infected by H. pylori in RPMI 1640 media. Cell growth was measured by trypan blue assay. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate effect of extract containing Quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) on the expression of inflammatory factors and the inhibition on cell growth. Furthermore, we compared the inhibitory effects with various combinations of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, omeprazole, and ECQ. The urease test with Christensen's Urea Agar was performed to identify the urease activity of H. pylori and the effect ECQ has on urease activity. When the cells were exposed to H. pylori, the trypan blue assay revealed a decrease in the rate of cell growth. Western blot analysis showed that H. pylori-infected cells had increased levels of degraded IκB-α and inflammatory factors. Pretreatment with ECQ inhibited interleukin expression induced by H. pylori in a dose-dependent manner. A combination of ECQ and antibiotics inhibited cytokine expression more effectively than other treatments. H. pylori displayed significant urease activity. ECQ did not significantly inhibit urease activity. These data suggest that H. pylori infection has cytotoxic effects against AGS cells, and ECQ may inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. PMID:26580421

  11. Vascular risks and complications in diabetes mellitus: the role of helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Sherifa Ahmed; Amine, Nabila F; Galal, Ghada M; Helal, Shaaban R; Tag El-Din, Lubna M; Shawky, Ola A; Ahmed, Eman A; Abdel Rahman, Mohamed S

    2008-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at risk for Helicobacter pylori infection. This infection has been linked to atherosclerosis and its vascular complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the: (1) prevalence of H pylori infection in patients with DM; (2) association between diabetic vascular complications and H pylori infection; and (3) influence of H pylori infection on atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarkers. In this study, we evaluated 80 patients with DM for atherosclerosis; cardiac, cerebral, and peripheral vascular diseases; retinopathy; neuropathy; and nephropathy. We estimated the blood levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, complete blood cell count, erythrocytic sedimentation rate, lipid profile, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and anti-H pylori IgG antibodies. H pylori infection was detected in 85% of patients versus 76.7% for control subjects. Carotid artery intima-media thickness was significant in H pylori-infected patients. IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were significantly associated with H pylori infection. In multivariate analysis, blood glucose, triglycerides, erythrocytic sedimentation rate, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased the odds for atherothrombotic cause of cerebral ischemia in H pylori infection. We concluded that H pylori infection is common in DM and seems to be linked to the presence of atherosclerosis and ischemic cerebrovascular stroke. This effect could be mediated by increasing cytokine levels.

  12. Effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba Extract Against Helicobacter pylori-Induced Inflammation in Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeong Hoon; Khin, Phyu Phyu; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the characteristics of Helicobacter pylori and the effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extract on the expression of cytokines in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Cultured human adenocarcinoma gastric cells (AGS) were infected by H. pylori in RPMI 1640 media. Cell growth was measured by trypan blue assay. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate effect of extract containing Quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) on the expression of inflammatory factors and the inhibition on cell growth. Furthermore, we compared the inhibitory effects with various combinations of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, omeprazole, and ECQ. The urease test with Christensen's Urea Agar was performed to identify the urease activity of H. pylori and the effect ECQ has on urease activity. When the cells were exposed to H. pylori, the trypan blue assay revealed a decrease in the rate of cell growth. Western blot analysis showed that H. pylori-infected cells had increased levels of degraded IκB-α and inflammatory factors. Pretreatment with ECQ inhibited interleukin expression induced by H. pylori in a dose-dependent manner. A combination of ECQ and antibiotics inhibited cytokine expression more effectively than other treatments. H. pylori displayed significant urease activity. ECQ did not significantly inhibit urease activity. These data suggest that H. pylori infection has cytotoxic effects against AGS cells, and ECQ may inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines in H. pylori-infected AGS cells.

  13. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in aberrant DNA methylation along multistep gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Nayoung; Jung, Younmu; Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

    2010-06-01

    CpG island hypermethylation is frequently found during gastric carcinogenesis. We investigated methylation profiles of p16, LOX, HAND1, THBD, p41ARC, and APC along multistep gastric carcinogenesis and determined their association with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methylation levels in these six genes were evaluated in noncancerous gastric biopsy specimens using quantitative methylation-specific PCR in 459 patients with gastric cancer (GC), 137 with dysplasia, and 248 controls. Controls were divided into four subgroups sorted by current H. pylori infection status (active vs past or negative infection) and the presence of intestinal metaplasia (IM). In controls, active H. pylori infection significantly increased methylation levels in THBD, LOX, and HAND1 (all P < 0.001), and hypermethylation of THBD, HAND1, and APC was associated with IM. Aberrant DNA hypermethylation was correlated well with activity of H. pylori-associated gastritis. However, methylation levels in LOX, HAND1, THBD, and p41ARC remained increased in cases with past H. pylori infection compared to those that were H. pylori negative (all P < 0.05). Hypermethylation of THBD, and possibly p16, was significantly associated with GC, regardless of the status of current H. pylori infection (all P < 0.05). These results suggest that aberrant DNA hypermethylation caused by H. pylori-associated gastritis occurs in a gene-specific manner along gastric carcinogenesis, which can be persistent even after the disappearance of H. pylori. Aberrant methylation of THBD might provide a link between H. pylori infection and development of GC.

  14. Validation of western Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody assays in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee-Won; Hur, Mina; Yun, Yeo-Min

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is endemic in Korea, and serology testing is widely performed. The aim of this study was to validate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of Korean and Western serological assays for H. pylori detection in Korean adults. The 114 Korean adults who visited our centre over a 6-month period for the evaluation of H. pylori infection using the urea breath test (UBT) were enrolled in this prospective study. Anti-H. pylori IgG was measured using three commercially available immunoassays: Genedia H. pylori ELISA (Green Cross Medical Science), Chorus helicobacter IgG (DIESSE Diagnostica Senese) and Vidas H. pylori IgG (bioMérieux). Positive UBT findings were obtained in 40.6% of included subjects. The sensitivities and the specificities of Vidas, Chorus and Genedia were 89.7%, 100% and 100% and 85.5%, 75.4% and 80.7%, respectively. We found no differences in sensitivity between the Vidas and Chorus (P=0.125), Chorus and Genedia (P=0.125) and Vidas and Genedia (P=1.000) assays. There were also no differences in specificity between the Vidas and Chorus (P=0.070), Chorus and Genedia (P=0.508) and Vidas and Genedia (P=0.549) assays. In Korean adults, the Genedia H. pylori ELISA, Chorus helicobacter IgG and Vidas H. pylori IgG assays exhibited a high concurrence rate with similar diagnostic accuracy. Thus, both the Korean and Western non-invasive assays are reliable for serodiagnosis of H. pylori in Korean individuals.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients in North India.

    PubMed

    Gehlot, Valentina; Mahant, Shweta; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Das, Kunal; De, Ronita; Kar, Premashis; Das, Rajashree

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal diseases are very common in India. Antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics against H. pylori is increasing very rapidly. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of H. pylori strains from India against commonly used antibiotics in H. pylori treatment. Helicobacter pylori were cultured from 68 patients suffering from various gastroduodenal diseases in North India. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to different antibiotics were determined by agar dilution. The clinical diagnosis of the 68 patients who were H. pylori culture-positive were gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (n=23), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (n=22), non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (n=13), antral gastritis (n=3), duodenal ulcer (n=2) and others (n=5). Of the 68 H. pylori isolates, 20 (29.4%) showed no resistance. The prevalence of drug resistance was 70.6%, including resistance to metronidazole (48.5%), furazolidone (22.1%), amoxicillin (17.6%), tetracycline (16.2%) and clarithromycin (11.8%). Dual and multiple drug resistance were found in 26.5% and 8.8% of cases, respectively. In conclusion, more than two-thirds of the isolated H. pylori strains showed resistance to at least one of the antibiotics for H. pylori treatment. Metronidazole resistance was most prevalent amongst the isolates tested. Emergence of dual and multidrug resistance is of great concern and there is an urgent need for regular antibiotic resistance surveillance studies. Amoxicillin- and clarithromycin-based anti-H. pylori regimens commonly prescribed for triple therapy in India show least resistance and hence are appropriate for anti-H. pylori management in India. PMID:27436467

  16. Bacterial populations as perfect gases: genomic integrity and diversification tensions in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Kang, Josephine; Blaser, Martin J

    2006-11-01

    Microorganisms that persist in single hosts face particular challenges. Helicobacter pylori, an obligate bacterial parasite of the human stomach, has evolved a lifestyle that features interstrain competition and intraspecies cooperation, both of which involve horizontal gene transfer. Microbial species must maintain genomic integrity, yet H. pylori has evolved a complex nonlinear system for diversification that exists in dynamic tension with the mechanisms for ensuring fidelity. Here, we review these tensions and propose that they create a dynamic pool of genetic variants that is sufficiently genetically diverse to allow H. pylori to occupy all of the potential niches in the stomach. PMID:17041630

  17. A Case of Persistent Helicobacter pylori Infection Occurring with Anti-IgE Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Zandman, Daniel; Hahn, William

    2013-01-01

    The increasingly widespread use of novel immunosuppressive drugs may lead to unexpected infectious complications. We report a case of persistent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection that failed to respond to antimicrobial therapy in a patient receiving omalizumab (Xolair™, Genentech USA Inc., San Francisco, CA and Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Basel, Switzerland), an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody approved by the FDA for treatment of severe persistent asthma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report linking an immunosuppressive regimen containing anti-IgE biologic therapy to persistent H. pylori infection. PMID:26157810

  18. Helicobacter pylori in First Nations and recent immigrant populations in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicola; Chiba, Naoki; Fallone, Carlo; Thompson, Alan; Hunt, Richard; Jacobson, Kevan; Goodman, Karen

    2012-02-01

    The diminishing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among most segments of the Canadian population has led to changes in the etiologies and patterns of associated upper gastrointestinal diseases, including fewer peptic ulcers and their complications. Canadian Aboriginals and recent immigrants are among populations in which the prevalence of H pylori infection remains high and, therefore, the health risks imposed by H pylori remain a significant concern. Population-based strategies for H pylori eradication in groups with a low prevalence of infection are unlikely to be cost effective, but such measures are attractive in groups in which the prevalence rates of infection remain substantial. In addition to a lower prevalence of peptic ulcers and dyspepsia, the public health value of eradication may be particularly important if this leads to a reduction in the prevalence of gastric cancer in high prevalence groups. Therefore The Canadian Helicobacter Study Group held a conference that brought together experts in the field to address these issues, the results of which are reviewed in the present article. Canadians with the highest prevalence of H pylori infection are an appropriate focus for considering the health advantages of eradicating persistent infection. In Canadian communities with a high prevalence of both H pylori and gastric cancer, there remains an opportunity to test the hypothesis that H pylori infection is a treatable risk factor for malignancy.

  19. Helicobacter pylori: Bacterial Strategy for Incipient Stage and Persistent Colonization in Human Gastric Niches

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kwang-Ho; Park, Jin-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) undergoes decades long colonization of the gastric mucosa of half the population in the world to produce acute and chronic gastritis at the beginning of infection, progressing to more severe disorders, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Prolonged carriage of H. pylori is the most crucial factor for the pathogenesis of gastric maladies. Bacterial persistence in the gastric mucosa depends on bacterial factors as well as host factors. Herein, the host and bacterial components responsible for the incipient stages of H. pylori infection are reviewed and discussed. Bacterial adhesion and adaptation is presented to explain the persistence of H. pylori colonization in the gastric mucosa, in which bacterial evasion of host defense systems and genomic diversity are included. PMID:25323880

  20. Basis of decreased risk of gastric cancer in severe atrophic gastritis with eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tari, Akira; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Sumii, Masaharu; Sasaki, Atsunori; Tani, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Sinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic gastritis and lowers gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations. We investigated how H. pylori eradication affected multiple variables that could prevent or delay development of new or occult gastric cancer in patients with early gastric cancer treated by endoscopic mucosal resection. Gastric juice pH, nitrite concentrations, and total vitamin C concentrations, serum concentrations of vitamin C and specific H. pylori antibody, and intensity of neutrophil infiltration in gastric mucosa were determined before and after successful H. pylori eradication. Successful eradication increased acid output and ascorbic acid secretion into gastric juice, accompanied by disappearance of polymorphonuclear infiltration from the surface epithelium and decreased gastric juice nitrite concentrations. Our data suggest that H. pylori eradication decreases the nitrosation rate as the ratio of vitamin C to nitrite increases. This decreases reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, eliminating their damaging effect on DNA and reducing cell turnover. PMID:17151803

  1. Chemodetection and Destruction of Host Urea Allows Helicobacter pylori to Locate the Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Julie Y.; Sweeney, Emily Goers; Sigal, Michael; Zhang, Hai C.; Remington, S. James; Cantrell, Michael A.; Kuo, Calvin J.; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori interacts intimately with the gastric mucosa to avoid the microbicidal acid in the stomach lumen. The cues H. pylori senses to locate and colonize the gastric epithelium have not been well defined. We show that metabolites emanating from human gastric organoids rapidly attract H. pylori. This response is largely controlled by the bacterial chemoreceptor TlpB, and the main attractant emanating from epithelia is urea. Our previous structural analyses show that TlpB binds urea with high affinity. Here we demonstrate that this tight binding controls highly sensitive responses, allowing detection of urea concentrations as low as 50 nanomolar. Attraction to urea requires that H. pylori urease simultaneously destroys the signal. We propose that H. pylori has evolved a sensitive urea chemodetection and destruction system that allows the bacterium to dynamically and locally modify the host environment to locate the epithelium. PMID:26269952

  2. Extragastrointestinal manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection: facts or myth? A critical review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huck-Joo; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2012-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is reported to be associated with many extragastrointestinal manifestations, such as hematological diseases [idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA)], cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart diseases), neurological disorders (stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), obesity and skin disorders. Among these, the best evidence so far is in ITP and unexplained IDA, with high-quality studies showing the improvement of IDA and ITP after H. pylori eradication. The evidence of its association with coronary artery disease is weak and many of the results may be erroneous. The role of H. pylori infection in affecting serum leptin and ghrelin levels has attracted a lot of attention recently and available data to date have been conflicting. There have also been many uncontrolled, small sample studies suggesting an association between H. pylori infection and neurological disorders or chronic urticaria. However, more studies are required to clarify such proposed causal links. PMID:22713083

  3. Basis of decreased risk of gastric cancer in severe atrophic gastritis with eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tari, Akira; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Sumii, Masaharu; Sasaki, Atsunori; Tani, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Sinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces chronic gastritis and lowers gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations. We investigated how H. pylori eradication affected multiple variables that could prevent or delay development of new or occult gastric cancer in patients with early gastric cancer treated by endoscopic mucosal resection. Gastric juice pH, nitrite concentrations, and total vitamin C concentrations, serum concentrations of vitamin C and specific H. pylori antibody, and intensity of neutrophil infiltration in gastric mucosa were determined before and after successful H. pylori eradication. Successful eradication increased acid output and ascorbic acid secretion into gastric juice, accompanied by disappearance of polymorphonuclear infiltration from the surface epithelium and decreased gastric juice nitrite concentrations. Our data suggest that H. pylori eradication decreases the nitrosation rate as the ratio of vitamin C to nitrite increases. This decreases reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, eliminating their damaging effect on DNA and reducing cell turnover.

  4. Unusual Helicobacter pylori in gastric resection specimens: an old friend with a new look.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Snyder, Patricia; Owens, Scott R

    2011-06-01

    Immunohistochemical staining is useful in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. The authors encountered gastric resection specimens with an unusual pattern of reactivity on H pylori immunostains where the typical morphology of the organism was not recognizable, but the characteristic chronic gastritis associated with infection was present. The authors sought to explore this phenomenon by retrospectively reviewing and immunostaining 28 gastric resection specimens for H pylori. Six cases with large clumps of immunohistochemically positive but morphologically unrecognizable material were identified on light microscopy, corresponding on electron microscopy to clusters of predominantly coccoid H pylori, some located intracellularly. Such organisms were not identifiable without immunohistochemistry, and the phenomenon was not encountered in gastric biopsies. The authors conclude that this staining pattern reflects true H pylori infection that is not diagnosable without immunohistochemistry. Based on its occurrence only in resections, it may be the result of hypoxic or other stress induced when the mucosa is not promptly fixed.

  5. Chemodetection and Destruction of Host Urea Allows Helicobacter pylori to Locate the Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Julie Y; Sweeney, Emily Goers; Sigal, Michael; Zhang, Hai C; Remington, S James; Cantrell, Michael A; Kuo, Calvin J; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R

    2015-08-12

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori interacts intimately with the gastric mucosa to avoid the microbicidal acid in the stomach lumen. The cues H. pylori senses to locate and colonize the gastric epithelium have not been well defined. We show that metabolites emanating from human gastric organoids rapidly attract H. pylori. This response is largely controlled by the bacterial chemoreceptor TlpB, and the main attractant emanating from epithelia is urea. Our previous structural analyses show that TlpB binds urea with high affinity. Here we demonstrate that this tight binding controls highly sensitive responses, allowing detection of urea concentrations as low as 50 nM. Attraction to urea requires that H. pylori urease simultaneously destroys the signal. We propose that H. pylori has evolved a sensitive urea chemodetection and destruction system that allows the bacterium to dynamically and locally modify the host environment to locate the epithelium.

  6. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori and the role of water and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Percival, Steven L; Thomas, John G

    2009-09-01

    Documented evidence relating to the survival of Helicobacter pylori outside the gastric niche is extremely limited. To date the primary transmission routes of H. pylori have yet to be confirmed and when this is achieved preventive infection control measures can be implemented to reduce and ultimately prevent human infection from this pathogen. There is mounting evidence which suggests that the prevalence of H. pylori infection has a strong correlation with access to clean water, suggesting a transmission route to the host. However, there are no established culture methods for the detection of viable H. pylori in the environment, in particular drinking water supplies, preventing the development of true epidemiological and risk assessments. The aim of this review is to highlight the available data to date that suggests drinking water and possible survival in biofilms as a probable transmission mode for H. pylori.

  7. [Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori and molecular methods for the detection of resistance].

    PubMed

    Demiray, Ebru; Yilmaz, Ozlem

    2005-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori which is the major agent causing peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma, is identified as a class I carcinogen. Invasive and non-invasive tests have been used in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori strains is increasing nowadays, thus leading to failures in eradication therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method which can simultaneously detect the presence of H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance is a non-culture dependent molecular technique. In this review article the prevalence and clinical outcome of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori, molecular mechanisms of the resistance and molecular methods to detect the resistance, with priority of FISH technique have been discussed. PMID:16358500

  8. Sulfatides inhibit binding of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric cancer Kato III cell line.

    PubMed

    Wadström, T; Hirmo, S; Novak, H; Guzman, A; Ringnér-Pantzar, M; Utt, M; Aleljung, P

    1997-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori adhere to Kato III and Hela S3 cells in monolayer cultures. To explore whether cell surface glycoconjugates on these two cell lines mediate binding of H. pylori, various carbohydrates, glycoproteins, and glycolipids were tested to inhibit H.pylori cell adhesion. The adhesion was measured (i) with a urease-based assay and (ii) by cells stained with fluorescein. Sodium periodate and sialidase treatment (but not alpha- or beta-galactosidase, heparitinase,lysozyme, or trypsin) inhibited H. pylori binding to both cell lines. Sulfatides and sulfated glycoconjugates (50 microg/ml) but not heparin or a number of simple carbohydrates inhibited binding (1 mg/ml). The two H.pylori strains studied (CCUG 17874 and strain 25) showed high binding of soluble 125I-labeled heparin and other sulfated carbohydrate compounds. PMID:9099625

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gallstones: Epidemiological survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fen-Ming; Yu, Chao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Tan; Shen, Zhe; Hu, Feng-Ling; Yuan, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Guo-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the prevalence and risk factors for gallstones, primarily focusing on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. METHODS: A total of 10016 Chinese subjects, who had undergone physical examination, fasting 13C urea breath test and abdominal ultrasonography, had sufficient blood test data, and had finished a questionnaire, were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants (n = 1122) who had previous eradication of H. pylori were studied separately. RESULTS: Gallstones were discovered in 9.10% of men and 8.58% of women, with no significant sex difference. Multivariate analyses displayed that age, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, H. pylori infection, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and fatty liver had a significant association with gallstones (P < 0.05). Successive multiple logistic regression analysis including index of odds ratio (OR) and standardized coefficient (β) indicated that older age (OR/β = 1.056/0.055), H. pylori infection (OR/β = 1.454/0.109), HCV infection (OR/β = 1.871/0.123), and fatty liver (OR/β = 1.947/0.189) had a significant positive association with gallstones. After age stratification, H. pylori infection and fatty liver still had a significant positive association with gallstones in any age-specific groups, whereas HCV infection had a significant positive association in patients aged > 40 years. The prevalence of gallstones among H. pylori-positive, H. pylori-eradicated, and H. pylori-negative subjects was 9.47%, 9.02%, and 8.46%, respectively. The matched analysis showed that gallstones among H. pylori eradicated subjects was significantly lower compared with H. pylori-positive subjects (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: H. pylori infection and fatty liver have a significant positive association with gallstones. H. pylori eradication may lead to prevention of gallstones. PMID:26269681

  10. Detection of cytoplasmic proteins from Helicobacter pylori in Colony Lift Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rengifo, Diana F; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Haas, Rainer; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa F

    2015-12-01

    Use of the Colony Lift Immunoassay has been described for several Gram negative bacteria of medical interest. In all cases detection was limited to the use of antibodies against outer membrane proteins. Here we describe the adaptation of this method for detection of the cytoplasmic CagA toxin from Helicobacter pylori.

  11. Managing "Helicobacter Pylori" in College Health, with Special Considerations for International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillard, James Randolph; Kashup, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: "Helicobacter pylori" infection is the major cause of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. This paper will make specific recommendations for a diagnostic and treatment strategy tailored to the international student population. Participants/Methods: This paper is a case report and narrative review based on…

  12. Rationale for a Helicobacter pylori Test and Treatment Strategy in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Nimish

    2015-09-01

    Conflicting data have been published on the effect of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy on the gastric mucosa in Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects. In this article, the available data are reviewed and a rationale is offered for why infected patients who are about to commence long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy should be offered eradication therapy. PMID:26314675

  13. Multiple Genome Sequences of Helicobacter pylori Strains of Diverse Disease and Antibiotic Resistance Backgrounds from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rehvathy, Vellaya; Tan, Mun Hua; Gunaletchumy, Selva Perumal; Teh, Xinsheng; Wang, Susana; Baybayan, Primo; Singh, Siddarth; Ashby, Meredith; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Croft, Laurence J; Goh, Khean Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes human gastroduodenal diseases, including chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. It is also a major microbial risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Twenty-one strains with different ethnicity, disease, and antimicrobial susceptibility backgrounds were sequenced by use of Illumina HiSeq and PacBio RS platforms.

  14. Lewis Antigen Expression by Helicobacter pylori Strains Colonizing Different Regions of the Stomach of Individual Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    González-Valencia, Gerardo; Muñoz-Perez, Leopoldo; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres, Javier

    2008-01-01

    The diversity in the expression of Lewis antigens (Le) of 226 single colonies of Helicobacter pylori isolated from four regions of the stomach of eight adults is shown. Ley was expressed more in strains colonizing antrum than in strains colonizing fundus, whereas Lex was more common in fundus strains. cagA+ strains were more associated with Le-negative strains. PMID:18550746

  15. Role of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Rimbara, Emiko; Mori, Shigetarou; Kim, Hyun; Shibayama, Keigo

    2013-10-01

    γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase and asparaginase have been shown to play important roles in Helicobacter pylori colonization and cell death induced by H. pylori infection. In this study, the association of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and asparaginase was elucidated by comparing activities of both deamidases in H. pylori strains from patients with chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase activities in H. pylori strains from patients with gastric cancer were significantly higher than in those from patients with chronic gastritis or gastric ulcers. There was a wide range of asparaginase activities in H. pylori strains from patients with gastric cancer and these were not significantly than those from patients with other diseases. To identify the contributions of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and asparaginase to gastric cell inflammation, human gastric epithelial cells (AGS line) were infected with H. pylori wild-type and knockout strains and inflammatory responses evaluated by induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 response was significantly decreased by knockout of the γ-glutamyltranspeptidase-encoding gene but not by knockout of the asparaginase-encoding gene. Additionally, IL-8 induction by infection with the H. pylori wild-type strain was significantly decreased by adding glutamine during infection. These findings indicate that IL-8 induction caused by γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activity in H. pylori is mainly attributable to depletion of glutamine. These data suggest that γ-glutamyltranspeptidase plays a significant role in the chronic inflammation caused by H. pylori infection.

  16. Extracellular galectin-3 counteracts adhesion and exhibits chemoattraction in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Ling, Samantha Shi Min; Ho, Bow

    2016-08-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside lectin that is upregulated and rapidly secreted by gastric epithelial cells in response to Helicobacter pylori infection. An earlier study reported the involvement of H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) in the expression of intracellular Gal-3. However, the role of extracellular Gal-3 and its functional significance in H. pylori-infected cells remains uncharacterized. Data presented here demonstrate secretion of Gal-3 is an initial host response event in gastric epithelial cells during H. pylori infection and is independent of CagA. Previously, Gal-3 was shown to bind to H. pylori LPS. The present study elaborates the significance of this binding, as extracellular recombinant Gal-3 (rGal-3) was shown to inhibit the adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric epithelial cells. Interestingly, a decrease in H. pylori adhesion to host cells also resulted in a decrease in apoptosis. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated a chemoattractant role of extracellular rGal-3 in the recruitment of THP-1 monocytes. This study outlines the previously unidentified roles of extracellular Gal-3 where it acts as a negative regulator of H. pylori adhesion and apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and as a chemoattractant to THP-1 monocytes. Our findings could contribute to the better understanding of how Gal-3 acts as a modulator under H. pylori-induced pathological conditions. PMID:27283429

  17. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection.

  18. The antimicrobial effects and metabolomic footprinting of carboxyl-capped bismuth nanoparticles against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nazari, P; Dowlatabadi-Bazaz, R; Mofid, M R; Pourmand, M R; Daryani, N E; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Shahverdi, A R

    2014-01-01

    Organic salts of bismuth are currently used as antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of elemental bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) using a serial agar dilution method for the first time against different clinical isolates and a standard strain of H. pylori. The Bi NPs were biologically prepared and purified by a recently described method and subjected to further characterization by infrared spectroscopy and anti-H. pylori evaluation. Infrared spectroscopy results showed the presence of carboxyl functional groups on the surface of biogenic Bi NPs. These biogenic nanoparticles showed good antibacterial activity against all tested H. pylori strains. The resulting MICs varied between 60 and 100 μg/ml for clinical isolates of H. pylori and H. pylori (ATCC 26695). The antibacterial effect of bismuth ions was also tested against all test strains. The antimicrobial effect of Bi ions was lower than antimicrobial effect of bismuth in the form of elemental NPs. The effect of Bi NPs on metabolomic footprinting of H. pylori was further evaluated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Exposure of H. pylori to an inhibitory concentration of Bi NPs (100 μg/ml) led to release of some metabolites such as acetate, formic acid, glutamate, valine, glycine, and uracil from bacteria into their supernatant. These findings confirm that these nanoparticles interfere with Krebs cycle, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism and shows anti-H. pylori activity.

  19. The expression of IGF-1R in Helicobacter pylori-infected intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Noriko; Kozu, Karina; Kobayashi, Shun; Nishiyama, Ryu; Okubo, Rie; Akai, Yuichi; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kinukawa, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of IGF-1R has been demonstrated in gastrointestinal cancers, and its expression is reported as the result of the loss of tumor suppressors. IL-16 is involved in the pathophysiological process of chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in the expression of IGF-1R in intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer (GC) as well as the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IL-16 on cell proliferation and IGF-1R expression in gastric cells. AGS cells were incubated with combinations of IL-16 and H. pylori. Gastric cell proliferation was studied by BrdU uptake. In H. pylori infected mucosa, IGF-1R was significantly higher in IM than chronic gastritis (CG), and also higher in GC than CG and IM. H. pylori significantly decreased BrdU uptake. IL-16 increased BrdU uptake and IGF-1R on AGS cells which had been decreased by H. pylori. Co-incubation with IL-16 increased the expression of IGF-1R mRNA in H. pylori infected cells. We conclude that the expression of IGF-1R in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa may indicate an early stage of carcinogenesis. The IL-16 secretion by H. pylori can be a trigger for the expression of IGF-1R, and it may also be a factor for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27499580

  20. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in saliva demonstrated by a novel PCR assay.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Musich, P R; Ha, T; Ferguson, D A; Patel, N R; Chi, D S; Thomas, E

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the saliva of patients infected with this bacterium. METHODS--A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect H pylori in saliva and gastric biopsy specimens from patients undergoing endoscopy. RESULTS--Our PCR assay amplified a 417 base pair fragment of DNA from all 21 DNAs derived from H pylori clinical isolates but did not amplify DNA from 23 non-H pylori strains. Sixty three frozen gastric biopsy and 56 saliva specimens were tested. H pylori specific DNA was detected by PCR in all 39 culture positive biopsy specimens and was also identified from another seven biopsy specimens which were negative by culture but positive by histology. H pylori specific DNA was identified by PCR in saliva specimens from 30 (75%) of 40 patients with H pylori infection demonstrated by culture or histological examination, or both, and in three patients without H pylori infection in the stomach. CONCLUSION--The results indicate that the oral cavity harbours H pylori and may be the source of infection and transmission. Images PMID:7560176

  1. Biofilm Formation by Helicobacter pylori and Its Involvement for Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. Biofilm formation is critical not only for environmental survival but also for successful infection. Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in humans. Some studies demonstrated that this microorganism has biofilm forming ability in the environment and on human gastric mucosa epithelium as well as on in vitro abiotic surfaces. In the environment, H. pylori could be embedded in drinking water biofilms through water distribution system in developed and developing countries so that the drinking water may serve as a reservoir for H. pylori infection. In the human stomach, H. pylori forms biofilms on the surface of gastric mucosa, suggesting one possible explanation for eradication therapy failure. Finally, based on the results of in vitro analyses, H. pylori biofilm formation can decrease susceptibility to antibiotics and H. pylori antibiotic resistance mutations are more frequently generated in biofilms than in planktonic cells. These observations indicated that H. pylori biofilm formation may play an important role in preventing and controlling H. pylori infections. Therefore, investigation of H. pylori biofilm formation could be effective in elucidating the detailed mechanisms of infection and colonization by this microorganism. PMID:26078970

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori in times of increasing antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sinéad M; O'Morain, Colm; McNamara, Deirdre

    2014-08-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Treatment is recommended in all symptomatic patients. The current treatment options for H. pylori infection are outlined in this review in light of the recent challenges in eradication success, largely due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of H. pylori. Antibiotic resistance is a constantly evolving process and numerous studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori antibiotic resistance varies significantly from country to country, and even between regions within the same country. In addition, recent data has shown that previous antibiotic use is associated with harbouring antibiotic resistant H. pylori. Local surveillance of antibiotic resistance is warranted to guide clinicians in their choice of therapy. Antimicrobial resistance is assessed by H. pylori culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Recently developed molecular tests offer an attractive alternative to culture and allow for the rapid molecular genetic identification of H. pylori and resistance-associated mutations directly from biopsy samples or bacterial culture material. Accumulating evidence indicates that surveillance of antimicrobial resistance by susceptibility testing is feasible and necessary to inform clinicians in their choice of therapy for management of H. pylori infection.

  3. Helicobacter pylori Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li-Ling; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Ogihara, Satoshi; Wang, Jin-Town; Wu, Meng-Chuan; McNeil, Paul L.; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that H. pylori also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) have been considered to be major H. pylori virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with H. pylori wild type (vacA+/cagA+), single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA) or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA) strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. H. pylori disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to H. pylori exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that H. pylori activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:22949854

  4. Differential Roles of ASK1 and TAK1 in Helicobacter pylori-Induced Cellular Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Kinoshita, Hiroto; Sakitani, Kosuke; Nakagawa, Hayato; Nakata, Wachiko; Takahashi, Ryota; Sakamoto, Kei; Maeda, Shin; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway regulates various cellular functions, including those induced by Helicobacter pylori. TAK1 is an upstream MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) required for H. pylori-induced MAPK and NF-κB activation, but it remains unclear whether other MAP3Ks are involved in H. pylori-induced cellular responses. In this study, we focused on the MAP3K ASK1, which plays a critical role in gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric epithelial cells, H. pylori activates ASK1 in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)- and cag pathogenicity island-dependent manner, and ASK1 regulates sustained JNK activation and apoptosis induced by H. pylori. In contrast, TAK1 regulates H. pylori-mediated early JNK activation and cytokine production. We also found reciprocal regulation between ASK1 and TAK1 in H. pylori-related responses, whereby inhibition of TAK1 or downstream p38 MAPK activates ASK1 through ROS production, and ASK1 suppresses TAK1 and downstream NF-κB activation. We identified ROS/ASK1/JNK as a new signaling pathway induced by H. pylori, which regulates apoptotic cell death. The balance of ASK1-induced apoptosis and TAK1-induced antiapoptotic or inflammatory responses may determine the fate of epithelial cells infected with H. pylori and thus be involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis and gastric cancer. PMID:24082073

  5. Helicobacter pylori-associated immune thrombocytopenia: Clinical features and pathogenic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kuwana, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease mediated by anti-platelet autoantibodies. There is growing evidence that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) effectively increases platelet count in a considerable proportion of ITP patients infected with this bacterium. In the majority of ITP patients responding to H. pylori eradication therapy, the anti-platelet autoantibody response is completely resolved with no relapse for more than 7 years, indicating that the disease is cured. Therefore, adult patients with suspected ITP should be examined for H. pylori infection, and eradication therapy is recommended if the infection is present. Notably, however, the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy in ITP patients varies widely among countries, with a higher response rate in Japan compared with the United States and European countries other than Italy. The pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated ITP is still uncertain, although the mechanisms are known to involve multiple factors. H. pylori may modulate the Fcγ-receptor balance of monocytes/macrophages in favor of activating Fcγ receptors, and H. pylori components may mimic the molecular makeup of platelet antigens. Further studies of the pathogenic process of H. pylori-associated ITP may be useful for the development of new therapeutic strategies for ITP. PMID:24574745

  6. The expression of IGF-1R in Helicobacter pylori-infected intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Noriko; Kozu, Karina; Kobayashi, Shun; Nishiyama, Ryu; Okubo, Rie; Akai, Yuichi; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kinukawa, Noriko

    2016-07-01

    Overexpression of IGF-1R has been demonstrated in gastrointestinal cancers, and its expression is reported as the result of the loss of tumor suppressors. IL-16 is involved in the pathophysiological process of chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in the expression of IGF-1R in intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer (GC) as well as the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IL-16 on cell proliferation and IGF-1R expression in gastric cells. AGS cells were incubated with combinations of IL-16 and H. pylori. Gastric cell proliferation was studied by BrdU uptake. In H. pylori infected mucosa, IGF-1R was significantly higher in IM than chronic gastritis (CG), and also higher in GC than CG and IM. H. pylori significantly decreased BrdU uptake. IL-16 increased BrdU uptake and IGF-1R on AGS cells which had been decreased by H. pylori. Co-incubation with IL-16 increased the expression of IGF-1R mRNA in H. pylori infected cells. We conclude that the expression of IGF-1R in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa may indicate an early stage of carcinogenesis. The IL-16 secretion by H. pylori can be a trigger for the expression of IGF-1R, and it may also be a factor for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27499580

  7. Advancement of scientific research on Helicobacter pylori in humans: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Andrabi, S A H; Shamila, H; Masooda, S

    2012-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been associated with humans for millions of years and its association wih gastroduodenal diseases has well been established. Research explosion has added vastly to the current dimensions. The new and unusual pattern of involvement in the form of diffuse duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (DDNLH) due to specific strain of H. pylorii has been reported from Kashmir recently, which heckles early recognition and treatment and on the other hand, we continue to face challenges so far as the prevention of carcinoma of stomach, a worst sequlae of H. pylori is concerned although population screening and prevention surveys are underway in many countries. Continued scientific work has now unfolded involvement of H.pylori in extragastric diseases like cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, sideroblastic anaemia, mental diseases, and collagen vascular disease .Moreover the beneficial effects of H. pylori with respect to allergic diseases and obesity are clear. Problem of drug resistance for eradication of H. pylori has arisen for which novel treatments are tried. Lactobacillus reuteri having ant H.pylori action is one of the promising treatment as is now available in India for usage. The main challenges which remain are prevention of H. pylori related diseases by effective treatment and screening procedures and development of a vaccine which can address all these issues including beneficial aspects of H. pylori. PMID:23136708

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori in times of increasing antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sinéad M; O’Morain, Colm; McNamara, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Treatment is recommended in all symptomatic patients. The current treatment options for H. pylori infection are outlined in this review in light of the recent challenges in eradication success, largely due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of H. pylori. Antibiotic resistance is a constantly evolving process and numerous studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori antibiotic resistance varies significantly from country to country, and even between regions within the same country. In addition, recent data has shown that previous antibiotic use is associated with harbouring antibiotic resistant H. pylori. Local surveillance of antibiotic resistance is warranted to guide clinicians in their choice of therapy. Antimicrobial resistance is assessed by H. pylori culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Recently developed molecular tests offer an attractive alternative to culture and allow for the rapid molecular genetic identification of H. pylori and resistance-associated mutations directly from biopsy samples or bacterial culture material. Accumulating evidence indicates that surveillance of antimicrobial resistance by susceptibility testing is feasible and necessary to inform clinicians in their choice of therapy for management of H. pylori infection. PMID:25110421

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Ahmadi, R; Moradi, N; Fadaei, R; Sezavar, S H; Seifi, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether impact of the seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection on ferritin and iron levels is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. The anti H pylori IgG, IgA levels, serum ferritin and iron concentration of 86 patients with cardiovascular disease and 64 participants free of cardiovascular disease as control subjects were determined by ELISA assay. The results of present study showed that seropositivity to H pylori IgG and IgA levels of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients was higher than controls and CAD patients with negative anti H pylori IgG and IgA significantly. A significant negative correlation was found between seropositivity to H pylori IgG and IgA, ferritin and iron levels of CAD patients with seronegativity and seronegativity to H pylori IgG and IgA in comparison with controls. The achieved results from present study suggest that the involvement of H pylori infection in atherosclerosis process is based on the chronic inflammation which might facilitate the CAD-related pathologies. Moreover, impact of the presence of H pylori infection on reduction of the ferritin and iron levels of CAD patients as a risk factor independent of other classic factors including lipid profiles and inflammatory factors was remarkable. PMID:27545208

  10. New Diagnostic Strategies for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Benjamin D.; Gilger, Mark A.; Czinn, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common chronic bacterial infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastroduodenal disease in children. H pylori is also associated with extragastric manifestations, including growth reduction, iron-deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Current guidelines recommend endoscopy with biopsy for the definitive demonstration of H pylori infection. In contrast to serology, the fecal antigen test and the urea breath test provide reliable, sensitive, and specific results for detecting active H pylori infection in children before and after treatment. The first-line treatment option for pediatric patients is triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and 2 antibiotics, which include amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. Decreasing eradication rates and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H pylori have led to the use of other treatments, such as sequential therapy or triple therapy with newer antibiotics, particularly in geographic areas with high rates of antibiotic resistance. Patients should be tested after treatment to confirm eradication, as the absence of symptoms does not necessarily mean that H pylori is no longer present. This clinical roundtable monograph provides an overview of H pylori infection, as well as expert insight into the diagnosis and management of H pylori infection in children. PMID:26491414

  11. Characteristic distribution pattern of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and saliva detected with nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Song, Q; Lange, T; Spahr, A; Adler, G; Bode, G

    2000-04-01

    The precise mode of transmission and the natural reservoir for Helicobacter pylori are unknown. PCR assays have proved to be highly sensitive and specific and are regarded as the method of choice for detecting H. pylori DNA in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of H. pylori in the oral cavity. Forty-two patients undergoing gastroscopy were investigated for the presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and saliva by nested PCR, and in the stomach by the 13C-urea breath test. Samples tested comprised dental plaque from molars, premolars and incisors and saliva. Two sets of primers homologous to the 860-bp fragment of H. pylori DNA, which have been shown previously to be highly sensitive and specific, were used for nested PCR. Eleven patients (26.2%) were infected with H. pylori in the stomach. H. pylori DNA was identified in dental plaque samples from 41 patients (97%) and in 23 saliva samples (55%). The prevalence in dental plaque from molars, premolars and incisors was 82%, 64% and 59%, with an odds ratio of 3.18, 1.24 and 1 (reference), respectively. In conclusion, H. pylori was present in the oral cavity of 97% of tested patients, with a characteristic distribution that was independent of the infection status of the stomach. Thus H. pylori may belong to the normal oral microflora.

  12. Helicobacter pylori detection in gastric biopsies, saliva and dental plaque of Brazilian dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani; Labio, Roger William de; Gatti, Luciano Lobo; Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Queiroz, Valdeir Fagundes de; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2010-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. The oral cavity has been implicated as a potential H. pylori reservoir and may therefore be involved in the reinfection of the stomach, which can sometimes occur following treatment of an H. pylori infection. The objectives of this paper were (i) to determine the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and (ii) to examine the relationship between oral H. pylori and subsequent gastritis. Gastric biopsies, saliva samples and dental plaques were obtained from 78 dyspeptic adults. DNA was extracted and evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting methods. Persons with gastritis were frequently positive for H. pylori in their stomachs (p < 0.0001) and there was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in gastric biopsies and the oral cavity (p < 0.0001). Our results suggest a relationship between gastric infection and the presence of this bacterium in the oral cavity. Despite this, H. pylori were present in the oral cavity with variable distribution between saliva and dental plaques, suggesting the existence of a reservoir for the species and a potential association with gastric reinfection.

  13. Helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal symptoms in diagnostics and adjuvant chemotherapy of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Soveri, Leena-Maija; Osterlund, Pia; Ruotsalainen, Tarja; Poussa, Tuija; Rautelin, Hilpi; Bono, Petri

    2014-02-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is the mainstay of adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). Few studies have explored Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastrointestinal symptoms in the diagnosis of CRC, and the association between H. pylori infection and gastrointestinal toxicity during adjuvant chemotherapy in CRC. Seventy-nine CRC patients were randomised in a prospective clinical trial to receive 5-FU and leucovorin administered as bolus injection (Mayo regimen) or continuous infusion (simplified de Gramont regimen). H. pylori antibodies were analysed at baseline, twice monthly during treatment and after treatment up to 12 months. Thirty-seven patients (47%) were H. pylori-seronegative at baseline. There was no significant association between baseline H. pylori seropositivity (n=42; 53%) and oro-gastrointestinal toxicity during chemotherapy. The median time from symptom onset of CRC to surgery was significantly longer in patients with H. pylori infection (median time, 6 vs. 5 months; P=0.012). Functional dyspeptic symptoms at presentation significantly delayed diagnosis (median time, 7.5 vs. 5 months; P=0.035), whereas anaemia, bowel symptoms, occlusion, blood in the stool, infection and hypolactasia did not. We conclude that there is no association between H. pylori status and gastrointestinal toxicity in CRC patients during chemotherapy. Dyspeptic symptoms and presence of H. pylori may delay the diagnosis of CRC. (www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN98405441).

  14. Helicobacter pylori-associated immune thrombocytopenia: clinical features and pathogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Masataka

    2014-01-21

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease mediated by anti-platelet autoantibodies. There is growing evidence that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) effectively increases platelet count in a considerable proportion of ITP patients infected with this bacterium. In the majority of ITP patients responding to H. pylori eradication therapy, the anti-platelet autoantibody response is completely resolved with no relapse for more than 7 years, indicating that the disease is cured. Therefore, adult patients with suspected ITP should be examined for H. pylori infection, and eradication therapy is recommended if the infection is present. Notably, however, the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy in ITP patients varies widely among countries, with a higher response rate in Japan compared with the United States and European countries other than Italy. The pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated ITP is still uncertain, although the mechanisms are known to involve multiple factors. H. pylori may modulate the Fcγ-receptor balance of monocytes/macrophages in favor of activating Fcγ receptors, and H. pylori components may mimic the molecular makeup of platelet antigens. Further studies of the pathogenic process of H. pylori-associated ITP may be useful for the development of new therapeutic strategies for ITP. PMID:24574745

  15. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  16. Analyses of the cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Akopyants, N S; Clifton, S W; Kersulyte, D; Crabtree, J E; Youree, B E; Reece, C A; Bukanov, N O; Drazek, E S; Roe, B A; Berg, D E

    1998-04-01

    Most strains of Helicobacter pylori from patients with peptic ulcer disease or intestinal-type gastric cancer carry cagA, a gene that encodes an immunodominant protein of unknown function, whereas many of the strains from asymptomatically infected persons lack this gene. Recent studies showed that the cagA gene lies near the right end of a approximately 37kb DNA segment (a pathogenicity island, or PAI) that is unique to cagA+ strains and that the cag PAI was split in half by a transposable element insertion in the reference strain NCTC11638. In complementary experiments reported here, we also found the same cag PAI, and sequenced a 39 kb cosmid clone containing the left 'cagII' half of this PAI. Encoded in cagII were four proteins each with homology to four components of multiprotein complexes of Bordetella pertussis ('Ptl'), Agrobacterium tumefaciens ('Vir'), and conjugative plasmids ('Tra') that help deliver pertussis toxin and T (tumour inducing) and plasmid DNA, respectively, to target eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, and also homologues of eukaryotic proteins that are involved in cytoskeletal structure. To the left of cagII in this cosmid were genes for homologues of HsIU (heat-shock protein) and Era (essential GTPase); to the right of cagII were homologues of genes for a type I restriction endonuclease and ion transport functions. Deletion of the cag PAI had no effect on synthesis of the vacuolating cytotoxin, but this deletion and several cag insertion mutations blocked induction of synthesis of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in gastric epithelial cells. Comparisons among H. pylori strains indicated that cag PAI gene content and arrangement are rather well conserved. We also identified two genome rearrangements with end-points in the cag PAI. One, in reference strain NCTC11638, involved IS605, a recently described transposable element (as also found by others). Another rearrangement, in 3 of 10 strains tested (including type strain NCTC11637), separated the

  17. Tailored Therapy Versus Empiric Chosen Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han; Dang, Yini; Zhou, Xiaoying; Liu, Bingtuan; Liu, Shiyu; Zhang, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although various regimens are empirically accepted for Helicobacter pylori eradication, the efficacy might be declined by multiple individual factors. The necessity of a personalized eradication therapy still remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare tailored therapy with empiric chosen regimens. Databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, and MEDLINE were searched for eligible studies, published up to October 2015. All relevant controlled clinical trials were included. A random-effect model was applied to compare pooled relative risk (RR) with related 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen controlled clinical trials integrating 3512 participants were assessed. Overall, the pooled eradication rates of tailored groups were higher than those of empiric ones (intention-to-treat: RR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.10–1.22; preprotocol: RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.08–1.21). In subgroup analysis, tailored therapy was superior to 7-day standard triple therapy (RR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.16–1.29) and bismuth-quadruple therapy (RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07–1.22) on eradication rates; first-line tailored therapy achieved higher eradication rates than first-line empirical regimens (pooled RR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.14–1.22), whereas tailored rescue regimen showed no difference with empirical ones (pooled RR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.96–1.39). Moreover, among different tailored designs, susceptibility-guided tailored therapy obtained higher eradication rates than empiric groups, independent of CYP2C19 genotype detection (with CYP: RR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.09–1.23; without CYP: RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28). Both molecular test-based and culture-based tailored groups were better on eradication rates than empiric groups (molecular: RR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.11–1.35; culture: RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.20). Compared with empiric chosen treatments, tailored therapy is a better alternative for H pylori eradication. PMID:26886617

  18. Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and preneoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig

    2014-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age, 8.3 ± 4.8 years) with chronic gastritis (36 H pylori+, 46 H pylori-) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7 (9%) of 82, and IM, in 5 (6%) of 82 by routine histology, whereas 6 additional children (7%) (3 H pylori+) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without IM. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (P<.0001). Atrophy and follicular pathology were more frequent in H pylori+ biopsies (P<.0001), whereas IM and CDX2 expression showed no significant correlation with H pylori status. Antral biopsies demonstrating atrophy, IM, and/or aberrant CDX2 expression were seen in 21.95% (18/82) of the children, potentially identifying those who would benefit from closer surveillance and preventive dietary strategies. Biomarkers CDX2, EphB4, MMP3, and MIF may be useful in the workup of pediatric gastritis.

  19. Photodynamic Treatment versus Antibiotic Treatment on Helicobacter pylori Using RAPD-PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Batanouny, M. H.; Amin, R. M.; Ibrahium, M. K.; El Gohary, S.; Naga, M. I.; Salama, M. S.

    2009-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infections in humans and is important in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease, such as duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, Gastric adenocarcinoma, and lymphoma. Gastric adenocarcinoma remains one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of photodynamic treatment and medication treatment of Helicobacter pylori using RAPD-PCR. The lethal photosensitization effect was determined by mixing suspensions of H.pylori with Toluidine blue O (TBO) and plating out on blood agar before irradiation with Helium neon (He-Ne) 632.8 nm. The susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori isolates to metronidazole and azithromycin were examined by E-test. Nine random primers were used to screen genetic polymorphism in DNA of different H.pylori groups. Six of them produced RAPD products while three failed to generate any product. The resulting data showed that, although the overall genetic differences between control groups and laser treated groups was higher than that between control groups and azithromycin treated groups yet it still law genetic variability. The main cause of cell death of PDT using TBO as a photosensitizer was mainly cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane.

  20. Identification and characterization of a metalloprotease activity from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Windle, H J; Kelleher, D

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori produces a metalloprotease with a native molecular size of approximately 200 kDa, as determined by size-exclusion chromatography. Subcellular distribution studies demonstrated that the activity was associated with the outer membrane fraction of the bacterium. In addition, the protease was secreted by the bacterium when grown in liquid culture. The enzyme activity was measured by hydrolysis of azocasein and biotinylated casein and exhibited optimal caseinolytic activity at pH 8.0 (37 degrees C). The activity was inhibited by EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, phosphoramidon, pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQSA). Inhibition by HQSA was reversed by zinc, whereas inhibition due to EDTA was reversed by excess calcium, thus indicating that the enzyme was a zinc-dependent, calcium-stabilized endoproteinase. Furthermore, titration with Zn2+ of a desalted, active-site zinc-chelated preparation of the protease demonstrated that Zn2+ was essential for activity. Leupeptin, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, E-64, pepstatin A, dithiothreitol, and 2-mercaptoethanol had no effect on enzymatic activity. Addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+ to the incubation medium resulted in approximately a twofold stimulation of the azocaseinolytic activity of the enzyme. The protease was stably expressed since it was active even after repeated subculture of the bacterium. Bovine serum albumin, hide powder azure, and elastin-Congo red remained intact even after prolonged exposure to the enzyme. The surface expression of this metalloprotease activity raises the possibility that this enzyme may be involved in the proteolysis of a variety of host proteins in vivo and thereby contributes to gastric pathology. PMID:9234765

  1. Identification and characterization of a metalloprotease activity from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Windle, H J; Kelleher, D

    1997-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori produces a metalloprotease with a native molecular size of approximately 200 kDa, as determined by size-exclusion chromatography. Subcellular distribution studies demonstrated that the activity was associated with the outer membrane fraction of the bacterium. In addition, the protease was secreted by the bacterium when grown in liquid culture. The enzyme activity was measured by hydrolysis of azocasein and biotinylated casein and exhibited optimal caseinolytic activity at pH 8.0 (37 degrees C). The activity was inhibited by EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, phosphoramidon, pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQSA). Inhibition by HQSA was reversed by zinc, whereas inhibition due to EDTA was reversed by excess calcium, thus indicating that the enzyme was a zinc-dependent, calcium-stabilized endoproteinase. Furthermore, titration with Zn2+ of a desalted, active-site zinc-chelated preparation of the protease demonstrated that Zn2+ was essential for activity. Leupeptin, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, E-64, pepstatin A, dithiothreitol, and 2-mercaptoethanol had no effect on enzymatic activity. Addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+ to the incubation medium resulted in approximately a twofold stimulation of the azocaseinolytic activity of the enzyme. The protease was stably expressed since it was active even after repeated subculture of the bacterium. Bovine serum albumin, hide powder azure, and elastin-Congo red remained intact even after prolonged exposure to the enzyme. The surface expression of this metalloprotease activity raises the possibility that this enzyme may be involved in the proteolysis of a variety of host proteins in vivo and thereby contributes to gastric pathology.

  2. Differential Proteomics of Helicobacter pylori Associated with Autoimmune Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Ombretta; Zanussi, Stefania; Casarotto, Mariateresa; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; De Paoli, Paolo; Cannizzaro, Renato; De Re, Valli

    2014-01-01

    Atrophic autoimmune gastritis (AAG) is a condition of chronic inflammation and atrophy of stomach mucosa, for which development can be partially triggered by the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori (HP). HP can cause a variety of gastric diseases, such as duodenal ulcer (DU) or gastric cancer (GC). In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was used by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to identify differentially expressed proteins of HP strains isolated from patients with AAG, to identify markers of HP strain associated with AAG. Proteome profiles of HP isolated from GC or DU were used as a reference to compare proteomic levels. Proteomics analyses revealed 27 differentially expressed spots in AAG-associated HP in comparison with GC, whereas only 9 differential spots were found in AAG-associated HP profiles compared with DU. Proteins were identified after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-TOF and peptide mass fingerprinting. Some AAG-HP differential proteins were common between DU- and GC-HP (peroxiredoxin, heat shock protein 70 [HSP70], adenosine 5′-triphosphate [ATP] synthase subunit α, flagellin A). Our results presented here may suggest that comparative proteomes of HP isolated from AAG and DU share more common protein expression than GC and provide subsets of putative AAG-specific upregulated or downregulated proteins that could be proposed as putative markers of AAG-associated HP. Other comparative studies by two-dimensional maps integrated with functional genomics of candidate proteins will undoubtedly contribute to better decipher the biology of AAG-associated HP strains. PMID:24395566

  3. Pediatric non-Helicobacter pylori atrophic gastritis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Pogoriler, Jennifer; Kamin, Daniel; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D

    2015-06-01

    Although autoimmune atrophic gastritis is classically a disease of elderly adults, recent studies have described the disease in younger adults, particularly in those with other autoimmune diseases and iron-deficiency anemia. Atrophic gastritis in pediatrics is a rare and possibly underdiagnosed entity that has been primarily reported as single-case reports. This retrospective study of atrophic gastritis not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection was performed to further expand the knowledge of clinical presentation, pathologic findings, and natural history of this disease in the pediatric population. Twelve patients with a histologic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis were identified, with an age range of 8 months to 18 years. Seven had other autoimmune diseases and/or immunodeficiency. Atrophy was confined to the oxyntic mucosa in 10 patients, with intramucosal inflammation in a diffuse or basal-predominant pattern. Active inflammation was present in 7 patients. Pseudopyloric, intestinal, or squamous/mucinous metaplasia was seen at initial biopsy or on follow-up in 8 patients, and enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia was seen in 5. One patient developed an adenocarcinoma during the follow-up period of 10 years. Two false-negative diagnoses were retrospectively identified. In the majority of cases, the possibility of atrophic gastritis was not raised by the submitting physician, and the endoscopic findings were not specific. Therefore, accurate diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion on the part of the pathologist, and the diagnosis should be considered particularly in patients with a clinical history of other autoimmune diseases or iron-deficiency anemia.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea: Nationwide multicenter study over 13 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the time trend of seropositivity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) over the period of 13 years in an asymptomatic Korean population, and investigate associated risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional nationwide multicentre study surveyed anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies in 19,272 health check-up subjects (aged [greater than and equal to]16 years) in 2011. Risk factors for H. pylori infection were investigated using logistic regression. Seropositivity in asymptomatic subjects without H. pylori eradication was compared between the years 1998 and 2005. Birth cohort effects were also evaluated. Results After exclusion of subjects with a history of H. pylori eradication therapy (n = 3,712, 19.3%) and gastric symptoms (n = 4,764, 24.7%), the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was 54.4% in 10,796 subjects. This was significantly lower than the seroprevalence of 59.6% in 2005 and that of 66.9% in 1998, and this decrease of seropositivity of H. pylori became widespread across all ages and in most areas of the country. This decreasing trend could be explained by cohort analysis. All younger birth cohorts had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori than older birth cohorts at the same age. Decreased seroprevalence within the same birth cohorts also accounted for this phenomenon. Clinical risk factors of H. pylori infection were higher cholesterol level ([greater than and equal to] 240 mg/dl) (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.14-1.54), male gender, older age, low income, and residence in a rural area. Conclusions A decreasing trend of H. pylori seroprevalence due to a birth cohort effect requires further studies on its related human host factors as well as socio-economic and hygienic factors. In addition, the relationship between H. pylori infection and high cholesterol level needs more investigation regarding underlying pathogenesis. PMID:23800201

  5. Levofloxacin resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients in southern Poland, between 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Karczewska, Elzbieta; Klesiewicz, Karolina; Wojtas-Bonior, Izabela; Skiba, Iwona; Sito, Edward; Czajecki, Krzysztof; Zwolińska-Wcisło, Małgorzata; Budak, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    An increasing resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to antimicrobial agents leads to the need of regional monitoring of the prevalence resistant strains (according to the Maastricht/Florence consensus report, 2012). The aim of the study was to assess the resistance to levofloxacin of H. pylori strains isolated from adult patients of Małopolska region in Poland. Bioptates taken from gastric mucosa during gastroscopy constituted the material for the study. Two hundred ten H. pylori strains were isolated from 811 patients. A majority of strains (171) came from patients before the treatment of H. pylori infections while the remaining 39 strains were isolated from patients after the failed therapy. Susceptibility of H. pylori to levofloxacin was determined by strips impregnated with antibiotic gradient (E-test, bioMerieux). The obtained minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 0.002 mg/L to 32 mg/L. The percentage of strains resistant to levofloxacin amounted to 8.10% (17/210). Among the group of strains isolated from patients before the treatment, 5.85% (10/171) of H. pylori strains were resistant to levofloxacin. In the group of strains isolated from patients after the treatment 17.95% (7/39) of strains were resistant. The difference in the frequency of H. pylori strains resistant to levofloxacin in patients before and after the treatment of the infection due to H. pylori was statistically significant (p = 0.0297). The low percentage of H. pylori strains resistant to levofloxacin justify that the introduction of a triple therapy with levofloxacin is a good alternative in the treatment of H. pylori infections, especially in regions with high prevalence of H. pylori strains resistant to clarithromycin (> 20%).

  6. Drinking water source associated with Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori infections in the United States: A cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori impart considerable burdens to public health. Toxoplasmosis can be life threatening in immunocompromised individuals, has been associated with psychiatric disorders, and can cause severe congenital pathologies. Infections with H. pylori a...

  7. Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori: Impact of hopQII Gene.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, E; Kahrizi, D; Moradi, M T; Sohrabi, M; Yari, K

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found usually in the stomach and use a number of mechanisms to survive in the stomach lumen. The presence of these bacteria in the stomach can lead to gastritis and reduction in stomach acid production. Acute inflammation can directly damage to the peripheral cells that are responsible for the secretion of acid. The risk of developing gastric carcinoma is associated to heterogeneity of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors. The HopQII is one of the outer membrane proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to also play a role in the virulence of H. pylori. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between different H. pylori virulence hopQII allele and patients with gastroduodenal disorders. For this purpose 58 stomach biopsies of patients with gastric cancer and 100 saliva samples from healthy individuals were collected. Then genomic DNA was purified and PCR for was done for desired genes via specific primers. The H. pylori infections were diagnosed by PCR for GlmM gene. Then frequencies of hopQII+ and hopQII- genotypes was determined in H. pylori infected cases. Statistical analysis showed that there were not significant differences between healthy and diseased ones for genotype hopQII+. PMID:26950460

  8. Identification and characterization of Helicobacter pylori genes essential for gastric colonization.

    PubMed

    Kavermann, Holger; Burns, Brendan P; Angermuller, Katrin; Odenbreit, Stefan; Fischer, Wolfgang; Melchers, Klaus; Haas, Rainer

    2003-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes one of the most common, chronic bacterial infections and is a primary cause of severe gastric disorders. To unravel the bacterial factors necessary for the process of gastric colonization and pathogenesis, signature tagged mutagenesis (STM) was adapted to H. pylori. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) was used as model system to screen a set of 960 STM mutants. This resulted in 47 H. pylori genes, assigned to 9 different functional categories, representing a set of biological functions absolutely essential for gastric colonization, as verified and quantified for many mutants by competition experiments. Identification of previously known colonization factors, such as the urease and motility functions validated this method, but also novel and several hypothetical genes were found. Interestingly, a secreted collagenase, encoded by hp0169, could be identified and functionally verified as a new essential virulence factor for H. pylori stomach colonization. Furthermore, comB4, encoding a putative ATPase being part of a DNA transformation-associated type IV transport system of H. pylori was found to be absolutely essential for colonization, but natural transformation competence was apparently not the essential function. Thus, this first systematic STM application identified a set of previously unknown H. pylori colonization factors and may help to potentiate the development of novel therapies against gastric Helicobacter infections. PMID:12668646

  9. Heme Oxygenase-1 Dysregulates Macrophage Polarization and the Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Alain P.; Verriere, Thomas; Asim, Mohammad; Barry, Daniel P.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; de Sablet, Thibaut; Delgado, Alberto G.; Bravo, Luis E.; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori incites a futile inflammatory response, which is the key feature of its immunopathogenesis. This leads to the ability of this bacterial pathogen to survive in the stomach and cause peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Myeloid cells recruited to the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection have been directly implicated in the modulation of host defense against the bacterium and gastric inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that exhibits anti-inflammatory functions. Our aim was to analyze the induction and role of HO-1 in macrophages during H. pylori infection. We now show that phosphorylation of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) in macrophages results in expression of hmox-1, the gene encoding HO-1, through p38/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 signaling. Blocking phagocytosis prevented CagA phosphorylation and HO-1 induction. The expression of HO-1 was also increased in gastric mononuclear cells of human patients and macrophages of mice infected with cagA+ H. pylori strains. Genetic ablation of hmox-1 in H. pylori-infected mice increased histologic gastritis, which was associated with enhanced M1/Th1/Th17 responses, decreased Mreg response, and reduced H. pylori colonization. Gastric macrophages of H. pylori-infected mice and macrophages infected in vitro with this bacterium showed an M1/Mreg mixed polarization type; deletion of hmox-1 or inhibition of HO-1 in macrophages caused an increased M1 and a decreased of Mreg phenotype. These data highlight a mechanism by which H. pylori impairs the immune response and favors its own survival via activation of macrophage HO-1. PMID:25108023

  10. Milk of livestock as a possible transmission route of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Talaei, Ramin; Souod, Negar; Momtaz, Hassan; Dabiri, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The current investigation aimed to evaluate ruminant raw milk as a reservoir source of Helicobacter pylori and analyze the diversity of cagA and vacA genotypes as H. pylori virulence factors to find any relationship between these genotypes in human and animal H. pylori strains. Background: The way of transmission of Helicobacter pylori as one of the most controversial bacteria in the world, which colonizes the human gastric tissue and is responsible for several gastric diseases is still unknown. The possibility of zoonotic transmission of H. pylori is feasible, but is not proven in ruminant reservoirs. Methods: Overall 210 cows, sheep, goats, camels and buffalos’ raw milk samples and 100 human gastric biopsies were collected in this survey. We applied PCR assays to identify H. pylori, vacA and cagA genes. Statistical tests were applied for data analysis. Results: Totally 12(16%) cow, 8(13.79%) sheep, 2 (4.76%) goat, 2(13.33%), buffalo 4(20%) and 82 (82%) of human specimens were confirmed to be H. pylori positive. Among which s1a/m2 genotype was more frequent in isolated H. pylori strains and statistically significant between strains. Based on statistical analyses the s1b allele of sheep had a significant association with human strains. Conclusion: The current survey was prompted by our previous report. According to both results we can conclude that sheep may act as a reservoir for H. pylori and transmit this bacterium to human via its milk. Extended assessments in other geographical regions and other animals are recommended. PMID:26171135

  11. Helicobacter pylori environmental interactions: effect of acidic conditions on H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal interleukin-8 production

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Il Ju; Fujimoto, Saori; Yamauchi, Kazuyoshi; Graham, David Y.; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    Summary To explore the interactions between the host, environment and bacterium responsible for the different manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection, we examined the effect of acidic conditions on H. pylori-induced interleukin (IL)-8 expression. AGS gastric epithelial cells were exposed to acidic pH and infected with H. pylori [wild-type strain, its isogenic cag pathogenicity island (PAI) mutant or its oipA mutant]. Exposure of AGS cells to acidic pH alone did not enhance IL-8 production. However, following exposure to acidic conditions, H. pylori infection resulted in marked enhancement of IL-8 production which was independent of the presence of the cag PAI and OipA, indicating that H. pylori and acidic conditions act synergistically to induce gastric mucosal IL-8 production. In neutral pH environments H. pylori-induced IL-8 induction involved the NF-κB pathways, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)→ c-Fos/c-Jun→activating protein (AP-1) pathways, JNK→c-Jun→AP-1 pathways and the p38 pathways. At acidic pH H. pylori-induced augmentation of IL-8 production involved markedly upregulated the NF-κB pathways and the ERK→c-Fos→AP-1 pathways. In contrast, activation of the JNK→c-Jun→AP-1 pathways and p38 pathways were pH independent. These results might explain the clinical studies in which patients with duodenal ulcers had higher levels of IL-8 in the antral gastric mucosa than patients with simple H. pylori gastritis. PMID:17517062

  12. Development of a Plating Medium for Selection of Helicobacter pylori from Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, A. J.; Sonzogni, W. C.; Standridge, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a simple plating medium to allow large-scale screening of water samples for the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Five conventional plating media (brain heart infusion, brucella agar, Columbia blood agar base, campylobacter agar kit Skirrow, and HPSPA medium), each containing a commercial antibiotic supplement, were initially evaluated. Eight strains selected as common waterborne organisms (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Bacillus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Helicobacter pylori, and Pseudomonas strains) were individually plated onto each of these media. Three organisms (Acinetobacter, E. coli, and H. pylori) were able to grow on all five media. This growth was unacceptable since Helicobacter grows very slowly and competing organisms must be inhibited for up to 7 days. Therefore, a more selective medium (HP agar) containing a novel mixture of growth supplements plus amphotericin B and polymyxin B was developed. This medium also included a phenol red color indicator for urease production. Aliquots of nonsterile well water that contained native flora (Flavobacterium, Serratia, Citrobacter, Pasteurella, Ochrobactrum, Rahnella, and unidentified molds) and were further adulterated with the eight strains listed above (106 CFU of each strain per 100 ml) were spiked with H. pylori and were plated. In spite of the heavy mixed microbial load, only H. pylori colonies grew during 7 days of incubation at 37°C. The color indicator system allowed presumptive identification of H. pylori colonies sooner (12 to 20 h) than the conventional media tested allowed. The HP formulation developed in this study provides a medium with superior selectivity for H. pylori from mixed microbial populations in water and reduces the time required to complete the assay. PMID:12732566

  13. Mechanisms linking metabolism of Helicobacter pylori to (18)O and (13)C-isotopes of human breath CO2.

    PubMed

    Som, Suman; De, Anulekha; Banik, Gourab Dutta; Maity, Abhijit; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Pal, Mithun; Daschakraborty, Sunil B; Chaudhuri, Sujit; Jana, Subhra; Pradhan, Manik

    2015-06-03

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori utilize glucose during metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms linking to oxygen-18 ((18)O) and carbon-13 ((13)C)-isotopic fractionations of breath CO2 during glucose metabolism are poorly understood. Using the excretion dynamics of (18)O/(16)O and (13)C/(12)C-isotope ratios of breath CO2, we found that individuals with Helicobacter pylori infections exhibited significantly higher isotopic enrichments of (18)O in breath CO2 during the 2h-glucose metabolism regardless of the isotopic nature of the substrate, while no significant enrichments of (18)O in breath CO2 were manifested in individuals without the infections. In contrast, the (13)C-isotopic enrichments of breath CO2 were significantly higher in individuals with Helicobacter pylori compared to individuals without infections in response to (13)C-enriched glucose uptake, whereas a distinguishable change of breath (13)C/(12)C-isotope ratios was also evident when Helicobacter pylori utilize natural glucose. Moreover, monitoring the (18)O and (13)C-isotopic exchange in breath CO2 successfully diagnosed the eradications of Helicobacter pylori infections following a standard therapy. Our findings suggest that breath (12)C(18)O(16)O and (13)C(16)O(16)O can be used as potential molecular biomarkers to distinctively track the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori and also for eradication purposes and thus may open new perspectives into the pathogen's physiology along with isotope-specific non-invasive diagnosis of the infection.

  14. Effect of curing Helicobacter pylori infection on intragastric pH during treatment with omeprazole.

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, E F; Armstrong, D; Idström, J P; Labenz, J; Stolte, M; Dorta, G; Börsch, G; Blum, A L

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that omeprazole treatment produces higher intragastric pH values in Helicobacter pylori positive subjects than in H pylori negative subjects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curing H pylori on the intragastric pH in both the presence and absence of omeprazole therapy. Twenty four hour intragastric pH recordings were performed before and after a one week course of omeprazole (20 mg once daily) in 18 H pylori positive subjects and were repeated after the infection had been cured. In the absence of omeprazole, the total 24 hour pH values before cure did not differ from those afterwards. During omeprazole treatment the 24 hour pH values were much higher before (median (95% CI) 5.4: 4.3, 6.0), than after cure of infection (3.6: 2.1, 4.4; p < 0.001). The omeprazole induced fall in H+ activity before cure of H pylori did not, however, differ from that afterwards. It is concluded that the apparently greater antisecretory effect of omeprazole during H pylori infection may be a result of the production of acid neutralising compounds by the H pylori. Although a direct interaction between H pylori and omeprazole cannot be excluded, it seems unlikely. PMID:8537042

  15. Does Helicobacter pylori play a role in the pathogenesis of childhood chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?

    PubMed Central

    Maghbool, Maryam; Maghbool, Masood; Shahriari, Mehdi; Karimi, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acute self-limited bleeding disorder that can progress to chronic form in 10–15% of the cases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a possible cause of chronic ITP. We studied 30 children with resistant chronic ITP for H. pylori infection based on the detection of H. pylori fecal antigen. This retrospective study was based on data obtained from medical records of 30 children aged between five and 17 years (median age at ITP diagnosis was ten years). A specially-designed data sheet was used to record information on age, sex, duration of disease, family history of bleeding disorders, previous treatments and median platelet count. In patients with H. pylori infection, antimicrobial treatment consisted of amoxicillin, metronidazol and omeprazol. Response was assessed every month for one year and defined as complete (platelet count >150×109/L) or partial (platelet count between 50 and 150×109/L). We detected H. pylori infection in 5 patients. In 4 of them increased platelet count was seen during one year of follow-up and in one patient the platelet count was acceptable during six months. Although the pathological mechanism of H. pylori-induced thrombocytopenia was unclear in our patient sample, the assessment of H. pylori infection and use of eradication therapy should be attempted in chronic and resistant ITP patients. PMID:21589818

  16. Helicobacter pylori and its reservoirs: A correlation with the gastric infection.

    PubMed

    Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques; Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has long been found to cause gastric diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. The transmission medium of this bacterium has yet to be determined, though several studies have speculated that the oral cavity is a reservoir for H. pylori. Others have also reported that the oral cavity may be a source of both transmission and gastric reinfection; however, such results are controversial. We reviewed the literature and selected studies that report an association among H. pylori detections in the oral cavity (dental plaque, saliva, tongue, tonsil tissue, root canals, oral mucosa) in humans and in animals, as well as in the human stomach. The oral cavity may be considered the main reservoir for H. pylori. There are a correlations between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and periodontal disease, oral tissue inflammation, H. pylori transmission, and gastric reinfection. We believe that the mouth is a reservoir and that it plays a crucial role in both H. pylori transmission and gastric infection.

  17. Current views of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and Henoch-Schonlein purpura in children

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Li-Jing; Mao, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases and may play a potential role in certain extra-intestinal diseases. H. pylori infection are mainly acquired during childhood, and it has been reported that in endemic areas of China the infection rates are extraordinarily higher in HSP children, particular those with abdominal manifestations. Furthermore, eradication therapy may ameliorate Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) manifestations and decrease the recurrence of HSP. Therefore, results suggested that detection of H. pylori infection by appropriate method ought to be applied in HSP children. Current evidences indicate that local injury of gastric mucosa and immunological events induced by H. pylori infection are involved in the development of HSP. Increased serum IgA, cryoglobulins, C3 levels, autoimmunity, proinflammatory substances and molecular mimicry inducing immune complex and cross-reactive antibodies caused by H. pylori infection might play their roles in the course of HSP. However, there are no investigations confirming the causality between H. pylori infection and HSP, and the pathogenesis mechanism is still unclear. More bench and clinical studies need to be executed to elaborate the complex association between H. pylori and HSP. PMID:26862506

  18. In vitro and In vivo Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activities of Centella asiatica Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong-Mei; Choi, Myung-Joo; Kim, Jae Min; Lee, Kye Wan; Park, Yu Hwa; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with an increased risk of developing upper gastrointestinal tract diseases. However, treatment failure is a major cause of concern mainly due to possible recurrence of infection, the side effects, and resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities of Centella asiatica leaf extract (CAE) against H. pylori both in vitro and in vivo. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against 55 clinically isolated strains of H. pylori were tested using an agar dilution method. The MICs of CAE ranged from 0.125 mg/mL to 8 mg/mL, effectiveness in inhibiting H. pylori growth was 2 mg/mL. The anti-H. pylori effects of CAE in vivo were also examined in H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice. CAE was orally administrated once daily for 3 weeks at doses of 50 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg. CAE at the 50 mg/kg dose significantly reduced H. pylori colonization in mice gastric mucosa. Our study provides novel insights into the therapeutic effects of CAE against H. pylori