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Sample records for helium 8

  1. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a) Definitions...

  2. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a) Definitions...

  3. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2014) (a) Definitions...

  4. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Helium and Helium Usage Data. 52.208-8 Section 52.208-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.208-8 Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data. As prescribed in 8.505, insert the following clause: Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data (APR 2002) (a) Definitions...

  5. 8. ORIGINAL HELIUM COMPRESSOR, CIRCA 1957, BY HASKELL ENGINEERING, GLENDALE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ORIGINAL HELIUM COMPRESSOR, CIRCA 1957, BY HASKELL ENGINEERING, GLENDALE, CALIFORNIA. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. 48 CFR 52.208-8 - Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Management, Amarillo Field Office, Helium Operations, located at 801 South Fillmore Street, Suite 500... helium sales contract with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and that is on the BLM Amarillo Field.../www/amfo/amfo_home.html. Major helium requirement means an estimated refined helium requirement...

  7. GALEX J184559.8-413827: a new extreme helium star identified using SALT★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C. Simon

    2017-09-01

    A high-resolution spectrum of the helium-rich 'hot subdwarf' GALEX J184559.8-413827 (J1845-4138) obtained with SALT HRS demonstrates it to be the first extreme helium (EHe) star to be discovered in nearly 40 years. A quantitative analysis demonstrates it to have an atmosphere described by Teff = 26 170 ± 750 K, log g/cm s-2 = 4.22 ± 0.10 and a surface chemistry characterized by CNO-processed helium, a 1 per cent contamination of hydrogen (by number) and a metallicity 0.4 dex subsolar. Its distance and position are consistent with membership of the Galactic bulge. Its sharp absorption lines place strong constraints on both the rotation and microturbulent velocities. Spectroscopically, J1845-4138 closely resembles the pulsating EHe star V652 Her, generally considered to be the product of a double helium white dwarf merger evolving to become a helium-rich sdO star.

  8. Operational tests of the BNL 24.8 kW, 3.8 K helium refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. P.; Farah, Y.; Gibbs, R. J.; Schlafke, A. P.; Sondericker, J. H.; Wu, K. C.; Freeman, M.; Ganni, V.; Kowalski, R.; McWilliams, R.

    1985-06-01

    The BNL 24.8 kW refrigeration system is completely installed and major portions of the acceptance tests have been completed. So far, the equipment tested has performed at or above design levels. The room temperature helium compressor station has been completely tested and accepted. The two-stage oil injected screw compressor system exhibited an isothermal efficiency of 57% while delivering a helium flow in excess of 4400 g/s. Data on the performance of the make-up gas cryogenic purifier is given. The refrigerator turbomachinery, 13 expanders and three cold compressors, has been tested at room temperature for mechanical integrity and control stability. The first cooldown to operating temperature will be attempted in late August, 1985.

  9. Properties of V-(8-9)Cr-(5-6)Ti alloys irradiated in the dynamic helium charging experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    In the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE), helium was produced uniformly in vanadium alloy specimens by the decay of tritium during irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degrees}C in lithium-filled capsules in the Fast Flux Test Facility. This report presents results of postirradiation tests of tensile properties and density change in V-8Cr-6Ti and V-9Cr-5Ti. Compared to tensile properties of the alloys irradiated in the non-DHCE (helium generation negligible), the effect of helium on tensile strength and ductility of V-8Cr-6Ti and V-9Cr-5Ti was insignificant after irradiation and testing at 420, 500, and 600{degrees}C. Both alloys retained a total elongation of >11 % at these temperatures. Density change was <0.48% for both alloys.

  10. Thermophysical properties of Helium-4 from 0.8 to 1500 K with pressures to 2000 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arp, Vincent D.; Mccarty, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Tabular summary data of the thermophysical properties of fluid helium are given for temperatures from 0.8 to 1500 K, with pressures to 2000 MPa between 75 and 300 K, or to 100 MPa outside of this temperature band. Properties include density, specific heats, enthalpy, entropy, internal energy, sound velocity, expansivity, compressibility, thermal conductivity, and viscosity. The data are calculated from a computer program which is available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The computer program is based on carefully fitted state equations for both normal and superfluid helium.

  11. Studies on the effects of helium on the microstructural evolution of V-3.8Cr-3.9Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Doraiswamy, N.; Kestel, B.; Alexander, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The favorable physical and mechanical properties of V-3.8Cr-3.9Ti (wt.%), when subjected to neutron irradiation, has lead to considerable attention being focused on it for use in fusion reactor structural applications. However, there is limited data on the effects of helium on physical and mechanical properties of this alloy. Understanding these effects are important since helium will be generated by direct {alpha}-injection or transmutation reactions in the fusion environment, typically at a rate of {approx}5 appm He/dpa. Helium has been shown to cause substantial embrittlement, even at room temperature in vanadium and its alloys. Recent simulations of the fusion environment using the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiments (DHCE) have also indicated that the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys are altered by the presence of helium in post irradiation tests performed at room temperature. While the strengths were lower, room temperature ductilities of the DHCE specimens were higher than those of non-DHCE specimens. These changes have been attributed to the formation of different types of hardening centers in these alloys due to He trapping. Independent thermal desorption experiments suggest that these hardening centers may be associated with helium-vacancy-X (where X = O, N, and C) complexes. These complexes are stable below 290{degrees}C and persist at room temperature. However, there has been no direct microstructural evidence correlating the complexes with irradiation effects. An examination of the irradiation induced microstructure in samples preimplanted with He to different levels would enable such a correlation.

  12. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    DOE PAGES

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; ...

    2015-07-15

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features ofmore » the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.« less

  13. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.

    2015-07-15

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features of the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.

  14. Helium cryogenics

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sciver, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this work is to bridge the gap between physics and engineering aspects of helium fluids to encourage their use and enhance their usefulness in low-temperature systems. Topics covered include thermodynamic laws, electrical and thermal conductivities, spin systems, virial expansion, liquid He I, transport properties, density of helium as a quantum fluid, vortices and turbulence in He II, Kapitza conductance, acoustic mismatch theory, nucleate boiling heta transfer, surface effects, general considerations of internal flow, ideal liquefaction, stirling cycle, and the helium-3 isotope.

  15. 14 kA HTS Current Leads with one 4.8 K Helium Stream for the Prototype Test Facility at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raach, Henning; Schroeder, Claus H.; Floch, Eric; Bleile, Alexander; Schnizer, Pierre; Andersen, Torben P.

    The key part of the international FAIR project in Darmstadt, Germany, is the synchrotron SIS100, for which superconducting mag- nets are employed. For the First of Series Dipole a pair of HTS current leads with a nominal current of 14 kA DC were specified, manufactured and successfully tested. The motivation for these current leads was a high operation current and the liquefaction limit of 1 g/s of the cooling plant. In the design it has to be taken into account that per lead only one helium stream is available for the entirely inner cooling. For I=0 (8 kA DC) only 0.25 g/s/lead (0.38) were necessary to be compared to 0.365 (0.51) specified. Slow ramping with 50 A/s up to 17 kA was accomplished. Triangular cycles with 27 kA/s up to 14 kA were achieved. The current leads withstood the test voltage of 3 kV between two leads and between lead and ground. The one stream helium flow is regulated by the temperature at the warm end of the HTS to be 50 K. The reliability of the first pair, especially of the cold terminal, is a clear go for the series of HTS current leads needed for the Series Test Facility, the String Test and the SIS100 ring. There is a separate 50 K helium gas supply which allows a significant reduction of cooling requirements. These 19 pairs in total shall have a common design which will be slightly different to that of the first pair for the Prototype Test Facility.

  16. Helium defectoscopy of cerium gadolinium ceramics Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 with a submicrocrystalline structure in the impurity disorder region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koromyslov, A. V.; Zhiganov, A. N.; Kovalenko, M. A.; Kupryazhkin, A. Ya.

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of impurity anion vacancies formed upon the dissociation of gadolinium-vacancy complexes has been determined using helium defectoscopy of the cerium gadolinium ceramics Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 with a submicrocrystalline structure in the temperature range T = 740-1123 K and at saturation pressures ranging from 0.05 to 15 MPa. It has been found that the energy of dissociation of gadoliniumvacancy complexes is E {eff/ D }= 0.26 ± 0.06 eV, and the energy of dissolution of helium in anion vacancies in the impurity disorder region is E P = -0.31 ± 0.09 eV. The proposed mechanism of dissolution has been confirmed by the investigation of the electrical conductivity of the cerium gadolinium ceramics, as well as by the high-speed molecular dynamics simulation of the dissociation of gadolinium-vacancy complexes. It has been assumed that a decrease in the effective dissolution energy in comparison with the results of the previously performed low-temperature investigations is caused by the mutual repulsion of vacancies formed upon the dissociation of gadolinium-vacancy complexes in highly concentrated solutions of gadolinium in CeO2 with increasing temperature.

  17. Helium tables.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havill, Clinton H

    1928-01-01

    These tables are intended to provide a standard method and to facilitate the calculation of the quantity of "Standard Helium" in high pressure containers. The research data and the formulas used in the preparation of the tables were furnished by the Research Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  18. Helium runaways in white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The long-term evolution of a carbon-accreting white dwarf (M = 0.5 solar mass) has been studied from the onset of accretion to the ignition of helium. The variations in the details of the helium-shell flash have been examined with respect to variations in mass accretion rate. For intermediate rates (10 to the -9th to 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr) the helium flash is potentially explosive, whereas for high rates (5 x 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr) the shell flash is relatively weak. The results are discussed in the context of the long-term evolution of novae.

  19. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a...

  20. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a gas...

  1. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a gas...

  2. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a gas...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a gas...

  4. Ras Laffan helium recovery unit 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauve, Eric Arnaud; Grabié, Veronique; Grillot, David; Delcayre, Franck; Deschildre, Cindy

    2012-06-01

    In May 2010, Air Liquide was awarded a contract for the Engineering Procurement and Construction (Turnkey EPC) for a second helium recovery unit [RLH II] dedicated to the Ras Laffan refinery in Qatar. This unit will come in addition to the one [RLH I] delivered and commissioned by Air Liquide in 2005. It will increase the helium production of Qatar from 10% to 28% of worldwide production. RLH I and RLH II use Air Liquide Advanced Technologies helium liquefiers. With a production of 8 tons of liquid helium per day, the RLH I liquefier is the world largest, but not for long. Thanks to the newly developed turbine TC7, Air Liquide was able to propose for RLH II a single liquefier able to produce over 20 tons per day of liquid helium without liquid nitrogen pre-cooling. This liquefier using 6 Air Liquide turbines (TC series) will set a new record in the world of helium liquefaction.

  5. Effect of dislocations on helium retention in deformed pure iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y. H.; Cao, X. Z.; Jin, S. X.; Lu, E. Y.; Hu, Y. C.; Zhu, T.; Kuang, P.; Xu, Q.; Wang, B. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of dislocations created by deformation on helium retention in pure iron, including the helium atoms diffusion along the dislocation line and desorption from dislocation trapping sites, were investigated. The dislocation defect was introduced in specimens by cold-rolling, and then 5 keV helium ions were implanted into the deformed specimens. Slow positron beam technology and thermal desorption spectroscopy were used to investigate the evolution of dislocation defects and the desorption behavior of helium atoms under influence of dislocation. The behaviors of S-E, W-E and S-W plots indicate clearly that lots of helium atoms remain in the deformed specimen and helium atoms combining with dislocation change the distribution of electron density. The helium desorption plot indicates that dislocation accelerates helium desorption at 293 K-600 K and facilitates helium dissociation from HenVm (n/m = 1.8) cluster.

  6. Helium superfluidity. Shapes and vorticities of superfluid helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Luis F; Ferguson, Ken R; Cryan, James P; Bacellar, Camila; Tanyag, Rico Mayro P; Jones, Curtis; Schorb, Sebastian; Anielski, Denis; Belkacem, Ali; Bernando, Charles; Boll, Rebecca; Bozek, John; Carron, Sebastian; Chen, Gang; Delmas, Tjark; Englert, Lars; Epp, Sascha W; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Hexemer, Alexander; Huth, Martin; Kwok, Justin; Leone, Stephen R; Ma, Jonathan H S; Maia, Filipe R N C; Malmerberg, Erik; Marchesini, Stefano; Neumark, Daniel M; Poon, Billy; Prell, James; Rolles, Daniel; Rudek, Benedikt; Rudenko, Artem; Seifrid, Martin; Siefermann, Katrin R; Sturm, Felix P; Swiggers, Michele; Ullrich, Joachim; Weise, Fabian; Zwart, Petrus; Bostedt, Christoph; Gessner, Oliver; Vilesov, Andrey F

    2014-08-22

    Helium nanodroplets are considered ideal model systems to explore quantum hydrodynamics in self-contained, isolated superfluids. However, exploring the dynamic properties of individual droplets is experimentally challenging. In this work, we used single-shot femtosecond x-ray coherent diffractive imaging to investigate the rotation of single, isolated superfluid helium-4 droplets containing ~10(8) to 10(11) atoms. The formation of quantum vortex lattices inside the droplets is confirmed by observing characteristic Bragg patterns from xenon clusters trapped in the vortex cores. The vortex densities are up to five orders of magnitude larger than those observed in bulk liquid helium. The droplets exhibit large centrifugal deformations but retain axially symmetric shapes at angular velocities well beyond the stability range of viscous classical droplets. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Use of double and triple-ion irradiation to study the influence of high levels of helium and hydrogen on void swelling of 8-12% Cr ferritic-martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriiyanova, Y. E.; Bryk, V. V.; Borodin, O. V.; Kalchenko, A. S.; Voyevodin, V. N.; Tolstolutskaya, G. D.; Garner, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    In accelerator-driven spallation (ADS) devices, some of the structural materials will be exposed to intense fluxes of very high energy protons and neutrons, producing not only displacement damage, but very high levels of helium and hydrogen. Unlike fission flux-spectra where most helium and hydrogen are generated by transmutation in nickel and only secondarily in iron or chromium, gas production in ADS flux-spectra are rather insensitive to alloy composition, such that Fe-Cr base ferritic alloys also generate very large gas levels. While ferritic alloys are known to swell less than austenitic alloys in fission spectra, there is a concern that high gas levels in fusion and especially ADS facilities may strongly accelerate void swelling in ferritic alloys. In this study of void swelling in response to helium and hydrogen generation, irradiation was conducted on three ferritic-martensitic steels using the Electrostatic Accelerator with External Injector (ESUVI) facility that can easily produce any combination of helium to dpa and/or hydrogen to dpa ratios. Irradiation was conducted under single, dual and triple beam modes using 1.8 MeV Cr+3, 40 keV He+, and 20 keV H+. In the first part of this study we investigated the response of dual-phase EP-450 to variations in He/dpa and H/dpa ratio, focusing first on dual ion studies and then triple ion studies, showing that there is a diminishing influence on swelling with increasing total gas content. In the second part we investigated the relative response of three alloys spanning a range of starting microstructure and composition. In addition to observing various synergisms between He and H, the most important conclusion was that the tempered martensite phase, known to lag behind the ferrite phase in swelling in the absence of gases, loses much of its resistance to void nucleation when irradiated at large gas/dpa levels.

  8. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  9. The effects of convective overshooting on naked helium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing-Zhi; Zhu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Lü, Guo-Liang

    2016-09-01

    Using stellar evolutionary models, we investigate the effects of convective overshooting on naked helium stars. We find that a larger value of overshooting parameter δov results in a larger convective core, which prolongs the lifetimes of naked helium stars on the helium main sequence and leads to higher effective temperatures and luminosities. For naked helium stars with masses lower than about 0.8 M⊙, they hardly become giant stars as a result of a weak burning shell. However, naked helium stars with masses between about 0.8 M⊙ and 1.1 M⊙ can evolve into giant branch phases, and finally become carbon oxygen white dwarfs.

  10. Helium diffusion in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Pinsonneault, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    We calculate improved standard solar models using the new Livermore (OPAL) opacity tables, an accurate (exportable) nuclear energy generation routine which takes account of recent measurements and analyses, and the recent Anders-Grevesse determination of heavy element abundances. We also evaluate directly the effect of the diffusion of helium with respect to hydrogen on the calculated neutrino fluxes, on the primordial solar helium abundance, and on the depth of the convective zone. Helium diffusion increases the predicted event rates by about 0.8 SNU, or 11 percent of the total rate, in the chlorine solar neutrino experiment, by about 3.5 SNU, or 3 percent, in the gallium solar neutrino experiments, and by about 12 percent in the Kamiokande and SNO solar neutrino experiments. The best standard solar model including helium diffusion and the most accurate nuclear parameters, element abundances, and radiative opacity predicts a value of 8.0 SNU +/- 3.0 SNU for the C1-37 experiment and 132 +21/-17 SNU for the Ga - 71 experiment, where the uncertainties include 3 sigma errors for all measured input parameters.

  11. 48 CFR 8.501 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.501 Definitions. As used in this subpart... Office, Helium Operations, 801 South Fillmore Street, Suite 500, Amarillo, TX 79101-3545. Federal helium supplier means a private helium vendor that has an in-kind crude helium sales contract with the Bureau of...

  12. 48 CFR 8.501 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.501 Definitions. As used in this subpart... Office, Helium Operations, 801 South Fillmore Street, Suite 500, Amarillo, TX 79101-3545. Federal helium supplier means a private helium vendor that has an in-kind crude helium sales contract with the Bureau of...

  13. 48 CFR 8.501 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.501 Definitions. As used in this subpart... Office, Helium Operations, 801 South Fillmore Street, Suite 500, Amarillo, TX 79101-3545. Federal helium supplier means a private helium vendor that has an in-kind crude helium sales contract with the Bureau of...

  14. 48 CFR 8.501 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.501 Definitions. As used in this subpart... Office, Helium Operations, 801 South Fillmore Street, Suite 500, Amarillo, TX 79101-3545. Federal helium supplier means a private helium vendor that has an in-kind crude helium sales contract with the Bureau of...

  15. 48 CFR 8.502 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.502 Policy. Agencies and their contractors and subcontractors must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers, to the...

  16. 48 CFR 8.502 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.502 Policy. Agencies and their contractors and subcontractors must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers, to the...

  17. 48 CFR 8.502 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.502 Policy. Agencies and their contractors and subcontractors must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers, to the...

  18. 48 CFR 8.502 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.502 Policy. Agencies and their contractors and subcontractors must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers, to the...

  19. 48 CFR 8.502 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.502 Policy. Agencies and their contractors and subcontractors must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers, to the...

  20. Helium diffusion in carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amidon, W. H.; Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Hobbs, D.

    2013-12-01

    The abundance and large grain size of carbonate minerals make them a potentially attractive target for 4He thermochronology and 3He cosmogenic dating, although the diffusive properties of helium in carbonates remain poorly understood. This work characterizes helium diffusion in calcite and dolomite to better understand the crystal-chemical factors controlling He transport and retentivity. Slabs of cleaved natural calcite and dolomite, and polished sections of calcite cut parallel or normal to c, were implanted with 3He at 3 MeV with a dose of 5x1015/cm2. Implanted carbonates were heated in 1-atm furnaces, and 3He distributions following diffusion anneals were profiled with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the reaction 3He(d,p)4He. For 3He transport normal to cleavage surfaces in calcite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation over the temperature range 78-300°C: Dcalcite = 9.0x10-9exp(-55 × 6 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1. Diffusion in calcite exhibits marked anisotropy, with diffusion parallel to c about two orders of magnitude slower than diffusion normal to cleavage faces. He diffusivities for transport normal to the c-axis are similar in value to those normal to cleavage surfaces. Our findings are broadly consistent with helium diffusivities from step-heating measurements of calcite by Copeland et al. (2007); these bulk degassing data may reflect varying effects of diffusional anisotropy. Helium diffusion normal to cleavage surfaces in dolomite is significantly slower than diffusion in calcite, and has a much higher activation energy for diffusion. For dolomite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation for He diffusion over the temperature range 150-400°C: Ddolomite = 9.0x10-8exp(-92 × 9 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1. The role of crystallographic structure in influencing these differences among diffusivities was evaluated using the maximum aperture approach of Cherniak and Watson (2011), in which crystallographic structures are sectioned along possible diffusion

  1. The Nucleosynthesis of Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneller, James

    2007-04-01

    The large cosmic abundance of Helium - second only to Hydrogen - is a testament to the importance of its formation in the cosmos. Both Helium-3 and Helium-4 emerge from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in considerable quantities, the synthesis of the isotopes are links in the pp chain and other stellar nucleosynthesis processes, and they are also created during the initial stages of the r-process. The importance of Helium formation in these settings provides us with valuable information upon the environments in which it occurs. We survey the role of the synthesis of Helium in nuclear astrophysics, how its manufacture is affected by many diverse factors, and what we have learnt from observations of Helium abundances.

  2. Helium resources of Mare Tranquillitatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, Univ. of Wisc., Madison, Wisc. Mare Tranquillitatis, about 300000 sq km in area, is currently the most promising lunar source of He-3 for fueling fusion power plants on Earth. About 60 pct. of the mare regolith consists of particles 100 microns or less in diameter. Helium and other gases derived from the solar wind are concentrated in the fine size fractions. Studies of very small craters indicate that the average regolith exceeds 3 m in areas away from larger craters and other mare features not amenable to mining. There is no evidence of decrease of helium content of regolith and depth. Helium is known to be enriched in regoliths that are high in TiO2 content. Remote sensing indicates that about 90 pct. of Mare Tranquillitatis is covered by regolith ranging from about 6 to +7.5 pct. TiO2; inferred He contents range from 20 to at least 45 wppm total helium (7 to 18 wppb He-3). Detailed studies of craters and inferred ejecta halos displayed on high resolution photographs of the Apollo 11 and Ranger 8 areas suggest that as much as 50 pct. of the mare regolith may be physically minable, on average, with appropriate mining equipment. Assuming that the average thickness of regolith is 3 m, and that 50 pct. of the mare area is minable, the He-3 content of minable regolith containing 20 to 45 wppm total He is estimated at about 94,000 tonnes.

  3. On the effects of irradiation and helium on the yield stress changes and hardening and non-hardening embrittlement of ˜8Cr tempered martensitic steels: Compilation and analysis of existing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Odette, G. Robert; Kishimoto, Hirotatsu; Rensman, Jan-Willem; Miao, Pifeng

    2006-09-01

    Data on irradiation hardening and embrittlement of 8-10Cr normalized and tempered martensitic steel (TMS) alloys has been compiled from the literature, including results from neutron, spallation proton (SP) and He-ion (HI) irradiations. Limitations of this database are briefly described. Simple, phenomenological-empirical fitting models were used to assess the dose (displacement-per-atom, dpa), irradiation temperature ( Ti) and test temperature ( Tt) dependence of yield stress changes (Δ σy), as well as the corresponding dependence of sub-sized Charpy V-notch impact test transition temperature shifts (Δ Tc). The Δ σy are generally similar for SP and neutron irradiations, with very high and low helium to dpa ratios, respectively. Further, the Δ σy trends were found to be remarkably consistent with the Ti and dpa hardening-dependence of low alloy steels irradiated at much lower doses. The similar Ti and (low) dose dependence of Δ σy and Δ Tc, as well as an analysis of paired Δ Tc-Δ σy datasets, show that embrittlement is typically dominated by a hardening mechanism below about 400 °C. However, the corresponding hardening-Charpy shift coefficient, Cc = Δ Tc/Δ σy ≈ 0.38 ± 0.18 °C/MPa is lower than that for the fracture toughness reference temperature, T0, with Δ T0/Δ σy ≈ 0.58 ± 0.1 °C/MPa, indicating that sub-sized Charpy tests provide non-conservative estimates of embrittlement. The Cc increases at Ti > 400 °C, and Δ Tc > 0 are sometimes observed in association with Δ σy ⩽ 0, indicative of a non-hardening embrittlement (NHE) contribution. Analysis of limited data on embrittlement due to thermal aging supports this conclusion, and we hypothesize that the NHE regime may be shifted to lower temperatures by radiation enhanced diffusion. Possible effects of helium on embrittlement for Ti between 300 and 400 °C are also assessed based on observed trends in Cc. The available data is limited, scattered, and potentially confounded. However

  4. Thermal desorption behavior of helium in aged titanium tritide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G. J.; Shi, L. Q.; Zhou, X. S.; Liang, J. H.; Wang, W. D.; Long, X. G.; Yang, B. F.; Peng, S. M.

    2015-11-01

    The desorption behavior of helium in TiT(1.5∼1.8)-x3Hex film samples (x = 0.0022-0.22) was investigated by thermal desorption technique in vacuum condition in this paper. The thermal helium desorption spectrometry (THDS) of aging titanium tritide films prepared by electron beam evaporation revealed that, depending on the decayed 3He concentration in the samples, there are more than four states of helium existing in the films. The divided four zones in THDS based on helium states represent respectively: (1) the mobile single helium atoms with low activation energy in all aging samples resulted from the interstitial sites or dissociated from interstitial clusters, loops and dislocations, (2) helium bubbles inside the grain lattices, (3) helium bubbles in the grain boundaries and interconnected networks of dislocations in the helium concentration of 3Hegen/Ti > 0.0094, and (4) helium bubbles near or linked to the film surface by interconnected channel for later aging stage with 3Hegen/Ti > 0.18. The proportion of helium desorption in each zone was estimated, and dissociated energies of helium for different trapping states were given.

  5. Superfluid Helium Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, P.

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.

  6. Study of the single cluster response of a helium-isobutane drift chamber prototype using 8 keV X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavoto, G.; Dabagov, S.; Hampai, D.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Ripiccini, E.; Voena, C.; Zullo, A.

    2015-03-01

    The identification of single clusters in the electronic signals produced by ionizing particles within a drift chamber is expected to significantly improve the performances of this kind of detectors in terms of particle identification capabilities and space resolution. In order to develop refined cluster recognition algorithms, it is essential to measure the response of the chamber and its electronics to single ionization clusters. This can be done by irradiating the chamber with X-rays. We report here on the studies performed on a drift chamber prototype for the MEG-II experiment at the X-ray facility of the INFN Frascati's National Laboratories ``XLab Frascati''. The prototype is operated with a helium-isobutane mixture and instrumented with high bandwidth custom pre-amplifiers. The results of this study have been used to develop an innovative method for cluster recognition, based on the Wiener filter technique, which has been tested on data collected at the Frascati's Beam Test Facility. As a side measurement, we also performed a study of the gas gain in a configuration which is similar to that of the MEG-II experiment.

  7. Helium liquefier cycles with saturated vapor compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minta, M.; Smith, J. L., Jr.

    The three refrigeration stages of the conventional helium liquefaction cycle are related to liquid nitrogen precooling, the use of expansion engines, and a J-T expansion. For an operation of helium refrigerators at temperatures below 4.2 K reduced pressure levels are required. Such an operation makes it necessary to enhance the compressor size and the heat exchanger surface area. In the case of 1.8 K refrigerators, practical cycles with three pressure levels are employed. It is pointed out that the saturated-vapor-compression (SVC) helium cycle provides an alternative solution to these problems. The present investigation is concerned with the design study of a SVC helium liquifier operating at elevated pressures. The study was conducted to demonstrate the potential of the SVC cycle on the basis of a direct comparison with a conventional cycle using the same precooling expanders and a supercritical wet expander instead of a J-T valve.

  8. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  9. Interaction of Helium Rydberg State Molecules with Dense Helium.

    PubMed

    Bonifaci, Nelly; Li, Zhiling; Eloranta, Jussi; Fiedler, Steven L

    2016-11-17

    The interaction potentials of the He2(*) excimer, in the a(3)Σu, b(3)Πg, c(3)Σg, and d(3)Σu electronic states with a ground state helium atom are presented. The symmetry of the interaction potentials closely follows the excimer Rydberg electron density with pronounced short-range minima appearing along the nodal planes of the Rydberg orbital. In such cases, a combination of the electrostatic short-range attraction combined with Pauli repulsion leads to the appearance of unusual long-range maxima in the potentials. Bosonic density functional calculations show that the (3)d state excimer resides in a localized solvation bubble in dense helium at 4.5 K, with radii varying from 12.7 Å at 0.1 MPa to 10.8 Å at 2.4 MPa. The calculated (3)d → (3)b pressure-induced fluorescence band shifts are in good agreement with experimental results determined by application of corona discharge. The magnitude of the spectral shifts indicate that the observed He2(*) molecules emit from dense helium whereas the corresponding fluorescence signal from the discharge zone appears quenched. This implies that fluorescence spectroscopy involving this electronic transition can only be used to probe the state of the surrounding medium rather than the discharge zone itself.

  10. 48 CFR 8.505 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.505 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.208-8, Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data, in solicitations and contracts if it is anticipated that performance of the contract involves a major helium requirement. ...

  11. 48 CFR 8.505 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.505 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.208-8, Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data, in solicitations and contracts if it is anticipated that performance of the contract involves a major helium requirement. ...

  12. 48 CFR 8.505 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.505 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.208-8, Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data, in solicitations and contracts if it is anticipated that performance of the contract involves a major helium requirement. ...

  13. 48 CFR 8.505 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.505 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.208-8, Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data, in solicitations and contracts if it is anticipated that performance of the contract involves a major helium requirement. ...

  14. 48 CFR 8.505 - Contract clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.505 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.208-8, Required Sources for Helium and Helium Usage Data, in solicitations and contracts if it is anticipated that performance of the contract involves a major helium requirement. ...

  15. Noncavitating Pump For Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenbein, Robert; Izenson, Michael; Swift, Walter; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    Immersion pump features high efficiency in cryogenic service. Simple and reliable centrifugal pump transfers liquid helium with mass-transfer efficiency of 99 percent. Liquid helium drawn into pump by helical inducer, which pressurizes helium slightly to prevent cavitation when liquid enters impeller. Impeller then pressurizes liquid. Purpose of pump to transfer liquid helium from supply to receiver vessel, or to provide liquid helium flow for testing and experimentation.

  16. CHARACTERIZING TRITIUM WASTE USING HELIUM RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Ovink, R.W.; McMahon, W.J.; Borghese, J.V.; Olsen, K.B.

    2003-02-27

    When routine sampling revealed greatly elevated tritium levels (3.14 x 105 Bq/L [8.5-million pCi/liter]) in the groundwater near a solid waste landfill at the Hanford Site, an innovative technique was used to assess the extent of the plume. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios, relative to ambient air-in-soil gas samples, were used to identify the tritium source and initially delineate the extent of the groundwater tritium plume. This approach is a modification of a technique developed in the late 1960s to age-date deep ocean water as part of the GEOSECS ocean monitoring program. Poreda, et al. (1) and Schlosser, et al. (2) applied this modified technique to shallow aquifers. A study was also conducted to demonstrate the concept of using helium-3 as a tool to locate vadose zone sources of tritium and tracking groundwater tritium plumes at Hanford (3). Seventy sampling points were installed around the perimeter and along four transects downgradient of the burial ground. Soil gas samples were collected, analyzed for helium isotopes, and helium-3/helium-4 ratios were calculated for these 70 points. The helium ratios indicated a vadose zone source of tritium along the northern edge of the burial ground that is likely the source of tritium in the groundwater. The helium ratios also indicate the groundwater plume is traveling east-northeast from the burial ground and that no up-gradient tritium sources are affecting the burial ground. Based on the helium ratio results, six downgradient groundwater sampling locations were identified to verify the tritium plume extent and groundwater tritium concentrations. The tritium results from the initial groundwater samples confirmed that elevated helium ratios were indicative of tritium contamination in the local groundwater. The measurement of helium isotopes in soil gas provided a rapid and cost- effective technique to define the shape and extent of tritium contamination from the burial ground. Using this soil gas sampling approach, the

  17. The Descending Helium Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-01-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  18. The Descending Helium Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-01-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  19. The descending helium balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-07-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  20. 48 CFR 8.504 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.504 Procedures. The contracting officer... each fiscal quarter: (a) The name of any company that supplied a major helium requirement. (b) The amount of helium purchased. (c) The delivery date(s). (d) The location where the helium was used. ...

  1. 48 CFR 8.504 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.504 Procedures. The contracting officer... each fiscal quarter: (a) The name of any company that supplied a major helium requirement. (b) The amount of helium purchased. (c) The delivery date(s). (d) The location where the helium was used. ...

  2. 48 CFR 8.504 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.504 Procedures. The contracting officer... each fiscal quarter: (a) The name of any company that supplied a major helium requirement. (b) The amount of helium purchased. (c) The delivery date(s). (d) The location where the helium was used. ...

  3. 48 CFR 8.504 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.504 Procedures. The contracting officer... each fiscal quarter: (a) The name of any company that supplied a major helium requirement. (b) The amount of helium purchased. (c) The delivery date(s). (d) The location where the helium was used....

  4. Helium Diffusion in Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Diffusion of helium has been characterized in natural Fe-bearing olivine (~Fo90) and synthetic forsterite. Polished, oriented slabs of olivine were implanted with 3He, at 100 keV at a dose of 5x1015/cm2 or at 3.0 MeV at a dose of 1x1016/cm2. A set of experiments on the implanted olivine were run in 1-atm furnaces. In addition to the one-atm experiments, experiments on implanted samples were also run at higher pressures (2.6 and 2.7 GPa) to assess the potential effects of pressure on He diffusion and the applicability of the measured diffusivities in describing He transport in the mantle. The high-pressure experiments were conducted in a piston-cylinder apparatus using an "ultra-soft" pressure cell, with the diffusion sample directly surrounded by AgCl. 3He distributions following experiments were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the reaction 3He(d,p)4He. This direct profiling method permits us to evaluate anisotropy of diffusion, which cannot be easily assessed using bulk-release methods. For diffusion in forsterite parallel to c we obtain the following Arrhenius relation over the temperatures 250-950°C: D = 3.91x10-6exp(-159 ± 4 kJ mol-1/RT) m2/sec. The data define a single Arrhenius line spanning more than 7 orders of magnitude in D and 700°C in temperature. Diffusion parallel to a appears slightly slower, yielding an activation energy for diffusion of 135 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 3.73x10-8 m2/sec. Diffusion parallel to b is slower than diffusion parallel to a (by about two-thirds of a log unit); for this orientation an activation energy of 138 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 1.34x10-8 m2/sec are obtained. This anisotropy is broadly consistent with observations for diffusion of Ni and Fe-Mg in olivine. Diffusion in Fe-bearing olivine (transport parallel to b) agrees within uncertainty with findings for He diffusion in forsterite. The higher-pressure experiments yield diffusivities in agreement with those from the 1-atm

  5. Is solid helium a supersolid?

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, Robert

    2015-05-15

    Recent experiments suggest that helium-4 atoms can flow through an experimental cell filled with solid helium. But that incompletely understood flow is quite different from the reported superfluid-like motion that so excited physicists a decade ago.

  6. Helium-refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, J.R.; Millar, B.; Sutherland, A.

    1995-08-01

    The design, procurement, and preliminary construction was completed for adding two more wet expansion engines to two helium refrigerators. These will be added in mid-year FY 1995. In addition a variable speed drive will be added to an existing helium compressor. This is part of an energy conservation upgrade project to reduce operating costs from the use of electricity and liquid nitrogen. This project involves the replacement of Joule-Thompson valves in the refrigerators with expansion engines resulting in system efficiency improvements of about 30% and improved system reliability.

  7. Cavitation in flowing superfluid helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daney, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Flowing superfluid helium cavitates much more readily than normal liquid helium, and there is a marked difference in the cavitation behavior of the two fluids as the lambda point is traversed. Examples of cavitation in a turbine meter and centrifugal pump are given, together with measurements of the cavitation strength of flowing superfluid helium. The unusual cavitation behavior of superfluid helium is attributed to its immense thermal conductivity .

  8. The selection and characterization of the mutants in bioflocculant bacteria C8 induced by 3 MeV helium ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L. L.; Yang, Y. N.; Xue, J. M.; Ding, X. L.; Guo, R. Q.

    2009-01-01

    A 3 MeV He 2+ beam was used to irradiate C8 (a flocculant-producing bacteria) with a fluence ranging from 10 11 to 10 13 ions/cm 2. The effects on the survival ratio, TTC-dehydrogenase activity, flocculating activity and RAPD analysis are reported. The survival ratio curve caused by irradiation is proved to be "saddle-shaped". Eleven mutants were obtained, all of which had a significant change in dehydrogenase activity and most showed a positive change in flocculating activity. RAPD measurements were used to analyse the DNA of mutants with a flocculating activity over 80%, which indicated that all their DNA had been changed by irradiation.

  9. Helium anion formation inside helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour Al Maalouf, Elias; Reitshammer, Julia; Ribar, Anita; Scheier, Paul; Denifl, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The formation of He∗- is examined with improved electron energy resolution of about 100 meV utilizing a hemispherical electron monochromator. The work presented provides a precise determination of the three previously determined resonance peak positions that significantly contribute to the formation of He∗- inside helium nanodroplets in the energy range from 20 eV to 29.5 eV. In addition, a new feature is identified located at 27.69 ± 0.18 eV that we assign to the presence of O2 as a dopant inside the droplet. With increasing droplet size a small blue shift of the resonance positions is observed. Also for the relatively low electron currents used in the present study (i.e., 15-70 nA) a quadratic dependence of the He∗- ion yield on the electron current is observed.

  10. Feasibility of lunar Helium-3 mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinschneider, Andreas; Van Overstraeten, Dmitry; Van der Reijnst, Roy; Van Hoorn, Niels; Lamers, Marvin; Hubert, Laurent; Dijk, Bert; Blangé, Joey; Hogeveen, Joel; De Boer, Lennaert; Noomen, Ron

    -3 fusion were calculated using a predicted minimum energy price in 2040 of 30.4 Euro/MWh. Annual costs are between 427.7 to 1,347.9 billion Euro, with annual expected profit ranging from -724.0 to 260.0 billion Euro. Due to the large scale of the mission, it has also been evaluated for providing 0.1% and 1% of the global energy demand in 2040. For 1%, the annual costs are 45.6 to 140.3 billion Euro and the expected annual profits are -78.0 to 23.1 billion Euro. For 0.1%, the annual costs are 7.7 to 20.5 billion Euro. The annual expected profits are -14.3 to -0.8 billion Euro. Feasibility has been addressed in three aspects. Technically, the mission is extremely challenging and complex. However, most required technologies exist or could be developed within a reasonable time span. From a political and legal perspective, the current international treaties hardly provide any framework for a lunar mining operation. Financially, the mission only produces a net profit in the best case, and only for medium- to large-scale operations, which require a very large initial investment. To make lunar Helium-3 usage possible, further research should concentrate on the mining operation and costs of fusion plants, as their impact by far outranks all other mission elements. Different transportation concepts may be investigated nevertheless. Many - not only technical - challenges concerning Helium-3 mining are still to be addressed. Although only a starting point for further investigations, this study shows that, despite popular claims, lunar Helium-3 is unsuitable to provide a significant percentage of the global energy demand in 2040.

  11. Auroral helium precipitation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axford, W. I.; Chivers, H. J. A.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Buehler, F.

    1972-01-01

    Application of the metal foil sampling technique, which has been used to measure helium, neon, and argon fluxes in the solar wind, to the problem of measuring the fluxes of these gases in the auroral primary radiation. Aluminum and platinum foils have been flown into two bright auroras and have been recovered. The foils have been analyzed for helium and neon isotopes with a mass spectrometer; so far only He4 has been detected. In the first flight the precipitating flux of He4 with particle energies above about 1 keV was approximately 1,000,000 per sq cm per sec, and the backscattered flux was smaller by about a factor of 10. In the second flight the aurora was less bright, and the He4 fluxes were lower by a factor of about 2. A rough analysis suggests that the mean energy of the incident particles was greater than 3 keV.

  12. Auroral helium precipitation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axford, W. I.; Chivers, H. J. A.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Buehler, F.

    1972-01-01

    Application of the metal foil sampling technique, which has been used to measure helium, neon, and argon fluxes in the solar wind, to the problem of measuring the fluxes of these gases in the auroral primary radiation. Aluminum and platinum foils have been flown into two bright auroras and have been recovered. The foils have been analyzed for helium and neon isotopes with a mass spectrometer; so far only He4 has been detected. In the first flight the precipitating flux of He4 with particle energies above about 1 keV was approximately 1,000,000 per sq cm per sec, and the backscattered flux was smaller by about a factor of 10. In the second flight the aurora was less bright, and the He4 fluxes were lower by a factor of about 2. A rough analysis suggests that the mean energy of the incident particles was greater than 3 keV.

  13. Education in Helium Refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gistau Baguer, G. M.

    2004-06-01

    On the one hand, at the end of the time I was active in helium refrigeration, I noticed that cryogenics was stepping into places where it was not yet used. For example, a conventional accelerator, operating at room temperature, was to be upgraded to reach higher particle energy. On the other hand, I was a little bit worried to let what I had so passionately learned during these years to be lost. Retirement made time available, and I came gradually to the idea to teach about what was my basic job. I thought also about other kinds of people who could be interested in such lessons: operators of refrigerators or liquefiers who, often by lack of time, did not get a proper introduction to their job when they started, young engineers who begin to work in cryogenics… and so on. Consequently, I have assembled a series of lessons about helium refrigeration. As the audiences have different levels of knowledge in the field of cryogenics, I looked for a way of teaching that is acceptable for all of them. The course is split into theory of heat exchangers, refrigeration cycles, technology and operation of main components, process control, and helium purity.

  14. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  15. Education in Helium Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Gistau Baguer, G. M.

    2004-06-23

    On the one hand, at the end of the time I was active in helium refrigeration, I noticed that cryogenics was stepping into places where it was not yet used. For example, a conventional accelerator, operating at room temperature, was to be upgraded to reach higher particle energy. On the other hand, I was a little bit worried to let what I had so passionately learned during these years to be lost. Retirement made time available, and I came gradually to the idea to teach about what was my basic job. I thought also about other kinds of people who could be interested in such lessons: operators of refrigerators or liquefiers who, often by lack of time, did not get a proper introduction to their job when they started, young engineers who begin to work in cryogenics... and so on.Consequently, I have assembled a series of lessons about helium refrigeration. As the audiences have different levels of knowledge in the field of cryogenics, I looked for a way of teaching that is acceptable for all of them. The course is split into theory of heat exchangers, refrigeration cycles, technology and operation of main components, process control, and helium purity.

  16. Helium anion formation inside helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, Elias Jabbour Al; Reitshammer, Julia; Ribar, Anita; Scheier, Paul; Denifl, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The formation of He∗- is examined with improved electron energy resolution of about 100 meV utilizing a hemispherical electron monochromator. The work presented provides a precise determination of the three previously determined resonance peak positions that significantly contribute to the formation of He∗- inside helium nanodroplets in the energy range from 20 eV to 29.5 eV. In addition, a new feature is identified located at 27.69 ± 0.18 eV that we assign to the presence of O2 as a dopant inside the droplet. With increasing droplet size a small blue shift of the resonance positions is observed. Also for the relatively low electron currents used in the present study (i.e., 15-70 nA) a quadratic dependence of the He∗- ion yield on the electron current is observed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  17. The winter helium bulge revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianjing; Wang, Wenbin; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Burns, Alan; Sutton, Eric; Solomon, Stanley C.; Qian, Liying; Lucas, Greg

    2014-10-01

    A newly implemented helium module in the National Center for Atmospheric Research-Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics general circulation model offers the first opportunity in three decades to describe helium behavior in the context of a first principles, self-consistent model and to test early theories of wintertime helium bulge formation. This study shows general agreement with the findings of Reber and Hays (1973) but articulates the definitive role of vertical advection in the bulge formation. Our findings indicate vertical advection and molecular diffusion are the dominate processes responsible for the solstice helium distribution. Horizontal winds indirectly contribute to the helium bulge formation by their divergent wind field that leads to vertical winds in order to maintain thermosphere mass continuity. As a minor gas, thermospheric helium does not contribute to mass continuity and its distribution is dictated by more local interactions and constraints.

  18. Energetic helium particles trapped in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jiasheng; Guzik, T. Gregory; Sang, Yeming; Wefel, John P.; Cooper, John F.

    1994-01-01

    High energy (approximately 40-100 MeV/nucleon) geomagnetically trapped helium nuclei have been measured, for the first time, by the ONR-604 instrument during the 1990/1991 Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission. The helium events observed at L less than 2.3 have a pitch angle distribution peaking perpendicular to the local magnetic field and are contained in peaks located at L = 1.2 and 1.9. The events in each peak can be characterized by power law energy spectra with indices of 10.0 +/- 0.7 for L = 1.9-2.3 and 6.8 +/- 1.0 for L = 1.15-1.3, before the large storm of 24 March 1991. CRRES was active during solar maximum when the anomalous component is excluded from the inner heliosphere, making it unlikely that the observed events derived from the anomalous component. The trapped helium counting rates decrease gradually with time indicating that these high energy ions were not injected by flares during the 1990/91 mission. Flare injection prior to mid-1990 may account for the highest energy particles, while solar wind injection during magnetic storms and subsequent acceleration could account for the helium at lower energies.

  19. Helium runaways in white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The long term evolution of an accreting carbon white dwarf was studied from the onset of accretion to the ignition of helium. The variations in the details of the helium shell flash examined with respect to variations in mass accretion rate. For intermediate rates the helium flash is potentially explosive whereas for high rates the shell flash is relatively weak. The results are discussed in the context of the long term evolution of novae.

  20. Gas-chromatographic analysis of high-purity helium using a helium detector

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, V.A.; Aleksandrov, S.D.; Krasotskii, S.G.; Chernyatin, A.K.; Shkrunina, T.V.

    1986-10-10

    The limits of gas-chromatographic detection of neon, hydrogen, argon, nitrogen, krypton, and methane in helium have been determined using a helium ionization detector under saturation current conditions. The detection limits are restricted by the gas permeability of the detector Teflon body and the injection system. The dependence of extraction of impurity gases by cryogenic adsorption enrichment on their contents and enrichment time has been examined. the relative detection limit can be lowered by preconcentration of 3 x 10/sup -5/% for neon and to 4 x 10/sup -7/ to 2 x 10/sup -8/% for other gases.

  1. Helium in Earth's early core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhifd, M. A.; Jephcoat, Andrew P.; Heber, Veronika S.; Kelley, Simon P.

    2013-11-01

    The observed escape of the primordial helium isotope, 3He, from the Earth's interior indicates that primordial helium survived the energetic process of planetary accretion and has been trapped within the Earth to the present day. Two distinct reservoirs in the Earth's interior have been invoked to account for variations in the 3He/4He ratio observed at the surface in ocean basalts: a conventional depleted mantle source and a deep, still enigmatic, source that must have been isolated from processing throughout Earth history. The Earth's iron-based core has not been considered a potential helium source because partitioning of helium into metal liquid has been assumed to be negligible. Here we determine helium partitioning in experiments between molten silicates and iron-rich metal liquids at conditions up to 16GPa and 3,000K. Analyses of the samples by ultraviolet laser ablation mass spectrometry yield metal-silicate helium partition coefficients that range between 4.7×10-3 and 1.7×10-2 and suggest that significant quantities of helium may reside in the core. Based on estimated concentrations of primordial helium, we conclude that the early core could have incorporated enough helium to supply deep-rooted plumes enriched in 3He throughout the age of the Earth.

  2. Helium jet dispersion to atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Hasna J.

    On the event of loss of vacuum guard of superinsulated helium dewar, high rate of heat transfer into the tank occurs. The rapid boiling of liquid helium causes the burst disk to rupture at four atmospheres and consequently the helium passes to the atmosphere through vent lines. The gaseous helium forms a vertical buoyant jet as it exits the vent line into a stagnant environment. Characterization of the gaseous jet is achieved by detailed analysis of the axial and radial dependence of the flow parameters.

  3. Influence of flowing helium gas on plasma plume formation in atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Konda, Kohmei; Ogura, Kazuo

    2015-05-15

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and a foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. The helium gas flowing out of quartz tube mixes with air, and the flow channel is composed of the regions of flowing helium gas and air. The plasma plume length is equivalent to the reachable distance of flowing helium gas. Although the amount of helium gas on the flow channel increases by increasing the inner diameter of quartz tube at the same gas flow velocity, the plasma plume length peaks at around 8 m/s of gas flow velocity, which is the result that a flow of helium gas is balanced with the amount of gas. The plasma plume is formed at the boundary region where the flow of helium gas is kept to the wall of the air.

  4. 48 CFR 8.503 - Exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.503 Exception. The requirements of this subpart do not apply to contracts or subcontracts in which the helium was acquired by the contractor prior...

  5. 48 CFR 8.503 - Exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.503 Exception. The requirements of this subpart do not apply to contracts or subcontracts in which the helium was acquired by the contractor prior...

  6. 48 CFR 8.503 - Exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.503 Exception. The requirements of this subpart do not apply to contracts or subcontracts in which the helium was acquired by the contractor prior...

  7. 48 CFR 8.503 - Exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.503 Exception. The requirements of this subpart do not apply to contracts or subcontracts in which the helium was acquired by the contractor prior...

  8. 48 CFR 8.503 - Exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.503 Exception. The requirements of this subpart do not apply to contracts or subcontracts in which the helium was acquired by the contractor prior...

  9. Calculation of hydrogen and helium concentrations for CSNS target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dong-Dong; Liang, Tai-Ran; Yin, Wen; Yao, Ze-En

    2016-03-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is driven by protons whose energies are about 1.6 GeV. At such high energies, the spallation neutrons lead to the formation of large amounts of helium, hydrogen and new heavier species in the form of transmutation products. These hydrogen, helium and transmutation products have a critical effect on the mechanical properties on the one hand and exacerbate the displacement radiation damage on the other hand. In this paper, the background hydrogen/helium concentrations and the maximum hydrogen/helium concentrations near cracks in a tungsten target for CSNS have been calculated at temperatures of 100°C and 300°C by applying a theoretical model. For the CSNS tungsten target plate, we find the maximum hydrogen concentration near the tips of cracks ranges from 3.0 × 10-2-2 × 10-1, which exceeds the hydrogen background concentration by 1.2-1.8 times; the maximum helium concentration near the tips of cracks ranges from 3.0 × 10-4 -1.2 × 10-3, which exceeds the helium background concentration by 2-4 times; the maximum hydrogen/helium concentration increases with the increase of the transfer length across the surfaces of the target and it decreases with the increase of temperature. Supported by National Science Foundation of China (51371195, 11174358)

  10. Regimes of Helium Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2000-07-01

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Döring (ZND) detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of ~108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than ~106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at ~107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below ~107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than ~104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at ~5×104 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction.

  11. Regimes of Helium Burning

    SciTech Connect

    Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2000-07-10

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Doering [ZND] detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of {approx}108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below {approx}107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}5x10{sup 4} g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  12. Helium Removal and Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S

    2004-03-15

    Removal of helium, the ash from the D-T-fusion reaction, from a burning plasma flame, is one of the critical issues for future thermonuclear burning plasma. Even in plasmas driven by additional heating to large Q-values this is a severe problem. Recombination of fuel and ash ions at plasma exposed surfaces, re-emission as neutral particles and subsequent pumping (''recycling'') provides, at least in principle, the mechanism to flush the plasma from its ash. However, plasma surface interaction has to be limited in order to protect vessel components from excessive thermal load, often a conflicting requirement.

  13. Rayleigh Scattering by Helium in Stellar Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišák, J.; Kubát, J.; Krtička, J.

    2017-02-01

    We study the influence of Rayleigh scattering by helium on synthetic spectra and stellar atmosphere models. Rayleigh scattering by helium is often neglected in hot star atmosphere models. This approximation is justified by the small population of helium in stars with solar composition (about 10% by number) and lower Rayleigh scattering total cross section of helium with respect to neutral hydrogen. However, for stars with large helium abundances Rayleigh scattering by helium can be a significant opacity source.

  14. Laser-Induced Breakdown in Liquid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirisky, S.; Yang, Y.; Wei, W.; Maris, H. J.

    2017-10-01

    We report on experiments in which focused laser light is used to induce optical breakdown in liquid helium-4. The threshold intensity has been measured over the temperature range from 1.1 to 2.8 K with light of wavelength 1064 nm. In addition to the measurement of the threshold, we have performed experiments to study how the breakdown from one pulse modifies the probability that a subsequent pulse will result in breakdown.

  15. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  16. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  17. Characterization of gaseous helium jet dispersion to atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, H. J.; Figueroa, O.; Rhee, M.

    A major ground-based experiment to be performed for the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) program is the accidental loss of the vacuum guard of the super-insulated dewar. The design of the dewar vent-path requires adequate mass removal after a preset pressure is reached due to external heat transfer. The existing helium creates a turbulent buoyant jet, expanding in air with entrainment of the jet interface to the surrounding. Transient analysis is performed for axial and radial jet temperature prediction using the self-similarity assumption applied to mass, momentum, and the energy-balance equations of helium. The predicted jet temperature profiles with vertical and radial expansion up to 1.6 and 1.0 m, respectively, demonstrate the low temperature core established by gaseous helium. For all time steps, the axial and radial temperature predictions are observed to be within 8 and 20 percent, respectively.

  18. The evolution of hydrogen-helium stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezer, D.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of the premain sequence evolution and the main sequence evolution of stars of 5, 10, 20, 30, 100, and 200 solar masses. Normal stars in this entire mass range normally convert hydrogen into helium by the CN-cycle on the main sequence. The present hydrogen-helium stars of 5 and 10 solar masses must reach higher central temperatures in order to convert hydrogen to helium by the proton-proton chains. Consequently, the mean densities in the stars are greater, and the surface temperatures are higher than in normal stars. In the stars of 20 solar masses and larger, the proton-proton chains do not succeed in supplying the necessary luminosity of the stars by the time the contraction has produced a central temperature near 10 to the 8th K. At that point triple-alpha reactions generate small amounts of C12, which then acts as a catalyst in the CN-cycle, the rate of which is then limited by the beta-decays occurring within the cycle. During the evolution of these more massive stars, the central temperature remains in the vicinity of 10 to the 8th K, and the surface temperature on the main sequence approaches 100,000.

  19. Precision spectroscopy of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Cancio, P.; Giusfredi, G.; Mazzotti, D.; De Natale, P.; De Mauro, C.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Inguscio, M.

    2005-05-05

    Accurate Quantum-Electrodynamics (QED) tests of the simplest bound three body atomic system are performed by precise laser spectroscopic measurements in atomic Helium. In this paper, we present a review of measurements between triplet states at 1083 nm (23S-23P) and at 389 nm (23S-33P). In 4He, such data have been used to measure the fine structure of the triplet P levels and, then, to determine the fine structure constant when compared with equally accurate theoretical calculations. Moreover, the absolute frequencies of the optical transitions have been used for Lamb-shift determinations of the levels involved with unprecedented accuracy. Finally, determination of the He isotopes nuclear structure and, in particular, a measurement of the nuclear charge radius, are performed by using hyperfine structure and isotope-shift measurements.

  20. Helium isotope ratios in Ethiopian Rift basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarsi, P.; Craig, H.

    1996-11-01

    Helium isotope ratios were measured in olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts from basalts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley and Afar Depression between 6° and 15°N and 37° and 43°E. 3He/4He ratios range from 6 to 17 times the atmospheric value (RA = 1.4 × 10-6), that is, from ratios less than typical MORB (depleted mantle) helium (R/RA= 8 ± 1) to ratios similar to high-3He hotspots and to the Yellowstone hotspot (R/RA= 16.5). The high 3He/4He ratios occur all along the Ethiopian Rift and well up into the Afar Depression, with a maximum value of 17.0 RA at 8°N in the Rift Axis and a high value of 14.2 RA in the central Tat'Ali sector of the Afar Depression. The ratios decrease to MORB-like values near the edge of the Red Sea, and to sub-MORB ratios (5-6 RA) at the northern end of the Rift (Zula Peninsula) and at the southern end, at lakes Abaya and Chamo. The Ethiopian Rift provides the only continental hotspot terrain in which helium isotope ratios can be compared in detail between volcanic lavas and associated geothermal and volcanic gases, a primary motivation for this work. Comparison with our previously measured ratios in fluids and gases (range 2-15 RA) shows excellent agreement in the areas sampled for both lavas and fluids, and indicates that high-temperature volcanic fluids can be used for establishing helium isotope signatures in such terrains. The high-3He values in both fluids and basalts show that a Primitive Mantle (PM) component is required and that a Lower Mantle High-3He plume is strongly involved as a driving force in the rifting process of the East African Rift System.

  1. Liquid helium fluid dynamics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sciver, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of the first three year period of this research program was to set up our liquid helium flow facility and begin experiments on the flow of liquid helium within this system. The first task of our experimental program involved the set up and check out of the liquid helium flow facility (LHFF). This facility is the centerpost of our fluid dynamics experiments. The LHFF is designed to allow a variety of experiments which test important helium fluid dynamics behavior on a scale close to that involved in large scale applications. To achieve this goal, we chose a horizontal dewar configuration with a cold bore access on either end. A nominal length of five meters was selected with a sufficiently large inner diameter to allow insertion of various tubing configurations, flow metering devices and heat exchangers. Further, to minimize consumption of liquid helium, the dewar design includes two actively cooled shields; one cooled by LN/sub 2/ to 77 K and one at 4.5 K maintained by a closed cycle helium refrigerator. Helium flow is to be provided by a cold centrifugal pump. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Spectrophotometry of Helium Peculiar Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, Steven N.

    The mechanism for the spectrum and photometric variations of the magnetic helium peculiar stars is not a settled question. For the cooler stars the primary cause appears to be changes, due to surface inhomogeneities, of Si continuous opacity. For the hotter helium rich stars it appears linked to the helium anomaly and its photosoheric distribution. The connection between the helium weak and helium rich stars is not well understood but appears to be linked to effective temperature on the main sequence via a diffusion mechanism. The purpose of this study is to explore the relation between magnetic field strength and configuration, effective temperature and abundance anomaly using groups of matched He weak and He rich stars. It will, using this sample, also study the relation between the UV variations and the broad continuum features known in the optical at 5200 and 6300 A. The constancy of the stellar flux will also be studied, linking this survey with the OAO-2 and TD-1 studies of a few Si stars. A subsidiary goal is the calibration of high dispersion IUE Spectra obtained in the previous programs (APBSA, HRDPB, and HEESS) for the helium rich stars. The photometric observations made with OAO-2, TD-1, ANS, and the COPERNICUS spectra will all serve as links between the helium rich and weak phenomenology.

  3. Resource Letter SH-1: Superfluid Helium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of books, textbooks, and films on superfluid helium. Also lists research reports/reviews arranged by category, including among others, early history, microscopic understanding, ions in helium, helium in rotation, vortices and quantization, helium films and constricted geometrics, persistence flow, and superfluid helium…

  4. Resource Letter SH-1: Superfluid Helium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of books, textbooks, and films on superfluid helium. Also lists research reports/reviews arranged by category, including among others, early history, microscopic understanding, ions in helium, helium in rotation, vortices and quantization, helium films and constricted geometrics, persistence flow, and superfluid helium…

  5. Swelling and structure of vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the dynamic helium charging experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    Combined effects of dynamically charged helium and neutron damage on density change, void distribution, and microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy have been determined after irradiation to 18--31 dpa at 425--600 C in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE), and the results were compared with those from a non-DHCE in which helium generation and negligible. For specimens irradiated to {approx}18-31 dpa at 500--600 with a helium generation rate of 0.4--4.2 appm He/dpa, only a few helium bubbles were observed at the interface of grain matrices and some of the Ti(O,N,C) precipitates, and no microvoids or helium bubbles were observed either in grain matrices or near grain boundaries. Under these conditions, dynamically produced helium atoms seem to be trapped in the grain matrix without significant bubble nucleation or growth, and in accordance with this, density changes from DHCE and non-DHCE (negligible helium generation) were similar for comparable fluence and irradiation temperature. Only for specimens irradiated to {approx}31 dpa at 425 C, when helium was generated at a rage of 0.4--0.8 appm helium/dpa, were diffuse helium bubbles observed in limited regions of grain matrices and near {approx}15% of the grain boundaries in densities significantly lower than those in the extensive coalescences of helium bubbles typical of other alloys irradiated in tritium-trick experiments. Density changes of specimens irradiated at 425 C in the DHCE were significantly higher than those from non-DHCE irradiation. Microstructural evolution in V-4Cr-4Ti was similar for DHCE and non-DHCE except for helium bubble number density and distribution. As in non-DHCE, the irradiation-induced precipitation of ultrafine Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} was observed for DHCE at >500 C but not at 425 C.

  6. Test program, helium II orbital resupply coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, William S.

    1991-01-01

    The full scope of this program was to have included development tests, design and production of custom test equipment and acceptance and qualification testing of prototype and protoflight coupling hardware. This program was performed by Ball Aerospace Systems Division, Boulder, Colorado until its premature termination in May 1991. Development tests were performed on cryogenic face seals and flow control devices at superfluid helium (He II) conditions. Special equipment was developed to allow quantified leak detection at large leak rates up to 8.4 x 10(exp -4) SCCS. Two major fixtures were developed and characterized: The Cryogenic Test Fixture (CTF) and the Thermal Mismatch Fixture (Glovebox). The CTF allows the coupling hardware to be filled with liquid nitrogen (LN2), liquid helium (LHe) or sub-cooled liquid helium when hardware flow control valves are either open or closed. Heat leak measurements, internal and external helium leakage measurements, cryogenic proof pressure tests and external load applications are performed in this fixture. Special reusable MLI closures were developed to provide repeatable installations in the CTF. The Thermal Mismatch Fixture allows all design configurations of coupling hardware to be engaged and disengaged while measuring applied forces and torques. Any two hardware components may be individually thermally preconditioned within the range of 117 deg K to 350 deg K prior to engage/disengage cycling. This verifies dimensional compatibility and operation when thermally mismatched. A clean, dry GN2 atmosphere is maintained in the fixture at all times. The first shipset of hardware was received, inspected and cycled at room temperature just prior to program termination.

  7. Radiation source for helium magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation source (12) for optical magnetometers (10) which use helium isotopes as the resonance element (30) includes an electronically pumped semiconductor laser (12) which produces a single narrow line of radiation which is frequency stabilized to the center frequency of the helium resonance line to be optically pumped. The frequency stabilization is accomplished using electronic feedback (34, 40, 42, 44) to control a current sources (20) thus eliminating the need for mechanical frequency tuning.

  8. Liquid Helium 3 and Solid Helium at Yale and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. M.

    2006-03-01

    Many of the foundations of low temperature physics in the latter half of the twentieth century were built at Yale University under the leadership of Professor Cecil T. Lane who came to Yale in 1932 and Henry A. Fairbank who obtained his Ph.D. at Yale in 1944 under Lane's guidance. This discussion will mainly treat the contributions of Henry Fairbank and his students during the period between 1954 and 1963, when Henry Fairbank left Yale to become chairman of the Physics Dept. at Duke University. Following World War II small amounts of helium three became available to low temperature experimenters. Henry Fairbank’s graduate students were provided with the opportunity to investigate second sound in dilute and later concentrated mixtures of helium three in superfluid helium four. These measurements showed strong effects of the phase separation in helium 3 - helium 4 mixtures previously discovered in the laboratory of William Fairbank (a student of Lane and a brother of Henry Fairbank). As more helium three became available, studies of pure helium three were performed, including measurements of the thermal conductivity, the density and the specific heat. Early evidence for the melting curve minimum was found. The main emphasis in this work was to search for Fermi liquid behavior. Much of the later work in this area was performed by the group of John Wheatley at the University of Illinois. In studies of solid helium four at Yale, a surprising observation was made. Hitherto it had been thought that hcp was the stable phase throughout the low temperature part of the phase diagram. It was found via ultrasound experiments that a small silver of bcc solid existed at the lowest pressures. While this author was a graduate student at Yale, Henry Fairbank pointed out to him the possibility of cooling helium three via adiabatic compression from the liquid into the solid phase. (Pomeranchuk Cooling). A brief discussion is given of the use of this technique in the discovery of

  9. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential

  10. Cryogenic filter method produces super-pure helium and helium isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1964-01-01

    Helium is purified when cooled in a low pressure environment until it becomes superfluid. The liquid helium is then filtered through iron oxide particles. Heating, cooling and filtering processes continue until the purified liquid helium is heated to a gas.

  11. Helium and Neon in Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    1996-01-01

    Two comets were observed with EUVE in late 1994. Both comet Mueller and comet Borrelly are short-period comets having well established orbital elements and accurate ephemerides. Spectra of 40 ksec were taken of each. No evidence for emission lines from either Helium or Neon was detected. We calculated limits on the production rates of these atoms (relative to solar) assuming a standard isotropic outflow model, with a gas streaming speed of 1 km/s. The 3-sigma (99.7% confidence) limits (1/100,000 for He, 0.8 for Ne) are based on a conservative estimate of the noise in the EUVE spectra. They are also weakly dependent on the precise pointing and tracking of the EUVE field of view relative to the comet during the integrations. These limits are consistent with ice formation temperatures T greater than or equal to 30 K, as judged from the gas trapping experiments of Bar-Nun. For comparison, the solar abundances of these elements are He/O = 110, Ne/O = 1/16. Neither limit was as constraining as we had initially hoped, mainly because comets Mueller and Borrelly were intrinsically less active than anticipated.

  12. Helium in deep circulating groundwater in the Great Hungarian Plain: Flow dynamics and crustal and mantle helium fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, M.; Sonntag, C.; Deák, J.; Schlosser, P.

    1992-05-01

    Observed helium concentrations in deep circulating groundwater of the sedimentary basin of the Great Hungarian Plain (GHP), Hungary, cover a range of three orders of magnitude (≈4 ·10 -8 to 4 · 10 -5 ccSTP g-1). 3He /4He ratios and noble gas concentrations are used to separate helium components originating from the atmosphere, tritium decay, crustal production, and mantle degassing. The characteristic distribution of measured helium concentrations and isotope ratios can be reproduced qualitatively by a simple two-dimensional advection/diffusion model. Other simple models isolating parts of the regional flow domain (recharge, discharge, and horizontal flow) are discussed and applied to derive quantitative information on helium fluxes due to degassing of the Earth's crust /mantle and on the dynamics of groundwater flow. The estimated helium flux of 0.7-4.5 · 10 9 atoms 4He m -2 s -1 is lower than values derived from other deep groundwater circulation systems, probably because the relatively young upper few thousand meters of the sedimentary basin (Tertiary to Quaternary age) shield the flux from the deeper crust. The high mantle helium flux of up to 4.2 · 10 8 atoms 4He m -2 s -1 is probably related to the Miocene volcanism or to continuing intrusion accompanying extension. By fitting calculated helium depth profiles to measured data in the discharge area, vertical flow velocities of the order of 1.5 mm y -1 are estimated. Assuming that a flux of 0.7-4.5 · 10 9 atoms 4He m -2 s -1 is representative for the entire basin, the turnover time of the regional groundwater flow system is estimated to be about 10 6 y.

  13. Anomalous behavior of cristobalite in helium under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomoko; Takada, Hiroto; Yagi, Takehiko; Gotou, Hirotada; Okada, Taku; Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Funamori, Nobumasa

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the high-pressure behavior of cristobalite in helium by powder X-ray diffraction. Cristobalite transformed to a new phase at about 8 GPa. This phase is supposed to have a molar volume of about 30 % larger than cristobalite, suggesting the dissolution of helium atoms in its interstitial voids. On further compression, the new phase transformed to a different phase which showed an X-ray diffraction pattern similar to cristobalite X-I at about 21 GPa. On the other hand, when the new phase was decompressed, it transformed to another new phase at about 7 GPa, which is also supposed to have a molar volume of about 25 % larger than cristobalite. On further decompression, the second new phase transformed to cristobalite II at about 2 GPa. In contrast to cristobalite, quartz did not show anomalous behavior in helium. The behavior of cristobalite in helium was also consistent with that in other mediums up to about 8 GPa, where the volume of cristobalite became close to that of quartz. These results suggest that dissolution of helium may be controlled not only by the density (amount of voids) but also by the network structure of SiO4 tetrahedra (topology of voids).

  14. COSMIC-RAY HELIUM HARDENING

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka; Ioka, Kunihito

    2011-03-01

    Recent observations by the CREAM and ATIC-2 experiments suggest that (1) the spectrum of cosmic-ray (CR) helium is harder than that of CR protons below the knee energy, 10{sup 15}eV, and (2) all CR spectra become hard at {approx}>10{sup 11}eV nucleon{sup -1}. We propose a new idea, that higher energy CRs are generated in a more helium-rich region, to explain the hardening without introducing different sources for CR helium. The helium-to-proton ratio at {approx}100 TeV exceeds the Big Bang abundance Y = 0.25 by several times, and the different spectrum is not reproduced within the diffusive shock acceleration theory. We argue that CRs are produced in a chemically enriched region, such as a superbubble, and the outward-decreasing abundance naturally leads to the hard spectrum of CR helium if CRs escape from the supernova remnant shock in an energy-dependent way. We provide a simple analytical spectrum that also fits well the hardening due to the decreasing Mach number in the hot superbubble with {approx}10{sup 6} K. Our model predicts hard and concave spectra for heavier CR elements.

  15. Irradiation damage effects on helium migration in sintered uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Sabathier, C.; Carlot, G.; Desgardin, P.; Raepsaet, C.; Sauvage, T.; Khodja, H.; Garcia, P.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the effects of radiation on helium migration are investigated through the analysis of polycrystalline uranium dioxide samples irradiated at fluences up to 5 × 10 15 at. cm -2 with 8 MeV iodine ions. Following irradiation, samples are implanted with 500 keV 3He + ions at fluences in the range of 10 16 at. cm -2. Three nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) techniques are subsequently implemented using the 3He( 2H, 1H) 4He reaction. The influence of temperature using NRA was first studied based upon 3He depth profile changes and the on-line monitoring of helium release. The effect of the sample microstructure was also investigated at the grain scale by performing analyses of the helium spatial distribution with a nuclear microprobe. Neither substantial helium release nor depth profile changes are observed at temperatures below 900 °C in irradiated samples. Following annealing at temperatures above 1000 °C, a substantial proportion of the implanted helium is released from the samples. From this temperature upwards, the two dimensional He cartographies reveal that the gas has been preferentially released in the vicinity of grain boundaries. These results can be interpreted in the light of previous studies in terms of gas precipitation and re-solution. Helium precipitation is enhanced in irradiated samples up to 900 °C because of the presence of irradiation induced defects. At temperatures in excess of 1000 °C, the precipitated helium is partly returned to the matrix hence it is preferentially released in regions adjacent to grain boundaries, which appear to act as defect sinks.

  16. Embolism risk analysis--helium versus carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Richter, Steffen; Hückstädt, Thomas; Aksakal, Devrim; Klitscher, Daniela; Wowra, Tobias; Till, Holger; Schier, Felix; Kampmann, Christoph

    2012-10-01

    Helium is used as an insufflation gas to avoid the negative properties of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), such as CO(2) accumulation, acidosis, and tachycardia, particularly in the case of insufficient respiratory function, seen also in infancy. Any laparoscopic procedure carries the risk of a gas embolism. Seven anesthetized piglets (weighing 9.9-12.8 kg), randomized into three groups, served as models for pre-teenage children. Three piglets received a CO(2) embolism, followed by a helium embolism of 2 mL/kg, respectively. Helium was administered to three piglets, whereas both gases were repeatedly administered alternately to one piglet. The embolisms were administered for 30 seconds via a central venous line. Cardiac output was measured using the thermodilution method. The observation period for each embolism was 60 minutes in Groups 1 and 2 and 15 minutes in Group 3. All animals survived CO(2) embolisms. Four of the six piglets died after helium embolisms. Following helium embolisms there was a prompt initial decrease in the end-tidal CO(2) pressure and an initial increase in the pulmonary arterial pressure. A further decrease in arterial blood pressure was prevented by a compensatory increase in the heart rate and appeared just before death. After only 5 minutes cardiac output showed a 25% decline from the initial value. Helium embolisms led to a severe increase in the pulmonary dead space. Embolisms with the smallest amounts of helium administered via direct venous puncture have an immediate lethal impact. Extended perioperative monitoring and trocar placement under vision should be performed.

  17. Helium processing for deuterium/helium burns in ITER's physics phase

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for vacuum pumping and fuel processing for deuterium/helium (D/{sup 3}He) burns in the physics operating phase for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were assessed. These burns are expected to have low fusion power (100 MW), short burn times ({le}30 s), limited operation (2000 shots), and a fractional burn {approximately}0.3%. For the physics phase, the fuel processing system will include several units to separate deuterium and helium (activated charcoal bed, SAES getter and a Pd/Ag diffuser), as well as an isotopic separation system to separate {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He. The needed vacuum system's cryosorption surface area may be as large as 10 m{sup 2} if the burn time is {approximately}200 s, the fractional burn is <0.3%, or the fusion power is >100 MW. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Rogue mantle helium and neon.

    PubMed

    Albarède, Francis

    2008-02-15

    The canonical model of helium isotope geochemistry describes the lower mantle as undegassed, but this view conflicts with evidence of recycled material in the source of ocean island basalts. Because mantle helium is efficiently extracted by magmatic activity, it cannot remain in fertile mantle rocks for long periods of time. Here, I suggest that helium with high 3He/4He ratios, as well as neon rich in the solar component, diffused early in Earth's history from low-melting-point primordial material into residual refractory "reservoir" rocks, such as dunites. The difference in 3He/4He ratios of ocean-island and mid-ocean ridge basalts and the preservation of solar neon are ascribed to the reservoir rocks being stretched and tapped to different extents during melting.

  19. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  20. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  1. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  2. Negative ions in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrapak, A. G.; Schmidt, W. F.

    2011-05-01

    The structure of negative ions in liquid 4He is analyzed. The possibility of cluster or bubble formation around impurity ions of both signs is discussed. It is shown that in superfluid helium, bubbles form around negative alkaline earth metal ions and clusters form around halogen ions. The nature of "fast" and "exotic" negative ions is also discussed. It is assumed that "fast" ions are negative ions of helium excimer molecules localized inside bubbles. "Exotic" ions are stable negative impurity ions, which are always present in small amounts in gas discharge plasmas. Bubbles or clusters with radii smaller the radius of electron bubbles develop around these ions.

  3. 43 CFR 3195.20 - Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers? 3195.20 Section 3195.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.20 Who must purchase major helium...

  4. 43 CFR 3195.20 - Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers? 3195.20 Section 3195.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.20 Who must purchase major helium...

  5. 43 CFR 3195.20 - Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers? 3195.20 Section 3195.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.20 Who must purchase major helium...

  6. 43 CFR 3195.20 - Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers? 3195.20 Section 3195.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.20 Who must purchase major helium...

  7. Study of helium embrittlement in boron doped EUROFER97 steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaganidze, E.; Petersen, C.; Aktaa, J.

    2009-04-01

    To simulate helium effects in Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic steels, experimental heats ADS2, ADS3 and ADS4 with the basic composition of EUROFER97 (9%Cr-WVTa) were doped with different contents of natural boron and separated 10B-isotope (0.008-0.112 wt.%) and irradiated in High Flux Reactor (HFR) Petten up to 16.3 dpa at 250-450 °C and in Bor-60 fast reactor in Dimitrovgrad up to 31.8 dpa at 332-338 °C. The embrittlement and hardening are investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with subsize specimens. Complete burn-up of 10B isotope under neutron irradiation in HFR Petten led to generation of 84, 432 and 5580 appm He and partial boron-to-helium transformation in Bor-60 led to generation of 9, 46, 880 appm He in ADS2, ADS3 and ADS4 heats, respectively. At low irradiation temperatures Tirr ⩽ 340 °C the boron doped steels show progressive embrittlement with increasing helium amount. Irradiation induced DBTT shift of EUROFER97 based heat doped with 1120 wppm separated 10B isotope could not be quantified due to large embrittlement found in the investigated temperature range. At Tirr ⩽ 340 °C helium induced extra embrittlement is attributed to material hardening induced by helium bubbles and described in terms of phenomenological model.

  8. An automatic purification system for laboratory helium gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kadi, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen cooled helium purifier is described. It can handle up to 20% air contaminants by volume while delivering up to 0.8 g/s of helium with less than 50 ppm by volume of impurities. A unique fast regenerating adsorption column was employed which permits an 80% on-stream time for all contamination levels greater than 2%. Liquid nitrogen consumption for a 2% air contamination test case averaged 0.6 liquid liters of nitrogen per equivalent liquid liter of pure helium produced. Subsequent recorded discussion concerned the regeneration gas discharged to the atmostphere. A purifier flowsheet is presented as well as a photo of the automatic purifier.

  9. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Helium. 582.1355 Section 582.1355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Helium. (a) Product. Helium. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  14. Applying the helium ionization detector in chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Andrawes, F. F.; Brazell, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    High noise levels and oversensitivity of helium detector make flame-ionization and thermal-conductivity detectors more suitable for chromotography. Deficiencies are eliminated by modifying helium device to operate in saturation rather than multiplication mode. Result is low background current, low noise, high stability, and high sensitivity. Detector analyzes halocarbons, hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and inorganics without requiring expensive research-grade helium.

  15. 30 CFR 556.11 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Helium. 556.11 Section 556.11 Mineral Resources... § 556.11 Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations shall be subject to a... helium from all gas produced from the leased area. (b) In case the United States elects to take...

  16. 30 CFR 556.11 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Helium. 556.11 Section 556.11 Mineral Resources... § 556.11 Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations shall be subject to a... helium from all gas produced from the leased area. (b) In case the United States elects to take...

  17. 30 CFR 556.11 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Helium. 556.11 Section 556.11 Mineral Resources... § 556.11 Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations shall be subject to a... helium from all gas produced from the leased area. (b) In case the United States elects to take...

  18. 30 CFR 256.11 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Helium. 256.11 Section 256.11 Mineral Resources... Sulphur Management, General § 256.11 Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations... of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from the leased area. (b) In case the...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs....1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is a colorless, odorless, flavorless, nonflammable, inert gas. It is lighter than air and is produced by the liquefaction and...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is a colorless, odorless, flavorless, nonflammable, inert gas. It is lighter than air and is produced by the...

  1. 43 CFR 3100.1 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing: General § 3100.1 Helium. The ownership of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from lands leased or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Helium. 3100.1 Section 3100.1 Public Lands...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is a colorless, odorless, flavorless, nonflammable, inert gas. It is lighter than air and is produced by the...

  3. 43 CFR 3100.1 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing: General § 3100.1 Helium. The ownership of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from lands leased or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Helium. 3100.1 Section 3100.1 Public Lands...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is a colorless, odorless, flavorless, nonflammable, inert gas. It is lighter than air and is produced by the...

  5. 43 CFR 3100.1 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing: General § 3100.1 Helium. The ownership of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from lands leased or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Helium. 3100.1 Section 3100.1 Public Lands...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1355 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Helium. 184.1355 Section 184.1355 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1355 Helium. (a) Helium (empirical formula He, CAS Reg. No. 7440-59-7) is a colorless, odorless, flavorless, nonflammable, inert gas. It is lighter than air and is produced by the...

  7. 43 CFR 3100.1 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing: General § 3100.1 Helium. The ownership of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from lands leased or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Helium. 3100.1 Section 3100.1 Public Lands...

  8. Measurements of the nonthermal helium escape from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, S.; Kallio, E.; Lundin, R.; Koskinen, H.

    1995-11-01

    The automatic space plasma experiment with a rotating analyzer (ASPERA) onboard the Phobos 2 spacecraft has recently revealed the presence of planetary He+ ions at Mars (Barabash and Norberg, 1994). In the present work the analysis is continued in order to estimate the total outflow of the He+ ions which are swept away by the solar wind. For the Phobos epoch the total He+ outflow rate was found to be (1.2+/-0.6)×1024 ions/s. The escape occurs mainly near the Martian magnetopause. Considering extreme errors in the measurements, the maximum helium outflow could range up to 2.4×1024 s-1. From a scaling of the helium profile suggested by Moroz et al. (1990) to obtain the measured loss rate, one can deduce the helium abundance in the Martian upper atmosphere. It turns out that helium is a dominant gas in the Martian exosphere at altitudes between 500 and 1250 km. However, recently reported observations of the weak EUV emissions (108 photons) from the Martian He I suggest an abundance that is 18.5 times lower (Krasnopolsky et al., 1994). Possible reasons for this disagreement are discussed. The helium production rate near Mars can, in turn, be roughly estimated from the production rate for the Earth by using a scaling argument, since the only source of helium in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets is radioactive decay of certain isotopes of uranium and thorium. Present estimates suggest a degassing rate of 8×1022 atoms/s only (Krasnopolsky et al., 1993). However, under steady state conditions one would expect the production and loss rates to be equal. The discrepancy leads us to the conclusion that either the helium degassing rate should be corrected (or the amount of uranium is higher on Mars than anticipated) or helium may also be delivered on Mars by other sources, for example, as solar wind α particles. The observed high total outflow of ions which are 4 times heavier than protons may result in an effective mass loading. Thus helium may play an important

  9. Helium sequestration at nanoparticle-matrix interfaces in helium + heavy ion irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, C. M.; Unocic, K. A.; Tan, L.; Zinkle, S. J.; Kondo, S.; Snead, L. L.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Katoh, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We irradiated four ferritic alloys with energetic Fe and He ions: one castable nanostructured alloy (CNA) containing Ti-W-Ta-carbides, and three nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). The NFAs were: 9Cr containing Y-Ti-O nanoclusters, and two Fe-12Cr-5Al NFAs containing Y-Zr-O or Y-Hf-O clusters. All four were subjected to simultaneous dual-beam Fe + He ion implantation (650 °C, ∼50 dpa, ∼15 appm He/dpa), simulating fusion-reactor conditions. Examination using scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed high-number-density helium bubbles of ∼8 nm, ∼1021 m-3 (CNA), and of ∼3 nm, 1023 m-3 (NFAs). STEM combined with multivariate statistical analysis data mining suggests that the precipitate-matrix interfaces in all alloys survived ∼50 dpa at 650 °C and serve as effective helium trapping sites. All alloys appear viable structural material candidates for fusion or advanced fission energy systems. Among these developmental alloys the NFAs appear to sequester the helium into smaller bubbles and away from the grain boundaries more effectively than the early-generation CNA.

  10. Helium sequestration at nanoparticle-matrix interfaces in helium + heavy ion irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Parish, Chad M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Tan, Lizhen; ...

    2016-10-24

    Here we irradiated four ferritic alloys with energetic Fe and He ions: one castable nanostructured alloy (CNA) containing Ti-W-Ta-carbides, and three nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). The NFAs were: 9Cr containing Y-Ti-O nanoclusters, and two Fe-12Cr-5Al NFAs containing Y-Zr-O or Y-Hf-O clusters. All four were subjected to simultaneous dual-beam Fe + He ion implantation (650 °C, ~50 dpa, ~15 appm He/dpa), simulating fusion-reactor conditions. Examination using scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed high-number-density helium bubbles of ~8 nm, ~1021 m-3 (CNA), and of ~3 nm, 1023 m-3 (NFAs). STEM combined with multivariate statistical analysis data mining suggests that the precipitate-matrix interfaces inmore » all alloys survived ~50 dpa at 650 °C and serve as effective helium trapping sites. All alloys appear viable structural material candidates for fusion or advanced fission energy systems. Finally, among these developmental alloys the NFAs appear to sequester the helium into smaller bubbles and away from the grain boundaries more effectively than the early-generation CNA.« less

  11. Helium sequestration at nanoparticle-matrix interfaces in helium + heavy ion irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Chad M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Tan, Lizhen; Zinkle, S. J.; Kondo, Sosuke; Snead, Lance Lewis; Hoelzer, David T.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-10-24

    Here we irradiated four ferritic alloys with energetic Fe and He ions: one castable nanostructured alloy (CNA) containing Ti-W-Ta-carbides, and three nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). The NFAs were: 9Cr containing Y-Ti-O nanoclusters, and two Fe-12Cr-5Al NFAs containing Y-Zr-O or Y-Hf-O clusters. All four were subjected to simultaneous dual-beam Fe + He ion implantation (650 °C, ~50 dpa, ~15 appm He/dpa), simulating fusion-reactor conditions. Examination using scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed high-number-density helium bubbles of ~8 nm, ~1021 m-3 (CNA), and of ~3 nm, 1023 m-3 (NFAs). STEM combined with multivariate statistical analysis data mining suggests that the precipitate-matrix interfaces in all alloys survived ~50 dpa at 650 °C and serve as effective helium trapping sites. All alloys appear viable structural material candidates for fusion or advanced fission energy systems. Finally, among these developmental alloys the NFAs appear to sequester the helium into smaller bubbles and away from the grain boundaries more effectively than the early-generation CNA.

  12. 43 CFR 3195.35 - What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium Distribution Contract? 3195.35 Section 3195.35 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.35 What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

  13. Why Helium Ends in "-Ium"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.; Holme, Thomas; Cooper, Melanie; White, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Edward Frankland and Norman Lockyer researched upon a gaseous spectra in relation to the physical constitution of the sun and named it as "helium" (from Greek "helios" meaning "sun"). Since Lockyer apparently never formally proposed the name in print, it is not known why he chose to use a metallic end "ium".

  14. Why Helium Ends in "-Ium"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.; Holme, Thomas; Cooper, Melanie; White, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Edward Frankland and Norman Lockyer researched upon a gaseous spectra in relation to the physical constitution of the sun and named it as "helium" (from Greek "helios" meaning "sun"). Since Lockyer apparently never formally proposed the name in print, it is not known why he chose to use a metallic end "ium".

  15. Specific heat of solid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xi; Clark, Anthony; Kim, Eunseong; Chan, Moses

    2006-03-01

    Recently superflow in solid ^4He was found below 200mK via a torsional oscillator technique^1. While there were a number of measurements on the specific heat of solid helium carried out down to 100mK, there is no evidence of a heat capacity signature related to the onset of the supersolid phase^2. A serious experimental challenge is discerning the small specific heat of solid helium from that of the metallic cells which are typically used to confine the solid. We have recently begun a new measurement of the heat capacity of solid helium contained in a silicon cell. The heat capacity of the silicon cell below 300mK is always less than that of the solid helium sample. Results of the measurement will be presented. This work is supported by NSF under grant number 0207071. [1] E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Nature 427, 225 (2004); E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004); E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, J. Low Temp. Phys. 138, 859 (2005). [2] S. H. Castles and E. D. Adams, J. Low Temp. Phys. 19, 397 (1975); B. H'ebral et al., Phonons in Condensed Matter, edited by H. J. Maris (Plenum, New York, 1980), pg. 169; A. C. Clark and M. H. W. Chan, J. Low Temp. Phys. 138, 853 (2005).

  16. Applicability of Henry's Law to helium solubility in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Cooper, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    Applicability of Henry's Law to helium solubility in olivine We have experimentally determined helium solubility in San Carlos olivine across a range of helium partial pressures (PHe) with the goal of quantifying how noble gases behave during partial melting of peridotite. Helium solubility in olivine correlates linearly with PHe between 55 and 1680 bar. This linear relationship suggests Henry's Law is applicable to helium dissolution into olivine up to 1680 bar PHe, providing a basis for extrapolation of solubility relationships determined at high PHe to natural systems. This is the first demonstration of Henry's Law for helium dissolution into olivine. Averaging all the data of the PHe series yields a Henry's coefficient of 3.8(×3.1)×10-12 mol g-1 bar-1. However, the population of Henry's coefficients shows a positive skew (skewness = 1.17), i.e. the data are skewed to higher values. This skew is reflected in the large standard deviation of the population of Henry's coefficients. Averaging the median values from each experiment yields a lower Henry's coefficient and standard deviation: 3.2(× 2.3)×10-12 mol g-1 bar-1. Combining the presently determined helium Henry's coefficient for olivine with previous determinations of helium Henry's coefficients for basaltic melts (e.g. 1) yields a partition coefficient of ~10-4. This value is similar to previous determinations obtained at higher PHe (2). The applicability of Henry's Law here suggests helium is incorporated onto relatively abundant sites within olivine that are not saturated by 1680 bar PHe or ~5×10-9 mol g-1. Large radius vacancies, i.e. oxygen vacancies, are energetically favorable sites for noble gas dissolution (3). However, oxygen vacancies are not abundant enough in San Carlos olivine to account for this solubility (e.g. 4), suggesting the 3x10-12 mol g-1 bar-1 Henry's coefficient is associated with interstitial dissolution of helium. Helium was dissolved into olivine using an externally heated

  17. Helium behavior in α-SiC ceramics investigated by NRA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, T.; Carlot, G.; Martin, G.; Vincent, L.; Garcia, P.; Barthe, M. F.; Gentils, A.; Desgardin, P.

    2007-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in helium migration in α-SiC are investigated through the evolution of its microstructure and of the concentration profiles following annealing at 1300 °C/30 min for fluences of 1 and 5 × 1015 3He cm-2 and a He implantation energy of 500 keV. Helium profiling is performed using the 3He(d,α)1H NRA technique with an improved detection limit of 5 at ppm. The NRA and TEM techniques clearly show that depending on the initial fluence, a proportion of the helium is trapped within the grain and a part of the helium is released. Analysis of the helium profile changes after annealing enabled to determine a value of the volume diffusion coefficient close to (8 ± 1) × 10-17 m2 s-1 for both fluences studied.

  18. Variable helium diffusion characteristics in fluorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, R.; Dunkl, I.; Kempe, U.; Stockli, D.; Wiedenbeck, M.; von Eynatten, H.

    2016-09-01

    Precise analysis of the diffusion characteristics of helium in fluorite is crucial for establishing the new fluorite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronometer (FHe), which potentially provides a powerful tool for dating ore deposits unsuitable for the application of conventional geochronometers. Incremental helium outgassing experiments performed on fluorites derived from a spectrum of geological environments suggest a thermally activated volume diffusion mechanism. The diffusion behaviour is highly variable and the parameters range between log D0/a2 = 0.30 ± 0.27-7.27 ± 0.46 s-1 and Ea = 96 ± 3.5-182 ± 3.8 kJ/mol. Despite the fact that the CaF2 content of natural fluorites in most cases exceeds 99 weight percent, the closure temperature (Tc) of the fluorite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronometer as calculated from these diffusion parameters varies between 46 ± 14 °C and 169 ± 9 °C, considering a 125 μm fragment size. Here we establish that minor substitutions of calcium by rare earth elements and yttrium (REE + Y) and related charge compensation by sodium, fluorine, oxygen and/or vacancies in the fluorite crystal lattice have a significant impact on the diffusivity of helium in the mineral. With increasing REE + Y concentrations F vacancies are reduced and key diffusion pathways are narrowed. Consequently, a higher closure temperature is to be expected. An empirical case study confirms this variability: two fluorite samples from the same deposit (Horni Krupka, Czech Republic) with ca. 170 °C and ca. 43 °C Tc yield highly different (U-Th-Sm)/He ages of 290 ± 10 Ma and 79 ± 10 Ma, respectively. Accordingly, the fluorite sample with the high Tc could have quantitatively retained helium since the formation of the fluorite-bearing ores in the Permian, despite subsequent Mesozoic burial and associated regional hydrothermal heating. In contrast, the fluorite with the low Tc yields a Late Cretaceous age close to the apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He ages (AHe

  19. High-temperature helium-loop facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high-temperature helium loop is a facility for materials testing in ultrapure helium gas at high temperatures. The closed loop system is capable of recirculating high-purity helium or helium with controlled impurities. The gas loop maximum operating conditions are as follows: 300 psi pressure, 500 lb/h flow rate, and 2100/sup 0/F temperature. The two test sections can accept samples up to 3.5 in. diameter and 5 ft long. The gas loop is fully instrumented to continuously monitor all parameters of loop operation as well as helium impurities. The loop is fully automated to operate continuously and requires only a daily servicing by a qualified operator to replenish recorder charts and helium makeup gas. Because of its versatility and high degree of parameter control, the helium loop is applicable to many types of materials research. This report describes the test apparatus, operating parameters, peripheral systems, and instrumentation system.

  20. Cycle design for the ISABELLE helium refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Schlafke, A.P.; Wu, K.C.; Moore, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The superconducting magnets for the ISABELLE storage ring/accelerator are designed to be operated at 3.8/sup 0/K using a forced-flow supercritical helium cooling system. The ISABELLE refrigerator has been designed subject to these special requirements. The design output is 13.65 KW of refrigeration below 4.2/sup 0/K (for cooling the magnet and distribution system), 55 KW at 55/sup 0/K (to cool heat shields for the whole system) and 100 g/s of liquefaction (for magnet power leads cooling). The system incorporates a subcooler section that produces liquid helium at 5.3 atm and 2.6 K and circulates it through the loads, and a Claude-type main refrigerator section. The main refrigerator section has five stages of cooling, with four of them below liquid nitrogen temperature. Liquid nitrogen precooling is not used. With 60% isothermal compressors the efficiency of the refrigerator system will be about 26% of Carnot.

  1. Helium damage and helium effusion in fully stabilised zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damen, P. M. G.; Matzke, Hj.; Ronchi, C.; Hiernaut, J.-P.; Wiss, T.; Fromknecht, R.; van Veen, A.; Labohm, F.

    2002-05-01

    Fully stabilised zirconia (FSZ) samples have been implanted with helium-ions of different energies (200 keV and 1 MeV) and with different fluences (1.4×10 13-1.4×10 16 He +/cm 2). Neutron depth profiling (NDP) for different annealing temperatures and effusion experiments in two different experimental systems with different thermal annealings have been performed on these samples. The samples were analysed by electron microscopy during the various annealing stages. For the low-fluence samples, the diffusion of helium is probably caused by vacancy assisted interstitial diffusion with an activation energy of 1.6 eV. In the highest fluence samples probably high pressure bubbles are formed during thermal annealing.

  2. Approximating the Helium Wavefunction in Positronium-Helium Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    In the Kohn variational treatment of the positronium- hydrogen scattering problem the scattering wave function is approximated by an expansion in some appropriate basis set, but the target and projectile wave functions are known exactly. In the positronium-helium case, however, a difficulty immediately arises in that the wave function of the helium target atom is not known exactly, and there are several ways to deal with the associated eigenvalue in formulating the variational scattering equations to be solved. In this work we will use the Kohn variational principle in the static exchange approximation to d e t e e the zero-energy scattering length for the Ps-He system, using a suite of approximate target functions. The results we obtain will be compared with each other and with corresponding values found by other approximation techniques.

  3. Component separation of oceanic helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roether, Wolfgang; Well, Roland; Putzka, Alfred; Rüth, Christine

    1998-11-01

    A new procedure to quantify the components of oceanic helium ("terrigenic" 3He and 4He released from the ocean floor and "tritiugenic" 3He from tritium decay) is described. Terrigenic He and nonatmospheric 3He (i.e., terrigenic and tritiugenic combined) are obtained in terms of measured concentrations of the He isotopes and also of neon (Ne) (which improves the separation considerably), assuming terrigenic He to vanish in the mixed layer. For the subsequent separation of terrigenic and tritiugenic 3He, additional information is required and 3He due to natural tritium represents a complication. The procedure is applied to data from a hydrographic section in the South Atlantic (19°S, 1991) and one in the Eastern Mediterranean (1987). The 1σ data precisions and a systematic error accounting for uncertainties in mixed-layer He are approximately 0.3%. Sections of the new representations of oceanic He and 3He and comparisons to the nearest classical quantities (i.e., 3He, He) are presented. In the South Atlantic the 3He distribution reflects the hydrographic structure. East of 20°W the average 3He/4He ratio of terrigenic He below 800 m is 4.5±0.8 times the atmospheric ratio, which implies a substantial contribution of crustal He. In the upper waters, tritiugenic 3He (0.5 tritium units, ±20%) is separated from terrigenic 3He. In the Eastern Mediterranean, tritiugenic 3He is quantified throughout the water column in the presence of substantial levels of terrigenic He; the release rate of terrigenic He from the sea floor is found to be 3.1±1.2 1010 atoms m-2 s-1, similar to the rate for continental crust, with a mantle He contribution of 5±1.2% only. Recommendations for future work are to reduce the mentioned systematic error and the uncertainty margins of the He and Ne solubilities and of 3He due to natural tritium.

  4. Highly Excited States of cs Atoms on Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, F.; Theisen, M.; Koch, M.; Ernst, W. E.

    2011-06-01

    Cs atoms on the surface of helium nanodroplets have been excited to high lying nS (n = 8-11), nP (n = 8-11), and nD (n = 6-10) levels. A two-step excitation scheme via the 62P1/2(2Π1/2) state using two cw lasers was applied. This intermediate state has the advantage that a large fraction of the excited Cs atoms does not desorb from the helium nanodroplets. An absorption spectrum was recorded by detecting laser induced fluorescence light from the 62P3/2→62S1/2 transition. The pseudo-diatomic model for helium nanodroplets doped with single alkali-metal atoms holds for the observed spectrum. An investigation of spectral trends shows that the n'2P(Π)←62P1/2(2Π1/2) and n'2D(Δ)←62P1/2(2Π1/2) (n' > 9) transitions are lower in energy than the corresponding free-atom transitions. This indicates that the Cs*--HeN potential becomes attractive for these highly excited states. Our results suggest a possibility of generating an artificial super-atom with a positive ion core inside a helium nanodroplet and the electron outside, which will be subject to future experiments. M. Theisen, F. Lackner, F. Ancilotto, C. Callegari, and W.E. Ernst, Eur. Phys. J. D 61, 403-408 (2011)

  5. 48 CFR 8.500 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.500 Scope of subpart. This subpart implements the requirements of the Helium Act (50 U.S.C. 167, et seq.) concerning the acquisition of liquid or gaseous helium by Federal agencies or by Government contractors or subcontractors for use in the...

  6. 48 CFR 8.500 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.500 Scope of subpart. This subpart implements the requirements of the Helium Act (50 U.S.C. 167, et seq.) concerning the acquisition of liquid or gaseous helium by Federal agencies or by Government contractors or subcontractors for use in the...

  7. 48 CFR 8.500 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.500 Scope of subpart. This subpart implements the requirements of the Helium Act (50 U.S.C. 167, et seq.) concerning the acquisition of liquid or gaseous helium by Federal agencies or by Government contractors or subcontractors for use in the...

  8. 48 CFR 8.500 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.500 Scope of subpart. This subpart implements the requirements of the Helium Act (50 U.S.C. 167, et seq.) concerning the acquisition of liquid or gaseous helium by Federal agencies or by Government contractors or subcontractors for use in the...

  9. 48 CFR 8.500 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.500 Scope of subpart. This subpart implements the requirements of the Helium Act (50 U.S.C. 167, et seq.) concerning the acquisition of liquid or gaseous helium by Federal agencies or by Government contractors or subcontractors for use in the...

  10. Helium on Mars and Venus: EUVE observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Gladstone, G. Randall

    2005-08-01

    Long-exposure spectroscopy of Mars and Venus with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) has revealed emissions of He 584 Å on both planets and He 537 Å/O + 539 Å and He + 304 Å on Venus. Our knowledge of the solar emission at 584 Å, eddy diffusion in Mars' upper atmosphere, electron energy distributions above Mars' ionopause, and hot oxygen densities in Mars' exosphere has been significantly improved since our analysis of the first EUVE observation of Mars [Krasnopolsky, Gladstone, 1996, Helium on Mars: EUVE and Phobos data and implications for Mars' evolution, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 15,765-15,772]. These new results and a more recent EUVE observation of Mars are the motivation for us to revisit the problem in this paper. We find that the abundance of helium in the upper atmosphere, where the main loss processes occur, is similar to that in the previous paper, though the mixing ratio in the lower and middle atmosphere is now better estimated at 10±6 ppm. Our estimate of the total loss of helium is almost unchanged at 8×10 s, because a significant decrease in the loss by electron impact ionization above the ionopause is compensated by a higher loss in collisions with hot oxygen. We neglect the outgassing of helium produced by radioactive decay of U and Th because of the absence of current volcanism and a very low upper limit to the seepage of volcanic gases. The capture of solar wind α-particles is currently the only substantial source of helium on Mars, and its efficiency remains at 0.3. A similar analysis of EUV emissions from Venus results in a helium abundance in the upper atmosphere which is equal to the mean of the abundances measured previously with two optical and two mass spectrometers, and a derived helium mixing ratio in the middle and lower atmosphere of 9±6 ppm. Helium escape by ionization and sweeping out of helium ions by the solar wind above the ionopause is smaller than that calculated by Prather and McElroy [1983, Helium on Venus

  11. Rapidly pulsed helium droplet source

    SciTech Connect

    Pentlehner, Dominik; Riechers, Ricarda; Dick, Bernhard; Slenczka, Alkwin; Even, Uzi; Lavie, Nachum; Brown, Raviv; Luria, Kfir

    2009-04-15

    A pulsed valve connected to a closed-cycle cryostat was optimized for producing helium droplets. The pulsed droplet beam appeared with a bimodal size distribution. The leading part of the pulse consists of droplets suitable for doping with molecules. The average size of this part can be varied between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} helium atoms, and the width of the distribution is smaller as compared to a continuous-flow droplet source. The system has been tested in a single pulse mode and at repetition rates of up to 500 Hz with almost constant intensity. The droplet density was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude as compared to a continuous-flow droplet source.

  12. Confined helium on Lagrange meshes.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Dohet-Eraly, J

    2015-12-21

    The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than 10(-10). For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to 10(-3), still improving the best literature results.

  13. Superfluid helium leak sealant study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-one leak specimens were fabricated in the ends of stainless steel and aluminum tubes. Eighteen of these tubes were coated with a copolymer material to seal the leak. The other three specimens were left uncoated and served as control specimens. All 21 tubes were cold shocked in liquid helium 50 times and then the leak rate was measured while the tubes were submerged in superfluid helium at 1.7 K. During the cold shocks two of the coated specimens were mechanically damaged and eliminated from the test program. Of the remaining 16 coated specimens one suffered a total coating failure and resulting high leak rate. Another three of the coated specimens suffered partial coating failures. The leak rates of the uncoated specimens were also measured and reported. The significance of various leak rates is discussed in view of the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Dewar performance.

  14. Mg impurity in helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, J.; Mateo, D.; Barranco, M.; Sarsa, A.

    2012-02-01

    Within the diffusion Monte Carlo approach, we have determined the structure of isotopically pure and mixed helium droplets doped with one magnesium atom. For pure 4He clusters, our results confirm those of Mella et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 054328 (2005), 10.1063/1.1982787] that the impurity experiences a transition from a surface to a bulk location as the number of helium atoms in the droplet increases. Contrarily, for pure 3He clusters Mg resides in the bulk of the droplet due to the smaller surface tension of this isotope. Results for mixed droplets are presented. We have also obtained the absorption spectrum of Mg around the 3s3p 1P1 ← 3s2 1S0 transition.

  15. Self-trapping of helium in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.D.; Bisson, C.L.; Baskes, M.I.

    1981-11-15

    Atomistic calculations are presented which demonstrate that helium atoms in a metal lattice are able to cluster with each other, producing vacancies and nearby self-interstitial defects. Even a small number of helium atoms is found to be sufficient to create these large distortions. As few as five interstitial helium can spontaneously produce a lattice vacancy and nearby self-interstitial. An eight-helium-atom cluster gives rise to two such defects, and 16 helium atoms to more than five self-interstitial vacancy pairs. It was noted that the self-interstitials prefer to agglomerate on the same ''side'' of the helium cluster rather than to spread themselves out uniformly. The binding energy of each additional helium atom to these clusters increases with helium concentration and the trap is apparently unsaturable. A rate theory using these atomistic binding energies has been used to calculate the kinetics of helium-bubble nucleation and growth. The results are consistent with measurements of the properties of helium resulting from tritium decay.

  16. Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Dominick, Sam M.; Anderson, John E.; Gille, John P.; Martin, Tim A.; Marino, John S.; Paynter, Howard L.; Traill, R. Eric; Herzl, Alfred; Gotlib, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Replenishment of superfluid helium (SFHe) offers the potential of extending the on-orbit life of observatories, satellite instruments, sensors and laboratories which operate in the 2 K temperature regime. A reference set of resupply customers was identified as representing realistic helium servicing requirements and interfaces for the first 10 years of superfluid helium tanker (SFHT) operations. These included the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility (Astromag), and the Microgravity and Materials Processing Sciences Facility (MMPS)/Critical Point Phenomena Facility (CPPF). A mixed-fleet approach to SFHT utilization was considered. The tanker permits servicing from the Shuttle cargo bay, in situ when attached to the OMV and carried to the user spacecraft, and as a depot at the Space Station. A SFHT Dewar ground servicing concept was developed which uses a dedicated ground cooling heat exchanger to convert all the liquid, after initial fill as normal fluid, to superfluid for launch. This concept permits the tanker to be filled to a near full condition, and then cooled without any loss of fluid. The final load condition can be saturated superfluid with any desired ullage volume, or the tank can be totally filed and pressurized. The SFHT Dewar and helium plumbing system design has sufficient component redundancy to meet fail-operational, fail-safe requirements, and is designed structurally to meet a 50 mission life usage requirement. Technology development recommendations were made for the selected SFHT concept, and a Program Plan and cost estimate prepared for a phase C/D program spanning 72 months from initiation through first launch in 1997.

  17. Detecting scintillations in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, P. R.; McKinsey, D. N.

    2013-09-01

    We review our work in developing a tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB)-based detection system for a measurement of the neutron lifetime using magnetically confined ultracold neutrons (UCN). As part of the development of the detection system for this experiment, we studied the scintillation properties of liquid helium itself, characterized the fluorescent efficiencies of different fluors, and built and tested three detector geometries. We provide an overview of the results from these studies as well as references for additional information.

  18. Vorticity matching in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, David C.

    1991-12-01

    Recent experiments have rekindled interest in high Reynolds number flows using superfluid helium. In a continuing series of experiments, the flow of helium II through various devices (smooth pipes, corrugated pipes, valves, venturies, turbine flowmeters, and coanda flowmeters for example) was investigated. In all cases, the measured values (typically, mass flow rates and pressure drops) were found to be well described by classical relations for high Reynolds flows. This is unexpected since helium II consists of two interpenetrating fluids; one fluid with nonzero viscosity (the normal fluid) and one with zero viscosity (the superfluid). Only the normal fluid component should directly obey classical relations. Since the experiments listed above only measure the external behavior of the flow (i.e., pressure drops over devices), there is a great deal of room for interpretation of their results. One possible interpretation is that in turbulent flows the normal fluid and the superfluid velocity fields are somehow 'locked' together, presumably by the mutual friction force between the superfluid vortex filaments and the normal fluid. We refer to this locking together of the two fluids as 'vorticity matching.'

  19. Investigations of levitated helium drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Dwight Lawrence

    1999-11-01

    We report on the development of two systems capable of levitating drops of liquid helium. Helium drops of ˜20 mum have been levitated with the radiation pressure from two counter-propagating Nd:YAG laser beams. Drops are produced with a submerged piezoelectric transducer, and could be held for up to three minutes in our optical trap. Calculations show that Brillouin and Raman scattering of the laser light in the liquid helium produces a negligible rate of evaporation of the drop. Evaporation caused by the enhanced vapor pressure of the curved drop surfaces appears to be a significant effect limiting the drop lifetimes. Helium drops as large as 2 cm in diameter have been suspended in the earth's gravitational field with a magnetic field. A commercial superconducting solenoid provides the necessary field, field-gradient product required to levitate the drops. Drops are cooled to 0.5 K with a helium-3 refrigerator, and can be held in the trap indefinitely. We have found that when two or more drops are levitated in the same magnetic trap, the drops often remain in a state of apparent contact without coalescing. This effect is a result of the evaporation of liquid from between the two drops, and is found to occur only for normal fluid drops. We can induce shape oscillations in charged, levitated drops with an applied ac electric field. We have measured the resonance frequencies and damping rates for the l = 2 mode of oscillation as function of temperature. We have also developed a theory to describe the small amplitude shape oscillations of a He II drop surrounded by its saturated vapor. In our theory, we have considered two sets of boundary conditions---one where the drop does not evaporate and another in which the liquid and vapor are in thermodynamic equilibrium. We have found that both solutions give a frequency that agrees well with experiment, but that the data for the damping rate agree better with the solution without evaporation.

  20. 43 CFR 16.2 - Applications for helium disposition agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications for helium disposition... HELIUM § 16.2 Applications for helium disposition agreements. The application for a helium disposition... Secretary to determine that the proposal will conserve helium that will otherwise be wasted, drained, or...

  1. 43 CFR 16.2 - Applications for helium disposition agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for helium disposition... HELIUM § 16.2 Applications for helium disposition agreements. The application for a helium disposition... Secretary to determine that the proposal will conserve helium that will otherwise be wasted, drained, or...

  2. 43 CFR 16.2 - Applications for helium disposition agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for helium disposition... HELIUM § 16.2 Applications for helium disposition agreements. The application for a helium disposition... Secretary to determine that the proposal will conserve helium that will otherwise be wasted, drained, or...

  3. 43 CFR 16.2 - Applications for helium disposition agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for helium disposition... HELIUM § 16.2 Applications for helium disposition agreements. The application for a helium disposition... Secretary to determine that the proposal will conserve helium that will otherwise be wasted, drained, or...

  4. 43 CFR 16.2 - Applications for helium disposition agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Applications for helium disposition... HELIUM § 16.2 Applications for helium disposition agreements. The application for a helium disposition... Secretary to determine that the proposal will conserve helium that will otherwise be wasted, drained, or...

  5. Thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of an atomic hydrogen-helium plasma for postulated conditions present in a stagnation shock layer of a spacecraft entering the atmosphere of Jupiter. These properties can be used to evaluate transport properties, to calculate convective heating, and to investigate nonequilibrium behavior. The calculations have been made for temperatures from 10,000 to 100,000 K, densities of 10 to the minus 7th and .00001 g cu cm, and three plasma compositions: pure hydrogen, 50% hydrogen/50% helium, and pure helium. The shock layer plasma consists of electrons, protons, atomic hydrogen, atomic helium, singly ionized helium, and doubly atomized helium. The thermodynamic properties which have been investigated are: pressure, average molecular weight, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, and isentropic speed of sound. A consistent model was used for the reduction of the ionization potential in the calculation of the partition functions.

  6. Solubility and trapping of helium in apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, Peter K.; Enkelmann, Eva; Thomas, Jay B.; Watson, E. Bruce; Ancuta, Leonard D.; Idleman, Bruce D.

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental but unquantified assumption in U-Th/He dating of apatite is that grains do not incorporate extraneous helium by solution or other processes, but large age dispersion seen in some samples suggests that this assumption might be violated. Our laboratory experiments show that helium solubility in apatite is quite low and unlikely to lead to age dispersion in most samples. However, in some samples highly variable and sometimes large helium uptake suggests that apatite grains can trap helium in microvoids that could be derived from fluid inclusions or other microstructures, a conclusion supported by crushing and step-heating experiments. The presence of such microvoids raises the possibility that closure and age systematics could be complicated either by trapping of internally generated radiogenic helium and/or alteration of helium diffusion kinetics by impeding diffusion.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of an atomic hydrogen-helium plasma for postulated conditions present in a stagnation shock layer of a spacecraft entering the atmosphere of Jupiter. These properties can be used to evaluate transport properties, to calculate convective heating, and to investigate nonequilibrium behavior. The calculations have been made for temperatures from 10,000 to 100,000 K, densities of 10 to the minus 7th and .00001 g cu cm, and three plasma compositions: pure hydrogen, 50% hydrogen/50% helium, and pure helium. The shock layer plasma consists of electrons, protons, atomic hydrogen, atomic helium, singly ionized helium, and doubly atomized helium. The thermodynamic properties which have been investigated are: pressure, average molecular weight, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, and isentropic speed of sound. A consistent model was used for the reduction of the ionization potential in the calculation of the partition functions.

  8. Helium recovery and purification at CHMFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Meng, Q.; Ouyang, Z.; Shi, L.; Ai, X.; Chen, X.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, rising demand and declining reserves of helium have led to dramatic increases in the helium price. The High Magnetic Field Laboratory of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CHMFL) has made efforts since its foundation to increase the percentage of helium recovered. The piping network connects all the helium experimental facilities to the recovery system, and even exhaust ports of pressure relief valves and vacuum pumps are also connected. In each year, about 30,000 cubic meters helium gas is recovered. The recovery gas is purified, liquefied and supplied to the users again. This paper will provide details about the helium recovery and purification system at CHMFL, including system flowchart, components, problems and solutions.

  9. On charged impurity structures in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelmenev, A. A.; Krushinskaya, I. N.; Bykhalo, I. B.; Boltnev, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    The thermoluminescence spectra of impurity-helium condensates (IHC) submerged in superfluid helium have been observed for the first time. Thermoluminescence of impurity-helium condensates submerged in superfluid helium is explained by neutralization reactions occurring in impurity nanoclusters. Optical spectra of excited products of neutralization reactions between nitrogen cations and thermoactivated electrons were rather different from the spectra observed at higher temperatures, when the luminescence due to nitrogen atom recombination dominates. New results on current detection during the IHC destruction are presented. Two different mechanisms of nanocluster charging are proposed to describe the phenomena observed during preparation and warm-up of IHC samples in bulk superfluid helium, and destruction of IHC samples out of liquid helium.

  10. Focusing a helium atom beam using a quantum-reflection mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, H. Christian; Zhao, Bum Suk; Meijer, Gerard; Schöllkopf, Wieland

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate one-dimensional (1D) focusing of a thermal helium atom beam by quantum reflection from a cylindrical concave quartz mirror at near-grazing incidence. The smallest width of the focus achieved is 1.8 μm, essentially limited by spherical aberration. The various effects that contribute to the finite focal width have been investigated. We propose to apply near-grazing reflection from two concave elliptical mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez arrangement for two-dimensional (2D) focusing of a helium atom beam, paving the way for a helium atom microprobe.

  11. Electronic structure and enthalpy of hydrogen and helium mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.; Klepeis, J. E.; Schafer, K. J.; Barbee, T. W., III

    1992-11-01

    The first local density approximation (LDA) calculations of the electronic structure, equation of state, and enthalpy of mixing were carried out for a number of different compositions of hydrogen and helium in bcc and fcc lattices. These are fully quantum mechanical, self-consistent calculations utilizing state-of-the-art methods of electron band theory, which make no assumptions regarding pressure ionization. The major approximation in the LDA method is that the exchange and correlation energy is given by a free electron functional in terms of the local electron density. The majority of previous mixture calculations start with the assumption that both hydrogen and helium are pressure-ionized so that the electronic structure is approximately that of free or weakly screened electrons in the presence of positive ions. Stevenson used a hard-sphere mixture model for the ions with an ion-ion pseudopotential to account for electron screening and predicted that a mixture containing 7% helium by number, the composition believed to be present in Jupiter and Saturn, would phase separate at a temperature of about 7000 K at 8 Mbar. Subsequent calculations carried out for the fully ionized mixture and for a mixture of screened ions (linear response theory) have all arrived at predictions similar to those of Stevenson. MacFarlane and Hubbard performed Thomas-Fermi-Dirac calculations for mixing enthalpies of hydrogen and helium in bcc and fcc lattices and predicted that phase separation would not occur at any temperature.

  12. Helium isotopic abundance variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The isotopic abundance of helium in nature has been reviewed. This atomic weight value is based on the value of helium in the atmosphere, which is invariant around the world and up to a distance of 100,000 feet. Helium does vary in natural gas, volcanic rocks and gases, ocean floor sediments, waters of various types and in radioactive minerals and ores due to {alpha} particle decay of radioactive nuclides.

  13. Helium sell-off risks future supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The US must stop selling off its helium reserves so that the country has enough of the gas to meet the needs of researchers and medical programmes, warns a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The report, entitled "Selling the Nation's Helium Reserve", says that failure to halt the sale of helium could lead to a drop in supply of the gas, which is vital for research into magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and low-temperature physics.

  14. Energy, helium, and the future: II

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Hammel, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of helium as a critical resource material has been recognized specifically by the scientific community and more generally by the 1960 Congressional mandate to institute a long-range conservation program. A major study mandated by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 resulted in the publication in 1975 of the document, The Energy-Related Applications of Helium, ERDA-13. This document contained a comprehensive review and analysis relating to helium resources and present and future supply/demand relationships with particular emphasis upon those helium-dependent energy-related technologies projected to be implemented in the post-2000 year time period, e.g., fusion. An updated overview of the helium situation as it exists today is presented. Since publication of ERDA-13, important changes in the data base underlying that document have occurred. The data have since been reexamined, revised, and new information included. Potential supplies of helium from both conventional and unconventional natural gas resources, projected supply/demand relationships to the year 2030 based upon a given power-generation scenario, projected helium demand for specific energy-related technologies, and the supply options (national and international) available to meet that demand are discussed. An updated review will be given of the energy requirements for the extraction of helium from natural gas as they relate to the concentration of helium. A discussion is given concerning the technical and economic feasibility of several methods available both now and conceptually possible, to extract helium from helium-lean natural gas, the atmosphere, and outer space. Finally, a brief review is given of the 1980 Congressional activities with respect to the introduction and possible passage of new helium conservation legislation.

  15. Helium cyclotron resonance within the earth's magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mauk, B.H.; McIlwain, C.E.; McPherron, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A histogram of electromagnetic Alfven/ion cyclotron wave frequencies, sampled within the geostationary enviroment and normalized by the equatorial proton cyclotron frequency, shows a dramatic gap centered near the helium (He/sup +/) cyclotron frequency. Also, strongly cyclotron phase bunched helium ions (20--200 eV) have been observed directly within the vicinity of wave environments. These observations are interpreted as resulting from the absorption of the waves through cyclotron resonance by cool ambient populations of helium ions.

  16. Helium isotope ratios in Easter microplate basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poreda, R. J.; Schilling, J. G.; Craig, H.

    1993-09-01

    He-3/He-4 ratios in Easter Microplate basalt glasses show clear evidence of the effects of a mantle plume. The East Rift of the microplate between 26 and 28 deg S, identified by La/Sm, Sr and Pb isotopes and ridge crest elevation as the region of maximum plume influence, has He-3/He-4 ratios spanning the entire range from 7.5 to 11.7 R(sub A). The Easter Microplate is the only section of the entire East Pacific Rise that is associated with a known `hotspot' track (mantle plume) and has elevated He-3/He-4 ratios. Although most of the West Rift basalts contain MORB helium (8.0 - 8.7 (R sub A)), the basalt closest to the East Rift has an elevated He-3/He-4 ratio (11.3 R(sub A)), consistent with a significant plume component. The diversity in isotopic signatures also indicates that homogenization of isotopic anomalies does not occur, even in this region of `super-fast' spreading. The overall He-3/He-4-Pb-206/Pb-204 and He-3/He-4-Sr-87/Sr-86 trends have positive correlations, although the high between the He and Sr isotope distribution is modeled in the context of a plume source-migrating ridge sink. During channeling of the plume toward the ridge, helium if preferentially lost from the center of the channeled plume, resulting in lower He/Pb and He/Sr concentration ratios in the high He-3/He-4 component. Mixing trajectories in He-Sr isotopic space between a LILE depleted asthenosphere and a variably degassed plume component provide a reasonably good fit to the data and may explain the isotope systematics of plume-ridge interactions in the context of modern theories of plume dynamics.

  17. Radioactive transitions in the helium isoelectronic sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.

    1971-01-01

    The principles of the atomic spectrum theory are used to quantitatively analyze radiation transitions in two-electron helium-like atomic systems. Quantum theoretical methods, describing absorption and emission of a single photon in a radiative transition between two stationary states of an atomic system, reproduced the energy level diagram for the low lying states of helium. Reliable values are obtained from accurate variationally determined two-electron nonrelativistic wave functions for radiative transition probabilities of 2 3p states in the helium isoelectric sequence, and for the 2 1s and 2 3s1 states of the helium sequence.

  18. Divertor Configurations which Optimize Helium Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, James

    2008-11-01

    Helium accumulation in DT plasmas is often presumed to be one limitation to the fusion power production. The core helium density has an unavoidable central source and a confinement time which tends to be long as is consistent with the required energy confinement times. Any pumping of the helium can only act to reduce the helium recycling. Within that constraint, however, it is still valuable to efficiently pump helium. Helium pumping can be aided by optimal placement of the helium pump in the divertor. The pump should be on the SOL side of the separatrix displaced into the region where the current of impurity particles enters into the divertor and initially strike the target. A numerical example will be given of helium pumping by the ITER divertor. A factor-of-two reduction in core helium densities is possible by optimal pump placement. One difficulty is the need for low temperatures along the targets to prevent their erosion. On ITER, recycled DT near the strike points is hoped to cool this region. The angle between the separatrix and the target is such that recycled neutrals cause ionization, excitation, and dissociation power losses along the target. The ITER solution constrains the choice of pump locations. Alternatively, the strike point cooling can be achieved by local DT (or low Z impurity) injection at the strike point.

  19. 43 CFR 3195.35 - What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium Distribution Contract? 3195.35 Section 3195.35 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.35 What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a...

  20. Rogue Mantle Helium and Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.

    2007-12-01

    The canonical view of He isotope geochemistry holds that high 3He/4He ratios in basalts fingerprints undegassed mantle sources. Hawaiian basalts with unradiogenic He with 3He/4He up to 30 RA are therefore seen as originating from parts of the mantle that is still primordial, at least much more so than MORB mantle (3He/4He ~ 8 RA). This view was strongly reinforced by the discovery of solar and even planetary Ne components in oceanic basalts and gas wells. The canonical view, however, conflicts with multiple observations on ocean islands, notably Hawaiian basalts: the correlation of {187}Os/{186}Os with δ 18O combined with the presence of unusually radiogenic Hf isotope compositions for a given Nd isotope composition and the correlation between Hf and Pb isotopes are all features strongly reminiscent of ancient subducted oceanic crust and pelagic sediments in the source of the Hawaiian plume. These conflicting observations beg the question of how Hawaiian basalts, which carry the embodiment of a primordial gas signature, at the same time can provide such strong evidence of surface material recycling. I here suggest and alternative model that uses the marble cake paradigm and Shuster et al.'s data on olivine. A solution to this conundrum lies in an analogy with oil genesis: 3He and Ne do not reside in the low-melting point peridotites in which they were originally hosted but rather migrated since early in Earth history into refractory 'reservoir' rocks. Since there can be no free gas phase percolating at pressures in excess of olivine carbonation at ~3 GPa, He must be largely redistributed by diffusion. The time scale of diffusion is the defining parameter: although over billions of years 3He diffuses across large distances, melting events are too short to efficiently strip residual refractory rocks from their high-3He/4He component. Assuming that melts begin forming over the uppermost 100 km with an upwelling rate of 10 m y-1 in plume conduits and 10 cm y-1 under

  1. Spectral shifts and helium configurations in 4HeN-tetracene clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, Heather D.; DuBois, Jonathan L.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2009-09-01

    Spectral shifts of electronic transitions of tetracene in helium droplets are investigated in a theoretical study of H4eN-tetracene clusters with 1≤N≤150. Utilizing a pairwise interaction for the S0 state of tetracene with helium that is extended by semiempirical terms to construct a potential for the S1 state of tetracene with helium, the spectral shift is calculated from path integral Monte Carlo calculations of the helium equilibrium properties with tetracene in the S0 and S1 states at T =0 and at T =0.625 K. The calculated spectral shifts are in quantitative agreement with available experimental measurements for small values of N (≤8) at T ˜0.4 K and show qualitative agreement for larger N (10-20). The extrapolated value of the spectral shift in large droplets (N ˜104) is ˜90% of the experimentally measured value. We find no evidence of multiple configurations of helium for any cluster size for either the S0 or S1 state of tetracene. These results suggest that the observed spectral splitting of electronic transitions of tetracene in large helium droplets is not due to the coexistence of static metastable helium densities, unlike the situation previously analyzed for the phthalocyanine molecule.

  2. Spectral shifts and helium configurations in 4He(N)-tetracene clusters.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Heather D; DuBois, Jonathan L; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2009-09-28

    Spectral shifts of electronic transitions of tetracene in helium droplets are investigated in a theoretical study of (4)He(N)-tetracene clusters with 1 < or = N < or = 150. Utilizing a pairwise interaction for the S(0) state of tetracene with helium that is extended by semiempirical terms to construct a potential for the S(1) state of tetracene with helium, the spectral shift is calculated from path integral Monte Carlo calculations of the helium equilibrium properties with tetracene in the S(0) and S(1) states at T = 0 and at T = 0.625 K. The calculated spectral shifts are in quantitative agreement with available experimental measurements for small values of N (< or = 8) at T approximately 0.4 K and show qualitative agreement for larger N (10-20). The extrapolated value of the spectral shift in large droplets (N approximately 10(4)) is approximately 90% of the experimentally measured value. We find no evidence of multiple configurations of helium for any cluster size for either the S(0) or S(1) state of tetracene. These results suggest that the observed spectral splitting of electronic transitions of tetracene in large helium droplets is not due to the coexistence of static metastable helium densities, unlike the situation previously analyzed for the phthalocyanine molecule.

  3. Helium insufflation with sevoflurane general anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation during airway surgery.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Joseph D

    2009-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits and clinical applications of helium-oxygen gas mixtures were first reported over 70 years ago. Since then, helium has been used in the treatment of obstructive processes of both the upper and lower airways. We report a unique case regarding helium insufflation with sevoflurane anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation for airway surgery. A helium-oxygen mixture was administered during airway surgery in an 8-year-old boy with obstruction of the upper airway. Following the introduction of a helium-oxygen mixture during general anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation, a relatively rapid improvement in the patient's respiratory status was observed with a decrease in the audible inspiratory stridor, improved gas exchange, decreased respiratory rate, decreased suprasternal/intercostal retractions, and a decrease in the transcutaneous CO(2). The physiologic basis for helium's effects on gas exchange are discussed and its use during insufflation for upper airway surgery is reviewed. The addition of helium improves gas exchange with spontaneous ventilation during general anesthesia for airway surgery.

  4. Scooping helium out in the early B-type main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staritsin, E. I.

    The observed process of surface helium enrichment through the main sequence phase of B-stars evolution is analysed on the basis of current hydrodynamical model of matter mixing in rotating star interior. It is shown that shear turbulence and semiconvection are the main processes of partial matter mixing in the interiors of a rotating star with a mass of 8 M⊙. The calculated surface helium enhancement during the second half of main sequence stage of evolution looks like an observable one.

  5. Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The accomplishments and recommendations of the two-phase Superfluid Helium Tanker (SFHT) study are presented. During the first phase of the study, the emphasis was on defining a comprehensive set of user requirements, establishing SFHT interface parameters and design requirements, and selecting a fluid subsystem design concept. During the second phase, an overall system design concept was constructed based on appropriate analyses and more detailed definition of requirements. Modifications needed to extend the baseline for use with cryogens other than SFHT have been determined, and technology development needs related to the recommended design have been assessed.

  6. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-12-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz.

  7. Helium II level measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  8. Quantum Dynamics of Helium Clusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    helium clusters [10-12]. (10) DMC starts with the time - dependent Schr ~ dinger equation in imaginary time and has been employed most- The approximate...bound. (For example, the binding values may be computed by the Metropolis approach . energy of He 3 is five times greater than that of 1l1lie I We first...or four times for computational effort. If this is also the case with the the larger clusters) its original size. If the maximum en- DMC approach

  9. Design of subcooled helium II refrigerator with helium-3 cold compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, D.; Saji, N.; Ohya, H.; Asakura, H.; Kubota, M.; Kaneko, Y.; Nagai, S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper will study the possibility of a He II refrigerator made up of three cold compressors by making use of helium-3 characteristics. This system is compact enough to fit inside a small cold box, so it can be easily connected with an existing helium-4 refrigerator. The authors designed the compressors, calculated the He II cooling capacity, 4.4 K refrigeration load, required inventory of helium-3, and Carnot efficiency. Though helium-3 is expensive, the required inventory of helium-3 to be filled inside this He II refrigerator was calculated to be small enough to prove practicality of constructing this refrigerator.

  10. Paramagnetic Attraction of Impurity-Helium Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, E. P.; Boltnev, R. E.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Lee, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Impurity-helium solids are formed when a mixture of impurity and helium gases enters a volume of superfluid helium. Typical choices of impurity gas are hydrogen deuteride, deuterium, nitrogen, neon and argon, or a mixture of these. These solids consist of individual impurity atoms and molecules as well as clusters of impurity atoms and molecules covered with layers of solidified helium. The clusters have an imperfect crystalline structure and diameters ranging up to 90 angstroms, depending somewhat on the choice of impurity. Immediately following formation the clusters aggregate into loosely connected porous solids that are submerged in and completely permeated by the liquid helium. Im-He solids are extremely effective at stabilizing high concentrations of free radicals, which can be introduced by applying a high power RF dis- charge to the impurity gas mixture just before it strikes the super fluid helium. Average concentrations of 10(exp 19) nitrogen atoms/cc and 5 x 10(exp 18) deuterium atoms/cc can be achieved this way. It shows a typical sample formed from a mixture of atomic and molecular hydrogen and deuterium. It shows typical sample formed from atomic and molecular nitrogen. Much of the stability of Im-He solids is attributed to their very large surface area to volume ratio and their permeation by super fluid helium. Heat resulting from a chance meeting and recombination of free radicals is quickly dissipated by the super fluid helium instead of thermally promoting the diffusion of other nearby free radicals.

  11. 30 CFR 256.11 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Helium. 256.11 Section 256.11 Mineral Resources... Helium. (a) Each lease issued or continued under these regulations shall be subject to a reservation by the United States, under section 12(f) of the Act, of the ownership of and the right to extract...

  12. Induced ferromagnetism in helium bombarded graphite.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Tatiana L; Shelankov, Andrei L; Lyubchik, Svetlana B; Serenkov, Igor T; Sakharov, Vladimir I

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation with helium ions is an effective method for triggering ferromagnetism in graphite. Chemical inertness of helium suggests that local magnetic moment formation is determined solely by the intrinsic carbon defects created during the target damage. Interacting moments are located in two places: in the vicinity of the sample surface and near the point of maximum defect generation.

  13. Theoretical model of the helium pinhole microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, Adrià Salvador; Bracco, Gianangelo; Holst, Bodil

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the development of neutral helium microscopes has gained increasing interest. The low energy, charge neutrality, and inertness of the helium atoms makes helium microscopy an attractive candidate for the imaging of a range of samples. The simplest neutral helium microscope is the so-called pinhole microscope. It consists of a supersonic expansion helium beam collimated by two consecutive apertures (skimmer and pinhole), which together determine the beam spot size and hence the resolution at a given working distance to the sample. Due to the high ionization potential of neutral helium atoms, it is difficult to build efficient helium detectors. Therefore, it is crucial to optimize the microscope design to maximize the intensity for a given resolution and working distance. Here we present an optimization model for the helium pinhole microscope system. We show that for a given resolution and working distance, there is a single intensity maximum. Further we show that with present-day state-of-the-art detector technology (ionization efficiency 1 ×10-3 ), a resolution of the order of 600 nm at a working distance of 3 mm is possible. In order to make this quantification, we have assumed a Lambertian reflecting surface and calculated the beam spot size that gives a signal 100 cts/s within a solid angle of 0.02 π sr, following an existing design. Reducing the working distance to the micron range leads to an improved resolution of around 40 nm.

  14. Helium Speech: An Application of Standing Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a breath of helium gas and then speaking or singing to the class is a favorite demonstration for an introductory physics course, as it usually elicits appreciative laughter, which serves to energize the class session. Students will usually report that the helium speech "raises the frequency" of the voice. A more accurate description of the…

  15. Helium-cooled high temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Experience with several helium cooled reactors has been favorable, and two commercial plants are now operating. Both of these units are of the High Temperature Graphite Gas Cooled concept, one in the United States and the other in the Federal Republic of Germany. The initial helium charge for a reactor of the 1000 MW(e) size is modest, approx.15,000 kg.

  16. LOX Tank Helium Removal for Propellant Scavenging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2009-01-01

    System studies have shown a significant advantage to reusing the hydrogen and oxygen left in these tanks after landing on the Moon in fuel cells to generate power and water for surface systems. However in the current lander concepts, the helium used to pressurize the oxygen tank can substantially degrade fuel cell power and water output by covering the reacting surface with inert gas. This presentation documents an experimental investigation of methods to remove the helium pressurant while minimizing the amount of the oxygen lost. This investigation demonstrated that significant quantities of Helium (greater than 90% mole fraction) remain in the tank after draining. Although a single vent cycle reduced the helium quantity, large amounts of helium remained. Cyclic venting appeared to be more effective. Three vent cycles were sufficient to reduce the helium to small (less than 0.2%) quantities. Two vent cycles may be sufficient since once the tank has been brought up to pressure after the second vent cycle the helium concentration has been reduced to the less than 0.2% level. The re-pressurization process seemed to contribute to diluting helium. This is as expected since in order to raise the pressure liquid oxygen must be evaporated. Estimated liquid oxygen loss is on the order of 82 pounds (assuming the third vent cycle is not required).

  17. Helium Speech: An Application of Standing Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a breath of helium gas and then speaking or singing to the class is a favorite demonstration for an introductory physics course, as it usually elicits appreciative laughter, which serves to energize the class session. Students will usually report that the helium speech "raises the frequency" of the voice. A more accurate description of the…

  18. Cryogenic helium 2 systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J.; Karr, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two cryogenic systems are described which will provide cooling for experiments to be flown on Spacelab 2 in the early 1980's. The first system cools a scanning infrared telescope by the transfer of cold helium gas from a separate superfluid helium storage dewar. The flexible design permits the helium storage dewar and transfer assembly to be designed independent of the infrared experiment. Where possible, modified commerical apparatus is used. The second cryogenic system utilizes a specially designed superfluid dewar in which a superfluid helium experiment chamber is immersed. Each dewar system employs a porous plug as a phase separator to hold the liquid helium within the dewar and provide cold gas to a vent line. To maintain the low vapor pressure of the superfluid, each system requires nearly continuous prelaunch vacuum pump service, and each will vent to space during the Spacelab 2 flight.

  19. Permeability of Hollow Microspherical Membranes to Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, V. N.; Kazanin, I. V.; Pak, A. Yu.; Vereshchagin, A. S.; Lebiga, V. A.; Fomin, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the sorption characteristics of various hollow microspherical membranes to reveal particles most suitable for application in the membrane-sorption technologies of helium extraction from a natural gas. The permeability of the investigated sorbents to helium and their impermeability to air and methane are shown experimentally. The sorption-desorption dependences of the studied sorbents have been obtained, from which the parameters of their specific permeability to helium are calculated. It has been established that the physicochemical modification of the original particles exerts a great influence on the coefficient of the permeability of a sorbent to helium. Specially treated cenospheres have displayed high efficiency as membranes for selective extraction of helium.

  20. Modeling Secondary Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Möbius, Eberhard; Wood, Brian E.

    2016-11-01

    An accurate, analytic heliospheric neutral test-particle code for helium atoms from the interstellar medium (ISM) is coupled to global heliospheric models dominated by hydrogen and protons from the solar wind and the ISM. This coupling enables the forward-calculation of secondary helium neutrals from first principles. Secondaries are produced predominantly in the outer heliosheath, upwind of the heliopause, by charge exchange of helium ions with neutral atoms. The forward model integrates the secondary production terms along neutral trajectories and calculates the combined neutral helium phase space density in the innermost heliosphere where it can be related to in-situ observations. The phase space density of the secondary component is lower than that of primary neutral helium, but its presence can change the analysis of primaries and the ISM, and can yield valuable insight into the characteristics of the plasma in the outer heliosheath.

  1. Cryogenic helium 2 systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J.; Karr, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two cryogenic systems are described which will provide cooling for experiments to be flown on Spacelab 2 in the early 1980's. The first system cools a scanning infrared telescope by the transfer of cold helium gas from a separate superfluid helium storage dewar. The flexible design permits the helium storage dewar and transfer assembly to be designed independent of the infrared experiment. Where possible, modified commerical apparatus is used. The second cryogenic system utilizes a specially designed superfluid dewar in which a superfluid helium experiment chamber is immersed. Each dewar system employs a porous plug as a phase separator to hold the liquid helium within the dewar and provide cold gas to a vent line. To maintain the low vapor pressure of the superfluid, each system requires nearly continuous prelaunch vacuum pump service, and each will vent to space during the Spacelab 2 flight.

  2. Cellular effects of helium in different organs.

    PubMed

    Oei, Gezina T M L; Weber, Nina C; Hollmann, Markus W; Preckel, Benedikt

    2010-06-01

    Experimental research in cardiac and neuronal tissue has shown that besides volatile anesthetics and xenon, the nonanesthetic noble gas helium also reduces ischemia-reperfusion damage. Even though the distinct mechanisms of helium-induced organ protection are not completely unraveled, several signaling pathways have been identified. Beside the protective effects on heart and brain that are mainly obtained by different pre- and postconditioning protocols, helium also exerts effects in the lungs, the immune system, and the blood vessels. Obviously, this noble gas is biochemically not inert and exerts biologic effects, although until today the question remains open on how these changes are mediated. Because of its favorable characteristics and the lack of hemodynamic side effects, helium is suitable for use also in critically ill patients. This review covers the cellular effects of helium, which may lead to new clinical strategies of tissue salvage in ischemia-reperfusion situations, both within and outside the perioperative setting.

  3. Ultraviolet spectrum synthesis of the helium white dwarf Ross 640

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottrell, P. L.; Greenstein, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The UV spectrum of the He-rich white dwarf Ross 640 was used to derive Mg, Si, and Fe abundances by a spectrum synthesis technique. The values obtained were: Mg/He = 6.8 x 10 to the -8th; Si/He = 3.2 x 10 to the -8th; Ca/He = 7.6 x 10 to the -10th; and Fe/He = 2.0 x 10 to the -9th. The abundances indicate the operation of diffusion processes within a helium-rich atmosphere, provided some mechanism exists to deposit metals in the observable layers.

  4. Femtosecond time-resolved EUV photoion imaging studies of pure helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buenermann, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg; Gessner, Oliver; Leone, Stephen R.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2010-03-01

    Helium nanodroplets provide a cryogenic, weakly interacting matrix for the isolation and spectroscopy of molecules and clusters. The relaxation dynamics of electronically excited helium nanodroplets are investigated by femtosecond time resolved photoion imaging studies. The droplets are excited into a broad absorption band centered at 23.8 eV. The electronic and nuclear dynamics following this excitation are monitored by photoionization with a 785nm probe pulse. A Wiley-McLaren time of flight spectrometer equipped with a time- and position sensitive delay line detector facilitates the measurement of mass selective ion kinetic energy distributions. First measurements reveal differences in the kinetic energy release of the Helium monomer, dimer and trimer ions. Furthermore, the pump-probe time-delay dependent ion spectra exhibit several features evolving on various timescales. The combination of these results with previously recorded photoelectron imaging measurements allows for a new level of insight into the electronic and nuclear dynamics of electronically excited helium nanodroplets.

  5. Diffusion of helium isotopes in silicate glasses and minerals: Implications for petrogenesis and geochronology. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Trull, T.W.

    1989-06-01

    Helium diffusivities in basaltic glasses at seafloor temperatures are about 10 to the -16th power sq cm/s suggesting only very low concentration samples will be compromised, and that U/He geochronology of submarine basalts may be feasible. Helium diffusivities at magmatic temperatures are 10 to the -11th power, to 10 to the -8th power sq cm/s in silicate minerals, too low to regionally homogenize helium in the mantle. Helium exchange rates limit xenolith origin depths and transport times. Faster He diffusion in pyroxene than olivine allows diffusive loss to be evaluated. Diffusivities of {sup 3}He produced by cosmic rays in surface rocks are less than 10 to the -20th power sq cm/s in olivine and quartz, suggesting exposure dating will not be limited by helium loss for ages up to 10,000,000 years. Similar conclusions were found for U/{sup 4}He dating of quartz. Part of the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He variability (.01 to 9 R{sub a}) of island arc basalts from the western Pacific reflects post-eruptive helium addition. In unaltered samples, Kavachi submarine volcano has different {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He (6.9 + or - .2 R{sub a}) than the Woodlark Spreading Center (8-9 R{sub a}). A contribution from subducted Pacific lithosphere may explain this and 87 Sr/86 Sr variations.

  6. Bronchomotor response to cold air or helium-oxygen at normal and high ambient pressures.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Y; Burnet, H; Cosson, P; Lucciano, M

    1988-05-01

    Effects of inhalation of cold air or helium-oxygen mixture on lung resistance (RL) were studied in anesthetized and tracheotomized rabbits under normal ambient pressure and in human volunteers under normo- and hyperbaric conditions. In artificially ventilated rabbits, an increase in RL occurred when the tracheal temperature fell to 10 degrees C. This effect was more than double with helium breathing compared to air, despite a lower respiratory heat loss by convection (Hc) with helium. In 3 normal humans, inhalation of cold air (mouth temperature = 8 degrees C) at sea level had no effect on RL value. However, with a helium-nitrogen-oxygen mixture, a weak but significant increase in RL due to cold gas breathing was measured in 1 subject at 2 ATA and in 2 individuals at 3.5 ATA. The density of inhaled gas mixture (air or He-N2-O2) was near the same in the three circumstances (1, 2, and 3.5 ATA) but Hc value increased with helium. At 8 ATA a 30-55% increase in RL occurred in the 3 divers during inhalation of cold gas (Hc was multiplied by 6 compared to air at sea level) and at 25 ATA the cold-induced bronchospasm ranged between 38 and 95% (Hc multiplied by 27). Thus, in rabbits and humans helium breathing enhanced the cold-induced increase in RL at normal or elevated ambient pressure, and this effect was interpreted as resulting from different mechanisms in the two circumstances.

  7. A stable compound of helium and sodium at high pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Dong, Xiao; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; ...

    2017-02-06

    Helium is generally understood to be chemically inert and this is due to its extremely stable closed-shell electronic configuration, zero electron affinity and an unsurpassed ionization potential. It is not known to form thermodynamically stable compounds, except a few inclusion compounds. Here, using the ab initio evolutionary algorithm USPEX and subsequent high-pressure synthesis in a diamond anvil cell, we report the discovery of a thermodynamically stable compound of helium and sodium, Na2He, which has a fluorite-type structure and is stable at pressures >113 GPa. We show that the presence of He atoms causes strong electron localization and makes this materialmore » insulating. This phase is an electride, with electron pairs localized in interstices, forming eight-centre two-electron bonds within empty Na8 cubes. As a result, we also predict the existence of Na2HeO with a similar structure at pressures above 15 GPa.« less

  8. Elastic Electron Scattering from Tritium and Helium-3

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Collard, H.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Johansson, A.; Yearian, M. R.; Day, R. B.; Wagner, R. T.

    1964-10-01

    The mirror nuclei of tritium and helium-3 have been studied by the method of elastic electron scattering. Absolute cross sections have been measured for incident electron energies in the range 110 - 690 MeV at scattering angles lying between 40 degrees and 135 degrees in this energy range. The data have been interpreted in a straightforward manner and form factors are given for the distributions of charge and magnetic moment in the two nuclei over a range of four-momentum transfer squared 1.0 - 8.0 F{sup -2}. Model-independent radii of the charge and magnetic moment distributions are given and an attempt is made to deduce form factors describing the spatial distribution of the protons in tritium and helium-3.

  9. Neovascular glaucoma after helium ion irradiation for uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.K.; Char, D.H.; Castro, J.L.; Saunders, W.M.; Chen, G.T.; Stone, R.D.

    1986-02-01

    Neovascular glaucoma developed in 22 of 169 uveal melanoma patients treated with helium ion irradiation. Most patients had large melanomas; no eyes containing small melanomas developed anterior segment neovascularization. The mean onset of glaucoma was 14.1 months (range, 7-31 months). The incidence of anterior segment neovascularization increased with radiation dosage; there was an approximately three-fold increase at 80 GyE versus 60 GyE of helium ion radiation (23% vs. 8.5%) (P less than 0.05). Neovascular glaucoma occurred more commonly in larger tumors; the incidence was not affected by tumor location, presence of subretinal fluid, nor rate of tumor regression. Fifty-three percent of patients had some response with intraocular pressures of 21 mmHg or less to a combination of antiglaucoma treatments.

  10. Stable Trapping of Multielectron Helium Bubbles in a Paul Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E. M.; Vadakkumbatt, V.; Pal, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-11-01

    In a recent experiment, we have used a linear Paul trap to store and study multielectron bubbles (MEBs) in liquid helium. MEBs have a charge-to-mass ratio (between 10^{-4} and 10^{-2} C/kg) which is several orders of magnitude smaller than ions (between 10^6 and 10^8 C/kg) studied in traditional ion traps. In addition, MEBs experience significant drag force while moving through the liquid. As a result, the experimental parameters for stable trapping of MEBs, such as magnitude and frequency of the applied electric fields, are very different from those used in typical ion trap experiments. The purpose of this paper is to model the motion of MEBs inside a linear Paul trap in liquid helium, determine the range of working parameters of the trap, and compare the results with experiments.

  11. A stable compound of helium and sodium at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Stavrou, Elissaios; Lobanov, Sergey; Saleh, Gabriele; Qian, Guang-Rui; Zhu, Qiang; Gatti, Carlo; Deringer, Volker L.; Dronskowski, Richard; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Konôpková, Zuzana; Popov, Ivan A.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2017-05-01

    Helium is generally understood to be chemically inert and this is due to its extremely stable closed-shell electronic configuration, zero electron affinity and an unsurpassed ionization potential. It is not known to form thermodynamically stable compounds, except a few inclusion compounds. Here, using the ab initio evolutionary algorithm USPEX and subsequent high-pressure synthesis in a diamond anvil cell, we report the discovery of a thermodynamically stable compound of helium and sodium, Na2He, which has a fluorite-type structure and is stable at pressures >113 GPa. We show that the presence of He atoms causes strong electron localization and makes this material insulating. This phase is an electride, with electron pairs localized in interstices, forming eight-centre two-electron bonds within empty Na8 cubes. We also predict the existence of Na2HeO with a similar structure at pressures above 15 GPa.

  12. Time variations of cosmic-ray helium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picot-Clemente, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The Balloon-born Experiment with Superconducting magnet Spectrometer (BESS) is a Japan-U.S. program that carried out 11 successful flights from 1993 to 2007. The BESS instrument includes various particle detectors, such as plastic scintillator hodoscopes and a central jet-type drift chamber surrounded by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Measurements provided by these detectors allow precise identification of cosmic-ray helium isotopes. The long-duration flight of the BESS-Polar I instrument, about 8.5 days over Antarctica in 2004, allows measurements of time variations of isotope fluxes for the first time. The time variation of the helium isotope flux is presented for rigidities from 1.2 GV to 2.5 GV, and the results are compared with previously reported proton data and neutron monitor data.

  13. Electric response in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  14. Nondipole effects in helium photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, Luca; Moccia, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    An accurate calculation of the nondipole anisotropy parameter γ in the photoionization of helium below the N = 2 threshold is presented. The calculated results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results of Krässig et al (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 203002), but not as good as the accuracy of the calculation should have warranted. A careful examination of the possible causes for the observed discrepancies between theory and experiment seems to rule out any role either of the multipolar terms higher than the electric quadrupole, or of the singlet-triplet spin-orbit mixing. It is argued that such discrepancies might have an instrumental origin, due to the difficulty of measuring vanishingly small total cross sections σtot with the required accuracy. In such eventuality, it might be more appropriate to use a parameter other than γ, such as for instance the drag current, to measure the nondipole anisotropy of the photoelectron angular distribution.

  15. Atom lithography with metastable helium

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, Claire S.; Reeves, Jason; Corder, Christopher; Metcalf, Harold

    2010-02-15

    A bright metastable helium (He*) beam is collimated sequentially with the bichromatic force and three optical molasses velocity compression stages. Each He* atom in the beam has 20 eV of internal energy that can destroy a molecular resist assembled on a gold coated silicon wafer. Patterns in the resist are imprinted onto the gold layer with a standard selective etch. Patterning of the wafer with the He{sup *} was demonstrated with two methods. First, a mesh was used to protect parts of the wafer making an array of grid lines. Second, a standing wave of {lambda}=1083 nm light was used to channel and focus the He* atoms into lines separated by {lambda}/2. The patterns were measured with an atomic force microscope establishing an edge resolution of 80 nm. Our results are reliable and repeatable.

  16. Helium Saturation of Liquid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavrouian, A. H.; Moran, Clifford M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is in three areas which are: (1) techniques were devised for achieving the required levels of helium (He) saturation in liquid propellants (limited to monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)); (2) the values were evaluated for equilibrium solubilities of He in liquid propellants as currently used in the industry; and (3) the He dissolved in liquid propellants were accurately measured. Conclusions drawn from these studies include: (1) Techniques for dissolving He in liquid propellants depending upon the capabilities of the testing facility (Verification of the quantity of gas dissolved is essential); (2) Until greater accuracy is obtained, the equilibrium solubility values of He in MMH and NTO as cited in the Air Force Propellant Handbooks should be accepted as standard (There are still enough uncertainties in the He saturation values to warrant further basic experimental studies); and (3) The manometric measurement of gas volume from a frozen sample of propellant should be the accepted method for gas analysis.

  17. The tensile strength of helium II

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Quan.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the negative pressure required to produce cavitation in liquid helium (i.e. the tensile strength of helium) has been of continuing interest for two reasons. Since all other elements have freezing temperatures of 14 K or higher, helium can be prepared free of gaseous impurities which can serve as centers for heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles which will reduce the tensile strength of the liquid. Secondly, helium remains a liquid even down to the absolute zero of temperature. Consequently, it has been considered that at sufficiently low temperatures there is the possibility that the rate of nucleation of bubbles is dominated by quantum tunneling. In this thesis, the authors reexamined the theory of homogeneous nucleation and made an estimate of the equation of state for negative pressure in helium. He found that the earlier theories were incorrect in that they took no account of the equation of state of liquid helium in the negative pressure regime. The tensile strength of helium at T = 0 K should be around [minus]9 bars instead of [minus]17 bars predicted by the standard theory.

  18. Morphine reduces the threshold of helium preconditioning against myocardial infarction: the role of opioid receptors in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, Paul S.; Krolikowski, John G.; Amour, Julien; Warltier, David C.; Weihrauch, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    size (45±2 and 40±8%, respectively). The combination of one cycle of helium and morphine reduced infarct size (24±5%, P<0.05 versus control) to an equivalent degree as three cycles of helium. Naloxone pretreatment abolished cardioprotection produced by three cycles of helium (47±2%) and the combination of one cycle of helium plus morphine (45±4%). Conclusions The results indicate that morphine lowers the threshold of helium preconditioning. Opioid receptors mediate helium preconditioning and its augmentation by morphine in vivo. PMID:19231239

  19. Morphine reduces the threshold of helium preconditioning against myocardial infarction: the role of opioid receptors in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Paul S; Krolikowski, John G; Amour, Julien; Warltier, David C; Weihrauch, Dorothee

    2009-10-01

    and 40% +/- 8%, respectively). The combination of 1 cycle of helium and morphine reduced infarct size (24% +/- 5%, p < 0.05 v control) to an equivalent degree as 3 cycles of helium. Naloxone pretreatment abolished cardioprotection produced by 3 cycles of helium (47% +/- 2%) and the combination of 1 cycle of helium plus morphine (45% +/- 4%). The results indicate that morphine lowers the threshold of helium preconditioning. Opioid receptors mediate helium preconditioning and its augmentation by morphine in vivo.

  20. Nucleation of bubbles in liquid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Maris, H.J. ); Balibar, S.; Pettersen, M.S. )

    1993-12-01

    The authors give a brief survey of experiments that have been performed to study the nucleation of bubbles (cavitation) in liquid helium at negative pressures. There have been two principal motivations for research in this field. Because all impurities (except [sup 3]He) freeze out of the liquid at low temperatures, it is possible to prepare helium with a much higher purity than ordinary classical liquids. In any study of a nucleation process this is an important advantage because impurities introduce the complication of heterogeneous nucleation. The second reason for interest in helium is that at low enough temperatures nucleation is expected to be dominated by quantum tunnelling rather than thermal activation.

  1. Magnesium cluster film synthesis by helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Emery, Samuel B; Rider, Keith B; Little, Brian K; Schrand, Amanda M; Lindsay, C Michael

    2013-08-07

    Atomic and molecular clusters are a unique class of substances with properties that differ greatly from those of the bulk or single atoms due to changes in surface to volume ratio and finite size effects. Here, we demonstrate the ability to create cluster matter films using helium droplet mediated cluster assembly and deposition, a recently developed methodology that condenses atoms or molecules within liquid helium droplets and then gently deposits them onto a surface. In this work, we examine magnesium nanocluster films, which exhibit growth behavior comparable to low-energy cluster beam methods, and demonstrate physical properties and morphology dependent on helium droplet size.

  2. Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2014-01-29

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

  3. Helium resources of the United States, 1987. Information Circular/1988

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The helium-resources base of the United States was estimated by the Bureau of Mines to be 1040 Bcf as of January 1, 1987. These resources are divided into four categories in decreasing degree of assurance of their existence: (1) helium in storage and in proved natural gas reserves, 265 Bcf, (2) helium in probable natural gas resources, 228 Bcf, (3) helium in possible natural gas resources, 320 Bcf, and (4) helium in speculative natural gas resources, 227 Bcf. These helium resources are further divided into depleting and nondepleting, with the helium in storage being in a separate classification.

  4. Crystallization of electrons on the surface of liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, C. C.; Adams, G.

    1980-08-01

    The classical, two-dimensional Coulomb system formed by a monolayer of electrons trapped on the surface of liquid helium has been observed to crystallize into a triangular lattice. Measured melting temperatures range from 0.37 to 0.65 K for areal densities of electrons from 3 × 10 8 cm -2 to 9 × 10 8 cm -2. Melting occurs at Γ = 131 ± 7 where Γ is a measure of the ratio of potential energy to kinetic energy per electron. The measured value of Γ at melting is consistent with dislocation mediated melting of a two-dimensional crystal.

  5. Electron Captures on 14N as a Trigger for Helium Shell Detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Evan B.; Schwab, Josiah; Bildsten, Lars

    2017-08-01

    White dwarfs (WDs) that accrete helium at rates ˜ {10}-8 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, such as those in close binaries with sdB stars, can accumulate large (≳ 0.1 {M}⊙ ) helium envelopes, which are likely to detonate. We perform binary stellar evolution calculations of sdB+WD binary systems with MESA, incorporating the important reaction chain {}14{{N}}{({e}-,ν )}14{{C}}{(α ,γ )}18{{O}} (NCO), including a recent measurement for the {}14{{C}}{(α ,γ )}18{{O}} rate. In large accreted helium shells, the NCO reaction chain leads to ignitions at the dense base of the freshly accreted envelope, in contrast to 3α ignitions, which occur away from the base of the shell. In addition, at these accretion rates, the shells accumulate on a timescale comparable to their thermal time, leading to an enhanced sensitivity of the outcome on the accretion rate history. Hence, time dependent accretion rates from binary stellar evolution are necessary to determine the helium layer mass at ignition. We model the observed sdB+WD system CD -30^\\circ 11223 and find that the inclusion of these effects predicts ignition of a 0.153 {M}⊙ helium shell, nearly a factor of two larger than previous predictions. A shell with this mass will ignite dynamically, a necessary condition for a helium shell detonation.

  6. Cryosorption of helium on argon frost TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Cropper, M.B.; Dylla, H.F.; Garzotto, V.; Dudek, L.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Martin, G.D.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1989-11-01

    Helium pumping on argon frost has been investigated on TFTR neutral beam injectors and shown to be viable for limited helium beam operation. Maximum pumping speeds are {approximately} 25% less than those measured for pumping of deuterium. Helium pumping efficiency is low, > 20 argon atoms are required to pump each helium atom. Adsorption isotherms are exponential and exhibit a two-fold increase in adsorption capacity as the cryopanel temperature is reduced from 4.3 K to 3.7 K. Pumping speed was found to be independent of cryopanel temperature over the temperature range studied. After pumping a total of 2000 torr-l of helium, the beamline base pressure rose to 2{times}10{sup -5} torr from an initial value of 10{sup -8} torr. Accompanying this three order of magnitude increase in pressure was a modest 40% decrease in pumping speed. The introduction of 168 torr-l of deuterium prior to helium injection reduced the pumping speed by a factor of two with no decrease in adsorption capacity. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  7. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Anderson, L. D.

    2013-02-10

    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

  8. Helium preconditioning attenuates hypoxia/ischemia-induced injury in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Xue, Feng; Liu, Guoke; Shi, Xin; Liu, Yun; Liu, Wenwu; Luo, Xu; Sun, Xuejun; Kang, Zhimin

    2011-02-28

    Recent studies show helium may be one kind of neuroprotective gas. This study aimed to examine the short and long-term neuroprotective effects of helium preconditioning in an established neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model. Seven-day-old rat pups were subjected to left common carotid artery ligation and then 90 min of hypoxia (8% oxygen at 37°C). The preconditioning group inhaled 70% helium-30% oxygen for 5 min three times with an interval of 5 min 24h before HI insult. Pups were decapitated 24h after HI and brain morphological injury was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, Nissl and TUNEL staining. Caspase-3 activity in the brain was measured. Five weeks after HI, postural reflex testing and Morris water maze testing were conducted. Our results showed that helium preconditioning reduced the infarct ratio, increased the number of survival neurons, and inhibited apoptosis at the early stage of HI insult. Furthermore, the sensorimotor function and the cognitive function were improved significantly in rats with helium preconditioning. The results indicate that helium preconditioning attenuates HI induced brain injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Mechanism of Helium-Induced Preconditioning: A Direct Role for Nitric Oxide in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, Paul S.; Krolikowski, John G.; Pratt, Phillip F.; Shim, Yon Hee; Amour, Julien; Warltier, David C.; Weihrauch, Dorothee

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Helium produces preconditioning against myocardial infarction by activating prosurvival signaling, but whether nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial NO synthase plays a role in this phenomenon is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that NO mediates helium-induced cardioprotection in vivo. METHODS Rabbits (n = 62) instrumented for hemodynamic measurement were subjected to a 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 3 h reperfusion, and received 0.9% saline (control) or three cycles of 70% helium–30% oxygen administered for 5 min interspersed with 5 min of an air–oxygen mixture before left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion in the absence or presence of pretreatment with the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg), the selective inducible NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride (AG; 300 mg/kg), or selective neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 50 mg/kg). In additional rabbits, the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluroscein diacetate (DAF-2DA) and confocal laser microscopy were used to detect NO production in the absence or presence of helium with or without L-NAME pretreatment. RESULTS Helium reduced (P < 0.05) infarct size (24% ± 4% of the left ventricular area at risk; mean ± sd) compared with control (46% ± 3%). L-NAME, AG, and 7-NI did not alter myocardial infarct size when administered alone. L-NAME, but not 7-NI or AG, abolished helium-induced cardioprotection. Helium enhanced DAF-2DA fluorescence compared with control (26 ± 8 vs 15 ± 5 U, respectively). Pretreatment with L-NAME abolished these helium-induced increases in DAF-2DA fluorescence. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that cardioprotection by helium is mediated by NO that is probably generated by endothelial NOS in vivo. PMID:18713880

  10. Properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the dynamic helium charging experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-02-01

    One property of vanadium-base alloys that is not well understood in terms of their potential use as fusion reactor structural materials is the effect of simultaneous generation of helium and neutron damage. In the present Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE), helium was produced uniformly in the specimen at linear rates of {approx} 0.4 to 4.2 appm helium/dpa by the decay of tritium during irradiation to 18--31 dpa at 425--600 C in Li-filled capsules in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. This paper presents results of postirradiation examination and tests of microstructure and mechanical properties of V-5Ti, V-3Ti-1Si, V-8Cr-6Ti, and V-4Cr-4Ti (the latter alloy has been identified as the most promising candidate vanadium alloy). Effects of helium on tensile strength and ductility were insignificant after irradiation and testing at > 420 C. However, postirradiation ductilities at < 250 C were higher than those of the non-DHCE specimens (< 0.1 appm helium), whereas strengths were lower, indicating that different types of hardening centers are produced during DHCE and non-DHCE irradiation. Ductile-brittle transition behavior of the DHCE specimens was also determined from bend tests and fracture appearance of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks and broken tensile specimens. No brittle behavior was observed at temperatures > {minus}150 C in DHCE specimens. Predominantly brittle-cleavage fracture morphologies were observed only at {minus}196 C in some specimens that were irradiated to 31 dpa at 425 C during the DHCE. For the helium generation rates in this experiment ({approx} 0.4--4.2 appm He/dpa), grain-boundary coalescence of helium microcavities was negligible and intergranular fracture was not observed.

  11. Effect of 800 keV argon ions pre-damage on the helium blister formation of tungsten exposed to 60 keV helium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Han, Wenjia; Yu, Jiangang; Zhu, Kaigui

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of Ar8+ ions pre-damage on the following He2+ irradiation behavior of polycrystalline tungsten. We compared the irradiation resistance performance against 60 keV He2+ ions of undamaged tungsten samples with that of pre-damaged samples which were preliminarily exposed to 800 keV Ar8+ ions at a fluence of 4 × 1019 ions m-2. The experimental results indicate that the helium blistering of tungsten could be effectively relieved by the Ar8+ ions pre-damage, while the retention of helium around low energy desorption sites in the pre-damaged tungsten was larger than that of the undamaged samples. A strong orientation dependence of blistering had been observed, with the blister occurred preferentially on the surface of grains with normal direction close to <111>. The Ar8+ ions irradiation-induced damage altered the morphology of helium bubbles in tungsten exposed to the following He2+ irradiation significantly. The intensity of helium release peaks at relatively low temperatures (<600 K) was enhanced due to Ar8+ ions pre-damage.

  12. 43 CFR 3195.35 - What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium Distribution Contract? 3195.35 Section 3195.35 Public... § 3195.35 What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

  13. 43 CFR 3195.35 - What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium Distribution Contract? 3195.35 Section 3195.35 Public... § 3195.35 What happens if I have an outstanding obligation to purchase refined helium under a Helium...

  14. Development of a transferline connecting a helium liquefier coldbox and a liquid helium Dewar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Rajendran S.; Rane, Tejas; Chakravarty, Anindya; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    A helium liquefier with demonstrated capacity of 32 1/hr has been developed by BARC. Mumbai. A transferline for two way flow of helium between the helium liquefier coldbox and receiver Dewar has been developed in-house at BARC. Further, a functionally similar, but structurally improved transferline has been developed through a local fabricator. This paper describes and discusses issues related to the development of these cryogenic transferlines. The developed transferlines have been tested with a flow of liquid nitrogen and successfully utilised later in the helium liquefier plant.

  15. Helium Plants and Storage. Design Manual 24.2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Helium Air Separation System for a Supersonic Wind Tunnel.. 24.2-6 4 Four-Way Four-Port Valve ................................... 24.2-11 5 Friction...7) Weather and climatic conditions. 5. FACTS ON HELIUM. Federal agencies use helium in helium-shielded arc weld- ing, supersonic wind tunnels, and...station at the nearest railroad connection for transferring helium from railroad tank car to truck trailer. c. Compressor Station. Generally , the initial

  16. Operating experiences and test results of six cold helium compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. P.; Gibbs, R. J.; Schlafke, A. P.; Sondericker, J. H.; Wu, K. C.

    Three small and three large cold helium centrifugal compressors have been operated at Brookhaven National Laboratory between 1981 and 1986. The three small cold compressors have been installed on a 1000 W refrigerator for testing a string of superconducting magnets and for R and D purposes. The three large units are components of the BNL 24.8 KW refrigerator to be used to provide cooling for the RHIC project. These compressors are used either to circulate a large amount of supercritical helium through a group of magnets or to pump on the helium bath to reduce temperature in the system. One small circulating compressor tested employs tilting-pad gas bearings and is driven by a DC motor. The two small cold vacuum pumps tested use oil bearings and are driven by oil turbines. The three large oil-bearing cold compressors are driven by DC motors through a gear box. A unique feature of the large vacuum pump is the combination of two pumps with a total of four stages on the same shaft. The adiabatic efficiencies are found to be 57% for the large vacuum pumps and close to 50% for the large circulating compressor. Good overall reliability has been experienced.

  17. Helium isotopes in fluids of the Baykal rift zone

    SciTech Connect

    Polyak, B.G.; Prasolov, E.M.; Tolstikhin, I.N.; Kozlovtseva, S.V.; Kononov, V.I.; Khutorskoy, M.D. All-Union Petroleum Geologic Exploration Research Inst., Saint Petersburg Kola Research Center, Apatity )

    1993-02-01

    The isotopic composition of helium in subterranean fluids from 34 locations in southern Siberia and northern Mongolia has been measured. The ratio [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He ranges from radiogenic ([approximately]10[sup [minus]8]) to mantle ([approximately]10[sup [minus]5]) values. For the most part, the hydrocarbon fluids of the Irkutsk amphitheater contain only radiogenic helium; this distinguishes the amphitheater from ancient platforms. In contrast, fluids from the Baykal rift zone are distinguished by the presence of helium with a mantle component; this component reaches almost 100% in thermal fluids in the Tunka basin. The ratios CH[sub 4]/[sup 3]He and (CO[sub 2] + CH[sub 4])/[sup 3]He suggest that the methane and carbon dioxide in the rift zone fluids may be partially magmatogenic; in the Irkutsk amphitheater, on the other other hand, such gases originated as a result of purely crustal processes. The [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He ratio varies along the length of the Baikal rift zone, with decreasing values correlating with decreasing heat flow, increasing thickness of crust, and decreasing dimensions of rift basins. 39 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Helium-neon laser improves skin repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peccin, Maria Stella; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; de Oliveira, Flavia; Giusti, Paulo Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of helium-neon laser on skin injury in rabbits. For this purpose, 15 New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral skin damage in leg. Helium-neon laser light, at a fluence of 6 J∕cm2 and wavelength of 632.8 nm, was applied on the left legs (laser group). The right leg lesions (control group) served as negative control. All sections were histopathologically analyzed using HE sections. The results showed little infiltration of inflammatory cells, with proliferation of fibroblasts forming a few fibrous connective tissue after 1 week post-injury. The lesion on the 3rd week was characterized by granulation tissue, which formed from proliferated fibrous connective tissue, congested blood vessels and mild mononuclear cell infiltration. On the 5th week, it was observed that debris material surrounded by a thick layer of connective tissue and dense collage, fibroblasts cells present in the dermis covered by a thick epidermal layer represented by keratinized epithelium. Taken together, our results suggest that helium-neon laser is able to improve skin repair in rabbits at early phases of recovery.

  19. Contrasting pressure-support ventilation and helium-oxygen during exercise in severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Omar; Collins, Eileen G; Adiguzel, Nalan; Langbein, W Edwin; Tobin, Martin J; Laghi, Franco

    2011-03-01

    Helium-oxygen mixtures and pressure-support ventilation have been used to unload the respiratory muscles and increase exercise tolerance in COPD. Considering the different characteristics of these techniques, we hypothesized that helium-oxygen would be more effective in reducing exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation than pressure-support. We also hypothesized that patients would experience greater increases in respiratory rate and minute ventilation with helium-oxygen than with pressure-support. The hypotheses were tested in ten patients with severe COPD (FEV(1) = 28 ± 3% predicted [mean ± SE]) during constant-load cycling (80% maximal workrate) while breathing 30% oxygen-alone, helium-oxygen, and pressure-support in randomized order. As hypothesized, helium-oxygen had greater impact on dynamic hyperinflation than did pressure-support (end-exercise; p = 0.03). For the most part of exercise, respiratory rate and minute ventilation were greater with helium-oxygen than with pressure-support (p ≤ 0.008). During the initial phases of exercise, helium-oxygen caused less rib-cage muscle recruitment than did pressure-support (p < 0.03), and after the start of exercise it caused greater reduction in inspiratory reserve volume (p ≤ 0.02). Despite these different responses, helium-oxygen and pressure-support caused similar increases in exercise duration (oxygen-alone: 6.9 ± 0.8 min; helium-oxygen: 10.7 ± 1.4 min; pressure-support: 11.2 ± 1.6 min; p = 0.003) and similar decreases in inspiratory effort (esophageal pressure-time product), respiratory drive, pulmonary resistance, dyspnea and leg effort (p < 0.03). In conclusion, helium-oxygen reduced exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation by improving the relationship between hyperinflation and minute ventilation. In contrast, pressure-support reduced hyperinflation solely as a result of lowering ventilation. Helium-oxygen was more effective in reducing exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation in severe COPD, and was

  20. Trapping of helium in nano-bubbles in euxenite: Positive identification and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; David, Marie-Laure; Alix, Kevin; Datas, Lucien; Bingen, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    The (Y,REE,U,Th)-(Nb,Ta,Ti) oxides, like euxenite, fergusonite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, are known to contain nanometric spherical cavities or bubbles, interpreted to contain radiogenic helium. In-situ analyses by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) coupled with Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) inside nano-bubbles from an euxenite crystal, sampled in its host c. 920 Ma old pegmatite in Norway, deliver, for the first time, a positive identification of helium and an estimation of helium pressure in such bubbles. The chemically unaltered euxenite crystal proves amorphous and homogeneously speckled with bubbles ranging from 5 to 68 nm in diameter, around a log-normal distribution centered at 19 nm. The euxenite contains 9.87 wt% UO2 and 3.15 wt% ThO2. It accumulated a theoretical alpha-decay dose of 3.46 ×1020 α / g (i.e. 170 He/nm3), at a dose rate of 11 926 α / g / s. This corresponds to production of 0.23 wt% He. The density of helium inside the bubbles, estimated from EELS data, ranges from 2 to 45 He/nm3, leading to a pressure of 8 to 500 MPa. The proportion of produced helium trapped in bubbles is about 10%. Helium bubbles clearly influence helium diffusion. They may contribute to the swelling of euxenite during amorphization and to the fracturing of the host rock. Our results suggest that dose, dose rate and structural state seem to be important parameters for the nucleation, growth and coalescence of helium bubbles but also demonstrate the crucial need of experimental studies to be able to develop a predictive model of the long term behavior of materials in response to helium irradiation. Furthermore, chemical alteration of euxenite, here materialized by fluid driven dissolution-precipitation towards silica bearing euxenite, removes the bubbles and mobilizes helium into the rock via cracks and grain boundaries. It is then suggested that helium-rich fluid released from such U-Th rich sources may percolate into surrounding rock units

  1. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Testing of the cryogenically cooled charcoal using fusion-compatible binders for pumping helium has shown promising results. The program demonstrated comparable or improved performance with these binders compared to the charcoal (type and size) using an epoxy binder.

  2. Growing metal nanoparticles in superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengfu; Ellis, Andrew M; Spence, Daniel; Feng, Cheng; Boatwright, Adrian; Latimer, Elspeth; Binns, Chris

    2013-12-07

    Helium droplets provide a cold and confined environment where atomic and/or molecular dopants can aggregate into clusters and nanoparticles. In particular, the sequential addition of different materials to helium droplets can lead to the formation of a wide range of nanoparticles, including core-shell nanoparticles, which can then be deposited onto a surface. Here we briefly discuss the fundamental properties of helium droplets and then address their implications for the formation of clusters and nanoparticles. Several key experiments on atomic and molecular clusters will be highlighted and new results obtained for nanoparticles formed in this way will be presented. Finally, the versatility, the limitations and new possibilities provided by superfluid helium droplets in nanoscience and nanotechnology will be addressed.

  3. Helium Dilution Cryocooler for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program Space Technology presents the Helium Dilution Cryocooler for Space Applications. The topics include: 1) Capability; 2) Applications; and 3) Advantages. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  4. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  5. Primary helium heater for propellant pressurization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichmuth, D. M.; Nguyen, T. V.; Pieper, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary helium heater is a unique design that provides direct heating of pressurant gas for large pressure fed propulsion systems. It has been conceptually designed to supply a heated (800-1000 R) pressurization gas to both a liquid oxygen and an RP-1 propellant tank. This pressurization gas is generated within the heater by mixing super critical helium (40-300 R and 3000-1600 psi) with an appropriate amount of combustion products from a 4:1 throttling stoichiometric LO2/LH2 combustor. This simple, low cost and reliable mixer utilizes the large quantity of helium to provide stoichiometric combustor cooling, extend the throttling limits and enhance the combustion stability margin. Preliminary combustion, thermal, and CFD analyses confirm that this low-pressure-drop direct helium heater can provide the constant-temperature pressurant suitable for tank pressurization of both fuel and oxidizer tanks of large pressure fed vehicles.

  6. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  7. Helium and Enhanced Image of the Sun

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video blinks between an image in Helium and an enhanced image. The original image is from AIA on SDO and the enhanced image was created at the LM Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL) by D...

  8. Cosmogenic helium in a terrestrial igneous rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurz, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    New helium isotopic measurements on samples from the Kula formation of Haleakala volcano of Hawaii are presented that are best explained by an in situ cosmogenic origin for a significant fraction of the He-3. Results from crushing and stepwise heating experiments, and consideration of the exposure age of the sample at the surface and the cosmic ray fluxes strongly support this hypothesis. Although crustal cosmogenic helium has been proposed previously, this represents its first unambiguous identification in a terrestrial sample.

  9. Radioactive Ions and Atoms in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendooven, P.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.; ńystö, J.; Takahashi, N.; Huang, W. X.

    2006-04-01

    We are investigating the use of superfluid helium as a medium to handle and manipulate radioactive ions and atoms. Preliminary results on the extraction of positive ions from superfluid helium at temperatures close to 1 K are described. Increasing the electric field up to 1.2 kV/cm did not improve the extraction. Evaporating a thin surface layer of the liquid using second-sound pulses gave an extraction efficiency of 7.2 %.

  10. Cosmogenic helium in a terrestrial igneous rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurz, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    New helium isotopic measurements on samples from the Kula formation of Haleakala volcano of Hawaii are presented that are best explained by an in situ cosmogenic origin for a significant fraction of the He-3. Results from crushing and stepwise heating experiments, and consideration of the exposure age of the sample at the surface and the cosmic ray fluxes strongly support this hypothesis. Although crustal cosmogenic helium has been proposed previously, this represents its first unambiguous identification in a terrestrial sample.

  11. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Doped Helium Nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Loginov, Evgeniy; Rossi, Dominic; Drabbels, Marcel

    2005-10-14

    The photoionization dynamics of aniline doped helium droplets has been investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoelectron spectra resemble closely that of gas phase aniline, except for a droplet-size-dependent shift. This shift is caused by lowering of the ionization threshold upon solvation and can be readily estimated. The individual peaks in the photoelectron spectrum are broadened towards lower kinetic energy which is attributed to the relaxation of the photoelectrons as they pass through the helium droplet.

  12. Helium Reionization in From New Sightlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syphers, David

    2017-01-01

    A very small number of sightlines to z~3 quasars have been studied in detail to show the progress of helium reionization. Although studying the same sightlines with each new UV spectrograph lead to a better understanding of them, the sightline variance is very strong during this patchy and extended process. We discuss detailed R>10,000 COS data from new sightlines, and what they reveal about the progress and end of helium reionization.

  13. Trace organic impurities in gaseous helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schehl, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    A program to determine trace organic impurities present in helium has been initiated. The impurities were concentrated in a cryogenic trap to permit detection and identification by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique. Gaseous helium (GHe) exhibited 63 GC flame ionization response peaks. Relative GC peak heights and identifications of 25 major impurities by their mass spectra are given. As an aid to further investigation, identities are proposed for 16 other components, and their mass spectra are given.

  14. Helium-neon laser preirradiation induces protection against UVC radiation in wild-type E. coli strain K12AB1157.

    PubMed

    Kohli, R; Gupta, P K; Dube, A

    2000-02-01

    We have observed that preirradiation with a helium-neon laser (632.8 nm) induces protection against UVC radiation in wild-type E. coli strain K12AB1157. The magnitude of protection was found to depend on the helium-neon laser irradiance, exposure time, and period of incubation between helium-neon laser exposure and subsequent UVC irradiation. The optimum values for dose, irradiance and interval between the two exposures were found to be 7 kJ/m(2), 100 W/m(2) and 1 h, respectively. The possible involvement of singlet oxygen in the helium-neon laser-induced protection is also discussed.

  15. High efficiency pump for space helium transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenbein, Robert; Izenson, Michael G.; Swift, Walter L.; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    A centrifugal pump was developed for the efficient and reliable transfer of liquid helium in space. The pump can be used to refill cryostats on orbiting satellites which use liquid helium for refrigeration at extremely low temperatures. The pump meets the head and flow requirements of on-orbit helium transfer: a flow rate of 800 L/hr at a head of 128 J/kg. The overall pump efficiency at the design point is 0.45. The design head and flow requirements are met with zero net positive suction head, which is the condition in an orbiting helium supply Dewar. The mass transfer efficiency calculated for a space transfer operation is 0.99. Steel ball bearings are used with gas fiber-reinforced teflon retainers to provide solid lubrication. These bearings have demonstrated the longest life in liquid helium endurance tests under simulated pumping conditions. Technology developed in the project also has application for liquid helium circulation in terrestrial facilities and for transfer of cryogenic rocket propellants in space.

  16. Sonic helium detectors in the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    In the Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system there are many remotely located low-pressure plate relief valves that must vent large volumes of cold helium gas when magnet quenches occur. These valves can occasionally stick open or not reseat completely, resulting in a large helium loss. As such, the need exists for a detector to monitor the relief valve's discharge area for the presence of helium. Due to the quantity needed, cost is an important factor. A unit has been developed and built for this purpose that is quite inexpensive. Its operating principle is based on the speed of sound, where two closely matched tubes operate at their acoustic resonant frequency. When helium is introduced into one of these tubes, the resulting difference in acoustic time of flight is used to trigger an alarm. At present, there are 39 of these units installed and operating in the Tevatron. They have detected many minor and major helium leaks, and have also been found useful in detecting a rise in the helium background in the enclosed refrigerator buildings. This paper covers the construction, usage and operational experience gained with these units over the last several years.

  17. Advanced helium magnetometer for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this effort was demonstration of the concepts for an advanced helium magnetometer which meets the demands of future NASA earth orbiting, interplanetary, solar, and interstellar missions. The technical effort focused on optical pumping of helium with tunable solid state lasers. We were able to demonstrate the concept of a laser pumped helium magnetometer with improved accuracy, low power, and sensitivity of the order of 1 pT. A number of technical approaches were investigated for building a solid state laser tunable to the helium absorption line at 1083 nm. The laser selected was an Nd-doped LNA crystal pumped by a diode laser. Two laboratory versions of the lanthanum neodymium hexa-aluminate (LNA) laser were fabricated and used to conduct optical pumping experiments in helium and demonstrate laser pumped magnetometer concepts for both the low field vector mode and the scalar mode of operation. A digital resonance spectrometer was designed and built in order to evaluate the helium resonance signals and observe scalar magnetometer operation. The results indicate that the laser pumped sensor in the VHM mode is 45 times more sensitive than a lamp pumped sensor for identical system noise levels. A study was made of typical laser pumped resonance signals in the conventional magnetic resonance mode. The laser pumped sensor was operated as a scalar magnetometer, and it is concluded that magnetometers with 1 pT sensitivity can be achieved with the use of laser pumping and stable laser pump sources.

  18. The role of helium gas in medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The noble gas helium has many applications owing to its distinct physical and chemical characteristics, namely: its low density, low solubility, and high thermal conductivity. Chiefly, the abundance of studies in medicine relating to helium are concentrated in its possibility of being used as an adjunct therapy in a number of respiratory ailments such as asthma exacerbation, COPD, ARDS, croup, and bronchiolitis. Helium gas, once believed to be biologically inert, has been recently shown to be beneficial in protecting the myocardium from ischemia by various mechanisms. Though neuroprotection of brain tissue has been documented, the mechanism by which it does so has yet to be made clear. Surgeons are exploring using helium instead of carbon dioxide to insufflate the abdomen of patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal procedures due to its superiority in preventing respiratory acidosis in patients with comorbid conditions that cause carbon dioxide retention. Newly discovered applications in Pulmonary MRI radiology and imaging of organs in very fine detail using Helium Ion Microscopy has opened exciting new possibilities for the use of helium gas in technologically advanced fields of medicine. PMID:23916029

  19. Separation of compressor oil from helium

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, R.; Perrotta, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Compression of helium by an oil-sealed rorary screw compressor entrains as much as 4000 parts per million by weight of liquid and vapor oil impurities in the gas. The reduction below about 0.1 ppm for cryogenic applications is discussed. Oil seperation equipment designed for compressed air must be modified significantly to produce the desired results with helium. The main differences between air and helium filtration are described. A description of the coalescers is given with the continuous coalescing of liquid mist from air or other gas illustrated. Oil vapor in helium is discussed in terms of typical compressor oils, experimental procedure for measuring oil vapor concentration, measured volatile hydrocarbons in the lubricants, and calculated concentration of oil vapor in Helium. Liquid oil contamination in helium gas can be reduced well below 0.1 ppm by a properly designed multiple state coalescing filter system containing graded efficiency filter elements. The oil vapor problem is best attached by efficiently treating the oil to remove most of the colatiles before charging the compressor.

  20. The role of helium gas in medicine.

    PubMed

    Berganza, Carlos J; Zhang, John H

    2013-08-04

    The noble gas helium has many applications owing to its distinct physical and chemical characteristics, namely: its low density, low solubility, and high thermal conductivity. Chiefly, the abundance of studies in medicine relating to helium are concentrated in its possibility of being used as an adjunct therapy in a number of respiratory ailments such as asthma exacerbation, COPD, ARDS, croup, and bronchiolitis. Helium gas, once believed to be biologically inert, has been recently shown to be beneficial in protecting the myocardium from ischemia by various mechanisms. Though neuroprotection of brain tissue has been documented, the mechanism by which it does so has yet to be made clear. Surgeons are exploring using helium instead of carbon dioxide to insufflate the abdomen of patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal procedures due to its superiority in preventing respiratory acidosis in patients with comorbid conditions that cause carbon dioxide retention. Newly discovered applications in Pulmonary MRI radiology and imaging of organs in very fine detail using Helium Ion Microscopy has opened exciting new possibilities for the use of helium gas in technologically advanced fields of medicine.

  1. Application of gas chromatographic method in simultaneous measurements of helium, argon and neon concentration in groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, J.; Bielewski, J.; Sliwka, I.

    2012-04-01

    Helium concentration in groundwater is a fine indicator in water dating in a range from a hundred to tens of thousands of years. Gas chromatography (GC) measurements of helium can be used as an alternative to mass spectrometry (MS) determinations of 4He for groundwater dating [1]. Argon and neon concentrations mainly serve for determining the temperature of recharge and the air excess which is needed to correct measured values of helium concentration [2] . A chromatographic measurement system of helium, argon and neon concentration in groundwater is presented [3]. Water samples are taken from groundwater with a precise procedure without contamination with air in a special stainless steel vessels of volume equal to 2900 cm3. Helium is extracted from water samples using the head-space method. After enrichment by cryotrap method helium is analyzed in the gas chromatograph equipped with the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) with detection limit of about 2.8 ng He. The helium limit of detection of presented method is 1,2·10-8 cm3STP/gH2O [4]. We are currently working on adapting the method of cryogenic enrichment of helium concentration for simultaneous measurements of the concentration of helium, argon and neon using single sample of groundwater. Neon will be measured with the thermal conductivity detector and capillary column filled with molecular sieve 5A. Argon will be analyzed also with the thermal conductivity detector and packed column filled with molecular sieve 5A. This work was supported by grant No. N N525 3488 38 from the polish National Science Centre. [1] A. Zuber, W. Ciężkowski, K. Różański (red.), Tracer methods in hydrogeological studies - a methodological guide. Wroclaw University of Technology Publishing House, Wroclaw, 2007 (in polish). [2] P. Mochalski, Chromatographic method for the determination of Ar, Ne and N2 in water, Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow, 2003 (in polish). [3] A. Żurek, P

  2. Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B.M.

    2010-04-15

    {sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).

  3. Pyridine Aggregation in Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Pablo; Poerschke, Torsten; Habig, Daniel; Schwaab, Gerhard; Havenith, Martina

    2012-06-01

    Pyridine crystals show the unusual property of isotopic polymorphism. Experimentally it has been observed that deuterated pyridine crystals exist in two phases while non-deuterated pyridine does not show a phase transition. Therefore, although isotopic substitution is the smallest possible modification of a molecule it greatly affects the stability of pyridine crystals. A possible experimental approach in order to understand this striking effect might be the study of pyridine aggregation for small clusters. By embedding the clusters in helium nanodroplets the aggregates can be stabilized and studied by means of Infrared Depletion Spectroscopy. Pyridine oligomers were investigated in the C-H asymmetric vibration region (2980-3100 cm-1) using this experimental technique. The number of molecules for the clusters responsibles for each band were determined by means of pick-up curves as well as mass sensitive depletion spectra. Furthermore, the intensity dependence of the different bands on applying a dc electric field was studied. The assignment of the different structures for pyridine clusters on the basis of these measurements were also carried out. S. Crawford et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 48, 755 (2009).

  4. Measurement of Helium-3/Helium-4 Ratios in Soil Gas at the 618-11 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Dresel, P Evan; Evans, John C.

    2001-10-31

    Seventy soil gas-sampling points were installed around the perimeter of the 618-11 Burial Ground, approximately 400 feet downgradient of well 699-13-3A, and in four transects downgradient of the burial ground to a maximum distance of 3,100 feet. Soil gas samples were collected and analyzed for helium-3/helium-4 ratios from these 70 points. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios determined from the soil gas sampling points showed significant enrichments, relative to ambient air helium-3 concentrations. The highest concentrations were located along the northern perimeter of the burial ground. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios (normalized to the abundances in ambient air) ranged from 1.0 to 62 around the burial ground. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios from the 4 transect downgradient of the burial ground ranged from 0.988 to 1.68. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios from around the burial ground suggest there is a vadose zone source of tritium along the north side of the burial ground. This vadose zone source is likely the source of tritium in the groundwater. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios also suggest the groundwater plume is traveling east-northeast from the burial ground and the highest groundwater tritium value may be to the north of well 699-13-3A. Finally, there appears to be no immediately upgradient sources of tritium impacting the burial ground since all the upgradient helium-3/helium-4 ratios are approximately 1.0.

  5. Secondary helium system piping and helium purification for the HTGR-R and NHSDR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of recent work done by United Engineers and Constructors on high temperature pipeing and helium purification for the secondary helium systems of the Reforming Plant HTGR (HTGR-R) and the Nuclear Heat Source Demonstration Reactor (NHSDR).

  6. Helium transport in plasma edge regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Gabal, Hanaa Hassan

    The transport of neutral helium atoms near diverter or limiter target plates in fusion devices was studied. Two simulation codes, based on Monte Carlo techniques, were developed. The first treats the problem in one-dimensional geometry and the second considers two-dimensional effects. The atomic processes of ionization of helium atoms by electron impact and elastic scattering with plasma ions are included. The total and differential elastic scattering cross-sections were calculated classically using an ab initio calculation of the interatomic potential. The thermal motion and the streaming of the ions along the magnetic field, which can be at an angle to the target plate, are included. Results obtained with the one-dimensional code show significant effects of elastic collisions below about 10 eV, causing a substantial fraction of the helium atoms to be reflected back to the target plate. This effect can be beneficial for the pumping of helium from the discharge chamber. The two-dimensional Monte Carlo code was used to study helium recycling near a flat, vented target plate. A parametric study is performed to examine the dependence of the pumping efficiency on plasma parameters and geometric aspects. Results show that the pumping of neutral helium can be increased by shortening and widening the ports as well as by increasing the angle between the magnetic field and the target plate. Also, keeping the ion temperature below about 10 eV and the plasma density around a few 10(exp 14) cu cm near the targe plate can be beneficial for the pumping of helium gas.

  7. Rotons, Superfluidity, and Helium Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Balibar, Sebastien

    2006-09-07

    Fritz London understood that quantum mechanics could show up at the macroscopic level, and, in 1938, he proposed that superfluidity was a consequence of Bose-Einstein condensation. However, Lev Landau never believed in London's ideas; instead, he introduced quasiparticles to explain the thermodynamics of superfluid 4He and a possible mechanism for its critical velocity. One of these quasiparticles, a crucial one, was his famous ''roton'' which he considered as an elementary vortex. At the LT0 conference (Cambridge, 1946), London criticized Landau and his ''theory based on the shaky grounds of imaginary rotons''. Despite their rather strong disagreement, Landau was awarded the London prize in 1960, six years after London's death. Today, we know that London and Landau had both found part of the truth: BEC takes place in 4He, and rotons exist.In my early experiments on quantum evaporation, I found direct evidence for the existence of rotons and for evaporation processes in which they play the role of photons in the photoelectric effect. But rotons are now considered as particular phonons which are nearly soft, due to some local order in superfluid 4He. Later we studied helium crystals which are model systems for the general study of crystal surfaces, but also exceptional systems with unique quantum properties. In our recent studies of nucleation, rotons show their importance again: by using acoustic techniques, we have extended the study of liquid 4He up to very high pressures where the liquid state is metastable, and we wish to demonstrate that the vanishing of the roton gap may destroy superfluidity and trigger an instability towards the crystalline state.

  8. Interaction of infrared light with impurity gels in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, A. N.; Efimov, V. B.

    2011-05-01

    Rapid cooling of an impurity-helium mixture into superfluid helium produces a distinctive soft matter—impurity-helium gel, clusters of which coagulate into nanoparticles. The sizes of the particles and their mutual interaction depend on the nature of the impurity atoms and the impurity-helium coupling. Here we describe the setup of and preliminary results from an experiment to study infrared absorption by a water-helium gel. Comparisons of the infrared absorption spectra of the gel and of water and ice suggests a peculiar interaction among water molecules in a water-helium gel.

  9. Helium-neon laser therapy in the treatment of hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure: A superior option.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-Hua; Zhao, Chen; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Chen, Mei-Juan; Liu, Qing-Huai

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of helium-neon laser therapy in the treatment of hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure and compare the results with those of a combined drugs and surgery regimen. A total of 70 patients with hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure in 70 eyes were randomly divided into two groups: Helium-neon laser therapy (group A) and drugs plus surgery (group B). Each group contained 35 patients. The healing rates and times of the conjunctival wound were recorded and compared following helium-neon laser treatment or the drugs plus surgery regimen. Changes in the hydroxyapatite orbital implant prior to and following helium-neon laser irradiation were analyzed. A similar animal study was conducted using 24 New Zealand white rabbits, which received orbital implants and were then received drug treatment or helium-neon therapy. In the human experiment, the rates for conjunctival wound healing were 97.14% in group A and 74.29% in group B, with a significant difference between the groups (χ(2)=5.71, P<0.05). Patients with mild exposure were healed after 7.22±2.11 days of helium-neon laser therapy and 14.33±3.20 days of drugs plus surgery. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups (t=8.97, P<0.05). Patients with moderate to severe exposure were healed after 18.19±2.12 days of helium-neon laser therapy and 31.25±4.21 days of drugs plus surgery. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (t=7.91, P<0.05). Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed that the helium-neon laser therapy significantly promoted vascularization of the hydroxyapatite orbital implant. These results, combined with pathological findings in animals, which showed that a helium-neon laser promoted vascularization and had anti-inflammatory effects, suggest that helium-neon laser irradiation is an effective method for treating hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure, thereby avoiding secondary surgery.

  10. Helium-neon laser therapy in the treatment of hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure: A superior option

    PubMed Central

    XU, QI-HUA; ZHAO, CHEN; ZHU, JIAN-GANG; CHEN, MEI-JUAN; LIU, QING-HUAI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of helium-neon laser therapy in the treatment of hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure and compare the results with those of a combined drugs and surgery regimen. A total of 70 patients with hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure in 70 eyes were randomly divided into two groups: Helium-neon laser therapy (group A) and drugs plus surgery (group B). Each group contained 35 patients. The healing rates and times of the conjunctival wound were recorded and compared following helium-neon laser treatment or the drugs plus surgery regimen. Changes in the hydroxyapatite orbital implant prior to and following helium-neon laser irradiation were analyzed. A similar animal study was conducted using 24 New Zealand white rabbits, which received orbital implants and were then received drug treatment or helium-neon therapy. In the human experiment, the rates for conjunctival wound healing were 97.14% in group A and 74.29% in group B, with a significant difference between the groups (χ2=5.71, P<0.05). Patients with mild exposure were healed after 7.22±2.11 days of helium-neon laser therapy and 14.33±3.20 days of drugs plus surgery. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups (t=8.97, P<0.05). Patients with moderate to severe exposure were healed after 18.19±2.12 days of helium-neon laser therapy and 31.25±4.21 days of drugs plus surgery. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (t=7.91, P<0.05). Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed that the helium-neon laser therapy significantly promoted vascularization of the hydroxyapatite orbital implant. These results, combined with pathological findings in animals, which showed that a helium-neon laser promoted vascularization and had anti-inflammatory effects, suggest that helium-neon laser irradiation is an effective method for treating hydroxyapatite orbital implant exposure, thereby avoiding secondary surgery. PMID

  11. Separation of helium-methane mixtures by pressure swing adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.C.; Hill, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    The separation of mixtures of helium and methane using a single column of activated carbon in a pressure swing adsorption process was studied experimentally. Process performance was predicted with an average error of 10% or less by a local-equilibrium well-stirred cell model in which dead volumes at the feed and product ends of the column were accounted for. Systematic differences between experiment and model were ascribed to omission from the model of flow resistance and heat release. 17 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  12. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  13. Suicide by asphyxiation due to helium inhalation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Matthew O; Hall, Martin T; Edwards, Jeffrey D; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E; Winecker, Ruth E

    2011-03-01

    Suicide by asphyxiation using helium is the most widely-promoted method of "self-deliverance" by right-to-die advocates. However, little is known about persons committing such suicides or the circumstances and manner in which they are completed. Prior reports of suicides by asphyxiation involving helium were reviewed and deaths determined by the North Carolina Office of the Chief Medical Examiner to be helium-associated asphyxial suicides occurring between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008 were included in a new case series examined in this article. The 10 asphyxial suicides involving helium identified in North Carolina tended to occur almost exclusively in non-Hispanic, white men who were relatively young (M age = 41.1 T 11.6). In 6 of 10 cases, decedents suffered from significant psychiatric dysfunction; in 3 of these 6 cases, psychiatric disorders were present comorbidly with substance abuse. In none of these cases were decedents suffering from terminal illness. Most persons committing suicide with helium were free of terminal illness but suffered from psychiatric and/or substance use disorders.

  14. Helium-Shrouded Planets Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-11

    Planets having atmospheres rich in helium may be common in our galaxy, according to a new theory based on data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. These planets would be around the mass of Neptune, or lighter, and would orbit close to their stars, basking in their searing heat. According to the new theory, radiation from the stars would boil off hydrogen in the planets' atmospheres. Both hydrogen and helium are common ingredients of gas planets like these. Hydrogen is lighter than helium and thus more likely to escape. After billions of years of losing hydrogen, the planet's atmosphere would become enriched with helium. Scientists predict the planets would appear covered in white or gray clouds. This is in contrast to our own Neptune, which is blue due to the presence of methane. Methane absorbs the color red, leaving blue. Neptune is far from our sun and hasn't lost its hydrogen. The hydrogen bonds with carbon to form methane. This artist's concept depicts a proposed helium-atmosphere planet called GJ 436b, which was found by Spitzer to lack in methane -- a first clue about its lack of hydrogen. The planet orbits every 2.6 days around its star, which is cooler than our sun and thus appears more yellow-orange in color. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19344

  15. How to Make a Helium Atmosphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-11

    This diagram illustrates how hypothetical helium atmospheres might form. These would be on planets about the mass of Neptune, or smaller, which orbit tightly to their stars, whipping around in just days. They are thought to have cores of water or rock, surrounded by thick atmospheres of gas. Radiation from their nearby stars would boil off hydrogen and helium, but because hydrogen is lighter, more hydrogen would escape. It's also possible that planetary bodies, such as asteroids, could impact the planet, sending hydrogen out into space. Over time, the atmospheres would become enriched in helium. With less hydrogen in the planets' atmospheres, the concentration of methane and water would go down. Both water and methane consist in part of hydrogen. Eventually, billions of years later (a "Gyr" equals one billion years), the abundances of the water and methane would be greatly reduced. Since hydrogen would not be abundant, the carbon would be forced to pair with oxygen, forming carbon monoxide. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope observed a proposed helium planet, GJ 436b, with these traits: it lacks methane, and appears to contain carbon monoxide. Future observations are needed to detect helium itself in the atmospheres of these planets, and confirm this theory. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19345

  16. Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

  17. The rational design of helium bonds.

    PubMed

    Rzepa, Henry S

    2010-05-01

    The chemistry of helium has hitherto been confined to experimental and theoretical analysis of small molecules containing three to five atoms in the gas phase. Here a new suggestion is made for compounds of helium deriving from a recent proposal that five-coordinate carbon might be captured as a frozen S(N)2 transition state. A series of logical steps, originally discussed as postings and comments to two blogs, led to the outcome described here of a central hypervalent atom bound on one face by a small cyclic carbon ligand, with the other free face having an interaction to a helium atom with the topological properties of a charge-shift rather than a covalent bond. Although high-level theory predicts these helium bonds to be quite short with relatively high stretching frequencies, the kinetic barriers to the loss of helium are predicted to be small, and are not increased by the strategy of having bulky substituents on the ring ligand.

  18. Hydrodynamic simulations of the core helium flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocák, Miroslav; Müller, Ewald; Weiss, Achim; Kifonidis, Konstantinos

    2008-10-01

    We desribe and discuss hydrodynamic simulations of the core helium flash using an initial model of a 1.25 M⊙ star with a metallicity of 0.02 near at its peak. Past research concerned with the dynamics of the core helium flash is inconclusive. Its results range from a confirmation of the standard picture, where the star remains in hydrostatic equilibrium during the flash (Deupree 1996), to a disruption or a significant mass loss of the star (Edwards 1969; Cole & Deupree 1980). However, the most recent multidimensional hydrodynamic study (Dearborn et al. 2006) suggests a quiescent behavior of the core helium flash and seems to rule out an explosive scenario. Here we present partial results of a new comprehensive study of the core helium flash, which seem to confirm this qualitative behavior and give a better insight into operation of the convection zone powered by helium burning during the flash. The hydrodynamic evolution is followed on a computational grid in spherical coordinates using our new version of the multi-dimensional hydrodynamic code HERAKLES, which is based on a direct Eulerian implementation of the piecewise parabolic method.

  19. BASG thermomechanical pump helium 2 transfer tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, G. L.; Newell, D. A.; Urbach, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the effort described was to perform experiments and calculations related to using a thermomechanical pump in the space-based resupply of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) with Helium 2. Thermomechanical (fountain effect) pumps have long been suggested as a means for pumping large quantities of Helium 2. The unique properties of Helium 2 have made it useful for cooling space instruments. Several space science missions, including SIRTF, are now being planned which would benefit greatly from on-orbit resupply of Helium 2. A series of experiments were performed to demonstrate that large volumes of Helium 2 can be transferred with a thermomechanical pump at high flow rates and at high efficiency from one dewar to another through valves and lines that are similar to the plumbing arrangement that would be necessary to accomplish such a transfer on-orbit. In addition, temperature, pressure, and flow rate data taken during the tests were used to verify and refine a computer model which was developed.

  20. Developing an Independent Helium Gas Purification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Carter; Tan, Wanpeng; Aprahamian, Ani; Lesher, Shelly

    2016-09-01

    The Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics depends on 3He for the study of Nuclear reactions. A 3He recovery system is necessary for the Helium Ion Source at the FN tandem accelerator, due to the prohibitive price of 3He. An offline 3He recovery and purification system was built based on the previous online recovery system. The previous online system purified helium gas at a very slow rate and required the Helium Ion Source to operate. The offline system is operated separate of the Helium Ion Source allowing for fast purification cycles. A re-circulation system was added to the offline system to improve the final purity of 3He. Different He gas flow rates were used in the offline purification system. The effects of flow rates were evaluated on their performance in the Helium Ion Source. Gas samples from different flow rates were then analyzed for contaminants in a Gas Chromatograph. Preliminary results and further improvements will be discussed. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Contract PHY-1205412 and NSF Proposal 1507053.

  1. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants watch as helium-filled balloons take to the sky after their lines were cut. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  2. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants cut the lines to helium-filled balloons. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  3. Torsional Oscillator Studies on Solid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Chan, Moses H. W.

    2014-03-01

    In 2004, the series of torsional oscillator (TO) experiments by Kim and Chan initiated considerable research activities on the supersolidity of helium. However, recent experiments in rigid torsional oscillators which reduce the effect of stiffening of bulk solid helium at low temepratures showed very small or negligible changes in the resonant period. A new TO experiment of solid helium confined in porous Vycor glass with no bulk solid helium in the sample cell show no evidence of supersolidity. Moreover, we have repeated an earlier experiment on hcp 3He solid, which shows similar low temperature stiffening like hcp 4He. We found that the small drop of the resonant period measured in the hcp 3He samples is comparable to that measured in the hcp 4He samples. These results confirm that the resonant period drops in torsional oscillators are consequence of the shear modulus stiffening effect in solid helium. Remaining issues and open questions on the supersolidity will be discussed. Support for this experiment was provided by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  4. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

  5. Subtask 12G1: Effects of dynamically charged helium on swelling and microstructure of vanadium-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Gazda, J.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this work is to determine void structure, distribution, and density changes of several vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE). Combined effects of dynamically charged helium and neutron damage on density change, void distribution, and microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy have been determined after irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degrees}C in the DHCE, and the results compared with those from a non-DHCE in which helium generation was negligible. For specimens irradiated to {approx}18-31 dpa at 500-600{degrees}C with a helium generation rate of 0.4-4.2 appm He/dpa, only a few helium bubbles were observed at the interface of grain matrices and some of the Ti(O,N,C) precipitates, and no microvoids or helium bubbles were observed either in grain matrices or near grain boundaries. Under these conditions, dynamically produced helium atoms seem to be trapped in the grain matrix without significant bubble nucleation or growth, and in accordance with this, density changes from DHCE and non-DHCE (negligible helium generation) were similar for comparable fluence and irradiation temperature. Only for specimens irradiated to {approx}31 dpa at 425{degrees}C, when helium was generated at a rate of 0.4-0.8 appm helium/dpa, were diffuse helium bubbles observed in limited regions of grain matrices and near {approx}15% of the grain boundaries in densities significantly lower than those in the extensive coalescences of helium bubbles typical of other alloys irradiated in tritium-trick experiments. Density changes of specimens irradiated at 425{degrees}C in the DHCE were significantly higher than those from non-DHCE irradiation. Microstructural evolution in V-4Cr-4Ti was similar for DHCE and non-DHCE except for helium bubble number density and distribution. As in non-DHCE, the irradiation-induced precipitation of ultrafine Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} was observed for DHCE at >500{degrees}C but not at 425{degrees}C.

  6. Design and development of a helium injection system to improve external leakage detection during liquid nitrogen immersion tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Andrew; Mishra, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    The testing of assemblies for use in cryogenic systems commonly includes evaluation at or near operating (therefore cryogenic) temperature. Typical assemblies include valves and pumps for use in liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen rocket engines. One frequently specified method of cryogenic external leakage testing requires the assembly, pressurized with gaseous helium (GHe), be immersed in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and allowed to thermally stabilize. Component interfaces are then visually inspected for leakage (bubbles). Unfortunately the liquid nitrogen will be boiling under normal, bench-top, test conditions. This boiling tends to mask even significant leakage. One little known and perhaps under-utilized property of helium is the seemingly counter-intuitive thermodynamic property that when ambient temperature helium is bubbled through boiling LN2 at a temperature of -195.8 °C, the temperature of the liquid nitrogen will reduce. This paper reports on the design and testing of a novel proof-of-concept helium injection control system confirming that it is possible to reduce the temperature of an LN2 bath below boiling point through the controlled injection of ambient temperature gaseous helium and then to efficiently maintain a reduced helium flow rate to maintain a stabilized liquid temperature, enabling clear visual observation of components immersed within the LN2. Helium saturation testing is performed and injection system sizing is discussed.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigation of time evolution of discharge current and optical emission in helium-nitrogen cryoplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneoka, Hitoshi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Choi, Jai Hyuk; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Cryoplasmas represent a class of non-equilibrium plasmas whose gas temperature can be controlled below room temperature. However, so far, the influence of the plasma gas temperature on the plasma chemical reactions has not yet been examined in detail. Here we investigated the time-dependent reaction dynamics related to optical emission in helium-nitrogen cryoplasmas. We acquired voltage and discharge current waveforms, optical emission spectra, and observed a temporal change of the emission intensity in helium-nitrogen cryoplasmas at two experimental conditions (temperatures of temperature detector: 5 K and plasma gas temperature: 28 K (condition A), 40 K and 54 K (condition B)). Two time-dependent phenomena were observed: the first was a longer duration of the discharge current compared to that of helium emission at both conditions A and B, and the second was nitrogen ion emission delayed by about 8 µs with respect to the emissions of atomic helium and helium dimers at 40 K. The experimental observations could be reproduced qualitatively by a global reaction model, which took into account the effect of the plasma gas temperature on the reaction rate constants and the diffusion coefficients. The simulations suggested that the reactions related to metastable helium atom were the key reactions, and that the long lifetimes of metastable helium atoms at cryogenic gas temperatures are crucial for the appearance of the time-dependent phenomena. These results imply that the plasma gas temperature is one of the key parameters in non-equilibrium plasma chemistry.

  8. Enhancement of helium exhaust by resonant magnetic perturbation fields at LHD and TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, O.; Ida, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Bader, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Evans, T. E.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Mitarai, O.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nakamura, Y.; Narushima, Y.; Nicolai, D.; Samm, U.; Tanaka, H.; Yamada, H.; Yoshinuma, M.; Xu, Y.; TEXTOR, the; LHD Experiment Groups

    2016-10-01

    The ability to exhaust helium as the fusion born plasma impurity is a critical requirement for burning plasmas. We demonstrate in this paper that resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields can be used to actively manipulate helium exhaust characteristics. We present results from puff/pump studies at TEXTOR as example for a tokamak with a pumped limiter and from the Large Helical Device (LHD) with the closed helical divertor as example for a heliotron/stellarator device. For LHD, the effective helium confinement time τ p,\\text{He}\\ast is a factor of 7-8 higher in the low and high density regimes explored when compared to TEXTOR discharges. This is attributed to ion root impurity transport which is one particular impurity transport regime assessed experimentally at LHD and which facilitates helium penetration to the plasma core. However, when an edge magnetic island is induced by externally applied RMP fields, τ p,\\text{He}\\ast is decreased by up to 30% and hence τ p,\\text{He}\\ast values closer to those of TEXTOR can be established. The combination of TEXTOR and LHD results suggest that a magnetic island induced by the RMP field in the plasma source region is an important ingredient for improving helium exhaust. The reduction in τ p,\\text{He}\\ast seen is caused by a combination of improved helium exhaust due to an enhanced coupling to the pumping systems, increased outward transport and a reduced fueling efficiency for the helium injected and recycling from the wall elements.

  9. Helium irradiation effects in single crystals of MgAl 2O 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeft, E. A. C.; Schram, R. P. C.; van Veen, A.; Labohm, F.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2000-05-01

    Magnesium aluminate spinel, (MgAl2O4), is a promising material as a uranium free matrix for the transmutation of americium. Fission products and α-particles are produced during the transmutation. The impact of α-particles is simulated by 30 keV 3He ion implantations at room temperature (RT) with the doses 6.2, 16, 20 and 53×1015 cm-2. In another set of experiments a single crystal MgAl2O4 (1 0 0) sample is irradiated with α-particles (4.5 MeV) from a 241Am source at RT to a dose of 1.3×1012 cm-2. Helium release from the implanted samples was studied by thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). The numerical analysis of the experimental thermal desorption results of α-implanted samples to a very low helium concentration (0.0288 appm in the irradiation zone of 12.4 μm) show that helium release is dominated by helium interstitial diffusion with an activation energy of 1.8 eV. In the case of high dose implantation to 1.74 at.% in the implantation zone approximately of 100 nm, helium is released from He-vacancy clusters with the activation energy of 2.35 eV. The evolution of the helium concentration profile in the temperature range from RT to 1483 K is monitored by neutron depth profiling (NDP). It confirms that the release of helium is governed by dissociation from vacancy clusters.

  10. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Commissioning Test Results for D-Zero's Helium Refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1997-06-30

    The test objectives are: (1) Make liquid helium and measure refrigerator capacity; (2) Measure liquid helium dewar heat leak, transfer line heat leak, and liquid nitrogen consumption rates; (3) Operate all cryogenic transfer lines; (4) Get some running time on all components; (5) Debug mechanical components, instrumentation, DMACs user interface, tune loops, and otherwise shake out any problems; (6) Get some operating time in to get familiar with system behavior; (7) Revise and/or improve operating procedures to actual practice; and (8) Identify areas for future improvement. D-Zero's stand alone helium refrigerator (STAR) liquified helium at a rate of 114 L/hr. This is consistent with other STAR installations. Refrigeration capacity was not measured due to lack of a calibrated heat load. Measured heat leaks were within design values. The helium dewar loss was measured at 2 to 4 watts or 9% per day, the solenoid and VLPC helium transfer lines had a heat leak of about 20 watts each. The liquid nitrogen consumption rates of the mobile purifier, STAR, and LN2 subcooler were measured at 20 gph, 20 to 64 gph, and 3 gph respectively. All cryogenic transfer lines including the solenoid and visible light photon counter (VLPC) transfer lines were cooled to their cryogenic operating temperatures. This included independent cooling of nitrogen shields and liquid helium components. No major problems were observed. The system ran quite well. Many problems were identified and corrected as they came up. Areas for improvement were noted and will be implemented in the future. The instrumentation and control system operated commendably during the test. The commissioning test run was a worthwhile and successful venture.

  11. AM Canum Venaticorum Progenitors with Helium Star Donors and the Resultant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jared; Bildsten, Lars; Marchant, Pablo; Paxton, Bill

    2015-07-01

    We explore the outcome of mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow of {M}{He}≲ 0.51{M}⊙ pure helium burning stars in close binaries with WDs. The evolution is driven by the loss of angular momentum through gravitational wave radiation (GWR), and both stars are modeled using Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). The donors have masses of {M}{He}=0.35,0.4,{and}0.51{M}⊙ and accrete onto WDs of mass MWD from 0.6{M}⊙ to 1.26{M}⊙ . The initial orbital periods (Porb) span 20-80 minutes. For all cases, the accretion rate onto the WD is below the stable helium burning range, leading to accumulation of helium followed by unstable ignition. The mass of the convective core in the donors is small enough so that the WD accretes enough helium-rich matter to undergo a thermonuclear runaway in the helium shell before any carbon-oxygen enriched matter is transferred. The mass of the accumulated helium shell depends on MWD and the accretion rate. We show that for {M}{He}≳ 0.4{M}⊙ and {M}{WD}≳ 0.8{M}⊙ , the first flash is likely vigorous enough to trigger a detonation in the helium layer. These thermonuclear runaways may be observed as either faint and fast Ia SNe or, if the carbon in the core is also detonated, Type Ia SNe. Those that survive the first flash and eject mass will have a temporary increase in orbital separation, but GWR drives the donor back into contact, resuming mass transfer and triggering several subsequent weaker flashes.

  12. Superfluid helium-4 in one dimensional channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Banavar, Samhita; Chan, Moses H. W.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier

    2013-03-01

    Superfluidity, as superconductivity, cannot exist in a strict one-dimensional system. However, the experiments employing porous media showed that superfluid helium can flow through the pores of nanometer size. Here we report a study of the flow of liquid helium through a single hollow glass fiber of 4 cm in length with an open id of 150 nm between 1.6 and 2.3 K. We found the superfluid transition temperature was suppressed in the hollow cylinder and that there is no flow above the transition. Critical velocity at temperature below the transition temperature was determined. Our results bear some similarity to that found by Savard et. al. studying the flow of helium through a nanohole in a silicon nitrite membrane. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  13. Thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1971-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of an atomic hydrogen-helium plasma are calculated and tabulated for temperatures from 10,000 to 100,000 K as a function of the mass fraction ratio of atomic hydrogen. The tabulation is for densities from 10 to the minus 10th power to 10 to the minus 6th power gm/cu cm and for hydrogen mass fraction ratios of 0, 0.333, 0.600, 0.800, and 1.0, which correspond to pure helium, 50 percent hydrogen per unit volume, 75 percent hydrogen per unit volume, 89 percent hydrogen per unit volume, and pure hydrogen plasmas, respectively. From an appended computer program, calculations can be made at other densities and mass fractions. The program output agrees well with previous thermodynamic property calculations for limiting cases of pure hydrogen and pure helium plasmas.

  14. Quantum Halo States in Helium Tetramers.

    PubMed

    Stipanović, Petar; Vranješ Markić, Leandra; Boronat, Jordi

    2017-01-12

    The universality of quantum halo states enables a comparison of systems from different fields of physics, as demonstrated in two- and three-body clusters. In the present work, we studied weakly bound helium tetramers in order to test whether some of these four-body realistic systems qualify as halos. Their ground-state binding energies and structural properties were thoroughly estimated using the diffusion Monte Carlo method with pure estimators. Helium tetramer properties proved to be less sensitive on the potential model than previously evaluated trimer properties. We predict the existence of realistic four-body halo (4)He2(3)He2, whereas (4)He4 and (4)He3(3)He are close to the border and thus can be used as prototypes of quasi-halo systems. Our results could be tested by the experimental determination of the tetramers' structural properties using a setup similar to the one developed for the study of helium trimers.

  15. Helium corona-assisted air discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Nan; Gao Lei; Ji Ailing; Cao Zexian

    2011-10-15

    Operation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases including air at low voltages yet without consuming any inert gas will enormously promote the application of non-thermal plasmas. By taking advantage of the low onset voltage for helium corona, air discharge was successfully launched at much reduced voltages with a needle-plate system partly contained in a helium-filled glass bulb--for a needle-plate distance of 12 mm, 1.0 kV suffices. Ultraviolet emission from helium corona facilitates the discharging of air, and the discharge current manifests distinct features such as relatively broad Trichel pulses in both half periods. This design allows safe and economic implementation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases, which will find a broad palette of applications in surface modification, plasma medicine and gas treatment, etc.

  16. Helium Speech: An Application of Standing Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, Christopher D.

    2011-04-01

    Taking a breath of helium gas and then speaking or singing to the class is a favorite demonstration for an introductory physics course, as it usually elicits appreciative laughter, which serves to energize the class session. Students will usually report that the helium speech "raises the frequency" of the voice. A more accurate description of the phenomenon requires that we distinguish between the frequencies of sound produced by the larynx and the filtering of those frequencies by the vocal tract. We will describe here an experiment done by introductory physics students that uses helium speech as a context for learning about the human vocal system and as an application of the standing sound-wave concept. Modern acoustic analysis software easily obtained by instructors for student use allows data to be obtained and analyzed quickly.

  17. Laser spectroscopic measurement of helium isotope ratios.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.-B.; Mueller, P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Sano, Y.; Sturchio, N.; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Tokyo; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2003-06-13

    A sensitive laser spectroscopic method has been applied to the quantitative determination of the isotope ratio of helium at the level of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He = 10{sup -7}--10{sup -5}. The resonant absorption of 1083 nm laser light by the metastable {sup 3}He atoms in a discharge cell was measured with the frequency modulation saturation spectroscopy technique while the abundance of {sup 4}He was measured by a direct absorption technique. The results on three different samples extracted from the atmosphere and commercial helium gas were in good agreement with values obtained with mass spectrometry. The achieved 3{sigma} detection limit of {sup 3}He in helium is 4 x 10{sup -9}. This demonstration required a 200 {mu}L STP sample of He. The sensitivity can be further improved, and the required sample size reduced, by several orders of magnitude with the addition of cavity enhanced spectroscopy.

  18. Experimental helium liquefier with a GM cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Anup; Sahu, Santosh

    2017-06-01

    A helium liquefier has been developed with a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler using the cold enthalpy available at the first stage, the inter-stage, and the second stage of the cryocooler. Most of the enthalpy of the helium gas at 300 K is absorbed in the first stage by a coaxial heat exchanger and inter-stage region of the cryocooler. Pre-cooled helium gas is liquefied at the second stage heat exchanger where the final cooldown and condensation happens. The measured production capacity of the liquefier is 17.4 l/day at atmospheric pressure. The whole setup has been designed to work in a coaxial configuration where the two heat exchangers, the cryostat, and the dewar are symmetrically placed around the central axis.

  19. Dynamics of the Galapagos hotspot from helium isotope geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, M.D.; Geist, D.

    1999-12-01

    The authors have measured the isotopes of He, Sr, Nd and Pb in a number of lava flows from the Galapagos Archipelago; the main goal is to use magmatic helium as a tracer of plume influence in the western volcanoes. Because the Galapagos lava flows are so well preserved, it is also possible to measure surface exposure ages using in situ cosmic-ray-produced {sup 3}He. The exposure ages range from {lt}0.1 to 580 Ka, are consistent with other chronological constrains, and provide the first direct dating of these lava flows. The new age data demonstrate the utility of the technique in this important age range and show that the western Galapagos volcanoes have been erupting distance compositions simultaneously for the last {approximately}10 Ka. The magmatic {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios range from 6.0 to 27 times atmospheric (R{sub a}), with the highest values found on the islands of Isabella (16.8 R{sub a} for Vulcan Sierra Negra) and Fernandina (23 to 27 R{sub a}). Values from Santa Cruz are close to typical mid-ocean ridge basalt values (MORB, of {approximately}9 R{sub 2}) and Pinta has a {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio lower than MORB (6.9 R{sub a}). These data confirm that the plume is centered beneath Fernandina which is the most active volcano in the archipelago and is at the leading edge of plate motion. The data are consistent with previous isotopic studies, confirming extensive contributions from depleted asthenospheric or lithospheric mantle sources, especially to the central islands. The most striking aspect of the helium isotopic data is that the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios decrease systematically in all directions from Fernandina. This spatial variability is assumed to reflect the contribution of the purest plume component to Fernandina magmatism, and shows that helium is a sensitive indicator of plume influence. The highest {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are found in volcanoes with lowest Na{sub 2}O(8) and FeO(8), which may relate to source composition as well as degree

  20. Pump performance requirement for the liquid helium orbital resupply tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ng, Y. S.

    1988-01-01

    The Liquid Helium Orbital Resupply Tanker (currently renamed to Superfluid Helium Tanker) will greatly enhance the lifetime of the space missions which require superfluid helium. The Superfluid Helium Tanker pump performance requirement is driven by the superfluid helium replenishment needs of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). SIRTF is one of the space missions which will require on-orbit superfluid helium resupply in the 1990s. The Superfluid Helium Tanker will carry at least 10,000 L of superfluid helium and provide a minimum pump head of 170 torr (0 to 200 L/h) to cool SIRTF from 150 to 2 K. When the SIRTF tank starts to collect liquid, a minimum flow rate of 300 L/h with a pump head of 60 torr is required to fill the 4000-liter tank.

  1. 5. INTERIOR, LOOKING PAST HELIUM COMPRESSORS NO. 3 AND NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, LOOKING PAST HELIUM COMPRESSORS NO. 3 AND NO. 2, TO NORTHEAST FRONT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Helium building no. 2 east and north sides. Looking 270 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Helium building no. 2 east and north sides. Looking 270 W. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Helium Tank Building No. 1, Near intersection of Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  3. Helium building no. 2 west and south sides. Looking 70 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Helium building no. 2 west and south sides. Looking 70 ENE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Helium Tank Building No. 1, Near intersection of Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  4. A helium liquefier using three 4 k pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Oviedo, Abner

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a helium liquefier which can be used for recondensing/reliquefying helium vapor in a helium cryostat or liquefying helium gas in a storage dewar. The helium liquefier employs three 4 K pulse tube cryocoolers, Cryomech model PT415. Each PT415 has remote motor/rotary valve assembly to minimize vibration, providing ≥ 1.5W at 4.2K. The liquefier can liquefy room temperature helium gas with a liquefaction rate of 62 Liter/day. When installing it in the cryostat, it can recondense and reliquefy helium vapor with a rate of 78 L/day. The liquefier will be installed in a gravitational wave detector in Brazil to recondense/reliquefy the helium boil off from the cryostat.

  5. 2. SOUTHEAST SIDE. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHEAST SIDE. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Helium-neon laser irradiation stimulates migration and proliferation in melanocytes and induces repigmentation in segmental-type vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsin-Su; Wu, Chieh-Shan; Yu, Chia-Li; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Chiou, Min-Hsi

    2003-01-01

    Low-energy helium-neon lasers (632.8 nm) have been employed in a variety of clinical treatments including vitiligo management. Light-mediated reaction to low-energy laser irradiation is referred to as biostimulation rather than a thermal effect. This study sought to determine the theoretical basis and clinical evidence for the effectiveness of helium-neon lasers in treating vitiligo. Cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts were irradiated with 0.5-1.5 J per cm2 helium-neon laser radiation. The effects of the helium-neon laser on melanocyte growth and proliferation were investigated. The results of this in vitro study revealed a significant increase in basic fibroblast growth factor release from both keratinocytes and fibroblasts and a significant increase in nerve growth factor release from keratinocytes. Medium from helium-neon laser irradiated keratinocytes stimulated [3H]thymidine uptake and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. Furthermore, melanocyte migration was enhanced either directly by helium-neon laser irradiation or indirectly by the medium derived from helium-neon laser treated keratinocytes. Thirty patients with segmental-type vitiligo on the head and/or neck were enrolled in this study. Helium-neon laser light was administered locally at 3.0 J per cm2 with point stimulation once or twice weekly. The percentage of repigmented area was used for clinical evaluation of effectiveness. After an average of 16 treatment sessions, initial repigmentation was noticed. Marked repigmentation (>50%) was observed in 60% of patients with successive treatments. Basic fibroblast growth factor is a putative melanocyte growth factor, whereas nerve growth factor is a paracrine factor for melanocyte survival in the skin. Both nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor stimulate melanocyte migration. It is reasonable to propose that helium-neon laser irradiation clearly stimulates melanocyte migration and proliferation and mitogen release for melanocyte growth

  7. Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. III: Validation of the helium leak rate method for rigid pharmaceutical containers.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, L E; Nguyen, L; Gerth, R

    1997-01-01

    Validation of a helium leak rate method for pharmaceutical container/closure integrity quality assurance required the demonstration that this physical testing method was as good or better than microbial immersion challenge testing in detecting potential integrity failures. One lot of rubber-stoppered, broth-filled glass vials also containing defective vials with known leaks were subjected to both helium leak rate and microbial challenge testing. The defective vials were prepared by affixing glass micropipettes (0.1 to 10 microns) into the vial side walls. The validation lot included a 10% seeded defect rate of which about 50% contained leaks with a predicted probability of failing a microbial challenge (> 10%). Helium tracer was placed in the test units by charging them for 4 hours under a 40 psi helium pressure. The critical leak rate after charging was determined to be 10(-7) standard cc/second, and test units with measured leak rates greater than this value were considered helium leak rate failures. Microbial immersion challenge was conducted by exposing the test units in a bath inoculated with 10(9-10) viable E. coli and B. diminuta organisms for 24 hours followed by a 13 day (35 degrees C) incubation. Microbial failures were determined visually. The helium and microbial leak test methods were compared statistically using mean failure rates. The mean helium failure rate was 6.9%, whereas the mean microbial failure rate was 2.8%. The difference between helium and microbial failure rates was significantly greater than zero. Thus, helium leak rate testing was demonstrated to be a suitable pharmaceutical container/closure integrity method for microbial quality assurance of rigid containers.

  8. O(^3 p) Doped Helium Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, Joseph T.; Douberly, Gary E.

    2017-06-01

    Atomic oxygen (^3 P) is generated via thermolysis in a commerical thermal gas cracker (Mantis Ltd. MGC-75). Complexes with HCN were investigated to qualitatively assess the doping efficiency of O(^3 P) into a helium droplet. Theoretical calculations of a linear O \\cdot\\cdot\\cdot HCN (^3 Σ) complex at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level are consistent with the rotational constants extracted from the rotational substructure in the experimental spectra, and with dipole moments approximated from Stark spectra. The thermal source will be used to study reactions between O(^3 P) and hydrocarbons in helium droplets, and preliminary data on this topic will be presented.

  9. Experiments with single electrons in liquid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W.; Jin, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Maris, H. J.

    2009-02-01

    We describe experiments we have performed in which we are able to image the motion of individual electrons moving in liquid helium 4. Electrons in helium form bubbles of radius {approx}19 A. We use the negative pressure produced by a sound wave to expand these bubbles to a radius of about 10 {mu}m. The bubbles are then illuminated with light from a flash lamp and their position recorded. We report on several interesting phenomena that have been observed in these experiments. It appears that the majority of the electrons that we detect result from cosmic rays passing through the experimental cell. We discuss this mechanism for electron production.

  10. The dynamics and helium distribution in hydrogen-helium fluid planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    The simple case of a homogeneous planet without first-order phase transitions is considered and an investigation is conducted concerning a pure hydrogen planet in which a first-order phase transition takes place from fluid molecular hydrogen to fluid metallic hydrogen. Attention is also given to convection in the presence of a compositional gradient, the effects of helium insolubility in a cooling hydrogen-helium planet, a hydrogen-helium planet in its early evolution, and the case in which influence of phase transition occurs much later in the evolution of the planet.

  11. Dependence of Pulsation Stability on the Helium Abundance of Stellar Convective Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Da-Run; Deng, Li-Cai; Wang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    By using a non-local and time-dependent theory of convection, the linear non-adiabatic oscillations of radial and low-degree non-radial F-p8 modes are calculated for the stellar evolutionary models in the mass range of 1.4∼3.0 Mʘ, with three helium abundances of convective envelope (Y =0.28, 0.13, 0.00), and the solar metal abundance (Z =0.02). The numerical results show that the red edge of theoretical δ Scuti instability strip almost does not change with the helium abundance. With the decrease of the helium abundance, the blue edge of the δ Scuti instability strip moves toward the direction of low temperatures, the high-temperature stars on the hot side of instability strip become more stable, while the low-temperature stars on the cold side of instability strip become more instable. It seems to be impossible to explain the non-variable stars in the δ Scuti instability strip by using the diffusion of helium. However, the ratios of non-variable stars to variable stars in the hot and cold sides of the δ Scuti strip may be taken as the observational evidence of helium diffusion.

  12. Electron attachment and electron ionization of acetic acid clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, F; Jaksch, S; Martins, G; Dang, H M; Dampc, M; Denifl, S; Märk, T D; Limão-Vieira, P; Liu, J; Yang, S; Ellis, A M; Scheier, P

    2009-12-28

    The effect of incident electrons on acetic acid clusters is explored for the first time. The acetic acid clusters are formed inside liquid helium nanodroplets and both cationic and anionic products ejected into the gas phase are detected by mass spectrometry. The cation chemistry (induced by electron ionization at 100 eV) is dominated by production of protonated acetic acid (Ac) clusters, Ac(n)H(+), although some fragmentation is also observed. In the case of anion production (at 2.8 eV electron energy) there is a clear distinction between the monomer and the clusters. For the monomer the dominant product is the dehydrogenated species, [Ac-H](-), whereas for the clusters both the parent anion, Ac(n)(-), and the dehydrogenated species, [Ac(n)-H](-), have similar abundances. A particularly intriguing contrast between the monomer and cluster anions is that helium atoms are seen attached to the latter whereas no evidence of helium atom attachment is found for the monomer. This surprising observation is attributed to the formation of acyclic (head-to-tail) acetic acid clusters in helium nanodroplets, which have more favourable electronic properties for binding helium atoms. The acyclic clusters represent a local minimum on the potential energy surface and in the case of the dimer this is distinct from the cyclic isomer (the global minimum) identified in gas phase experiments.

  13. Numerical analysis of temperature stratification in a subatmospheric cold helium line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fydrych, J.; Pietrowicz, S.

    2017-02-01

    In last decades the technology of superfluid helium has become very advantageous for large-scale scientific facilities dedicated to high-energy physics. Superconducting cavities or magnets are usually immersed in helium baths at a temperature of 1.8 to 2.0 K. This temperature is produced by a JT cycle where the return line works at a subatmospheric pressure of 16 to 31 mbar. The subatmospheric line lengths can reach even several thousand meters. The helium flows in the subatmospheric lines are driven by cold compressors or vacuum pumps. Due to a limited pressure drop requirement the line diameters can exceed even 300 mm. Since the thermal conductivity of the line material is very small and the flow rate at some operation conditions can be much lower than at the normal operating conditions, a thermal stratification in the helium flow can appear together with a significant temperature gradient along the pipe circumference. These phenomena can affect the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of the line as well as the operation of the entire cryogenic system. The paper presents the numerical simulations of cold helium vapour flows in a long straight line. The stratification phenomenon is discussed and the potential temperature gradient in the pipe wall is evaluated.

  14. Helium Shells on Sub-Chandrasekhar White Dwarfs: Ignition and Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Adam M.; Zingale, Michael; Nonaka, Andrew; Almgren, Ann; Bell, John

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs accreting an envelope of helium allow for a range of explosive phenomena that could yield a variety of observable transients. Helium novae, so-called "point" Ia supernovae (.Ia SNe), rapid decline type Ia, and normal type Ia supernovae are all potential outcomes of helium accretion onto sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs. In this talk we outline why these systems have received a great deal of scrutiny recently and present our 3D models of convective nuclear burning in the helium envelope. We focus on thin, low-mass envelopes that are the best candidates for yielding normal type Ia supernovae. The envelope is modeled with the low-Mach hydrodynamics code Maestro. Maestro is optimized for modeling sub-sonic convective flow over long timescales while still being able to capture local compressibility effects due to nuclear burning as well as large-scale adjustments of stellar hydrostatic equilibrium. With it we model the convective burning in low-mass helium shells for carbon/oxygen white dwarf cores of 0.8, 1.0, 1.1, and 1.2 solar masses. For a suite of models we characterize the geometry, timing, and thermodynamics of ignition as well as the envelope's convective properties. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the viability of these systems as transient progenitors with a focus on normal type Ia supernovae.

  15. Characterization and Modeling of Superconducting Josephson Junction Arrays at Low Voltage and Liquid Helium Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    technical report demonstrates the capabilities to measure Niobium-based Josephson junction arrays at liquid helium temperatures at less than 50 mV. We find...2 3. Measurements of the array in the resistive state with temperature greater than the... Measurements of the array in the cryogenic conditions near the critical temperature (i.e., 7 to 8

  16. A UV laser by frequency doubling within the resonator of a helium-neon laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Cantao; Li Xinzhang; Zhao Suitang; Wang Yichong

    1996-12-31

    An ultraviolet laser has been developed from the 632.8nm line of a helium-neon laser using internal frequency doubling method with a lithium iodate crystal. It generates continuous ultraviolet radiation at 316.4nm. By optimizing the optical components, a folded three-mirror resonator gave out UV radiation up to 1.5mW.

  17. A high throughput spectrometer system for helium ash detection on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Hillis, D.L.; Fehling, D.T.; Bell, R.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Meigs, A.; Negus, C.; Giroud, C.; Stamp, M.

    2004-10-01

    Acquiring information about helium ash production and transport is fundamental for future burning plasma devices, such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, since the helium ash must be continuously removed from the plasma to prevent the dilution of the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This diagnostic for future JET DT operation uses charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) in conjunction with the JET neutral heating beam to measure the helium density at 20 radial locations across the JET plasma via the 4686 A He{sup +} line and an array of heated 1 mm quartz fibers. The CXRS diagnostic utilizes a high throughput short focal length spectrometer with f/1.8 input optics, two entrance slits, a holographic transmission grating, and refractive optics. The detector is a thinned back-illuminated charge coupled device that has high quantum efficiency, a 10 MHz readout speed, and a time resolution of 5 ms.

  18. Neutron-scattering investigation of the excitation spectrum of liquid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, I. V. Lauter, H.; Puchkov, A. V.

    2007-07-15

    The results of the investigation of the temperature evolution of the scattering law S(Q, {omega}) of superfluid helium measured in the wave-vector range 0.3 < Q < 0.8 A{sup -1} and helium temperatures from 1.0 to 2.2 K are reported. The investigations have been performed on the high-flux reactor at the Institut Laue-Langevin (France) with the IN6 neutron inelastic-scattering spectrometer. The deviation of the experimental scattering law of liquid helium from the damping harmonic oscillator model, which was previously observed independently in the experiments with the IN6 spectrometer and with the DIN-2PI spectrometer (at the IBR-2 reactor, Dubna, Russia) and were more recently called extrapeak, has been corroborated. The temperature dependence of the extrapeak parameters has been determined. This dependence makes it possible to propose hypotheses on the nature of the extrapeak.

  19. Density decrease in vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the dynamic helium charging experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Galvin, T.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    Combined effects of dynamically charged helium and neutron damage on density decrease (swelling) of V-4Cr-4Ti, V-5Ti, V-3Ti-1Si, and V-8Cr-6Ti alloys have been determined after irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degrees}C in the Dynamic helium Charging Experiment (DHCE). To ensure better accuracy in density measurement, broken pieces of tensile specimens {approx} 10 times heavier than a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disk were used. Density increases of the four alloys irradiated in the DHCE were <0.5%. This small change seems to be consistent with the negligible number density of microcavities characterized by TEM. Most of the dynamically produced helium atoms seem to have been trapped in the grain matrix without significant cavity nucleation or growth.

  20. Optimization of Helium Vessel Design for ILC Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fratangelo, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    The ILC (International Linear Collider) is a proposed new major particle accelerator. It consists of two 20 km long linear accelerators colliding electrons and positrons at an energy exceeding 500 GeV, Achieving this collision energy while keeping reasonable accelerator dimensions requires the use of high electric field superconducting cavities as the main acceleration element. These cavities are operated at l.3 GHz inside an appropriate container (He vessel) at temperatures as low as 1.4 K using superfluid Helium as the refrigerating medium. The purpose of this thesis, in the context of the ILC R&D activities currently in progress at Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), is the mechanical study of an ILC superconducting cavity and Helium vessel prototype. The main goals of these studies are the determination of the limiting working conditions of the whole He vessel assembly, the simulation of the manufacturing process of the cavity end-caps and the assessment of the Helium vessel's efficiency. In addition this thesis studies the requirements to certify the compliance with the ASME Code of the whole cavity/vessel assembly. Several Finite Elements Analyses were performed by the candidate himself in order to perform the studies listed above and described in detail in Chapters 4 through 8. ln particular the candidate has developed an improved procedure to obtain more accurate results with lower computational times. These procedures will be accurately described in the following chapters. After an introduction that briefly describes the Fennilab and in particular the Technical Division (where all the activities concerning with this thesis were developed), the first part of this thesis (Chapters 2 and 3) explains some of the main aspects of modem particle accelerators. Moreover it describes the most important particle accelerators working at the moment and the basic features of the ILC project. Chapter 4 describes all the activities that were done to certify

  1. Tritium Decay Helium-3 Effects in Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, M.; Merrill, B. J.

    2016-06-01

    A critical challenge for long-term operation of ITER and beyond to a Demonstration reactor (DEMO) and future fusion reactor will be the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs) that demonstrate erosion resistance to steady-state/transient heat fluxes and intense neutral/ion particle fluxes under the extreme fusion nuclear environment, while at the same time minimizing in-vessel tritium inventories and permeation fluxes into the PFC’s coolant. Tritium will diffuse in bulk tungsten at elevated temperatures, and can be trapped in radiation-induced trap site (up to 1 at. % T/W) in tungsten [1,2]. Tritium decay into helium-3 may also play a major role in microstructural evolution (e.g. helium embrittlement) in tungsten due to relatively low helium-4 production (e.g. He/dpa ratio of 0.4-0.7 appm [3]) in tungsten. Tritium-decay helium-3 effect on tungsten is hardly understood, and its database is very limited. Two tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) were exposed to high flux (ion flux of 1.0x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1.0x1026 m-2) 0.5%T2/D2 plasma at two different temperatures (200, and 500°C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. Tritium implanted samples were stored at ambient temperature in air for more than 3 years to investigate tritium decay helium-3 effect in tungsten. The tritium distributions on plasma-exposed was monitored by a tritium imaging plate technique during storage period [4]. Thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10°C/min up to 900°C to outgas residual deuterium and tritium but keep helium-3 in tungsten. These helium-3 implanted samples were exposed to deuterium plasma in TPE to investigate helium-3 effect on deuterium behavior in tungsten. The results show that tritium surface concentration in 200°C sample decreased to 30 %, but tritium surface concentration in 500°C sample did not alter over the 3 years storage period, indicating possible tritium

  2. Anomaly in the quiet-time helium spectrum at 1 MeV per nucleon. [IMP measured solar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.; Kleckler, B.; Vollmer, O.; Fan, C. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The IMP-8 satellite observed (in 1974-1975) an unexpected hump in the solar helium spectrum between 0.6 and about 3 MeV per nucleon and an enhanced helium abundance of up to 70 MeV per nucleon. The energy spectrum of helium below 0.6 MeV per nucleon was consistent with the proton spectrum below 1.5 MeV, while the proton-to-alpha ratio was about 30. The origin of this anomalous low-energy, quiet-time helium is as yet undecided. The alpha particles could be of solar origin, could have been accelerated in the heliosphere or could be of galactic origin.

  3. Characterization of gaseous helium jet dispersion to atmosphere. [due to accidental loss of vacuum guard of superinsulated dewar shuttle payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, H. J.; Figueroa, O.; Rhee, M.

    1992-01-01

    A major ground-based experiment to be performed for the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) program is the accidental loss of the vacuum guard of the super-insulated dewar. The design of the dewar vent-path requires adequate mass removal after a preset pressure is reached due to external heat transfer. The existing helium creates a turbulent buoyant jet, expanding in air with entrainment of the jet interface to the surrounding. Transient analysis is performed for axial and radial jet temperature prediction using the self-similarity assumption applied to mass, momentum, and the energy-balance equations of helium. The predicted jet temperature profiles with vertical and radial expansion up to 1.6 and 1.0 m, respectively, demonstrate the low temperature core established by gaseous helium. For all time steps, the axial and radial temperature predictions are observed to be within 8 and 20 percent, respectively.

  4. Breathing helium-hyperoxia and tolerance of partitioned exercise in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Dolmage, Thomas E; Evans, Rachael A; Brooks, Dina; Goldstein, Roger S

    2014-01-01

    Partitioning exercise by 1-legged cycling is more effective than conventional training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Similarly, inhaling helium-hyperoxia can extend conventional exercise tolerance. This study aimed to determine whether breathing helium-hyperoxia could increase the tolerance of a high-intensity exercise session achieved by 1-legged cycling. Participants completed 2 high-intensity, constant power, 1-legged cycle tests to intolerance (tlimit). In a randomized order, they inspired 40% oxygen with the balance helium via mask and 1-way valve, 1-legged helium-hyperoxia (1L-HH), or room air with supplemental oxygen via a nasal cannula, 1-legged nitrogen-hyperoxia (1L-NH). We assessed quadriceps fatigue from the change in maximal voluntary contraction (FMVC) and transcutaneously stimulated twitch force (Ftwitch). Fifteen participants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [SD] = 36 [18]% predicted; forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity = 34 [14]%; peak oxygen uptake = 12.8 [2.9] mL · kg · min) completed the study. Self-reported "leg fatigue" was a reason for stopping 25 of 30 tests. There was no significant difference in tlimit (0.2 [-1.4 to 1.8] min) between 1L-HH (12.2 [5.2] min) and 1L-NH (12.0 [4.1] min), or in FMVC measured shortly after HH and NH tests (P= .09). The Ftwitch was less after exercise (P< .05) in both conditions, without a difference between conditions (P= .46). Inspiring a helium-hyperoxia mixture does not increase the endurance of what would be a typical training session, breathing supplemental oxygen, of high-intensity 1-legged constant power exercise. Leg muscle fatigue was similar after 1-legged exercise with and without breathing the helium mixture.

  5. Effect of helium-oxygen (heliox) gas mixtures on the function of four pediatric ventilators.

    PubMed

    Berkenbosch, John W; Grueber, Ryan E; Dabbagh, Osuama; McKibben, Andrew W

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of helium on the function of four ventilators commonly used in pediatrics: the Bird VIP, Bird VIP Gold, Servo 300, and Servo 900C. Prospective setting. Research laboratory at a university hospital. Helium was administered as an 80:20 mixture of helium-oxygen through the air inlet of the ventilator. Delivered fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio(2)) was compared with the Fio(2) set on the blender dial. Inspiratory displayed tidal volume was recorded as an indicator of what the ventilator "believed" it had delivered and was compared with the V(T) displayed during ventilation with 100% oxygen (control). Actual delivered V(T) was measured by a Neonatal Bicore connected to the side port of a "bag-in-box" spirometer, making measurements independent of inspired gas properties, and was compared with V(T) delivered during ventilation with 100% oxygen. Five gas mixtures were evaluated: Fio(2) = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 (balance helium). Delivered Fio(2) was less than set Fio(2) on the Servo 900C and VIP ventilators. V(T) displayed was minimally altered by helium during volume-controlled ventilation but substantially decreased during pressure-controlled ventilation, particularly with the Bird ventilators. During volume-controlled ventilation, V(T) delivered was substantially increased by helium with the Bird and, to a lesser degree, the Servo 900C ventilators. In contrast, V(T) delivered decreased slightly in helium with the Servo 300. The same pattern, but with a decreased magnitude, was observed for V(T) delivered during pressure-controlled ventilation. The addition of helium has a significant effect on Fio(2) delivery, displayed inspiratory V(T), and actual delivered V(T) during both volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation in four ventilators commonly used in pediatric critical care. These effects are both ventilator specific and ventilation mode specific, mandating vigilance during helium ventilation in clinical practice.

  6. 43 CFR 3195.24 - What must I do before contacting a non-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs? 3195.24 Section 3195.24 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.24 What must I do before contacting a non-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs? You must make an initial determination about the...

  7. 43 CFR 3195.24 - What must I do before contacting a non-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs? 3195.24 Section 3195.24 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.24 What must I do before contacting a non-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs? You must make an initial determination about the...

  8. 43 CFR 3195.24 - What must I do before contacting a non-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs? 3195.24 Section 3195.24 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.24 What must I do before contacting a non-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs? You must make an initial determination about the...

  9. 43 CFR 3195.24 - What must I do before contacting a non-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs? 3195.24 Section 3195.24 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Agency Requirements § 3195.24 What must I do before contacting a non-Federal helium supplier for my helium needs? You must make an initial determination about the...

  10. The Weakest Link: Bonding between Helium Atoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Lawrence L.; Blinder, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    A highly simplified model for helium dimers that reproduces their essential features without the need for elaborate computation is presented. The He-He potential is predicted to have minimum of 10.9 K at a nuclear separation of 5.61 bohrs.

  11. Excitation of helium ion by positron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, P.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Three (1s,2s,2p) and five (1s,2s,2p,3s-bar,3p-bar) -state close-coupling methods have been employed to calculate the n = 2 excitation cross sections of helium ion by positron impact. The effect of pseudostate is found to be very pronounced in the case of 1s-2s excitation.

  12. The Weakest Link: Bonding between Helium Atoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Lawrence L.; Blinder, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    A highly simplified model for helium dimers that reproduces their essential features without the need for elaborate computation is presented. The He-He potential is predicted to have minimum of 10.9 K at a nuclear separation of 5.61 bohrs.

  13. Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride in Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forinash, Kyle; Dixon, Cory L.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inhaled helium on the human voice were investigated in a recent article in "The Physics Teacher." As mentioned in that article, demonstrations of the effect are a popular classroom activity. If the number of YouTube videos is any indication, the effects of sulfur hexafluoride on the human voice are equally popular.…

  14. Electrons on helium — The ``polaron'' transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, E. Y.; Grimes, C. C.; Adams, G.

    1984-07-01

    We describe the observation of the polaronic transition of a system of electrons supported above a helium film. The electron mobility drops sharply by more than four orders of magnitude as the film thickness is reduced below ≈ 1000 Å. The transition was observed in the temperature range 0.4 ⩽ T ⩽ 1 K.

  15. NUCLEAR CONDENSATE AND HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan; Cherman, Aleksey E-mail: evanb@umd.edu

    2012-04-10

    We consider a high-density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  16. THE VISCOSITY OF HELIUM-CESIUM MIXTURES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The viscosities of helium-cesium mixtures having mole fractions of cesium from zero to unity were evaluated using a Lennard - Jones 6-12 interaction potential for all encounters in the Enskog Chapman expressions for the viscosity of a binary mixture. (Author)

  17. Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride in Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forinash, Kyle; Dixon, Cory L.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inhaled helium on the human voice were investigated in a recent article in "The Physics Teacher." As mentioned in that article, demonstrations of the effect are a popular classroom activity. If the number of YouTube videos is any indication, the effects of sulfur hexafluoride on the human voice are equally popular.…

  18. Atmospheric helium and geomagnetic field reversals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.; Kern, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of the earth's helium budget is examined in the light of recent work on the interaction of the solar wind with nonmagnetic planets. It is proposed that the dominant mode of helium (He4) loss is ion pumping by the solar wind during geomagnetic field reversals, when the earth's magnetic field is very small. The interaction of the solar wind with the earth's upper atmosphere during such a period is found to involve the formation of a bow shock. The penetration altitude of the shock-heated solar plasma is calculated to be about 700 km, and ionization rates above this level are estimated for a cascade ionization (electron avalanche) process to average 10 to the 9th power ions/sq cm/sec. The calculated ionization rates and the capacity of the solar wind to remove ionized helium (He4) from the upper atmosphere during geomagnetic dipole reversals are sufficient to yield a secular equilibrium over geologic time scales. The upward transport of helium from the lower atmosphere under these conditions is found to be adequate to sustain the proposed loss rate.

  19. Thermal flickers: A semianalytical approach. [helium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdang, J.; Buchler, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    In order to enhance physical insight into the nature of thermal oscillations arising from a thin helium burning shell, the behavior in its phase plane of a simple two zone model which, however, contains all the relevant physics is analyzed. This simple model very naturally reproduces thermal flickers and is relatively insensitive to all but two parameters.

  20. An Assessment of Helium Evolution from Helium-Saturated Propellant Depressurization in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Bich N.; Best, Frederick; Wong, Tony; Kurwitz, Cable; McConnaughey, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Helium evolution from the transfer of helium-saturated propellant in space is quantified to assess its impacts from creating two-phase gas/liquid flow from the supply tank, gas injection into the receiving tank, and liquid discharge from the receiving tank. Propellant transfer takes place between two similar tanks whose maximum storage capacity is approximately 2.55 cubic meters each. The maximum on-orbit propellants transfer capability is 9000 lbm (fuel and oxidizer). The transfer line is approximately 1.27 cm in diameter and 6096 cm in length and comprised of the fluid interconnect system (FICS), the orbiter propellant transfer system (OPTS), and the International Space Station (ISS) propulsion module (ISSPM). The propellant transfer rate begins at approximately 11 liter per minute (lpm) and subsequently drops to approximately 0.5 lpm. The tank nominal operating pressure is approximately 1827 kPa (absolute). The line pressure drops for Monomethy1hydrazine (MMH) and Nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) at 11.3 lpm are approximately 202 kPa and 302 kPa, respectively. The pressure-drop results are based on a single-phase flow. The receiving tank is required to vent from approximately 1827 kPa to a lower pressure to affect propellant transfer. These pressure-drop scenarios cause the helium-saturated propellants to release excess helium. For tank ullage venting, the maximum volumes of helium evolved at tank pressure are approximately 0.5 ft3 for MMH and 2 ft3 for NTO. In microgravity environment, due to lack of body force, the helium evolution from a liquid body acts to propel it, which influences its fluid dynamics. For propellant transfer, the volume fractions of helium evolved at line pressure are 0.1% by volume for MMH and 0.6 % by volume for NTO at 11.3 lpm. The void fraction of helium evolved varies as an approximate second order power function of flow rate.

  1. Helium in the adult critical care setting.

    PubMed

    Diehl, J-L; Peigne, V; Guérot, E; Faisy, C; Lecourt, L; Mercat, A

    2011-07-06

    Helium is a low-density inert gas whose physical properties are very different from those of nitrogen and oxygen. Such properties could be clinically useful in the adult critical care setting, especially in patients with upper to more distal airway obstruction requiring moderate to intermediate levels of FiO2. However, despite decades of utilization and reporting, it is still difficult to give any firm clinical recommendation in this setting. Numerous case reports are available in the context of upper airway obstruction of different origins, but there is a lack of controlled studies for this indication. One study reported a helium-induced beneficial effect on surrogates of work of breathing after extubation in non-COPD patients, possibly in relation to laryngeal consequences of tracheal intubation. Physiological benefits of helium-oxygen breathing have been demonstrated in the context of acute severe asthma, but there is a lack of large controlled studies demonstrating an effect on pertinent clinical endpoints, except for a study reported only as an abstract, which mentioned a reduction in the intubation rate in helium-treated patients. Finally, there are a number of physiological studies in the context of COLD-COPD patients demonstrating a beneficial effect, mainly by a reduction in the resistive inspiratory work of breathing but also by a reduction in hyperinflation. Reduction of hypercapnia was mainly observed in spontaneously breathing and noninvasively ventilated helium-treated patients but not in intubated patients during controlled ventilation, suggesting that the decrease in PaCO2 was mainly in relation to a diminution in CO2 production, related to the diminution in work of breathing and not an improved alveolar ventilation. Moreover, there is little evidence that helium-oxygen could improve parameters of heterogeneity in such patients. Two RCTs were unable to demonstrate a reduction in the intubation rate in such setting, but they were likely underpowered

  2. Helium induced fine structure in the electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Pentlehner, D.; Slenczka, A.

    2015-01-07

    Electronic spectra of organic molecules doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets show characteristic features induced by the helium environment. Besides a solvent induced shift of the electronic transition frequency, in many cases, a spectral fine structure can be resolved for electronic and vibronic transitions which goes beyond the expected feature of a zero phonon line accompanied by a phonon wing as known from matrix isolation spectroscopy. The spectral shape of the zero phonon line and the helium induced phonon wing depends strongly on the dopant species. Phonon wings, for example, are reported ranging from single or multiple sharp transitions to broad (Δν > 100 cm{sup −1}) diffuse signals. Despite the large number of example spectra in the literature, a quantitative understanding of the helium induced fine structure of the zero phonon line and the phonon wing is missing. Our approach is a systematic investigation of related molecular compounds, which may help to shed light on this key feature of microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. This paper is part of a comparative study of the helium induced fine structure observed in electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives with particular emphasis on a spectrally sharp multiplet splitting at the electronic origin. In addition to previously discussed species, 9-cyanoanthracene and 9-chloroanthracene will be presented in this study for the first time.

  3. Evaluation of helium cooling for fusion divertors

    SciTech Connect

    Baxi, C.B.

    1993-09-01

    The divertors of future fusion reactors will have a power throughput of several hundred MW. The peak heat flux on the diverter surface is estimated to be 5 to 15 MW/m{sup 2} at an average heat flux of 2 MW/m{sup 2}. The divertors have a requirement of both minimum temperature (100{degrees}C) and maximum temperature. The minimum temperature is dictated by the requirement to reduce the absorption of plasma, and the maximum temperature is determined by the thermo-mechanical properties of the plasma facing materials. Coolants that have been considered for fusion reactors are water, liquid metals and helium. Helium cooling has been shown to be very attractive from safety and other considerations. Helium is chemically and neutronically inert and is suitable for power conversion. The challenges associated with helium cooling are: (1) Manifold sizes; (2) Pumping power; and (3) Leak prevention. In this paper the first two of the above design issues are addressed. A variety of heat transfer enhancement techniques are considered to demonstrate that the manifold sizes and the pumping power can be reduced to acceptable levels. A helium-cooled diverter module was designed and fabricated by GA for steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2}. This module was recently tested at Sandia National Laboratories. At an inlet pressure of 4 MPa, the module was tested at a steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2}. The pumping power required was less than 1% of the power removed. These results verified the design prediction.

  4. Method to control the amount of helium during leak testing

    SciTech Connect

    Frank E. Jurvic, Jr.

    2002-03-29

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a method for limiting the amount of helium administered during leak testing and provide a method for keeping the atmospheric helium in a location to a minimum to eliminate backstreaming into the system. This method utilizes the permeability of a balloon. The transporting of helium to the leak check area is also safer by not requiring a cylinder in the leak check location. Utilizing the many shapes of balloons and partially filling of the balloon, any configuration can deliver helium to the leak location. The balloon I filled for the test fell to the floor with the amount of helium I put into the balloon.

  5. Survey of helium in soil gases of Long Valley, Califorina

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, M.E.; Kilburn, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Soil and water samples in and around the Long Valley geothermal area, Mono County, California, were collected and analyzed for helium by means of a modified mass spectrometer leak detector to see what relationship helium concentrations might have to geothermal features of the area, and to previously studied mercury anomalies in the area. Anomalously high concentrations of helium occurred over part of a major Sierra Nevada frontal fault and over other faults outside of the caldera. Anomalously low concentrations of helium occurred in several areas of high mercury concentrations, which were also areas of hydrothermal alteration. Quantities of helium exsolved from water samples did not fit any pattern.

  6. Electron attachment to formamide clusters in helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, F; Denifl, S; Märk, T D; Doltsinis, N L; Ellis, A M; Scheier, P

    2010-02-04

    Electron attachment to formamide clusters in helium nanodroplets is reported for the first time. In contrast to the gas phase, parent anions are seen following low energy electron attachment to both the monomer and the small clusters. This is attributed to formation of dipole (or quadrupole) bound anions. In addition to the bare anions, the mass spectra also show the monomer and clusters with attached helium atoms. The affinity for attaching helium atoms strongly varies with cluster size; for example, the dimer anion is more than 10 times more likely to bind one or more helium atoms than the monomer. Possible binding sites for the helium atoms are discussed.

  7. Helium Accumulation Behavior in Iron Based Model Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, R.; Morishita, K.; Kimura, A.

    2003-09-15

    Helium desorption from Fe-based model alloys irradiated by energetic helium ions was measured during post-irradiation annealing to investigate the energetics and kinetics of formation and annihilation of helium-related defects. Desorption temperatures were observed to be widely ranged from 450 to 1500 K, indicating that helium is bound to a wide variety of trapping sites such as vacancies and dislocations at various binding states. Such a feature is also observed in fusion ferritic steel. A comparison of helium desorption spectra obtained using Fe, Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-Ni alloys showed that helium is more strongly trapped in bcc Fe than fcc Fe. It indicates that the long distance migration of helium takes place less frequently in bcc matrix, which may reduce the probability of helium clustering. Fusion ferric steel has a lot of trapping sites for helium such as dislocations, solute atoms, the interface of precipitates, impurities and lath boundaries, and so on, and in addition, it has bct matrix, indicating that most of helium atoms must be dispersed in the matrix and therefore it is difficult for them to cluster as a bubble. This may be a reason for higher helium resistance of the steel.

  8. Review of Membranes for Helium Separation and Purification

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Colin A.; Ghosh, Ujjal K.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane gas separation has potential for the recovery and purification of helium, because the majority of membranes have selectivity for helium. This review reports on the current state of the research and patent literature for membranes undertaking helium separation. This includes direct recovery from natural gas, as an ancillary stage in natural gas processing, as well as niche applications where helium recycling has potential. A review of the available polymeric and inorganic membranes for helium separation is provided. Commercial gas separation membranes in comparable gas industries are discussed in terms of their potential in helium separation. Also presented are the various membrane process designs patented for the recovery and purification of helium from various sources, as these demonstrate that it is viable to separate helium through currently available polymeric membranes. This review places a particular focus on those processes where membranes are combined in series with another separation technology, commonly pressure swing adsorption. These combined processes have the most potential for membranes to produce a high purity helium product. The review demonstrates that membrane gas separation is technically feasible for helium recovery and purification, though membranes are currently only applied in niche applications focused on reusing helium rather than separation from natural sources. PMID:28218644

  9. Review of Membranes for Helium Separation and Purification.

    PubMed

    Scholes, Colin A; Ghosh, Ujjal K

    2017-02-17

    Membrane gas separation has potential for the recovery and purification of helium, because the majority of membranes have selectivity for helium. This review reports on the current state of the research and patent literature for membranes undertaking helium separation. This includes direct recovery from natural gas, as an ancillary stage in natural gas processing, as well as niche applications where helium recycling has potential. A review of the available polymeric and inorganic membranes for helium separation is provided. Commercial gas separation membranes in comparable gas industries are discussed in terms of their potential in helium separation. Also presented are the various membrane process designs patented for the recovery and purification of helium from various sources, as these demonstrate that it is viable to separate helium through currently available polymeric membranes. This review places a particular focus on those processes where membranes are combined in series with another separation technology, commonly pressure swing adsorption. These combined processes have the most potential for membranes to produce a high purity helium product. The review demonstrates that membrane gas separation is technically feasible for helium recovery and purification, though membranes are currently only applied in niche applications focused on reusing helium rather than separation from natural sources.

  10. Molecular dynamics study of helium bubble pressure in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jiechao; Li, Min; Wang, Jun; Hou, Qing

    2015-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to calculate the stress field in a tungsten matrix containing a nano-scale helium bubble. A helium bubble in tungsten is found to consist of a core and an interface of finite thickness of approximately 0.6 nm. The core contains only helium atoms that are uniformly distributed. The interface is composed of both helium and tungsten atoms. In the periphery region of the helium bubble, the stress filed is found to follow the stress formula based on the elasticity theory of solid. The pressure difference between both sides of the interface can be well described by the Young-Laplace equation for the core size of a helium bubble as small as 0.48 nm. A comparison was performed between the pressure in the helium bubble core and the pressure in pure helium. For a core size larger than 0.3 nm, the pressure in the core of a helium bubble is in good agreement with the pressure in pure helium of the same helium density. These results provide guidance to larger scale simulation methods, such as in kinetic Monte Carlo methods and rate theory.

  11. Superfluid Helium from the Macroscopic to the Microscopic

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sciver, Steven W. (Florida State University

    2004-02-11

    Superfluid helium, first discovered in the 1930s, continues to provide scientists with a fascinating physical system rich with phenomena that challenge experimental and theoretical investigators. Moreover, much of the recent interest in superfluid helium has emanated from the wide range of technical applications for the fluid. The combination of anomalous heat transport, low viscosity and low temperature makes superfluid helium an ideal medium for cooling technologies that range from particle accelerators such as the LHC to space infrared telescopes like the recently launched SIRTF. In turn, these applications have inspired new basic investigations of the fluid dynamic behavior of superfluid helium. The presentation will review some of the macroscopic applications for superfluid helium and the relevant superfluid phenomena that support these applications. With the audience sufficiently motivated, we will turn to recent research on the transport properties of superfluid helium culminating in microscale investigations that may provide new insight into the basic physics of superfluid helium.

  12. Helium-3 from the mantle - Primordial signal or cosmic dust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Don L.

    1993-01-01

    Helium-3 in hotspot magmas has been used as unambiguous evidence for the existence of a primordial, undegassed reservoir deep in the Earth's mantle. However, a large amount of helium-3 is delivered to the Earth's surface by interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Recycling of deep-sea sediments containing these particles to the mantle, and eventual incorporation in magma, can explain the high helium-3/helium-4 ratios of hotspot magmas. Basalts with high helium-3/helium-4 ratios may represent degassing of helium introduced by ancient (probably 1.5 to 2.0 billion years old) pelagic sediments rather than degassing of primordial lower mantle material brought to the surface in plumes. Influx of IDPs can also explain the neon and siderophile compositions of mantle samples.

  13. A superfluid helium system for an LST IR experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, R. W., Jr.; Moore, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study program directed toward evaluating the problems associated with cooling an LST instrument to 2 K for a year by using superfluid helium as the cooling means. The results include the parametric analysis of systems using helium only, and systems using helium plus a shield cryogen. A baseline system, using helium only is described. The baseline system is sized for an instrument heat leak of 50 mw. It contains 71 Kg of superfluid helium and has a total, filled weight of 217 Kg. A brief assessment of the technical problems associated with a long life, spaceborne superfluid helium storage system is also made. It is concluded that a one year life, superfluid helium cooling system is feasible, pending experimental verification of a suitable low g vent system.

  14. Helium-3 from the mantle - Primordial signal or cosmic dust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Don L.

    1993-01-01

    Helium-3 in hotspot magmas has been used as unambiguous evidence for the existence of a primordial, undegassed reservoir deep in the Earth's mantle. However, a large amount of helium-3 is delivered to the Earth's surface by interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Recycling of deep-sea sediments containing these particles to the mantle, and eventual incorporation in magma, can explain the high helium-3/helium-4 ratios of hotspot magmas. Basalts with high helium-3/helium-4 ratios may represent degassing of helium introduced by ancient (probably 1.5 to 2.0 billion years old) pelagic sediments rather than degassing of primordial lower mantle material brought to the surface in plumes. Influx of IDPs can also explain the neon and siderophile compositions of mantle samples.

  15. Two-color magneto-optical trap for metastable helium

    SciTech Connect

    Tychkov, A.S.; Koelemeij, J.C.J.; Jeltes, T.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2004-05-01

    We describe a powerful scheme which combines laser cooling on two transitions of metastable helium to obtain a high phase-space density. By running a sequence of a large 1083 nm magneto-optical trap (MOT) and a compressed 389 nm MOT, a density increase of more than one order of magnitude is achieved within 5 ms. After compression, 8x10{sup 8} atoms at a central density of 5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} remain, while the temperature of the cloud has been reduced from 1 mK to 0.4 mK. The resulting phase-space density (4.1x10{sup -6}) is more than one order of magnitude higher than what we achieved by 1083 nm laser cooling only.

  16. Upwelling process of mantle helium in northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, K.; Kazahaya, K.; Tsukamoto, H.; Morikawa, N.; Ohwada, M.; Nakama, A.

    2014-12-01

    Northeast Japan has an island arc structure where the Pacific plate subducts from the east. The helium isotope ratio is a good indicator to discriminate the origin of fluid carring helium, because the ratios in the mantle and crust are clearly different from each other. We performed a detailed study of helium isotope ratios in northeast Japan, and clarified the boundaries of the higher and lower helium isotope ratio distributions. The crustal components are dominant in the fore-arc region, whereas the mantle components dominate along the volcanic front and in the back-arc region. It is suggested that the clear contrast of the helium isotope ratio between the fore-arc and back-arc regions is due to the difference in whether helium isotope ratio of the wedge mantle or radiogenic helium-4 production rate in the crust. Specifically, we found the following characteristics; 1) comparison of the distribution between helium isotope ratios and faults revealed that the area along faults shows higher helium isotope ratios, 2) distribution of the helium isotope ratios is correlated with that of Li/Cl ratios which is the indicator of slab-derived water or magmatic water, suggesting that the mantle helium is transported by the slab-derived aqueous fluid. Important constraints on mantle helium upwelling are concluded as follows; a) the slab-derived water as the carrier of mantle helium, b) the faults, tectonic lines and volcanoes as the flow paths of slab-derived water, and c) crustal helium-4 contamination during upwelling process. *This research project has been conducted as the regulatory supporting research funded by the Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority (Secretariat of NRA), Japan.

  17. Helium-neon laser treatment transforms fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Pourreau-Schneider, N.; Ahmed, A.; Soudry, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Kopp, F.; Franquin, J. C.; Martin, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    The differentiation of myofibroblastic cells from normal human gingival fibroblasts in vitro has been established by transmission electron microscopy and quantitated by immunohistochemistry, using antigelsolin monoclonal antibodies. Untreated control cultures were compared to cultures exposed to Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation. A direct and massive transformation of the cultured fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was observed as early as 24 hours after laser treatment, whereas control cultures were comprised of only resting fibroblasts and active fibroblasts. This in vitro induction of myofibroblasts may be analogous to that which occurs in vivo. Therefore we undertook a similar study using biopsies from gingival tissues after wisdom tooth extraction. Myofibroblasts were present in the connective tissue of laser-treated gums 48 hours after irradiation, but not in untreated contralateral control tissues. These data provide evidence that the primary biologic effect of the Helium-Neon laser on connective tissue is the rapid generation of myofibroblasts from fibroblasts. The induction of a phenotype with contractile properties may have clinical significance in the acceleration of the wound-healing process. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2372040

  18. Inner radiation belt source of helium and heavy hydrogen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, A. A.; Galper, A. M.; Koldashov, S. V.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Casolino, M.; Picozza, P.; Sparvoli, R.

    Nuclear interactions between inner zone protons and atoms in the upper atmosphere provide the main source of energetic H and He isotopes nuclei in the radiation belt. This paper reports on the specified calculations of these isotope intensities using various inner zone proton intensity models (AP-8 and SAMPEX/PET PSB97), the atmosphere drift-averaged composition and density model MSIS-90, and cross-sections of the interaction processes from the GNASH nuclear model code. To calculate drift-averaged densities and energy losses of secondaries, the particles were tracked in the geomagnetic field (modelled through IGRF-95) by integrating numerically the equation of the motion. The calculations take into account the kinematics of nuclear interactions along the whole trajectory of trapped proton. The comparison with new data obtained from the experiments on board RESURS-04 and MITA satellites and with data from SAMPEX and CRRES satellites taken during different phases of solar activity shows that the upper atmosphere is a sufficient source for inner zone helium and heavy hydrogen isotopes. The calculation results are energy spectra and angular distributions of light nuclear isotopes in the inner radiation belt that may be used to develop helium inner radiation belt model and to evaluate their contribution to SEU (single event upset) rates.

  19. Spectrophotometry of extreme helium stars - Ultraviolet fluxes and effective temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heber, U.; Drilling, J. S.; Schoenberner, D.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet flux distributions are presented for the extremely helium rich stars BD +10 deg 2179, HD 124448, LSS 3378, BD -9 deg 4395, LSE 78, HD 160641, LSIV -1 deg 2, BD 1 deg 3438, HD 168476, MV Sgr, LS IV-14 deg 109 (CD -35 deg 11760), LSII +33 deg 5 and BD +1 deg 4381 (LSIV +2 deg 13) obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Broadband photometry and a newly computed grid of line blanketed model atmospheres were used to determine accurate angular diameters and total stellar fluxes. The resultant effective temperatures are in most cases in satisfactory agreement with those based on broadband photometry and/or high resolution spectroscopy in the visible. For two objects, LSII +33 deg 5 and LSE 78, disagreement was found between the IUE observations and broadband photometry: the colors predict temperatures around 20,000 K, whereas the UV spectra indicate much lower photospheric temperatures of 14,000 to 15,000 K. The new temperature scale for extreme helium stars extends to lower effective temperatures than that of Heber and Schoenberner (1981) and covers the range from 8,500 K to 32,000 K. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24433

  20. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250 μm thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8 μm thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2 μs long current peak as high as 24 mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400 Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few μs relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  1. Narrow linewidth spectroscopy in quantum degenerate metastable helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notermans, Remy; Rengelink, Robert; Vassen, Wim

    2016-05-01

    Combined with high-precision spectroscopy, QED theory allows extraction of the nuclear charge radius from spectroscopy in simple atomic systems. This recently lead to a significant discrepancy in the proton charge radius determined from hydrogen and muonic hydrogen spectroscopy, now known as the `proton size puzzle'. Spectroscopy in helium can provide additional insight in this conundrum. Our group previously measured the very weak 23 S --> 21 S transition (λ = 1557 nm, Γ = 2 π × 8 Hz) to 10-11 relative accuracy in quantum degenerate (T = 0 . 2 μ K) metastable 4 He and 3 He, allowing a 1% accurate determination of the charge radius difference of the α particle and the helion. Recent measurements in muonic He+ aim for a precision of 3 ×10-4 . In order to provide a similar precision, we aim to remeasure the transition to sub-kHz precision by reducing the linewidth of the spectroscopy laser by over an order of magnitude to the kHz level and by implementing a magic wavelength (λ = 320 nm) dipole trap operating at 2 W CW power. First measurements in a helium BEC have shown a 10 kHz asymmetric line profile due to mean-field effects. This allows for the first determination of the unknown 23 S - 21 S scattering length.

  2. Measurement of Helium-3/Helium-4 Ratios in Soil Gas at the 618-11 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B; Dresel, P Evan; Evans, John C

    2001-10-31

    Seventy soil gas-sampling points were installed around the perimeter of the 618-11 Burial Ground, approximately 400 feet downgradient of well 699-13-3A, and in four transects downgradient of the burial ground to a maximum distance of 3,100 feet. Soil gas samples were collected and analyzed for helium-3/helium-4 ratios from these 70 points. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios determined from the soil gas sampling points showed significant enrichments, relative to ambient air helium-3 concentrations. The highest concentrations were located along the northern perimeter of the burial ground. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios (normalized to the abundances in ambient air) ranged from 1.0 to 62 around the burial ground. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios from the 4 transect downgradient of the burial ground ranged from 0.988 to 1.68. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios from around the burial ground suggest there is a vadose zone source of tritium along the north side of the burial ground.

  3. A multicenter, randomized trial of noninvasive ventilation with helium-oxygen mixture in exacerbations of chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Abroug, Fekri; Diehl, Jean Luc; Antonelli, Massimo; Sauder, Philippe; Mancebo, Jordi; Ferrer, Miquel; Lellouche, Francois; Lecourt, Laurent; Beduneau, Gaetan; Brochard, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of a helium-oxygen mixture on intubation rate and clinical outcomes during noninvasive ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Seven intensive care units. A total of 204 patients with known or suspected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute dyspnea, Paco2> 45 mm Hg and two among the following factors: pH <7.35, Paco2 <50 mm Hg, respiratory rate >25/min. Noninvasive ventilation randomly applied with or without helium (inspired oxygen fraction 0.35) via a face mask. Duration and complications of NIV and mechanical ventilation, endotracheal intubation, discharge from intensive care unit and hospital, mortality at day 28, adverse and serious adverse events were recorded. Follow-up lasted until 28 days since enrollment. Intubation rate did not significantly differ between groups (24.5% vs. 30.4% with or without helium, p = .35). No difference was observed in terms of improvement of arterial blood gases, dyspnea, and respiratory rate between groups. Duration of noninvasive ventilation, length of stay, 28-day mortality, complications and adverse events were similar, although serious adverse events tended to be lower with helium (10.8% vs. 19.6%, p = .08). Despite small trends favoring helium, this study did not show a statistical superiority of using helium during NIV to decrease the intubation rate in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  4. Development and Dissemination of a Nationwide Helium Database for a National Assessment of Helium Resources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, S. T.; East, J. A., II; Garrity, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, Congress passed the Helium Stewardship Act requiring the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to undertake a national helium gas resource assessment to determine the nation's helium resources. An important initial component necessary to complete this assessment was the development of a comprehensive database of Helium (He) concentrations from petroleum exploration wells. Because Helium is often used as the carrier gas for compositional analyses for commercial and exploratory oil and gas wells, this limits the available helium concentration data. A literature search in peer-reviewed publications, state geologic survey databases, USGS energy geochemical databases, and the Bureau of Land Management databases provided approximately 16,000 data points from wells that had measurable He concentrations in the gas composition analyses. The data from these wells includes, date of sample collection, American Petroleum Institute well number, formation name, field name, depth of sample collection, and location. The gas compositional analyses, some performed as far back as 1934, do not all have the same level of precision and accuracy, therefore the date of the analysis is critical to the assessment as it indicates the relative amount of uncertainty in the analytical results. Non-proprietary data was used to create a GIS based interactive web interface that allows users to visualize, inspect, interact, and download our most current He data. The user can click on individual locations to see the available data at that location, as well as zoom in and out on a data density map. Concentrations on the map range from .04 mol% (lowest concentration of economic value) to 12% (highest naturally occurring values). This visual interface will allow users to develop a rapid appreciation of the areas with the highest potential for high helium concentrations within oil and gas fields.

  5. Hydrothermal Helium Plumes over Submarine Volcanoes of the Marianas Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, J. E.; Baker, E. T.; Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. E.; Massoth, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Greene, R.; Walker, S.; Lebon, G.

    2003-12-01

    /Ra = 5-7 generally observed for helium at subduction zone volcanic systems. At NW Rota #1, we found a strong helium plume reaching a maximum δ 3He = 320% at 460 m depth. Surprisingly, the estimate for the end-member 3He /4He at NW Rota gave R/Ra = 8.4, outside the range normally found at subduction zones and similar to that observed along MOR spreading centers. NW Rota #1 is located about 15 km west of the main arc and is part of a cross-arc volcanic chain. Craig et al. [EOS 68, No. 44, p.1531, 1987] found a similar value of R/Ra = 8.6 in vent fluids in the Mariana Trough back-arc system at 18° 13'N. Thus the higher 3He/4He ratio at NW Rota may reflect an affinity to the back-arc spreading center as opposed to a pure arc component.

  6. HIGHLY VARIABLE HELIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN THE VANUATU VOLCANIC ARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Allard, P.; Bani, P.; Garaebiti, E.; Pelletier, B.; Fourré, E.; Metrich, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Vanuatu (former New Hebrides) island arc results from the eastward subduction of the Australian plate beneath the North Fiji back-arc basin. Whereas its southern part is characterized by a single chain of volcanic islands parallel to a well-defined trench, the structure of its central part is strongly modified by the collision-subduction of the d’Entrecasteaux Zone, lacking a deep trench and consisting of three N-S chains of volcanic islands. In order to get further insight into the source of volcanism in this complex tectonic setting, we have analysed helium isotopes in groundwaters and hot springs (37°-90°C) from both the southern (Tanna and Efate) and central (Ambrym, Ambae and Pentecost) volcanic islands. Additional data were also acquired on bubbling gases and olivine phenocrysts from the islands of Ambrym and Ambae, respectively. Most waters show substantial helium enrichment (between 1.3 and 24.3 times the atmospheric solubility). 3He/4He ratios vary over a wide range, going from low (crustal He-influenced) 4.4 - 4.6 Ra and 4.8 -5.6 Ra in Efate and Pentecost respectively, to 6.3 - 7.0 Ra in Tanna, 6.8 - 8.2 Ra in Ambae, and up to 10.05 Ra in Ambrym (measured in both waters and bubbling gases). This latter value is similar to those measured in the nearby north Fiji basin (9-10 Ra - Ishibashi et al., EPSL, 1994) and approaches those, further north, of Manus basin glasses (12.2±1 Ra - Macpherson et al., Geology, 1998), suggesting a possible plume (or hotspot) influence. In Ambrym, this influence is confined to the north of the central rift zone - coincident with a major volcano-tectonic fault structure, since fluids in the southwest part of the island (a few kilometres apart) display typical arc-type ratios of 7 Ra. Interestingly, the analysis of tremor activity from the two large active cones located at the centre of the island, the Marum and Benbow volcanos, also suggest two distinct magmatic sources beneath Ambrym (Legrand et al., GRL 2005). Clearly

  7. Helium-ion-induced human cataractogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, E. A.; Daftari, I. K.; Meecham, W. J.; Alonso, L. C.; Collier, J. M.; Kroll, S. M.; Gillette, E. L.; Lee, A. C.; Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    Retrospective and ongoing analyses of clinical records from 347 primary intraocular melanoman patients treated with helium ions at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) will allow examination of the exposure-response data for human cataract; which is a complication of the therapy from incidental exposure of the lens. Direct particle beam traversal of at least a portion of the lens usually is unavoidable in treatment of posterior intraocular tumors. The precise treatment planned for each patient permits quantitative assessment of the lenticular dose and its radiation quality. We are reporting our preliminary results on the development of helium-ion-induced lens opacifications and cataracts in 54 of these patients who had 10% or less of their lens in the treatment field. We believe these studies will be relevant to estimating the human risk for cataract in space flight.

  8. Three Dimensional Particle Tracking in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megson, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Superfluid helium is a macroscopic quantum state which exhibits exotic physical properties, such as flow without friction and ballistic heat transport. Superfluid flow is irrotational except about line-like topological phase defects with quantized circulation, known as quatized vortices. The presence of these vortices and their dynamics is the dominating factor of turbulence in superfluid flows. One commonly studied regime of superfluid turbulence is thermal counterflow, where a local heat flux drives the formation and growth of a tangle of vortices. This talk will present experimental studies of counterflow turbulence performed using a multi-camera three-dimensional imaging apparatus with micron-sized ice tracer particles as well as fluorescent nanoparticles. In particular, we will discuss the measurement of three-dimensional velocties and their autocorrelations. Additionally, we are developing new techniques for optical studies of bulk superfluid helium, with particular focus on characterizing tracer particles and particle dispersal mechanisms. Funding from NSF DMR-1407472.

  9. Quantum model of the Thomson helium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaryan, E. M.; Shakhnazaryan, V. A.; Sarkisyan, H. A.; Gusev, A. A.

    2014-03-01

    A quantum model of the Thomson helium atom is considered within the framework of stationary perturbation theory. It is shown that from a formal point of view this problem is similar to that of two-electron states in a parabolic quantum dot. The ground state energy of the quantum Thomson helium atom is estimated on the basis of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The ground state energies obtained in the first order of perturbation theory and qualitative estimate provide, respectively, upper and lower estimates of eigenvalues derived by numerically solving the problem for a quantum model. The conditions under which the Kohn theorem holds in this system, when the values of resonance absorption frequencies are independent of the Coulomb interaction between electrons, are discussed.

  10. Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.

    2011-11-15

    Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a{sub 0}). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.

  11. Detection of charged particles in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Bandler, Simon R.

    1994-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with the use of a large superfluid helium detector for the detection of solar neutrinos. A small-scale prototype of this type of detector has been constructed and tested. In this thesis the author discussed in detail the design of the apparatus, the experiments which have been carried out, and what has been learned about the important physical processes involved in this type of detector. These processes include the anisotropic generation of phonons and rotons by the recoiling particle, the propagation of the phonons and rotons in the liquid, the evaporation process at the liquid surface, and the adsorption of the helium atoms onto the wafers. In addition he discusses the generation and detection of fluorescent photons from recoiling particles. The implications of these results to the design of a full-scale detector of neutrinos are discussed.

  12. Formation of Positively Charged Liquid Helium Clusters in Supercritical Helium and their Solidification upon Compression.

    PubMed

    Tarchouna, Hejer Gharbi; Bonifaci, Nelly; Aitken, Frédéric; Mendoza Luna, Luis Guillermo; von Haeften, Klaus

    2015-08-06

    Positively charged ions were produced in supercritical helium at temperatures from 6 to 10 K and up to 2 MPa using a corona discharge. Their mobility was measured via current-voltage curves, and the hydrodynamic radius was derived using Stokes law. An initial increase and subsequent decrease of hydrodynamic radius was observed and interpreted in terms of growth, compression and solidification of ion clusters. The mobility was modeled using a van der Waals-type thermodynamic state equation for the ion-in-helium mixed system and a temperature-dependent Millikan-Cunningham factor, describing experimental data both in the Knudsen and the Stokes flow region. Regions of maximum hydrodynamic radius and large compressibility were interpreted as boiling points. These points were modeled over a large range of pressures and found to match the Frenkel line of pure helium up to 0.7 MPa, reflecting similarity of density fluctuations in pure supercritical helium and gas-liquid phase transitions of ionic helium clusters.

  13. Helium synthesis, neutrino flavors, and cosmological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the production of helium in big bang cosmology is re-examined in the light of several recent astrophysical observations. These data, and theoretical particle physics considerations, lead to some important inconsistencies in the standard big bang model and suggest that a more complicated picture is needed. Thus, recent constraints on the number of neutrino flavors, as well as constraints on the mean density (openness) of the universe, need not be valid.

  14. Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

  15. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  16. Magnetic Levitation and Noncoalescence of Liquid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Weilert, M.; Whitaker, D.; Maris, H.; Seidel, G.

    1996-12-01

    We describe experiments in which drops of liquid helium-4, as large as 2cm in diameter, are magnetically levitated. We have found that, when two or more drops are levitated in the same magnetic trap, the drops often remain in a state of apparent contact without coalescing. It appears that this effect is caused by the slow evaporation of liquid from the drops. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald P.

    1985-01-01

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  18. Tkachenko waves in rotating superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Andereck, C.D.; Chalupa, J.; Glaberson, W.I.

    1980-01-07

    The resonant response of a stack of disks driven into torsional oscillation within a container of rotating superfluid helium has been observed. It is shown that the oscillation modes excited are related to Tkachenko waves, that is, vortex displacement waves in the vortex array propagating in a direction transverse to the vortex lines. In particular, the resonances occur at peaks in the vortex wave density of states.

  19. Particle-Vortex Interaction in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenghi, Carlo F.

    2008-11-01

    The application of the classical Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique in liquid helium has opened the way to better visualization of superfluid turbulence. To interpret the data, it is necessary to understand the interaction between micron-size tracer particles and vortex lines. This talk summarizes current understanding of this interaction resulting from theoretical and numerical calculations. In collaboration with Yuri A. Sergeev, Newcastle University.

  20. Liquid vapour spinodal of pure helium 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Attila R.; Kraska, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Unlike gases, liquids can be overheated or stretched only up to a limit. The determination of the mean-field thermodynamic stability limit-the so-called spinodal-is a very difficult theoretical and a more-or-less impossible experimental task. Based on a recent semi-empirical method, the spinodal pressure of helium-4 at given temperature is determined, using liquid-vapour surface tension, interface thickness and vapour pressure data.

  1. Testing fundamental interactions on the helium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Patkóš, Vojtěch; Yerokhin, Vladimir A.

    2017-06-01

    We critically examine the current status of theoretical calculations of the energies, the fine structure, and the isotope shift of the lowest-lying states of helium, searching for unresolved discrepancies with experiments. Calculations are performed within the quantum electrodynamics expansion in powers of the fine structure constant α and the electron-to-nucleus mass ratio m /M . For energies, theoretical results are complete through orders α6m and α6m2/M , with the resulting accuracy ranging from 0.5 to 2 MHz for the n =2 states. The fine-structure splitting of the 2 3P state is predicted with a much better accuracy, 1.7 kHz, as a consequence of a calculation of the next-order α7m effect. An excellent agreement of the theoretical predictions with the recent measurements of the fine structure provides one of the best tests of the bound-state QED in few-electron systems. The isotope shift between 3He and 4He is treated with a subkilohertz accuracy, which allows for a high-precision determination of the differences of the nuclear charge radii δ r2 . Several such determinations, however, yield results that are in a 4 σ disagreement with each other, which remains unexplained. Apart from this, we find no significant discrepancies between theory and experiment for the helium atom. A further calculation of the yet unknown α7m correction to energy levels will provide a sensitive test of universality in electromagnetic interactions of leptons by comparison of nuclear charge radii obtained by the helium and muonic helium spectroscopy.

  2. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  3. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1985-09-30

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos. The optimum combination is a 12 x 30 mesh coconut charcoal attached to a 0.48 cm thick copper substrate by a 0.015 cm thick silver phosphorus copper braze. A copper cement bond for attaching charcoal to a substrate was identified and tested. Helium pumping performance of this combination was comparable to that of the charcoal braze system. Environmental tests showed the charcoal's susceptibility to vacuum chamber contamination. Performance degradation followed exposure of ambient temperature charcoal to a vacuum for prolonged periods. Maintaining a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield between the charcoal and the source of contamination prevented this degradation. A combination of bake-out and LN shielding effected recovery of degraded performance.

  4. Quantum entanglement in helium-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, there have been considerable interests to investigate quantum entanglement in two-electron atoms [1-3]. Here we investigate quantum entanglement for the ground and excited states of helium-like ions using correlated wave functions, concentrating on the particle-particle entanglement coming from the continuous spatial degrees of freedom. We use the two-electron wave functions constructed by employing B-spline basis to calculate the linear entropy of the reduced density matrix L=1-TrA(ρA^2 ) as a measure of the spatial entanglement. HereρA=TrB(| >AB AB<|) is the one-electron reduced density matrix obtained after tracing the two-electron density matrix over the degrees of freedom of the other electron. We have investigated the spatial entanglement for the helium-like systems with Z=1 to Z=10. For the helium atoms (Z=2), we have calculated the linear entropy for the ground state and the 1sns ^1S^e (n=2-10) excited states. Results are compared with other calculations [1-3]. [4pt] [1] J. P. Coe and I. D'Amico, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 254, 012010 (2010) [0pt] [2] D. Manzano et. al., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43, 275301 (2010) [0pt] [3] J. S. Dehesa et. al., J. Phys. B 45, 015504 (2012)

  5. Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

  6. Surface tension effects in levitated helium drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, Carlos Luis

    We report our investigations of surface tension driven flows in magnetically levitated 4He drops. By levitating helium drops in a magnetic trap we are able to observe the free surface of drops as they undergo shape oscillations. We also study the dynamics of the free surface during the process of coalescence. Our experimental method allows us to excite shape oscillations in the levitated helium drops and measure their normal mode frequencies. By measuring the frequency of the fundamental (l = 2) mode, we obtain new measurements of the surface tension of helium for temperatures between 1.5 and 0.5 K. Our measurements extrapolate to a value of 0.375 erg cm -2 at T = 0 K. Our results agree with the capillary wave measurements of Roche et al., and Atkins and Narahra. We study how the shape of the trap used to levitate the drops influences the resonant frequency of the l = 2 mode. Measurements of the frequency spectrum were performed using different trap potentials. We have calculated the resonant frequencies for the trap shapes produced by different magnet coil currents. We compare our measurements of the resonant frequencies at various magnet currents with these theoretical predictions and find good agreement. We describe experiments to study the coalescence of He II drops levitated in a magnetic trap. Using a high speed CCD camera, we have produced movies of drops coalescing at temperatures as low as 0.7 K. We examine some interesting features of the motion during and following coalescence.

  7. Helium refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, J. Kumar, Sr.; Menon, RS; Goyal, M.; Ansari, NA; Chakravarty, A.; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid hydrogen around 20 K is used as cold moderator for generating “cold neutron beam” in nuclear research reactors. A cryogenic helium refrigeration system is the core upon which such hydrogen liquefaction applications are built. A thermodynamic process based on reversed Brayton cycle with two stage expansion using high speed cryogenic turboexpanders (TEX) along with a pair of compact high effectiveness process heat exchangers (HX), is well suited for such applications. An existing helium refrigeration system, which had earlier demonstrated a refrigeration capacity of 470 W at around 20 K, is modified based on past operational experiences and newer application requirements. Modifications include addition of a new heat exchanger to simulate cryogenic process load and two other heat exchangers for controlling the temperatures of helium streams leading out to the application system. To incorporate these changes, cryogenic piping inside the cold box is suitably modified. This paper presents process simulation, sizing of new heat exchangers as well as fabrication aspects of the modified cryogenic process piping.

  8. Feasibility study for long lifetime helium dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmley, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    A feasible concept for a launchable three year lifetime helium dewar was investigted. Current helium dewar designs were examined to see where the largest potential reductions in parasitic heat loads can be made. The study was also devoted to examining support concepts. The support concept chosen, a passive orbital disconnect strut (PODS), has an orbital support conductance that is lower by more than an order of magnitude over current tension band supports. This lower support conductance cuts the total dewar weight in half for the same three year life time requirements. Effort was also concentrated on efficient wire feed through designs and vapor cooling of the multilayer insulation, supports, wire feed throughs and plumbing penetrations. A single stage helium dewar vs. dual stage dewars with a guard cryogen of nitrogen or neon was examined. The single stage dewar concept was selected. Different support concepts were analyzed from which the PODS support concepts was chosen. A preliminary design of the dewar was thermally and structurally analyzed and laid out including system weights, thermal performance and performance sensitivities.

  9. Bose-Einstein condensation in solid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuah, Richard; Diallo, Souleymane; Kirichek, Oleg; Taylor, Jon; Glyde, Henry

    2009-03-01

    We report new measurements of the Bose-Einstein condensate fraction in solid helium. The goal is to reveal whether there is BEC associated with the superfluid fractions that have been observed in solid helium [1,2]. The condensate fraction, n0, is obtained from neutron scattering measurements of the momentum distribution, n(k), of the atoms in the solid. We use commercial grade helium (^3He concentration of 0.3 %) where the Tc for superflow is Tc = 200 mK and have measured the n(k) at 3 temperatures, 500 mK, 150 mK and 65 mK. We use a sample cell that has a large surface to volume ratio (S/V) = 40 cm-1 where large superfluid fractions have recently been reported[2]. We use a large sample volume (100 cm^3) and high instrument resolution to improve precision beyond that of previous measurements [3]. No clear sign of BEC has been observed but the data is being analyzed so that specific values of n0 can be reported. [1] E. Kim and M.H.W. Chan. Science, 305:1941 (2004); Nature, 427:225, 2004. [2]A. S. C. Rittner, and J. D. Reppy, Phys. Rev. Lett., 98:175302, 2007. [3] Diallo et al. Phys. Rev Lett. 98, 205301 (2007).

  10. Helium-flow measurement using ultrasonic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sondericker, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    While designing cryogenic instrumentation for the Colliding Beam Accelerator (CBA) helium-distribution system it became clear that accurate measurement of mass flow of helium which varied in temperature from room to sub-cooled conditions would be difficult. Conventional venturi flow meters full scale differential pressure signal would decrease by more than an order of magnitude during cooldown causing unacceptable error at operating temperature. At sub-cooled temperatures, helium would be pumped around cooling loops by an efficient, low head pressure circulating compressor. Additional pressure drop meant more pump work was necessary to compress the fluid resulting in a higher outlet temperature. The ideal mass flowmeter for this application was one which did not add pressure drop to the system, functioned over the entire temperature range, has high resolution and delivers accurate mass flow measurement data. Ultrasonic flow measurement techniques used successfully by the process industry, seemed to meet all the necessary requirements. An extensive search for a supplier of such a device found that none of the commercial stock flowmeters were adaptable to cryogenic service so the development of the instrument was undertaken by the CBA Cryogenic Control and Instrumentation Engineering Group at BNL.

  11. Method to deliver ultra high purity helium gas to a use point

    SciTech Connect

    Graczk, L.S.; Francis, A.W.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes a method to deliver helium gas to a use point comprising: (A) providing gaseous helium from a high pressure cylinder or tube into a storage container containing liquid helium; (B) passing the gaseous helium in heat exchange relation with the liquid helium to: (i) vaporize liquid helium, (ii) increase or maintain the helium pressure, and (iii) condense and/or solidify impurities out of the gaseous helium; (C) withdrawing ultra high purity helium gas comprising resulting vaporized helium and cleaned gaseous helium from the storage container; and (D) providing ultra high purity helium gas to a use point without need for further pressurization, the helium gas containing less than 10 ppm impurities.

  12. 48 CFR 8.504 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures. 8.504 Section 8.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.504 Procedures. The contracting officer...

  13. In situ controlled modification of the helium density in single helium-filled nanobubbles

    SciTech Connect

    David, M.-L. Pailloux, F.; Alix, K.; Mauchamp, V.; Pizzagalli, L.; Couillard, M.; Botton, G. A.

    2014-03-28

    We demonstrate that the helium density and corresponding pressure can be modified in single nano-scale bubbles embedded in semiconductors by using the electron beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope as a multifunctional probe: the measurement probe for imaging and chemical analysis and the irradiation source to modify concomitantly the pressure in a controllable way by fine tuning of the electron beam parameters. The control of the detrapping rate is achieved by varying the experimental conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms are discussed; our experimental observations suggest that the helium detrapping from bubbles could be interpreted in terms of direct ballistic collisions, leading to the ejection of the helium atoms from the bubble.

  14. 43 CFR 3195.34 - What happens to my Helium Distribution Contracts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens to my Helium Distribution...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.34 What happens to my Helium Distribution Contracts? Helium...

  15. 43 CFR 3195.34 - What happens to my Helium Distribution Contracts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens to my Helium Distribution...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.34 What happens to my Helium Distribution Contracts? Helium...

  16. 43 CFR 3195.34 - What happens to my Helium Distribution Contracts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens to my Helium Distribution...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.34 What happens to my Helium Distribution Contracts? Helium...

  17. 43 CFR 3195.34 - What happens to my Helium Distribution Contracts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens to my Helium Distribution...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.34 What happens to my Helium Distribution Contracts? Helium...

  18. Capacity enhancement of indigenous expansion engine based helium liquefier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doohan, R. S.; Kush, P. K.; Maheshwari, G.

    2017-02-01

    Development of technology and understanding for large capacity helium refrigeration and liquefaction at helium temperature is indispensable for coming-up projects. A new version of helium liquefier designed and built to provide approximately 35 liters of liquid helium per hour. The refrigeration capacity of this reciprocating type expansion engine machine has been increased from its predecessor version with continuous improvement and deficiency debugging. The helium liquefier has been built using components by local industries including cryogenic Aluminum plate fin heat exchangers. Two compressors with nearly identical capacity have been deployed for the operation of system. Together they consume about 110 kW of electric power. The system employs liquid Nitrogen precooling to enhance liquid Helium yield. This paper describes details of the cryogenic expander design improvements, reconfiguration of heat exchangers, performance simulation and their experimental validation.

  19. An optimized rotating helium-recondensing system using Roebuck refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sangkw. O. O. N.; Lee, C.

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes an optimized design of the helium-recondensing system utilizing cascade Roebuck refrigerators. A superconducting generator or motor has a superconducting field winding in its rotor that should be continuously cooled by cryogen. Liquid helium transfer from the stationary system to the rotor of the LTS (Low Temperature Superconductor) superconducting generator has been problematic, cumbersome, and inefficient. The novel concept of a rotating helium-recondensing system is contrived. The vaporized cold helium inside the rotor is isothermally compressed by centrifugal force and recondensed to 4.2 K reservoir through the expansion process. There is no helium coupling between the rotor and the stationary liquid helium storage. Thermodynamic analysis of the cascade refrigeration system is performed to determine the optimum key design parameters. The loss mechanisms are also described to point out the sources that might reduce the system performance.

  20. Metastable Aluminum Atoms Floating on the Surface of Helium Nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Jay; Besley, Nicholas A; Stace, Anthony J; Sarma, Gautam; Cunningham, Ethan M; Boatwright, Adrian; Yang, Shengfu; Ellis, Andrew M

    2015-06-12

    Metal atoms have proved to be sensitive probes of the properties of superfluid helium nanodroplets. To date, all experiments on the doping of helium droplets have concentrated on the attachment of metal atoms in their ground electronic states. Here we report the first examples of metal atoms in excited states becoming attached to helium nanodroplets. The atoms in question are aluminum, and they have been generated by laser ablation in a metastable quartet state, which attaches to and remains on the surface of helium droplets. Evidence for a surface location comes from electronic spectra, which consist of very narrow absorption profiles that show very small spectral shifts. Supporting ab initio calculations show there to be an energy incentive for a metastable Al atom to remain on the surface of a helium droplet rather than move to the interior. The results suggest that helium droplets may provide a method for the capture and transport of metastable excited atomic and molecular species.

  1. Dynamics of small mobile helium clusters near tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lin; Hammond, Karl D.; Wirth, Brian D.; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2014-08-01

    We report the results of a systematic atomic-scale analysis of the dynamics of small mobile helium clusters in tungsten, near tungsten surfaces. These helium clusters are attracted to tungsten surfaces due to an elastic interaction force that drives surface segregation. As the clusters migrate toward the surface, trap mutation and cluster dissociation are activated at rates higher than in the bulk. These kinetic processes are responsible for important structural, morphological, and compositional features in plasma-exposed tungsten, including surface adatoms, near-surface immobile helium-vacancy complexes, and retained helium content. Detailed results are presented for di-helium and tri-helium clusters near low-Miller-index tungsten surfaces.

  2. THERMAL UNIFORMITY OF LIQUID HELIUM IN ELECTRON BUBBLE CHAMBER.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.

    2002-07-22

    A CRYOGENIC RESEARCH APPARATUS TO MEASURE THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS UNDER A HIGH ELECTRIC FIELD IN A LIQUID HELIUM BATH WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT AT THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY AND THE NEVIS LABORATORY OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER IS A DOUBLE WALLED CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER EQUIPPED WITH 5 OPTICS WINDOWS AND 10 HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES. TO SHIELD THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER AGAINST THE EXTERNAL HEAT LOADS AND TO PROVIDE THE THERMAL UNIFORMITY IN THE LIQUID HELIUM CHAMBER, THE DOUBLE WALLED JACKET WAS COOLED BY A PUMPED HELIUM BATH. THE HELIUM CHAMBER WAS BUILT INTO A COMMERICAL LN2 / LHE CRYOSTAT. THIS PAPER PRESENTS THE DESIGN AND THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION ANALYSIS ON THERMAL UNIFORMITY OF THE ELECTRON BUBBLE CHAMBER.

  3. Neutron-induced helium implantation in GCFR cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.; Poeppel, R. B.; Sevy, R. H.

    1980-10-01

    The neutron-induced implantation of helium atoms on the exterior surfaces of the cladding of a prototypic gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) has been investigated analytically. A flux of recoil helium particles as high as 4.2 x 10/sup 10/ He/cm/sup 2/.s at the cladding surface has been calculated at the peak power location in the core of a 300-MWe GCFR. The calculated profile of the helium implantation rates indicates that although some helium is implanted as deep as 20 ..mu..m, more than 99% of helium particles are implanted in the first 2-..mu..m-deep layer below the cladding surface. Therefore, the implanted helium particles should mainly affect surface properties of the GCFR cladding.

  4. Charge transfer in helium-rich supernova plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.

    1994-01-01

    Charge transfer rate coefficients are estimated using Landau-Zener and modified Demkov approximations. The coefficients, augmented by those available from the literature, are used in statistical equilibrium equations describing the state of helium-rich supernova plasma. Such a plasma may describe both Type Ib and Type Ic supernova ejecta. The hypothesis that extensive mixing of metals with helium in Type Ic supernovae may provide a catalyst for rapid charge transfer that weakens the helium line emission by altering the excitation balance is tested. It is shown that charge transfer as a mechanism for suppressing helium line emission is ineffective unless the metal abundance is comparable to or larger than the helium abundance. This result supports an earlier conclusion that Type Ic supernovae must be helium poor relative to Type Ib events.

  5. a Measurement of Cross-Sections for Charge Transfer in Proton + Helium ---> Helium Ion + Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brower, Michael Chadbourne

    A microwave-resonance, optical-detection technique is used to measure the cross sections for charge transfer into the n = 3,L,m(,L) states of hydrogen by protons colliding with a helium gas target at energies between 30 and 80 keV. The feeding of the n = 3 states by states in higher n manifolds created by the collisions has been taken into account for the first time in this type of measurement, with a significant effect on the results. The final cross sections are one of only two measurements of the L,m(,L) cross sections in this system, and the only one to be able to resolve the 3d cross sections. The. uncertainties are 10% to 30% of the cross sections at all energies. The results are (UNFORMATTED TABLE FOLLOWS). Energy (keV). 30 50 60 80. (sigma)(,3s). 10('-18)cm('2) 1.6(3) 2.4(5) 2.0(4) 1.4(3). 3s(,0) 1 1 1 1. p(,0) 0.58(8) 0.19(2) 0.18(2) 0.13(1). p(,1) 0.36(6) 0.08(1) 0.04(1) 0.05(1). TOTAL 0.94(10) 0.27(2) 0.22(2) 0.18(1). d(,0) 0.055(10) 0.017(4) 0.019(4) 0.013(3). d(,1) 0.046(7) 0.014(3) 0.014(3) 0.010(2). d(,2) 0.022(4) 0.001(2) -0.002(2) -0.002(2). TOTAL 0.123(12) 0.032(5) 0.031(5) 0.021(4). (TABLE ENDS).

  6. Direct Evidence for an Enhancement of Helium in Giant Stars in Omega Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Strader, Jay; Smith, Graeme H.

    2011-02-01

    The double main sequence identified in the globular cluster Omega Centauri has been interpreted using isochrones to indicate a large variation in the abundance of helium. If true, a helium enhancement carries strong implications for the chemical and stellar evolutionary history of this cluster. However, only indirect measures currently support this conjecture. We report the discovery of a variation in the line strength of the near-infrared He I 10830 Å transition in 12 similar red giants in Omega Centauri observed with PHOENIX on Gemini-S. Abundances of these stars derived from Magellan/MIKE spectra taken at the Las Campanas Observatory show that the helium transition is not detected in the most metal-poor population ([Fe/H] < -1.8), yet is present in the majority of stars with [Fe/H] >= -1.8. These observations give the first direct evidence for an enhancement of helium in Omega Centauri. The appearance of helium appears better correlated with increased [Al/Fe] and [Na/Fe] abundances than as a function of [Fe/H], giving observational support to the presence of high-temperature H burning in a prior generation of stars. Data presented herein were obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). This paper also includes spectra gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescope/CLAY located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  7. Global model including multistep ionizations in helium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-12-01

    Particle and power balance equations including stepwise ionizations are derived and solved in helium plasmas. In the balance equations, two metastable states (21S1 in singlet and 23S1 triplet) are considered and the followings are obtained. The plasma density linearly increases and the electron temperature is relatively in a constant value against the absorbed power. It is also found that the contribution to multi-step ionization with respect to the single-step ionization is in the range of 8%-23%, as the gas pressure increases from 10 mTorr to 100 mTorr. Compared to the results in the argon plasma, there is little variation in the collisional energy loss per electron-ion pair created (ɛc) with absorbed power and gas pressure due to the small collision cross section and higher inelastic collision threshold energy.

  8. Attainable superheat of argon-helium, argon-neon solutions.

    PubMed

    Baidakov, Vladimir G; Kaverin, Aleksey M; Andbaeva, Valentina N

    2008-10-16

    The method of lifetime measurement has been used to investigate the kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of superheated argon-helium and argon-neon solutions. Experiments were made at a pressure of p = 1.5 MPa and concentrations up to 0.33 mol% in the range of nucleation rates from 10 (4) to 10 (8) s (-1) m (-3). The homogeneous nucleation regime has been distinguished. With good agreement between experimental data and homogeneous nucleation theory in temperature and concentration dependences of the nucleation rate, a systematic underestimation by 0.25-0.34 K has been revealed in superheat temperatures over the saturated line attained by experiment as compared with theoretical values calculated in a macroscopic approximation. The revealed disagreement between theory and experiment is connected with the dependence of the properties of new-phase nuclei on their size.

  9. Helium isotopic variations in volcanic rocks from Loihi Seamount and the Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurz, M.D.; Jenkins, W.J.; Hart, S.R.; Clague, D.

    1983-01-01

    Helium isotopic ratios ranging from 20 to 32 times the atmospheric 3He 4He(RA) have been observed in a suite of 15 basaltic glasses from the Loihi Seamount. These ratios, which are up to four times higher than those of MORB glasses and more than twice those of nearby Kilauea, are strongly suggestive of a primitive source of volatiles supplying this volcanism. The Loihi glasses measured span a broad compositional range, and the 3He/4He ratios were found to be generally lower for the alkali basalts than for the tholeiites. The component with a lower 3He 4He ratio appears to be associated with olivine xenocrysts, within which fluid inclusions are probably the carrier of contaminant helium. One Loihi sample has a much lower isotopic ratio ( 30 RA) helium with some (variable) component of lithospheric contamination added during "breakthrough", while the later stages are characterized by a relaxation toward lithospheric 3He 4He ratios (??? 8 RA) due to isolation of the diapir from the mantle below (as the plate moves on), and subsequent mining of the inherited helium and contamination from the surrounding lithosphere. The abrupt contrast in 3He 4He ratios between Kilauea and Loihi, despite their close proximity, is indicative of the small lateral extent of the plume. ?? 1983.

  10. Effect of grain microstructure on thermal helium desorption from pure iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefaix-Jeuland, H.; Moll, S.; Jourdan, T.; Legendre, F.

    2013-03-01

    Experiments were carried out to evidence the role played by grain boundaries on He/Fe interactions. Three microstructures involving grain sizes from 2 to 100 μm in average diameter were irradiated with 8-keV 4He+ ions at 298 K and helium desorption was then studied during constant rate heating by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) from room temperature to 1330 K. The two larger microstructures (40 and 100 μm) could be characterised with the same multiple desorption groups, combining helium involved in small and large clusters as well as in bubbles. The finer microstructural scale (2 μm) was peculiar due to the existence of a broad split of desorption peak (at 856 and 917 K). Such a peak is ascribed to the movement of grain boundaries during recrystallization which drains helium towards surface. The high density of grain boundaries in the finer microstructure also explains the thermal shift and the larger desorption at low temperatures. As a first step towards the quantitative assessment of this effect, cluster dynamics simulation have been performed in order to give the quantity of helium trapped in grain boundaries for the different microstructures.

  11. Effects of pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide and helium on renal function and morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Pedro Felipe Silva de; Durães, Leonardo Castro; Carvalho, Felipe Augusto Neves Oliveira de; Duarte, Sérgio Andurte Carvalho; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Sousa, João Batista de

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide and helium on renal function and morphology in a rat model. Twenty four rats were randomized into three groups (n=8): gasless insufflation ('open', Pressure=0 mmHg), carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum at 12 mmHg, and helium pneumoperitoneum at 12 mmHg; all lasting 90 minutes.. A cystostomy was performed and the bladder was emptied. At the end of the experiment, the urine produced, a blood sample and the left kidney of each animal were collected. The following variables were obtained: serum sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine, urine volume and creatinine. The creatinine clearance was estimated for each animal. The kidneys were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and evaluated by a pathologist blinded to the groups. The CO2 and Helium groups did not differ in the variables evaluated. Both developed oliguria (p<0.001 vs. gasless). The CO2 group presented hyperkalemia compared to gasless (p=0.05), which did not attain significance in the helium group. Histopathological analysis revealed mild hydropic degeneration and congestion in the three groups, with no significant difference among them. The type of gas resulted in no difference in the variables of renal function and morphology assessed. The increase in serum potassium was only observed with CO2 insufflation suggests a combined effect of elevated intra-abdominal pressure and metabolic effects of pneumoperitoneum.

  12. A computational modeling study on the helium atmospheric pressure plasma needle discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Mu-Yang; Yang, Cong-Ying; Liu, San-Qiu; Wang, Zhen-Dong; Lv, Yan; Wang, De-Zhen

    2015-12-01

    A two-dimensional coupled model of neutral gas flow and plasma dynamics is employed to investigate the streamer dynamics in a helium plasma needle at atmospheric pressure. A parametric study of the streamer propagation as a function of needle tip curvature radius and helium gas flow rate is presented. The key chemical reactions at the He/air mixing layer which drive the streamer propagation are the direct ionization via collision with electrons, the Penning effect being not so crucial. With increasing the gas flow rate from 0.2 standard liter per minute (SLM) to 0.8 SLM, however, the emissions resulting from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species change from a solid circle to a hollow profile and the average streamer propagation velocity decreases. Air impurities (backdiffusion from ambient air) in the helium jet result in a significant increase in the streamer propagation velocity. Besides, with decreasing the tip curvature radiusfrom 200 μm to 100 μm, the electron avalanche process around the near-tip region is more pronounced. However, the spatially resolved plasma parameters distributions (electron, helium metastables, ground state atomic oxygen, etc.) remain almost the same, except that around the near-tip region where their peak values are more than doubled. Project supported partly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11465013), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20151BAB212012), and in part by the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2015DFA61800).

  13. Helium-induced cardioprotection of healthy and hypertensive rat myocardium in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oei, Gezina T M L; Huhn, Ragnar; Heinen, Andre; Hollmann, Markus W; Schlack, Wolfgang S; Preckel, Benedikt; Weber, Nina C

    2012-06-05

    Helium protects healthy myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury by early and late preconditioning (EPC, LPC) and postconditioning (PostC). We investigated helium-induced PostC of the hypertensive heart and enhancement by addition of LPC and EPC. We also investigated involvement of signaling kinases glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) and protein kinase C-epsilon (PKC-ε). To assess myocardial cell damage, we performed infarct size measurements in healthy Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, n=8-9) and Spontaneous Hypertensive rats (SHR, n=8-9) subjected to 25 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Rats inhaled 70% helium for 15 min after index ischemia (PostC), combined with 15 min helium 24h prior to index ischemia (LPC+PostC), a triple intervention with additional 3 short cycles of 5 min helium inhalation shortly before ischemia (EPC+LPC+PostC), or no further treatment. In WKY rats, PostC reduced infarct size from 46 ± 2% (mean ± S.E.M) in the control group to 29 ± 2%. LPC+PostC or EPC+LPC+PostC reduced infarct sizes to a similar extent (30 ± 3% and 32 ± 2% respectively). In SHR, EPC+LPC+PostC reduced infarct size from 53 ± 3% in control to 39 ± 3%, while PostC or LPC+PostC alone were not protective; infarct size 48 ± 4% and 44 ± 4%, respectively. Neither PostC in WKY rats nor EPC+LPC+PostC in SHR was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of GSK-3β and PKC-ε after 15 min of reperfusion. Concluding, a triple intervention of helium conditioning results in cardioprotection in SHR, whereas a single intervention does not. In WKY rats, the triple intervention does not further augment protection. Helium conditioning is not associated with a mechanism involving GSK-3β and PKC-ε. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Helium induces preconditioning in human endothelium in vivo.

    PubMed

    Smit, Kirsten F; Oei, Gezina T M L; Brevoord, Daniel; Stroes, Erik S; Nieuwland, Rienk; Schlack, Wolfgang S; Hollmann, Markus W; Weber, Nina C; Preckel, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    Helium protects myocardium by inducing preconditioning in animals. We investigated whether human endothelium is preconditioned by helium inhalation in vivo. Forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in healthy volunteers (each group n = 10) was performed by inflating a blood pressure cuff for 20 min. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses were measured after cumulative dose-response infusion of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, at baseline and after 15 min of reperfusion using strain-gauge, venous occlusion plethysmography. Helium preconditioning was applied by inhalation of helium (79% helium, 21% oxygen) either 15 min (helium early preconditioning [He-EPC]) or 24 h before I/R (helium late preconditioning). Additional measurements of He-EPC were done after blockade of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Plasma levels of cytokines, adhesion molecules, and cell-derived microparticles were determined. Forearm I/R attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (acetylcholine) with unaltered endothelium-independent response (sodium nitroprusside). Both He-EPC and helium late preconditioning attenuated I/R-induced endothelial dysfunction (max increase in forearm blood flow in response to acetylcholine after I/R was 180 ± 24% [mean ± SEM] without preconditioning, 573 ± 140% after He-EPC, and 290 ± 32% after helium late preconditioning). Protection of helium was comparable to ischemic preconditioning (max forearm blood flow 436 ± 38%) and was not abolished after endothelial nitric oxide synthase blockade. He-EPC did not affect plasma levels of cytokines, adhesion molecules, or microparticles. Helium is a nonanesthetic, nontoxic gas without hemodynamic side effects, which induces early and late preconditioning of human endothelium in vivo. Further studies have to investigate whether helium may be an instrument to induce endothelial preconditioning in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

  15. Future nuclear plants could put pressure on helium supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The next generation of nuclear power stations could put extra demands on the world's supply of helium gas, researchers said at a meeting last month in Cambridge, UK, on the future of helium. The new power stations, which each would require several hundred tonnes of helium in their lifetimes to cool the reactor core, could increase the cost of the gas and make life harder for researchers who need to buy it for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments and low-temperature physics.

  16. Super-Maxwellian helium evaporation from pure and salty water.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Christine; Kann, Zachary R; Faust, Jennifer A; Skinner, J L; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2016-01-28

    Helium atoms evaporate from pure water and salty solutions in super-Maxwellian speed distributions, as observed experimentally and modeled theoretically. The experiments are performed by monitoring the velocities of dissolved He atoms that evaporate from microjets of pure water at 252 K and 4-8.5 molal LiCl and LiBr at 232-252 K. The average He atom energies exceed the flux-weighted Maxwell-Boltzmann average of 2RT by 30% for pure water and 70% for 8.5m LiBr. Classical molecular dynamics simulations closely reproduce the observed speed distributions and provide microscopic insight into the forces that eject the He atoms from solution. Comparisons of the density profile and He kinetic energies across the water-vacuum interface indicate that the He atoms are accelerated by He-water collisions within the top 1-2 layers of the liquid. We also find that the average He atom kinetic energy scales with the free energy of solvation of this sparingly soluble gas. This free-energy difference reflects the steeply decreasing potential of mean force on the He atoms in the interfacial region, whose gradient is the repulsive force that tends to expel the atoms. The accompanying sharp decrease in water density suppresses the He-water collisions that would otherwise maintain a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, allowing the He atom to escape at high energies. Helium is especially affected by this reduction in collisions because its weak interactions make energy transfer inefficient.

  17. Super-Maxwellian helium evaporation from pure and salty water

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Christine; Kann, Zachary R.; Faust, Jennifer A.; Skinner, J. L. E-mail: nathanson@chem.wisc.edu; Nathanson, Gilbert M. E-mail: nathanson@chem.wisc.edu

    2016-01-28

    Helium atoms evaporate from pure water and salty solutions in super-Maxwellian speed distributions, as observed experimentally and modeled theoretically. The experiments are performed by monitoring the velocities of dissolved He atoms that evaporate from microjets of pure water at 252 K and 4–8.5 molal LiCl and LiBr at 232–252 K. The average He atom energies exceed the flux-weighted Maxwell-Boltzmann average of 2RT by 30% for pure water and 70% for 8.5m LiBr. Classical molecular dynamics simulations closely reproduce the observed speed distributions and provide microscopic insight into the forces that eject the He atoms from solution. Comparisons of the density profile and He kinetic energies across the water-vacuum interface indicate that the He atoms are accelerated by He–water collisions within the top 1-2 layers of the liquid. We also find that the average He atom kinetic energy scales with the free energy of solvation of this sparingly soluble gas. This free-energy difference reflects the steeply decreasing potential of mean force on the He atoms in the interfacial region, whose gradient is the repulsive force that tends to expel the atoms. The accompanying sharp decrease in water density suppresses the He–water collisions that would otherwise maintain a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, allowing the He atom to escape at high energies. Helium is especially affected by this reduction in collisions because its weak interactions make energy transfer inefficient.

  18. Super-Maxwellian helium evaporation from pure and salty water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Christine; Kann, Zachary R.; Faust, Jennifer A.; Skinner, J. L.; Nathanson, Gilbert M.

    2016-01-01

    Helium atoms evaporate from pure water and salty solutions in super-Maxwellian speed distributions, as observed experimentally and modeled theoretically. The experiments are performed by monitoring the velocities of dissolved He atoms that evaporate from microjets of pure water at 252 K and 4-8.5 molal LiCl and LiBr at 232-252 K. The average He atom energies exceed the flux-weighted Maxwell-Boltzmann average of 2RT by 30% for pure water and 70% for 8.5m LiBr. Classical molecular dynamics simulations closely reproduce the observed speed distributions and provide microscopic insight into the forces that eject the He atoms from solution. Comparisons of the density profile and He kinetic energies across the water-vacuum interface indicate that the He atoms are accelerated by He-water collisions within the top 1-2 layers of the liquid. We also find that the average He atom kinetic energy scales with the free energy of solvation of this sparingly soluble gas. This free-energy difference reflects the steeply decreasing potential of mean force on the He atoms in the interfacial region, whose gradient is the repulsive force that tends to expel the atoms. The accompanying sharp decrease in water density suppresses the He-water collisions that would otherwise maintain a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, allowing the He atom to escape at high energies. Helium is especially affected by this reduction in collisions because its weak interactions make energy transfer inefficient.

  19. Simplified Helium Refrigerator Cycle Analysis Using the `Carnot Step'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.

    2006-04-01

    An analysis of the Claude form of an idealized helium liquefier for the minimum input work reveals the `Carnot Step' for helium refrigerator cycles. As the `Carnot Step' for a multi-stage polytropic compression process consists of equal pressure ratio stages; similarly for an idealized helium liquefier the `Carnot Step' consists of equal temperature ratio stages for a given number of expansion stages. This paper presents the analytical basis and some useful equations for the preliminary examination of existing and new Claude helium refrigeration cycles.

  20. Helium vs. Proton Induced Displacement Damage in Electronic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringo, Sawnese; Barghouty, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the specific effects of displacement damage due to the passage of protons and helium nuclei on some typical electronic materials will be evaluated and contrasted. As the electronic material absorbs the energetic proton and helium momentum, degradation of performance occurs, eventually leading to overall failure. Helium nuclei traveling at the same speed as protons are expected to impart more to the material displacement damage; due to the larger mass, and thus momentum, of helium nuclei compared to protons. Damage due to displacement of atoms in their crystalline structure can change the physical properties and hence performance of the electronic materials.

  1. Helium resources of the United States, 1989. Information Circular/1990

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.D.; Hamak, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The helium resources base of the United States was estimated by the Bureau of Mines to be 894.6 Bcf as of January 1, 1989. These resources are divided into four categories in decreasing degree of the assurance of their existence: (1) helium in storage and in proved natural gas reserves, 282.4 Bcf, (2) helium in probable natural gas resources, estimated at 237.7 Bcf, (3) helium in possible natural gas resources, estimated to be 263.1 Bcf, and (4) helium in speculative natural gas resources, 111.4 Bcf. These helium resources are further divided into depleting and nondepleting, with the helium in storage being in a separate classification. The depleting resources are those associated with natural gasfields that are, or will be, produced for the natural gas they contain. Almost all of the helium in potential (probable, possible, and speculative) natural gas resources is included in this classification. These depleting resources are estimated to contain 775 Bcf of the total helium resource base.

  2. A study of helium mobility in polycrystalline uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, P.; Martin, G.; Desgardin, P.; Carlot, G.; Sauvage, T.; Sabathier, C.; Castellier, E.; Khodja, H.; Barthe, M.-F.

    2012-11-01

    The mobility of Helium in polycrystalline uranium dioxide was studied by implanting samples with 3He ions at depths of approximately 1 μm and at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Samples were subsequently annealed at temperatures ranging between 700 °C and 1100 °C. Helium movement was then characterised using three different types of Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the 3He(d,α)p reaction. The fraction of helium released from samples was measured during annealing at high temperature as a function of time. After each annealing sequence, helium depth profiles were obtained for each sample. In some cases, samples were characterised over small areas (60 × 60 μm2), using a micrometre size deuteron beam. This enables the measurement of helium distributions at the surface of samples. Using this novel approach which provides time and space dependent information relating to helium atom location, we show that grain boundaries act as effective short circuits for helium movement and release at all temperatures. Also, at temperatures above approximately 800 °C, in areas around the grain boundaries extending into the grain over distances of the order of microns, helium diffusion is high. In areas further into the grain, diffusion proceeds much more slowly presumably as a result of helium cluster formation. These observations are interpreted based on radiation damage production and annealing processes.

  3. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W. X.; Dendooven, P.; Gloos, K.; Takahashi, N.; Arutyunov, K.; Pekola, J. P.; Äystö, J.

    2003-05-01

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyväskylä, Finland. An open 223Ra alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling 219Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface was possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactivity detection. An efficiency of 36% was obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  4. A tight-binding potential for helium in carbon systems.

    PubMed

    Granot, Rebecca; Baer, Roi

    2008-12-07

    The presence of helium in carbon systems, such as diamonds and fullerenes is of interest for planetary sciences, geophysics, astrophysics, and evolution biology. Such systems typically involve a large number of atoms and require a fast method for assessing the interaction potential and forces. We developed a tight-binding approach, based on density functional calculations, which includes a many-body potential term. This latter term is essential for consolidating the density functional results of helium in bulky diamond and Helium passing through a benzene ring which is important for helium-fullerene applications. The method is simple to apply and exhibits good transferability properties.

  5. Helium Storage and Transfer Subsystem design description. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    1987-07-01

    The Helium Storage and Transfer Subsystem (HSTS) consists of two parts. The first consists of nine (9) high pressure storage tanks containing helium at 15.6 MPa (2250 psig). These tanks provide makeup and purge helium at a rate of 1216 kg per y (2680 lb/y) to the various helium users, including circulator bearing seals, analysis packages, and cooling system surge tanks. The second, larger part of the system, provides for the low pressure storage of 6078 kg (13,400 lb) of primary coolant helium in 180 storage tanks at 7.0 MPa (1000 psig). The system serves all four (4) reactor modules. The low pressure storage part of the system receives helium from the discharge of Helium Purification Subsystem (HPS) and is activated during depressurization and pumpup operations only. It is not required to operate continuously. Storage capacity is provided for primary helium coolant from two reactor modules. However, since depressurization and pumpup operations are performed for only one reactor module at a time, two 50% capacity low pressure transfer compressors are provided having a total transfer capacity of 340 am{sup 3}/h (200 acfm) which is sufficient to service one module. High pressure helium is supplied continuously to all the four reactor modules simultaneously from the high pressure storage tanks. These tanks are replaced periodically with fresh tanks.

  6. The influence of superfluidity on impurities condensation in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, E. B.

    2012-11-01

    All major aspects of the influence of superfluidity in He II on the processes of condensation of impurities suspended in it have been analyzed. Particular attention is given to the recently discovered phenomenon of impurities coalescence catalysis by quantized vortices in superfluid helium. The presence of quantized vortices not only tremendously accelerates the condensation process for any substance introduced into liquid helium but also gives rise to a completely new product—long and thin nanowires. The role of local overheating, which accompanies coalescence of particles inside superfluid helium, in formation of morphology and structure of impurity-helium condensates, including molecular crystals containing stabilized active atoms, is elucidated.

  7. A tight-binding potential for helium in carbon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Rebecca; Baer, Roi

    2008-12-01

    The presence of helium in carbon systems, such as diamonds and fullerenes is of interest for planetary sciences, geophysics, astrophysics, and evolution biology. Such systems typically involve a large number of atoms and require a fast method for assessing the interaction potential and forces. We developed a tight-binding approach, based on density functional calculations, which includes a many-body potential term. This latter term is essential for consolidating the density functional results of helium in bulky diamond and Helium passing through a benzene ring which is important for helium-fullerene applications. The method is simple to apply and exhibits good transferability properties.

  8. Helium-induced hardening effect in polycrystalline tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fanhang; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Ailin; Peng, Shixiang; Xue, Jianming; Wang, Yugang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, helium induced hardening effect of tungsten was investigated. 50 keV He2+ ions at fluences vary from 5 × 1015 cm-2 to 5 × 1017 cm-2 were implanted into polycrystalline tungsten at RT to create helium bubble-rich layers near the surface. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the irradiated specimens were studied by TEM and nano-indentor. Helium bubble rich layers are formed in near surface region, and the layers become thicker with the rise of fluences. Helium bubbles in the area of helium concentration peak are found to grow up, while the bubble density is almost unchanged. Obvious hardening effect is induced by helium implantation in tungsten. Micro hardness increases rapidly with the fluence firstly, and more slowly when the fluence is above 5 × 1016 cm-2. The hardening effect of tungsten can be attributed to helium bubbles, which is found to be in agreement with the Bacon-Orowan stress formula. The growing diameter is the major factor rather than helium bubbles density (voids distance) in the process of helium implantation at fluences below 5 × 1017 cm-2.

  9. Modeling of helium transport and exhaust in the LHD edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, A.; Kobayashi, M.; Schmitz, O.; Akerson, A. R.; Effenberg, F.; Frerichs, H.; Feng, Y.; Hegna, C. C.; Ida, K.; The LHD Experimental Group

    2016-12-01

    Experimental results from LHD show a reduction of helium concentration in the plasma with the introduction of a magnetic island on the m/n  =  1/1 resonant surface in the plasma edge. Simulations of the plasma with and without the island are carried out with the coupled code EMC3-EIRENE and compared to charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements of ionized core helium, and visible spectroscopy measurements of edge neutral helium. The numerical simulations indicate that the experimental parameters lie in a high density regime where the impurity transport is dominated by the outward directed friction force. The EMC3-EIRENE simulations capture the reduction in helium transport well and indicate that: (1) the reduction in core helium is a result of increased outward transport caused by the magnetic island and an increased opening of the edge-surface layer to the divertor plates; (2) the dominant source of neutral helium is best modeled by recycled helium at the targets; and (3) ionized helium density profiles are best matched in the simulations when there is a large core helium source in addition to a smaller edge source.

  10. Radiation effects on microstructure and hardness of a titanium aluminide alloy irradiated by helium ions at room and elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tao; Zhu, Hanliang; Ionescu, Mihail; Dayal, Pranesh; Davis, Joel; Carr, David; Harrison, Robert; Edwards, Lyndon

    2015-04-01

    A 45XD TiAl alloy possessing a lamellar microstructure was irradiated using 5 MeV helium ions to a fluence of 5 × 1021 ion m-2 (5000 appm) with a dose of about 1 dpa (displacements per atom). A uniform helium ion stopping damage region about 17 μm deep from the target surface was achieved by applying an energy degrading wheel. Radiation damage defects including helium-vacancy clusters and small helium bubbles were found in the microstructure of the samples irradiated at room temperature. With increasing irradiation temperature to 300 °C and 500 °C helium bubbles were clearly observed in both the α2 and γ phases of the irradiated microstructure. By means of nanoindentation significant irradiation hardening was measured. For the samples irradiated at room temperature the hardness increased from 5.6 GPa to 8.5 GPa and the irradiation-hardening effect reduced to approximately 8.0 GPa for the samples irradiated at 300 °C and 500 °C.

  11. Federal helium program: The reaction over an inert gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mielke, J.E.

    1996-10-09

    Helium, present in relatively high concentrations in only a few natural gas fields, is released to the atmosphere and wasted when the natural gas is burned as fuel. Government involvement in helium conservation dates to the Helium Act of 1925 which authorized the Bureau of Mines to build and operate a large-scale helium extraction and purification plant. From 1929 until 1960 the federal government was the only domestic helium producer. In 1960, Congress amended the Helium Act to provide incentives to natural gas producers for stripping natural gas of its helium, for purchase of the separated helium by the government, and for its long-term storage. With over 960 million cubic meters (34.6 billion cubic feet) of helium in government storage and a large private helium recovery industry, questions arise as to the need for either the federal helium extraction program or the federally maintained helium stockpile.

  12. Helium-3 and helium-4 acceleration by high power laser pulses for hadron therapy

    DOE PAGES

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; ...

    2015-06-24

    The laser driven acceleration of ions is considered a promising candidate for an ion source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases. Though proton and carbon ion sources are conventionally used for therapy, other light ions can also be utilized. Whereas carbon ions require 400 MeV per nucleon to reach the same penetration depth as 250 MeV protons, helium ions require only 250 MeV per nucleon, which is the lowest energy per nucleon among the light ions (heavier than protons). This fact along with the larger biological damage to cancer cells achieved by helium ions, than that by protons, makes thismore » species an interesting candidate for the laser driven ion source. Two mechanisms (magnetic vortex acceleration and hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration) of PW-class laser driven ion acceleration from liquid and gaseous helium targets are studied with the goal of producing 250 MeV per nucleon helium ion beams that meet the hadron therapy requirements. We show that He3 ions, having almost the same penetration depth as He4 with the same energy per nucleon, require less laser power to be accelerated to the required energy for the hadron therapy.« less

  13. Helium transport and ash control studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Primary goal of this research is to develop a helium (ash) transport scaling law based on experimental data from devices such as TFTR and JET. To illustrate the importance of this, we have studied ash accumulation effects on ignition requirements using a O-D transport model. Ash accumulation is characterized in the model by the ratio of the helium particle confinement time to the energy confinement time t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. Results show that the ignition window'' shrinks rapidly as t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. A best'' value for t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} will ultimately be determined from our scaling law studies. A helium transport scaling law is being sought that expresses the transport coefficients (D{sub {alpha}}, V{sub {alpha}}) as a function of the local plasma parameters. This is necessary for use in transport code calculations, e.g. for BALDUR. Based on experimental data from L-mode plasma operation in TFTR, a scaling law to a power law expression has been obtained using a least-square fit method. It is found that the transport coefficients are strongly affected by the local magnetic field and safety factor q. A preliminary conclusion from this work is that active control of ash buildup must be developed. To study control, we have developed a O-D plasma model which employs a simple pole-placement control model. Some preliminary calculations with this model are presented.

  14. Helium embrittlement of a lamellar titanium aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, P.; Chen, J.; Jung, P.; Sauvage, T.; Hoffelner, W.; Spätig, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Embrittlement by helium was investigated in a lamellar TiAl alloy under two conditions: Specimens were implanted to various amounts of helium up to 762 appm at temperatures from 630 °C to 1000 °C and some of them subsequently creep-tested at the same temperature under stresses from 150 to 300 MPa. The microstructure and fracture surfaces of creep-deformed and non-creep-deformed specimens were then studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Specimens were implanted to various amounts of helium at a low temperature (150 °C) and post-implantation annealed at elevated temperatures for TEM studies. Embrittlement was revealed by reduction in time- and strain-to-rupture and by a transition in fracture surface from ductile to an inter-lamellar appearance. Embrittlement occurred above a critical He concentration, which decreased from about 10 appm at 700 °C to below 6 appm at 900 °C. TEM showed that embrittlement could be associated to reaching a critical bubble diameter of about 5 nm. Bubble diameters increased with increasing temperature ranging in high-temperature implanted specimens from about 3 nm (630 °C) to 20 nm (1000 °C) and in post-implantation annealed ones from 1.2 nm (600 °C) to 2.2 nm (900 °C), respectively. With increasing temperature, the bubble distribution grew less homogenous with a lower density of larger bubbles situated preferentially at interfaces and sinks. This was ascribed to a change in bubble nucleation mode from homogeneous di-atomic nucleation at lower temperatures to multi-atomic nucleation at sinks at higher temperature.

  15. Redetermination of the Helium Abundances in HII Regions in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holovatyi, V. V.; Melekh, B. Ya.

    2005-09-01

    The He/H abundances in HII regions in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies are redetermined using the new recombination coefficients of Benjamin et al. The electron number density n e in the He+ region, optical depth τ 3889 in the HeI λ3889 Å line, and coefficient of underlying stellar absorption a HeI are determined using the self-consistent method of Olive and Skillman. The primordial helium abundance and its enrichment are found using the helium abundances obtained in this paper and heavy-element abundances from our recent paper I: Y p = 0.244 ± 0.004 and dY/dZ = 8.8 ± 4.6.

  16. Nucleosynthesis in helium-enriched asymptotic giant branch models: Implications for heavy element enrichment in ω Centauri

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the effect of helium enrichment on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1.7 M {sub ☉} and 2.36 M {sub ☉} with a metallicity of Z = 0.0006 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.4). We calculate evolutionary sequences with the primordial helium abundance (Y = 0.24) and with helium-enriched compositions (Y = 0.30, 0.35, 0.40). For comparison, we calculate models of the same mass but at a lower metallicity Z = 0.0003 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.8) with Y = 0.24. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed on each of the evolutionary sequences to determine the production of elements from hydrogen to bismuth. Elemental surface abundance predictions and stellar yields are presented for each model. The models with enriched helium have shorter main sequence and AGB lifetimes, and they enter the AGB with a more massive hydrogen-exhausted core than the primordial helium model. The main consequences are as follows: (1) low-mass AGB models with enhanced helium will evolve more than twice as fast, giving them the chance to contribute sooner to the chemical evolution of the forming globular clusters, and (2) the stellar yields will be strongly reduced relative to their primordial helium counterparts. An increase of ΔY = 0.10 at a given mass decreases the yields of carbon by up to ≈60% and of fluorine by up to 80%; it also decreases the yields of the s-process elements barium and lanthanum by ≈45%. While the yields of first s-process peak elements strontium, yttrium, and zirconium decrease by up to 50%, the yields of rubidium either do not change or increase.

  17. Nucleosynthesis in Helium-enriched Asymptotic Giant Branch Models: Implications for Heavy Element Enrichment in ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the effect of helium enrichment on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1.7 M ⊙ and 2.36 M ⊙ with a metallicity of Z = 0.0006 ([Fe/H] ≈-1.4). We calculate evolutionary sequences with the primordial helium abundance (Y = 0.24) and with helium-enriched compositions (Y = 0.30, 0.35, 0.40). For comparison, we calculate models of the same mass but at a lower metallicity Z = 0.0003 ([Fe/H] ≈-1.8) with Y = 0.24. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed on each of the evolutionary sequences to determine the production of elements from hydrogen to bismuth. Elemental surface abundance predictions and stellar yields are presented for each model. The models with enriched helium have shorter main sequence and AGB lifetimes, and they enter the AGB with a more massive hydrogen-exhausted core than the primordial helium model. The main consequences are as follows: (1) low-mass AGB models with enhanced helium will evolve more than twice as fast, giving them the chance to contribute sooner to the chemical evolution of the forming globular clusters, and (2) the stellar yields will be strongly reduced relative to their primordial helium counterparts. An increase of ΔY = 0.10 at a given mass decreases the yields of carbon by up to ≈60% and of fluorine by up to 80%; it also decreases the yields of the s-process elements barium and lanthanum by ≈45%. While the yields of first s-process peak elements strontium, yttrium, and zirconium decrease by up to 50%, the yields of rubidium either do not change or increase.

  18. Heat capacity of helium in cylindrical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatica, S. M.; Hernández, E. S.; Szybisz, L.

    2003-10-01

    We perform a systematic investigation of the structure, elementary, and phonon excitations of quantum fluid 4He adsorbed in the interior of carbon nanotubes. We show that the helium fluid inside the cylinder behaves exactly as in planar films on a graphite substrate, presenting the same kind of layering transition. This tendency is confirmed by the behavior of a single 3He impurity diluted into adsorbed 4He. We also present a simple description of the lowest excitation modes of the adsorbed fluid and compute the low-temperature contribution of the phonon spectrum to the specific heat, which displays the dimensionality characteristics reported in previous works.

  19. Production of thorium-229 using helium nuclei

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed [Knoxville, TN; Garland, Marc Alan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A method for producing .sup.229Th includes the steps of providing .sup.226Ra as a target material, and bombarding the target material with alpha particles, helium-3, or neutrons to form .sup.229Th. When neutrons are used, the neutrons preferably include an epithermal neutron flux of at least 1.times.10.sup.13 n s.sup.-1cm.sup.-2. .sup.228Ra can also be bombarded with thermal and/or energetic neutrons to result in a neutron capture reaction to form .sup.229Th. Using .sup.230Th as a target material, .sup.229Th can be formed using neutron, gamma ray, proton or deuteron bombardment.

  20. Lamb shift in the muonic helium ion

    SciTech Connect

    Martynenko, A. P.

    2007-07-15

    The Lamb shift (2P{sub 1/2}-2S{sub 1/2}) in the muonic helium ion ({mu}-{sub 2}{sup 4}He){sup +} is calculated with the account of contributions of orders {alpha}{sup 3}, {alpha}{sup 4}, {alpha}{sup 5}, and {alpha}{sup 6}. Special attention is given to corrections of the electron vacuum polarization, the nuclear structure, and recoil effects. The obtained numerical value of the Lamb shift 1381.72 meV can be considered as a reliable estimate for the comparison with experimental data.

  1. Two-Photon Complete Fragmentation of Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, James; Pindzola, M. S.

    2002-05-01

    A time-dependent close-coupling method is used to calculate, for the first time, fully differential cross sections for the complete fragmentation of helium by two photons. Surprising differences are found in comparisons with previous calculations. These differences are found to be due to a core-excited resonance enhancement of the two-photon proces for both single and double ionization. These calculations provide theoretical support for ground-breaking measurements expected to be obtained from free-electron X-ray laser experiments to be made at Hamburg.

  2. Stability of the Helium-Antiproton System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of their Born-Oppenheimer calculations of this system Todd and Armour noted that the lowest-lying state closely resembles the hydrogen negative ion, since the antiproton lies very close to the helium nucleus and shields one unit of nuclear charge. In the present paper this observation will be taken seriously to produce a variationally correct estimate of the total energy of this system, along with a similar estimate of the energy of the once-ionized system. The nonadiabatic effect of exactly treating the reduced masses improves the results.

  3. Attosecond quantum-beat spectroscopy in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaram, Niranjan; Tong, Xiao-Min; Timmers, Henry; Sandhu, Arvinder

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of electron wavepackets determines the course of many physical and chemical phenomena, and attosecond spectroscopy aims to measure and control such dynamics in real time. Here, we investigate radial electron wavepacket motion in helium by using an XUV attosecond pulse train to prepare a coherent superposition of excited states and a delayed femtosecond IR pulse to ionize them. Quantum-beat signals observed in the high resolution photoelectron spectrogram allow us to follow the field-free evolution of the bound electron wavepacket and determine the time-dependent ionization dynamics of the low-lying 2{{p}} state.

  4. Simulation program for central helium liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, S.

    1984-02-20

    The computer program described here analyzes the performance of Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) and predicts the values of the plant thermodynamic variables at all process points in the plant. To simulate CHL, this program is modified from the prototype program which was developed by Hitachi Ltd. a couple of years ago. This program takes care of only the steady state simulation and takes account of the change of the turbine efficiency, the pressure drops and the UA values of the heat exchangers. How to use the program is shown.

  5. Stability of the Helium-Antiproton System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of their Born-Oppenheimer calculations of this system Todd and Armour noted that the lowest-lying state closely resembles the hydrogen negative ion, since the antiproton lies very close to the helium nucleus and shields one unit of nuclear charge. In the present paper this observation will be taken seriously to produce a variationally correct estimate of the total energy of this system, along with a similar estimate of the energy of the once-ionized system. The nonadiabatic effect of exactly treating the reduced masses improves the results.

  6. Energy loss of helium ions in zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Lantschner, G.H.; Eckardt, J.C.; Lifschitz, A.F.; Arista, N.R.; Araujo, L.L.; Duarte, P.F.; Santos, J.H.R. dos; Behar, M.; Dias, J.F.; Grande, P.L.; Montanari, C.C.; Miraglia, J.E.

    2004-06-01

    The energy loss of helium ions in zinc has been measured in the energy range from 37.5 to 1750 keV/amu using the transmission technique and the Rutherford backscattering method. In addition, calculations using the extended Friedel sum rule, the unitary convolution approximation, and the local plasma approximation have been performed. The contributions of the inner-shell and valence electrons to the total energy loss are separately evaluated. The measurements and calculations are in good agreement over an extended range of energies, and both of them yield stopping values higher than those provided by SRIM 2003.

  7. Centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Theyse, F.H.; Kelling, F.E.T.

    1980-01-08

    Ultra Centrifuge Nederland N.V.'s improved centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas comprises a hollow cylindrical rotor, designated as a separating drum, within a stationary housing. Natural gas liquids that condense under pressure in the separating drum pass through openings in the drum into the space between the drum and housing. In this space, a series of openings, or throttling restrictors, allows the liquids to expand and return to gas. The gaseous component that does not liquefy in the drum remains separate for drawing off.

  8. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Kittel, P.

    1988-07-01

    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  9. Pressure-Driven Flow of Solid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James; Beamish, John

    2006-03-01

    The recent torsional oscillator results of Kim and Chan show an anomalous mass decoupling, interpreted by the authors as a supersolid phase transition, in solid He4. We have used a piezoelectrically driven diaphragm to study the flow of solid helium through an array of capillaries. Our measurements showed no indication of low temperature flow, placing stringent restrictions on supersolid flow in response to a pressure difference. The average flow speed at low temperatures was less than 1.2×10-14m/s, corresponding to a supersolid velocity at least 7 orders of magnitude smaller than the critical velocities inferred from the torsional oscillator measurements.

  10. Heuristic theory of positron-helium scattering.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An error in a previous modified adiabatic approximation (Drachman, 1966), due to a lack of generality in the form of the short-range correlation part of the wave function for L greater than zero, is corrected heuristically by allowing the monopole suppression parameter to depend on L. An L-dependent local potential is constructed to fit the well-known positron-hydrogen s, p, and d wave phase shifts below the rearrangement threshold. The same form of potential yields a positron-helium cross-section in agreement with a recent experimental measurement near threshold.

  11. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  12. Coastal upwelling off Peru and Mauritania inferred from helium isotope disequilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinfeldt, R.; Sültenfuß, J.; Dengler, M.; Fischer, T.; Rhein, M.

    2015-07-01

    Oceanic upwelling velocities are too small to be measured directly. The surface disequilibrium of the 3He/4He ratio provides an indirect method to infer vertical velocities at the base of the mixed layer. Samples of helium isotopes were taken from two coastal upwelling regions, off Peru on cruise M91, and off Mauritania on 3 cruises. The helium-3 flux into the mixed layer also depends on the diapycnal mixing. Direct observations of the vertical diffusivity have been performed on all 4 cruises and are also used in this study. The resulting upwelling velocities in the coastal regions vary between 1.1 × 10-5 and 2.8 × 10-5 m s-1 for all cruises. Vertical velocities off the equator can also be inferred from the divergence of the wind driven Ekman transport. In the coastal regimes, the agreement between wind and helium derived upwelling is fairly good at least for the mean values. Further offshore, the helium derived upwelling still reaches 1 × 10-5 m s-1, whereas the wind driven upwelling from Ekman suction is smaller by at least one order of magnitude. One reason for this difference might be eddy induced upwelling. Both advective and diffusive nutrient fluxes into the mixed layer are calculated based on the helium derived vertical velocities and the measured vertical diffusivities. The advective part of these fluxes makes up at least 50 % of the total. The nutrient flux into the mixed layer in the coastal upwelling regimes is equivalent to a net community production (NCP) of 1.3 g C m2 d-1 off Peru and 1.6-1.9 g C m2 d-1 off Mauritania.

  13. Higher resolution helium measuring system for deuterium plasma on EAST tokamak via normal Penning gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houyin, Wang; Jiansheng, Hu; Yaowei, Yu; Bin, Cao; Jinhua, Wu; Guoqing, Shen; Zhao, Wan; EAST, Contributors

    2017-01-01

    Although the deuterium and helium have almost the same mass, a Penning Optical Gas Analyzer (POGA) system on the basis of the spectroscopic method and Penning discharging has been designed on EAST, since 2014. The POGA system was developed successfully in 2015, it was the first time that EAST could detect helium partial pressure in deuterium plasma (wall conditioning and plasma operation scenario). With dedicated calibration and proper adjustment of the parameters, the minimum concentration of helium in deuterium gas can be measured as about 0.5% instead of 1% on the other tokamak devices. Moreover, the He and D2 partial pressures are measured simultaneously. At present, the measurable range of deuterium partial pressure is 1 × 10-7 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar, meanwhile the range of helium is 1 × 10-8 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar. The measurable range can be modified by means of the adjustment of POGA system’s parameters. It is possible to detect the interesting part of the gas with a time resolution of less than 5 ms (the 200 ms because of conductance of transfer pipe at present). The POGA system was routinely employed to wall conditioning and helium enrichment investigation in 2015. Last but not the least, the low temperature plasma of POGA is generated by normal penning gauge Pfeiffer IKR gauge instead of Alcatel CF2P, which has been suspended for a few years and was used for almost all the POGA systems in the world.

  14. Helium isotope studies in the Mojave Desert, California: Implications for groundwater chronology and regional seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, J.T.; Hilton, David R.; Izbicki, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We report helium isotope and concentration results for groundwaters from the western Mojave River Basin (MRB), 130 km east of Los Angeles, CA. The basin lies adjacent to the NW-SE trending San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. Samples were collected along two groundwater flowpaths that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains and discharge to the Mojave River located ???32 km to the northeast. Additional groundwater samples were collected from Mojave River Deposits underlying the Mojave River. The primary objective of this study is to identify and quantify crustal and mantle helium contributions to the regional groundwater system. A total of 27 groundwaters, sampled previously for chemistry and isotope systematics (including 14C activity) have measured helium concentrations that increase along flowpaths from 9.9??10-8 to 1.0??10-4 cm3 STP g-1 H2O. Concomitantly, 3He/4He ratios decrease from 0.84RA to 0.11RA (RA equals the 3He/4He ratio in air=1.4??10-6). We did not record 3He/4He ratios equivalent to crustal-production values (???0.02RA) in any sample. Dissolved helium concentrations were resolved into components associated with solubility equilibration, air entrainment, mantle-derivation, in-situ production within the aquifer, and extraneous crustal fluxes. All samples contained the first four components, but only older samples had the superimposed effects of helium derived from a crustal flux. The radiogenic He component has chronological significance, and good concordance between 4He and 14C ages for younger groundwaters (<25,000 year) demonstrates the integrity of the 4 He-chronometer in this setting. Helium-rich waters could also be dated with the 4He technique, but only by first isolating the whole crustal flux (3-10??10-6 cm3 STP cm-2 year-1). Mantle-derived 3He (3Hem) is present in all MRB samples irrespective of distance from the SAF. However, regional-aquifer groundwaters near the terminus of the flowpath have a significantly greater content of mantle-derived 3He

  15. Helium on Venus - Implications for uranium and thorium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, M. J.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Helium is removed at an average rate of 10 to the 6th atoms per square centimeter per second from Venus's atmosphere by the solar wind following ionization above the plasmapause. The surface source of helium-4 on Venus is similar to that on earth, suggesting comparable abundances of crustal uranium and thorium.

  16. DIRECT EVALUATION OF THE HELIUM ABUNDANCES IN OMEGA CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, A. K.; Avrett, E. H. E-mail: eavrett@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-08-20

    A direct measure of the helium abundances from the near-infrared transition of He I at 1.08 {mu}m is obtained for two nearly identical red giant stars in the globular cluster Omega Centauri. One star exhibits the He I line; the line is weak or absent in the other star. Detailed non-local thermal equilibrium semi-empirical models including expansion in spherical geometry are developed to match the chromospheric H{alpha}, H{beta}, and Ca II K lines, in order to predict the helium profile and derive a helium abundance. The red giant spectra suggest a helium abundance of Y {<=} 0.22 (LEID 54064) and Y = 0.39-0.44 (LEID 54084) corresponding to a difference in the abundance {Delta}Y {>=} 0.17. Helium is enhanced in the giant star (LEID 54084) that also contains enhanced aluminum and magnesium. This direct evaluation of the helium abundances gives observational support to the theoretical conjecture that multiple populations harbor enhanced helium in addition to light elements that are products of high-temperature hydrogen burning. We demonstrate that the 1.08 {mu}m He I line can yield a helium abundance in cool stars when constraints on the semi-empirical chromospheric model are provided by other spectroscopic features.

  17. Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

  18. Design and testing of a superfluid liquid helium cooling loop

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, L.M.; Green, M.A.; Levin, S.M.; Smoot, G.F.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a cryogenic cooling loop that uses a thermomechanical pump to circulate superfluid liquid helium. The cooling loop test apparatus is designed to prove forced liquid helium flow concepts that will be used on the Astromag superconducting magnet facility. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Helium nanobubble release from Pd surface: An atomic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Hu, Wangyu; Deng, Huiqiu; Xiao, Shifang; Yang, Jianyu; Gao, Fei; Heinisch, Howard L.; Hu, Shilin

    2011-02-14

    Molecular dynamic simulations of helium atoms escaping from a helium-filled nano-bubble near the surface of crystalline palladium reveal unexpected behavior. Significant deformation and cracking near the helium bubble occur initially, and then a channel forms between the bubble and the surface, providing a pathway for helium atoms to propagate towards the surface. The helium atoms erupt from the bubble in an instantaneous and volcano-like process, which leads to surface deformation consisting of cavity formation on the surface, along with modification and atomic rearrangement at the periphery of the cavity. The present simulation results show that, near the palladium surface, there is a helium-bubble-free zone, or denuded zone, with a typical thickness of about 3.0 nm. Combined with experimental measurements and continuum-scale evolutionary model predictions, the present atomic simulations demonstrate that the thickness of the denuded zone, which contains a low concentration of helium atoms, is somewhat larger than the diameter of the helium bubbles in the metal tritide. Furthermore, a relationship between the tensile strength and thickness of metal film is also determined.

  20. On Hydrogen and Helium embrittlement in Isotopic tailoring Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, David S.; Hamilton, Margaret L.; Oliver, Brian M.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.

    2000-09-01

    The results of shear punch testing performed on irradiated isotopically tailored alloys are considered in terms of hydrogen and helium embrittlement in order to quantify the observed behavior. The results indicate that hydrogen embrittlement may be more significant than helium embrittlement.

  1. The cryogenic helium cooling system for the Tokamak physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, B.; Slack, D.S.; Wendland, C.R.

    1995-09-29

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will use supercritical helium to cool all the magnets and supply helium to the Vacuum cryopumping subsystem. The heat loads will come from the standard steady state conduction and thermal radiation sources and from the pulsed loads of the nuclear and eddy currents caused by the Central Solenoid Coils and the plasma positioning coils. The operations of the TPX will begin with pulses of up to 1000 seconds in duration every 75 minutes. The helium system utilizes a pulse load leveling scheme to buffer out the effects of the pulse load and maintain a constant cryogenic plant operation. The pulse load leveling scheme utilizes the thermal mass of liquid and gaseous helium stored in a remote dewar to absorb the pulses of the tokamak loads. The mass of the stored helium will buffer out the temperature pulses allowing 5 K helium to be delivered to the magnets throughout the length of the pulse. The temperature of the dewar will remain below 5 K with all the energy of the pulse absorbed. This paper will present the details of the heat load sources, of the pulse load leveling scheme operations, a partial helium schematic, dewar temperature as a function of time, the heat load sources as a function of time and the helium temperature as a function of length along the various components that will be cooled.

  2. Thermal helium desorption behavior in advanced ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Akihiko; Sugano, R.; Matsushita, Y.; Ukai, S.

    2005-02-01

    Thermal helium desorption measurements were performed to investigate the difference in the helium trapping and accumulation behavior among a reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steel and oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) steels after implantation of He+ ions at room temperature. Thermal helium desorption spectra (THDS) were obtained during annealing to 1200 °C at a heating rate of 1 °C/s. The THDS of the ODS steels are very similar to that of the RAF steel, except for the presence of the peak in the temperature range from 800 to 1000 °C, where the α γ transformation related helium desorption from the γ-phase is considered to occur in the 9Cr-ODS martensitic steels. The fraction of helium desorption becomes larger at higher temperatures, and this trend is increased with the amount of implanted helium. In the 9Cr-ODS steels, the fraction of helium desorption by bubble migration mechanism was smaller than that in the RAF steel. This suggests that the bubble formation was suppressed in the ODS steels. In the 12Cr-ODS steel, the fraction of helium desorption by bubble migration reached more than 90%, suggesting that the trapping capacity of martensite phase in the 9Cr-ODS steel is rather large.

  3. Proton-Helium Elastic Electromagnetic Cross-Section

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Burn; Ng, Kingyuen B.

    2015-11-01

    In the test facility of the C-ADS project, A 25-MeV proton beam is directed to hit a target consisting of 1-mm tungsten balls lubricated by 100-Pa helium gas. To estimate the power loss to the helium gas, an accurate collision cross section is computed.

  4. Helium impurity transport on grain boundaries: Enhanced or inhibited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Karl D.; Hu, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios; Wirth, Brian D.

    2015-06-01

    We present atomistic simulations that show that transport of helium is inhibited on grain boundaries in tungsten. This finding is contrary to self-diffusion, or diffusion of substitutional impurities in metals, for which transport is generally enhanced along grain boundaries, but is similar to the behavior observed for hydrogen in past studies on low-angle grain boundaries, for which transport also occurs via interstitial diffusion. In the case of helium transport in tungsten, diffusion is biased toward grain boundaries, but once a helium atom or group of atoms is on a grain boundary,diffusion is impeded rather than enhanced. The reduced rate of diffusion on grain boundaries produces a higher concentration of helium in the grain boundary regions. The effect arises from the relative insolubility of helium inmost materials combined with the size mismatch between helium and tungsten, which results in an interstitial diffusion mechanism rather than diffusion that relies on the presence of self-vacancies. In light of this, it is important to note that grain boundaries will not facilitate transport of helium in tungsten and other metals, but in fact that helium is immobilized on grain boundaries.

  5. Helium on Venus - Implications for uranium and thorium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, M. J.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Helium is removed at an average rate of 10 to the 6th atoms per square centimeter per second from Venus's atmosphere by the solar wind following ionization above the plasmapause. The surface source of helium-4 on Venus is similar to that on earth, suggesting comparable abundances of crustal uranium and thorium.

  6. The adsorption of helium atoms on coronene cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzthaler, Thomas; Rasul, Bilal; Kuhn, Martin; Lindinger, Albrecht; Scheier, Paul; Ellis, Andrew M.

    2016-08-01

    We report the first experimental study of the attachment of multiple foreign atoms to a cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The chosen PAH was coronene, C24H12, which was added to liquid helium nanodroplets and then subjected to electron bombardment. Using mass spectrometry, coronene cations decorated with helium atoms were clearly seen and the spectrum shows peaks with anomalously high intensities ("magic number" peaks), which represent ion-helium complexes with added stability. The data suggest the formation of a rigid helium layer consisting of 38 helium atoms that completely cover both faces of the coronene ion. Additional magic numbers can be seen for the further addition of 3 and 6 helium atoms, which are thought to attach to the edge of the coronene. The observation of magic numbers for the addition of 38 and 44 helium atoms is in good agreement with a recent path integral Monte Carlo prediction for helium atoms on neutral coronene. An understanding of how atoms and molecules attach to PAH ions is important for a number of reasons including the potential role such complexes might play in the chemistry of the interstellar medium.

  7. Turnkey Helium Purification and Liquefaction Plant for DARWIN, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, U.; Boeck, S.; Blum, L.; Kurtcuoglu, K.

    2010-04-01

    The Linde Group, through its Australian subsidiary BOC Limited, has signed an agreement with Darwin LNG Pty Ltd for the supply of feed-gas to Linde's new helium refining and liquefaction facility in Darwin, Australia. Linde Kryotechnik AG, located in Switzerland, has carried out the engineering and fabrication of the equipment for the turn key helium plant. The raw feed gas flow of 20'730 Nm3/h contains up to of 3 mol% helium. The purification process of the feed gas consists of partial condensation of nitrogen in two stages, cryogenic adsorption and finally catalytic oxidation of hydrogen followed by a dryer system. Downstream of the purification the refined helium is liquefied using a modified Bryton process and stored in a 30'000 gal LHe tank. For further distribution and export of the liquid helium there are two stations available for filling of truck trailers and containers. The liquid nitrogen, required for refrigeration capacity to the nitrogen removal stages in the purification process as well as for the pre-cooling of the pure helium in the liquefaction process, is generated on site during the feed gas purification process. The optimized process provides low power consumption, maximum helium recovery and a minimum helium loss.

  8. Helium-3 in Milky Way Reveals Abundance of Matter in Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    fact that most of the matter in the Universe is non-baryonic, that is to say not made of any particle we've ever seen on Earth, is a very exciting concept," commented Rood. The astronomers conducted their research using measurements at a frequency of 8.665 GHz (3.46 cm), which is emitted naturally by ionized helium-3. The 140 Foot Radio Telescope at the NRAO in Green Bank now is decommissioned after a long and highly productive career. "Though the 140 Foot Telescope enabled us to make remarkable observations," commented Rood, "we anticipate that the new Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope will greatly increase our ability to continue this research." The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  9. Neutron studies of liquid and solid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Glyde, H.R.

    1987-04-01

    The progress made during 5/1/86--4/31/87 under contract No. F902- 34ER45082 is reported. The validity of the Impulse Approximation (IA) to the dynamic form factor, S(Q,{omega}), has been investigated using realistic models of solid helium. The calculations suggest that the IA can be used to obtain the momentum distribution, n(p), within 1% at Q {approx} 30 {Angstrom}{sup {minus}1}, if S(Q,{omega}) is first symmetrized about the recoil frequency, {omega}{sub R}. For solid helium under pressure (e.g. 5 kbar) a Q {approx gt} 50 {Angstrom} {sup {minus}1} is required. The S(Q,{omega}) in liquid {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He in the wave vector transfer range 3 {le} Q {le} 10 {Angstrom}{sup {minus}1} has been evaluated, beginning from the pair potential. The general shape and width of S(Q,{omega}) obtained agrees well with existing experiment. The width of S(Q,{omega}) is found to oscillate as a function of Q in {sup 4}He but not in {sup 3}He. The dynamics of atoms adsorbed in solid layers on surfaces has been studied using self-consistent methods.

  10. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    Minkov, V.

    1984-06-13

    This invention describes a nuclear fission reactor which has a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200 to 1800/sup 0/C range, and even higher to 2500/sup 0/C.

  11. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    Minkov, Vladimir

    1986-01-01

    This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

  12. Lifetime of a Chemically Bound Helium Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Lundell, Jan; Gerber, R. Benny; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The rare-gas atoms are chemically inert, to an extent unique among all elements. This is due to the stable electronic structure of the atoms. Stable molecules with chemically bound rare-gas atoms are, however, known. A first such compound, XePtF6, W2S prepared in 1962 and since then a range of molecules containing radon, xenon and krypton have been obtained. Most recently, a first stable chemically bound compound of argon was prepared, leaving neon and helium as the only elements for which stable chemically bound molecules are not yet known. Electronic structure calculations predict that a metastable species HHeF exists, but significance of the result depends on the unknown lifetime. Here we report quantum dynamics calculations of the lifetime of HHeF, using accurate interactions computed from electronic structure theory. HHeF is shown to disintegrate by tunneling through energy barriers into He + HF and H + He + F the first channel greatly dominating. The lifetime of HHeF is more than 120 picoseconds, that of DHeF is 14 nanoseconds. The relatively long lifetimes are encouraging for the preparation prospects of this first chemically bound helium compound.

  13. Electron impact ionization-excitation of Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo; Gomez, A. I.; Gasaneo, G.; Mitnik, D. M.; Ambrosio, M. J.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the process of ionization-excitation of Helium by fast electron impact in which the residual ion is left in the n =2 excited state. We chose the strongly asymmetric kinematics used in the experiment performed by Dupré et al.. In a perturbative scheme, for high projectile energies the four-body problem reduces to a three-body one and, within that framework, we solve the time- independent Schrödinger equation with a Sturmian approach. The method, based on Generalized Sturmian Functions (GSF), is employed to obtain the initial ground state of Helium, the single-continuum state and the scattering wave function; for each of them, the GSF basis is constructed with the corresponding adequate asymptotic conditions. Besides, the method presents the following advantage: the scattering amplitudes can be extracted directly in the asymptotic region of the scattering solution, and thus the TDCS can be obtained without requiring a matrix element evaluation.

  14. Numerical Studies of Properties of Confined Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2003-01-01

    We carry out state of the art simulations of properties of confined liquid helium near the superfluid transition to a degree of accuracy which allows to make predictions for the outcome of fundamental physics experiments in microgravity. First we report our results for the finite-size scaling behavior of heat capacity of superfluids for cubic and parallel-plate geometry. This allows us to study the crossover from zero and two dimensions to three dimensions. Our calculated scaling functions are in good agreement with recently measured specific heat scaling functions for the above mentioned geometries. We also present our results of a quantum simulation of submonolayer of molecular hydrogen deposited on an ideal graphite substrate using path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We find that the monolayer phase diagram is rich and very similar to that of helium monolayer. We are able to uncover the main features of the complex monolayer phase diagram, such as the commensurate solid phases and the commensurate to incommensurate transition, in agreement with the experiments and to find some features which are missing from the experimental analysis.

  15. Fiber-Cavity Optomechanics with Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Kashkanova, Anna D.; Shkarin, Alexey B.; Hoch, Scott W.; Deutsch, Christian; Reichel, Jakob; Harris, Jack G. E.

    2014-03-01

    In a typical optomechanical device, the resonance frequency of a cavity is coupled to mechanical motion through the radiation pressure force. To date, experimental cavities have predominately coupled to a resonant mechanical mode of a solid structure, often a lithographically-defined beam or membrane. We will describe our progress towards realizing an optomechanical device in which an optical fiber-cavity couples to the acoustic modes of superfluid helium. In this system, the optical modes and the acoustic modes of the superfluid are co-located between the mirrored ends of two fiber optic cables. Changes in the density of the superfluid change the effective length of the cavity which results in a standard, linear optomechanical coupling between the 300 MHz acoustic resonances and the 200 THz optical resonances. This type of device is motivated by the self-aligning nature of the acoustic and optical modes (which eases the difficulties of operating at cryogenic temperatures) and by the low optical and mechanical losses of superfluid helium. Although we expect the mechanical quality factor to be limited by acoustic radiation into the glass fiber, we will describe a proposal to realize a dual-band Bragg mirror to confine the optical and acoustic modes more efficiently. Supported by NSF Grant #1106110, ARO Grant #W911NF-13-1-0104, and the DARPA/MTO ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.

  16. From Liquid Helium to Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behringer, Robert P.

    2016-11-01

    This article provides a brief history of work that I have either carried out with Horst Meyer, or that was connected in some way with experiences reaching back to the laboratory known as LTM for low temperature [physics] Meyer, at Duke University. It is not intended as a complete review of all relevant work, but rather to hit highlights. My work with Horst started with studies of critical phenomena in liquid helium. This system provided an extremely rich and diverse testing ground for then newly emerging theories of static and dynamic critical phenomena. A key aspect of the experimental work with Horst was high-precision measurements of temperature and pressure. The ability to measure thermal properties with exceptional precision was at the core of this work. It also provided a natural springboard for entirely different investigations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection, which had just been initiated by Guenter Ahlers. My postdoc with Guenter provided a whole new set of experiences involving convection, dynamical instabilities, and chaos, where again the special properties, measurement techniques, and creative approaches to research associated with liquid helium were critical. In fact, later, knowledge of these techniques allowed me to start a whole new research direction in granular materials, which is a primary focus of my current research.

  17. Neutrons on a surface of liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, P. D.; Zimmer, O.; Grigoriev, A. D.; Ziman, T.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the possibility of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage in quantum states defined by the combined potentials of the Earth's gravity and the neutron optical repulsion by a horizontal surface of liquid helium. We analyze the stability of the lowest quantum state, which is most susceptible to perturbations due to surface excitations, against scattering by helium atoms in the vapor and by excitations of the liquid, comprised of ripplons, phonons, and surfons. This is an unusual scattering problem since the kinetic energy of the neutron parallel to the surface may be much greater than the binding energies perpendicular. The total scattering time of these UCNs at 0.7 K is found to exceed 1 h, and rapidly increases with decreasing temperature. Such low scattering rates should enable high-precision measurements of the sequence of discrete energy levels, thus providing improved tests of short-range gravity. The system might also be useful for neutron β -decay experiments. We also sketch new experimental propositions for level population and trapping of ultracold neutrons above a flat horizontal mirror.

  18. Submersion of potassium clusters in helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An der Lan, Lukas; Bartl, Peter; Leidlmair, Christian; Schöbel, Harald; Denifl, Stephan; Märk, Tilmann D.; Ellis, Andrew M.; Scheier, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Small alkali clusters do not submerge in liquid helium nanodroplets but instead survive predominantly in high spin states that reside on the surface of the nanodroplet. However, a recent theoretical prediction by Stark and Kresin [Phys. Rev. BPLRBAQ1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.085401 81, 085401 (2010)], based on a classical description of the energetics of bubble formation for a fully submerged alkali cluster, suggests that the alkali clusters can submerge on energetic grounds when they exceed a critical size. Following recent work on sodium clusters, where ion yield data from electron impact mass spectrometry was used to obtain the first experimental evidence for alkali cluster submersion, we report here on similar experiments for potassium clusters. Evidence is presented for full cluster submersion at n>80 for Kn clusters, which is in good agreement with the recent theoretical prediction. In an additional observation, we report “magic number” sizes for both Kn+ and Kn2+ ions derived from helium droplets, which are found to be consistent with the jellium model.

  19. The tensile strength of liquid helium four

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Joel Alan

    1988-08-01

    It is well known that most liquids exhibit a tensile strength which is much smaller in magnitude than the tensile strength predicted by homogeneous nucleation theory. Liquid helium occupies a unique place among liquids for tensile strength measurements because all foreign gases are frozen out at liquid temperatures. Moreover, superfluid He-4 should fill all crevises on solid surfaces, eliminating the chance of heterogeneous nucleation on helium vapor pockets. A piezoelectric transducer in the form of a hemispherical shell was used to focus high intensity ultrasound into a small volume of He-4. The transducer was gated at its resonant frequency of 566 kHz with gate widths of less than 1 msec in order to minimize the effects of transducer heating and acoustic streaming. The onset of nucleation was detected from the absorption of acoustic energy and the scattering of laser light from microscopic bubbles. A theory for light diffraction from the focal zone of a spherical converging sound wave was developed to confirm calculations of the acoustic pressure amplitude at the focus of the transducer, calculations based on the acoustic power radiated into the liquid and nonlinear sound absorption.

  20. Search for Dislocation Free Helium 4 Crystals.

    PubMed

    Souris, F; Fefferman, A D; Haziot, A; Garroum, N; Beamish, J R; Balibar, S

    The giant plasticity of [Formula: see text]He crystals has been explained as a consequence of the large mobility of their dislocations. Thus, the mechanical properties of dislocation free crystals should be quite different from those of usual ones. In 1996-1998, Ruutu et al. published crystal growth studies showing that, in their helium 4 crystals, the density of screw dislocations along the c-axis was less than 100 per cm[Formula: see text], sometimes zero. We have grown helium 4 crystals using similar growth speeds and temperatures, and extracted their dislocation density from their mechanical properties. We found dislocation densities that are in the range of 10[Formula: see text]-10[Formula: see text] per cm[Formula: see text], that is several orders of magnitude larger than Ruutu et al. Our tentative interpretation of this apparent contradiction is that the two types of measurements are somewhat indirect and concern different types of dislocations. As for the dislocation nucleation mechanism, it remains to be understood.