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Sample records for helping people understand

  1. Peoples' understandings of a primary care-based mental health self-help clinic.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anne; Oliver, Dianne; Bower, Peter; Lovell, Karina; Richards, Dave

    2004-04-01

    Self-help programmes are increasingly advocated as a means of managing mental health problems. This qualitative study explored patients' understandings of the use of a UK primary care-based self-help clinic (facilitated by a nurse). As part of a wider evaluation of the clinic, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sub-sample of clinic users. Data indicate that people understand their problem as one of having lost an ability to cope, and that the ethos underlying the clinic is well matched to restore a sense of coping, by motivating patients to re-establish and retain control over their everyday lives. However, some patients experienced a sense of dissonance between prior expectations and actual use of the self-help clinic. Without prior familiarity with self-help, engaging the patient as the mechanism of change may be difficult. Some patients expected formal counselling and were influenced in this by their previous experience of services and discussions with the GP at the point of referral. It takes time and active engagement with self-help materials before patients become aware that they are a crucial mechanism of change. Patients may benefit from information and a referral process, which emphasises the centrality of self-efficacy and the patient as 'change agent' prior to referral.

  2. Understanding "people" people.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  3. Requesting Help to Understand Medical Information Among People Living with HIV and Poor Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Pellowski, Jennifer; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Health literacy is known to influence medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. People who experience difficulty reading health information may benefit from asking others to assist them with reading, interpreting, and understanding medical information. We examined medical chart-abstracted HIV viral load, medication adherence assessed by unannounced pill counts, and adherence improvement strategies among 245 individuals with lower-health literacy who do not request assistance, and 229 who do request assistance with reading and understanding health information. Participants were people living with HIV who were taking antiretroviral therapy and scored below 90% correct on a standardized test of functional health literacy. After controlling for health literacy scores, requesting informational assistance was associated with strategies used to improve adherence; individuals who asked for assistance were significantly more likely to use multiple adherence strategies. However, despite requesting informational assistance and using more adherence strategies, participants who requested informational assistance evidenced poorer treatment adherence and poorer suppression of HIV replication. Requesting assistance was more common among those with the poorest health literacy and therefore greatest challenges to adherence. People living with HIV who have poor health literacy skills may benefit from medication adherence programs and requests for assistance afford opportunities for social interventions. PMID:23701199

  4. Understanding help-seeking decisions in people with heart failure: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander M; Savard, Lori A; Spaling, Melisa A; Heath, Stephanie; Duncan, Amanda S; Spiers, Judith A

    2012-12-01

    To understand the process of help-seeking among heart failure patients from the perspectives of patients, caregivers and health professionals. Systematic review using qualitative meta-synthesis. A systematic search (20th May 2011) was conducted to identify studies published in English as full papers ≥1995 reporting primary qualitative data with extractable heart failure-specific data or themes related to help-seeking in patients, caregivers or health professionals. Databases searched were: CINAHL, Medline, PsycInfo, Social Science Citation Index, Embase, Social policy/Practice, SocIndex, Ageline, Health Source Nursing, Scopus; additionally, we consulted with experts and manually searched references. 58 studies (990 patients; 274 female, 527 male, 189 sex not described; 229 caregivers, 79 health professionals) were included. Heart failure help-seeking was embedded in daily experiences of heart failure but ongoing symptoms were confusing, ambiguous and disruptive; little support was available from professionals to interpret the presence and significance of fluctuations in symptoms for help-seeking. Other significant barriers to help-seeking were: avoidance-based coping, fear of hospitals and misplaced reluctance to be burdensome. Help-seeking was facilitated by good involvement and frank communication between patients, caregivers and health professionals and the presence of a sense of elevated personal risk. Health services should harness primary care providers and support patients and caregivers to prioritize development of objective symptom monitoring skills, recognize and personally assimilate the elevated risks of heart failure and help-seeking delays and discourage avoidance-based coping and unwarranted concerns that downplay the significance of heart failure and urgency to address symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Helping People Understand Soils - Perspectives from the US National Cooperative Soil Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Paul; Cheever, Tammy; Greene, Linda; Southard, Susan; Levin, Maxine; Lindbo, David L.; Monger, Curtis

    2017-04-01

    Throughout the history of the US National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS), soil science education has been a part of the mission to better understand one of our most precious natural resources: the Soil. The poster will highlight the many products and programs related to soils that USDA NRCS (soils.usda.gov) has developed over the years for K-12 and college/professional education. NRCS scientific publications covering topics on soil properties, soil classification, soil health and soil quality have become an important part of the university soil science curriculum. Classroom lesson plans and grade appropriate materials help K-12 teachers introduce soil concepts to students and include detailed instructions and materials for classroom demonstrations of soil properties. A Handbook for Collegiate Soils Contests support universities that conduct Collegiate Soil Judging contests.

  6. Yes You Can! A Booklet to Help Young People with Learning Disabilities Understand and Help Themselves. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Joanne

    Intended for students with learning problems, this booklet is designed to help the student deal with his/her learning disability. Presented in simple language and cartoon-like illustrations, this publication addresses the causes of and misconceptions about learning problems, how it feels to have a learning disability, what can be done, and where…

  7. Yes You Can! A Booklet to Help Young People with Learning Disabilities Understand and Help Themselves. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Joanne

    Intended for students with learning problems, this booklet is designed to help the student deal with his/her learning disability. Presented in simple language and cartoon-like illustrations, this publication addresses the causes of and misconceptions about learning problems, how it feels to have a learning disability, what can be done, and where…

  8. Key Ideas: What Are They and How Can They Help Us Understand How People View Proof?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2003-01-01

    Examines the views of proof held by university-level mathematics students and teachers. Develops a framework for characterizing people's views of proof based on a distinction between public and private aspects of proof and the key ideas that link these two domains. (Author/KHR)

  9. Key Ideas: What Are They and How Can They Help Us Understand How People View Proof?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2003-01-01

    Examines the views of proof held by university-level mathematics students and teachers. Develops a framework for characterizing people's views of proof based on a distinction between public and private aspects of proof and the key ideas that link these two domains. (Author/KHR)

  10. Understanding symptom appraisal and help-seeking in people with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katie; Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicola; Banks, Jonathan; Johnson, Margaret; Lancaster, John; Hamilton, William; Rubin, Greg P

    2017-01-01

    Objective Pancreatic cancer has poor survival rates due to non-specific symptoms leading to later diagnosis. Understanding how patients interpret their symptoms could inform approaches to earlier diagnosis. This study sought to explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking among patients referred to secondary care for symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer. Design Qualitative analysis of semistructured in-depth interviews. Data were analysed iteratively and thematically, informed by the Model of Pathways to Treatment. Participants and setting Pancreatic cancer occurs rarely in younger adults, therefore patients aged ≥40 years were recruited from nine hospitals after being referred to hospital with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer; all were participants in a cohort study. Interviews were conducted soon after referral, and where possible, before diagnosis. Results Twenty-six interviews were conducted (cancer n=13 (pancreas n=9, other intra-abdominal n=4), non-cancer conditions n=13; age range 48–84 years; 14 women). Time from first symptoms to first presentation to healthcare ranged from 1 day to 270 days, median 21 days. We identified three main themes. Initial symptom appraisal usually began with intermittent, non-specific symptoms such as tiredness or appetite changes, attributed to diet and lifestyle, existing gastrointestinal conditions or side effects of medication. Responses to initial symptom appraisal included changes in meal type or frequency, or self-medication. Symptom changes such as alterations in appetite and enjoyment of food or weight loss usually prompted further appraisal. Triggers to seek help included a change or worsening of symptoms, particularly pain, which was often a ‘tipping point’. Help-seeking was often encouraged by others. We found no differences in symptom appraisal and help-seeking between people diagnosed with cancer and those with other conditions. Conclusions Greater public and healthcare professional awareness of

  11. Helping Students Understand Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weihe, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Despite the central role of risk assessment in analyzing and making decisions about many environmental issues, most people are poorly equipped to understand key concepts about risk or apply them successfully. I present three class activities in which students develop a better appreciation for the magnitude of a one in a million increased risk of…

  12. Understanding symptom appraisal and help-seeking in people with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katie; Birt, Linda; Emery, Jon D; Hall, Nicola; Banks, Jonathan; Johnson, Margaret; Lancaster, John; Hamilton, William; Rubin, Greg P; Walter, Fiona M

    2017-09-03

    Pancreatic cancer has poor survival rates due to non-specific symptoms leading to later diagnosis. Understanding how patients interpret their symptoms could inform approaches to earlier diagnosis. This study sought to explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking among patients referred to secondary care for symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer. Qualitative analysis of semistructured in-depth interviews. Data were analysed iteratively and thematically, informed by the Model of Pathways to Treatment. Pancreatic cancer occurs rarely in younger adults, therefore patients aged ≥40 years were recruited from nine hospitals after being referred to hospital with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer; all were participants in a cohort study. Interviews were conducted soon after referral, and where possible, before diagnosis. Twenty-six interviews were conducted (cancer n=13 (pancreas n=9, other intra-abdominal n=4), non-cancer conditions n=13; age range 48-84 years; 14 women). Time from first symptoms to first presentation to healthcare ranged from 1 day to 270 days, median 21 days. We identified three main themes. Initial symptom appraisal usually began with intermittent, non-specific symptoms such as tiredness or appetite changes, attributed to diet and lifestyle, existing gastrointestinal conditions or side effects of medication. Responses to initial symptom appraisal included changes in meal type or frequency, or self-medication. Symptom changes such as alterations in appetite and enjoyment of food or weight loss usually prompted further appraisal. Triggers to seek help included a change or worsening of symptoms, particularly pain, which was often a 'tipping point'. Help-seeking was often encouraged by others. We found no differences in symptom appraisal and help-seeking between people diagnosed with cancer and those with other conditions. Greater public and healthcare professional awareness of the combinations of subtle and intermittent symptoms, and their

  13. Emojis help young people communicate.

    PubMed

    2016-10-26

    'The use of technology to support communication in therapy is an exciting development, particularly the use of mobile device emojis to help young people express, and practitioners to assess, their mental distress'.

  14. Helping Homeless People: Unique Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Clemmie, Ed.; Jackson-Jobe, Peggy, Ed.

    This publication is designed to provide a practical guide for gaining a detailed awareness and understanding of homelessness. After a foreword by Jesse Jackson, these chapters are included: (1) Introduction: Assessing the Unique Needs of Homeless People (Clemmie Solomon), which discusses the need for helping professionals to commit to addressing…

  15. Does communication help people coordinate?

    PubMed

    Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Joveski, Zlatko; Yu, Sixie

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have consistently demonstrated that collective performance in a variety of tasks can be significantly improved by allowing communication. We present the results of the first experiment systematically investigating the value of communication in networked consensus. The goal of all tasks in our experiments is for subjects to reach global consensus, even though nodes can only observe choices of their immediate neighbors. Unlike previous networked consensus tasks, our experiments allow subjects to communicate either with their immediate neighbors (locally) or with the entire network (globally). Moreover, we consider treatments in which essentially arbitrary messages can be sent, as well as those in which only one type of message is allowed, informing others about a node's local state. We find that local communication adds minimal value: fraction of games solved is essentially identical to treatments with no communication. Ability to communicate globally, in contrast, offers a significant performance improvement. In addition, we find that constraining people to only exchange messages about local state is significantly better than unconstrained communication. We observe that individual behavior is qualitatively consistent across settings: people clearly react to messages they receive in all communication settings. However, we find that messages received in local communication treatments are relatively uninformative, whereas global communication offers substantial information advantage. Exploring mixed communication settings, in which only a subset of agents are global communicators, we find that a significant number of global communicators is needed for performance to approach success when everyone communicates globally. However, global communicators have a significant advantage: a small tightly connected minority of globally communicating nodes can successfully steer outcomes towards their preferences, although this can be

  16. Does communication help people coordinate?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have consistently demonstrated that collective performance in a variety of tasks can be significantly improved by allowing communication. We present the results of the first experiment systematically investigating the value of communication in networked consensus. The goal of all tasks in our experiments is for subjects to reach global consensus, even though nodes can only observe choices of their immediate neighbors. Unlike previous networked consensus tasks, our experiments allow subjects to communicate either with their immediate neighbors (locally) or with the entire network (globally). Moreover, we consider treatments in which essentially arbitrary messages can be sent, as well as those in which only one type of message is allowed, informing others about a node’s local state. We find that local communication adds minimal value: fraction of games solved is essentially identical to treatments with no communication. Ability to communicate globally, in contrast, offers a significant performance improvement. In addition, we find that constraining people to only exchange messages about local state is significantly better than unconstrained communication. We observe that individual behavior is qualitatively consistent across settings: people clearly react to messages they receive in all communication settings. However, we find that messages received in local communication treatments are relatively uninformative, whereas global communication offers substantial information advantage. Exploring mixed communication settings, in which only a subset of agents are global communicators, we find that a significant number of global communicators is needed for performance to approach success when everyone communicates globally. However, global communicators have a significant advantage: a small tightly connected minority of globally communicating nodes can successfully steer outcomes towards their preferences, although this can be

  17. Understanding Our Environment: People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Ann

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, students work individually and in groups to plan a future community in order to gain an understanding of how greatly increased human populations impact resources,…

  18. Establishing a library of resources to help people understand key concepts in assessing treatment claims—The “Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library” (CARL)

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Iain; Atkinson, Patricia; Badenoch, Douglas; Oxman, Andrew D.; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Nordheim, Lena; Krause, L. Kendall; Schwartz, Lisa M.; Woloshin, Steven; Burls, Amanda; Mosconi, Paola; Hoffmann, Tammy; Cusack, Leila; Albarqouni, Loai; Glasziou, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background People are frequently confronted with untrustworthy claims about the effects of treatments. Uncritical acceptance of these claims can lead to poor, and sometimes dangerous, treatment decisions, and wasted time and money. Resources to help people learn to think critically about treatment claims are scarce, and they are widely scattered. Furthermore, very few learning-resources have been assessed to see if they improve knowledge and behavior. Objectives Our objectives were to develop the Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library (CARL). This library was to be in the form of a database containing learning resources for those who are responsible for encouraging critical thinking about treatment claims, and was to be made available online. We wished to include resources for groups we identified as ‘intermediaries’ of knowledge, i.e. teachers of schoolchildren, undergraduates and graduates, for example those teaching evidence-based medicine, or those communicating treatment claims to the public. In selecting resources, we wished to draw particular attention to those resources that had been formally evaluated, for example, by the creators of the resource or independent research groups. Methods CARL was populated with learning-resources identified from a variety of sources—two previously developed but unmaintained inventories; systematic reviews of learning-interventions; online and database searches; and recommendations by members of the project group and its advisors. The learning-resources in CARL were organised by ‘Key Concepts’ needed to judge the trustworthiness of treatment claims, and were made available online by the James Lind Initiative in Testing Treatments interactive (TTi) English (www.testingtreatments.org/category/learning-resources).TTi English also incorporated the database of Key Concepts and the Claim Evaluation Tools developed through the Informed Healthcare Choices (IHC) project (informedhealthchoices.org). Results We have

  19. Establishing a library of resources to help people understand key concepts in assessing treatment claims-The "Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library" (CARL).

    PubMed

    Castle, John C; Chalmers, Iain; Atkinson, Patricia; Badenoch, Douglas; Oxman, Andrew D; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Nordheim, Lena; Krause, L Kendall; Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven; Burls, Amanda; Mosconi, Paola; Hoffmann, Tammy; Cusack, Leila; Albarqouni, Loai; Glasziou, Paul

    2017-01-01

    People are frequently confronted with untrustworthy claims about the effects of treatments. Uncritical acceptance of these claims can lead to poor, and sometimes dangerous, treatment decisions, and wasted time and money. Resources to help people learn to think critically about treatment claims are scarce, and they are widely scattered. Furthermore, very few learning-resources have been assessed to see if they improve knowledge and behavior. Our objectives were to develop the Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library (CARL). This library was to be in the form of a database containing learning resources for those who are responsible for encouraging critical thinking about treatment claims, and was to be made available online. We wished to include resources for groups we identified as 'intermediaries' of knowledge, i.e. teachers of schoolchildren, undergraduates and graduates, for example those teaching evidence-based medicine, or those communicating treatment claims to the public. In selecting resources, we wished to draw particular attention to those resources that had been formally evaluated, for example, by the creators of the resource or independent research groups. CARL was populated with learning-resources identified from a variety of sources-two previously developed but unmaintained inventories; systematic reviews of learning-interventions; online and database searches; and recommendations by members of the project group and its advisors. The learning-resources in CARL were organised by 'Key Concepts' needed to judge the trustworthiness of treatment claims, and were made available online by the James Lind Initiative in Testing Treatments interactive (TTi) English (www.testingtreatments.org/category/learning-resources).TTi English also incorporated the database of Key Concepts and the Claim Evaluation Tools developed through the Informed Healthcare Choices (IHC) project (informedhealthchoices.org). We have created a database of resources called CARL

  20. Narratives and Understanding Other People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzebiski, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    Presenting a story of an ill person, in comparison to a description of illness, as well as activating a narrative approach toward this person increased the probability in subjects of helping behaviour?in this case the promise of donations of bone marrow for leukaemia patients or willingness to spend time on soliciting money for other people's…

  1. Narratives and Understanding Other People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzebiski, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    Presenting a story of an ill person, in comparison to a description of illness, as well as activating a narrative approach toward this person increased the probability in subjects of helping behaviour?in this case the promise of donations of bone marrow for leukaemia patients or willingness to spend time on soliciting money for other people's…

  2. Young people, social support and help-seeking.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gary; Olukoya, Adepeju; Aggleton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to understanding of young people's help-seeking behaviour. A conceptual framework is proposed that seeks to integrate differing sources of influence and their implications for policy and programme development. Data was collected by means of an international literature review followed by a purposive international survey of expert informants. Findings suggest that it is important to distinguish between individual and structural determinants of young people's help-seeking behaviour. Policy and programme influences also impact upon the demand for help and the supply of social support that is available. It is important to focus on the normative needs of young people as well as specific health needs and problems. Creating trust, rethinking adult attitudes toward young people, and reducing the stigma associated with seeking help are key to promoting help-seeking behaviour. Many young people are hindered from seeking help, or are not offered help because of social exclusion, violence, poverty, prejudice (including homophobia) and gender inequalities. Future actions to promote help-seeking and enhance social support must consider these structural barriers, making special efforts to reach and work with excluded populations.

  3. People of Philippines: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    The purpose of this communication learning aid is to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with people of another culture. This publication discusses some differences encountered in the Philippines in such things as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress and basic attitudes. It is designed to prepare the…

  4. People of Samoa: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    The purpose of this communication learning aid is to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with people of another culture. This publication discusses some differences encountered in Samoa in such things as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress and basic attitudes. It is designed to prepare the traveller…

  5. Helping Adult Educators Understand Disability Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Tonette S.

    2001-01-01

    To help adult educators understand the process of disability disclosure, descriptions of the following are provided: the Americans with Disability Act of 1990, self-disclosure, disability disclosure, and identifying an undiagnosed disability. (Author/JOW)

  6. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  7. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  8. How Can Music Help People Who Have Alzheimer's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... help? How can music help people who have Alzheimer's disease? Answers from Jonathan Graff-Radford, M.D. ... provide emotional and behavioral benefits for people with Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. Musical memories ...

  9. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  10. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  11. Understanding attitudes toward people with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pace, Jill E; Shin, Mikyong; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2010-09-01

    Understanding attitudes of the public toward people with Down syndrome is important because negative attitudes might create barriers to social integration, which can affect their success and quality of life. We used data from two 2008 U.S. surveys (HealthStyles(c) survey of adults 18 years or older and YouthStyles(c) survey of youth ages 9-18) that asked about attitudes toward people with Down syndrome, including attitudes toward educational and occupational inclusion and toward willingness to interact with people with Down syndrome. Results showed that many adults continue to hold negative attitudes toward people with Down syndrome: A quarter of respondents agreed that students with Down syndrome should go to special schools, nearly 30% agreed that including students with Down syndrome in typical educational settings is distracting, and 18% agreed that persons with Down syndrome in the workplace increase the chance for accidents. Negative attitudes were also held by many youth: 30% agreed that students with Down syndrome should go to separate schools, 27% were not willing to work with a student with Down syndrome on a class project, and nearly 40% indicated they would not be willing to spend time with a student with Down syndrome outside of school. Among both adult and youth, female sex and respondents with previous relationships with people with Down syndrome were consistently associated with more positive attitudes. These results may be helpful in the development of educational materials about Down syndrome and in guiding policies on educational and occupational inclusion.

  12. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... if your child seems upset after seeing other people who have lost their hair, talk about what symptoms he may have from treatment. Keep in mind that your child may have heard things about cancer from other sources, such as TV, the movies, or other kids. It is a good idea ...

  13. Helping Students Construct Understanding about Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2012-01-01

    The study of shadows is a common elementary science topic that facilitates students' development of understanding about light and associated waves. All elementary students have observed numerous shadows, but need assistance in developing understanding. Previous research studies about shadows were utilized in organizing aspects associated with…

  14. Helping Students Understand the Composer's Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the string orchestra students of Natchitoches Central High School in Natchitoches (Louisiana) and their director commissioned the composer Jody Nagel to write a composition dedicated to their ensemble in order to increase the students' understanding of composition. Discusses student reaction to the project and use of discipline-based…

  15. Helping Your Students Better Understand Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaney, Judi

    1997-01-01

    Outlines 10 issues concerning credit that students should understand: credit reports; credit reporting; obligations when signing/cosigning a loan; creating positive credit history; privacy and the credit report; how lenders make and monitor credit decisions; mailing lists and preapproved credit offers; protecting against credit card fraud; use of…

  16. Helping Children Understand and Cope with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Charles P.

    Experiencing the loss of a loved one can be one of the most traumatic events in a child's life. Grief resolution must be attained no matter how trivial a loss and it becomes even more important when a child's parent dies. School psychologists need to understand how the age of the child influences his ability to grieve and what behaviors might be…

  17. Helping Your Students Better Understand Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaney, Judi

    1997-01-01

    Outlines 10 issues concerning credit that students should understand: credit reports; credit reporting; obligations when signing/cosigning a loan; creating positive credit history; privacy and the credit report; how lenders make and monitor credit decisions; mailing lists and preapproved credit offers; protecting against credit card fraud; use of…

  18. UNDERSTANDING AND HELPING THE RETARDED READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRANG, RUTH, ED.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1962 STATEWIDE ARIZONA CONFERENCE ON READING DEVELOPMENT AND READING DIFFICULTIES INCLUDE 15 PAPERS. ARTICLES ON THE ABLE RETARDED READER ARE "UNDERSTANDING THE ABLE RETARDED READER" BY HELEN M. ROBINSON, AND "CLASSROOM PROCEDURES" BY ROSEMARY YOAKUM. PAPERS ON EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN ARE "IDENTIFICATION OF EMOTIONAL…

  19. Persuading people with depression to seek help: respect the boomerang.

    PubMed

    Lienemann, Brianna A; Siegel, Jason T; Crano, William D

    2013-01-01

    People with depression are likely to process information with a negative bias when confronted with self-relevant information. Accordingly, we feared exposing depressed people to a public service announcement (PSA) addressing the stigma of depression would possibly boomerang and result in less intention to seek help and in increased self-stigma. College students (N = 271; Mage  = 22.51, SD = 4.71; 63.1% female; 37.3% White, 31.9% Hispanic, 12.9% Asian, 6.8% multiethnic, 3.4% Black, 7.6% other) were randomly assigned to receive a print ad focused on depression or a nonrelevant comparison ad. A paper-and-pencil survey consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Self-Stigma of Seeking Help scale, help-seeking intentions, and demographics followed. Regression analysis indicated that viewing a depression ad caused people with greater depressive symptoms to experience greater levels of self-stigma than depressed people exposed to a nonrelevant comparison ad. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that for individuals who viewed a depression PSA, self-stigma mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and professional help-seeking intentions. While this current study offers no direct evidence in regard to the utility of current and past depression campaigns, results indicate a definite need for caution when developing materials targeting people with depression to seek help.

  20. People of Hong Kong: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    The purpose of this communication learning aid is to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with people of another culture. This publication discusses some differences encountered in Hong Kong in such things as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress and basic attitudes. The first section describes the…

  1. Self-Help Conferences for People Who Stutter: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trichon, Mitchell; Tetnowski, John

    2011-01-01

    Self-help activities for people who stutter (PWS) have been gaining in popularity; however, there is a scarcity of evidence to support their utility in stuttering management. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the lived experience of individuals who attended a self-help conference(s) for PWS from the perspective of a PWS to learn…

  2. Self-Help Conferences for People Who Stutter: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trichon, Mitchell; Tetnowski, John

    2011-01-01

    Self-help activities for people who stutter (PWS) have been gaining in popularity; however, there is a scarcity of evidence to support their utility in stuttering management. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the lived experience of individuals who attended a self-help conference(s) for PWS from the perspective of a PWS to learn…

  3. Helping People with Autism Manage Their Behavior. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, Nancy Justin

    This source book focuses on helping people with autism manage their behavior by analyzing the learning environment and the purpose of the behavior and then teaching new skills and behaviors. Introductory material covers the approach's philosophy and the importance of a longitudinal program plan. A section on creating a physical environment for…

  4. Using narratives to understand older people's decision-making processes.

    PubMed

    Tetley, Josephine; Grant, Gordon; Davies, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Despite the availability of health and social care services designed to support people in their own homes, older people often underuse or refuse these services. It is now acknowledged that this phenomenon contributes to older people being admitted to hospital and long-term care in circumstances that could be avoided. To understand how the uptake of supportive and preventative services can be improved, the first author, supervised by the second and third authors, developed a constructivist inquiry to explore what factors enhance or bar service use. This article describes how narratives were used not only to help identify decision- and choice-making influences, but also as a way of enhancing the hermeneutic processes associated with constructivism.

  5. How does coping help people resist lapses during smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Kathleen A; Hosein, Vanessa L; Schwartz, Joseph E; Leibowitz, Ruth Q

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether types of coping strategies have differential effects on preventing lapses and lowering urge levels and to investigate mechanisms by which coping strategies prevent lapses during smoking cessation. Sixty-one respondents performed ecological momentary assessment using palm-top computers and tape recorders to report their coping strategies and urge levels before and after temptations to smoke. Multilevel linear regression models were used to compare the effects of individual strategy types with the average strategy. Lapses versus resisted temptations and changes in urge levels. Number of strategies significantly predicted resisting smoking and change in urge levels. Compared with the effect of the average strategy, movement/exercise was marginally worse at preventing lapses, and food/drink was marginally related to higher postcoping urge levels. Although using multiple coping strategies helps people resist the urge to smoke, no particular coping strategy works better than any other. Coping strategies prevent lapses by reducing high urge levels during temptations.

  6. Asking the Right Questions: Helping Mainstream Students Understand Other Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jefferey H.

    Two common tendencies that lead many mainstream students to misinterpret other cultures are the combative response and the exoticizing response. These misinterpretations, however, can be excellent learning moments for helping students understand the constructed nature of culture and the contextual nature of learning. Transformational multicultural…

  7. A Helpful Way to Conceptualize and Understand Reenactments

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to understand the purpose and the etiology of reenactments can lead to confusion because reenactments can occur for a variety of reasons. At times, individuals actively reenact past traumas as a way to master them. However, in other cases, reenactments occur inadvertently and result from the psychological vulnerabilities and defensive strategies characteristic of trauma survivors. This article offers a means to conceptualize and understand the many ways in which reenactments can occur. Psychotherapeutic strategies are offered to help individuals integrate past traumas and decrease their chances of becoming involved in destructive reenactments.(The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1998; 7:227–235) PMID:9631344

  8. Understanding Canada's Aboriginal Peoples: A Regional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Terry

    1993-01-01

    Reviews materials from history, anthropology, art, and journalism related Canada's aboriginal peoples. Uses a regional geography approach to present information. Includes an extensive annotated bibliography of resources for classroom teachers. (CFR)

  9. Help-seeking for fecal incontinence in people with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Christine; Dibley, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance our understanding of factors that influence help-seeking in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related fecal incontinence (FI), and their needs or desire for continence services. We conducted a survey of FI in community-dwelling people with IBD, all members of a United Kingdom IBD charity, and received 3264 responses. As part of the study, we asked 3 questions about help-seeking for IBD-related FI to which respondents were able to give free-text responses. We analyzed the responses to these help-seeking questions, continuing until data saturation when no new themes emerged (617 free text comments analyzed, 19% of total respondents). For the full survey, a mixed-methods design was used to collect and analyze quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative (free-text) responses relating to help-seeking behavior reported in this article were analyzed using a pragmatic thematic approach. Seventy-four percent of the total sample (2415 out of 3264 respondents) reported some degree of FI. Of these, only 38% (n = 927) reported seeking help for FI. In the data reported in this article (n = 617), only 13.5% reported seeking help for FI. Help was described as satisfactory, unsatisfactory, or alternative (acupuncture, counseling, hypnotherapy). Reasons for not seeking help included believing nothing could be done, not knowing who to ask, feeling too embarrassed, ashamed or dirty, and perceived lack of interest, sympathy, or understanding from health care professionals. Although respondents wanted to talk to "someone with specialist knowledge about incontinence" only 6 out of 617 (0.9%) reported awareness of specialist continence services. Standard treatments were rarely mentioned (n = 2). Respondents' focus was on better management of FI rather than on cure. Many people with IBD-related FI are not aware of the services or treatments that are available to help them manage this distressing problem, and most do not seek help

  10. Early human communication helps in understanding language evolution.

    PubMed

    Lenti Boero, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Building a theory on extant species, as Ackermann et al. do, is a useful contribution to the field of language evolution. Here, I add another living model that might be of interest: human language ontogeny in the first year of life. A better knowledge of this phase might help in understanding two more topics among the "several building blocks of a comprehensive theory of the evolution of spoken language" indicated in their conclusion by Ackermann et al., that is, the foundation of the co-evolution of linguistic motor skills with the auditory skills underlying speech perception, and the possible phylogenetic interactions of protospeech production with referential capabilities.

  11. Understanding coping with cancer: how can qualitative research help?

    PubMed

    Chittem, Mahati

    2014-01-01

    Research in psycho-oncology investigates the psycho-social and emotional aspects of cancer and how this is related to health, well-being and overall patient care. Coping with cancer is a prime focus for researchers owing to its impact on patients' psychological processing and life in general. Research so far has focused mainly on quantitative study designs such as questionnaires to examine the coping strategies used by cancer patients. However, in order to gain a rich and deep understanding of the reasons, processes and types of strategies that patients use to deal with cancer, qualitative study designs are necessary. Few studies have used qualitative designs such as semi-structured interviews to explore coping with cancer. The current paper aims to review the suitability and benefits of using qualitative research designs to understand coping with cancer with the help of some key literature in psycho-oncology research.

  12. Nursing staff's understanding expressions of people with advanced dementia disease.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Thomas; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Norberg, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    People with advanced dementia disease (ADD) are known to have communication difficulties and thus it presents a challenge in understanding the expressions of these people. Because successful communication presupposes cooperation at least between 2 individuals, both individual's actions must be acknowledged. The aim of this study is to describe nursing staff's ways of understanding the expressions of people with ADD when communicating with them. Interviews from 8 nursing staff were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes were constructed: "Being in communication" and "Doing communication." Being in communication means that nursing staff perceive people with ADD as being capable of communication. Doing communication means that nursing staff attempt different individualized strategies to understand what people with ADD communicate. Good care of people with ADD presupposes nursing staff that are willing and able to relate to other people and to maintain good care for people with ADD continuous education and supervision are needed.

  13. Using robots to help people habituate to visible disabilities.

    PubMed

    Riek, Laurel D; Robinson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We explore a new way of using robots as human-human social facilitators: inter-ability communication. This refers to communication between people with disabilities and those without disabilities. We have interviewed people with head and facial movement disorders (n = 4), and, using a vision-based approach, recreated their movements on our 27 degree-of-freedom android robot. We then conducted an exploratory experiment (n = 26) to see if the robot might serve as a suitable tool to allow people to practice inter-ability interaction on a robot before doing it with a person. Our results suggest a robot may be useful in this manner. Furthermore, we have found a significant relationship between people who hold negative attitudes toward robots and negative attitudes toward people with disabilities. © 2011 IEEE

  14. People of Japan: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Japan by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Japan is given, covering the following: history, government, the economy, education,…

  15. Building Bridges of Understanding. People of Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information that will enable an American to communicate effectively with people in Thailand. The book discusses differences between American and Thai culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Thailand and the…

  16. Getting help quickly: older people and community worker perspectives of contingency planning for falls management.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Kimberly; Murray, Carolyn M; Kumar, Saravana

    2016-11-10

    Older people living in the community need to plan for getting help quickly if they have a fall. In this paper planning for falls is referred to as contingency planning and is not a falls prevention strategy but rather a falls management strategy. This research explored the perspectives of older people and community workers (CWs) about contingency planning for a fall. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, participants were recruited through a community agency that supports older people. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven older people (67-89 years of age) and a focus group was held with seven workers of mixed disciplines from the same agency. Older people who hadn't fallen were included but were assumed to be at risk of falls because they were in receipt of services. Thematic analysis and concept mapping combined the data from the two participant groups. Four themes including preconceptions about planning ahead for falling, a fall changes perception, giving, and receiving advice about contingency plans and what to do about falling. Both CWs and older people agree contingency planning requires understanding of individual identity and circumstances. CWs have limited knowledge about contingency planning and may be directive, informative, or conservative. Implications for Rehabilitation Falls can result in serious consequences for older people. There is an evidence-practice gap as availability of and access to contingency planning does not necessarily mean older people will use it in a falls emergency. Older people prefer community workers to be directive or informative about contingency planning options but they do want choice and control. Increased community workers knowledge of, and collaborative decision-making about, contingency planning may promote patient-centered services and assist in closing the evidence-practice gap.

  17. Understanding and managing medication in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Dagan O; Baker, Emma H

    2013-10-01

    Ageing alters drug handling by the body (pharmacokinetics) and response to medications (pharmacodynamics). Multiple comorbidities increase the risk of adverse drug reactions and medication burden, with increased potential for drug interactions. Elderly people are seldom included in clinical trials, so underestimation of benefits and overestimation of risk may lead to under-treatment. Cognitive and functional changes associated with ageing may make it difficult for elderly people to adhere to treatment regimens. In this review, we consider these issues, with particular reference to drugs prescribed for gynaecology patients (the 'gynaecology formulary'). It will focus on key areas of gynaecological practice, including prescribing anticholinergic drugs, hormone treatments and anticancer drugs, and perioperative issues relating to anaesthesia, analgesia and anticoagulation. Implications of common comorbidities, including osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, for prescribing in gynaecological patients will also be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding Educational Leadership: People, Power and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busher, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    This book shows how school leaders at all levels "from the most senior manager to the classroom teacher" can help to build learning communities through collaborating and negotiating with their colleagues, students and students' parents and carers, as well as with external agencies and local communities, to sustain and develop the…

  19. [How human sciences can help to understand blood donation?].

    PubMed

    Danic, B

    2003-06-01

    In France, the necessity of managing sanitary risks associated with blood transfusion has induced a strong medicalization of blood collection. Practicing this activity of transfusion medicine confronts the professional with problems which the medical science is not sufficient to answer: curbs and motivations for donating, seasonal and geographic fluctuations in blood collection, sense of pre-donation interview, individual or collective contestings of guidelines for blood collection. From recent sociological works on donation in France, especially on blood donation, this paper suggests reporting the complexity of blood donation thought process and the necessity to refer to human and social sciences to approach it in a best way. Understanding the gift should help professionals to communicate not only on the promotion of blood donation, but also on the risk and its management.

  20. Women with Diabetes: Understanding Urinary Incontinence and Help Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Ashmi M.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Morrill, Michelle Y.; Schembri, Michael; Thom, David H.; Brown, Jeanette S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of urinary incontinence by diabetes status and race and evaluate beliefs and help-seeking around incontinence in a population-based cohort of women with and without diabetes. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2,270 middle-aged and older racially/ethnically diverse women in Diabetes RRISK. Incontinence, help-seeking behavior, and beliefs were assessed by self-report questionnaires and in-person interviews. Incontinence characteristics of diabetics and non-diabetics were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate models. Results Women with diabetes reported weekly incontinence significantly more than women without diabetes (Weekly: 35.4% vs. 25.7%, respectively, p <0.001). Race prevalence patterns were similar (white and Latina women with the most prevalent incontinence and African-American and Asian women with the least) among women with and without diabetes. Less than 50% of women with diabetes discussed their incontinence with a doctor (42.2% vs. 55.5% (of women without diabetes) p <0.003). Women with diabetes were more likely than women without diabetes to report believing that incontinence is a rare condition (17% vs. 6%, respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Incontinence is highly prevalent among women with diabetes. Race prevalence patterns are similar among women with and without diabetes. Understanding help-seeking behaviors are important to ensure appropriate care for patients. Physicians should be alert for urinary incontinence because it is often unrecognized and thereby under-treated among women with diabetes. PMID:20727547

  1. Associations between stigma and help-seeking intentions and beliefs: findings from an Australian national survey of young people.

    PubMed

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2013-12-30

    To reduce stigma and improve help seeking by young people for mental illness, we need a better understanding of the associations between various dimensions of stigma and young people's help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs for various sources of help and for different disorders. This study assessed stigmatizing attitudes and help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs via a national telephone survey of 3021 youths aged 15-25. Five stigma scales were used: social distance, personally held weak-not-sick and dangerousness beliefs, and weak-not-sick and dangerousness beliefs perceived in others. Respondents were presented with a vignette of a young person portraying depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, depression with alcohol abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, or psychosis. Beliefs that mental illness is a sign of personal weakness and preference for social distance were associated with less intention to seek professional help and less endorsement of their helpfulness. In contrast, dangerousness/unpredictability beliefs were associated with more intention to seek professional help and more endorsement of their helpfulness. Findings highlight the importance of examining the associations between different dimensions of stigma with different sources of help, specifically for various mental disorders, to better inform future efforts to reduce stigma and increase help seeking in young people. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Helping People Cope with Tragedy and Grief: Information, Resources & Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Kirkman, Chris J.

    Following the horrific experiences of September 11th, 2001, efforts were undertaken to gather information to provide counselors with the help they need for counseling those in the face of tragedy. With this publication, information about trauma and grief counseling becomes readily available. Guides for responding to tragedies are included from…

  3. Help-Seeking by Young People with Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders commonly occur for the first time during adolescence and often become a recurring source of distress and impairment. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of adolescents with depressive disorders receive help from professional services, and there is evidence that adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms may be…

  4. 'I see how treatment helps people stay independent'.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Hannah

    2010-09-01

    Home oxygen therapy is a highly technical service tailored to patients' particular needs. My job is to advise professional colleagues and patients about the range of respiratory therapies that Air Products offers in partnership with the NHS to help patients live independently at home.

  5. Understanding Collective Activities of People from Videos.

    PubMed

    Wongun Choi; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a principled framework for analyzing collective activities at different levels of semantic granularity from videos. Our framework is capable of jointly tracking multiple individuals, recognizing activities performed by individuals in isolation (i.e., atomic activities such as walking or standing), recognizing the interactions between pairs of individuals (i.e., interaction activities) as well as understanding the activities of group of individuals (i.e., collective activities). A key property of our work is that it can coherently combine bottom-up information stemming from detections or fragments of tracks (or tracklets) with top-down evidence. Top-down evidence is provided by a newly proposed descriptor that captures the coherent behavior of groups of individuals in a spatial-temporal neighborhood of the sequence. Top-down evidence provides contextual information for establishing accurate associations between detections or tracklets across frames and, thus, for obtaining more robust tracking results. Bottom-up evidence percolates upwards so as to automatically infer collective activity labels. Experimental results on two challenging data sets demonstrate our theoretical claims and indicate that our model achieves enhances tracking results and the best collective classification results to date.

  6. Stakeholder's perceptions of help-seeking behaviour among people with mental health problems in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mental health facilities in Uganda remain underutilized, despite efforts to decentralize the services. One of the possible explanations for this is the help-seeking behaviours of people with mental health problems. Unfortunately little is known about the factors that influence the help-seeking behaviours. Delays in seeking proper treatment are known to compromise the outcome of the care. Aim To examine the help-seeking behaviours of individuals with mental health problems, and the factors that may influence such behaviours in Uganda. Method Sixty-two interviews and six focus groups were conducted with stakeholders drawn from national and district levels. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using a framework analysis approach. Results The findings revealed that in some Ugandan communities, help is mostly sought from traditional healers initially, whereas western form of care is usually considered as a last resort. The factors found to influence help-seeking behaviour within the community include: beliefs about the causes of mental illness, the nature of service delivery, accessibility and cost, stigma. Conclusion Increasing the uptake of mental health services requires dedicating more human and financial resources to conventional mental health services. Better understanding of socio-cultural factors that may influence accessibility, engagement and collaboration with traditional healers and conventional practitioners is also urgently required. PMID:21314989

  7. Helping people change, Part 2: The magic of motivation.

    PubMed

    Jameson, C

    2000-01-01

    The consensus of the data and the interviewed doctors was that the five most profound motivators of people in the workplace today include the following: achievement of well-done work; personal pride and satisfaction in being a part of quality treatment and excellent care of patients; continuing education; respect, responsibility, and appreciation; and equitable compensation. "Motivation is the most critical factor in the productivity of my practice," said Dr. Stelly. "Motivation is the key. If everyone is on the same page and the doctor and key team members can continue to motivate and encourage others, then the sky is the limit. The key is to keep everyone goal oriented, unified, and excited about the possibilities."

  8. Simulations Help School Leaders Hone People Skills: Simulations Help School Leaders Practice "Tough Conversations"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a simulation training program for school leaders at Syracuse University. The project is creating a series of parent, teacher, student, and community-member roles to help principals and teachers learn how to handle tricky conversations. Supported by a three-year grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of…

  9. Understanding and Facilitating Self-Regulated Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Dembo, Myron H.

    2011-01-01

    Help seeking is an important developmental skill, a form of behavioral, or social, self-regulation employed by cognitively, behaviorally, and emotionally engaged learners. Help seeking is unique among learning strategies as it may imply that learners are incapable of task completion or satisfactory performance without assistance, which can be…

  10. Understanding and Facilitating Self-Regulated Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Dembo, Myron H.

    2011-01-01

    Help seeking is an important developmental skill, a form of behavioral, or social, self-regulation employed by cognitively, behaviorally, and emotionally engaged learners. Help seeking is unique among learning strategies as it may imply that learners are incapable of task completion or satisfactory performance without assistance, which can be…

  11. Help needed in medication self-management for people with visual impairment: case–control study

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Roseleen M; Jackson, A Jonathan; Stevenson, Michael; Dempster, Martin; McElnay, James C; Cupples, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Background Visual impairment (VI) is rising in prevalence and contributing to increasing morbidity, particularly among older people. Understanding patients’ problems is fundamental to achieving optimal health outcomes but little is known about how VI impacts on self-management of medication. Aim To compare issues relating to medication self-management between older people with and without VI. Design and setting Case–control study with participants aged ≥65 years, prescribed at least two long-term oral medications daily, living within the community. Method The study recruited 156 patients with VI (best corrected visual acuity [BCVA] 6/18 to 3/60) at low-vision clinics; community optometrists identified 158 controls (BCVA 6/9 or better). Researchers visited participants in their homes, administered two validated questionnaires to assess medication adherence (Morisky; Medication Adherence Report Scale [MARS]), and asked questions about medication self-management, beliefs, and support. Results Approximately half of the participants in both groups reported perfect adherence on both questionnaires (52.5% Morisky; 43.3%, MARS). Despite using optical aids, few (3%) with VI could read medication information clearly; 24% had difficulty distinguishing different tablets. More people with VI (29%) than controls (13%) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6 to 5.0) needed help managing their medication, from friends (19% versus 10%) or pharmacists (10% versus 2.5%; OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.4 to 13.5); more received social service support (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 3.9 to 12.9). Conclusion Compared to their peers without VI, older people with VI are more than twice as likely to need help in managing medication. In clinical practice in primary care, patients’ needs for practical support in taking prescribed treatment must be recognised. Strategies for effective medication self-management should be explored. PMID:22867676

  12. Costs and economic consequences of a help-at-home scheme for older people in England.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Annette; Knapp, Martin; Wistow, Gerald; Perkins, Margaret; King, Derek; Iemmi, Valentina

    2017-03-01

    Solutions to support older people to live independently and reduce the cost of an ageing population are high on the political agenda of most developed countries. Help-at-home schemes offer a mix of community support with the aim to address a range of well-being needs. However, not much is currently known about the costs, outcomes and economic consequences of such schemes. Understanding their impact on individuals' well-being and the economic consequences for local and central government can contribute to decisions about sustainable long-term care financing. This article presents results from a mixed-methods study of a voluntary sector-provided help-at-home scheme in England for people of 55 years and older. The study followed a participatory approach, which involved staff and volunteers. Data were collected during 2012 and 2013. Social care-related quality of life was measured with the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit for 24 service users (59% response rate) when they started using the scheme and 4-6 months later. A customised questionnaire that captured resource use and well-being information was sent to 1064 service users (63% response rate). The same tool was used in assessment with service users who started using the scheme between November 2012 and April 2013 (100% response rate). Costs of the scheme were established from local budget and activity data. The scheme was likely to achieve a mean net benefit of £1568 per person from a local government and National Health Service (NHS) perspective and £3766 from the perspective of the individual. An expenditure of £2851 per person accrued to central government for the additional redistribution of benefit payments to older people. This article highlights the potential contribution of voluntary sector-run help-at-home schemes to an affordable welfare system for ageing societies.

  13. A conceptual framework for understanding self-help groups.

    PubMed

    Rootes, L E; Aanes, D L

    1992-04-01

    Although self-help groups are recognized as an important part of the continuum of services in the mental health system, confusion about what constitutes a self-help group remains. The authors outline seven criteria for defining the self-help group and differentiating it from other types of groups, such as advocacy or support groups. Self-help groups are distinguished by their supportive and educational aims, focus on a single life-disrupting event, primary purpose of supporting personal change, anonymous and confidential nature, voluntary membership, member leadership, and absence of a profit orientation. Eight basic principles underlying successful self-help groups are discussed, including the shared experience of members, their acceptance of responsibility for themselves, and their commitment to personal change.

  14. Lobster on the Sidewalk: Understanding and Helping Children with Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roberta I.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive processes and emotional needs that influence developmental changes related to fears and suggests some techniques which adults may use to help children cope with their fears. (Author/MP)

  15. Lobster on the Sidewalk: Understanding and Helping Children with Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roberta I.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive processes and emotional needs that influence developmental changes related to fears and suggests some techniques which adults may use to help children cope with their fears. (Author/MP)

  16. Helping the International Student Understand the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mary

    2011-01-01

    To be successful in navigating the waters of American higher education, international students need to demonstrate proficiency in the English language and an understanding of the educational expectations of American academia. Unlike Americans who apply to a US university, international students must demonstrate that they understand enough English…

  17. Helping the International Student Understand the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mary

    2011-01-01

    To be successful in navigating the waters of American higher education, international students need to demonstrate proficiency in the English language and an understanding of the educational expectations of American academia. Unlike Americans who apply to a US university, international students must demonstrate that they understand enough English…

  18. Do Online Mental Health Services Improve Help-Seeking for Young People? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Cheryl; Sanci, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Young people regularly use online services to seek help and look for information about mental health problems. Yet little is known about the effects that online services have on mental health and whether these services facilitate help-seeking in young people. Objective This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of online services in facilitating mental health help-seeking in young people. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Out of 608 publications identified, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of investigating online mental health services and help-seeking in young people aged 14-25 years. Results Two qualitative, 12 cross-sectional, one quasi-experimental, and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. There was no change in help-seeking behavior found in the RCTs, while the quasi-experimental study found a slight but significant increase in help-seeking. The cross-sectional studies reported that online services facilitated seeking help from a professional source for an average of 35% of users. The majority of the studies included small sample sizes and a high proportion of young women. Help-seeking was often a secondary outcome, with only 22% (4/18) of studies using adequate measures of help-seeking. The majority of studies identified in this review were of low quality and likely to be biased. Across all studies, young people regularly used and were generally satisfied with online mental health resources. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking were also identified. Conclusions Few studies examine the effects of online services on mental health help-seeking. Further research is needed to determine whether online mental health services effectively facilitate help-seeking for young people. PMID:24594922

  19. Terrorism: Online Resources for Helping Students Understand and Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tim; Ramirez, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on the issue of terrorism. Aims to assist teachers in educating their students and helping them cope with terrorism since the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. Offers sites on other terrorist attacks on the U.S. (CMK)

  20. Terrorism: Online Resources for Helping Students Understand and Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tim; Ramirez, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on the issue of terrorism. Aims to assist teachers in educating their students and helping them cope with terrorism since the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. Offers sites on other terrorist attacks on the U.S. (CMK)

  1. Used Jmol to Help Students Better Understand Fluxional Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    This new WebWare combines instructional text and Jmol interactive, animated illustrations that help students visualize the mechanism. It is concluded that by animating the fluxional behavior of a simple model for chiral metal catalyst Sn(amidinate)[subscript 2], in which axial/equatorial exchange within the amidinate rings occurs through a Berry…

  2. Understanding Emotions through Games: Helping Trainee Teachers to Make Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavega, Pere; Filella, Gemma; Agullo, Maria Jesus; Soldevila, Anna; March, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to provide guidelines to help professionals make decisions regarding the types of emotions produced by different sporting games classified into four domains of motor action (psychomotor, co-operation, opposition and cooperation/opposition). Method: The sample comprised 284 first-year university students of…

  3. High-Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People with Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People With Type 1 Diabetes Pair of studies found patients taking insulin injections ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 1 Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood ...

  4. Meeting of the Minds: Recognizing Styles of Conflict Management Helps Students Develop "People Skills."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, William P.

    1992-01-01

    When faced with conflict, people respond in one of three styles: dominating, appeasing, or cooperating. Teaching students to recognize styles and choose appropriate responses can help them deal with conflict in the workplace. (SK)

  5. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  6. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  7. Understanding barriers to Malaysian women with breast cancer seeking help.

    PubMed

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Rahmah, Mohd Amin; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Knight, Aishah

    2012-01-01

    Delay in help-seeking behaviour which is potentially preventable has a major effect on the prognosis and survival of patients with breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore reasons for delay in seeking help among patients with breast cancer from the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia. A qualitative study using face- to-face in-depth interview was carried out involving 12 breast cancer patients who had been histo-pathologically confirmed and were symptomatic on presentation. Respondents were selected purposely based on their history of delayed consultation, diagnosis or treatment. All were of Malay ethnicity and the age range was 26-67 years. Three were in stage ll, seven in stage lll and two in stage lV. At the time of interview, all except one respondent had accepted treatment. The range of consultation time was 0.2-72.2 months with a median of 1.7 months, diagnosis time was 1.4-95.8 months( median 5.4 months )and treatment time was 0-33.3 months (median 1.2 months). The themes derived from the study were poor knowledge or awareness of breast cancer, fear of cancer consequences, beliefs in complementary alternative medicine, sanction by others, other priorities, denial of disease, attitude of wait and see and health care system weakness. Help-seeking behaviour was influenced by a complex interaction of cognitive, environmental, beliefs, culture and psycho-social factors. Breast cancer awareness and psychological counselling are recommended for all patients with breast symptoms to prevent delay in seeking clinical help.

  8. Legacy Projects: Helping Young People Respond Productively to the Challenges of a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    How might educators help young people respond to current and future challenges of a changing world? In this article, I describe how educators can design Legacy Projects to provide young people with opportunities to make positive and lasting differences in their lives, schools, communities, and beyond. The connection between legacy projects and the…

  9. Helping Secondary School Students Develop a Conceptual Understanding of Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students' conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and…

  10. Helping Prospective Teachers to Understand Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Genevieve L.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two video-based interventions, one guided, the other non-guided, on pre-service early childhood education teachers' understanding of students' mathematical thinking. Five web-based lessons on various topics in children's mathematical development were created for this study. Each…

  11. Scientific Models Help Students Understand the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Cory; Vo, Tina; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The water cycle is a large, complex system that encompasses ideas across the K-12 science curriculum. By the time students leave fifth grade, they should understand "that a system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot" and be able to describe both components and processes…

  12. Scientific Models Help Students Understand the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Cory; Vo, Tina; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The water cycle is a large, complex system that encompasses ideas across the K-12 science curriculum. By the time students leave fifth grade, they should understand "that a system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot" and be able to describe both components and processes…

  13. Guidelines for discharge: do standardized cards help in patient understanding?

    PubMed

    Reis, Phillipe Geraldo Teixeira de Abreu; Nakakogue, Camila; Nakakogue, Tabatha; Nasr, Adonis; Tomasich, Flávio Daniel Saavedra; Collaço, Iwan Augusto

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether the addition of discharge standard illustrated cards improves understanding of patients in the emergency room. We conducted a prospective, randomized, interventional study with 228 patients discharged from the emergency department. All patients were interviewed and tested for the level of understanding of discharge instructions. Some of them received the intervention, with the standard cards, and another did not, constituting the control group. The average of followed discharge guidelines of the group that received the cards was higher than the control group, with statistical significance (p=0.009). When segregated by age, the group between 16 and 35 years of both sexes had the best average of followed guidelines, statistically, than the average of the control group (p=0.01). The difference between the mean orientations between the control group and the card for patients undergoing procedures was statistically significant (p=0.02); as for the stratification according to the number of procedures, the significance increases when that is equal to 1 (p=0.001) and decreased the more procedures were carried out. The introduction of discharge standard orientation cards was associated with improvement in the understanding of patients. Without replacing the verbal directions, which establishes dialogue and doctor-patient bonding, cards appear as auxiliary elements, facilitating understanding and care guidelines.

  14. Viewing a Poem as Argument: Helping Students Understand Contemporary Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When high school honors students were put off by contemporary poetry, the author engaged them by analyzing the poem as an "argument." Using the Toulmin model to establish a warrant, advance a claim, and locate details to support that claim, students were able, by treating a poem as an argument, to increase their understanding of the…

  15. How Understanding Attachment Theory Can Help Make Us Better Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mardell, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding children's relationships to their primary and secondary caregivers. The theory describes how secure attachment bonds are formed between children and caregivers and the consequences of both secure and insecure attachment relationships. Recommendations for putting attachment theory into…

  16. Helping Prospective Teachers to Understand Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Genevieve L.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two video-based interventions, one guided, the other non-guided, on pre-service early childhood education teachers' understanding of students' mathematical thinking. Five web-based lessons on various topics in children's mathematical development were created for this study. Each…

  17. Empowering Andrea to Help Year 5 Students Construct Fraction Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baturo, Annette R

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a glimpse into the positive effect on student learning as a result of empowering a classroom teacher of 20 years (Andrea) with subject matter knowledge relevant to developing fraction understanding. Having a facility with fractions is essential for life skills in any society, whether metricated or non-metricated, and yet…

  18. Using Story to Help Student Understanding of Gas Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Rick; Stinner, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Students tend to have a poor understanding of the concept of gas pressure. Usually, gas pressure is taught in terms of the various formulaic gas laws. The development of the concept of gas pressure according to the early Greeks did not include the concept of a vacuum. It was not for another 2000 years that Torricelli proposed that a vacuum can…

  19. Using Story to Help Student Understanding of Gas Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Rick; Stinner, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Students tend to have a poor understanding of the concept of gas pressure. Usually, gas pressure is taught in terms of the various formulaic gas laws. The development of the concept of gas pressure according to the early Greeks did not include the concept of a vacuum. It was not for another 2000 years that Torricelli proposed that a vacuum can…

  20. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  1. Helping Secondary School Students Develop a Conceptual Understanding of Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students' conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and…

  2. Episodic Mapping: A Technique To Help Students Understand Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmelzer, Ronald; Henson, Kenneth

    Semantic mapping is effective with expository prose but not as effective with narrative prose. To achieve a better understanding of narrative prose, yet still keep the benefits of semantic mapping, the traditional approach can be modified into a technique called "episodic mapping." Episodic mapping is based on the idea that most stories…

  3. Altruism in the wild: when affiliative motives to help positive people overtake empathic motives to help the distressed.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Preston, Stephanie D; Stansfield, R Brent

    2014-06-01

    Psychological theories of human altruism suggest that helping results from an evolved tendency in caregiving mammals to respond to distress or need with empathy and sympathy. However, theories from biology, economics, and social psychology demonstrate that social animals also evolved to affiliate with and help desirable social partners. These models make different predictions about the affect of those we should prefer to help. Empathic models predict a preference to help sad, distressed targets in need, while social affiliative models predict a preference for happy, positive, successful targets. We compared these predictions in 3 field studies that measured the tendency to help sad, happy, and neutral confederates in a real-world, daily context: holding the door for a stranger in public. People consistently held the door more for happy over sad or neutral targets. To allow empathic motivations to compete more strongly against social affiliative ones, a 4th study examined a more consequential form of aid for hypothetical hospital patients in clear need. These conditions enhanced the preference to help a sad over a happy patient, because sadness made the patient appear sicker and in greater need. However, people still preferred the happy patient when the aid required a direct social interaction, attesting to the strength of social affiliation motives, even for sick patients. Theories of prosocial behavior should place greater emphasis on the role of social affiliation in motivating aid, particularly in everyday interpersonal contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Creating Curriculum Vitae for Understanding People on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Murakami, Harumi; Tatsumi, Shoji

    When users find information about people from the results of Web people searches, they often need to browse many obtained Web pages and check much unnecessary information. This task is time-consuming and complicates the understanding of the designated people. We investigate a method that integrates the useful information obtained from Web pages and displays them to understand people. We focus on curriculum vitae, which are widely used for understanding people. We propose a method that extracts event sentences from Web pages and displays them like a curriculum vita. The event sentence includes both time and events related to a person. Our method is based on the following: (1) extracting event sentences using heuristics and filtering them, (2) judging whether event sentences are related to a designated person by mainly using the patterns of HTML tags, (3) classifying these sentences to categories by SVM, and (4) clustering event sentences including both identical times and events. Experimental results revealed the usefulness of our proposed method.

  5. Commentary: how can technology help us understand the communication process?

    PubMed

    Keyton, Joann

    2012-08-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on the articles chosen for the special section on communications analysis. These articles problematize communication and raise an interesting set of questions for both human factors and communication scholars to ponder. In the end, both sets of scholars seek the same goal: How do we better examine communication to improve it? Problematizing communication requires scholars to challenge their fundamental assumptions about the phenomenon as well as to tease out the distinctions of methodological approaches typically used by both human factors and communication scholars. Human factors scholars tend to favor forms of communication in which technology or task roles control who can communicate and how. Communication scholars tend to favor contexts in which information flows more freely with fewer explicit restrictions. Creating opportunities to collaborate in research on the communication process may create the best understanding of technology that can better serve our understanding of communication.

  6. Can Genetics Help Us Understand Indian Social History?

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Romila

    2014-01-01

    Attempts have been made recently to determine the identity of the so-called “Aryans” as components of the Indian population by using DNA analysis. This is largely to ascertain whether they were indigenous to India or were foreign arrivals. Similar attempts have been made to trace the origins of caste groups on the basis of varna identities and record their distribution. The results so far have been contradictory and, therefore, not of much help to social historians. There are problems in the defining of categories and the techniques of analysis. Aryan is a linguistic and cultural category and not a biological one. Caste groups have no well-defined and invariable boundaries despite marriage codes. Various other categories have been assimilated into particular castes as part of the evolution of social history on the subcontinent. A few examples of these are discussed. The problems with using DNA analysis are also touched on. PMID:24968702

  7. Rotation placements help students' understanding of intensive care.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Lisa

    2011-07-01

    It is vital that children's nursing students are fit for practice when they qualify and are able to meet various essential skills as defined by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). To gain the knowledge and skills required, students need placements in areas where high dependency and potentially intensive care are delivered. Efforts to maximise the number of students experiencing intensive care as a placement have led to the development of the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rotation, increasing placements on the PICU from 5 to 40 per cent of the student cohort per year. The lecturer practitioner organises the rotation, providing credible links between university and practice areas, while supporting students and staff in offering a high-quality placement experience. Students say the rotation offers a positive insight into PICU nursing, helping them develop knowledge and skills in a technical area and creating an interest in this specialty.

  8. Deaf Children's Understanding of Other People's Thought Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the ability of deaf children to predict the behaviours of other people, based on an understanding of their beliefs. An unexpected transfer task and a deceptive box task were used with a group of 55 severely/profoundly deaf children. Results reiterate the findings of other studies that many deaf children are grossly delayed in…

  9. Do Children Understand That People Selectively Conceal or Express Emotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Hajimu; Shiomi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion depending upon the context. We prepared two contexts for a verbal display task for 70 first-graders, 80 third-graders, 64 fifth-graders, and 71 adults. In both contexts, protagonists had negative feelings because of the behavior of the other…

  10. Do Children Understand That People Selectively Conceal or Express Emotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Hajimu; Shiomi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion depending upon the context. We prepared two contexts for a verbal display task for 70 first-graders, 80 third-graders, 64 fifth-graders, and 71 adults. In both contexts, protagonists had negative feelings because of the behavior of the other…

  11. Non-professional-help-seeking among young people with depression: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults often suffer from depression, but tend to avoid seeking professional help. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons for non-professional-help-seeking in a sample of young adults resident in Catalonia with depressive symptoms through a qualitative study. In addition, the subjects were invited to offer their recommendations for making mental health care services more accessible. Methods We recruited 105 young persons (17–21 years of age) who had participated in a national survey on adolescents. The sample was divided into thirds, with 37 who had a previous diagnosis of depression, 33 who had self-perceived emotional distress, and 35 controls. The participants were interviewed in depth about their reasons for avoiding professional mental health care services, and the interview results were analyzed using both qualitative and cultural domain techniques and corroborated through comparison with the results of three focus groups. Results Participants’ reasons for avoidance varied both by gender and according to prior experience with health services. Male study participants and female controls mainly understood depressive symptoms as normal and therefore not requiring treatment. Female participants with self-perceived distress were more likely to cite problems of access to treatment and fear of speaking to an unknown person about their problems. Females with a diagnosis expressed lack of trust in the benefits of treatment and fear of the social consequences of help-seeking. In their recommendations for best practices, the study participants suggested educational initiatives, as well as changes in the organization of mental health care services. Conclusions A better understanding of the views of young people and a greater effort to involve them as active participants is important for facilitating help-seeking in this age group, and for adapting mental health care services to adolescent users and their social context. PMID

  12. Characteristics of elderly people receiving home-help in three regions of France.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S; Bucquet, D

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the allocation of home-help to the elderly using survey data collected on 3153 elderly respondents living at home in Haute-Normandie, Lille, and Ile-de-France. The samples of respondents were stratified by age, sex and area of residence, and were randomly selected from the electoral registers. The analysis identified 399 elderly people "in need": of home-help - living alone with disability. Of these, only 21% received home help. Of 174 home help recipients, 49% were "in need", and they received 52% of the volume (hours) of help allocated. The pattern of allocation varied regionally.

  13. The pallid sturgeon: Scientific investigations help understand recovery needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  14. Can genetics help us understand Indian social history?

    PubMed

    Thapar, Romila

    2014-06-26

    Attempts have been made recently to determine the identity of the so-called "Aryans" as components of the Indian population by using DNA analysis. This is largely to ascertain whether they were indigenous to India or were foreign arrivals. Similar attempts have been made to trace the origins of caste groups on the basis of varna identities and record their distribution. The results so far have been contradictory and, therefore, not of much help to social historians. There are problems in the defining of categories and the techniques of analysis. Aryan is a linguistic and cultural category and not a biological one. Caste groups have no well-defined and invariable boundaries despite marriage codes. Various other categories have been assimilated into particular castes as part of the evolution of social history on the subcontinent. A few examples of these are discussed. The problems with using DNA analysis are also touched on. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. Helping secondary school students develop a conceptual understanding of refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students’ conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and refraction occur. The use of ray diagrams can be useful in (a) the teacher modelling a correct explanation to a situation where refraction occurs and (b) for students to create as they practice other examples. This paper includes eight examples of increasing complexity that use a cognitive apprenticeship cycle approach to scaffold student learning. The first examples (rock fish, floating penny) are shown and a solution is modeled using a ray diagram. Three more examples (bent pencil, dropping an item in water, sunrise/sunset) are presented for students to practice, with each becoming more sophisticated. Three assessment exercises are then provided (two dots, three coins, broken tube).

  16. Understanding earth system models: how Global Sensitivity Analysis can help

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Computer models are an essential element of earth system sciences, underpinning our understanding of systems functioning and influencing the planning and management of socio-economic-environmental systems. Even when these models represent a relatively low number of physical processes and variables, earth system models can exhibit a complicated behaviour because of the high level of interactions between their simulated variables. As the level of these interactions increases, we quickly lose the ability to anticipate and interpret the model's behaviour and hence the opportunity to check whether the model gives the right response for the right reasons. Moreover, even if internally consistent, an earth system model will always produce uncertain predictions because it is often forced by uncertain inputs (due to measurement errors, pre-processing uncertainties, scarcity of measurements, etc.). Lack of transparency about the scope of validity, limitations and the main sources of uncertainty of earth system models can be a strong limitation to their effective use for both scientific and decision-making purposes. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is a set of statistical analysis techniques to investigate the complex behaviour of earth system models in a structured, transparent and comprehensive way. In this presentation, we will use a range of examples across earth system sciences (with a focus on hydrology) to demonstrate how GSA is a fundamental element in advancing the construction and use of earth system models, including: verifying the consistency of the model's behaviour with our conceptual understanding of the system functioning; identifying the main sources of output uncertainty so to focus efforts for uncertainty reduction; finding tipping points in forcing inputs that, if crossed, would bring the system to specific conditions we want to avoid.

  17. Understanding how education/support groups help lone mothers.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Ellen L; Kenny, Meghan; Jack, Susan; Cameron, Ruth; Secord, Margaret; Byrne, Carolyn

    2010-01-04

    Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted.

  18. Understanding how education/support groups help lone mothers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. Methods A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Results Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted. PMID:20047675

  19. Self-Injury, Help-Seeking, and the Internet: Informing Online Service Provision for Young People.

    PubMed

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne; Rando, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of young people are seeking help online for self-injury, relatively little is known about their online help-seeking preferences. To investigate the perspectives of young people who self-injure regarding online services, with the aim of informing online service delivery. A mixed-methods exploratory analysis regarding the perspectives of a subsample of young people who reported a history of self-injury and responded to questions regarding preferences for future online help-seeking (N = 457). The sample was identified as part of a larger study (N = 1,463) exploring self-injury and help-seeking. Seven themes emerged in relation to preferences for future online help-seeking: information, guidance, reduced isolation, online culture, facilitation of help-seeking, access, and privacy. Direct contact with a professional via instant messaging was the most highly endorsed form of online support. Young people expressed clear preferences regarding online services for self-injury, supporting the importance of consumer consultation in development of online services.

  20. The paradox of helping: Contradictory effects of scaffolding people with aphasia to communicate

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Alex; Hald, Julie

    2017-01-01

    When interacting with people with aphasia, communication partners use a range of subtle strategies to scaffold, or facilitate, expression and comprehension. The present article analyses the unintended effects of these ostensibly helpful acts. Twenty people with aphasia and their main communication partners (n = 40) living in the UK were video recorded engaging in a joint task. Three analyses reveal that: (1) scaffolding is widespread and mostly effective, (2) the conversations are dominated by communication partners, and (3) people with aphasia both request and resist help. We propose that scaffolding is inherently paradoxical because it has contradictory effects. While helping facilitates performing an action, and is thus enabling, it simultaneously implies an inability to perform the action independently, and thus it can simultaneously mark the recipient as disabled. Data are in British English. PMID:28806409

  1. Attitudes towards help-seeking and stigma among young people at risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Müller, Mario; Paust, Tobias; Corrigan, Patrick W; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-12-30

    The role of self-labeling as 'mentally ill' and of stigma-related stress for help-seeking among young people at risk for psychosis is unknown. Stronger self-labeling and less stigma stress predicted better attitudes towards psychiatric medication and psychotherapy, controlling for clinical and sociodemographic variables. Interventions could target stigma-related stress to increase help-seeking. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Helping Students Understand Intersectionality: Reflections from a Dialogue Project in Residential Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claros, Sharon Chia; Garcia, Gina A.; Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Mata, Christine

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors share insights from a dialogue project focused on intersectionality within a residential life setting and discuss additional strategies for helping students understand intersectionality.

  3. Understanding How People with Mental Health Difficulties Experience Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Emma; Smith, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative studies dominate research exploring reasons for substance use and experiences of substance use by people with mental health difficulties. This limits the depth of understanding which can be gained about these experiences. In the present article, we synthesized current qualitative research in this area to provide enhanced theoretical knowledge of these experiences. Following a systematic literature search, we identified 12 studies which explored how people with mental health difficulties experienced using substances, and which met additional inclusion criterion. We used Noblit and Hare's metaethnographic approach to qualitatively synthesize these studies. Synthesis led to the development of two themes; "substance use mediates acceptance and social inclusion" and "substance use provides perceived opportunities for control and power." The findings suggest that in the studies reviewed people's motivation for substance use was embedded in social and psychological contexts. It indicated that substance use could provide perceived benefits such as mediating the impact of mental health stigma, enabling the development of alternative identities, increasing their sense of power and providing opportunities for social inclusion. Mental health and substance use workers should therefore aim to develop alternative opportunities for people with co-occurring disorders to gain such benefits, and seek to challenge mental health stigma.

  4. Booze, Bars, and Bystander Behavior: People Who Consumed Alcohol Help Faster in the Presence of Others

    PubMed Central

    van Bommel, Marco; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Elffers, Henk; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    People help each other less often and less quickly when bystanders are present. In this paper, we propose that alcohol consumption could attenuate or reverse this so-called bystander effect. Alcohol impairs people cognitively and perceptually, leading them to think less about the presence of others and behave less inhibited. Moreover, alcohol makes people more prone to see the benefits of helping and not the costs. To provide an initial test of these lines of reasoning, we invited visitors of bars in Amsterdam to join our study at a secluded spot at the bar. We manipulated bystander presence, and at the end of the study, we measured alcohol consumption. When participants took their seats, the experimenter dropped some items. We measured how many items were picked up and how quickly participants engaged in helping. Results revealed that alcohol did not influence the bystander effect in terms of the amount of help given. But importantly, it did influence the bystander effect in terms of response times: people who consumed alcohol actually came to aid faster in the presence of others. PMID:26903929

  5. The SAINT: A Guided Self-Help Approach for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Eddie; Craig, Tom; McCarthy, Jane; Bouras, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This article introduces the SAINT (Self-Assessment and INTervention), a guided self-help intervention for the treatment of mild depression in people with intellectual disabilities. Method: The study used a single-case experimental design and adopted quality frameworks specific to the approach to describe the participants and to…

  6. Developing iPad-Based Physics Simulations That Can Help People Learn Newtonian Physics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are: (1) to develop iPad-based computer simulations called iSimPhysics that can help people learn Newtonian physics concepts; and (2) to assess its educational benefits and pedagogical usefulness. To facilitate learning, iSimPhysics visualizes abstract physics concepts, and allows for conducting a series of computer…

  7. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  8. Booze, Bars, and Bystander Behavior: People Who Consumed Alcohol Help Faster in the Presence of Others.

    PubMed

    van Bommel, Marco; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Elffers, Henk; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    People help each other less often and less quickly when bystanders are present. In this paper, we propose that alcohol consumption could attenuate or reverse this so-called bystander effect. Alcohol impairs people cognitively and perceptually, leading them to think less about the presence of others and behave less inhibited. Moreover, alcohol makes people more prone to see the benefits of helping and not the costs. To provide an initial test of these lines of reasoning, we invited visitors of bars in Amsterdam to join our study at a secluded spot at the bar. We manipulated bystander presence, and at the end of the study, we measured alcohol consumption. When participants took their seats, the experimenter dropped some items. We measured how many items were picked up and how quickly participants engaged in helping. Results revealed that alcohol did not influence the bystander effect in terms of the amount of help given. But importantly, it did influence the bystander effect in terms of response times: people who consumed alcohol actually came to aid faster in the presence of others.

  9. Schools as Travel Agencies: Helping People to Move Up, Down, and Sideways Through Human Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lee F.

    The three major objectives of intercultural education are to help people effectively manage encounters among culturally different individuals, competently move in and out of culturally diverse settings, and skillfully utilize resources of human culture in creating new settings. At present, schools and the social studies profession are not…

  10. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  11. Developing iPad-Based Physics Simulations That Can Help People Learn Newtonian Physics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are: (1) to develop iPad-based computer simulations called iSimPhysics that can help people learn Newtonian physics concepts; and (2) to assess its educational benefits and pedagogical usefulness. To facilitate learning, iSimPhysics visualizes abstract physics concepts, and allows for conducting a series of computer…

  12. Understanding Work Experiences of People with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Restall, Gayle J; Simms, Alexandria M; Walker, John R; Graff, Lesley A; Sexton, Kathryn A; Rogala, Linda; Miller, Norine; Haviva, Clove; Targownik, Laura E; Bernstein, Charles N

    2016-07-01

    People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for unemployment and work absenteeism over the course of their adult lives. However, little is known about the firsthand experiences of people living with the disease regarding perceived barriers, facilitators, and strategies for navigating work roles. In this qualitative study, participants were purposefully recruited from 2 existing IBD cohort study samples. Recruitment strategies aimed for diversity in age, sex, and disease type, duration, and symptom activity. In-depth interviews sought perspectives of living with IBD. Data were analyzed using inductive qualitative methods. Forty-five people currently or previously in the workforce participated; 51% were female. The mean age was 45.4 years (SD = 16.1; range = 21-73 years). Mean IBD duration was 10.9 years (SD = 6.3). Participants had a broad range of experiences in adapting to work roles. IBD symptoms and treatments interacted with other personal and environmental factors to shape the experiences of work. Experiences were shaped by: (1) personal health and well-being, (2) personal values, beliefs, and knowledge, (3) job characteristics, (4) workplace physical environment, (5) workplace culture, and (6) financial factors. Participants identified personal strategies and environmental supports that assisted them to navigate their work roles. The perspectives of people with IBD provided in-depth understanding of contextual factors that influence work roles. They identified personal strategies to manage health and choices about work, environmental supports that promote timely workplace accommodations, and appropriate social insurance benefits as facilitators of work retention for people with IBD.

  13. When Young Children Need Help: Understanding and Addressing Emotional, Behavioral, and Developmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    You know what it's like to spend time with youngsters who are particularly puzzling or hard to help. "When Young Children Need Help" helps early childhood educators make sense of what is going on for such children and use that understanding to promote growth and mastery. Written for child care center staff, family child care providers,…

  14. Understanding Why Students Do What They Do: Using Attribution Theory to Help Students Succeed Academically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaier, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    According to attribution theory, people seek to make sense of their environment through ascribing causality to their behavior and the behavior of others and these attributions impact future behavior (Jones et al., 1972). In essence, people seek to answer and understand why. This fundamental concept associated with attribution theory is important…

  15. Trust, Autonomy and Relationships: The Help-Seeking Preferences of Young People in Secondary Level Schools in London (UK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavey, Gerard; Rothi, Despina; Paul, Rini

    2011-01-01

    Help-seeking among young people is complicated, often determined vicariously by the ability of adults, family or professionals, to recognize, and respond to, their difficulties. We know very little about the complex concerns of teenage young people and how they impact on help-seeking preferences. We aimed to ascertain the help-seeking preferences…

  16. Trust, Autonomy and Relationships: The Help-Seeking Preferences of Young People in Secondary Level Schools in London (UK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavey, Gerard; Rothi, Despina; Paul, Rini

    2011-01-01

    Help-seeking among young people is complicated, often determined vicariously by the ability of adults, family or professionals, to recognize, and respond to, their difficulties. We know very little about the complex concerns of teenage young people and how they impact on help-seeking preferences. We aimed to ascertain the help-seeking preferences…

  17. Understanding older peoples' decisions about the use of sleeping medication: issues of control and autonomy.

    PubMed

    Venn, Susan; Arber, Sara

    2012-11-01

    Poor sleep is known to impact on health and wellbeing in later life and has implications for the ability of older people to remain active during the day. Medical treatments for chronic poor sleep have primarily included the regular, long-term prescribing of hypnotics, which are known to impact on older people's health, cognitive function and quality of life. Therefore, recent policy and practice has focused on reducing such prescribing, on encouraging older people to stop taking long-term hypnotics and on finding alternative, non-pharmacological ways to manage poor sleep. However, little research has been undertaken to understand the perspectives of older people who choose not to seek professional help for their poor sleep, despite the potential impact of poor sleep on their health and ability to remain active. Through in-depth interviews with 62 older men and women living in their own homes in England, this article explores the factors that deter older people from seeking professional help for their poor sleep. We argue that these are located in their perceptions of the normativity of poor sleep in later life, their beliefs about prescription sleeping medications and their desire to maintain control and autonomy over their everyday and night lives.

  18. Understanding of Placebo Controls Among Older People With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Laura B; Palmer, Barton W; Keehan, Monique

    2006-01-01

    Research protocols frequently necessitate procedures or design elements that differ from those used in routine clinical care. An example is the inclusion of a placebo arm in many randomized clinical trials. Because there are risks to taking a placebo when one has a chronic disorder such as schizophrenia, ascertaining how well people with severe mental illness understand placebos is an important task for empirical research ethics. We investigated whether schizophrenia patients' understanding of placebo controls could be improved with a brief educational intervention. We randomized 49 middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder to receive either (1) a routine explanation of placebos in the context of consent for a hypothetical double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, or (2) the consent for the hypothetical trial plus a brief educational module explaining placebos in more depth. Understanding of placebos was assessed with a 12-item questionnaire, and we examined demographic, clinical, neurocognitive, and decision-making correlates of understanding of placebos. Those participants who received the intervention obtained higher scores on the placebo post-test compared to those who received the standard information alone. Performance on the placebo post-test was positively correlated with measures of decisional capacity and neurocognitive abilities and negatively correlated with severity of negative symptoms, but it showed no relationship with positive or general symptoms. Some participants interpreted the common phrase “sugar pill” as relating somehow to diabetes. We conclude that the level of understanding of important research design–related information is not static but may be influenced by how investigators approach the consent process. PMID:16177271

  19. Towards a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies: Insights from Social Representations Theory.

    PubMed

    Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies.

  20. Helping people with severe mental illness to obtain work: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Ruth E; Marshall, Max; Bond, Gary R; Huxley, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the most effective way of helping people with severe mental illness to obtain competitive employment—that is, a job paid at the market rate, and for which anyone can apply. Design Systematic review. Participants Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials comparing prevocational training or supported employment (for people with severe mental illness) with each other or with standard community care. Outcome measures The primary outcome was number of subjects in competitive employment. Secondary outcomes were other employment outcomes, clinical outcomes, and costs. Results Eleven trials met the inclusion criteria. Five (1204 subjects) compared prevocational training with standard community care, one (256 subjects) compared supported employment with standard community care, and five (484 subjects) compared supported employment with prevocational training. Subjects in supported employment were more likely to be in competitive employment than those who received prevocational training at 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months (for example, 34% v 12% at 12 months; number needed to treat 4.45, 95% confidence interval 3.37 to 6.59). This effect was still present, although at a reduced level, after a sensitivity analysis that retained only the highest quality trials (31% v 12%; 5.3, 3.6 to 10.4). People in supported employment earned more and worked more hours per month than those who had had prevocational training. Conclusion Supported employment is more effective than prevocational training at helping people with severe mental illness obtain competitive employment. PMID:11159616

  1. Helping people with severe mental illness to obtain work: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crowther, R E; Marshall, M; Bond, G R; Huxley, P

    2001-01-27

    To determine the most effective way of helping people with severe mental illness to obtain competitive employment-that is, a job paid at the market rate, and for which anyone can apply. Systematic review. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials comparing prevocational training or supported employment (for people with severe mental illness) with each other or with standard community care. The primary outcome was number of subjects in competitive employment. Secondary outcomes were other employment outcomes, clinical outcomes, and costs. Eleven trials met the inclusion criteria. Five (1204 subjects) compared prevocational training with standard community care, one (256 subjects) compared supported employment with standard community care, and five (484 subjects) compared supported employment with prevocational training. Subjects in supported employment were more likely to be in competitive employment than those who received prevocational training at 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months (for example, 34% v 12% at 12 months; number needed to treat 4.45, 95% confidence interval 3.37 to 6.59). This effect was still present, although at a reduced level, after a sensitivity analysis that retained only the highest quality trials (31% v 12%; 5.3, 3.6 to 10.4). People in supported employment earned more and worked more hours per month than those who had had prevocational training. Supported employment is more effective than prevocational training at helping people with severe mental illness obtain competitive employment.

  2. Trust, autonomy and relationships: the help-seeking preferences of young people in secondary level schools in London (UK).

    PubMed

    Leavey, Gerard; Rothi, Despina; Paul, Rini

    2011-08-01

    Help-seeking among young people is complicated, often determined vicariously by the ability of adults, family or professionals, to recognize, and respond to, their difficulties. We know very little about the complex concerns of teenage young people and how they impact on help-seeking preferences. We aimed to ascertain the help-seeking preferences for a range of mental health problems among adolescents attending schools in an inner-city area of London. In particular we sought to examine the relationship between such adolescents and their family doctor. Using a mixed methods approach we explored help-seeking attitudes of young people. Emotional and mental health problems are not seen by young people as the domain of General practitioners. Moreover, there is a worrying lack of confidence and trust placed in family doctor and other professionals by young people. Young people do not tend easily to trust adults to help them with emotional difficulties.

  3. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Aiken, G.R.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs. The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  4. Expanding Our Understanding of Self-Help Support Groups for Substance Use Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadich, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Self-Help Support Groups (SHSGs) for substance use issues are recognized in current policies for their role in reducing substance use. However, these policies recognize only their therapeutic value. This article argues that SHSGs can offer more than therapeutic advantage. This contention follows a study involving young people who were involved in…

  5. The Bottom Line: An Exercise to Help Students Understand How Social Inequality Is Actively Constructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelev, Melissa; Vincent, M. Bess; Haney, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important misconceptions in the American view of poverty is that people are poor because they do not work. This article presents an exercise, the "bottom line," which helps dispel students' misconceptions about the working poor. Through extensive primary-data collection and assembling a budget for low-skilled workers, the exercise: (1)…

  6. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in…

  7. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in…

  8. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  9. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  10. Media Messages About Cancer: What Do People Understand?

    PubMed Central

    MAZOR, KATHLEEN M.; CALVI, JOSEPHINE; COWAN, REBECCA; COSTANZA, MARY E.; HAN, PAUL K. J.; GREENE, SARAH M.; SACCOCCIO, LAURA; COVE, ERICA; ROBLIN, DOUGLAS; WILLIAMS, ANDREW

    2010-01-01

    Health messages on television and other mass media have the potential to significantly influence the public’s health-related knowledge and behaviors, but little is known about people’s ability to comprehend such messages. To investigate whether people understood the spoken information in media messages about cancer prevention and screening, we recruited 44 adults from 3 sites to view 6 messages aired on television and the internet. Participants were asked to paraphrase main points and selected phrases. Qualitative analysis methods were used to identify what content was correctly and accurately recalled and paraphrased, and to describe misunderstandings and misconceptions. While most participants accurately recalled and paraphrased the gist of the messages used here, over-generalization (e.g., believing preventative behaviors to be more protective than stated), loss of details (e.g., misremembering the recommended age for screening) and confusion or misunderstandings around specific concepts (e.g., interpreting “early stage” as the stage in one’s life rather than cancer stage) were common. Variability in the public’s ability to understand spoken media messages may limit the effectiveness of both pubic health campaigns and provider-patient communication. Additional research is needed to identify message characteristics which enhance understandability and improve comprehension of spoken media messages around cancer. PMID:20845199

  11. Helping People with HIV/AIDS Return to Work: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David J.; Chernoff, Robert A.; Buitron, Michael; Comulada, W. Scott; Liang, Li-Jung; Wong, F. Lennie

    2013-01-01

    Objective New treatments introduced in the mid 1990s led many people with HIV/AIDS who previously had been disabled by their disease to contemplate workforce reentry; many remain unemployed, and little is known concerning interventions that might help them return to work. We report the results of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of an intervention designed to help people with HIV/AIDS reenter the workforce. Design We tested a mixed (group – individual) modality intervention that incorporated elements of Motivational Interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 2002), skills building from Dialectical Behavior Therapy (Linehan, 1993), and job-related skills (Price & Vinokur, 1995). A total of 174 individuals participated in either the intervention or in standard of care and were followed for 24 months. Results Compared to individuals referred for standard of care, participants in the intervention engaged in more workforce-reentry activities over time and, once employed, were more likely to remain employed. Dose-response analyses revealed that among intervention participants, participants who attended more than one individual session engaged in more workforce-reentry activities than did individual who attended one or fewer individual sessions, whereas frequency of group session participation did not effect a difference between participants who attended more than six group sessions and participants who attended six or fewer group sessions. Conclusion Theoretically-based workforce-reentry assistance programs can assist disabled people with HIV/AIDS in their return-to-work efforts. PMID:23148715

  12. Evaluating Two Approaches to Helping College Students Understand Evolutionary Trees through Diagramming Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Judy; Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C.; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn…

  13. Help-Seeking in People with Exceptional Experiences: Results from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. Methods: An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Results: Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Conclusion: Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other

  14. Help-seeking in people with exceptional experiences: results from a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other persons with EE, but preferred seeing a

  15. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    PubMed

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help.

  16. SoundView: an auditory guidance system based on environment understanding for the visually impaired people.

    PubMed

    Nie, Min; Ren, Jie; Li, Zhengjun; Niu, Jinhai; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2009-01-01

    Without visual information, the blind people live in various hardships with shopping, reading, finding objects and etc. Therefore, we developed a portable auditory guide system, called SoundView, for visually impaired people. This prototype system consists of a mini-CCD camera, a digital signal processing unit and an earphone, working with built-in customizable auditory coding algorithms. Employing environment understanding techniques, SoundView processes the images from a camera and detects objects tagged with barcodes. The recognized objects in the environment are then encoded into stereo speech signals for the blind though an earphone. The user would be able to recognize the type, motion state and location of the interested objects with the help of SoundView. Compared with other visual assistant techniques, SoundView is object-oriented and has the advantages of cheap cost, smaller size, light weight, low power consumption and easy customization.

  17. [Comorbidity in people with depression seeking help at primary health care centers in Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pablo; Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Martínez, Vania; Vöhringer, Paul A; Castro, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    International evidence has shown the complex interaction between depression and chronic physical diseases. Depression in scenarios involving multiple comorbidities has not received enough attention in Chile. To characterize the depressed people who consult at Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs), taking into account the presence of chronic physical or psychiatric comorbidity. A secondary analysis of databases used in a clinical trial. Two hundred fifty six adults seeking professional help were recruited in four PHCCs located in the Metropolitan Region. These people had a major depressive episode, identified with a structured psychiatric interview (MINI), and gave their informed consent to participate. Socio-demographic information was collected, depressive symptomatology was measured with the patient health questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and chronic physical diseases were self-reported by the patients. Descriptive analyses of all the variables were conducted. Seventy percent of patients had a history of depression, with a median of two prior depressive episodes. Depressive symptoms were mostly considered as moderate to severe and severe and 31% of the patients had high suicide risk. Seventy eight percent displayed a physical or psychiatric comorbidity. Of these patients, 29% only had a chronic physical comorbidity, while 46% suffered from an additional psychiatric disorder. Depressed individuals who seek help at PHCCs constitute an especially complex population that must be treated taking into account multiple comorbidities.

  18. Understandings of death and dying for people of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiung-yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-02-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period, Chinese people have integrated these philosophies and religions to form the basis of their culture and traditions. Although they agree that death is a natural part of the life span, a unique belief about death and dying has emerged among the Chinese from this integration. From this, the people find a significant definition of death and dying.

  19. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  20. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  1. Who profits from visual aids: overcoming challenges in people's understanding of risks [corrected].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta

    2010-04-01

    Many people have difficulties grasping numerical concepts that are prerequisites for understanding treatment risk reduction. Visual aids have been proposed as a promising method for enhancing comprehension. In a survey of probabilistic, nationally representative samples in two different countries (United States and Germany), we compared the effectiveness of adding different types of visual aids (icon arrays and bar graphs representing either affected individuals only or the entire population at risk) to the numerical information in either an absolute or a relative risk reduction format. We also analyzed whether people's numeracy and graphical literacy skills affected the efficacy of the visual aids. Our results showed large improvements in accuracy both when icon arrays and when bar graphs were added to numerical information. Highest increases were achieved when the visual aids depicted the entire population at risk. Importantly, visual aids were most useful for the participants who had low numeracy but relatively high graphical literacy skills. Building on previous research showing that problems with understanding numerical information often do not reside in people's minds, but in the representation of the problem, our results show that visual aids help to modify incorrect expectations about treatment risk reduction. Our results have important implications for medical practice.

  2. The Value of Ellul's Analysis in Understanding Propaganda in the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on Ellul's analysis of propaganda in understanding propaganda in the helping professions. Key in such an analysis is the interweaving of the psychological and sociological. Contrary to the discourse in mission statements of professional organizations and their codes of ethics calling for informed consent, competence of…

  3. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  4. Reasoning, Not Recipes: Helping Your Students Develop Statistical Understanding and Enjoy the Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Gai

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is often presented to students as a series of algorithms to be learnt by heart and applied at the appropriate time to get "the correct answer". This approach, while it may in fact produce the right answer, has been shown to be minimally effective at helping students understand the underlying statistical concepts. As Holmes noted,…

  5. Students Meet Wilfred Gordon: Helping Students with Special Needs Understand Their Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how memory works is important for success in school, for "all" students. One way for teachers to help students with disabilities learn about memory is to use picture books and then learn strategies. Picture books are useful for students with disabilities because these resources have moved beyond a means to scaffold early literacy…

  6. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique to Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Steven W.; Hill, Brent J. F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases…

  7. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  8. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique to Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Steven W.; Hill, Brent J. F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases…

  9. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Measurement Error Tutorial in Helping Teachers Understand Score Report Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Zwick, Rebecca; Vezzu, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a short web-based tutorial in helping teachers to better understand the portrayal of measurement error in test score reports. The short video tutorial included both verbal and graphical representations of measurement error. Results showed a significant difference in comprehension scores…

  10. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Measurement Error Tutorial in Helping Teachers Understand Score Report Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Zwick, Rebecca; Vezzu, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a short web-based tutorial in helping teachers to better understand the portrayal of measurement error in test score reports. The short video tutorial included both verbal and graphical representations of measurement error. Results showed a significant difference in comprehension scores…

  11. Compassion Fatigue as a Theoretical Framework to Help Understand Burnout among Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari; Palladino, John M.; Barnett, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Compassion fatigue is a theoretical framework researchers have applied to helping professions other than teaching. The purpose of this report is to propose the use of this theory to better understand the prevalent rates of special education teachers' exit from the profession often labeled as burnout. A qualitative study with six middle school…

  12. The Value of Ellul's Analysis in Understanding Propaganda in the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on Ellul's analysis of propaganda in understanding propaganda in the helping professions. Key in such an analysis is the interweaving of the psychological and sociological. Contrary to the discourse in mission statements of professional organizations and their codes of ethics calling for informed consent, competence of…

  13. NIDCD: Celebrating 25 Years of Research Helping People with Communication Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Celebrating 25 Years of Research Helping People with Communication Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... Dl, Director, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) Photo courtesy of NIDCD On October ...

  14. HELPing older people with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HELP-COPD): mixed-method feasibility pilot randomised controlled trial of a novel intervention

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Susan; Kendall, Marilyn; Ferguson, Susie; MacNee, William; Sheikh, Aziz; White, Patrick; Worth, Allison; Boyd, Kirsty; Murray, Scott A; Pinnock, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extending palliative care to those with advanced non-malignant disease is advocated, but the implications in specific conditions are poorly understood. AIMs: We piloted a novel nurse-led intervention, HELPing older people with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HELP-COPD), undertaken 4 weeks after discharge from hospital, which sought to identify and address the holistic care needs of people with severe COPD. Methods: This 6-month mixed-method feasibility pilot trial randomised (ratio 3:1) patients to HELP-COPD or usual care. We assessed the feasibility of using validated questionnaires as outcome measures and analysed the needs/actions recorded in the HELP-COPD records. Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of patients, carers and professionals explored the perceptions of HELP-COPD. Verbatim transcriptions and field notes were analysed using Normalisation Process Theory as a framework. Results: We randomised 32 patients (24 to HELP-COPD); 19 completed the study (death=3, ill-health=4, declined=6). The HELP-COPD record noted a mean of 1.6 actions/assessment, mostly provision of information or self-help actions: only five referrals were made. Most patients were positive about HELP-COPD, discussing their concerns and coping strategies in all domains, but the questionnaires were burdensome for some patients. Adaptation to their slowly progressive disability and a strong preference to rely on family support was reflected in limited acceptance of formal services. Professionals perceived HELP-COPD as addressing an important aspect of care, although timing overlapped with discharge planning. Conclusions: The HELP-COPD intervention was well received by patients and the concept resonated with professionals, although delivery post discharge overlapped with existing services. Integration of brief holistic care assessments in the routine primary care management of COPD may be more appropriate. PMID:26028347

  15. Eighteen-month-old infants show false belief understanding in an active helping paradigm.

    PubMed

    Buttelmann, David; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Recently, several studies have claimed that soon after their first birthday infants understand others' false beliefs. However, some have questioned these findings based on criticisms of the looking-time paradigms used. Here we report a new paradigm to test false belief understanding in infants using a more active behavioral response: helping. Specifically, the task was for infants to help an adult achieve his goal - but to determine that goal infants had to take into account what the adult believed (i.e., whether or not he falsely believed there was a toy inside a box). Results showed that by 18 months of age infants successfully took into account the adult's belief in the process of attempting to determine his goal. Results for 16-month-olds were in the same direction but less clear. These results represent by far the youngest age of false belief understanding in a task with an active behavioral measure.

  16. Understanding factors influencing vulnerable older people keeping warm and well in winter: a qualitative study using social marketing techniques.

    PubMed

    Tod, Angela Mary; Lusambili, Adelaide; Homer, Catherine; Abbott, Joanne; Cooke, Joanne Mary; Stocks, Amanda Jayne; McDaid, Kathleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    To understand the influences and decisions of vulnerable older people in relation to keeping warm in winter. A qualitative study incorporating in-depth, semi-structured individual and group interviews, framework analysis and social marketing segmentation techniques. Rotherham, South Yorkshire, UK. 50 older people (>55) and 25 health and social care staff underwent individual interview. The older people also had household temperature measurements. 24 older people and 19 health and social care staff participated in one of the six group interviews. Multiple complex factors emerged to explain whether vulnerable older people were able to keep warm. These influences combined in various ways that meant older people were not able to or preferred not to access help or change home heating behaviour. Factors influencing behaviours and decisions relating to use of heating, spending money, accessing cheaper tariffs, accessing benefits or asking for help fell into three main categories. These were situational and contextual factors, attitudes and values, and barriers. Barriers included poor knowledge and awareness, technology, disjointed systems and the invisibility of fuel and fuel payment. Findings formed the basis of a social marketing segmentation model used to develop six pen portraits that illustrated how factors that conspire against older people being able to keep warm. The findings illustrate how and why vulnerable older people may be at risk of a cold home. The pen portraits provide an accessible vehicle and reflective tool to raise the capacity of the NHS in responding to their needs in line with the Cold Weather Plan.

  17. How can a multimodal approach to primate communication help us understand the evolution of communication?

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Liebal, Katja; Burrows, Anne M; Slocombe, Katie E

    2013-07-18

    Scientists studying the communication of non-human animals are often aiming to better understand the evolution of human communication, including human language. Some scientists take a phylogenetic perspective, where the goal is to trace the evolutionary history of communicative traits, while others take a functional perspective, where the goal is to understand the selection pressures underpinning specific traits. Both perspectives are necessary to fully understand the evolution of communication, but it is important to understand how the two perspectives differ and what they can and cannot tell us. Here, we suggest that integrating phylogenetic and functional questions can be fruitful in better understanding the evolution of communication. We also suggest that adopting a multimodal approach to communication might help to integrate phylogenetic and functional questions, and provide an interesting avenue for research into language evolution.

  18. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  19. Espana: Building Bridges of Understanding with the People of Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Spain by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Spain is given, which covers the following: geography, weather, history, ethnic roots, regional…

  20. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  1. Beliefs and emotions have different roles in generating attitudes toward providing personal help and state-sponsored help for people with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Obonsawin, Marc C; Lindsay, Amanda; Hunter, Simon C

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of emotions like pity and anger in mediating the relationship between beliefs about the controllability of a mental illness, and the willingness to help someone with a mental illness. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of beliefs about controllability on the willingness to provide personal help are mediated by the emotions of pity and anger, but that the effects of beliefs about controllability on the willingness to condone state-organised help were more direct, and not mediated by emotions. A between-groups design was employed to investigate the effects of manipulating controllability attributions via 3 hypothetical vignettes. ANOVA analysis of responses to a revised version of the AQ-27 from 371 participants demonstrated that beliefs about controllability lead to significantly higher personal responsibility beliefs, negative affective reactions and decreased helping intentions in comparison to when the cause of mental illness was believed to be uncontrollable. A mediation analysis demonstrated that pity and anger fully mediate the relationship between beliefs about controllability and the willingness to offer personal help, and also demonstrated that pity and anger partially mediate the relationship between beliefs about controllability and the willingness to condone help provided by the state. The partial mediation may indicate that the effects of beliefs about controllability on state-sponsored may be mediated by pity in some people, but that in other people, beliefs have a more proximal effect on behavior.

  2. Making a Move: Advice from "People First" Members about Helping People Move out of Institutions and Nursing Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Connie Lyle; O'Brien, John

    This paper offers advice, from members of People First, concerning the process of having individuals with disabilities move out of institutions and nursing homes into community living arrangements. The first section lists categories of questions that express the potential concerns and worries of people who are going to move, such as "Why do…

  3. Understanding coping strategies among people living with scleroderma: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Körner, Annett; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J; Thombs, Brett D

    2017-08-17

    Systemic sclerosis or scleroderma is a chronic, rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Coping strategies used by scleroderma patients have not been studied in-depth. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of the coping strategies employed by people living with scleroderma. Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 22 people with scleroderma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Coping strategies discussed were analyzed through Lazarus and Folkman's theoretical model of coping, including: (1) problem-focused, (2) emotion-focused, and (3) meaning-focused coping. Participants reported using a combination of problem-focused (e.g., professional help; seeking disease-related information), emotion-focused (e.g., social support; adaptive distraction techniques), and meaning-focused coping strategies (e.g., benefit finding; goal reappraisal) to help them to cope with and manage their disease. However, many patients reported having difficulty in accessing support services. Scleroderma patients use similar coping strategies as patients with more common diseases, but they may not have access to the same level of support services. Accessible interventions, including self-management programs, aimed at improving problem- and emotion-focused coping are needed. Further, increased access to support groups may provide patients with opportunities to obtain social support and enhance coping.

  4. Understanding the personhood of Deaf people with dementia: methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Young, Alys; Ferguson-Coleman, Emma; Keady, John

    2014-12-01

    This article concerns Deaf people in the United Kingdom, who use sign language, who have a formal diagnosis of dementia and who have participated in interviews in British Sign Language (BSL) about their experience of living with dementia. We address the methodological challenges involved in enabling culturally meaningful participation in circumstances where the non-verbal is not equivalent to the non-linguistic. We demonstrate the use of interpretative narrative representation of data for purposes of cultural brokering. We explore the contribution of Deaf people's experiences and the analysis of their visual, spatial narratives to debates about personhood and the embodied self in dementia studies. Finally, we consider the significance of the situational as cultural in relation to holistic interpretation of narrative.

  5. Understanding People’s Place Naming Preferences in Location Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    and show people’s locations on a map. These visualizations are a good match for navigation and emergency response applications which require absolute...there is a gap between how people describe places and what technology can currently offer [41]. Using existing reverse- geocoding systems, it is possible...seconds if the embedded GPS unit is able to determine its position. If the GPS signal is weak, for example if the participant is indoors or the sky is

  6. An analysis of the effectiveness of interventions intended to help people stop smoking.

    PubMed

    Law, M; Tang, J L

    1995-10-09

    In a systematic review of the efficacy of interventions intended to help people stop smoking, data have been analyzed from 188 randomized controlled trials. Following personal advice and encouragement to stop smoking given by physicians during a single routine consultation, an estimated 2% (95% confidence limits, 1%, 3%; P < .001) of all smokers stopped smoking and did not relapse up to 1 year as a direct consequence of the advice. The effect is modest but cost-effective: the cost of saving a life is about $1500. Supplementary interventions (follow-up letters or visits, demonstration of spirometry, etc) have an additional effect--variable in extent. Advice and encouragement are particularly effective for smokers at special risk--pregnant women (efficacy; 8%) and patients with ischemic heart disease. Behavior modification techniques (relaxation, rewards and punishment, avoiding "trigger" situations, etc), in group or individual sessions led by a psychologist, have an effect that is statistically significant (P = .05) but no greater than simple advice by a physician (2%); yet, these techniques are several times more expensive. The effect of hypnosis is unproved (no trials have used biochemical markers). Nicotine replacement therapy is effective in an estimated 13% of smokers who seek help in cessation; the effect is greater in those who are nicotine-dependent. Other pharmacological treatments are not of proven efficacy, and acupuncture is ineffective. Sudden cessation or gradual reduction in smoking are similar in their efficacy on average. Physicians should take time to advise all their patients who smoke to quit. Smokers who are intent on stopping should be given additional support and encouraged to use nicotine replacement therapy.

  7. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    PubMed

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  8. Help or hindrance: young people's experiences of predictive testing for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Forrest Keenan, K; McKee, L; Miedzybrodzka, Z

    2015-06-01

    A growing number of young people (YP) are requesting predictive testing (PT) for Huntington's disease (HD), yet there is little research in this area. The aim of this study was to explore YP's experiences of PT for HD, the impact of their result and any gaps in information or support. In-depth interviews were conducted with YP who sought PT for HD from nationally funded Genetics Services. Participants were recruited through the Grampian Genetics Service or Scottish Huntington's Association. Twelve female participants aged 17-26 years were recruited (seven below 20 years). Pre- and post-test interviews were conducted where possible. A qualitative thematic analysis suggests three main testing experiences, regardless of test result. Testing may be: (i) a journey of empowerment, (ii) an ambivalent process or (iii) a poor experience. In pre-test counselling, gaps in emotional support were highlighted. The post-test period was particularly difficult if there were unanticipated changes in family dynamics or an individual's result contradicted what they expected 'deep down'. YP's experiences of PT for HD are generally similar to those of adults, but testing may help or interfere with key issues related to this age and stage. Implications for clinical practice are outlined.

  9. Helping blind and partially sighted people to read: the effectiveness of low vision aids

    PubMed Central

    Margrain, T.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To substantiate the claim that low vision aids reduce the degree of disability associated with visual impairment.
METHODS—An observational study of vision, ocular pathology, age, sex, and reading ability in new referrals to a low vision clinic. Reading ability was assessed both with the patients' own spectacles and with an appropriate low vision aid.
RESULTS—The reading performance and biographical characteristics of new referrals to a low vision clinic were recorded. Data were collected for 168 people over a 6 month period. Upon arrival at the clinic the mean functional visual acuity equated to 6/36 and 77% of patients were unable to read newsprint (N8). After a low vision assessment and provision of a suitable low vision aid 88% of new patients were able to read N8 or smaller text.
CONCLUSIONS—The degree of visual impairment observed in new referrals to a low vision clinic is sufficient to prevent the majority from performing many daily tasks. Low vision aids are an effective means of providing visual rehabilitation, helping almost nine out of 10 patients with impaired vision to read.

 PMID:10906105

  10. Test of Antonovsky's postulate: high sense of coherence helps people avoid negative life events.

    PubMed

    Hochwälder, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    This study tested Antonovsky's postulate that a high sense of coherence (SOC) helps people avoid negative life events. It was assumed that negative life events that were uncontrollable would not show this effect, while those events that potentially could be controlled would show a significant relationship with SOC. 1,012 female nurses (M age=46.9 yr.; SD=8.9) participated in this longitudinal study and were divided into groups with low, moderate, and high SOC. Sixteen negative life events were categorized into uncontrollable and controllable events, with the controllable events divided into three sub-categories. Five one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for independent measures followed up with post hoc tests were performed, with the number of experienced events in a given category by each participant (at Time 2) as the dependent variable and the three SOC groups (formed at Time 1) as the independent variable. The results indicated that the high SOC group reported fewer controllable negative life events, while there was no significant relationship between the SOC level and uncontrollable negative life events. The findings support the postulate in Antonovsky's model, with the distinction between controllable and uncontrollable negative life events.

  11. Living Confidently With HIV - A Self-Help Book for People Living With HIV Shaw Liz Living Confidently With HIV - A Self-Help Book for People Living With HIV 270pp Blue Stallion Publications 9781904127093 1904127096 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2010-08-11

    Many self-help books are written by people who have little or no experience of the subject. Fortunately this book does not fall into that category. The authors are four clinical psychologists with extensive experience of working with people who are HIV positive. Their book is a guide for those newly diagnosed with HIV, giving information on what to expect and what to do.

  12. Vulnerable but strong: deaf people challenge established understandings of deafness.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Jan-Kåre

    2005-10-01

    In the last 35 years, hearing majorities have, in variable degree, gradually recognized that deaf people can be strong and able and a common knowledge of deaf people as linguistic minorities is partly embraced in public life. This is by and large a result of a long-time deaf struggle for the recognition of sign language and against paternalistic policies of pity. This article aims at showing how contemporary deaf identities are crafted by balancing vulnerability and empowering forces. In the presentation of life narratives from one deaf Norwegian and one deaf American, different aspects of being deaf are explored. These two stories have emerged from two related deaf research projects. They are deliberately chosen because they illustrate central insights gained within this research. The empowering aspects of being sign language users are in focus, as well as the joys of being connected to a global deaf movement. Difficulties and hardship are also part and parcel of the deaf lives displayed, and strong arguments are put forward against the medical model of deafness in particular. One conclusion is that deaf identities are vulnerable but at the same time can be strongly rewarding.

  13. Understanding and addressing religion among people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Pargament, Kenneth I; Lomax, James W

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in the domain of psychiatry and religion that highlight the double-edged capacity of religion to enhance or damage health and well-being, particularly among psychiatric patients. A large body of research challenges stereotyped views of religion as merely a defense or passive way of coping, and indicates that many people look to religion as a vital resource which serves a variety of adaptive functions, such as self-regulation, attachment, emotional comfort, meaning, and spirituality. There is, however, a darker side to religious life. Researchers and theorists have identified and begun to study problematic aspects of religiousness, including religiously-based violence and religious struggles within oneself, with others, and with the divine. Religious problems can be understood as a by-product of psychiatric illness (secondary), a source of psychiatric illness (primary), or both (complex). This growing body of knowledge underscores the need to attend more fully to the potentially constructive and destructive roles of religion in psychiatric diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. In fact, initial evaluative studies of the impact of spiritually integrated treatments among a range of psychiatric populations have shown promising results. The article concludes with a set of recommendations to advance future research and practice, including the need for additional psychiatric studies of people from diverse cultures and religious traditions. PMID:23471791

  14. Good Morning from Barrow, Alaska! Helping K-12 students understand the importance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation focuses on how an educator experiences scientific research and how those experiences can help foster K-12 students’ understanding of research being conducted in Barrow, Alaska. According to Zhang and Fulford (1994), real-time electronic field trips help to provide a sense of closeness and relevance. In combination with experts in the field, the electronic experience can help students to better understand the phenomenon being studied, thus strengthening the student’s conceptual knowledge (Zhang & Fulford, 1994). During a seven day research trip to study the arctic sea ice, five rural Virginia teachers and their students participated in Skype sessions with the participating educator and other members of the Radford University research team. The students were able to view the current conditions in Barrow, listen to members of the research team describe what their contributions were to the research, and ask questions about the research and Alaska in general. Collaborations between students and scientist can have long lasting benefits for both educators and students in promoting an understanding of the research process and understanding why our world is changing. By using multimedia venues such as Skype students are able to interact with researchers both visually and verbally, forming the basis for students’ interest in science. A learner’s level of engagement is affected by the use of multimedia, especially the level of cognitive processing. Visual images alone do no promote the development of good problem solving skills. However, the students are able to develop better problem solving skills when both visual images and verbal interactions are used together. As students form higher confidence levels by improving their ability to problem solve, their interest in science also increases. It is possible that this interest could turn into a passion for science, which could result in more students wanting to become scientists or science teachers.

  15. How do people understand their neuropathic pain? A Q-study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sally; Daniel, Clare; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2014-02-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is not easy to understand for those with the diagnosis. Even in specialist medical services, explanation may not be given or may not be integrated with patients' existing beliefs about their conditions. We were curious about how people with NP conceptualised the problem. Web sites relevant to NP were used to recruit 79 people with NP. They were sampled using Q-methodology, which requires sorting according to degree of agreement or disagreement with diverse statements about NP, derived from the widest possible range of sources. The sets of sorted statements are analysed for factors which represent shared constructions. The four factors that we found differed in important ways: (1) identification of nerve damage as cause; (2) the necessity of identifying cause; (3) the acceptability of symptomatic treatment; (4) the existence or not of psychological influences; and (5) the usefulness of psychological treatment. The meaning of these factors was extended by participants' free comments: certain viewpoints showed associations with their medical and treatment histories and with the interference of pain with daily life. Overall, a biopsychosocial model of pain was only weakly represented, and no integrated model of pain emerged across the four different accounts. There was little reference to NP having been explained when the diagnosis was made. This study highlights the need for more accessible explanations of NP within and outside medical services if people with NP are to use their understanding of NP to help them manage their pain and reduce its impact on their lives. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecology of the Heart: Understanding How People Experience Natural Environments.

    Treesearch

    Herbert W. Schroeder

    1996-01-01

    Ecology is defined as the science that studies relationships between organisms and their environments. There are many different perspectives through which these relationships can be viewed. As a natural science, ecology focuses on understanding the physical, chemical and biological interactions that take place between organisms and environments. When the organisms...

  17. "The Power to Squash People": Understanding Girls' Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Dawn H.; Kelly, Deirdre M.; Pomerantz, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    While researchers and concerned adults alike draw attention to relational aggression among girls, how this aggression is associated with girls' agency remains a matter of debate. This paper explores relational aggression among girls designated by their peers as "popular" in order to understand how social power constructs girls' agency as…

  18. Understanding of Epilepsy by Children and Young People with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    There is a striking dearth of studies focusing sensitively and in depth on the mainstream educational experiences of children with epilepsy, as viewed by those children themselves. The one-year project (2006-7) reported here addresses that gap. Children's perceptions about mainstream teachers' understanding of epilepsy and school-based needs are…

  19. Understanding of Epilepsy by Children and Young People with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    There is a striking dearth of studies focusing sensitively and in depth on the mainstream educational experiences of children with epilepsy, as viewed by those children themselves. The one-year project (2006-7) reported here addresses that gap. Children's perceptions about mainstream teachers' understanding of epilepsy and school-based needs are…

  20. How to help patients understand and conquer grief. Avoiding depression in the midst of sadness.

    PubMed

    Crow, H E

    1991-06-01

    Grief is a painful yet normal process that many patients do not fully understand or appreciate. Any person may be at risk for depression as a result of grief-inducing events. Early, organized intervention by primary care physicians can help patients return to full emotional health and maintain self-esteem. When the behavioral markers that measure the intensity of grief are named and used as a scale by which to measure progress, grief reactions can be jointly managed by patient and physician in brief counseling sessions over a reasonable period of time. I believe this is an efficient, effective, and valuable service to patients.

  1. Give Them The HUG: An Innovative Approach to Helping Parents Understand the Language of Their Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Tedder, Janice Lee

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests, and perinatal educators experience, that misunderstanding newborn behavior can undermine a new parent's confidence, decrease breastfeeding success, interfere with bonding, and even contribute to neglect and abuse. This article examines current literature and focuses on three skills parents need in order to become confident and effective mothers and fathers: understanding a newborn's state, reading an infant's cues, and appreciating a baby's capabilities. Using language that is family-friendly, concise, and clear, this article describes an innovative program, called “The HUG,” which provides this information and gives perinatal educators new skills and techniques for explaining newborn behavior to parents in order to help parents understand, enjoy, and attach to their baby. PMID:19252684

  2. Helping individuals to understand synergistic risks: an assessment of message contents depicting mechanistic and probabilistic concepts.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ian G J; Johnson, Johnnie E V; Luke, Michelle A

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that certain hazard combinations interact to present synergistic risks. However, little is known about the most effective ways of helping individuals to understand this complex risk concept. More specifically, there is an absence of empirical research that has assessed the relative efficacy of messages that explain either the causal mechanism and/or the probabilistic components of synergistic risks. In an experiment designed to address this issue, we presented participants with messages concerning the synergistic risk of developing esophageal cancer for individuals who consume both tobacco and alcohol. Relative to a control group, we compared the extent to which messages featuring content detailing the underlying biological mechanism, the probabilistic risk, or both improved understanding of the synergistic risk. Our results showed that messages containing details of both the mechanism and probabilistic information were most effective at enabling individuals to understand that the alcohol-tobacco combination presents a synergistic risk. In addition, large improvements in the accuracy of cancer frequency estimates were observed amongst individuals who received probabilistic information, and the highest relative increase in professed willingness to adopt precautionary behaviors was observed amongst individuals who received the mechanism information only. Importantly, these findings could be utilized in the development of a general model for the communication of synergistic risks. Furthermore, in contrast to previous findings, our study demonstrates that risk messages can be both effective and efficient in helping individuals to acquire a greater understanding of synergistic risks. Acquiring such knowledge could lead to significant improvements in risk-related decisions concerning combined hazards.

  3. A simple classroom teaching technique to help students understand Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

    PubMed

    Runge, Steven W; Hill, Brent J F; Moran, William M; Turrens, Julio F

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases in marble concentration increase the number of marbles transferred per unit time (initial rate, V(0)) until the turnover number becomes rate limiting and V(0) approaches the maximum velocity (V(max)), as described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. With this demonstration, students visualize an important concept: the turnover number is constant and independent of marble concentration. A student assessment of this exercise showed that it helped students visualize the turnover number and V(max) but not K(m), the marble concentration at which V(0) is one-half V(max). To address the concept of K(m), we use supplemental laboratory and lecture exercises. This exercise with plastic containers and marbles is equally suited to demonstrate the kinetics of carrier-mediated membrane transport. We conclude that this exercise helps students visualize the turnover number and V(max) and gives students important insights into the kinetic parameters used to characterize the catalytic activity of enzymes and membrane transporters.

  4. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique To Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brent J.F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases in marble concentration increase the number of marbles transferred per unit time (initial rate, V0) until the turnover number becomes rate limiting and V0 approaches the maximum velocity (Vmax), as described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. With this demonstration, students visualize an important concept: the turnover number is constant and independent of marble concentration. A student assessment of this exercise showed that it helped students visualize the turnover number and Vmax but not Km, the marble concentration at which V0 is one-half Vmax. To address the concept of Km, we use supplemental laboratory and lecture exercises. This exercise with plastic containers and marbles is equally suited to demonstrate the kinetics of carrier-mediated membrane transport. We conclude that this exercise helps students visualize the turnover number and Vmax and gives students important insights into the kinetic parameters used to characterize the catalytic activity of enzymes and membrane transporters. PMID:17146042

  5. Help-Seeking for Suicidal Thoughts and Self-Harm in Young People: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…

  6. Help-Seeking for Suicidal Thoughts and Self-Harm in Young People: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…

  7. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  8. Disclosure and understanding of cancer diagnosis and prognosis for people with intellectual disabilities: findings from an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hollins, Sheila

    2010-07-01

    Growing numbers of people with intellectual disabilities are diagnosed with a life-limiting illness such as cancer. Little is known about disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis to this group. The study aim was to explore how much people with intellectual disabilities who have cancer understand about their diagnosis and prognosis, and to explore how much they are told about their cancer. 13 people with intellectual disabilities and cancer took part in a 3-year ethnographic study. Data collection consisted mostly of participant observation. Participants were visited regularly for a median of 7 months. Eleven participants were told that they had cancer, but most were not helped to understand the implications of this diagnosis or their prognosis. Decisions around disclosure, as well as the task of truth-telling, rested mostly with relatives and paid carers. Those with severe/profound intellectual disabilities were most likely to be protected from the truth. Understanding was affected by cognitive ability, life experience and truth-telling. Lack of understanding affected the ability to take decisions about treatment and care. Existing models for breaking bad news are inadequate for people with intellectual disabilities. The findings suggest that more open communication is needed, but further studies are needed to establish best practice in this area.

  9. Reliability and Validity of the SAINT: A Guided Self-Help Tool for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Eddie; Chester, Rebecca; Tsakanikos, Elias; McCarthy, Jane; Craig, Tom; Bouras, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the main psychometric properties of the Self Assessment and Intervention (SAINT), a unique and recently developed Guided Self-Help tool for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Fifty-four adults with ID identified with symptoms of anxiety and/or depression completed the study. They were between 18 and 77 years old…

  10. Reliability and Validity of the SAINT: A Guided Self-Help Tool for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Eddie; Chester, Rebecca; Tsakanikos, Elias; McCarthy, Jane; Craig, Tom; Bouras, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the main psychometric properties of the Self Assessment and Intervention (SAINT), a unique and recently developed Guided Self-Help tool for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Fifty-four adults with ID identified with symptoms of anxiety and/or depression completed the study. They were between 18 and 77 years old…

  11. "These People Just Keep Trying to Help Me"--Supporting Students to Succeed in College and Career Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs For the Future, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Community college students today face multiple barriers--personal, financial, and academic--to achieving their postsecondary goals. In order to help more people juggle the myriad facets of daily life that make it difficult to stay in school and complete credentials, colleges need to deliver a broad range of support services in a coordinated…

  12. "Sometimes What They Think is Helpful is Not Really Helpful": Understanding Engagement in the Program of Assertive Community Treatment (PACT).

    PubMed

    George, Miriam; Manuel, Jennifer I; Gandy-Guedes, Megan E; McCray, Shenee; Negatu, Dina

    2016-11-01

    This exploratory study recruited a purposive sample of twelve clinical staff from a Program of Assertive Community Treatment (PACT) team in central Virginia to understand the perceptions and experiences related to assertive engagement. The researchers coded the transcribed data initially as twenty-three sub-themes and further refined the data into four overarching themes: characteristics of assertive engagement, PACT engagement strategies and engagement strategies for difficult to engage clients. Further analysis emphasized that PACT team members emphasized the importance of the therapeutic relationship for engagement, which proves challenging for hard-to-engage clients.

  13. Local people's understanding of risk from civil nuclear power in the Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiang

    2014-04-01

    This paper analyses how people understand civil nuclear risk in the local context in China. The findings of the paper are based on six months of fieldwork research on a potential inland nuclear power project in Dapu townland in 2007 and 2008. Understanding varies greatly depending on local context, with economic, geographic and social factors influencing the way people view risks and benefits. I argue that when local people do not have enough 'scientific knowledge' to understand risk from nuclear power, they can still use their experience of everyday life to reflect rationally on the risks and benefits that they face. I conclude that when local people trust in nuclear technology and 'the government', and are unaware of nuclear risk it is partly because of their over-dependence on institutions and experts. However, despite their lack of agency, local people rationally calculate risk and benefit in accordance with their social identity and geographical location.

  14. Understanding factors influencing vulnerable older people keeping warm and well in winter: a qualitative study using social marketing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lusambili, Adelaide; Homer, Catherine; Abbott, Joanne; Cooke, Joanne Mary; Stocks, Amanda Jayne; McDaid, Kathleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To understand the influences and decisions of vulnerable older people in relation to keeping warm in winter. Design A qualitative study incorporating in-depth, semi-structured individual and group interviews, framework analysis and social marketing segmentation techniques. Setting Rotherham, South Yorkshire, UK. Participants 50 older people (>55) and 25 health and social care staff underwent individual interview. The older people also had household temperature measurements. 24 older people and 19 health and social care staff participated in one of the six group interviews. Results Multiple complex factors emerged to explain whether vulnerable older people were able to keep warm. These influences combined in various ways that meant older people were not able to or preferred not to access help or change home heating behaviour. Factors influencing behaviours and decisions relating to use of heating, spending money, accessing cheaper tariffs, accessing benefits or asking for help fell into three main categories. These were situational and contextual factors, attitudes and values, and barriers. Barriers included poor knowledge and awareness, technology, disjointed systems and the invisibility of fuel and fuel payment. Findings formed the basis of a social marketing segmentation model used to develop six pen portraits that illustrated how factors that conspire against older people being able to keep warm. Conclusions The findings illustrate how and why vulnerable older people may be at risk of a cold home. The pen portraits provide an accessible vehicle and reflective tool to raise the capacity of the NHS in responding to their needs in line with the Cold Weather Plan. PMID:22798252

  15. The poorest first: WHO's activities to help the people in greatest need.

    PubMed

    Jancloes, M

    1998-01-01

    Through its Division of Intensified Cooperation with Countries and Peoples in Greatest Need, WHO is giving special attention to the relationship between poverty and ill-health. The work of the Division is outlined in the present article.

  16. 'Genetics home reference': helping patients understand the role of genetics in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Fomous, Cathy; Mitchell, Joyce A; McCray, Alexa

    2006-01-01

    The surge of information generated by the Human Genome Project has left many health professionals and their patients struggling to understand the role of genetics in health and disease. To aid the lay public and health professionals, the US National Library of Medicine developed an online resource called 'Genetics Home Reference' (GHR), located at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/. Launched in April 2003, GHR's goal is to help the public interpret the health implications of the Human Genome Project. It bridges the clinical questions of consumers and the rich technical data emerging from the sequenced human genome. The GHR web site is designed for easy navigation among summaries for genetic conditions and the related gene(s) and chromosome(s). This design strategy enhances the user's appreciation of how genes, chromosomes, and conditions are interrelated.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: understanding the chemistry will help our diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Rozas-Muñoz, E; Lepoittevin, J P; Pujol, R M; Giménez-Arnau, A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to plants is common. Potentially allergenic plants and plant products are found in many everyday environments, such as the home, the garden, the workplace, and recreational settings. By improving our knowledge of allergenic plant-derived chemical compounds, we will be better positioned to identify novel allergens. We review the most relevant chemical allergens that contribute to plant allergic contact dermatitis and propose a clinical classification system based on 5 major families of chemical sensitizers: α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones, quinones, phenol derivatives, terpenes, and miscellaneous structures (disulfides, isothiocyanates, and polyacetylenic derivates). We also describe the different clinical pictures of plant allergic contact dermatitis and review currently available patch test materials. A better understanding of the specific allergens involved in plant allergic contact dermatitis will help to predict cross-reactivity between different plant species or families.

  18. The "Mysteries of Hypnosis:" Helping Us Better Understand Hypnosis and Empathic Involvement Theory (EIT).

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Wickramasekera II (2015) has penned a comprehensive and thoughtful review article demonstrating how empathy is intimately involved in the psychology and neurophysiology of hypnosis and the self. Hypnosis is a very "mental" or subjective phenomenon for both the client and the research participant. To better assess the mind of the client/participant during hypnosis, it is my belief that we need to generate more "precise" phenomenological descriptors of the mind during hypnosis and related empathic conditions, as Wickramasekera II (2015) has suggested in his article. Although any phenomenological methodology will have its limits and disadvantages, noetics (as defined in the article below) can help us better understand hypnosis, empathic involvement theory, and the brain/mind/behavior interface. By quantifying the mind in a comprehensive manner, just as the brain is comprehensively quantified via fMRI and qEEG technologies, noetic analysis can help us more precisely assess the mind and relate it to the brain and human behavior and experience.

  19. "Talking about child sexual abuse would have helped me": Young people who sexually abused reflect on preventing harmful sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget

    2017-08-01

    Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The case of Carla: Dilemmas of helping all students to understand science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Lori A.; Anderson, Charles W.; Palincsar, Annemarie S.

    2002-05-01

    This paper tells the story of four sixth-grade students, of mixed race and social class, who worked together in a small group. All four students were intrigued as they experimented with colored solutions of different densities. They all wanted to share ideas about the techniques they had used, the observations they had made, and the patterns they had seen. They all wanted to understand why the colored solutions acted as they did. In spite of these common interests, they often failed to achieve intersubjective communication about the colored solutions or about the process of planning and making a poster to report their findings. We explain these failures using the sociolinguistic concepts of polysemy, privileging, and holding the floor. In particular, Carla (an African American girl) was unable to hold the floor within the group, so her opportunities for science learning were diminished. The four students were not overtly prejudiced in their speech or actions. Yet the expectations they brought with them about how and when people should talk, how work should be done, and what standards of quality they should aspire to led them to reconstruct among themselves some of the most troubling inequities of our society as a whole. This story is about important connections. In particular it is about how the actions of children are connected to the histories of their families, and how the privileging of ideas is connected to that of people, and how the practice of science is connected to that of discrimination. Science education reformers may underestimate the difficulty of separating conceptual conflict about ideas from interpersonal conflict about privilege and status.

  1. Math Is Like a Scary Movie? Helping Young People Overcome Math Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkin, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Afterschool teachers who tutor students or provide homework help have a unique opportunity to help students overcome the social or emotional barriers that so often block learning. They can embrace a creative and investigative approach to math learning. Margaret Kulkin's interest in being a math attitude "myth-buster" led her to apply to…

  2. Smoke Screeners: An Educational Program To Help Young People Decode Smoking in the Movies. Moderator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This educational program, which includes a moderator's guide and a videotape, is designed to help educators teach media literacy skills regarding smoking to students in middle and early high school. The moderator's guide helps teachers conduct an engaging discussion and provide followup educational activities around the Smoke Screeners program…

  3. Social media, help or hindrance: what role does social media play in young people's mental health?

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Alfie

    2014-11-01

    Social media is a huge force in the lives of young people with wide ranging effects on their development; given the importance of adolescence in the genesis of mental illness, social media is a factor in the mental health of young people. Despite the role that social media obviously plays in the development of mental illness, little research has been done into the impact that social media has on in the mental illness of young people. In general, what research there is points towards social media having a large impact on young people in both positive and negative ways. In particular, certain studies show a greater incidence and severity of bullying online compared to offline which may contribute to the development of depression. This contrasts with the positive impact that social media seems to have for young people in minority groups (ethnic minorities and those with chronic disease or disability) by allowing them to connect with others who live similar lives despite geographical separation. This acts as a positive influence in these people's lives though a direct link to mental illness was not shown. Overall, several important issues are raised: firstly, the lack of research that has been conducted in the area; secondly, the gulf that exists between the generation of younger, 'digital native' generations and the older generations who are not as engaged with social media; and finally, the huge potential that exists for the use of social media as a protective influence for adolescents. With proper engagement, policy makers and health professionals could use social media to connect with young people on issues like mental health.

  4. Evaluating Two Approaches to Helping College Students Understand Evolutionary Trees through Diagramming Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C.; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn macroevolutionary topics. Treatment 1 is a laboratory for the software program EvoBeaker designed to teach students about evolutionary trees. We tested Treatment 1 among nine college-level biology classes and administered pre/posttests to assess learning gains. We then sought to determine whether the learning gains from Treatment 1 were comparable to those derived from an alternate hands-on treatment, specifically the combination of a prerecorded lecture on DVD and paper-based activity based on Goldsmith's Great Clade Race (Treatment 2). Comparisons of pre- and posttests among participants using either Treatment 1 or 2 show large learning gains on some misconceptions and skills beyond knowledge gained from reading standard textbook entries. Both treatments performed equivalently in overall learning gains, though both had areas where they performed better or worse. Furthermore, gains among students who used Treatment 1 representing a wide range of universities suggest that outcomes are potentially applicable to a variety of “real-world” biology classes. PMID:18519610

  5. Evaluating two approaches to helping college students understand evolutionary trees through diagramming tasks.

    PubMed

    Perry, Judy; Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn macroevolutionary topics. Treatment 1 is a laboratory for the software program EvoBeaker designed to teach students about evolutionary trees. We tested Treatment 1 among nine college-level biology classes and administered pre/posttests to assess learning gains. We then sought to determine whether the learning gains from Treatment 1 were comparable to those derived from an alternate hands-on treatment, specifically the combination of a prerecorded lecture on DVD and paper-based activity based on Goldsmith's Great Clade Race (Treatment 2). Comparisons of pre- and posttests among participants using either Treatment 1 or 2 show large learning gains on some misconceptions and skills beyond knowledge gained from reading standard textbook entries. Both treatments performed equivalently in overall learning gains, though both had areas where they performed better or worse. Furthermore, gains among students who used Treatment 1 representing a wide range of universities suggest that outcomes are potentially applicable to a variety of "real-world" biology classes.

  6. Understanding the impact of visual arts interventions for people living with dementia: a realist review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arts-based activities are being increasingly suggested as a valuable activity for people living with dementia in terms of countering the negative aspects of their condition. The potential for such programmes to improve a broad range of psychosocial outcomes is suggested in some studies. However, there is largely an absence of rigorous methodology to demonstrate the benefits, and research results are mixed. Practice variability in terms of the content, contexts and implementation of such interventions raises challenges in terms of identifying an optimal arts programme model that could be adopted by other service providers. Understanding how interventions may have the best chance at broad implementation success and uptake is limited. Methods/Design A realist review will be undertaken. This aims to understand how visual arts interventions influence outcomes in people living with dementia. The review will explore how the context, that is the circumstances which enable or constrain, affect outcomes through the activation of mechanisms. An early scoping search and a stakeholder survey formulated the preliminary programme theory. A systematic literature search across a broad range of disciplines (arts, humanities, social sciences, health) will be undertaken to identify journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the programme theory, contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations, background information about the study design and participant characteristics, detail about the quantity (‘dose’) of an intervention, theoretical perspectives proposed by the authors of the paper and further theorising by the reviewer. Thematic connections/patterns will be sought across the extracted data, identifying patterns amongst contextual factors, the mechanisms they trigger and the associated outcomes. Discussion Along with stakeholder engagement and validation, this review will help inform the development of an optimal

  7. The CAULDRON game: Helping decision makers understand extreme weather event attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    There is a recognition from academics and stakeholders that climate science has a fundamental role to play in the decision making process, but too frequently there is still uncertainty about what, when, how and why to use it. Stakeholders suggest that it is because the science is presented in an inaccessible manner, while academics suggest it is because the stakeholders do not have the scientific knowledge to understand and apply the science appropriately. What is apparent is that stakeholders need support, and that there is an onus on academia to provide it. This support is even more important with recent developments in climate science, such as extreme weather event attribution. We are already seeing the impacts of extreme weather events around the world causing lost of life and damage to property and infrastructure with current research suggesting that these events could become more frequent and more intense. If this is to be the case then a better understanding of the science will be vital in developing robust adaptation and business planning. The use of games, role playing and simulations to aid learning has long been understood in education but less so as a tool to support stakeholder understanding of climate science. Providing a 'safe' space where participants can actively engage with concepts, ideas and often emotions, can lead to deep understanding that is not possible through more passive mechanisms such as papers and web sites. This paper reports on a game that was developed through a collaboration led by the Red Cross/Red Crescent, University of Oxford and University of Reading to help stakeholders understand the role of weather event attribution in the decision making process. The game has already been played successfully at a number of high profile events including COP 19 and the African Climate Conference. It has also been used with students as part of a postgraduate environmental management course. As well as describing the design principles of the

  8. Bribes for Behaving: Why Behaviorism Doesn't Help Children Become Good People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    1994-01-01

    Argues against using punishment and rewards to motivate children, maintaining that, although penalties and prizes may change behavior in the short term, they do not help children become responsible decision makers in the long term. (MDM)

  9. Are people excessive or judicious in their egocentrism? A modeling approach to understanding bias and accuracy in people's optimism.

    PubMed

    Windschitl, Paul D; Rose, Jason P; Stalkfleet, Michael T; Smith, Andrew R

    2008-08-01

    People are often egocentric when judging their likelihood of success in competitions, leading to overoptimism about winning when circumstances are generally easy and to overpessimism when the circumstances are difficult. Yet, egocentrism might be grounded in a rational tendency to favor highly reliable information (about the self) more so than less reliable information (about others). A general theory of probability called extended support theory was used to conceptualize and assess the role of egocentrism and its consequences for the accuracy of people's optimism in 3 competitions (Studies 1-3, respectively). Also, instructions were manipulated to test whether people who were urged to avoid egocentrism would show improved or worsened accuracy in their likelihood judgments. Egocentrism was found to have a potentially helpful effect on one form of accuracy, but people generally showed too much egocentrism. Debias instructions improved one form of accuracy but had no impact on another. The advantages of using the EST framework for studying optimism and other types of judgments (e.g., comparative ability judgments) are discussed.

  10. Learning to Teach: Some Resources for Graduate Students or People Wishing to Help Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Everett K.

    Useful resources for teaching sociology on the undergraduate or graduate level are discussed. Initially, the article suggests well-known resources such as various professional and reference publications, audiovisual aids, and computer-assisted instruction. One resource not frequently thought of includes people such as administrators, colleagues,…

  11. Ageing, Leisure, and Social Connectedness: How could Leisure Help Reduce Social Isolation of Older People?

    PubMed

    Toepoel, Vera

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the relation between leisure activities and the social status of the elderly based on a heterogeneous sample of the Dutch population. Close relationships are also analyzed to identify which people could serve as successful stimulators of leisure participation. The social profile confirms that older people have fewer social contacts and often feel lonely. This study shows that leisure activities explain a significant part of older people's social connectedness. Voluntary work, cultural activities, holiday, sports, reading books, hobbies and shopping are found to be successful predictors for social connectedness of older people. Watching TV, listening to the radio, and spending time behind the computer (passive activities) were not associated with social connectedness. Friends correlate positively to participation in leisure activities. Partners play a role in participation in cultural activities and sports; parents play a role in participation in voluntary work and holidays; siblings play a role in voluntary work and sports; and children play a role in cultural activities, reading books, and shopping. Local communities can use these close relationships and develop special programs to increase social connectedness and hence improve quality of life for older adults.

  12. Data for global solutions: How new technologies can help people to re-imagine the future of cities and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewksbury, J.; Gaffney, O.; Young, D.

    2016-12-01

    People are more willing to accept and act on the science surrounding global environmental change when they can see themselves in that change - or when they can understand how global processes like climate change impact their lives in concrete and intimate ways. The digital revolution presents unique opportunities to make those sorts of connections. We will explore how new technologies can help to immerse users in the challenges of global sustainability and deepen their sense of personal involvement. We will draw on case studies from the Future Earth Media Lab, a communications and research initiative that was formed by Future Earth, the International Council for Science (ICSU) and Globaïa in 2015. The Media Lab was set up to bring together partners from science, technology, art and design to co-create products and experiences that can change the way we communicate the challenges of the world's most intractable problems, with the potential to shift mindsets and behaviours. We are at the very beginning of this 10-year project to explore how advances in virtual reality, augmented reality, data visualization and artificial intelligence will reshape how non-scientific audiences engage with science. The session will focus on results of the most recent projects launched in 2016: a hackathon series with the Iris.AI artificial intelligence project to test the limits of AI for searches based on framed research questions; a global hackathon series around using virtual reality to communicate global change challenges and an immersive space co-created with data visualization experts at the UN's biggest conference on sustainable urbanization at Quito, Ecuador.

  13. A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    MOORE,LARRY M.

    2000-04-11

    High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs.

  14. Identifying barriers to help-seeking for non-motor symptoms in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Catherine S; Rixon, Lorna; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Moss-Morris, Rona; Samuel, Mike; Brown, Richard G

    2016-12-01

    Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease have a significant impact on quality of life. Despite this, many non-motor symptoms remain unreported by patients and consequently untreated. This study explored barriers to help-seeking using two theoretical frameworks, the Common Sense Model of illness perception and Theoretical Domains Framework. A total of 20 participants completed semi-structured interviews to explore symptom beliefs and help-seeking behaviour. Uncertainty about the relationship of non-motor symptoms to Parkinson's disease and lack of clarity around treatments were common. Embarrassment and communication difficulties were common for potentially sensitive symptoms such as sexual dysfunction. Symptom perceptions and beliefs about help-seeking acted as barriers to reporting non-motor symptoms.

  15. Assessing the skills of home care workers in helping older people take their prescribed medications.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Elizabeth E J

    2015-08-01

    The Southern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland applied a modified version of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the skills of home care workers in assisting older people taking prescribed medications. In Northern Ireland, home care workers are care workers employed by health and social care trusts or private agencies. The application of the model has developed the skills of this staff group, improved the relationship between the commissioner and provider, significantly reduced the time spent by community nurses in individual training and assessment, and enhanced the patient experience for those taking medication. Overall, the application of this model has provided assurances to the Trust board, the executive director of nursing, and operational directors that home care workers are competent in assisting older people in this high-risk activity.

  16. Helping people with a mental illness obtain work: the Health Optimisation Program for Employment.

    PubMed

    Castle, David; Crosse, Caroline; Morgain, Dea; McDowell, Caitlin; Rossell, Susan; Thomas, Neil; Phillipou, Andrea; Gilbert, Monica; Moore, Gaye; Fossey, Ellie; Harvey, Carol

    2016-08-01

    Inclusion in work and education remains problematic for many people with a mental illness. We describe a structured programme - the Health Optimisation Program for Employment - that supported people with a mental illness to gain employment or commence studies. Twenty hours of the Health Optimisation Program for Employment were delivered to 600 individuals. Participants were asked to complete an evaluation survey encompassing vocational status and ratings of self-efficacy. Of the 364 participants who completed the baseline assessment, 168 responded to the evaluation survey 6 months after the delivery of the Health Optimisation Program for Employment. Of these, 21.5% had started a new job, while a further 42.8% were either volunteering or studying. Satisfaction with the programme was high and self-efficacy ratings improved significantly over the short term only. The Health Optimisation Program for Employment requires further evaluation using rigorous scientific methodology but these initial results are encouraging in terms of vocational attainment for people with a mental illness, in the Australian context. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  17. Diabetic retinopathy: Proteomic approaches to help the differential diagnosis and to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Csősz, Éva; Deák, Eszter; Kalló, Gergő; Csutak, Adrienne; Tőzsér, József

    2017-01-06

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness among patients with diabetes. The appearance and the severity of the symptoms correlate with the duration of diabetes and poor blood glucose level management. Diabetic retinopathy is also categorized as a chronic low-level inflammatory disease; the high blood glucose level promotes the accumulation of the advanced glycation end products and leads to the stimulation of monocytes and macrophages. Examination of protein level alterations in tears using state-of the art proteomics techniques have identified several proteins as possible biomarkers for the different stages of the diabetic retinopathy. Some of the differentially expressed tear proteins have a role in the barrier function of tears linking the diabetic retinopathy with another eye complication of diabetes, namely the diabetic keratopathy resulting in impaired wound healing. Understanding the molecular events leading to the eye complications caused by hyperglycemia may help the identification of novel biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets in order to improve quality of life of diabetic patients.

  18. Understanding Texts with the Help of Experimentation: The Example of Cupellation in Arabic Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Moureau, Sébastien; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The article aims to show how experimentation can help us understand historical texts, by focusing on the specific case of cupellation in Arabic scientific literature. It also provides new information about cupellation in the Arab-Muslim Middle Ages. The article consists of translations of three of the most detailed accounts of cupellation: Hamdānī's Kitāb al-jawharatayn al-'atīqatayn (first half of the fourth/tenth century), Maslama b. Qāsim al-Qurṭubī, Rutbat al-ḥakīm (339-342/950-953), and Manṣūr b. Ba'ra, Kitāb kashf al-asrār al-'ilmiyya bi-dār al-ḍarb al-miṣriyya (615-635/1218-1238). These are accompanied by commentaries based on a series of experiments carried out in the course of archaeological research on cupellation, which are here used to shed new light on the medieval texts and resolve several problems in interpreting them.

  19. What the comprehensive economics of blindness and visual impairment can help us understand

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Since the year 2000, the amount written about the economics of blindness and visual impairment has increased substantially. In some cases, the studies listed under this heading are calculations of the costs related to vision impairment and blindness at a national or global level; in other cases the studies examine the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent or modify visual impairment or blindness that are intended to be applied as a guide to treatment recommendations and coverage decisions. In each case the references are just examples of many that could be cited. These important studies have helped advocates, policy makers, practitioners, educators, and others interested in eye and vision health to understand the magnitude of the impact that visual impairment and blindness have on the world, regions, nations, and individuals and the tradeoffs that need to be made to limit the impact. However, these studies only begin to tap into the insights that economic logic might offer to those interested in this field. This paper presents multiple case studies that demonstrate that the economics of blindness and visual impairment encompasses much more than simply measures of the burden of the condition. Case studies demonstrating the usefulness of economic insight include analysis of the prevention of conditions that lead to impairment, decisions about refractive error and presbyopia, decisions about disease and injury treatment, decisions about behavior among those with uncorrectable impairment, and decisions about how to regulate the market all have important economic inputs. PMID:22944750

  20. Can the sociology of social problems help us to understand and manage 'lifestyle drift'?

    PubMed

    Carey, Gemma; Malbon, Eleanor; Crammond, Brad; Pescud, Melanie; Baker, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Lifestyle drift is increasingly seen as a barrier to broad action on the social determinants of health. The term is currently used in the population health literature to describe how broad policy initiatives for tackling inequalities in health that start off with social determinants (upstream) approach drift downstream to largely individual lifestyle factors, as well as the general trend of investing a the individual level. Lifestyle drift occurs despite the on-going efforts of public health advocates, such as anti-obesity campaigners, to draw attention to the social factors which shape health behavior and outcomes. In this article, we explore whether the sociology of social problems can help understand lifestyle drift in the context of obesity. Specifically, we apply Jamrozik and Nocella's residualist conversion model to the problem of obesity in order to explore whether such an approach can provide greater insight into the processes that underpin lifestyle drift and inform our attempts to mitigate it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Damage Patterns at the Head-Stem Taper Junction Helps Understand the Mechanisms of Material Loss.

    PubMed

    Hothi, Harry S; Panagiotopoulos, Andreas C; Whittaker, Robert K; Bills, Paul J; McMillan, Rebecca A; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2017-01-01

    Material loss at the taper junction of metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties has been implicated in their early failure. The mechanisms of material loss are not fully understood; analysis of the patterns of damage at the taper can help us better understand why material loss occurs at this junction. We mapped the patterns of material loss in a series of 155 metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties received at our center by scanning the taper surface using a roundness-measuring machine. We examined these material loss maps to develop a 5-tier classification system based on visual differences between different patterns. We correlated these patterns to surgical, implant, and patient factors known to be important for head-stem taper damage. We found that 63 implants had "minimal damage" at the taper (material loss <1 mm(3)), and the remaining 92 implants could be categorized by 4 distinct patterns of taper material loss. We found that (1) head diameter and (2) time to revision were key significant variables separating the groups. These material loss maps allow us to suggest different mechanisms that dominate the cause of the material loss in each pattern: (1) corrosion, (2) mechanically assisted corrosion, or (3) intraoperative damage or poor size tolerances leading to toggling of trunnion in taper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Network strategies to understand the aging process and help age-related drug design.

    PubMed

    Simkó, Gábor I; Gyurkó, Dávid; Veres, Dániel V; Nánási, Tibor; Csermely, Peter

    2009-09-28

    Recent studies have demonstrated that network approaches are highly appropriate tools for understanding the extreme complexity of the aging process. Moreover, the generality of the network concept helps to define and study the aging of technological and social networks and ecosystems, which may generate novel concepts for curing age-related diseases. The current review focuses on the role of protein-protein interaction networks (inter-actomes) in aging. Hubs and inter-modular elements of both interactomes and signaling networks are key regulators of the aging process. Aging induces an increase in the permeability of several cellular compartments, such as the cell nucleus, introducing gross changes in the representation of network structures. The large overlap between aging genes and genes of age-related major diseases makes drugs that aid healthy aging promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. We also discuss a number of possible research options to further explore the potential of the network concept in this important field, and show that multi-target drugs (representing 'magic-buckshots' instead of the traditional 'magic bullets') may become an especially useful class of age-related drugs in the future.

  3. What the comprehensive economics of blindness and visual impairment can help us understand.

    PubMed

    Frick, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Since the year 2000, the amount written about the economics of blindness and visual impairment has increased substantially. In some cases, the studies listed under this heading are calculations of the costs related to vision impairment and blindness at a national or global level; in other cases the studies examine the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent or modify visual impairment or blindness that are intended to be applied as a guide to treatment recommendations and coverage decisions. In each case the references are just examples of many that could be cited. These important studies have helped advocates, policy makers, practitioners, educators, and others interested in eye and vision health to understand the magnitude of the impact that visual impairment and blindness have on the world, regions, nations, and individuals and the tradeoffs that need to be made to limit the impact. However, these studies only begin to tap into the insights that economic logic might offer to those interested in this field. This paper presents multiple case studies that demonstrate that the economics of blindness and visual impairment encompasses much more than simply measures of the burden of the condition. Case studies demonstrating the usefulness of economic insight include analysis of the prevention of conditions that lead to impairment, decisions about refractive error and presbyopia, decisions about disease and injury treatment, decisions about behavior among those with uncorrectable impairment, and decisions about how to regulate the market all have important economic inputs.

  4. After genomics, what proteomics tools could help us understand the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli?

    PubMed

    Radhouani, Hajer; Pinto, Luís; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2012-06-06

    Proteomic approaches have been considerably improved during the past decade and have been used to investigate the differences in protein expression profiles of cells grown under a broad spectrum of growth conditions and with different stress factors including antibiotics. In Europe, the most significant disease threat remains the presence of microorganisms that have become resistant to antimicrobials and so it is important that different scientific tools are combined to achieve the largest amount of knowledge in this area of expertise. The emergence and spread of the antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, can lead to serious problem public health in humans. E. coli, a very well described prokaryote, has served as a model organism for several biological and biotechnological studies increasingly so since the completion of the E. coli genome-sequencing project. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the different proteomic approaches to antimicrobial-resistant E. coli that will be helpful to obtain a better knowledge of the antibiotic-resistant mechanism(s). This can also aid to understand the molecular determinants involved with pathogenesis, which is essential for the development of effective strategies to combat infection and to reveal new therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  6. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  7. Helpful Aspects of Bereavement Support for Adults Following an Expected Death: Volunteers' and Bereaved People's Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Holly; Llewelyn, Susan; Relf, Marilyn; Bruce, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Helpful and unhelpful aspects of bereavement support were investigated from the perspectives of 24 bereaved adults and their volunteer bereavement support workers. Most commonly reported themes were the provision of hope and reassurance, and the opportunity for continued sharing and support. Significantly more clients than volunteers reported…

  8. When I Whisper, Nobody Listens: Helping Young People Write about Difficult Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This book offers guidance on how teachers can help their students write about sensitive topics or provide pragmatic suggestions for developing the skill and sensitivity necessary to venture into such difficult terrain. The book addresses students' need to articulate their thoughts and feelings about violence, anger, drug use, peer pressure, and…

  9. Modifying patterns of movement in people with low back pain -does it help? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physiotherapy for people with low back pain frequently includes assessment and modification of lumbo-pelvic movement. Interventions commonly aim to restore normal movement and thereby reduce pain and improve activity limitation. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate: (i) the effect of movement-based interventions on movement patterns (muscle activation, lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural patterns) of people with low back pain (LBP), and (ii) the relationship between changes in movement patterns and subsequent changes in pain and activity limitation. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMI, CINAHL, Scopus, AMED, ISI Web of Science were searched from inception until January 2012. Randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials of people with LBP were eligible for inclusion. The intervention must have been designed to influence (i) muscle activity patterns, (ii) lumbo-pelvic kinematic patterns or (iii) postural patterns, and included measurement of such deficits before and after treatment, to allow determination of the success of the intervention on the lumbo-pelvic movement. Twelve trials (25% of retrieved studies) met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently identified, assessed and extracted data. The PEDro scale was used to assess method quality. Intervention effects were described using standardised differences between group means and 95% confidence intervals. Results The included trials showed inconsistent, mostly small to moderate intervention effects on targeted movement patterns. There was considerable heterogeneity in trial design, intervention type and outcome measures. A relationship between changes to movement patterns and improvements in pain or activity limitation was observed in one of six studies on muscle activation patterns, one of four studies that examined the flexion relaxation response pattern and in two of three studies that assessed lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural

  10. Understanding inequalities in access to health care services for aboriginal people: a call for nursing action.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brenda L; Carmargo Plazas, Maria Del Pilar; Salas, Anna Santos; Bourque Bearskin, R Lisa; Hungler, Krista

    2014-01-01

    We present findings from an Access Research Initiative to reduce health disparities and promote equitable access with Aboriginal peoples in Canada. We employed Indigenous, interpretive, and participatory research methodologies in partnership with Aboriginal people. Participants reported stories of bullying, fear, intimidation, and lack of cultural understanding. This research reveals the urgent need to enhance the delivery of culturally appropriate practices in emergency. As nurses, if we wish to affect equity of access, then attention is required to structural injustices that act as barriers to access such as addressing the stigma, stereotyping, and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people in this study.

  11. Does Vertical Reading Help People with Macular Degeneration: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Calabrèse, Aurélie; Liu, Tingting; Legge, Gordon E.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with macular degeneration often develop a Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) used in place of the impaired fovea. It is known that many people adopt a PRL left of the scotoma, which is likely to affect reading by occluding text to the right of fixation. For such individuals, we examined the possibility that reading vertical text, in which words are rotated 90° with respect to the normal horizontal orientation, would be beneficial for reading. Vertically oriented words would be tangential to the scotoma instead of being partially occluded by it. Here we report the results of an exploratory study that aimed at investigating this hypothesis. We trained individuals with macular degeneration who had PRLs left of their scotoma to read text rotated 90° clockwise and presented using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). Although training resulted in improved reading of vertical text, the training did not result in reading speeds that appreciably exceeded reading speeds following training with horizontal text. These results do not support the hypothesis that people with left PRLs read faster with vertical text. PMID:28114373

  12. Forming a new clinical team for frail older people: can a group development model help?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth Susan; Pollard, Lorraine; Conroy, Simon; Clague-Baker, Nicola

    2014-03-01

    Integrated services which utilise the expertise of team members along care pathways are evolving. Changes in service structure and subsequent team working arrangements can be a challenge for practitioners expected to redefine how they work with one another. These services are particularly important for the care of frail older people. This exploratory study of one newly forming team presents the views of staff involved in establishing an interprofessional healthcare advisory team for older people within an acute hospital admissions unit. Staff experiences of forming a new service are aligned to a model of team development. The findings are presented as themes relating to the stages of team development and identify the challenges of setting up an integrated service alongside existing services. In particular, team process issues relating to the clarity of goals, role clarification, leadership, team culture and identity. Managers must allow time to ensure new services evolve before setting up evaluation studies for efficiency and effectiveness which might prove against the potential for interprofessional teamworking.

  13. Bridging the poverty gap in dental education: how can people living in poverty help us?

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Martine C; Dupéré, Sophie; Loignon, Christine; Levine, Alissa; Laurin, Isabelle; Charbonneau, Anne; Bedos, Christophe

    2009-09-01

    Dental education on specific knowledge and intervention approaches for working with people living on welfare is crucial to the therapeutic success of the relationships dental professionals establish with this clientele. Despite growing attention to the importance of cultural competence and communication skills training in dentistry, very few initiatives have been documented in relation to serving low-income populations. Following discussions at a 2006 Montreal-based colloquium on access to dental care, academics, dental association administrators, and public health agency and antipoverty coalition representatives began collaborating to develop innovative pedagogy designed to increase providers' competence in interacting with their underprivileged patients. The group's first round of workshops (November 2006-October 2007) resulted in the creation of an original video-based tool containing testimonies from six individuals living currently or formerly on welfare. The videotaped interview data represent their perceptions and experiences regarding their oral health, dental care service provision, and poverty in general. This article describes the participative methods, the content of the resulting DVD, and the implications of the "Listening to Each Other" program, a collaborative knowledge translation approach for improving interaction between underprivileged people and dental care providers.

  14. Vaginal pessaries: can an educational brochure help patients to better understand their care?

    PubMed

    Murray, Christine; Thomas, Elizabeth; Pollock, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition, with reported incidence of up to 50%. We aimed to assess whether written information, in addition to face-to-face consultation, improved happiness with information, confidence to self-manage and prolapse knowledge in women attending a pessary clinic. Little is known about the effect of adding a written information brochure on clinical outcomes of patients using pessaries. This prospective study used a pretest-posttest method, conducted following Ethical approval. Between February-December 2013, all women attending Pessary Clinic were eligible for participation. A questionnaire was developed to assess happiness with information, confidence regarding self-management (using a visual analogue scale, 1-10) and prolapse knowledge (using eight multiple-choice questions). Data were collected in person at baseline prior to distribution of a patient brochure and thereafter by telephone at one week and three months. Paired analysis was conducted using the McNemar test and related samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test for VAS items with p < 0.05 significant. Sixty women were recruited. Fifty-eight completed all questionnaires. Improvement in happiness with information, confidence regarding self-management and knowledge scores occurred at one week (p < 0.05) and were maintained at three months (p < 0.05). Changes were unrelated to age (p > 0.05), education level (p > 0.05), first language (p > 0.05) or previous clinic visits (p > 0.05). A written information brochure, in addition to face-to-face consultation, improves happiness with information, confidence to self-manage and knowledge about pessaries compared to verbal instruction alone and helps patients better understand their care. The written brochure was equally effective in women with low education and advanced age, and occurred regardless of the number of clinic visits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Handicapped in Literature. A Curriculum to Foster Understanding of People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, NY. Hunter Coll.

    The first of three volumes presenting a curriculum designed to help nonhandicapped students understand students with disabilities focuses on the use of literature to foster that understanding in junior and senior high. The first section examines literature in high school, and presents lessons (theme, objectives, and discussion guides) for five…

  16. "Some People Don't Deserve Help": Service Learning in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    In post-conflict, emerging democracies, service learning has great potential to promote intercultural understanding if projects encourage students to see each other as individuals rather than as members of marginalized groups. This paper evaluates a service learning project in a Serbian secondary school and suggests ways in which service learning…

  17. Historical Oppression, Resilience, and Transcendence: Can a Holistic Framework Help Explain Violence Experienced by Indigenous People?

    PubMed

    Burnette, Catherine Elizabeth; Figley, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    Although all minorities experience inequalities, indigenous peoples in the United States tend to experience the most severe violent victimization. Until now, an organizing framework to explain or address the disproportionate rates of violent victimization was absent. Thus, the purpose of this conceptual article is to (a) introduce the concept of historical oppression, expanding the concept of historical trauma to make it inclusive of contemporary oppression; (b) describe the framework of historical oppression, resilience, and transcendence, which draws from distinct but related theoretical frameworks (that is, critical theory and resilience theory); and (c) apply the framework of historical oppression, resilience, and transcendence to the problem of violence against indigenous women. The proposed framework of historical oppression, resilience, and transcendence prioritizes social justice and strengths; it provides a culturally relevant framework, which can be used to explain, predict, and prevent violence. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, implications for practice, and recommended applications to other problems and populations.

  18. Filling the gaps: opportunities for community pharmacies to help increase healthcare access for young people in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Horsfield, Emma; Sheridan, Janie; Kelly, Fiona; Robinson, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2014-06-01

    To investigate whether there is potential for community pharmacies to help increase healthcare access and address unmet health needs of young people in New Zealand. A descriptive secondary analysis of the Youth'07 health and wellbeing survey data was undertaken alongside discussion meetings with a youth advisory group. Seventeen per cent (n = 1485) of all students had been unable to access care when required in the previous 12 months. Of these students, 86.0% cited barriers to accessing health care that are unlikely to be barriers in a community pharmacy setting (e.g. not being able to get an appointment). Thirty per cent (n = 2475) of students had experienced difficulty accessing health care in the past 12 months for various health issues, with over half of these (n = 1326) citing a health issue for which community pharmacies could provide services (e.g. minor health issues, smoking cessation). Although young people are generally considered to be fit and healthy, many have health needs that are currently unmet by traditional health services. Community pharmacies offer services that are relevant to youth health and are readily accessible to young people, indicating potential to help address unmet health needs and improve healthcare access. Further research is needed to explore how community pharmacy models of care might be provided in an appropriate and acceptable manner for youth. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. People trying to lose weight dislike calorie counting apps and want motivational support to help them achieve their goals.

    PubMed

    Solbrig, Linda; Jones, Ray; Kavanagh, David; May, Jon; Parkin, Tracey; Andrade, Jackie

    2017-03-01

    Two thirds of UK adults are overweight or obese and at increased risk of chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. Basic public health support for weight loss comprises information about healthy eating and lifestyle, but internet and mobile applications (apps) create possibilities for providing long-term motivational support. To explore among people currently trying to lose weight, or maintaining weight loss, (i) problems, experiences and wishes in regards to weight management and weight loss support including e-health support; (ii) reactions to Functional Imagery Training (FIT) as a possible intervention. Six focus groups (N = 24 in total) were recruited from a public pool of people who had expressed an interest in helping with research. The topics considered were barriers to weight loss, desired support for weight loss and acceptability of FIT including the FIT app. The focus group discussions were transcribed and thematically analysed. All groups spontaneously raised the issue of waning motivation and expressed the desire for motivational app support for losing weight and increasing physical activity. They disliked calorie counting apps and those that required lots of user input. All groups wanted behavioural elements such as setting and reviewing goals to be included, with the ability to personalise the app by adding picture reminders and choosing times for goal reminders. Participants were positive about FIT and FIT support materials. There is a mismatch between the help provided via public health information campaigns and commercially available weight-loss self-help (lifestyle information, self-monitoring), and the help that individuals actually desire (motivational and autonomous e-support), posing an opportunity to develop more effective electronic, theory-driven, motivational, self-help interventions.

  20. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  1. Using Digital Libraries Non-Visually: Understanding the Help-Seeking Situations of Blind Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Iris; Babu, Rakesh; Joo, Soohyung; Fuller, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores blind users' unique help-seeking situations in interacting with digital libraries. In particular, help-seeking situations were investigated at both the physical and cognitive levels. Method: Fifteen blind participants performed three search tasks, including known- item search, specific information search, and…

  2. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  3. Helping Teachers Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kise, Jane; Russell, Beth; Shumate, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Personality type theory describes normal differences in how people are energized, take in information, make decisions, and approach work and life--all key elements in how people teach and learn. Understanding one another's personality type preferences helps teachers share their instructional strategies and classroom information. Type theory…

  4. Understanding help-seeking intentions in male military cadets: An application of perceptual mapping.

    PubMed

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Muñiz, Javier; Gordon, Thomas F; Maurer, Laurie; Patterson, Freda

    2016-05-17

    Research suggests that men are less likely to seek help for depression, substance abuse, and stressful life events due to negative perceptions of asking for and receiving help. This may be exacerbated in male military cadets who exhibit higher levels of gender role conflict because of military culture. This exploratory study examined the perceptions of 78 male military cadets toward help-seeking behaviors. Cadets completed the 31-item Barriers to Help Seeking Scale (BHSS) and a component factor analysis was used to generate five composite variables and compare to validated factors. Perceptual mapping and vector modeling, which produce 3-dimensional models of a group's perceptions, were then used to model how they conceptualize help-seeking. Factor analysis showed slightly different groupings than the BHSS, perhaps attributed to different characteristics of respondents, who are situated in a military school compared to general university males. Perceptual maps show that cadets perceive trust of doctors closest to them and help-seeking farthest, supporting the concept that these males have rigid beliefs about having control and its relationship to health seeking. Differences were seen when comparing maps of White and non-White cadets. White cadets positioned themselves far away from all variables, while non-White cadets were closest to "emotional control". To move these cadets toward help-seeking, vector modeling suggests that interventions should focus on their general trust of doctors, accepting lack of control, and decreasing feelings of weakness when asking for help. For non-White cadets a focus on self-reliance may also need to be emphasized. Use of these unique methods resulted in articulation of specific barriers that if addressed early, may have lasting effects on help-seeking behavior as these young men become adults. Future studies are needed to develop and test specific interventions to promote help-seeking among military cadets.

  5. Understanding rape survivors' decisions not to seek help from formal social systems.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-05-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed about why they did not reach out to these systems for assistance. Using qualitative methodology, this study found that survivors believed that formal social systems would or could not help or would psychologically harm them. Specifically, survivors thought that systems would not help because survivors themselves believed that they were unworthy of services or that their rape experience did not match stereotypical conceptions of rape. Survivors did not see how the systems could help or protect them from their assailants. Finally, survivors anticipated that systems personnel would cause them further psychological harm by not believing they had been raped or not caring about them. Survivors feared that system assistance would have intensified their painful feelings beyond their coping skills. Therefore, survivors who do not seek help may be attempting to protect themselves from perceived psychological harm. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  6. Ordinary People: The Role of Historical Archaeology in Understanding American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, Richard J.

    Historical archaeology enables students to confront the mythology of the past with real knowledge about the past and thus provides them with significant insight and understanding. Students are often presented with an ideological past, both in textbooks and museums, that never really existed. For example, people often come away from living…

  7. Ordinary People: The Role of Historical Archaeology in Understanding American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, Richard J.

    Historical archaeology enables students to confront the mythology of the past with real knowledge about the past and thus provides them with significant insight and understanding. Students are often presented with an ideological past, both in textbooks and museums, that never really existed. For example, people often come away from living…

  8. Using Digital Stories to Understand the Lives of Alaska Native Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Eglinton, Kristen; Gubrium, Aline

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how young Alaska Native (Inupiaq) people are creatively responding to the tensions of growing up in a world markedly different from that of their parents and grandparents, the pilot study examined youth-produced digital stories as representations of their everyday lives, values, and identities. Two hundred and seventy-one…

  9. Using Digital Stories to Understand the Lives of Alaska Native Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Eglinton, Kristen; Gubrium, Aline

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how young Alaska Native (Inupiaq) people are creatively responding to the tensions of growing up in a world markedly different from that of their parents and grandparents, the pilot study examined youth-produced digital stories as representations of their everyday lives, values, and identities. Two hundred and seventy-one…

  10. Who Flies, Who Cries? Children's Understanding of People from Television and Real Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernie, David

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a broad sense, children's understanding of various types of people in two social domains: television and real life. Specifically, the study was designed to solicit information about (1) the physical and psychological abilities and vulnerabilities children would attribute to television characters and…

  11. From Whom Do Student Veterans Seek Help?: Understanding the Roles of Professional, Informal, and Religious Sources.

    PubMed

    Currier, Joseph M; Deiss, Jessie; McDermott, Ryon C

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this brief report was to ascertain student veterans' patterns of help-seeking from professional, informal, and religious sources. In total, 350 veterans from an academic institution on the Gulf Coast completed assessments of help-seeking intentions from a range of potential sources in their communities. Analyses revealed that veterans had a neutral probability to seek help from professional sources (e.g., physicians and psychologists) but were likely to pursue informal sources (e.g., partner/spouse, friend) in a psychological/emotional crisis. However, when compared with their nonclinical counterparts, veterans with a probable need for treatment for PTSD and/or depression generally reported less probability to seek help from informal and religious sources. In addition, sex, ethnicity, and religious background each contributed a significant influence in shaping preferences for seeking help for psychological or emotional concerns. Given unmet mental health needs of student veterans, findings highlight the importance attending to help-seeking preferences in this growing population.

  12. Understanding Family Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Wu, Sheng; Wu, Zunyou; Sun, Stephanie; Cui, Haixia; Jia, Manhong

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how family support affects people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in China. In-depth, semi-structured interviews (n=30) were conducted with people living with HIV/AIDS who were infected through different routes (e.g., intravenous drug use, sex) and of different age groups. Findings showed that all of the participants were in great need of help and the primary source of support came from their families. Family support included financial assistance, support in the disclosure process, daily routine activities, medical assistance, or psychological support. This study illustrates that the support provided by family makes multiple levels of positive impact on people living with HIV/AIDS, suggesting the importance of including families in HIV/AIDS interventions. PMID:16741672

  13. Mussolini's Marriage and a Game in the Playground: Using Analogy to Help Pupils Understand the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffin, Diana; Wilson, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Diana Laffin and Maggie Wilson want their pupils to connect with people in the past and to experience some of their emotions. The emotional factor is a difficult one in history, both for pupils and professional historians. When studying Eden's actions at Suez, for example, what we lack is a proper insight into the immediate pressures he faced and…

  14. Using computer visualizations to help understand how forests change and develop

    Treesearch

    Brian Orland; Cenk Ursavas

    2006-01-01

    Probably a first question people ask when they hear about proposed forest management actions to address fire hazard or forest health concerns is "what will the forest look like"? The recent advent of powerful computer visualization tools has provided one means of answering that question. The resultant images can be a powerful tool for communicating the...

  15. Despair Turned into Rage: Understanding and Helping Abused, Neglected, and Abandoned Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavin, Paul; Park, Cynthia

    This book examines why so many young people in foster care appear angry and show disrespect toward authority. Such antisocial behavior has its roots in the despair that children feel when they are abused, neglected, or abandoned by their parents or other caregivers. The book emphasizes and focuses upon the early recognition and treatment of this…

  16. Mussolini's Marriage and a Game in the Playground: Using Analogy to Help Pupils Understand the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffin, Diana; Wilson, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Diana Laffin and Maggie Wilson want their pupils to connect with people in the past and to experience some of their emotions. The emotional factor is a difficult one in history, both for pupils and professional historians. When studying Eden's actions at Suez, for example, what we lack is a proper insight into the immediate pressures he faced and…

  17. Physical analogs that help to better understand the modern concepts on continental stretching, hyperextension and rupturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Three facts helped to establish a revolution in the understanding of how mega-continents stretch, rupture and breakup to form new continents and related passive margins: (1) the penetration of the distal portions of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins by several ODP wells (late 70's/early 80's), with the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumation of lower crust and mantle between typical continental and oceanic domains, (2) field works in the Alps and in the Pyrenees that re-interpreted sedimentary successions and associated "ophiolites" as remnants of old Tethyan passive margins that recorded structural domains similar to those found in Iberia-Newfoundland, and (3) the acquisition of long and ultra-deep reflection seismic sections that could image for the first time sub-crustal levels (25-40 km) in several passive margins around the world. The interpretation of such sections showed that the concepts developed in the Iberia-Newfoundland margins and in the Alps could be applied to a great extent to most passive margins, especially those surrounding the North and South Atlantic Oceans. The new concepts of (i) decoupled deformation (upper brittle X lower ductile) within the proximal domain of the continental crust, (ii) of coupled deformation (hyperextension) in the distal crust and, (iii) of exhumation of deeper levels in the outer domain, with the consequent change in the physical properties of the rising rocks, defined an end-member in the new classification of passive margins, the magma-poor type (as opposed to volcanic passive margins). These concepts, together with the new reflection seismic views of the entire crustal structure of passive margins, forced the re-interpretation of older refraction and potential field data and the re-drawing of long established models. Passive margins are prime targets for petroleum exploration, thus, the great interest raised by this subject in both the academy and in the industry. Interestingly enough, the deformation

  18. Courses of helping alliance in the treatment of people with severe mental illness in Europe: a latent class analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Loos, Sabine; Arnold, Katrin; Slade, Mike; Jordan, Harriet; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Süveges, Ágnes; Nagy, Marietta; Krogsgaard Bording, Malene; Østermark Sørensen, Helle; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram; Puschner, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    The helping alliance (HA) between patient and therapist has been studied in detail in psychotherapy research, but less is known about the HA in long-term community mental health care. The aim of this study was to identify typical courses of the HA and their predictors in a sample of people with severe mental illness across Europe over a measurement period of one year. Self-ratings of the HA by 588 people with severe mental illness who participated in a multicentre European study (CEDAR; ISRCTN75841675) were examined using latent class analysis. Four main patterns of alliance were identified: (1) high and stable (HS, 45.6 %), (2) high and increasing (HI, 36.9 %), (3) high and decreasing (HD, 11.3 %) and (4) low and increasing (LI, 6.1 %). Predictors of class membership were duration of illness, ethnicity, and education, receipt of state benefits, recovery, and quality of life. Results support findings from psychotherapy research about a predominantly stable course of the helping alliance in patients with severe mental illness over time. Implications for research and practice indicate to turn the attention to subgroups with noticeable courses.

  19. Qualitative process evaluation of a problem-solving guided self-help manual for family carers of young people with first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caring for a young person experiencing first-episode psychosis is challenging and can affect carers’ well-being adversely. While some face-to-face approaches have achieved promising outcomes, they are costly and resource-intensive to provide, restricting their reach and penetration. Guided self-help in book-form (or bibliotherapy) is an alternative but untested approach in these circumstances. In this study, we aimed to evaluate carers’ beliefs about the usefulness of problem-solving guided self-help manual for primary carers of young people with first-episode psychosis. Methods A qualitative process evaluation nested in a randomised controlled trial, conducted across two early intervention psychosis services in Melbourne, Australia. 124 carers were randomised to problem-solving guided self-help intervention or treatment as usual. We also undertook a qualitative process evaluation, using individual interviews, with a random sample of 24 of the intervention group. A thematic analysis of the qualitative data was undertaken, which is the subject of this paper. Interviews were conducted between January 2009 and September 2010. Results Three themes were abstracted from the data, reflecting carers’ beliefs about the usefulness of the manual: promoting carers’ well-being, increasing carers’ understanding of and support for the young person with first-episode psychosis, and accessibility and delivery modes of the programme. Conclusion This process evaluation highlights that guided self-help is useful in informing and supporting carers of affected young people. While there is scope for broadening the delivery modes, the approach is easy to use and accessible, and can be used as a cost-effective adjunct to standard support provided to carers, by community mental health nurses and other clinicians. Trial registration ACTRN12609000064202 PMID:24906392

  20. Helping Children Understand Their Communities: Past and Present, Real and Virtual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Social studies should prepare children to participate in society. Teachers can help children study their local neighborhoods and communities on foot, with maps and books, and on websites. Studying the community can reveal a wealth of issues and ideas that matter to students and their families, while students also learn important things about the…

  1. Rocky to bullwinkle: understanding flying squirrels helps us restore dry forest ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    A century of effective fire suppression has radically transformed many forested landscapes on the east side of the Cascades. Managers of dry forests critically need information to help plan for and implement forest restoration . Management priorities include the stabilization of fire regimes and the maintenance of habitat for the northern spotted owl and other old-...

  2. Sharing Skills. Hermione Helps--S-P-E-W: Understanding and Creating Acronyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lynne Farrell

    2005-01-01

    An acronym, a word formed from the first letters of other words, is often used to name products or organizations. For example, when Hermione Granger, a very clever student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, is enraged over the wizarding world's treatment of house-elves, she creates an organization to help put an end to this injustice.…

  3. Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2008-01-01

    We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

  4. Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2008-01-01

    We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

  5. Helping Children Understand Their Communities: Past and Present, Real and Virtual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Social studies should prepare children to participate in society. Teachers can help children study their local neighborhoods and communities on foot, with maps and books, and on websites. Studying the community can reveal a wealth of issues and ideas that matter to students and their families, while students also learn important things about the…

  6. Using Biography to Help Young Learners Understand the Causes of Historical Change and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Gary

    2008-01-01

    When teachers in elementary and middle school classrooms portray history as an immutable sequence of certain facts, dates, and events, young learners tend to view the past, and by extension the future, as something fixed and inevitable. Learning about the past through investigating biographies can help counter this tendency by teaching students to…

  7. Putting Information in Perspective: A Mapping Activity to Help Students Understand the California Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that, to participate in a modern economy, every region needs at least one "bigjob" (basic income generating-job). Describes a mapping activity that helps students identify bigjobs in state economies. Uses California as an example and reveals that, contrary to popular opinion, real estate is California's bigjob. (MJP)

  8. Putting Information in Perspective: A Mapping Activity to Help Students Understand the California Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that, to participate in a modern economy, every region needs at least one "bigjob" (basic income generating-job). Describes a mapping activity that helps students identify bigjobs in state economies. Uses California as an example and reveals that, contrary to popular opinion, real estate is California's bigjob. (MJP)

  9. Managing Middle School Madness: Helping Parents and Teachers Understand the "Wonder Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilderman, Glen

    2006-01-01

    For many parents and students, the transition from elementary school to middle school can be difficult. This book is a compilation of advice and information to help parents prepare for the behavioral, social, and academic adjustments that students may encounter. In this book, the author offers practical tips on topics such a setting up rewards for…

  10. It's Elementary in Appalachia: Helping Prospective Teachers and Their Students Understand Sexuality and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Patti Capel

    2003-01-01

    The most blatant discrimination that exists today in schools is that directed toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex students (l/g/b/t/i/q). English and language arts teacher education programs can help foster critical awareness among future teachers of sexuality and gender as well as provide the pedagogical skills and…

  11. English Teachers Are from Mars, Students Are from Venus (But YA Books Can Help Interplanetary Understanding).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how alien students and teachers are to each other, especially when it comes to literature. Argues that these differences are at the root of many difficulties faced in helping students become readers and appreciate literature. Offers brief descriptions of 10 new or overlooked young-adult books worth reading. (SR)

  12. Managing Middle School Madness: Helping Parents and Teachers Understand the "Wonder Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilderman, Glen

    2006-01-01

    For many parents and students, the transition from elementary school to middle school can be difficult. This book is a compilation of advice and information to help parents prepare for the behavioral, social, and academic adjustments that students may encounter. In this book, the author offers practical tips on topics such a setting up rewards for…

  13. Sharing Skills. Hermione Helps--S-P-E-W: Understanding and Creating Acronyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lynne Farrell

    2005-01-01

    An acronym, a word formed from the first letters of other words, is often used to name products or organizations. For example, when Hermione Granger, a very clever student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, is enraged over the wizarding world's treatment of house-elves, she creates an organization to help put an end to this injustice.…

  14. The utility of administrative data in helping the clinician understand and treat community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David

    2005-03-01

    We illustrate the benefits and limitations of administrative data when trying to understand diseases such as CAP. Administrative data provide an understanding of care provided or risk factors in unselected patients under actual practice conditions. Administrative data can supplement understandings gained from randomized trials in a timely and cost-efficient manner using data previously collected. As the use of administrative data increases, the type of data collected will change to reflect these new uses. Administrative data use may represent a practical solution in monitoring quality of care for entire populations.

  15. Patterns of health complaints among people 75+ in relation to quality of life and need of help.

    PubMed

    Stenzelius, Karin; Westergren, Albert; Thorneman, Gunilla; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate patterns, type and degree of health complaints and their relations to need of help and health-related quality of life (QoL) across gender among people aged 75-105 (n = 4277, mean age 83.6, S.D. 5.7) who answered a postal questionnaire covering health complaints, self-reported diseases socio-economy, QoL and need of help with personal and instrumental activities of daily living (PADL, IADL). A principal component analysis gave six categories of health complaints, of which communication (80.9%), mobility problems (66.6%), and psychosocial problems (61%) were most prevalent followed by elimination (42.5%), respiratory-circulatory (38.2%) and digestion-related problems (36.4%). Women reported significantly lower QoL than men. Those needing help with PADL and IADL had significantly lower QoL than those not requiring help. Mobility problems were the strongest predictor besides age, socio-economic factors and female gender for need of help with PADL, IADL and low physical QoL (OR 3.97, 3.67 and 7.47 respectively). Psychosocial problems (OR 3.60) were the strongest predictor besides age, socio-economic factors and female gender for low mental QoL. The findings indicate the importance of focusing on health complaints in coexistence patterns described as dysfunctions, and also the need for primary and secondary preventive actions related especially to mobility and psychosocial problems in geriatric care.

  16. Self-harm in young people: Prevalence, associated factors, and help-seeking in school-going adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Louise; Treacy, Margaret P; Sheridan, Ann

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent self-harm is recognized as a serious public health problem; however, there is little reliable comparative data on its prevalence or characteristics, or on the extent of help-seeking for self-harm. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence and associated factors of adolescent self-harm in an urban region in Ireland, and to investigate help-seeking behaviours for self-harm. This was a cross-sectional study of 856 school-going adolescents, employing an anonymous self-report questionnaire. A lifetime history of self-harm was reported by 12.1% of adolescents. Factors independently associated with self-harm included exposure to self-harm of a friend/family member. Professional help-seeking was uncommon prior to (9%) and after (12%) self-harm. Furthermore, only 6.9% of adolescents presented to hospital as a result of their last self-harm act. These findings indicate that self-harm is common in adolescents; however, seeking professional help is not a common phenomenon, and those who present to hospital represent the 'tip of the iceberg' of adolescent self-harm. Identifying the prevalence of self-harm and associated factors, in addition to help-seeking behaviours, in young people is important to determine the preventative programmes to target 'at-risk' groups. Mental health nurses have an important and increasing role to play in such school-based initiatives. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. Help! I Can't Understand What My Child Is Saying!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Dorothy P.

    2005-01-01

    A child with a speech sound disorder may understand words and phrases and use them to talk. However, if a child's speech sounds different from his peers who are the same age, gender or ethnic group, or if he/she frequently avoids talking because he/she is hard to understand, this child may have a speech sound disorder. In this article, the author…

  18. Using observation as a data collection method to help understand patient and professional roles and actions in palliative care settings.

    PubMed

    Walshe, Catherine; Ewing, Gail; Griffiths, Jane

    2012-12-01

    Observational research methods are important for understanding people's actions, roles and behaviour. However, these techniques are underused generally in healthcare research, including research in the palliative care field. The aim in this paper is to place qualitative observational data collection methods in their methodological context and provide an overview of issues to consider when using observation as a method of data collection. This paper discusses practical considerations when conducting palliative care research using observation. Observational data collection methods span research paradigms, and qualitative approaches contribute by their focus on 'natural' settings which allow the explanation of social processes and phenomena. In particular, they can facilitate understanding of what people do and how these can alter in response to situations and over time, especially where people find their own practice difficult to articulate. Observational studies can be challenging to carry out: we focus on the potentially problematic areas of sampling, consent and ethics, data collection and recording, data management and analysis. Qualitative observational data collection methods can contribute to theoretical and conceptual development and the explanation of social processes in palliative care. In particular this contribution to understanding care structures and processes should improve understanding of patients' experiences of their care journey and thus impact on care outcomes.

  19. Understanding and overcoming barriers to substance abuse treatment access for people with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Slayter, Elspeth M

    2008-01-01

    People with mental retardation have experienced increasing levels of freedom and access to community living over the past 40 years. This has included access to alcohol, illicit drugs and the potential for developing substance abuse and related problems. The manner in which people with mental retardation have handled this access has been recognized since the de institutionalization era began. Despite this recognition, documented barriers to accessing substance abuse treatment for people with mental retardation exist and there is an overarching lack of knowledge about accessible treatment approaches for this population. Policy and practice recommendations are presented for disability and rehabilitation social workers in order to better understand and combat barriers to substance abuse treatment.

  20. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  1. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  2. Towards an ecological understanding of mutual-help groups: the social ecology of "fit".

    PubMed

    Maton, K I

    1989-12-01

    Adopted an ecological framework to view mutual-help groups, and illustrated its usefulness by examining aspects of the social ecology of "fit" among 163 members of Compassionate Friends (bereaved parents; CF), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and Overeaters Anonymous (OA) groups. Concerning person-group fit, personal Spirituality was positively related to (a) Providing Support, and to (b) Group Satisfaction for members of a group whose helping ecology emphasized "reliance on a higher power" (OA). (Contrary to prediction, the relationship with Group Satisfaction was also manifest for members of MS). Furthermore, OA members reported higher levels of Spirituality than CF members. Concerning helping mechanism-focal problem fit, Friendship Development was positively related to Group Satisfaction only for individuals with a focal problem characterized by high levels of social network disruption (MS). In addition, Time in Group was inversely related to Depression for members of life stress (CF) and medical disorder (MS) groups, but not for members of a "behavioral control" type group (OA). The implications of the ecological perspective for future research are discussed.

  3. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…

  4. 'It's in the eyes': how family members and care staff understand awareness in people with severe dementia.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Catherine; Clare, Linda; Jelley, Hannah; Bruce, Errollyn; Woods, Bob

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we explored how family members and care staff understand awareness in people with severe dementia and what this awareness means to them. We conducted four focus groups between 2007 and 2009 in the UK with 11 family members and 12 care staff. Transcripts of the focus groups were analysed using thematic analysis. A model of awareness emerged in which the perceived level of awareness in the person with dementia was influenced by an interaction between attributes of the person with dementia and the environment, with expressions of awareness being hindered by environmental factors and facilitated through appropriate stimulation. Awareness did fluctuate, and differences in interpretations of awareness were linked to the meaning assigned to particular kinds of responses. For family members, awareness was intrinsically linked to their emotional connection with the person with dementia. For care staff, identifying signs of awareness helped them to do their job and enabled them to feel that they had connected with the person with dementia. The findings of this study suggest that care staff would benefit from training both on identifying awareness and on providing suitable activities for people with severe dementia. Care staff and family members would also benefit from greater sharing of information about the person with dementia. This could help to enhance quality of life for person with dementia and improve quality of care.

  5. Understanding how people who use illicit drugs and alcohol experience relationships with psychiatric inpatient staff.

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Emma; Smith, Ian; Jones, Sarah Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatient services are often required to provide care for people with mental health difficulties who use illicit drugs or alcohol (people with coexisting difficulties). In other settings, relationships between service users and staff can be important in alleviating distress and improving outcomes. This study explored how people with coexisting difficulties experienced relationships with staff in psychiatric inpatient services to increase understanding of these relationships. Ten adult service users (5 male, 5 female) from eight inpatient wards participated in semi-structured interviews. All participants had mental health diagnoses, and self-reported use of illicit drugs and/or heavy alcohol consumption. Data was analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Analysis yielded three consistent themes: 'weighing up the risk of relationships', 'relationships intertwined with power and control' and 'seeking compassionate care'. These themes highlighted the negative impact that service users' anticipation of rejection could have upon their willingness to develop relationships with staff, and the conflict which could occur due to their perceived difference to staff. Findings also highlighted that consistent, compassionate care by staff could minimise group differences and alleviate rejection fears. Previous experiences of rejection and power structures within psychiatric inpatient services can influence the abilities of people with coexisting difficulties to develop relationships with staff. It is, therefore, important for staff and services to demonstrate consistent care, where staff are sympathetic and show a desire to alleviate suffering and to encourage clinical approaches which foster equality and mutual understanding between staff and service users.

  6. Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Helping Health Care Providers and Clinical Scientists Understand Apparently Irrational Policy Decisions.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Sandor J

    2016-12-21

    Health care providers (HCP) and clinical scientists (CS) are generally most comfortable using evidence-based rational decision-making models. They become very frustrated when policymakers make decisions that, on the surface, seem irrational and unreasonable. However, such decisions usually make sense when analysed properly. The goal of this paper to provide a basic theoretical understanding of major policy models, to illustrate which models are most prevalent in publicly funded health care systems, and to propose a policy analysis framework to better understand the elements that drive policy decision-making. The proposed policy framework will also assist HCP and CS achieve greater success with their own proposals.

  8. Helping Health Care Providers and Clinical Scientists Understand Apparently Irrational Policy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Health care providers (HCP) and clinical scientists (CS) are generally most comfortable using evidence-based rational decision-making models. They become very frustrated when policymakers make decisions that, on the surface, seem irrational and unreasonable. However, such decisions usually make sense when analysed properly. The goal of this paper to provide a basic theoretical understanding of major policy models, to illustrate which models are most prevalent in publicly funded health care systems, and to propose a policy analysis framework to better understand the elements that drive policy decision-making. The proposed policy framework will also assist HCP and CS achieve greater success with their own proposals. PMID:28123917

  9. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  10. How Do Manipulatives Help Students Communicate Their Understanding of Double-Digit Subtraction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abi-Hanna, Rabab

    2016-01-01

    Multi-digit subtraction is difficult for students to learn. The purpose of this study is to explore how second-grade students communicate their understanding of double-digit subtraction through the use of manipulatives/tools. This qualitative study reports on six case studies of second-grade students where clinical interviews were the main source…

  11. Helping Students to Understand the Link between Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Alissa; Ward, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of…

  12. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  13. Using modeling to help understand vaginal microbicide functionality and create better products

    PubMed Central

    Katz, David F.; Gao, Yajing; Kang, Meng

    2012-01-01

    A summary is presented of a range of mathematical models that relate to topical microbicidal molecules, applied vaginally to inhibit HIV transmission. These models contribute to the fundamental understanding of the functioning of those molecules, as introduced in different delivery systems. They also provide computational tools that can be employed in the practical design and evaluation of vaginal microbicide products. Mathematical modeling can be implemented, using stochastic principles, to understand the probability of infection by sexually transmitted HIV virions. This provides a frame of reference for the deterministic models of the various processes that underlie HIV transmission and its inhibition, including: the temporal and spatial history of HIV migration from semen to vaginal epithelial surfaces and thence to the underlying stroma; the time and spatial distribution of microbicidal drugs as delivered by various vehicles (e.g., gels, rings, films, and tablets)—this is central to understanding microbicide product pharmacokinetics; and the time and space history of the drug interactions with HIV directly and with host cells for HIV within the vaginal environment—this informs the understanding of microbicide pharmacodynamics. Models that characterize microbicide functionality and performance should and can interface with both in vitro and in vivo experimental studies. They can serve as a rapidly applied, inexpensive tool, to facilitate microbicide R&D, in advance of more costly and time consuming clinical trials. PMID:22545245

  14. How Photography as Field Notes Helps in Understanding the Building the Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of research conducted between June 2010 and January 2011 as part of understanding the building the education revolution (BER) a major policy initiative of the Australian Federal Government which commenced when Julia Gillard, now PM, was the Federal Minister of Education. The BER policy initiative was part of an economic…

  15. Helping Students to Understand the Link between Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Alissa; Ward, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of…

  16. What the Words Mean: Help for Understanding SBR from the Software & Information Industry Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To appreciate the true impact of scientifically based research on education, it may be useful first to understand the meaning of the various terms that the law employs as part of its definition of SBR (Scientifcally Based Research). The This article presents an explication from a Software & Information Industry Association publication titled…

  17. Learning Disabilities: What Are They? Helping Teachers and Parents Understand the Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert

    2007-01-01

    "Specific Learning Disability" is by far the largest category of conditions served in special education. Unfortunately, few parents (and educators) really understand what learning disabilities are. Many erroneously believe it is a "politically correct" term for "mildly mentally retarded" or "dull normal." Further, while most laypeople have heard…

  18. The Idea of Temperament: Does It Help Parents to Understand Their Babies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia L.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines whether the idea of "temperament" is a useful construct for families to understand babies' and toddlers' behavior. The author suggests that "regulatory skill" may be a more neutral term than temperament for parents and practitioners to use in discussing individual differences among babies and toddlers and suggests that…

  19. Argonne News Brief: Here be Dragons! Komodo Dragons Help Understanding of Microbial Health

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-29

    Researchers found that captive Komodo Dragons share microbes with their environment, just as humans and pets do within homes. These observations build our understanding of the impact of captivity on health, which could lead to improvements in the care of animals within our homes and other closed environments.

  20. How Do Manipulatives Help Students Communicate Their Understanding of Double-Digit Subtraction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abi-Hanna, Rabab

    2016-01-01

    Multi-digit subtraction is difficult for students to learn. The purpose of this study is to explore how second-grade students communicate their understanding of double-digit subtraction through the use of manipulatives/tools. This qualitative study reports on six case studies of second-grade students where clinical interviews were the main source…

  1. How Photography as Field Notes Helps in Understanding the Building the Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of research conducted between June 2010 and January 2011 as part of understanding the building the education revolution (BER) a major policy initiative of the Australian Federal Government which commenced when Julia Gillard, now PM, was the Federal Minister of Education. The BER policy initiative was part of an economic…

  2. Using Open Educational Resources to Help Students Understand the Sub-Prime Lending Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Evelyn A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I describe an assignment designed to give students an intermediate level of understanding of the causes of the crisis using online educational resources widely available on the internet. I implemented the assignment in an undergraduate intermediate accounting course. Feedback from students indicate the assignment enhanced their…

  3. New Friends: Mainstreaming Activities to Help Young Children Understand and Accept Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heekin, Shelley, Ed.; Mengel, Patricia, Ed.

    The booklet describes the New Friends approach to mainstreaming young handicapped students. The approach focuses on the understanding and acceptance of individual differences through introduction of life-sized dolls with disabilities. Seven units are presented, each with notes to the teacher, discussion guidelines, lists of frequently asked…

  4. Learning Disabilities: What Are They? Helping Teachers and Parents Understand the Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert

    2007-01-01

    "Specific Learning Disability" is by far the largest category of conditions served in special education. Unfortunately, few parents (and educators) really understand what learning disabilities are. Many erroneously believe it is a "politically correct" term for "mildly mentally retarded" or "dull normal." Further, while most laypeople have heard…

  5. Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and Space: A Framework to Help Understand the Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    integration (Washington D.C.: Department of the Air Force, 2000), 3. 6 Steven Watkins, “McPeak: No Additional AWACS,” Air Force Times 55, no. 2...1978), 151-152. 25 Vago Muradian, “A Watchful Eye,” Air Force Times 56, no. 10 (9 October 1995): 13. 12 operations and helped rescue 80 downed...Government Executive 31, no. 6 (June 1999): 48. 47 Steven Watkins, “AWACS Relief in Sight,” Air Force Times 55, no. 33 (20 March 1995): 4-5

  6. Using interactive theatre to help fertility providers better understand sexual and gender minority patients.

    PubMed

    Tarasoff, Lesley A; Epstein, Rachel; Green, Datejie C; Anderson, Scott; Ross, Lori E

    2014-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of interactive theatre as a knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) method to educate assisted human reproduction (AHR) service providers about lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and queer (LGBTQ) patients. We transformed data from the 'Creating Our Families' study, a qualitative, community-based study of LGBTQ peoples' experiences accessing AHR services, into a script for an interactive theatre workshop for AHR service providers. Based on forum theatre principles, our workshop included five scenes illustrating LGBTQ people interacting with service providers, followed by audience interventions to these scenes. Before and after the workshop, service providers completed surveys to assess their knowledge and comfort concerning LGBTQ patients, as well as the modality of the interactive theatre workshop as a KTE strategy. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to determine changes in preworkshop and postworkshop knowledge and comfort scores. Thirty AHR service providers attended the workshop. Twenty-three service providers (76.7%) fully completed the preworkshop and postworkshop evaluation forms. Service providers' knowledge scores significantly improved after the workshop, while their comfort scores minimally decreased. Most agreed that the interactive workshop was an effective KTE method. In comparison with traditional forms of KTE, interactive theatre may be particularly effective in engaging service providers and addressing their attitudes towards marginalised patient populations. Although the evaluation results of our interactive workshop were mostly positive, the long-term impact of the workshop is unknown. Long-term evaluations are needed to determine the effectiveness of arts-based KTE efforts. Other considerations for developing effective arts-based KTE strategies include adequate funding, institutional support, attention to power dynamics and thoughtful collaboration with forum theatre experts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  7. Helping People Have Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Sharyn

    The book, written for intermediate grade students, describes leisure time occupations in a format that can be used for independent study or as a supplement to classroom instruction. The specific careers described and illustrated are grouped into seven general categories: food service, conservation, lodging, outdoors, entertainment and sports,…

  8. A renaissance in residential behavior analysis? A historical perspective and a better way to help people with challenging behavior

    PubMed Central

    Holburn, Steve

    1997-01-01

    After a slow start, the popularity of applied behavior analysis for people with severe behavior problems peaked in the 1970s and was then battered down by the effects of methodological behaviorism, the aversives controversy, overregulation, and the inherent limitations of congregate living. Despite the ethical, technical, and conceptual advancements in behavior analysis, many people with challenging behavior live in futile environments in which the behavior analyst can only tinker. A radically behavioristic approach has become available that has the power to change these conditions, to restore the reciprocity necessary for new learning, and to bring residential behavior analysts more in contact with the contingencies of helping and teaching. The approach is consistent with alternatives that behaviorists have suggested for years to improve the image and effectiveness of applied behavior analysis, although it will take the behaviorist far from the usual patterns of practice. Finally, the approach promotes its own survival by promoting access to interlocking organizational contingencies, but its antithetical nature presents many conceptual and practical challenges to agency adoption. PMID:22478282

  9. Some behavioral aspects of energy descent: how a biophysical psychology might help people transition through the lean times ahead.

    PubMed

    De Young, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We may soon face biophysical limits to perpetual growth. Energy supplies may tighten and then begin a long slow descent while defensive expenditures rise to address problems caused by past resource consumption. The outcome may be significant changes in daily routines at the individual and community level. It is difficult to know when this scenario might begin to unfold but it clearly would constitute a new behavioral context, one that the behavioral sciences least attends to. Even if one posits a less dramatic scenario, people may still need to make many urgent and perhaps unsettling transitions. And while a robust response would be needed, it is not at all clear what should be the details of that response. Since it is likely that no single response will fix things everywhere, for all people or for all time, it would be useful to conduct many social experiments. Indeed, a culture of small experiments should be fostered which, at the individual and small group level, can be described as behavioral entrepreneurship. This may have begun, hidden in plain sight, but more social experiments are needed. To be of help, it may be useful to both package behavioral insights in a way that is practitioner-oriented and grounded in biophysical trends and to propose a few key questions that need attention. This paper begins the process of developing a biophysical psychology, incomplete as it is at this early stage.

  10. [From the First Symptoms of Depression to Treatment. When and Where are People Seeking Help? Does Stigma Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Sandra; Mergl, Roland; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2016-09-14

    Objective: Only a few of the people affected by depression receive early treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the time interval between first onset of symptoms and treatment utilization and the role of stigma in this process. Methods: Survey with participants from the 2nd German Patient Convention in Leipzig, Germany for patients, relatives and the general public. Results: About one fourth of the respondents stated that the time interval between first symptoms of depression and treatment utilization was longer than three years. One third said that they received treatment immediately or until up to three months after the first symptoms of depression, and one third after three months up to three years. The majority (64 %) said that they first received a depression diagnosis from a specialist. The most common treatments used were psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and a combination of both. Self-help, physical activity and occupational therapy were named as the most popular non-medical treatments. Conclusion: A possible explanation for delayed treatment utilization could be the perceived public stigma, which was higher in people with depression in comparison to other convention attendees (relatives and general public).

  11. Some behavioral aspects of energy descent: how a biophysical psychology might help people transition through the lean times ahead

    PubMed Central

    De Young, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We may soon face biophysical limits to perpetual growth. Energy supplies may tighten and then begin a long slow descent while defensive expenditures rise to address problems caused by past resource consumption. The outcome may be significant changes in daily routines at the individual and community level. It is difficult to know when this scenario might begin to unfold but it clearly would constitute a new behavioral context, one that the behavioral sciences least attends to. Even if one posits a less dramatic scenario, people may still need to make many urgent and perhaps unsettling transitions. And while a robust response would be needed, it is not at all clear what should be the details of that response. Since it is likely that no single response will fix things everywhere, for all people or for all time, it would be useful to conduct many social experiments. Indeed, a culture of small experiments should be fostered which, at the individual and small group level, can be described as behavioral entrepreneurship. This may have begun, hidden in plain sight, but more social experiments are needed. To be of help, it may be useful to both package behavioral insights in a way that is practitioner-oriented and grounded in biophysical trends and to propose a few key questions that need attention. This paper begins the process of developing a biophysical psychology, incomplete as it is at this early stage. PMID:25404926

  12. How computer science can help in understanding the 3D genome architecture.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Yoli; Merelli, Ivan; Milanesi, Luciano; Lio', Pietro

    2016-09-01

    Chromosome conformation capture techniques are producing a huge amount of data about the architecture of our genome. These data can provide us with a better understanding of the events that induce critical regulations of the cellular function from small changes in the three-dimensional genome architecture. Generating a unified view of spatial, temporal, genetic and epigenetic properties poses various challenges of data analysis, visualization, integration and mining, as well as of high performance computing and big data management. Here, we describe the critical issues of this new branch of bioinformatics, oriented at the comprehension of the three-dimensional genome architecture, which we call 'Nucleome Bioinformatics', looking beyond the currently available tools and methods, and highlight yet unaddressed challenges and the potential approaches that could be applied for tackling them. Our review provides a map for researchers interested in using computer science for studying 'Nucleome Bioinformatics', to achieve a better understanding of the biological processes that occur inside the nucleus.

  13. Understanding empathy: why phenomenology and hermeneutics can help medical education and practice.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Claire

    2015-11-01

    This article offers a critique and reformulation of the concept of empathy as it is currently used in the context of medicine and medical care. My argument is three pronged. First, that the instrumentalised notion of empathy that has been common within medicine erases the term's rich epistemological history as a special form of understanding, even a vehicle of social inquiry, and has instead substituted an account unsustainably structured according to the polarisations of modernity (subject/object, active/passive, knower/known, mind/body, doctor/patient). I suggest that understanding empathy by examining its origins within the phenomenological tradition, as a mode of intersubjective understanding, offers a different and profitable approach. Secondly, I argue that the appropriation of empathy in medicine means that, ironically, empathy can function as a technique of pastoral power, in which virtue, knowledge and authority remain with the doctor (Mayes in Bioeth Inq 6:483-493, doi: 10.1007/s11673-009-9195-9 , 2009). And thirdly, empathy is in danger of being resourced as a substitute for equity and funding within health systems. I conclude however with hope for the productive possibilities for empathy.

  14. Understanding, beliefs and perspectives of Aboriginal people in Western Australia about cancer and its impact on access to cancer services

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Shaouli; Finn, Lizzie; Bessarab, Dawn; Thompson, Sandra C

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the underlying reasons, with the recommendation of further exploration of Aboriginal beliefs and perceptions of cancer to help understand their care-seeking behavior. This could assist with planning and delivery of more effective interventions and better services for the Aboriginal population. This research explored Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal peoples' perceptions, beliefs and understanding of cancer. Methods A total of 37 Aboriginal people from various geographical areas within WA with a direct or indirect experience of cancer were interviewed between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. A social constructionist framework provided a theoretical basis for analysis. Interpretation occurred within the research team with member checking and the involvement of an Aboriginal Reference Group assisting with ensuring validity and reliability. Results Outcomes indicated that misunderstanding, fear of death, fatalism, shame, preference for traditional healing, beliefs such as cancer is contagious and other spiritual issues affected their decisions around accessing services. These findings provide important information for health providers who are involved in cancer-related service delivery. Conclusion These underlying beliefs must be specifically addressed to develop appropriate educational, screening and treatment approaches including models of care and support that

  15. "It's sort of like being a detective": understanding how Australian men self-monitor their health prior to seeking help.

    PubMed

    Smith, James A; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Wittert, Gary; Warin, Megan

    2008-03-14

    It is commonly held that men delay help seeking because they are ignorant about and disinterested in their health. However, this discussion has not been informed by men's lay perspectives, which have remained almost entirely absent from scholarship relating to men's help seeking practices. In this qualitative paper, we draw on semi-structured interviews with 36 South Australian men to examine their understandings of help seeking and health service use. We use participants' talk about self-monitoring to challenge the assumption that men are disinterested in their health, arguing instead that the men in our study monitored their health status and made conscious decisions about when and how to seek help. Using an inductive approach during the thematic analysis we were able to identify four key factors that influenced how men monitored their health and explain how these intersect with the way men sought help and used health services. We show that the men in our study were actively engaged in the self-monitoring of their health. We suggest that these findings offer an alternative approach for understanding how we can promote men's interaction with health services.

  16. Helping women understand their risk in situations of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2004-12-01

    Only approximately one-half of the 456 women who were killed or almost killed by a husband, boyfriend, or ex-husband or ex-boyfriend in a recent national study of homicide of women accurately perceived their risk of being killed by their abusive partner. Women are unlikely to overestimate their risk; however, many will underestimate the severity of the situation. From the same study, it was found that relatively few of the victims of actual or attempted intimate partner femicide were seen by domestic violence advocates during the year before they were killed; they were far more likely to be seen in the health care system. Implications are drawn as to innovative ways that women who are abused can be identified and with skilled assessment of the danger in their relationship helped make more informed plans for their safety.

  17. Using art to help understand the imagery of irritable bowel syndrome and its response to hypnotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Morris, Julie; Evans, Raymond; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    A medical artist asked 109 patients if they had an image of their IBS pre- and posthypnotherapy, making precise watercolor paintings of any images described. Results were related to treatment outcome, symptoms, anxiety, depression, and absorption (hypnotizability); 49% of patients had an image, and a wide variety were recorded and painted. Imagery was significantly associated with gender (p < .05), anxiety (p < .05), noncolonic symptomatology (p < .05), and absorption (p = .001); 57.8% of responders compared with 35.5% of nonresponders to hypnotherapy had an image of their disease (p < .05) before treatment, and color images were associated with better outcomes (p = .05) than monochrome ones. All images changed in responders, often becoming more nonspecific in nature. Inquiring about IBS imagery helps to identify potential responders and nonresponders to hypnotherapy and may also provide insights into how patients think about their illness.

  18. Creating "Good" Schools: Observation and Discussion Tool Helping Young People and Adults Have Conversations about What Makes a "Good' Youth-Centered School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joselowsky, Francine; Thomases, Jean; Yohalem, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    This tool was created in order to help young people and adults develop a common language for talking about how to improve schools. The tool provides educators, young people, administrators, policy makers, parents, community members and other stake holders with a common lens for reflecting on their schools and for planning change. It can also be…

  19. How can GPS technology help us better understand exposure to the food environment? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cetateanu, Andreea; Jones, Andy

    2016-12-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly being used to objectively assess movement patterns of people related to health behaviours. However research detailing their application to the food environment is scarce. This systematic review examines the application of GPS in studies of exposure to food environments and their potential influences on health. Based on an initial scoping exercise, published articles to be included in the systematic review were identified from four electronic databases and reference lists and were appraised and analysed, the final cut-off date for inclusion being January 2015. Included studies used GPS to identify location of individuals in relation to food outlets and link that to health or diet outcomes. They were appraised against a set of quality criteria. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, which were appraised to be of moderate quality. Newer studies had a higher quality score. Associations between observed mobility patterns in the food environment and diet related outcomes were equivocal. Findings agreed that traditional food exposure measures overestimate the importance of the home food environment. The use of GPS to measure exposure to the food environment is still in its infancy yet holds much potential. There are considerable variations and challenges in developing and standardising the methods used to assess exposure.

  20. Evaluation of a Motivation and Psycho-Educational Guided Self-Help Intervention for People with Eating Disorders (MOPED).

    PubMed

    Brewin, Nicola; Wales, Jackie; Cashmore, Rebecca; Plateau, Carolyn R; Dean, Brett; Cousins, Tara; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-05-01

    High dropout rates and poor levels of engagement are well documented for patients with eating disorders. Utilising motivational techniques and providing psycho-education have been suggested as ways to reduce treatment disengagement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a newly developed motivational and psycho-educational (MOPED) guided self-help intervention for people with eating disorders on engagement and retention in therapy. Patients who received MOPED pre-treatment (n = 79) were compared with a diagnosis-matched group of patients receiving treatment as usual (TAU; n = 79). The study found that patients receiving MOPED had a higher engagement rate than those within the TAU group. Specifically, patients in the anorexic spectrum were found to present with both higher rates of engagement and completion of therapy when issued with MOPED in comparison with TAU. Self-help packages using motivational style could be a valuable and cost-effective intervention for patients with eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Engineering good: how engineering metaphors help us to understand the moral life and change society.

    PubMed

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society.

  2. Understanding what's critical in protecting our society: Can satellite observations help? (Invited paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-05-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  3. Understanding What's Critical in Protecting Our Society: Can Satellite Observations Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-01-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  4. Understanding What's Critical in Protecting Our Society: Can Satellite Observations Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-01-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  5. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Samia A; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat

    2015-01-01

    Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients' self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students' attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students' reported difficulties in breaking bad news. This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor-patient communication and ethics programs. Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas 'truthfulness' was a concern for the content of the message, 'truth-telling' included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy.

  6. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Samia A; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Layat Burn, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Problem Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients' self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students' attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students' reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor-patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas 'truthfulness' was a concern for the content of the message, 'truth-telling' included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy.

  7. Insights from the Den: How Hibernating Bears May Help Us Understand and Treat Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Berg von Linde, Maria; Arevström, Lilith; Fröbert, Ole

    2015-10-01

    Hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) spend half of the year in a physically inactive state inside their winter dens without food intake and defecating and no or little urination. Under similar extreme conditions, humans would suffer from loss of lean body mass, heart failure, thrombosis, azotemia, osteoporosis, and more. However, bears exit the den in the spring strong without organ injuries. Translational animal models are used in human medicine but traditional experimental animals have several shortcomings; thus, we believe that it is time to systematically explore new models. In this review paper, we describe physiological adaptations of hibernating bears and how similar adaptations in humans could theoretically alleviate medical conditions. The bear has solved most of the health challenges faced by humans, including heart and kidney disease, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, and muscle wasting and osteoporosis. Understanding and applying this library of information could lead to a number of major discoveries that could have implications for the understanding and treatment of human disease.

  8. Using Neuroscience to Help Understand Fear and Anxiety: A Two-System Framework.

    PubMed

    LeDoux, Joseph E; Pine, Daniel S

    2016-11-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in basic neuroscience in recent decades. One area that has been especially successful is research on how the brain detects and responds to threats. Such studies have demonstrated comparable patterns of brain-behavior relationships underlying threat processing across a range of mammalian species, including humans. This would seem to be an ideal body of information for advancing our understanding of disorders in which altered threat processing is a key factor, namely, fear and anxiety disorders. But research on threat processing has not led to significant improvements in clinical practice. The authors propose that in order to take advantage of this progress for clinical gain, a conceptual reframing is needed. Key to this conceptual change is recognition of a distinction between circuits underlying two classes of responses elicited by threats: 1) behavioral responses and accompanying physiological changes in the brain and body and 2) conscious feeling states reflected in self-reports of fear and anxiety. This distinction leads to a "two systems" view of fear and anxiety. The authors argue that failure to recognize and consistently emphasize this distinction has impeded progress in understanding fear and anxiety disorders and hindered attempts to develop more effective pharmaceutical and psychological treatments. The two-system view suggests a new way forward.

  9. Understanding why older people develop a wish to die: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Rurup, M L; Pasman, H R W; Goedhart, J; Deeg, D J H; Kerkhof, A J F M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B D

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative studies in several European countries showed that 10-20% of older people have or have had a wish to die. To improve our understanding of why some older people develop a wish to die. In-depth interviews with people with a wish to die (n = 31) were carried out. Through open coding and inductive analysis, we developed a conceptual framework to describe the development of death wishes. Respondents were selected from two cohort studies. The wish to die had either been triggered suddenly after traumatic life events or had developed gradually after a life full of adversity, as a consequence of aging or illness, or after recurring depression. The respondents were in a situation they considered unacceptable, yet they felt they had no control to change their situation and thus progressively "gave up" trying. Recurring themes included being widowed, feeling lonely, being a victim, being dependent, and wanting to be useful. Developing thoughts about death as a positive thing or a release from problems seemed to them like a way to reclaim control. People who wish to die originally develop thoughts about death as a positive solution to life events or to an adverse situation, and eventually reach a balance of the wish to live and to die.

  10. Understanding bolus insulin dose timing: the characteristics and experiences of people with diabetes who take bolus insulin.

    PubMed

    Tamborlane, William V; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M; Brod, Meryl; Nikolajsen, Annie; Sandberg, Anna; Peters, Anne L; Van Name, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Despite the increased popularity of newer, fast-acting bolus insulin treatment options that allow for more flexibility in the timing of bolus insulin dosing in recent years, relatively little is known about people with diabetes who administer bolus insulin at differing times in relation to their meals. The purpose of this study was to investigate bolus insulin dose timing in relation to meals among people with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes, as well as to better understand the characteristics and experiences of people who bolus dose at differing times. A web-based survey of adults with T1D and T2D treated with bolus insulin therapy in Germany, the UK, and USA was conducted. A total of 906 respondents completed the survey (39% T1D; 61% T2D). A majority of respondents reported bolus dosing before meals in the previous week (57.0%), followed by after meals (18.9%), with meals (12.7%), and at varying times (11.5%). Compared to respondents who dosed with or after meals, those who dosed before meals were significantly less likely to experience hypoglycemia (before, 55.7%; with, 72.8%; after, 68.7%; p < .001) in the previous week. Respondents who bolus dosed before meals were significantly more likely to perceive bolus dose timing as flexible (45.5%) compared to those who dosed with (27.8%) or after (35.7%) meals (p < .001). Results show that many people with T1D and T2D dose their bolus insulin with or after meals. Key limitations of all self-report surveys include potential bias in responses and generalizability of findings. However, the study was designed to help mitigate these limitations. The findings have implications for clinicians and suggest opportunities for improving diabetes education and care.

  11. Can cone-beam computed tomography superimposition help orthodontists better understand relapse in surgical patients?

    PubMed

    Porciúncula, Guilherme Machado; Koerich, Leonardo; Eidson, Lindsey; Gandini Junior, Luiz Gonzaga; Gonçalves, João Roberto

    2014-11-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary treatment of a 19-year-old Brazilian man with a Class I malocclusion, a hyperdivergent profile, an anterior open bite, and signs of temporomandibular joint internal derangement. The treatment plan included evaluation with a temporomandibular joint specialist and a rheumatologist, orthodontic appliances, and maxillomandibular surgical advancement with counterclockwise rotation. Cone-beam computed tomography images were taken before and after surgery at different times and superimposed at the cranial base to assess the changes after orthognathic surgery and to monitor quantitatively the internal derangement of the temporomandibular joints and surgical relapse. Our protocol can improve the orthodontist's understanding of surgical instability, demonstrate the clinical value of cone-beam computed tomography analysis beyond the multiplanar reconstruction, and guide patient management for the best outcome possible.

  12. From necessity to sufficiency in memory research: when sleep helps to understand wake experiences.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Marie Masako; De Lavilléon, Gaetan; Benchenane, Karim

    2015-12-01

    Memory is the ability to adapt our behavior by using the stored information, previously encoded. The first investigations of the neuronal bases of the memory trace concerned its properties (location, cellular and molecular mechanisms, among others). However, to understand how this is achieved at the scale of neurons, we must provide evidence about the necessity of a neuronal subpopulation to support the memory trace, but also its sufficiency. Here, we will present past and recent studies that provide information about the neuronal nature of memories. We will show that research on sleep, when cells assembly supposedly carrying information from the past are replayed, could also provide valuable information about the memory processes at stake during wake.

  13. Question 2: why an astrobiological study of titan will help us understand the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Raulin, Francois

    2007-10-01

    For understanding the origin(s) of life on Earth it is essential to search for and study extraterrestrial environments where some of the processes which participated in the emergence of Life on our planet are still occurring. This is one of the goals of astrobiology. In that frame, the study of extraterrestrial organic matter is essential and is certainly not of limited interest regarding prebiotic molecular evolution. Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn and the only planetary body with an atmosphere similar to that of the Earth is one of the places of prime interest for these astrobiological questions. It presents many analogies with the primitive Earth, and is a prebiotic-like laboratory at the planetary scale, where a complex organic chemistry in is currently going on.

  14. Engineering Good: How Engineering Metaphors Help us to Understand the Moral Life and Change Society

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society. PMID:19722107

  15. Lost in Translation: Helping patients understand the risks of inflammatory bowel disease therapy

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Corey A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are commonly treated with immunomodulators and biologic therapy. These treatments can be very effective, but are associated with risks of adverse events that need to be discussed with patients. Effectively communicating risks of therapy can be challenging based on time constraints, misinformation available on the Internet and from others, and the lack of tools to efficiently share accurate data with patients and their families. Providers need to acknowledge the emotional aspect involved in the perception of risk, and be aware of mistakes that can easily be made in communicating with patients. Tools are available to make medical data easier to understand, and these techniques have been adapted for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. By more clearly communicating with patients, we can ensure that they are making informed medical decisions that fit with their personal preferences for treatment. PMID:20848508

  16. Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Nemorin, A.; David, J.; Maledon, E.; Nudol, E.; Dalon, J.; Arnau, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids. PMID:23912697

  17. Agent Based Modelling Helps in Understanding the Rules by Which Fibroblasts Support Keratinocyte Colony Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; McMinn, Phil; Holcombe, Mike; Smallwood, Rod; MacNeil, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Background Autologous keratincoytes are routinely expanded using irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine serum for clinical use. With growing concerns about the safety of these xenobiotic materials, it is desirable to culture keratinocytes in media without animal derived products. An improved understanding of epithelial/mesenchymal interactions could assist in this. Methodology/Principal Findings A keratincyte/fibroblast o-culture model was developed by extending an agent-based keratinocyte colony formation model to include the response of keratinocytes to both fibroblasts and serum. The model was validated by comparison of the in virtuo and in vitro multicellular behaviour of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in single and co-culture in Greens medium. To test the robustness of the model, several properties of the fibroblasts were changed to investigate their influence on the multicellular morphogenesis of keratinocyes and fibroblasts. The model was then used to generate hypotheses to explore the interactions of both proliferative and growth arrested fibroblasts with keratinocytes. The key predictions arising from the model which were confirmed by in vitro experiments were that 1) the ratio of fibroblasts to keratinocytes would critically influence keratinocyte colony expansion, 2) this ratio needed to be optimum at the beginning of the co-culture, 3) proliferative fibroblasts would be more effective than irradiated cells in expanding keratinocytes and 4) in the presence of an adequate number of fibroblasts, keratinocyte expansion would be independent of serum. Conclusions A closely associated computational and biological approach is a powerful tool for understanding complex biological systems such as the interactions between keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The key outcome of this study is the finding that the early addition of a critical ratio of proliferative fibroblasts can give rapid keratinocyte expansion without the use of irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine

  18. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia A.; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat

    2015-01-01

    Problem Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients’ self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students’ attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students’ reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor–patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas ‘truthfulness’ was a concern for the content of the message, ‘truth-telling’ included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy. PMID:26563958

  19. Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral Self-Help Program on Emotional Problems for People with Acquired Hearing Loss: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a cognitive-behavioral self-help program was effective in improving depressed mood and anxiety in people with acquired deafness. Participants were 45 persons with acquired deafness, randomly allocated to the Cognitive-Behavioral Self-help (CBS) group or the Waiting List Control (WLC) group. Depression…

  20. Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral Self-Help Program on Emotional Problems for People with Acquired Hearing Loss: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a cognitive-behavioral self-help program was effective in improving depressed mood and anxiety in people with acquired deafness. Participants were 45 persons with acquired deafness, randomly allocated to the Cognitive-Behavioral Self-help (CBS) group or the Waiting List Control (WLC) group. Depression…

  1. Helping fathers understand their new infant: a pilot study of a parenting newsletter.

    PubMed

    Waterston, Tony; Welsh, Brenda

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study on the views of first-time fathers in the northeast of England on an aged-paced parenting newsletter, and what being a parent means to them.A monthly newsletter for new parents, initially conceived in Wisconsin, USA, has been adapted for use in the UK. Each issue of the newsletter (named 'Baby Express') contains topics relevant to the particular stage of the child's life, and is delivered free to the home monthly in the first year and bi-monthly in the second and third years, when it is renamed Toddler Express'.'Baby Express' is a glossy, eight-page, easy-to-read newsletter, which focuses on emotional development, parent interaction and play. Topics covered include father-related content, such as the father's role in caring for their child and father-child relationships. As part of a randomised controlled study of new parents, fathers were invited to complete a postal questionnaire at the one year follow-up; 42 of 75 fathers responded (56%). The findings showed that fathers wanted to be more involved in caring for their child, and felt it was important to obtain information that would help them to do this. A total of 37(88%) had read 'Baby Express' and all of the fathers who read it thought it was relevant to dads. We concluded that'Baby Express' is as effective an information tool for fathers as for mothers, but additional material for fathers would be valuable. Fathers need to be included in parenting education to a greater extent.

  2. Helping smokers quit: understanding the barriers to utilization of smoking cessation services.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Schroeder, Steven A; Warner, Kenneth E

    2008-12-01

    Counseling smokers to quit smoking and providing them with pharmaceutical cessation aides are among the most beneficial and cost-effective interventions that clinicians can offer patients. Yet assistance with quitting is not universally covered by health plans or offered by all clinicians. Analysis of stakeholders' perspectives and interests can identify the barriers to more widespread provision of cessation services and suggest strategies for the public policy agenda to advance smoking cessation. Review of literature and discussions with representatives of stakeholders. All stakeholders-health plans, employers, clinicians, smokers, and the government-face barriers to broader smoking cessation activities. These range from health plans' perceiving that covering counseling and pharmacotherapy will increase costs without producing commensurate health care savings, to clinicians' feeling unprepared and uncompensated for counseling. Like other preventive measures aimed at behavior, efforts directed at smoking cessation have marginal status among health care interventions. State governments can help correct this status by increasing Medicaid coverage of treatment and expanding coverage for state employees. The federal government can promote the adoption of six initiatives recommended by a government subcommittee on cessation: set up a national quit line, develop a media campaign to encourage cessation, include cessation benefits in all federally funded insurance plans, create a research infrastructure to improve cessation rates, develop a clinician training agenda, and create a fund to increase cessation activities through a new $2 per pack cigarette excise tax. Both the federal and state governments can increase cessation by adopting policies such as the higher cigarette tax and laws prohibiting smoking in workplaces and public places. Public policy efforts should assume greater social responsibility for smoking cessation, including more aggressive leadership at the

  3. Helping Smokers Quit: Understanding the Barriers to Utilization of Smoking Cessation Services

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E; Schroeder, Steven A; Warner, Kenneth E

    2008-01-01

    Context Counseling smokers to quit smoking and providing them with pharmaceutical cessation aides are among the most beneficial and cost-effective interventions that clinicians can offer patients. Yet assistance with quitting is not universally covered by health plans or offered by all clinicians. Analysis of stakeholders' perspectives and interests can identify the barriers to more widespread provision of cessation services and suggest strategies for the public policy agenda to advance smoking cessation. Methods Review of literature and discussions with representatives of stakeholders. Findings All stakeholders—health plans, employers, clinicians, smokers, and the government—face barriers to broader smoking cessation activities. These range from health plans' perceiving that covering counseling and pharmacotherapy will increase costs without producing commensurate health care savings, to clinicians' feeling unprepared and uncompensated for counseling. Like other preventive measures aimed at behavior, efforts directed at smoking cessation have marginal status among health care interventions. State governments can help correct this status by increasing Medicaid coverage of treatment and expanding coverage for state employees. The federal government can promote the adoption of six initiatives recommended by a government subcommittee on cessation: set up a national quit line, develop a media campaign to encourage cessation, include cessation benefits in all federally funded insurance plans, create a research infrastructure to improve cessation rates, develop a clinician training agenda, and create a fund to increase cessation activities through a new $2 per pack cigarette excise tax. Both the federal and state governments can increase cessation by adopting policies such as the higher cigarette tax and laws prohibiting smoking in workplaces and public places. Conclusions Public policy efforts should assume greater social responsibility for smoking cessation

  4. Understanding differences between synthetic and natural antibodies can help improve antibody engineering

    PubMed Central

    Burkovitz, Anat; Ofran, Yanay

    2016-01-01

    abstract Synthetic libraries are a major source of human-like antibody (Ab) drug leads. To assess the similarity between natural Abs and the products of these libraries, we compared large sets of natural and synthetic Abs using “CDRs Analyzer,” a tool we introduce for structural analysis of Ab-antigen (Ag) interactions. Natural Abs, we found, recognize their Ags by combining multiple complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to create an integrated interface. Synthetic Abs, however, rely dominantly, sometimes even exclusively on CDRH3. The increased contribution of CDRH3 to Ag binding in synthetic Abs comes with a substantial decrease in the involvement of CDRH2 and CDRH1. Furthermore, in natural Abs CDRs specialize in specific types of non-covalent interactions with the Ag. CDRH1 accounts for a significant portion of the cation-pi interactions; CDRH2 is the major source of salt-bridges and CDRH3 accounts for most hydrogen bonds. In synthetic Abs this specialization is lost, and CDRH3 becomes the main sources of all types of contacts. The reliance of synthetic Abs on CDRH3 reduces the complexity of their interaction with the Ag: More Ag residues contact only one CDR and fewer contact 3 CDRs or more. We suggest that the focus of engineering attempts on CDRH3 results in libraries enriched with variants that are not natural-like. This may affect not only Ag binding, but also Ab expression, stability and selectivity. Our findings can help guide library design, creating libraries that can bind more epitopes and Abs that better mimic the natural antigenic interactions. PMID:26652053

  5. People, liminal spaces and experience: understanding recontextualisation of knowledge for newly qualified nurses.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen Therese; Magnusson, Carin; Horton, Khim; Evans, Karen; Ball, Elaine; Curtis, Kathy; Johnson, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about how newly qualified nurses delegate to health care assistants when delivering bedside care. To explore newly qualified nurses' experiences of delegating to, and supervising, health care assistants. Ethnographic case studies. In-patient wards in three English National Health Service (NHS) acute hospitals. 33 newly qualified nurses were observed, 10 health care assistants and 12 ward managers. Participant observation and in-depth interviews. We suggest that newly qualified nurses learn to delegate to, and supervise, health care assistants through re-working (`recontextualising') knowledge; and that this process occurs within a transitional (`liminal') space. Conceptualising learning in this way allows an understanding of the shift from student to newly qualified nurse and the associated interaction of people, space and experience. Using ethnographic case studies allows the experiences of those undergoing these transitions to be vocalised by the key people involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How Can Genetic Studies Help Us to Understand Links Between Birth Weight and Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Robin N; Horikoshi, Momoko; McCarthy, Mark I; Freathy, Rachel M

    2017-04-01

    In observational epidemiology, both low and high birth weights are associated with later type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the associations are poorly understood. We review evidence for the roles of genetic and non-genetic factors linking both sides of the birth weight distribution to risk of type 2 diabetes, focusing on contributions made by the most recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of birth weight. There are now nine genetic loci robustly implicated in both fetal growth and type 2 diabetes. At many of these, the same alleles are associated both with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and a lower birth weight. This supports the Fetal Insulin Hypothesis and reflects a general pattern for type 2 diabetes susceptibility alleles: genome-wide, there is an inverse genetic correlation with birth weight, and initial estimates suggest genetic factors explain a large part of the covariance between the two traits. However, the associations at individual loci show heterogeneity; some fetal risk alleles are associated with higher birth weight. For most of these, the association reflects their correlation with the maternal risk allele which raises maternal glucose, thus increasing fetal insulin-mediated growth. GWAS have improved our understanding of the mechanisms underlying associations between type 2 diabetes and birth weight but questions remain about the relative importance of genetic versus non-genetic factors and of maternal versus fetal genotypes. To answer these questions, future work will require well-powered analyses of parents and offspring.

  7. Musculoskeletal features of Lyme disease: understanding the pathogenesis of clinical findings helps make appropriate therapeutic choices.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Leonard H

    2011-08-01

    Patients with Lyme disease, that is, active infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, experience many types of musculoskeletal complaints, with different explanatory mechanisms. Appropriate therapy depends on understanding the underlying cause of the complaint and addressing that specific root cause. In the case of active infection the dosage, duration, drug, and method of administration of antibiotics should be determined by the state of the infection and history of prior therapy, according to the established and validated recommendations of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Many patients have musculoskeletal complaints not attributable to active infection; some patients have residual complaints following a documented infection that has been adequately treated with antibiotics previously, and others never had true B. burgdorferi infection in the first place. For such patients, antibiotics are not warranted and in fact may be physically and emotionally harmful. Complaints following an episode of Lyme disease are not necessarily due to ongoing infection, especially adequately treated. Consideration of other diagnoses may suggest use of other effective modalities, including physical therapy and emotional support. Appropriate ordering and interpretation of the various validated seroconfirmatory tests available to study B. burgdorferi infection are critical, as these tests are often misapplied and misconstrued in pursuit of strategies aimed at eliminating patients' suffering. Although seronegative Lyme disease has been reported, seronegativity in a reputable laboratory makes the likelihood of Lyme arthritis very low. On the other hand, a positive result from certain unvalidated laboratories or novel assays proves nothing and should not be viewed as substantiating the diagnosis.

  8. Comic strips help children understand medical research: targeting the informed consent procedure to children's needs.

    PubMed

    Grootens-Wiegers, Petronella; de Vries, Martine C; van Beusekom, Mara M; van Dijck, Laura; van den Broek, Jos M

    2015-04-01

    Children involved in medical research often fail to comprehend essential research aspects. In order to improve information provision, a participatory approach was used to develop new information material explaining essential concepts of medical research. A draft of a comic strip was developed by a science communicator in collaboration with pediatricians. The draft was presented to children participating in a clinical trial and to two school classes. Children were consulted for further development in surveys and interviews. Subsequently, the material was revised and re-evaluated in four school classes with children of varying ages and educational levels. In the first evaluation, children provided feedback on the storyline, wording and layout. Children thought the comic strip was 'fun' and 'informative'. Understanding of 8 basic research aspects was on average 83% and all above 65%, illustrating that children understood and remembered key messages. A comic strip was developed to support the informed consent process. Children were consulted and provided feedback. The resulting material was well understood and accepted. Involving children in the development of information material can substantially contribute to the quality of the material. Children were excited to participate and to 'be a part of science'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lessons from retrievals: Retrievals help understand the reason for revision of coated hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Danielle; Hothi, Harry; Khatkar, Harman; Meswania, Jayantilal; Blunn, Gordon; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2015-11-01

    Coatings have been applied to all surfaces of hip implants with the majority performing well in the laboratory, but there are few reports of their performance in humans. The rationale for coating the metal-on-metal bearing surfaces includes a reduction in metal ion release and risk of adverse reaction to metal debris; yet there are no reports of retrieved coated metal-on-metal hip implants despite the concern that they may delaminate. The aim of this study was to better understand the performance of coated hip implants in humans through findings of three coated metal-on-metal hip resurfacings, retrieved after failure for unexplained pain. Analysis of these implants included quantification of the amount and mechanism of coating loss which was correlated with clinical, imaging and blood data. In all cases, there were large areas of complete coating loss in which the metal substrate was exposed and found to be rougher than the coated areas. The coating loss gave rise to third body abrasive wear of the coating and the exposed metal, the latter of which led to high blood levels of cobalt and chromium. Coating of the bearing surfaces of metal-on-metal hip resurfacings, therefore, do not prevent metal ion release when implanted into humans. This is an example of a need for increased retrieval analysis of newly introduced implants and expansion of laboratory testing regulations to better reflect the clinical environment.

  10. How LIF has helped to understand ion loss at the boundaries of weakly collisional plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Ko, E.; Wang, X.; Oksuza, L.; Halab, A.; Servern, G.

    2003-10-01

    Recent experiments in weakly collisional multi-dipole plasmas with one and two positive ion species have provided a much better understanding of ion motion in presheaths near the boundaries of such plasmas. Plasma potential was determined with emissive probes, ion density with Langmuir probes and diode laser LIF, ion drift velocity with Mach probes calibrated with LIF, and directly with LIF, and from the phase velocity of ion acoustic waves. LIF provided measurements of the ion velocity distribution functions and showed that ion-neutral charge exchange results in ion "heating" near boundaries. LIF showed that Ar ions in Ar-He plasma exit the plasma at the plasma/sheath boundary with a velocity greater than the Ar ion Bohm velocity. In single species plasma, the same diagnostic shows Ar average ion exit velocity equals the Bohm velocity. ^A Suleyman Demirel University, Physics Dept., Isparta Turkey ^B KACST, Space Research Institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia *Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER 54437

  11. Understanding of blood pressure by people with type 2 diabetes: a primary care focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jane; Brown, Ken; Kendrick, Denise; Dyas, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Background For many people with type 2 diabetes most care is provided in primary care. While people with both diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of complications, little is known about their understanding of blood pressure. Aim To explore the understanding and beliefs about the importance of blood pressure held by people with type 2 diabetes. Design of study Framework analysis of qualitative research using focus groups. Setting Thirty-two participants were recruited from four general practices and a religious meeting group in Nottingham. Discussions took place in five community centres providing familiar surroundings for participants. Method In order to get views expressed fully, white, Asian, and African–Caribbean participants met in five separate groups. Facilitators were fluent in the appropriate language and one member of the research team was present at all focus groups. Results Some participants, including those with raised blood pressure, were not aware of the increased importance of achieving good blood pressure control. No participants mentioned the increased risk of eye or kidney disease as a result of the combination of diabetes and raised blood pressure. Participants' perceptions regarding the control of blood sugar and blood pressure were different: blood sugar control was seen as their responsibility but blood pressure control was seen as the responsibility of the doctor. There was scepticism regarding the diagnosis of raised blood pressure, of targets and the management of blood pressure. There was also scepticism about the advice and education about diabetes given in primary care. Conclusions People with type 2 diabetes require more knowledge of the increased risks they have from raised blood pressure, although this alone is unlikely to improve blood-pressure control. Strategies to increase the degree of control over and responsibility taken for the control of blood pressure need development and may require the specific development of

  12. Helping Resource Managers Understand Hydroclimatic Variability and Forecasts: A Case Study in Research Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H. C.; Pagano, T. C.; Sorooshian, S.; Bales, R.

    2002-12-01

    enable low-end users to increase their understanding of probabilistic forecasts, credibility concepts, and implications for decision making. We also developed an interactive forecast assessment tool accessible over the Internet, to support resource decisions by individuals as well as agencies. The tool provides tutorials for guiding forecast interpretation, including quizzes that allow users to test their forecast interpretation skills. Users can monitor recent and historical observations for selected regions, communicated using terminology consistent with available forecast products. The tool also allows users to evaluate forecast performance for the regions, seasons, forecast lead times, and performance criteria relevant to their specific decision making situations. Using consistent product formats, the evaluation component allows individuals to use results at the level they are capable of understanding, while offering opportunity to shift to more sophisticated criteria. Recognizing that many individuals lack Internet access, the forecast assessment webtool design also includes capabilities for customized report generation so extension agents or other trusted information intermediaries can provide material to decision makers at meetings or site visits.

  13. Can Photo Sensors Help Us Understand the Intrinsic Differences Between Quantum and Classical Statistical Behaviors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2009-03-01

    We use the following epistemology—understanding and visualizing the invisible processes behind all natural phenomena through iterative reconstruction and/or refinement of current working theories towards their limits, constitute our best approach towards discovering actual realities of nature followed by new break-through theories. We use this epistemology to explore the roots of statistical nature of the real world—classical physics, quantum physics and even our mental constructs. Diversity is a natural and healthy outcome of this statistical nature. First, we use a two-beam superposition experiment as an illustrative example of the quantum world to visualize the root of fluctuations (or randomness) in the photo electron counting statistics. We recognize that the fluctuating weak background fields make the quantum world inherently random but the fluctuations are still statistically bounded, indicating that the fundamental laws of nature are still causal. Theoreticians will be challenged for ever to construct a causal and closed form theory free of statistical randomness out of incomplete information. We show by analyzing the essential steps behind any experiment that gaps in the information gathered about any phenomenon is inevitable. This lack of information also influences our personal epistemologies to have "statistical spread" due to its molecular origin, albeit bounded and constrained by the causally driven atomic and molecular interactions across the board. While there are clear differences in the root and manifestation of classical and quantum statistical behavior, on a fundamental level they originate in our theories due to lack of complete information about everything that is involved in every interaction in our experiments. Statistical nature of our theories is a product of incomplete information and we should take it as an inevitable paradigm.

  14. Help-seeking, stigma and attitudes of people with and without a suicidal past. A comparison between a low and a high suicide rate country.

    PubMed

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    A significant proportion of suicidal persons do not seek help for their psychological problems. Psychological help-seeking is assumed to be a protective factor for suicide. However, different studies showed that negative attitudes and stigma related to help-seeking are major barriers to psychological help-seeking. These attitudes and stigma are not merely individual characteristics but they are also developed by and within society. The aim of this study is twofold. First, we investigate if persons with a suicidal past differ from people without a suicidal past with respect to help-seeking intentions, attitudes toward help-seeking, stigma and attitudes toward suicide. The second aim is to investigate if these attitudinal factors differ between people living in two regions with similar socio-economic characteristics but deviating suicide rates. We defined high (Flemish Community of Belgium) and low (The Netherlands) suicide regions and drew a representative sample of the general Flemish and Dutch population between 18 and 65 years. Data were gathered by means of a postal questionnaire. Descriptive statistics are presented to compare people with and without suicidal past. Multiple logistic regressions were used to compare Flemish and Dutch participants with a suicidal past. Compared to people without a suicidal past, people with a suicidal past are less likely to seek professional and informal help, perceive more stigma, experience more self-stigma (only men) and shame (only women) when seeking help and have more accepting attitudes toward suicide. In comparison to their Dutch counterparts, Flemish people with a suicidal past have less often positive attitudes toward help-seeking, less intentions to seek professional and informal (only women) help and have less often received help for psychological problems (only men). The main limitations are: the relatively low response rate; suicidal ideation was measured by retrospective self-report; and the research sample

  15. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  16. How Can Helpful Policy plus Helpful Professionals Produce System Failure? Exploring Development Interventions with Active Local Professionals and Active Young People with Life-Limiting Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Sheila; Rodrigues, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The paper reflects on the implications of selecting local multifunctional networks as a principal method of achieving improvement in the transition experience of young people with life-limiting conditions, given the range of blocking factors identified. It summarises a programme of work that aimed to tackle these blocks through developing local…

  17. Perceived usefulness of a usability issues reporting form to help understand "usability-induced use-errors": a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Boog, Cesar; Leroy, Nicolas; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Device regulation requires manufacturers to anticipate and prevent risks of use errors of their medical device. However, manufacturers experience difficulties to understand the concept of "usability-induced use-errors". Based on a "usability framework" aiming at describing the relationship between usability design principles, usability flaws, usage problems, and outcomes, a usability evaluation reporting form had been designed to support understanding the use-error concept. This paper reports the preliminary evaluation of the perceived usefulness of this form. Results show that manufacturers found helpful the presentation of the results of a usability evaluation through this form for it supports the understanding of the usability origins and the consequences of use-errors. Even if the use of this reporting form should be made easier as usability experts experience difficulties to fill it, it seems a promising way to clearly present "usability-induced use-errors" to manufacturers.

  18. Dynamics of the mammalian nucleus: can microscopic movements help us to understand our genes?

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Judith E

    2004-12-15

    scrutiny over the past few years. This has largely been driven by advances in microscopy as well as the advent of in vivo labelling techniques for sub-nuclear structures. It is now possible, using a protein originally isolated from jellyfish, to visualize sub-nuclear structures in living cultured cells. Together with three-dimensional time-lapse microscopy and an ever-expanding range of photo-bleaching techniques, this technology allows us to ask detailed questions about movements of sub-nuclear structures themselves and of the proteins contained within them. It has recently become clear that sub-nuclear structures are capable of moving within the nucleus and of physically interacting with each other. It is also now known that there is a constant flux of molecules into and out of these mobile structures as well as exchange of molecules between them, rather like passengers travelling on the London Underground. The challenge for the future is to relate dynamic events at the microscopic and molecular levels back to the organism as a whole. Only by understanding how the information encoded on genes is accurately expressed at the right time and in the right place can we really take advantage of the knowledge currently available to us.

  19. Whose interests do lay people represent? Towards an understanding of the role of lay people as members of committees

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Christine; Williamson, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, lay people are appointed as members to health service committees. The term ‘lay’ is used loosely and the reasons for involving lay people are seldom clearly defined. This paper argues that the different roles that lay people play need to be explicitly defined in order for their contributions to be realized. Although lay members of health service committees are generally assumed to be working for patients’ interests, our observations lead us to think that some lay people tend to support professionals’ or managers’ interests rather than patients’ interests as patients would define them. We suggest that lay people fall into three broad categories: supporters of dominant (professional) interests, supporters of challenging (managerial) interests and supporters of repressed (patient) interests. These alignments should be taken into account in appointments to health service bodies. Further research is needed on the alignments and roles of lay members. PMID:11286594

  20. How do people of South Asian origin understand and experience depression? A protocol for a systematic review of qualitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Roisin; Trivedi, Daksha; Sharma, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals from Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are less likely to receive a diagnosis and to engage with treatment for depression. This review aims to draw on international literature to summarise what is known about how people specifically of South Asian origin, migrants and non-migrants, understand and experience depressive symptoms. The resulting evidence base will further inform practices aimed at encouraging help-seeking behaviour and treatment uptake. Methods and analysis A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic searches will be conducted across 16 databases. Study quality will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Data will be extracted independently by 2 reviewers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required. A comprehensive evidence base of how people from South Asian backgrounds conceptualise and experience depression will better inform the design and delivery of mental health initiatives and advance directions for future research. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and disseminated through existing networks for professionals, researchers, patients and the public. Trial registration number CRD42015026120. PMID:27577586

  1. Communication Access for Deaf People in Healthcare Settings: Understanding the Work of American Sign Language Interpreters.

    PubMed

    Olson, Andrea M; Swabey, Laurie

    Despite federal laws that mandate equal access and communication in all healthcare settings for deaf people, consistent provision of quality interpreting in healthcare settings is still not a reality, as recognized by deaf people and American Sign Language (ASL)-English interpreters. The purpose of this study was to better understand the work of ASL interpreters employed in healthcare settings, which can then inform on training and credentialing of interpreters, with the ultimate aim of improving the quality of healthcare and communication access for deaf people. Based on job analysis, researchers designed an online survey with 167 task statements representing 44 categories. American Sign Language interpreters (N = 339) rated the importance of, and frequency with which they performed, each of the 167 tasks. Categories with the highest average importance ratings included language and interpreting, situation assessment, ethical and professional decision making, manage the discourse, monitor, manage and/or coordinate appointments. Categories with the highest average frequency ratings included the following: dress appropriately, adapt to a variety of physical settings and locations, adapt to working with variety of providers in variety of roles, deal with uncertain and unpredictable work situations, and demonstrate cultural adaptability. To achieve health equity for the deaf community, the training and credentialing of interpreters needs to be systematically addressed.

  2. Science Outside the Lab: Helping Graduate Students in Science and Engineering Understand the Complexities of Science Policy.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Michael J; Reifschneider, Kiera; Bennett, Ira; Wetmore, Jameson M

    2016-09-28

    Helping scientists and engineers challenge received assumptions about how science, engineering, and society relate is a critical cornerstone for macroethics education. Scientific and engineering research are frequently framed as first steps of a value-free linear model that inexorably leads to societal benefit. Social studies of science and assessments of scientific and engineering research speak to the need for a more critical approach to the noble intentions underlying these assumptions. "Science Outside the Lab" is a program designed to help early-career scientists and engineers understand the complexities of science and engineering policy. Assessment of the program entailed a pre-, post-, and 1 year follow up survey to gauge student perspectives on relationships between science and society, as well as a pre-post concept map exercise to elicit student conceptualizations of science policy. Students leave Science Outside the Lab with greater humility about the role of scientific expertise in science and engineering policy; greater skepticism toward linear notions of scientific advances benefiting society; a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the actors involved in shaping science policy; and a continued appreciation of the contributions of science and engineering to society. The study presents an efficacious program that helps scientists and engineers make inroads into macroethical debates, reframe the ways in which they think about values of science and engineering in society, and more thoughtfully engage with critical mediators of science and society relationships: policy makers and policy processes.

  3. Making Sense of an Unknown Terrain: How Parents Understand Self-Harm in Young People.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicholas D; Locock, Louise; Simkin, Sue; Stewart, Anne; Ferrey, Anne E; Gunnell, David; Kapur, Navneet; Hawton, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Self-harm is common in young people, and can have profound effects on parents and other family members. We conducted narrative interviews with 41 parents and other family members of 38 young people, aged up to 25, who had self-harmed. Most of the participants were parents but included one sibling and one spouse. This article reports experiences of the parent participants. A cross-case thematic analysis showed that most participants were bewildered by self-harm. The disruption to their worldview brought about by self-harm prompted many to undergo a process of "sense-making"-by ruminative introspection, looking for information, and building a new way of seeing-to understand and come to terms with self-harm. Most participants appeared to have been successful in making sense of self-harm, though not without considerable effort and emotional struggle. Our findings provide grounds for a deeper socio-cultural understanding of the impact of self-harm on parents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  5. Helping Students Understand Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Roger

    To force students--at the very beginning of the writing process--to be aware of audience and to gain insight into their own writing, in-class writing and sharing exercises can be invaluable. For example, students can present to the class their subject for an upcoming paper, with the class responding on paper to such questions as: (1) What do you…

  6. How people come to recognise a problem and seek medical help for a person showing early signs of dementia: A systematic review and meta-ethnography.

    PubMed

    Perry-Young, Lucy; Owen, Gareth; Kelly, Susan; Owens, Christabel

    2016-01-12

    Evidence suggests that there is usually a long delay between noticing first signs of dementia and seeking medical help. We conducted a systematic review of what people experience and how they make decisions during this time, and used a meta-ethnographic approach to synthesise the findings. Screening and quality assessment resulted in nine studies eligible for inclusion. People with dementia mainly report experiencing memory lapses, while carers focus on more subtle changes in personality. People respond to these changes in one of three ways: 1) they discount them as normal; 2) they reserve judgement as to their cause and significance, or 3) they misattribute them. Pivotal events can finally trigger help seeking. Active reflection and seeking of further evidence may lead to earlier recognition of the possibility of dementia and the need to seek help; it also reduces the risk of a pivotal event. Public education should aim to improve recognition of more subtle signs and to encourage repeated evaluation and reflection.

  7. Understanding and use of antibiotics amongst Samoan people in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Norris, Pauline; Churchward, Marianna; Fa'alau, Fuafiva; Va'ai, Cecilia

    2009-03-01

    Use of antibiotics is high in Samoa and this may affect the expectations and patterns of antibiotic use of Samoans in New Zealand. This study examined the understanding and reported use of antibiotics amongst Samoans in New Zealand. In-depth interviews were held with 13 Samoans in New Zealand. These interviews were analysed and used to develop a questionnaire that was administered to 112 Samoans attending health care facilities in New Zealand. Many participants had little understanding of antibiotics. Less than 2% identified the correct purpose for antibiotics, and 66% thought they were used to relieve pain. Respondents regarded a wide range of medicines (including some which they regularly took) as antibiotics. They frequently attributed colds and flu to environmental conditions (96%), and regarded antibiotics as a useful treatment for them (81%). They reported stopping taking antibiotics before finishing the course. Very few (8%) were aware of antibiotic resistance. Health care practitioners cannot assume that patients share a Western scientific understanding of which illnesses are caused by microbes, or what antibiotics are or do. People may have significant confusion about the medicines they take. Samoans, whether they are born in New Zealand or not, may hold traditional Samoan views about health and illness.

  8. 'Trafficking' or 'personal use': do people who regularly inject drugs understand Australian drug trafficking laws?

    PubMed

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Ritter, Alison; Cowdery, Nicholas; Sindicich, Natasha

    2014-11-01

    Legal thresholds for drug trafficking, over which possession of an illicit drug is deemed 'trafficking' as opposed to 'personal use', are employed in all Australian states and territories excepting Queensland. In this paper, we explore the extent to which people who regularly inject drugs understand such laws. Participants from the seven affected states/territories in the 2012 Illicit Drug Reporting System (n = 823) were asked about their legal knowledge of trafficking thresholds: whether, if arrested, quantity possessed would affect legal action taken; and the quantities of heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine and cannabis that would constitute an offence of supply. Data were compared against the actual laws to identify the accuracy of knowledge by drug type and state, and sociodemographics, use and purchasing patterns related to knowledge. Most Illicit Drug Reporting System participants (77%) correctly said that quantity possessed would affect charge received. However, only 55.8% nominated any specific quantity that would constitute an offence of supply, and of those 22.6% nominated a wrong quantity, namely a quantity that was larger than the actual quantity for supply (this varied by state and drug). People who regularly inject drugs have significant gaps in knowledge about Australian legal thresholds for drug trafficking, particularly regarding the actual threshold quantities. This suggests that there may be a need to improve education for this population. Necessity for accurate knowledge would also be lessened by better design of Australian drug trafficking laws. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Can people with multiple sclerosis actually understand what they read in the Internet age?

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Carotenuto, Antonio; Massarelli, Marco; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently report difficulties in finding personally relevant information on the Internet. With this in mind, the Google top-ten patient-oriented results were analysed for their overall level of readability. The most commonly visited websites required an average grade level of 11.74 ± 1.54, and an average number of years of formal education of 12.78 ± 1.82, to be easily understood. The average Flesch Reading Ease readability index is 45.26 ± 7.35, a difficult-to-read score. The high educational level required to easily understand most websites worsens health inequalities, not allowing a full participation in health information and decision making.

  10. Understanding sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender people of color in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Bith-Melander, Pollie; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Sheth, Lina; Bermudez, Carlos; Drone, Jennifer; Wood, Woo; Schroeder, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic qualitative study explored the needs of transgender people of color, including biological transitioning issues, gender and group membership identity formation, HIV, and other health issues. The sample consisted of transgender youth and adults of color in San Francisco (N = 43). Data were collected from in-depth interviews with 20 youth and adults and focus groups with 23 individuals. The study focused on perspectives of racial and ethnic minorities from Asian/Pacific Islander, African American, and Latino backgrounds. The medical decision-making perspective was used to gain a deeper understanding of sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender individuals of color in San Francisco. The major themes that emerged were gender identity, group membership, transitioning and related issues, sex work, alcohol and drug use, mental health and health care, sense of community, HIV, resources, and other support. Key clinical considerations that health providers can use to improve care of transgender individuals of color are included.

  11. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology) and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service. PMID:20569478

  12. Does therapeutic writing help people with long-term conditions? Systematic review, realist synthesis and economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Nyssen, Olga P; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Wong, Geoff; Steed, Elizabeth; Bourke, Liam; Lord, Joanne; Ross, Carol A; Hayman, Sheila; Field, Victoria; Higgins, Ailish; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Meads, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Writing therapy to improve physical or mental health can take many forms. The most researched model of therapeutic writing (TW) is unfacilitated, individual expressive writing (written emotional disclosure). Facilitated writing activities are less widely researched. Databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Linguistics and Language Behaviour Abstracts, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, were searched from inception to March 2013 (updated January 2015). Four TW practitioners provided expert advice. Study procedures were conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised comparative studies were included. Quality was appraised using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Unfacilitated and facilitated TW studies were analysed separately under International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision chapter headings. Meta-analyses were performed where possible using RevMan version 5.2.6 (RevMan 2012, The Cochrane Collaboration, The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Costs were estimated from a UK NHS perspective and three cost-consequence case studies were prepared. Realist synthesis followed Realist and Meta-narrative Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards guidelines. To review the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of TW for people with long-term conditions (LTCs) compared with no writing, or other controls, reporting any relevant clinical outcomes. To conduct a realist synthesis to understand how TW might work, and for whom. From 14,658 unique citations, 284 full-text papers were reviewed and 64 studies (59 RCTs) were included in the final effectiveness reviews. Five studies examined facilitated TW; these were extremely heterogeneous with unclear or high risk of bias but suggested that facilitated TW interventions may be beneficial in individual LTCs. Unfacilitated expressive writing was examined in 59 studies of variable

  13. Understanding help-seeking amongst university students: the role of group identity, stigma, and exposure to suicide and help-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Michelle; Muldoon, Orla T.; Msetfi, Rachel M.; Surgenor, Paul W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of suicide ideation and mental health issues amongst university students, the stigma of help-seeking remains a barrier to those who are in real need of professional support. Social identity theory states that help received from an ingroup source is more welcome and less threatening to one's identity than that from a source perceived as outgroup. Therefore, we hypothesized that students' stigma toward seeking help from their university mental health service would differ based on the strength of their identification with the university. Method: An online survey including measures of stigma of suicide, group identification, experience with help-seeking and exposure to suicide was administered to Irish university students (N = 493). Results: Group identification was a significant predictor of help-seeking attitudes after controlling for already known predictors. Contrary to our expectations, those who identified more strongly with their university demonstrated a higher stigma of seeking help from their university mental health service. Conclusions: Results are discussed in relation to self-categorization theory and the concept of normative fit. Practical implications for mental health service provision in universities are also addressed, specifically the need for a range of different mental health services both on and off-campus. PMID:26483722

  14. Do Video Reviews of Therapy Sessions Help People with Mild Intellectual Disabilities Describe Their Perceptions of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, B.; Jahoda, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study examined the potential of a retrospective video reviewing process [Burford Reviewing Process (BRP)] for enabling people with intellectual disabilities to describe their experiences of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). It is the first time that the BRP, described in this paper, has been used with people with intellectual…

  15. Do Video Reviews of Therapy Sessions Help People with Mild Intellectual Disabilities Describe Their Perceptions of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, B.; Jahoda, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study examined the potential of a retrospective video reviewing process [Burford Reviewing Process (BRP)] for enabling people with intellectual disabilities to describe their experiences of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). It is the first time that the BRP, described in this paper, has been used with people with intellectual…

  16. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  17. 'Thin people … they're healthy': young children's understanding of body weight change.

    PubMed

    Baxter, S L; Collins, S C; Hill, A J

    2016-10-01

    While research has investigated negative stereotyping of fat body shapes, little has focused on young children's understanding of the mechanisms, motivations and consequences of weight change. To investigate children's understanding of how weight change is achieved, people's motivation for weight change, and the consequences of weight loss or weight gain. One hundred children (mean age 5.2, 38 girls) read a book in which one of the main characters (male/female according to the child's sex) was either healthy weight or overweight. Afterwards, this character was described as gaining or losing weight, and drawings which depicted the child in the story as either healthy weight or overweight were presented to the child and discussed. An audio-recorded semi-structured interview followed and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Nearly all children described the weight/shape change and attributed this to food more frequently than exercise. Weight loss was viewed positively and both motivations and consequences grouped under two master themes (physical and social reasons). No clear gender differences were observed in these responses. Talking with 5-year-olds showed them to be observant and knowledgeable, especially about motivations for and consequences of weight change. For those working to improve children's health literacy, this suggests receptiveness to early and fact-based education. © 2015 World Obesity.

  18. Helping people in a minimally conscious state develop responding and stimulation control through a microswitch-aided program.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; D'Amico, Fiora; Buonocunto, Francesca; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Fiore, Pietro; Megna, Marisa; Damiani, Sabino; Marvulli, Riccardo

    2017-06-01

    Postcoma persons in a minimally conscious state (MCS) and with extensive motor impairment cannot independently access and control environmental stimulation. Assessing the effects of a microswitch-aided program aimed at helping MCS persons develop responding and stimulation control and conducting a social validation/evaluation of the program. A single-subject ABAB design was used for each participant to determine the impact of the program on his or her responding. Staff interviews were used for the social validation/evaluation of the program. Rehabilitation and care facilities that the participants attended. Eleven MCS persons with extensive motor impairment and lack of speech or any other functional communication. For each participant, baseline (A) phases were alternated with intervention (B) phases during which the program was used. The program relied on microswitches to monitor participants' specific responses (e.g., prolonged eyelid closures) and on a computer system to enable those responses to control stimulation. In practice, the participants could use a simple response such as prolonged eyelid closure to generate a new stimulation input. Sixty-six staff people took part in the social validation of the program. They were to compare the program to basic and elaborate forms of externally controlled stimulation, scoring each of them on a six-item questionnaire. All participants showed increased response frequencies (and thus higher levels of independent stimulation input/control) during the B phases of the study. Their frequencies for each intervention phase more than doubled their frequencies for the preceding baseline phase with the difference between the two being clearly significant (P<0.01). Staff involved in the social validation procedure provided significantly higher scoring (P<0.01) for the program on five of the six questionnaire items. A microswitch-aided program can be an effective and socially acceptable tool in the work with MCS persons. The

  19. Self-labelling and stigma as predictors of attitudes towards help-seeking among people at risk of psychosis: 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ziyan; Müller, Mario; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Metzler, Sibylle; Brabban, Alison; Corrigan, Patrick W; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Mental health service use is helpful but rare among young people at risk of psychosis. The label and stigma associated with mental illness may affect attitudes towards help-seeking. We examined 67 individuals at risk of psychosis over the course of 1 year. An increase of self-labelling as "mentally ill" predicted more positive attitudes towards psychiatric medication, while increased perceived stigma and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor predicted poorer attitudes towards psychotherapy after 1 year. Early intervention could improve non-stigmatizing awareness of at-risk mental state and reduce the public stigma associated with at-risk status to facilitate help-seeking.

  20. Can patient decision aids help people make good decisions about participating in clinical trials? A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brehaut, Jamie C; Lott, Alison; Fergusson, Dean A; Shojania, Kaveh G; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Saginur, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence shows that the standard process for obtaining informed consent in clinical trials can be inadequate, with study participants frequently not understanding even basic information fundamental to giving informed consent. Patient decision aids are effective decision support tools originally designed to help patients make difficult treatment or screening decisions. We propose that incorporating decision aids into the informed consent process will improve the extent to which participants make decisions that are informed and consistent with their preferences. A mixed methods study will test this proposal. Methods Phase one of this project will involve assessment of a stratified random sample of 50 consent documents from recently completed investigator-initiated clinical trials, according to existing standards for supporting good decision making. Phase two will involve interviews of a purposive sample of 50 trial participants (10 participants from each of five different clinical areas) about their experience of the informed consent process, and how it could be improved. In phase three, we will convert consent forms for two completed clinical trials into decision aids and pilot test these new tools using a user-centered design approach, an iterative development process commonly employed in computer usability literature. In phase four, we will conduct a pilot observational study comparing the new tools to standard consent forms, with potential recruits to two hypothetical clinical trials. Outcomes will include knowledge of key aspects of the decision, knowledge of the probabilities of different outcomes, decisional conflict, the hypothetical participation decision, and qualitative impressions of the experience. Discussion This work will provide initial evidence about whether a patient decision aid can improve the informed consent process. The larger goal of this work is to examine whether study recruitment can be improved from (barely) informed consent

  1. Understanding parental locus of control in Latino parents: Examination of cultural influences and help-seeking intentions for childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Kathryn E; Kapke, Theresa L; Gerdes, Alyson C

    2016-04-01

    To address the disparities that exist in utilization of mental health services for ADHD among Latino families and to further our understanding of factors that influence parents' decisions to seek treatment for ADHD, the goal of the current study was to examine parental locus of control (PLOC) in a community sample of Latino parents. Specifically, the current study investigated cultural influences on PLOC, as well as the influence of PLOC on help-seeking. Seventy-four primarily Spanish-speaking, Latino parents of school-age children completed measures to assess their help-seeking intentions, PLOC, and cultural orientation. Results indicated that U.S. mainstream orientation was associated with increased feelings of parental control and decreased beliefs in fate/chance and several Latino cultural values were associated with increased beliefs in fate/chance, and decreased feelings of parental efficacy and parental control. In addition, 2 PLOC domains (e.g., parental efficacy and fate/chance) were associated with beliefs that the behaviors of a child with ADHD would go away on their own. Results highlight the need for interventions aimed at modifying parenting behavior to take parents' cultural beliefs and values into account in order to accommodate and engage Latino families more effectively. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Factors that influence young people's mental health help-seeking behaviour: a study based on the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Peter J; Martin, Brett; Weeks, Clinton S; Ong, Luzian

    2014-11-01

    To identify key predictors and moderators of mental health 'help-seeking behavior' in adolescents. Mental illness is highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults; however, individuals in this demographic group are among the least likely to seek help for such illnesses. Very little quantitative research has examined predictors of help-seeking behaviour in this demographic group. A cross-sectional design was used. A group of 180 volunteers between the ages of 17-25 completed a survey designed to measure hypothesized predictors and moderators of help-seeking behaviour. Predictors included a range of health beliefs, personality traits and attitudes. Data were collected in August 2010 and were analysed using two standard and three hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The standard multiple regression analyses revealed that extraversion, perceived benefits of seeking help, perceived barriers to seeking help and social support were direct predictors of help-seeking behaviour. Tests of moderated relationships (using hierarchical multiple regression analyses) indicated that perceived benefits were more important than barriers in predicting help-seeking behaviour. In addition, perceived susceptibility did not predict help-seeking behaviour unless individuals were health conscious to begin with or they believed that they would benefit from help. A range of personality traits, attitudes and health beliefs can predict help-seeking behaviour for mental health problems in adolescents. The variable 'Perceived Benefits' is of particular importance as it is: (1) a strong and robust predictor of help-seeking behaviour; and (2) a factor that can theoretically be modified based on health promotion programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Understanding Distress in People with Severe Communication Difficulties: Developing and Assessing the Disability Distress Assessment Tool (DisDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnard, C.; Reynolds, Joanna; Watson, Bill; Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Clarke, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Background: Meaningful communication with people with profound communication difficulties depends on the ability of carers to recognize and translate many different verbal cues. Carers appear to be intuitively skilled at identifying distress cues, but have little confidence in their observations. To help in this process, a number of pain tools…

  4. Protocol for a feasibility study of a self-help cognitive behavioural therapy resource for the reduction of dental anxiety in young people.

    PubMed

    Marshman, Zoe; Morgan, Annie; Porritt, Jenny; Gupta, Ekta; Baker, Sarah; Creswell, Cathy; Newton, Tim; Stevens, Katherine; Williams, Christopher; Prasad, Suneeta; Kirby, Jennifer; Rodd, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Childhood dental anxiety is very common, with 10-20 % of children and young people reporting high levels of dental anxiety. It is distressing and has a negative impact on the quality of life of young people and their parents as well as being associated with poor oral health. Affected individuals may develop a lifelong reliance on general anaesthetic or sedation for necessary dental treatment thus requiring the support of specialist dental services. Children and young people with dental anxiety therefore require additional clinical time and can be costly to treat in the long term. The reduction of dental anxiety through the use of effective psychological techniques is, therefore, of high importance. However, there is a lack of high-quality research investigating the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches when applied to young people's dental anxiety. The first part of the study will develop a profile of dentally anxious young people using a prospective questionnaire sent to a consecutive sample of 100 young people referred to the Paediatric Dentistry Department, Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, in Sheffield. The second part will involve interviewing a purposive sample of 15-20 dental team members on their perceptions of a CBT self-help resource for dental anxiety, their opinions on whether they might use such a resource with patients, and their willingness to recruit participants to a future randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the resource. The third part of the study will investigate the most appropriate outcome measures to include in a trial, the acceptability of the resource, and retention and completion rates of treatment with a sample of 60 dentally anxious young people using the CBT resource. This study will provide information on the profile of dentally anxious young people who could potentially be helped by a guided self-help CBT resource. It will gain the perceptions of dental care team members of guided self-help CBT for

  5. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit’s promise in improving students’ understanding of the targeted ideas. PMID:27909024

  6. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit's promise in improving students' understanding of the targeted ideas.

  7. What makes people read an online review? The relative effects of posting time and helpfulness on review readership.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the factors that make online customers select which reviews to read among the various ones on the Web. While most of literature on online consumer reviews has conveniently assumed that more helpful reviews would be read by more customers, no empirical study has tested whether the helpfulness assessment actually increases readership. Hence, this study explores various factors affecting consumer review readership and proposes that although helpfulness assessment promotes the readership of a review, the most dominant factor contributing to readership is the time of posting. A review posted late loses a significant chance of being read by consumers even if it is assessed as helpful by other readers. The hypotheses are tested using the data collected from Amazon.com , and the result of the study advises practitioners to display reviews in a manner that lessens the impact of posting time while enhancing the helpfulness voting systems.

  8. Understanding eldercare users' views on quality of care and strategies for dealing with problems in Swedish home help services.

    PubMed

    Westerberg, Kristina; Hjelte, Jan; Josefsson, Sara

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of eldercare users' strategies for dealing with problems in the quality of care and care satisfaction in relation to home help services. Based on earlier research and evaluations, it was assumed that users would express satisfaction and gratitude, and also be unwilling to complain. The specific research questions were: (i) What, if any, quality of care problems do the users mention? (ii) How do the users explain the reasons for these problems? and (iii) What strategies do the users employ to deal with these problems? A total of 35 interviews were conducted in November 2013 with 15 men and 20 women (66-92 years). The data were analysed using thematic and qualitative content analysis. The results showed that almost all users expressed overall satisfaction with their care. However, all but one also mentioned problems. The users stated very clearly and explicitly the reasons for these problems, and in most cases, they referred to the work conditions, work organisation and lack of other resources in the eldercare organisation. Two strategies were commonly used to deal with these problems: trivialisation and adaptation. A third strategy was expressed dissatisfaction, where the problem led to actions or plans to take action. One interpretation of the findings is that what is actually measured in official quality assessments and follow-ups may be care users' understanding of the work conditions and work organisation of eldercare. The understanding attitude may prevent care users from complaining because it lowers their expectations.

  9. Exploring the understanding of evidence-based concepts in people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Tammy C; Del Mar, Chris B

    2012-01-01

    Being able to make informed decisions is a prerequisite to enabling individuals to participate actively in their health care. In turn, an individual's understanding of relevant health information can influence his/her ability to make informed decisions. However, there are two broad categories of health information, ie, background information (such as the pathophysiology of conditions) and foreground information (such as disease behavior, prognosis, and effects of treatment). Questions about foreground information are central to evidence-based practice. The majority of health literacy research has focused on background information, yet foreground information is more useful in decision-making, particularly for evidence-informed decisions. In people with type 2 diabetes, we explored individuals' knowledge of selected evidence-based concepts in diabetes; beliefs about what they can do to manage their diabetes and sources of this information; and whether these change after diabetes education. Attendees with type 2 diabetes (n = 95) at a one-day diabetes educational exposition completed a questionnaire before and after the event. We asked participants about evidence-based concepts in diabetes and compared their responses with the current evidence. We also asked participants how they could best manage their diabetes, and then, how they knew this. Most participants underestimated their risk of complications. With the exception of a question about exercise and glycosylated hemoglobin level, nearly all participants provided responses that are not supported by current research evidence. There was no significant change in the percentage of participants who answered questions correctly after the exposition, except for a question about the risks of low blood glucose in which more participants answered incorrectly afterwards (P = 0.01). Health professionals were the most frequently identified source of information, with little value placed on research evidence. Participants had a

  10. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    where we are. We want to understand how a ball of gas led to the people of the Earth. Do you think it is possible that life was delivered to Earth on an impacting meteorite? No, I think that's unnecessarily complicated. Water and organics etc can come from space—they still are hitting the Earth—but the Earth has a lot of carbon and stuff. We know that life can have arisen on Earth and there is no evidence that there are any bacteria in meteorites. And is there life on other planets? There is no reason that logically it can't happen. It is possible that life could have arisen on Mars just as it did on Earth. I'm quite prepared to admit that life may have arisen elsewhere, but within the solar system there is no indication of any higher lifeforms. What do you expect in the future from meteorite research? What's exciting is that you never know what is going to turn up. In January 2000 a new meteorite fell in Canada at Tagish Lake. It's very primitive, rich in carbon, very different from anything we have seen before. Tomorrow another new type might arrive. My great interest is Martian meteorites so I am preparing for the Beagle mission. We are also looking at how solar grains link astrophysics with meteorites. What resources would you recommend for a teacher hoping to inspire their students with planetary science and astronomy? In addition to visiting the NHM I'd suggest they look at some of the Hubble images and consider what they are looking at. There are also the asteroid pictures from Near and the PPARC meteorite teaching package. PPARC also have meteorites which can be loaned. I have just finished designing a poster with PCET. More information The award-winning Natural History Museum website is at www.nhm.ac.uk Search for Life by Monica Grady is published by the NHM (ISBN 0 565 09157 3) at £9.95. A chart entitled Meteorites (shown below) designed by Monica Grady is available from Pictorial Charts Educational Trust www.pcet.co.uk priced £7.75.

  11. Communicating with people with stroke and aphasia: understanding through sensation without words.

    PubMed

    Sundin, K; Jansson, L; Norberg, A

    2000-07-01

    To illuminate the phenomena of 'communicating with people with stroke and aphasia without words', 10 care providers particularly successful at communicating with stroke and aphasia patients who were working at a stroke rehabilitation ward narrated their experiences of communicating with such patients. A phenomenological hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's philosophy, was used in the analysis. Two main themes were found: facilitating openness and being in wordless communication. The care providers sensed the feelings of the patients and experienced similar feelings themselves, thus, the communication is guided by the shared feelings between the care provider and the patient, i.e. communion. For this 'communication through sensation' to take place, the following factors were found to be necessary: creative closeness in combination with protective distance; striving for satisfaction and against exhaustion and desperation; meeting the patient halfway to gain understanding; exhibiting attention and accessibility to the patient; and trust and confidence for both care providers and patients. The findings were interpreted and discussed in the light of works by Levinas, Lögstrup and Stern.

  12. Self-care behaviour for minor symptoms: can Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use help us to understand it?

    PubMed

    Porteous, Terry; Wyke, Sally; Hannaford, Philip; Bond, Christine

    2015-02-01

    To explore whether Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use can aid understanding of self-care behaviour and inform development of interventions to promote self-care for minor illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 Scottish participants about their experience and management of minor symptoms normally associated with analgesic use. Synthesised data from the interviews were mapped onto the Behavioral Model. All factors identified as influencing decisions about how to manage the symptoms discussed, mapped onto at least one domain of Andersen's model. Individual characteristics including beliefs, need factors and available resources were associated with health behaviour, including self-care. Outcomes such as perceived health status and consumer satisfaction from previous experience of managing symptoms also appeared to feed back into health behaviour. The Behavioral Model seems relevant to self-care as well as formal health services. Additional work is needed to explore applicability of the Behavioral Model to different types of symptoms, different modalities of self-care and in countries with different health care systems. Future quantitative studies should establish the relative importance of factors influencing the actions people take to manage minor symptoms to inform future interventions aimed at optimising self-care behaviour. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Understanding self-report Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward People with Disabilities: An exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junfei; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward People With Disabilities (MAS) using participants from South Korea and assess the impact of participants' social desirability on this South Korean version of the MAS (MAS-K). Research Method/Design: One hundred eighty-nine college students without disabilities from 4 universities in South Korea completed an online survey. Among them, 75 were females. Participants completed the MAS-K and a social desirability scale. We used principal axis factoring with promax rotation to examine the factor structure of the MAS-K, and correlations between factors and social desirability measure. We obtained a 27-item 4-factor MAS-K. Four factors were negative affect (α = .89), ease-unease (α = .75), positive cognition (α = .86), and avoidant behavior (α = .88). The interfactor correlations ranged from .18 to .61. The correlations between the social desirability measure and the 4 factors in the MAS-K ranged from -.23 to -.33. The MAS-K retrieved from this study may help researchers identify unique attitudinal factors that need to be addressed to promote social inclusion of PWD in South Korea. Moreover, the emergence of the MAS-K highlights the necessity to develop culturally relevant versions of the MAS. This line of research will facilitate researchers' worldwide investigations regarding attitudes toward PWD and discussions about the rights of PWD. Finally, this study also pointed out the potential impact of social desirability on attitude measurement using the MAS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. An Internet-based self-help intervention for people with HIV and depressive symptoms: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Luenen, Sanne; Kraaij, Vivian; Spinhoven, Philip; Garnefski, Nadia

    2016-03-31

    Many people living with HIV suffer from depressive symptoms. In a previous pilot study, self-help cognitive behavioral therapy (in booklet format) was found to be effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with HIV. We developed an online self-help program in Dutch and English (based on the booklet) for people with HIV and depressive symptoms. Besides the main question regarding the effectiveness of the program aimed at lowering depressive symptoms, sub-questions will focus on the moderators of treatment success (for which patients is the program especially beneficial?) and the mechanisms of change underlying the treatment outcome (which mediators affect the outcome of treatment?). In this paper, the protocol of the study will be described. The effectiveness of the program will be investigated by comparing the intervention group with a waiting list-control group in a randomized controlled design, by including a pretest and three post-tests. The self-help program contains four main components: activation, relaxation, changing maladaptive cognitions, and goal attainment. Participants with mild to moderate depressive symptoms will work on the program for 6 to 10 weeks, during which a coach will provide motivational support by telephone once a week. Participants in the control condition will receive weekly minimal support from a coach for 8 weeks, and after the second post-test, they can gain access to the self-help program. Depressive symptoms and possible mediators (e.g., activation, cognitive coping, self-efficacy, and goal adjustment) will be assessed by self-report three times during the intervention/waiting period and at the pretest and first post-test. The proposed study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an online self-help intervention for people with HIV and depressive symptoms. If the intervention is shown to be effective, the program will be implemented. Consequently, many patients with HIV could be reached, and their psychological care may be

  15. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  16. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  17. Can I help you? Information sharing in online discussion forums by people living with a long-term condition.

    PubMed

    Bond, Carol S; Ahmed, Osman Hassan

    2016-11-10

    Peer-to-peer health care is increasing, especially amongst people living with a long-term condition. How information is shared is, however, sometimes of concern to health care professionals. This study explored what information is being shared on health-related discussion boards and identified the approaches people used to signpost their peers to information. This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis methodology to explore information shared on discussion boards for people living with diabetes. Whilst there is debate about the best ethical lens to view research carried out on data posted on online discussion boards, the researchers chose to adopt the stance of treating this type of information as "personal health text", a specific type of research data in its own right. Qualitative content analysis and basic descriptive statistics were used to analyse the selected posts. Two major themes were identified: 'Information Sharing from Experience' and 'Signposting Other Sources of Information'.Conclusions People were actively engaging in information sharing in online discussion forums, mainly through direct signposting. The quality of the information shared was important, with reasons for recommendations being given. Much of the information sharing was based on experience, which also brought in information from external sources such as health care professionals and other acknowledged experts in the field.With the rise in peer-to-peer support networks, the nature of health knowledge and expertise needs to be redefined. People online are combining external information with their own personal experiences and sharing that for others to take and develop as they wish.

  18. How do people perceive, understand, and anticipate responding to flash flood risks and warnings? Results from a public survey in Boulder, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morss, Rebecca E.; Mulder, Kelsey J.; Lazo, Jeffrey K.; Demuth, Julie L.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates flash flood forecast and warning communication, interpretation, and decision making, using data from a survey of 418 members of the public in Boulder, Colorado, USA. Respondents to the public survey varied in their perceptions and understandings of flash flood risks in Boulder, and some had misconceptions about flash flood risks, such as the safety of crossing fast-flowing water. About 6% of respondents indicated consistent reversals of US watch-warning alert terminology. However, more in-depth analysis illustrates the multi-dimensional, situationally dependent meanings of flash flood alerts, as well as the importance of evaluating interpretation and use of warning information along with alert terminology. Some public respondents estimated low likelihoods of flash flooding given a flash flood warning; these were associated with lower anticipated likelihood of taking protective action given a warning. Protective action intentions were also lower among respondents who had less trust in flash flood warnings, those who had not made prior preparations for flash flooding, and those who believed themselves to be safer from flash flooding. Additional analysis, using open-ended survey questions about responses to warnings, elucidates the complex, contextual nature of protective decision making during flash flood threats. These findings suggest that warnings can play an important role not only by notifying people that there is a threat and helping motivate people to take protective action, but also by helping people evaluate what actions to take given their situation.

  19. #WhyWeTweetMH: Understanding Why People Use Twitter to Discuss Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lobban, Fiona; Belousov, Maksim; Emsley, Richard; Nenadic, Goran; Bucci, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Background Use of the social media website Twitter is highly prevalent and has led to a plethora of Web-based social and health-related data available for use by researchers. As such, researchers are increasingly using data from social media to retrieve and analyze mental health-related content. However, there is limited evidence regarding why people use this emerging platform to discuss mental health problems in the first place. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why individuals discuss mental health on the social media website Twitter. The study was the first of its kind to implement a study-specific hashtag for research; therefore, we also examined how feasible it was to circulate and analyze a study-specific hashtag for mental health research. Methods Text mining methods using the Twitter Streaming Application Programming Interface (API) and Twitter Search API were used to collect and organize tweets from the hashtag #WhyWeTweetMH, circulated between September 2015 and November 2015. Tweets were analyzed thematically to understand the key reasons for discussing mental health using the Twitter platform. Results Four overarching themes were derived from the 132 tweets collected: (1) sense of community; (2) raising awareness and combatting stigma; (3) safe space for expression; and (4) coping and empowerment. In addition, 11 associated subthemes were also identified. Conclusions The themes derived from the content of the tweets highlight the perceived therapeutic benefits of Twitter through the provision of support and information and the potential for self-management strategies. The ability to use Twitter to combat stigma and raise awareness of mental health problems indicates the societal benefits that can be facilitated via the platform. The number of tweets and themes identified demonstrates the feasibility of implementing study-specific hashtags to explore research questions in the field of mental health and can be used as a basis for

  20. #WhyWeTweetMH: Understanding Why People Use Twitter to Discuss Mental Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Berry, Natalie; Lobban, Fiona; Belousov, Maksim; Emsley, Richard; Nenadic, Goran; Bucci, Sandra

    2017-04-05

    Use of the social media website Twitter is highly prevalent and has led to a plethora of Web-based social and health-related data available for use by researchers. As such, researchers are increasingly using data from social media to retrieve and analyze mental health-related content. However, there is limited evidence regarding why people use this emerging platform to discuss mental health problems in the first place. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why individuals discuss mental health on the social media website Twitter. The study was the first of its kind to implement a study-specific hashtag for research; therefore, we also examined how feasible it was to circulate and analyze a study-specific hashtag for mental health research. Text mining methods using the Twitter Streaming Application Programming Interface (API) and Twitter Search API were used to collect and organize tweets from the hashtag #WhyWeTweetMH, circulated between September 2015 and November 2015. Tweets were analyzed thematically to understand the key reasons for discussing mental health using the Twitter platform. Four overarching themes were derived from the 132 tweets collected: (1) sense of community; (2) raising awareness and combatting stigma; (3) safe space for expression; and (4) coping and empowerment. In addition, 11 associated subthemes were also identified. The themes derived from the content of the tweets highlight the perceived therapeutic benefits of Twitter through the provision of support and information and the potential for self-management strategies. The ability to use Twitter to combat stigma and raise awareness of mental health problems indicates the societal benefits that can be facilitated via the platform. The number of tweets and themes identified demonstrates the feasibility of implementing study-specific hashtags to explore research questions in the field of mental health and can be used as a basis for other health-related research.

  1. "Surplus Suffering": Differences between Organizational Understandings of Asperger's Syndrome and Those People Who Claim the "Disorder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Juanne; van Amerom, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a content, frame and discourse analysis of Internet sites concerned with Asperger's syndrome (AS). It investigated blogs written by people who have been diagnosed with AS, as well as organizations devoted to the support of people with AS and their families. The findings document the different and even…

  2. Perceptions: Understanding and Responding to What People Think about Service-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, MI.

    Most people see a tactical barrier to implementing service learning (SL), which is how to create the infrastructure that makes SL possible without placing undue burden on schools, people, and teachers. Teachers must be shown how SL can be seamlessly incorporated into their teaching. The media are not especially concerned with SL, but coverage is…

  3. When holding back helps: suppressing negative emotions during sacrifice feels authentic and is beneficial for highly interdependent people.

    PubMed

    Le Bonnie, M; Impett, Emily A

    2013-09-01

    Is the suppression of negative emotions ever associated with beneficial outcomes in relationships? The study reported here drew on research and theory on emotion regulation, self-construal, and sacrifice to test the hypothesis that individual differences in interdependent self-construal moderate the association between negative-emotion suppression and the personal and interpersonal outcomes of sacrifice. In a 14-day daily-experience study of people in romantic relationships, people with higher levels of interdependence experienced boosts in personal well-being and relationship quality if they suppressed their negative emotions during sacrifice, whereas those who construed the self in less interdependent terms experienced lower well-being and relationship quality if they suppressed their negative emotions during sacrifice. Feelings of authenticity for the sacrifice mediated these associations. These findings identify a critical condition under which the suppression of negative emotions may be personally and interpersonally beneficial.

  4. Help seeking in older Asian people with dementia in Melbourne: using the Cultural Exchange Model to explore barriers and enablers.

    PubMed

    Haralambous, Betty; Dow, Briony; Tinney, Jean; Lin, Xiaoping; Blackberry, Irene; Rayner, Victoria; Lee, Sook-Meng; Vrantsidis, Freda; Lautenschlager, Nicola; Logiudice, Dina

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing in Australia. Limited research is available on access to Cognitive Dementia and Memory Services (CDAMS) for people with dementia from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) communities. This study aimed to determine the barriers and enablers to accessing CDAMS for people with dementia and their families of Chinese and Vietnamese backgrounds. Consultations with community members, community workers and health professionals were conducted using the "Cultural Exchange Model" framework. For carers, barriers to accessing services included the complexity of the health system, lack of time, travel required to get to services, language barriers, interpreters and lack of knowledge of services. Similarly, community workers and health professionals identified language, interpreters, and community perceptions as key barriers to service access. Strategies to increase knowledge included providing information via radio, printed material and education in community group settings. The "Cultural Exchange Model" enabled engagement with and modification of the approaches to meet the needs of the targeted CALD communities.

  5. Safety and Danger in Downtown Vancouver: Understandings of Place among Young People Entrenched in an Urban Drug Scene

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We undertook this qualitative study to examine young people's understandings of the physical and social landscape of the downtown drug scene in Vancouver, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 young people ranging from 16 to 26 years of age. Using the concept of symbolic violence, we describe how one downtown neighborhood in particular powerfully symbolizes ‘risk’ among local youth, and how the idea of this neighborhood (and what happens when young people go there) informs experiences of marginalization in society's hierarchies. We also discuss the complex role played by social networks in transcending the geographical and conceptual boundaries between distinct downtown drug-using neighborhoods. Finally, we emphasize that young people's spatial tactics within this downtown landscape – the everyday movements they employ in order to maximize their safety – must be understood in the context of everyday violence and profound social suffering. PMID:19733496

  6. Do Scientists Help People? Beliefs about Scientists and the Influence of Prosocial Context on Girls' Attitudes Toward Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanowitz, Karen L.

    Despite many efforts, science is still a male-dominated field. Girls who do persist in science often express a desire to use their knowledge in socially relevant ways. The current study examined elementary school girls' beliefs about the work of scientists and how presenting information about a prosocial aspect of physics would influence their attitudes toward that information. Participants were asked an open-ended question to assess their knowledge of what scientists do and were presented with scenarios describing physicists in either a discovery context or as helping society. The results revealed that relatively few participants generated prosocial responses to the open-ended question, and the helping context story was rated as significantly more likable than the discovery context. Suggestions are given for educators to include prosocial aspects of science in their teaching.

  7. Results from a Pilot Study of a Curriculum Unit Designed to Help Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions in Living Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Students often have trouble understanding key biology ideas because they lack an understanding of foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS Project 2061 is collaborating with BSCS in the development a curriculum unit that connects core chemistry and biochemistry ideas in order to help eighth grade students build the conceptual foundation needed for high…

  8. Co-production in practice: how people with assisted living needs can help design and evolve technologies and services.

    PubMed

    Wherton, Joseph; Sugarhood, Paul; Procter, Rob; Hinder, Sue; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-05-26

    The low uptake of telecare and telehealth services by older people may be explained by the limited involvement of users in the design. If the ambition of 'care closer to home' is to be realised, then industry, health and social care providers must evolve ways to work with older people to co-produce useful and useable solutions. We conducted 10 co-design workshops with users of telehealth and telecare, their carers, service providers and technology suppliers. Using vignettes developed from in-depth ethnographic case studies, we explored participants' perspectives on the design features of technologies and services to enable and facilitate the co-production of new care solutions. Workshop discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Analysis revealed four main themes. First, there is a need to raise awareness and provide information to potential users of assisted living technologies (ALTs). Second, technologies must be highly customisable and adaptable to accommodate the multiple and changing needs of different users. Third, the service must align closely with the individual's wider social support network. Finally, the service must support a high degree of information sharing and coordination. The case vignettes within inclusive and democratic co-design workshops provided a powerful means for ALT users and their carers to contribute, along with other stakeholders, to technology and service design. The workshops identified a need to focus attention on supporting the social processes that facilitate the collective efforts of formal and informal care networks in ALT delivery and use.

  9. Understanding care of people with dementia in Spain: cohabitation arrangements, rotation and rejection to long term care institution.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jesús; Bermejo, Felix; Franco, Manuel; Morales-González, José Manuel; Benito-León, Julian

    2009-02-01

    Most people with dementia in Spain live at home with their families. Current changes in the family structure are transforming the care of people with dementia through new cohabitation arrangenments and rotation practices. To describe the cohabitation arrangements of families of people with dementia in Spain and to understand the caregivers' characteristics related to rotation and the rejection of long term care institutions. A cross sectional study -NEDICES study- was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies.150 caregivers of people with dementia from two communities from Madrid, Spain, were surveyed using a questionnaire designed to describe cohabitation arrangements and care. Qualitative methods included: 13 caregivers participating in focus groups, and 3 caregivers in Semi Structured Interviews aimed to understand rotation practices and rejection to long term care institution. Characteristics related with rotation were: sex of persons with dementia, widowhood, socio-economic status, caregiver relationship and burden of the caregiver. The qualitative study showed that the use of the rotation was related to normative behaviors and with obligation feelings, along with a change in the role of women in the current Spanish family. The use of long term care institutions was related to geographical distance of the family. The results of this study suggest that rotation has appeared in Spain as a new mechanism of care for people with dementia, and its related to the rejection of long term care institutions. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Exploring Mercury PhD student Mark Bentley explains how and why he got involved Mark Bentley is studying for a PhD in planetary science. He is helping to design and build instruments for a forthcoming ESA mission to explore the surface of Mercury. Mark Bentley Space has excited and inspired me for as long as I can remember; my earliest memory of this is being allowed to stay up 'really late' to watch the Space Shuttle Columbia land in 1981, at the age of five. Science in general has always interested me. Although I probably didn't recognize it as such at the time, my fascination with collecting all sorts of equipment (or as my parents called it, 'junk') and finding out what made them tick was an early demonstration of this. At school it seemed natural to take science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Maths A-levels) and then to consider University though physics was not my first thought. I was all set for the respectable career of computer science, not realizing that my space interests could lead anywhere, until I flicked through the first prospectus I received. By luck it was from Leicester University, and while computer science was offered it also had something called 'Physics with Space Science and Technology'. The rest, as they say, is history... After graduating I spent the following two years working for a UK company developing satellite simulators. But then I started thinking about doing a PhD attracted by the flexibility of directing my own research. I knew that I wanted something that involved space science and the element of discovery, but also something that looked at the engineering and technology of a space mission. The timing was fortuitous shortly after I committed myself to a PhD, the European Space Agency announced the selection of BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, as one of its 'Cornerstone' (large scale) missions. Here was a mission big on science (no spacecraft has ever orbited Mercury, let alone landed on it) and technology as well! So that

  11. Understanding low levels of physical activity in people with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review to identify barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Bossink, L W M; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-09-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) undertake extremely low levels of physical activity. To enhance understanding concerning low levels of physical activity in people with ID, this study has three aims: (1) to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in people with ID; (2) to examine differences in barriers and facilitators between levels of ID (mild, moderate, severe, and profound); (3) to examine differences in barriers and facilitators between various stakeholder groups. A systematic search was performed using the following databases from the year 1990: MEDLINE, ERIC, and PsycINFO. The studies included were peer reviewed, available as full text, and written in English, addressing barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in people with ID. The quality of the studies was assessed using existing critical review forms. All studies were subjected to qualitative synthesis to identify and compare barriers and facilitators. In all, 24 studies were retrieved, describing 14 personal and 23 environmental barriers and/or facilitators. The quality of the studies varied, particularly for qualitative studies. Only two studies included people with severe or profound ID. Stakeholder groups tend to identify barriers outside their own responsibility. Results reveal a broad range of barriers and facilitators, but not for people with more severe ID. Further research should also examine these factors among stakeholders responsible for providing support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Situation selection is a particularly effective emotion regulation strategy for people who need help regulating their emotions.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Lindquist, Kristen A; Jones, Katelyn; Avishai, Aya; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-03-01

    Situation selection involves choosing situations based on their likely emotional impact and may be less cognitively taxing or challenging to implement compared to other strategies for regulating emotion, which require people to regulate their emotions "in the moment"; we thus predicted that individuals who chronically experience intense emotions or who are not particularly competent at employing other emotion regulation strategies would be especially likely to benefit from situation selection. Consistent with this idea, we found that the use of situation selection interacted with individual differences in emotional reactivity and competence at emotion regulation to predict emotional outcomes in both a correlational (Study 1; N = 301) and an experimental field study (Study 2; N = 125). Taken together, the findings suggest that situation selection is an effective strategy for regulating emotions, especially for individuals who otherwise struggle to do so.

  13. Young Children's Understanding of Other People's Beliefs and Feelings and Their Connected Communication with Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slomkowski, Cheryl; Dunn, Judy

    1996-01-01

    Investigated links between experimentally assessed social understanding and naturalistically observed verbal communication between friends among 38 young children. Found that performance on social understanding tasks was significantly associated with connected communication between friends. (MDM)

  14. Trajectories of Suicidal Ideation in People Seeking Web-Based Help for Suicidality: Secondary Analysis of a Dutch Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Spijker, Bregje; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Nordentoft, Merete; Kerkhof, Ad JFM

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation (SI) is a common mental health problem. Variability in intensity of SI over time has been linked to suicidal behavior, yet little is known about the temporal course of SI. Objective The primary aim was to identify prototypical trajectories of SI in the general population and, secondarily, to examine whether receiving Web-based self-help for SI, psychiatric symptoms, or sociodemographics predicted membership in the identified SI trajectories. Methods We enrolled 236 people, from the general Dutch population seeking Web-based help for SI, in a randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based self-help for SI group with a control group. We assessed participants at inclusion and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was applied at all assessments and was included in latent growth mixture modeling analysis to empirically identify trajectories. Results We identified 4 SI trajectories. The high stable trajectory represented 51.7% (122/236) of participants and was characterized by constant high level of SI. The high decreasing trajectory (50/236, 21.2%) consisted of people with a high baseline SI score followed by a gradual decrease to a very low score. The third trajectory, high increasing (12/236, 5.1%), also had high initial SI score, followed by an increase to the highest level of SI at 6 weeks. The fourth trajectory, low stable (52/236, 22.0%) had a constant low level of SI. Previous attempted suicide and having received Web-based self-help for SI predicted membership in the high decreasing trajectory. Conclusions Many adults experience high persisting levels of SI, though results encouragingly indicate that receiving Web-based self-help for SI increased membership in a decreasing trajectory of SI. PMID:27363482

  15. Serve the people: understanding ideology and professional ethics of medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingqing

    2010-09-01

    The article explores the communist ideology that has guided the formation of professional ethics of medicine in China. It first explores the constitutions of the People's Republic of China and the Chinese Communist Party and codes of practice for medicine enforced since 1949, showing that the core of the ideology in relation to health provision and doctor-patient relationship has always been 'serving the people wholeheartedly'. The ideological undertaking, however, has never been successfully exercised. In the pre-reform era, the bureaucratisation of health professionals led to the emergence of 'bureaucratic medicine' featuring negligence of patients' interests. In the reform era, the prevailing commercialisation of health care is in fundamental conflict with the ideological commitment to serving the people. As a result, the socialist professional ethics of medicine has not been satisfactorily practiced in reality.

  16. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  17. Asperger through the looking glass: an exploratory study of self-understanding in people with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Paul; Skirrow, Paul; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2012-05-01

    Hobson (Autism and the development of mind. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hove, UK 1993) has proposed that the cognitive and linguistic disabilities that characterise autism result from abnormalities in inter-subjective engagement during infancy, which in turn results in impaired reflective self-awareness. The aim of the present study was to test Hobson's hypothesis by examining self-understanding in Asperger's syndrome (AS) using Damon and Hart's (Self-understanding in childhood and adolescence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988) model of self-concept. Ten participants with Asperger's syndrome were compared with ten non AS controls using the Self-understanding Interview (Damon and Hart in Self-understanding in Childhood and Adolescence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988). The study found that the Asperger's group demonstrated impairment in the "self-as-object" and "self-as-subject" domains of the Self-understanding Interview, which supported Hobson's concept of an impaired capacity for self-awareness and self-reflection in people with ASD. The results are discussed with reference to previous research regarding the development of self-understanding in people with ASD.

  18. Understanding Tuberculosis: Perspectives and Experiences of the People of Sabah, East Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is a country with the intermediate burden of tuberculosis (TB). TB is still a public-health problem in Sabah, one of the two states in East Malaysia. In 2007, the state of Sabah contributed slightly more than 3,000 of 16,129 new and relapse cases reported in the country. It has a notification rate of two and a half times that of the country's. Very few studies on TB have been conducted in Sabah, and there is little documentation on the perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB on the people of Sabah. A qualitative study was conducted in 2006 in seven districts in Sabah to assess the knowledge and perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, also to know the experiences of healthcare services, and to examine the impact of TB on patients and families. Purposive sampling identified 27 TB patients and 20 relatives and community members who were interviewed using a set of questions on knowledge, perceptions about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB. A further 11 health staff attended informal discussions and feedback sessions. Most interviews were taped and later translated. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Ninety-six percent of the respondents did not know the cause of TB. Some thought that TB occurred due to a ‘tear’ in the body or due to hard work or inflammation while others thought that it occurred due to eating contaminated food or due to sharing utensils or breathing space with TB patients. Although the germ theory was not well-known, 98% of the respondents believed that TB was infectious. Some patients did not perceive the symptoms they had as those of TB. The prevailing practice among the respondents was to seek modern medicine for cure. Other forms of treatment, such as traditional medicine, were sought if modern medicine failed to cure the disease. TB was still a stigmatizing disease, and the expression of this was in both perceived and enacted

  19. Understanding tuberculosis: perspectives and experiences of the people of Sabah, East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rundi, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Malaysia is a country with the intermediate burden of tuberculosis (TB). TB is still a public-health problem in Sabah, one of the two states in East Malaysia. In 2007, the state of Sabah contributed slightly more than 3,000 of 16,129 new and relapse cases reported in the country. It has a notification rate of two and a half times that of the country's. Very few studies on TB have been conducted in Sabah, and there is little documentation on the perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB on the people of Sabah. A qualitative study was conducted in 2006 in seven districts in Sabah to assess the knowledge and perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, also to know the experiences of healthcare services, and to examine the impact of TB on patients and families. Purposive sampling identified 27 TB patients and 20 relatives and community members who were interviewed using a set of questions on knowledge, perceptions about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB. A further 11 health staff attended informal discussions and feedback sessions. Most interviews were taped and later translated. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Ninety-six percent of the respondents did not know the cause of TB. Some thought that TB occurred due to a 'tear' in the body or due to hard work or inflammation while others thought that it occurred due to eating contaminated food or due to sharing utensils or breathing space with TB patients. Although the germ theory was not well-known, 98% of the respondents believed that TB was infectious. Some patients did not perceive the symptoms they had as those of TB. The prevailing practice among the respondents was to seek modem medicine for cure. Other forms of treatment, such as traditional medicine, were sought if modem medicine failed to cure the disease. TB was still a stigmatizing disease, and the expression of this was in both perceived and enacted ways

  20. UnderstAID, an ICT Platform to Help Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; Gregersen, Rikke; Maibom, Kirsten; Mojs, Ewa; Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technology (ICT) could support ambient assisted living (AAL) based interventions to provide support to informal caregivers of people with dementia, especially when they need to cope with their feelings of overburden or isolation. An e-learning platform (understAID application) was tested by informal caregivers from Denmark, Poland, and Spain to explore the technical and the pedagogical specifications, as well as evaluating the impact of its use on the psychological status of the participants. 61 informal caregivers completed the study taking part in the experimental (n = 30) or control (n = 31) groups. 33.3% of the caregivers were satisfied with the application and around 50% of the participants assessed it as technically and pedagogically acceptable. After using understAID the caregivers in the experimental group significantly decreased their depressive symptomatology according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, but a possible benefit on their feelings of competence and satisfaction with the caring experience was also observed. The low scores obtained for satisfaction were highlighting issues that need to be modified to meet the informal caregivers' needs in national, social, and cultural context. Some possible biases are also considered and discussed to be taken into account in future improvements of understAID application.

  1. UnderstAID, an ICT Platform to Help Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; Gregersen, Rikke; Maibom, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technology (ICT) could support ambient assisted living (AAL) based interventions to provide support to informal caregivers of people with dementia, especially when they need to cope with their feelings of overburden or isolation. An e-learning platform (understAID application) was tested by informal caregivers from Denmark, Poland, and Spain to explore the technical and the pedagogical specifications, as well as evaluating the impact of its use on the psychological status of the participants. 61 informal caregivers completed the study taking part in the experimental (n = 30) or control (n = 31) groups. 33.3% of the caregivers were satisfied with the application and around 50% of the participants assessed it as technically and pedagogically acceptable. After using understAID the caregivers in the experimental group significantly decreased their depressive symptomatology according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, but a possible benefit on their feelings of competence and satisfaction with the caring experience was also observed. The low scores obtained for satisfaction were highlighting issues that need to be modified to meet the informal caregivers' needs in national, social, and cultural context. Some possible biases are also considered and discussed to be taken into account in future improvements of understAID application. PMID:28116300

  2. Helping Aged Victims of Crime (the HAVoC Study): Common Crime, Older People and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Serfaty, Marc; Ridgewell, Anna; Drennan, Vari; Kessel, Anthony; Brewin, Chris R; Leavey, Gerard; Wright, Anwen; Laycock, Gloria; Blanchard, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Limited data suggest that crime may have a devastating impact on older people. Although identification and treatment may be beneficial, no well-designed studies have investigated the prevalence of mental disorder and the potential benefits of individual manualized CBT in older victims of crime. To identify mental health problems in older victims of common crime, provide preliminary data on its prevalence, and conduct a feasibility randomized controlled trial (RCT) using mixed methods. Older victims, identified through police teams, were screened for symptoms of anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) one (n = 581) and 3 months (n = 486) after experiencing a crime. Screen positive participants were offered diagnostic interviews. Of these, 26 participants with DSM-IV diagnoses agreed to be randomized to Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus our manualized CBT informed Victim Improvement Package (VIP). The latter provided feedback on the VIP. Recruitment, assessment and intervention are feasible and acceptable. At 3 months 120/486 screened as cases, 33 had DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder; 26 agreed to be randomized to a pilot trial. There were trends in favour of the VIP in all measures except PTSD at 6 months post crime. This feasibility RCT is the first step towards improving the lives of older victims of common crime. Without intervention, distress at 3 and 6 months after a crime remains high. However, the well-received VIP appeared promising for depressive and anxiety symptoms, but possibly not posttraumatic stress disorder.

  3. Concepts of Access for People with Learning Difficulties: Towards a Shared Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Seale, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article explores both the process and outcomes of a seminar series on the concept of access for people with learning difficulties. The seminar topics chosen to foster dialogue across professional and disciplinary boundaries included access to information, education, employment, the law, health, leisure, community, past histories and future…

  4. Understanding the Online Information-Seeking Behaviours of Young People: The Role of Networks of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, R.; Malmberg, L.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Information seeking is one of the most popular online activities for young people and can provide an additional information channel, which may enhance learning. In this study, we propose and test a model that adds to the existing literature by examining the ways in which parents, schools, and friends (what we call networks of support) effect young…

  5. Understanding the Online Information-Seeking Behaviours of Young People: The Role of Networks of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, R.; Malmberg, L.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Information seeking is one of the most popular online activities for young people and can provide an additional information channel, which may enhance learning. In this study, we propose and test a model that adds to the existing literature by examining the ways in which parents, schools, and friends (what we call networks of support) effect young…

  6. Building Bridges of Understanding with the French-Speaking People in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information that will enable an American to communicate effectively with French-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and French culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on France,…

  7. Ambiguities around Sexuality: An Approach to Understanding Harassment and Bullying of Young People in British Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Joy

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a small study undertaken in 2001, which examined the experiences of and responses to sexual harassment and bullying adopted by different professionals (teachers, education social workers, youth workers and a school nurse) and by young people (12 to 25-year-olds). It draws together some of the literature relating to young…

  8. Understanding the decision-making environment for people in minimally conscious state.

    PubMed

    Yelden, Kudret; Sargent, Sarah; Samanta, Jo

    2017-04-11

    Patients in minimally conscious state (MCS) show minimal, fluctuating but definitive signs of awareness of themselves and their environments. They may exhibit behaviours ranging from the ability to track objects or people with their eyes, to the making of simple choices which requires the ability to recognise objects and follow simple commands. While patients with MCS have higher chances of further recovery than people in vegetative states, this is not guaranteed and their prognosis is fundamentally uncertain. Therefore, patients with MCS need regular input from healthcare professionals to monitor their progress (or non-progress) and to address their needs for rehabilitation, for the provision of an appropriate environment and equipment. These requirements form a backdrop to the potentially huge variety of ethical-legal dilemmas that may be faced by their families, caregivers and ultimately, the courts. This paper analyses the decision-making environment for people with MCS using data obtained through four focus groups which included the input of 29 senior decision makers in the area. The results of the focus group study are presented and further explored with attention on recurrent and strong themes such as lack of expertise, resource issues, and the influence of families and friends of people with MCS.

  9. Young people and health: towards a new conceptual framework for understanding empowerment.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Grace

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, empowerment has become the focus of much work with young people amidst increasing concerns about their health. Empowerment is often offered as a 'solution' to such concerns, with the uncritical assumption being made that empowerment unproblematically results in positive health outcomes. While much of the health promotion literature advocates 'empowerment', it often does so without offering a clear conceptualisation of the word itself or indeed addressing the thorny theoretical tensions surrounding the concept's root word of power. In light of this omission, this article offers a more theoretically informed conceptualisation of empowerment and considers the relationship to young people's health. This article outlines a more dynamic and generative conceptualisation of empowerment than hitherto articulated in the literature, informed by Lukes' multidimensional perspective of power. Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study on empowerment and young people's health, this article develops six conceptually distinct forms of empowerment (impositional, dispositional, concessional, oppositional, normative and transformative). Data were collected from 55 young men and women aged 15-16 years through group discussions, individual interviews and observational work in a school and surrounding community settings in England. Crucially, these six new forms of empowerment capture and synthesise individual, structural and ideological elements of power that differentially, and sometimes inconsistently, shape the possibilities for young people's empowerment. Of significance is the way in which these different forms of empowerment intersect to (re)produce relations of power and may offer different possibilities for health promotion.

  10. Understanding How Young People Do Activism: Youth Strategies on Sexual Health in Ecuador and Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Anna-Britt; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    While social movement research employs "tactical repertoire" to emphasize protest tactics directed at the state, literature on youth activism globally indicates that young people do politics outside the realm of formal political spheres. Youth activism on body politics in Latin America offers evidence that enhances conceptual tools…

  11. Substance Use in People with Mental Retardation: A Missing Link in Understanding Community Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Karen M.; Harper, Dennis C.

    2002-01-01

    Current literature suggests that people with mental retardation may experience difficulties living in the community which parallel negative consequences associated with substance misuse/abuse in the general population. Data indicate further exploration might be worthwhile. This article critically reviews the available research, identifies areas…

  12. Investigating Change in Young People's Understandings of Japan: A Study of Learning about a Distant Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Liz

    2011-01-01

    This article demonstrates how a set of complementary qualitative methods can be used to construct a detailed picture not only of the nature of young people's representations of a distant place but the processes of learning by which such representations develop over the medium term. The analysis is based on an interpretive case study of a class of…

  13. Understanding Suicidal Behaviour in Young People Referred to Specialist CAMHS: A Qualitative Psychoanalytic Clinical Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…

  14. Understanding Suicidal Behaviour in Young People Referred to Specialist CAMHS: A Qualitative Psychoanalytic Clinical Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…

  15. Understanding How Young People Do Activism: Youth Strategies on Sexual Health in Ecuador and Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Anna-Britt; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    While social movement research employs "tactical repertoire" to emphasize protest tactics directed at the state, literature on youth activism globally indicates that young people do politics outside the realm of formal political spheres. Youth activism on body politics in Latin America offers evidence that enhances conceptual tools…

  16. The call, the save, and the threat: understanding expert help-seeking behavior during nonroutine operative scenarios.

    PubMed

    Novick, Richard J; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra M

    2015-01-01

    Asking for help in the operating room occurs within a surgical culture that has traditionally valued independence, decisiveness, and confidence. A tension exists between these deeply ingrained character traits and the new culture of team-based practice that emphasizes maximizing patient safety. The objective of this study is to explore surgeon-to-surgeon help-seeking behaviors during complex and unanticipated operative scenarios. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 14 consultant surgeons from multiple specialties. We used constructivist grounded theory to explore help-seeking experiences. Analysis occurred alongside and informed data collection. Themes were identified iteratively using constant comparisons. The setting included 3 separate hospital sites in a Canadian academic health sciences center. A total of 14 consultant surgeons from 3 separate departments and 7 divisions were included. We developed the "Call-Save-Threat" framework to conceptualize the help-seeking phenomenon. Respondents highlighted both explicit and tacit reasons for calling for help; the former included technical assistance and help with decision making, and the latter included the need for moral support, "saving face," and "political cover." "The Save" included the provision of enhanced technical expertise, a broader intraoperative perspective, emotional support, and a learning experience. "The Threat" included potential downsides to calling, which may result in near-term or delayed negative consequences. These included giving up autonomy as primary surgeon, threats to a surgeon's image as a competent practitioner, and a failure to progress with respect to independent judgment and surgical abilities. Our "Call-Save-Threat" framework suggests that surgeons recurrently negotiate when and how to seek help in the interests of patient safety, while attending to the traditional cultural values of autonomy and decisive action. This has important implications for

  17. The Call, the Save, and the Threat: Understanding Expert Help-Seeking Behavior During Nonroutine Operative Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Richard J.; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Asking for help in the operating room occurs within a surgical culture that has traditionally valued independence, decisiveness, and confidence. A tension exists between these deeply ingrained character traits and the new culture of team-based practice that emphasizes maximizing patient safety. The objective of this study is to explore surgeon-to-surgeon help-seeking behaviors during complex and unanticipated operative scenarios. STUDY DESIGN Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 14 consultant surgeons from multiple specialties. We used constructivist grounded theory to explore help-seeking experiences. Analysis occurred alongside and informed data collection. Themes were identified iteratively using constant comparisons. SETTING The setting included 3 separate hospital sites in a Canadian academic health sciences center. PARTICIPANTS A total of 14 consultant surgeons from 3 separate departments and 7 divisions were included. RESULTS We developed the “Call-Save-Threat” framework to conceptualize the help-seeking phenomenon. Respondents highlighted both explicit and tacit reasons for calling for help; the former included technical assistance and help with decision making, and the latter included the need for moral support, “saving face,” and “political cover.” “The Save” included the provision of enhanced technical expertise, a broader intraoperative perspective, emotional support, and a learning experience. “The Threat” included potential downsides to calling, which may result in near-term or delayed negative consequences. These included giving up autonomy as primary surgeon, threats to a surgeon’s image as a competent practitioner, and a failure to progress with respect to independent judgment and surgical abilities. CONCLUSIONS Our “Call-Save-Threat” framework suggests that surgeons recurrently negotiate when and how to seek help in the interests of patient safety, while attending to the

  18. Using ClipCard to help solve the problem of finding people's scientific content in an application-centric world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, T.

    2014-12-01

    Innovations in multibeam technologies, mapping and visualization software, and computer graphics processing are helping geophysicists and oceanographers create more accurate high-resolution bathymetric products. Collaborative software and cloud-based storage has made accessing and sharing this information from anywhere and any device easier. Even with all these tools and enhancements, researchers still spend too much time searching for scientific content, data, equipment specs, notes from collaborators. Less time is spent doing actual research because data and information are spread through various applications and repositories. This presentation describes how the ClipCard app can be used to reduce time spent finding information from disparate sources by connecting to various data sources and programs and returning an easy to consume lightweight abstract of your information delivered in a consumer application visual experience. We will describe how ClipCard teamed up with NOAA's Office for Ocean Exploration to test the feasibility of deploying ClipCard as a way to present their expedition data including multibeam, side-scan, dive tracks, video footage and in-situ observations to users.

  19. Measuring Young People's Understanding of Civics and Citizenship in a Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Fraillon, Julian; Ainley, John

    2013-01-01

    The development of knowledge and understanding is widely reported as a key aim of civic and citizenship education and as an important aspect of being equipped for active citizenship. Measuring knowledge and understanding of this domain has grown as a focus of educational research both as an outcome in its own right and to underpin the systematic…

  20. How does a decision aid help people decide whether to disclose a mental health problem to employers? Qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Lassman, F; Henderson, R Claire; Dockery, L; Clement, S; Murray, J; Bonnington, O; Farrelly, S; Thornicroft, G

    2015-06-01

    Background Decisions about whether to disclose mental health problems to employers are complex, with potential personal, employment and legal implications. Decision aids are evidence based tools, designed to help individuals make specific choices between treatment options. We previously developed a decision aid-Conceal Or ReveAL (CORAL)-to assist service users with decisions about disclosure to employers. As part of a mixed methods exploratory RCT, which demonstrated that the CORAL decision aid was effective in reducing decisional conflict, we aimed to explore its mechanism of action and to optimise the intervention for a future full scale trial. Methods In depth interviews were conducted with individuals receiving vocational support from a mental health trust and participating in the intervention arm of the pilot trial. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the main themes relating to participants' perceptions of the CORAL decision aid. Results Thirteen participants were interviewed and five main themes were identified: sense of self and values; sense of control; anticipation of disclosure; experience of disclosure; and mechanism of action of the decision aid. Conclusions Data from our 13 participants suggest that the CORAL decision aid acts on several dimensions of decisional conflict: clarifying the pros and cons of different choices; increasing knowledge; structuring the decision making process; and clarifying needs and values. The current study indicated that it would be most effective when delivered by a professional well versed in employment and mental health matters such as a vocational adviser. The need for employers and policymakers to reduce the negative impact of disclosure is also highlighted.

  1. Set a Structure of Objects with a Help of Grouping to Ten Strategy to Understand the Idea of Unitizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiti, Saliza Safta; Zulkardi; Darmawijoyo

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the present study is to know how the pupils can learn to make a group of ten to understand the idea of unitizing. The pupils were given a contextual problem "Counting the Beads" in order to promote their understanding about the idea of unitizing. The process of designing the problem was based on the 5 tenets of…

  2. Many People, Many Ways: Understanding Cultures around the World. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Chris, Comp.; Grinde, Linda, Comp.

    This book helps students and teachers explore the concept of culture and to appreciate the diversity of cultures of the world. The nine cultures in the book represent a variety of races and environments. Each chapter offers ideas for activities for student to explore elements of culture and common human experiences. The chapters are divided into…

  3. Many People, Many Ways: Understanding Cultures around the World. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Chris, Comp.; Grinde, Linda, Comp.

    This book helps students and teachers explore the concept of culture and to appreciate the diversity of cultures of the world. The nine cultures in the book represent a variety of races and environments. Each chapter offers ideas for activities for student to explore elements of culture and common human experiences. The chapters are divided into…

  4. Acceptability of Online Self-Help to People With Depression: Users’ Views of MoodGYM Versus Informational Websites

    PubMed Central

    Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Grime, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the factors that influence acceptability of and adherence to online psychological interventions. Evidence is needed to guide further development of promising programs. Objective Our goal was to investigate users’ views of two online approaches to self-help for depression: computerized cognitive behavior therapy (cCBT) and informational websites, in a workplace context. Computerized CBT offers an inexpensive and accessible alternative to face-to-face therapy, and employers have an interest in reducing the working time lost to depression or stress. Yet little is known about how employees, who have actual experience of using online approaches, judge the intervention as a process. Methods The qualitative data reported here were collected within an online randomized controlled trial whose participants had diagnosable depression. The experimental intervention was a 5-week cCBT program called MoodGYM, and the control condition was five informational websites about mental health. Data were collected via online questionnaires. There was no evidence of the superiority of either in terms of treatment outcomes. In parallel, using brief rating scales and open-ended questions designed for this purpose, we examined the relative acceptability of each approach over time, including perceptions of cCBT compared to seeing a health care professional. Results At least 60% of participants held online therapy to be at least as acceptable as seeing a professional about mental health issues, and they were more likely to retain this opinion over time if they used the interactive program, MoodGYM, rather than informational websites alone. Barriers to cCBT use fell into four categories: intrinsic, intrapersonal problems; extrinsic technical problems; generic issues mostly pertaining to perceptions of cCBT; and specific issues about the intervention or control condition. These indicate strategies for improving engagement. Conclusions As first-aid for mild to

  5. Understanding Pain and Depression in Back Pain: the Role of Catastrophizing, Help-/Hopelessness, and Thought Suppression as Potential Mediators.

    PubMed

    Hülsebusch, Janina; Hasenbring, Monika I; Rusu, Adina C

    2016-06-01

    The cognitive mediation hypothesis describes the influence of psychological factors on the relationship between pain and depression such as cognitions of catastrophizing and help-/hopelessness. More recent research also emphasizes the role of suppression of negative thoughts and experiences such as pain. However, there is little research investigating direct and indirect effects of these contrasting cognitions. A total of 164 acute and sub-acute non-specific back pain patients participated in this study. Pain intensity, depression, and pain-related cognitions were measured using questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory and the Kiel Pain Inventory. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results of the path analysis support the hypothesis that cognitive coping strategies have a mediating effect on pain and depression. Consistent with previous research, we found that pain had no direct relation with depression. Help-/hopelessness had a direct path to depression, whereas catastrophizing had an indirect effect via increased help-/hopelessness. The current results also indicate that thought suppression mediated the relationship between pain and depression via both direct and indirect effects. Cognitive mediators, such as help-/hopelessness, catastrophizing, and thought suppression, have a significant impact on depression in patients with acute and sub-acute back pain. The current results may aid in the optimization of treatments for these patients by focusing attention toward the modification of dysfunctional cognitive pain-coping strategies.

  6. Understanding Support Providers' Views of "Helpful" Responses to Sexual Assault Disclosures: The Impacts of Self-Blame and Physical Resistance.

    PubMed

    Sit, Victoria; Schuller, Regina A

    2015-11-20

    Prior research on the factors associated with various disclosure responses has often been conducted on sexual assault victims and formal support providers, while informal helpers, who are the most common recipients of disclosures, have received far less attention. This experimental study examined potential informal helpers' views of disclosure reactions and their influence on the self-reported likelihoods of engaging in those responses. Undergraduate students at a large Canadian university (N = 239) received vignettes describing a hypothetical sexual assault disclosure that varied on victim's self-blame and physical resistance, and then rated common disclosure reactions. The results revealed that participants' perceptions of various responses were at odds with victims' experiences, with many negative responses, such as victim blame and egocentrism, viewed as equally or more helpful than positive responses, such as emotional support. Moreover, when the victim blamed herself and did not physically resist, positive responses were seen as less helpful whereas negative responses were seen as more helpful, with some notable gender differences. Regression analyses indicated that the perceived helpfulness of each response was the strongest predictor of the likelihood of providing that response. Practical implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. An in-depth understanding of the impact of the environment on participation among people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Hang; Liu, Cheng-Han; Hung, Hsin-Ping

    2017-05-22

    To identify environmental factors associated with participation and gain an in-depth understanding of relationships between environmental factors and participation among people with spinal cord injury. Six focus groups (n= 30) with individuals with spinal cord injury were conducted. Two independent coders thematically analyzed the transcribed data. Twenty environmental factors were identified, all of which were classified into eight categories: built environment; natural environment; assistive technology; transportation; information and technology access; economics; social support and social attitudes; and systems, services and policies. While all factors had direct impacts on individuals' participation outcomes, factors within the categories of societal attitudes, policies and economics also affected participation through affecting other environmental factors. Some factors together also showed cumulative or countering effects on participation. Accordingly, a conceptual model of the relationships between environmental factors and participation was constructed. This study highlighted key environmental factors and their impacts on participation of people with spinal cord injury. The findings support previous research findings but also suggest that different factors may have different levels of impact on participation. Based on our findings, rehabilitation practitioners and policymakers can prioritize intervention plans to optimize the environment for people with spinal cord injury and improve their societal participation. Implications for rehabilitation Environmental factors are critical contributors to participation among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and need to be addressed in rehabilitation programs. Factors with broader impacts on participation, such as societal attitudes and policies, should be treated as priorities in intervention plans aimed at improving participation among people with SCI. Rehabilitation practitioners should not only consider how the

  8. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    classroom competence (in the early 1970s most such courses still had written examinations). I thought it was fantastic. We spent three days a week from October to May in one school. I had one regular third-year class every week and the rest of my teaching timetable varied from term to term. It was like being a 0.3/0.4 member of staff and for that one third-year class I had to do parents' evenings, reports etc. The teachers were paid to act as tutors for the preparation of schemes of work, lessons and tutorial work and they assessed my teaching. Teachers, tutors and trainees attended seminars together. My first teaching job was at Holland Park School in London, at a time when it was famous, perhaps even infamous! It was a real baptism of fire - over 2000 pupils, tens of different first languages, a real mix of class and ethnicity, and newly introduced mixed ability teaching for the first three years. We worked very hard writing schemes of work and developing worksheets and audiovisual materials but, on reflection, I am not sure that we were that effective in developing the science curriculum. I remember using Nuffield Combined Science with the first two years and that was in danger of becoming death by a thousand worksheets. After three years I went to teach in a small private school in Madrid for a year. I was the physics department and my title of Head of Physics meant I was in charge of myself. This was highly formative as a teacher - I had nobody to ask if I didn't understand some physics. As the school was poorly equipped I learned to make apparatus and be very resourceful. There was no pupils' practical work in school science in Spain at that time and I spent a lot of time in hardware stores and medical suppliers! After Spain all of my teaching career was in 11-18 mixed comprehensives, in Cheshire and then Peterborough, and I rose to the dizzy heights of Head of Science. By the time I left the school in Peterborough in 1986 we had established the curriculum framework

  9. Enhancing health-care workers' understanding and thinking about people living with co-occurring mental health and substance use issues through consumer-led training.

    PubMed

    Roussy, Véronique; Thomacos, Nikos; Rudd, Annette; Crockett, Belinda

    2015-10-01

    Stigma and judgemental assumptions by health workers have been identified as key barriers to accessing health care for people living with co-occurring mental health and substance use issues (dual diagnosis). To evaluate the effectiveness of consumer-led training by people with dual diagnosis in improving the knowledge, understanding and role adequacy of community health staff to work with this consumer group. A controlled before-and-after study design with four waves of quantitative data collection was used. Qualitative data were collected to explore participants' views about training. Participants were staff from two community health services from Victoria, Australia. Recruitment occurred across various work areas: reception, oral health, allied health, counselling and health promotion. At baseline, all participants attended a 4-h clinician-led training session. The intervention consisted of a 3-h consumer-led training session, developed and delivered by seven individuals living with dual diagnosis. Outcome measures included understanding of dual diagnosis, participants' feelings of role adequacy and role legitimacy, personal views, and training outcomes and relevance. Consumer-led training was associated with a significant increase in understanding. The combination of clinician-led and consumer-led training was associated with a positive change in role adequacy. Consumer-led training is a promising approach to enhance primary health-care workers' understanding of the issues faced by dual-diagnosis consumers, with such positive effects persisting over time. Used alongside other organizational capacity building strategies, consumer-led training has the potential to help address stigma and judgemental attitudes by health workers and improve access to services for this consumer group. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. ‘This isn't what mine looked like’: a qualitative study of symptom appraisal and help seeking in people recently diagnosed with melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Fiona M; Birt, Linda; Cavers, Debbie; Scott, Suzanne; Emery, Jon; Burrows, Nigel; Cavanagh, Gina; MacKie, Rona; Weller, David; Campbell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients recently diagnosed with melanomas, and to compare experiences of people with ‘thinner’ (<1 mm) and ‘thicker’ (>2 mm) melanomas, as thickness at diagnosis is an important prognostic feature. Methods In-depth interviews with patients within 10 weeks of melanoma diagnosis explored the factors impacting on their pathways to diagnosis. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients’ beliefs and experiences, disease factors, and healthcare professional (HCP) influences. Results 63 patients were interviewed (29–93 years, 31 women, 30 thicker melanomas). All described their skin changes using rich lay vocabulary. Many included unassuming features such as ‘just a little spot’ as well as common features of changes in size, colour and shape. There appeared to be subtly different patterns of symptoms: descriptions of vertical growth, bleeding, oozing and itch were features of thicker melanomas irrespective of pathological type. Appraisal was influenced by explanations such as normal life changes, prior beliefs and whether skin changes matched known melanoma descriptions. Most decisions to seek help were triggered by common factors such as advice from family and friends. 11 patients reported previous reassurance about their skin changes by a HCP, with little guidance on monitoring change or when it would be appropriate to re-consult. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with both thinner and thicker melanomas often did not initially recognise or interpret their skin changes as warning signs or prompts to seek timely medical attention. The findings provide guidance for melanoma awareness campaigns on more appropriate images, helpful descriptive language and the need to stress the often apparently innocuous nature of potentially serious skin changes. The importance of appropriate advice

  11. In Their Own Words: How Family Carers of People with Dementia Understand Resilience.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Moyle, Wendy; Taylor, Tara; Creese, Jennifer; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie

    2017-08-21

    There is a growing body of research on resilience in family carers of people with dementia, but carers' voices are noticeably absent from it. The aim of this study was to explore carers' definitions of resilience and their opinions on the factors associated with resilience. Twenty-one in-depth interviews were conducted in Australia with people who were currently, or had previously been, caring for a family member with dementia. Transcripts were analysed thematically and three themes emerged: the presence of resilience, the path to resilience, and characteristics of the resilient carer. Although carers struggled to define resilience, the vast majority considered themselves resilient. Carers identified a range of traits, values, environments, resources, and behaviours associated with resilience, but there was no consensus on the relative importance or causal nature of these factors. Carers also considered resilience to be domain- and context-specific, but did not agree on whether resilience was a trait or a process. These findings highlight both the importance of including carers' voices in resilience research and the limitations of the extant literature. There is much to be done to develop a field of carer resilience research that is theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous, and reflects the lived experience of carers. A model is provided to prompt future research.

  12. In Their Own Words: How Family Carers of People with Dementia Understand Resilience

    PubMed Central

    O’Dwyer, Siobhan T.; Taylor, Tara; Creese, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of research on resilience in family carers of people with dementia, but carers’ voices are noticeably absent from it. The aim of this study was to explore carers’ definitions of resilience and their opinions on the factors associated with resilience. Twenty-one in-depth interviews were conducted in Australia with people who were currently, or had previously been, caring for a family member with dementia. Transcripts were analysed thematically and three themes emerged: the presence of resilience, the path to resilience, and characteristics of the resilient carer. Although carers struggled to define resilience, the vast majority considered themselves resilient. Carers identified a range of traits, values, environments, resources, and behaviours associated with resilience, but there was no consensus on the relative importance or causal nature of these factors. Carers also considered resilience to be domain- and context-specific, but did not agree on whether resilience was a trait or a process. These findings highlight both the importance of including carers’ voices in resilience research and the limitations of the extant literature. There is much to be done to develop a field of carer resilience research that is theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous, and reflects the lived experience of carers. A model is provided to prompt future research. PMID:28825686

  13. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  14. Mom and Dad Break Up [and] Helping Children Understand Divorce: A Practical Resource Guide for "Mom and Dad Break Up." Kids Have Feelings Too Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestine, Joan Singleton

    Based on the recognition that nearly all children will experience the direct or indirect effects of divorce through their relatives or friends, and that many children do not openly share their feelings, this book is a guide to help adults assist children from preschool to grade 3 in understanding and dealing with the emotions arising from the…

  15. Use of a Spreadsheet to Help Students Understand the Origin of the Empirical Equation that Allows Estimation of the Extinction Coefficients of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the empirical equation that is used by prominent, Internet-based programs to estimate (or calculate) the extinction coefficients of proteins is presented. In addition, an overview of a series of related assignments designed to help students understand the origin of the empirical equation is provided. The…

  16. Use of a Spreadsheet to Help Students Understand the Origin of the Empirical Equation that Allows Estimation of the Extinction Coefficients of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the empirical equation that is used by prominent, Internet-based programs to estimate (or calculate) the extinction coefficients of proteins is presented. In addition, an overview of a series of related assignments designed to help students understand the origin of the empirical equation is provided. The…

  17. Extracting and understanding the relationship between components of the capacity in elderly people in terms of electrical device comprehension.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kanji; Yamaoka, Toshiki

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to extract components of the capacity which elderly people have in comprehending electrical devices and determine its relationship with the components. Initially, we proposed a hypothesis through examining previous studies. The hypothesis states that the capacity which elderly people have mainly consists of four components, i.e., motivation, working memory, logical thinking and experience with personal computers (PC) or mobile phones. Then, some tests were conducted to examine the hypothesis. In this research, elderly people were interviewed about their impressions and experience with electrical devices. Moreover, three tests were conducted including, card sorting, tasks using digital video cameras and a test to measure working memory. As analysis methods, the Quantification 1 was used to see which component was important. In addition, Boolean algebra was conducted to simplify the components and understand some relationships. As a result, a relationship with the components in electrical devices was revealed. Furthermore, the use of Boolean algebra and the Quantification 1 suggested that the experience with PCs or mobile phones was the most important component for elderly people.

  18. Salmonella enterica in the Chicken: How it has Helped Our Understanding of Immunology in a Non-Biomedical Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Wigley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella infection of the chicken is important both as a source of foodborne human salmonellosis and as a source of disease in the chicken itself. Vaccination and other control strategies require an understanding of the immune response and as such have been important in understanding both mucosal immunity and more generally the response to bacterial infection. In this review, we discuss the contribution the study of avian salmonellosis has made to understanding innate immunity including the function of phagocytic cells, pattern recognition receptors, and defensins. The mucosal response to Salmonella infection and its regulation and the contribution this makes in protection against infection and persistence within the gut and future directions in better understanding the role of TH17 and Tregs in this response. Finally, we discuss the role of the immune system and its modulation in persistent infection and infection of the reproductive tract. We also outline key areas of research required to fully understand the interaction between the chicken immune system and Salmonella and how infection is maintained in the absence of substantive gastrointestinal disease. PMID:25346731

  19. Effect of a cognitive behavioral self-help intervention on depression, anxiety, and coping self-efficacy in people with rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Garnefski, N; Kraaij, V; Benoist, M; Bout, Z; Karels, E; Smit, A

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new cognitive-behavioral self-help program with minimal coaching could improve psychological well-being (depression, anxiety, and coping self-efficacy) in people with rheumatic disease and depressive symptoms. In total, 82 persons with a rheumatic disease enrolled in a randomized controlled trial were allocated to either a group receiving the self-help program or a waiting list control condition group. For both groups, measurements were done at baseline, posttest, and followup. The outcome measures were the depression and anxiety scales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and an adaptation of the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. Repeated-measures analyses of covariance were performed to evaluate changes in outcome measures from pretest to posttest and from posttest to followup. The results showed that the self-help program was effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and in strengthening coping self-efficacy. The positive effects remained after a followup period of 2 months. This cost-effective program could very well be used as a first step in a stepped care approach or as one of the treatment possibilities in a matched care approach. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Foundational Issues in Educating Young People for Understanding and Appreciation of the Religions in Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebretson, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This is a conceptual paper considering some of the foundational issues that a teacher needs to have at least considered (if not resolved) when he or she sets out to encourage students to understand and appreciate the variety of religions in their communities. The first issue is that of what to call the enterprise; the second relates to assumed…

  1. Understanding and building wilderness management partnerships with indigenous peoples and communities

    Treesearch

    Gregory F. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    Learning about, understanding, and working with native cultures can be rewarding as well as enlightening. Such endeavors can also be time consuming, difficult, and even frustrating in certain instances. However, if coordinated carefully and managed properly, at the end of the day such efforts can ultimately result in innumerable benefits to native communities, land...

  2. Understanding of sodium content labeled on food packages by Japanese people.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Horie, Saki; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoko; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2014-05-01

    Salt reduction is one of the most important lifestyle modifications for the prevention of hypertension. The health promotion law regulates the labeling of the nutrient content of food in Japan and, the level of sodium, not salt (sodium chloride), has to be printed on the labels of manufactured foods. In order to control their salt intake, consumers need to apply a conversion factor to the sodium levels listed on the labels to obtain the salt equivalent. However, it is not known whether people have the knowledge appropriate for making the conversion. We carried out a questionnaire survey at the 7th National Shokuiku (food education) Conference in 2012, asking subjects to determine the salt equivalent of 1000 mg of sodium on food labels. We also asked about the target values of salt reduction in grams in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010 (DRI2010) and the Guidelines for Management of Hypertension 2009 by the Japanese Society of Hypertension (JSH2009). We analyzed the data from 683 respondents (169 men and 514 women); only 13.3% of respondents gave a correct answer for the salt equivalent of 1000 mg of sodium (2.50-2.60 g), whereas 61.8 and 40.4% of respondents chose the correct target values for salt reduction according to DRI2010 and JSH2009, respectively. In conclusion, few people could convert sodium content to salt, which suggested difficulty in using food labels to control their salt intake. Salt content in grams, not sodium content, should be labeled on food packages for effective salt reduction and prevention of hypertension.

  3. Use of a Laboratory Exercise on Molar Absorptivity to Help Students Understand the Authority of the Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread,…

  4. Use of a Laboratory Exercise on Molar Absorptivity to Help Students Understand the Authority of the Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread,…

  5. Increasing Professional Self-Understanding: Self-Study Research by Teachers with the Help of Biography, Core Reflection and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Bob; van den Berg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in self-study methods being used by teachers and teacher educators to improve their own practice. The focus of these self-studies seems to be more on acting than on understanding, and here we focus on a group of teachers who explore their professional identities. Teachers participating in a Master's degree study were…

  6. Increasing Professional Self-Understanding: Self-Study Research by Teachers with the Help of Biography, Core Reflection and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Bob; van den Berg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in self-study methods being used by teachers and teacher educators to improve their own practice. The focus of these self-studies seems to be more on acting than on understanding, and here we focus on a group of teachers who explore their professional identities. Teachers participating in a Master's degree study were…

  7. Text and Context: Using Multicultural Literature To Help Teacher Education Students Develop Understanding of Self and World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally

    This study compares the responses of black and white preservice teachers as they engaged about a young adult novel which addressed racial and sexual diversity. Student teachers used young adult literature with protagonists from diverse backgrounds as one means of coming to understand and value children of all backgrounds. Small groups met to…

  8. [An analysis of the individual perception and coping strategies of people with dementia in the early stage of their disease in accordance to the function and effectiveness of self-help groups on the basis of self-expression].

    PubMed

    Panke-Kochinke, Birgit

    2013-12-01

    Society paints an inconsistent picture of people with dementia: on the one hand they are people who can basically think and act (even) self-determinate. But on the other hand they need support and help from outside in daily routine. Self-help groups are a possible form of support. There are actually no research results to decide if this form of intervention is appropriate to people with dementia or not. The question must be answered in which way people in the early stage of dementia perceive their illness and what kind of influence the intervention of a support group has on their self-concept. In the first survey period five focus groups and eight narrative biographically oriented interviews are performed. The following results are noted: People with dementia are exposed to processes of incapacitation. It is well intentioned (in order to help them), but in reality they are forced to do something they probably don't like. They must bear unwanted interventions. In contrast, the self-help groups promote recognition processes. Finding internal security and being able to accept the illness are some of the most important functions. Independent living with dementia is supported. Two conclusions can be drawn: Forms of incapacitation from outside must be reduced. Self-help groups in a support role should accordingly supply the existing care services for people with dementia. The support of self-help groups should be the provision/improvement of the existing care services for people with dementia.

  9. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.

  10. How Government Can Help People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Although the immediate, primary mission of the Peace Corps is serving other countries, there are many domestic dividends, including enhanced postservice employment opportunities. An exciting new feature is the Crisis Corps, introduced by Director Mark Gearan, composed of former Peace Corps volunteers "reenlisting" for short periods…

  11. Social Support Helps People Grow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, James T.; Dias, Katica L.

    2002-01-01

    Social support, a key factor in determining physical and mental health, strongly predicted changes in outdoor adventure participants' psychological resilience. The support received from the least supportive person best predicted gains in resilience. Outdoor education programs should provide a learning environment that is both challenging and…

  12. Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers (e.g., cervical cancer and papilloma virus). Malaria China—A traditional medicine made from wormwood, Artemisia ... found to be highly effective for treatment of malaria. More than 1 million Africans, mostly children under ...

  13. Understanding "elder abuse and neglect": a critique of assumptions underpinning responses to the mistreatment and neglect of older people.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Joan; Coughlan, Stephen; Beaulieu, Marie; Karabanow, Jeff; Vanderplaat, Madine; Wildeman, Sheila; Wexler, Ezra

    2012-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which the mistreatment and neglect of older people have come to be understood as a social problem, one which is underpinned by a variety of substantive and theoretical assumptions. It connects the process of conceptualizing elder abuse and neglect to political-economic and social evolution. The authors draw on a review of the literature, government sources, interest group websites, and their own research to provide a critical commentary illustrating how these understandings have become manifest in legislation, policies, and programs pertaining to "elder abuse and neglect" in Canada. Suggestions are provided for changes in direction for policies, programs, and research.

  14. Horizons of Context: Understanding the Police Decision to Arrest People With Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer

    2010-01-01

    The criminalization hypothesis assumes that deinstitutionalization coupled with inadequate police training has led to the increased arrest of people with mental illness. Arrest is viewed as a means to manage the troublesome behavior that often results from mental illness. Supporting research has emphasized the contributing role that illness plays in the arrest decision. This assumption largely ignores an extant criminal justice literature on the factors that influence arrest. On the basis of a review of this criminal justice literature, beginning with Bittner's 1967 seminal work, a framework is proposed that incorporates three contexts—manipulative, temporal, and scenic—surrounding the police encounter and the relationship of these contexts to mental illness. These three “horizons” incorporate the characteristics of the community, the offender, and the incident, all of which are recognized as influential in shaping police discretion. The scenic horizon is indicative of the features of the community. The temporal horizon includes police knowledge that stretches beyond the specific incident and officer characteristics. The manipulative horizon involves the current incident from the standpoint of the officer and includes considerations of safety for the community as well as the immediate concerns of the officer. Implications of this framework are then explored with respect to both police and mental health service mandates. PMID:18048560

  15. Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxkemper, Andra C.; Hartfiel, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    There is no common agreement on the meaning of the word "understand". However, there is agreement on what students should be able to do with material they understand. Bloom et al. discuss kinds of tasks a student should be able to do, provided that the student understands. In a similar way, Biggs and Collis provide a taxonomy intended to evaluate…

  16. Self-rated quality of life of city-dwelling elderly people benefitting from social help: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The percentage of people aged 65 or older living in Poland is 13.6%, but 17.2% in Łódź. The aim of the study was to identify factors correlating with the self-rated quality of life of elderly inhabitants of cities applying for social help, on the basis of a cross-sectional study. Methods The study was conducted in Łódź, a large Polish city, between September 2011 and February 2012 in a group of people applying for help in the Municipal Social Welfare Centre. Four hundred and sixty-six respondents aged 65 or older were included in the study. The tool used in the study was an interview questionnaire. The respondents answered questions on their demographic situation, living conditions, financial, health and social situation. The authors also applied the WHOQOL-BREF Questionnaire, the Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GSOD). For statistical purposes, the authors used single- and multiple-factor regression and the Statistica 9.0 Program. The results were presented as an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI); the adopted significance level was p < 0.05. The authors applied the Pearson’s x2 test in order to evaluate the structure of the studied group and the subpopulation, who were aged 65 or older and using social help, throughout the city. Results Logistic regression confirmed that a high quality of life depends on the following variables: university education (OR = 2.31; p < 0.05), an income which is sufficient to live (OR = 1.63; p < 0.05), no heart palpitations (OR = 2.32; p < 0.05), stable blood pressure (OR = 2.32; p < 0.05), no headaches (OR = 1.55; p < 0.05), no pain in the chest (OR = 1.51; p < 0.01), no shortness of breath (OR = 1.51; p < 0.01), no tiredness (OR = 2.08; p < 0.05), a score on the Geriatric Depression Scale pointing to a lack of suspected depression (OR = 9.88; p < 0.001 if the person does not

  17. The impact of self-stigma and mutual help programs on the quality of life of people with serious mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Sokol, Kristin A; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    Mutual help programs (MHPs) are informal services developed and operated by people with serious mental illnesses for peers with these illnesses. We expect MHPs to have positive effects on quality of life and inverse associations with self-stigma. We hypothesize group identification and social support to be key ingredients that lead to MHPs benefits and hence to also be significant correlates. Eighty-five people with serious mental illness reported current and past MHP experience and completed self-report measures of quality of life, self-stigma, group identification, and social support. Self-stigma was shown to be a significant and large correlate of quality of life. Satisfaction with current and past MHP participation was also associated with quality of life. Group identification and satisfaction with one's support network were significantly and largely associated with MHP satisfaction. MHPs are a specific example of the broader category of consumer operated services which also include drop-in centers and education-for-advocacy programs. Findings about group identification will inform ongoing development of MHPs and consumer operated services, as well as evaluation of these programs.

  18. Mental health help seeking patterns and associations among Australian same sex attracted women, trans and gender diverse people: a survey-based study.

    PubMed

    McNair, Ruth P; Bush, Rachel

    2016-07-04

    Same sex attracted women (SSAW) are disproportionately affected by depression and anxiety, due to experiences of sexuality and gender based discrimination. They access mental health services at higher rates than heterosexual women, however with lower levels of satisfaction. This study examined the range of professional and social help seeking by same-sex attracted women, and patterns according to sexual orientation and gender identity subgroup. Eight key stakeholders were interviewed, and a convenience sample of 1628 Australian SSAW completed an online survey in 2015. This included several scales to measure mental health, community connectedness and resilience; and measured past 12 month help seeking behaviour, enablers, barriers and preferences for mental health care. Chi-square analyses and binary logistic regression analyses examined demographic associations with mental health. Correlations between help seeking, mental and physical health, and connectedness were run. A high proportion (80 %) of the total sample had perceived mental health problems over the past 12 months. Over half had depression, and over 96 % had anxiety. Trans and gender diverse participants were twice as likely as female participants to have mental health problems, and lesbians were least likely. High levels of past 12 month help seeking included 74.4 % seeing a GP, 44.3 % seeing a psychologist/counsellor, 74.7 % seeking family/friends support and 55.2 % using internet based support. Professional help was prioritised by those with higher mental health need. Trans participants were most likely to have sought professional help and participated in support groups, but least likely to have sought help from friends or family. The most common barriers to help seeking were discrimination and lack of LGBTI sensitivity of services, particularly for gender diverse, queer and pansexual participants. Enablers included mainstream community connectedness, having a trustworthy GP, and

  19. Understanding information and education gaps among people with type 1 diabetes: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Rankin, David; Heller, Simon; Lawton, Julia

    2011-04-01

    Many patients with type 1 diabetes struggle to self-manage this chronic disease, often because they have a poor knowledge and understanding of the condition. However, little attention has been paid to examining the reasons for this poor knowledge/understanding. To inform future educational interventions, we explored patients' accounts of the education and information they had received since diagnosis, and the reasons behind gaps in their diabetes knowledge. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 type 1 diabetes patients enrolled on a structured education programme in the UK. Data were analysed using an inductive, thematic approach. Patients' accounts illustrated a number of knowledge deficits which were influenced by various lifecourse events. Reasons for deficits included: diagnosis at a young age and assumption of decision-making responsibility by parents; lack of engagement with information when feeling well; transitions in care; inconsistency in information provision; and, lack of awareness that knowledge was poor or incomplete. Patients' knowledge deficits can arise for different reasons, at different points in the lifecourse, and may change over time. The delivery of individualised education should take account of the origins of patients' knowledge gaps and be provided on a regular and on-going basis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding Space Weather influence on earthquake triggering to shield people living in seismic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Inchin, Alexander; Kim, Alexander; Khassanov, Eldar

    2016-07-01

    There is an idea at present that space weather can influence not only the technological infrastructure and people's health, but seismic activity as well. Space weather impact on the Earth results from magnetic reconnection between the Sun's and Earth's magnetic fields. The effectiveness of reconnection depends on sign and magnitude of Z-components in solar wind magnetic field and earth's magnetic field as measured in the geocentric solar magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system. The more negative value of Zgsm in the solar wind magnetic field, and the more positive value of Zgsm in the geomagnetic field, the more solar wind energy penetrates into the earth's environment due to reconnection. It was found recently by Khachikyan et al. [2012, http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijg] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude in a particular seismic region (seismic potential - Mmax) may be determined, in first approximation, on the base of maximal geomagnetic Zgsm value in this region, namely: Mmax = (5.22 +- 0.17) + (0.78 +- 0.06) x [abs (Zgsm)]. In this report we present statistical results on association between variations in space weather and global seismic activity, and demonstrate that a great Sumatra earthquake (M=9.1, on December 26, 2004, at 00:58:53 GMT) indeed occurred in region where the geomagnetic Zgsm components are largest at the globe. In the time of earthquake occurrence, geomagnetic Zgsm value in the epicenter (3.30N, 95.980E) was equal to ~37147 nT. A range of possible maximal magnitude, as estimated from above relation, could be of 8.8 - 9.2. The recorded magnitude M=9.1 is within this range.