Science.gov

Sample records for helps scientists understand

  1. New Gas Gun Helping Scientists Better Understand Plutonium Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    One of the most daunting scientific and engineering challenges today is ensuring the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear arsenal. To effectively meet that challenge, scientists need better data showing how plutonium, a key component of nuclear warheads, behaves under extreme pressures and temperatures. On July 8, 2003, Lawrence Livermore researchers performed the inaugural experiment of a 30-meter-long, two-stage gas gun designed to obtain those data. The results from a continuing stream of successful experiments on the gas gun are strengthening scientists' ability to ensure that the nation's nuclear stockpile is safe and reliable. The JASPER (Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research) Facility at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is home to the two-stage gas gun. In the gun's first test, an unqualified success, Livermore scientists fired a projectile weighing 28.6 grams and traveling about 5.21 kilometers per second when it impacted an extremely small (about 30-gram) plutonium target. This experiment marked the culmination of years of effort in facility construction, gun installation, system integration, design reviews, and federal authorizations required to bring the experimental facility online. Ongoing experiments have drawn enthusiastic praise from throughout DOE, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and the scientific community. NNSA Administrator Linton Brooks said, ''Our national laboratories now have at their disposal a valuable asset that enhances our due diligence to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear weapons testing.''

  2. Helping Health Care Providers and Clinical Scientists Understand Apparently Irrational Policy Decisions.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Sandor J

    2016-12-21

    Health care providers (HCP) and clinical scientists (CS) are generally most comfortable using evidence-based rational decision-making models. They become very frustrated when policymakers make decisions that, on the surface, seem irrational and unreasonable. However, such decisions usually make sense when analysed properly. The goal of this paper to provide a basic theoretical understanding of major policy models, to illustrate which models are most prevalent in publicly funded health care systems, and to propose a policy analysis framework to better understand the elements that drive policy decision-making. The proposed policy framework will also assist HCP and CS achieve greater success with their own proposals.

  3. Helping Health Care Providers and Clinical Scientists Understand Apparently Irrational Policy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Health care providers (HCP) and clinical scientists (CS) are generally most comfortable using evidence-based rational decision-making models. They become very frustrated when policymakers make decisions that, on the surface, seem irrational and unreasonable. However, such decisions usually make sense when analysed properly. The goal of this paper to provide a basic theoretical understanding of major policy models, to illustrate which models are most prevalent in publicly funded health care systems, and to propose a policy analysis framework to better understand the elements that drive policy decision-making. The proposed policy framework will also assist HCP and CS achieve greater success with their own proposals. PMID:28123917

  4. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  5. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  6. Helping Students Understand Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weihe, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Despite the central role of risk assessment in analyzing and making decisions about many environmental issues, most people are poorly equipped to understand key concepts about risk or apply them successfully. I present three class activities in which students develop a better appreciation for the magnitude of a one in a million increased risk of…

  7. ESPMIS: Helping Young Scientists Navigate the Molecular Imaging Landscape.

    PubMed

    Zeglis, Brian M; Vugts, Danielle J

    2017-06-01

    The core mission of the Early Stage Professionals in Molecular Imaging Sciences (ESPMIS) Interest Group is to help young scientists navigate the professional landscape of molecular imaging. Since its formation in early 2015, ESPMIS has used the annual World Molecular Imaging Congress (WMIC) as a platform to provide education and guidance on three areas that are particularly critical to young scientists: networking, career development, and funding. In the coming years, ESPMIS plans to continue its focus on these topics, work with the WMIS on the creation of new digital tools for young scientists, and introduce two new areas of emphasis: the importance of mentoring and international career opportunities. We at ESPMIS sincerely believe that the future is bright for young scientists in molecular imaging, and we are here to help.

  8. Helping students make meaning of authentic investigations: findings from a student–teacher–scientist partnership

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Erin

    2013-01-01

    As student–teacher–scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research about the roles that scientists assume in their interactions with students. Socio-cultural perspectives on learning emphasize social interaction as a means for students to make meaning of scientific ideas. Thus, this naturalistic study of classroom discourse aims to explore the ways scientists and teachers help high school students make meaning during authentic inquiry investigations. Conversational analysis is conducted of video recordings of discussions between students and teachers and students and scientists from two instances of a student–teacher–scientist partnership program. A social semiotic analytic framework is used to interpret the actions of scientists and teachers. The results indicate a range of common and distinct roles for scientists and teachers with respect to the conceptual, social, pedagogical, and epistemological aspects of meaning making. While scientists provided conceptual and epistemological support related to their scientific expertise, such as explaining scientific phenomena or aspects of the nature of science, teachers played a critical role in ensuring students' access to this knowledge. The results have implications for managing the division of labor between scientists and teachers in partnership programs. PMID:23828722

  9. Helping students make meaning of authentic investigations: findings from a student-teacher-scientist partnership.

    PubMed

    Peker, Deniz; Dolan, Erin

    2012-03-01

    As student-teacher-scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research about the roles that scientists assume in their interactions with students. Socio-cultural perspectives on learning emphasize social interaction as a means for students to make meaning of scientific ideas. Thus, this naturalistic study of classroom discourse aims to explore the ways scientists and teachers help high school students make meaning during authentic inquiry investigations. Conversational analysis is conducted of video recordings of discussions between students and teachers and students and scientists from two instances of a student-teacher-scientist partnership program. A social semiotic analytic framework is used to interpret the actions of scientists and teachers. The results indicate a range of common and distinct roles for scientists and teachers with respect to the conceptual, social, pedagogical, and epistemological aspects of meaning making. While scientists provided conceptual and epistemological support related to their scientific expertise, such as explaining scientific phenomena or aspects of the nature of science, teachers played a critical role in ensuring students' access to this knowledge. The results have implications for managing the division of labor between scientists and teachers in partnership programs.

  10. Helping students make meaning of authentic investigations: findings from a student-teacher-scientist partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peker, Deniz; Dolan, Erin

    2012-03-01

    As student-teacher-scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research about the roles that scientists assume in their interactions with students. Socio-cultural perspectives on learning emphasize social interaction as a means for students to make meaning of scientific ideas. Thus, this naturalistic study of classroom discourse aims to explore the ways scientists and teachers help high school students make meaning during authentic inquiry investigations. Conversational analysis is conducted of video recordings of discussions between students and teachers and students and scientists from two instances of a student-teacher-scientist partnership program. A social semiotic analytic framework is used to interpret the actions of scientists and teachers. The results indicate a range of common and distinct roles for scientists and teachers with respect to the conceptual, social, pedagogical, and epistemological aspects of meaning making. While scientists provided conceptual and epistemological support related to their scientific expertise, such as explaining scientific phenomena or aspects of the nature of science, teachers played a critical role in ensuring students' access to this knowledge. The results have implications for managing the division of labor between scientists and teachers in partnership programs.

  11. Helping Scientists Become Effective Partners in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, Sandra L.; Smith, Lesley K.

    2009-01-01

    How does a scientist find herself standing before a group of lively third-graders? She may be personally motivated-seeking to improve public understanding of scientific issues and the nature of science, or to see her own children receive a good science education-or perhaps she simply enjoys this kind of work [Andrews et al., 2005; Kim and Fortner, 2008]. In addition to internal motivating factors, federal funding agencies have begun to encourage scientists to participate in education and outreach (E/O) related to their research, through NASA program requirements for such activities (see ``Implementing the Office of Space Science Education/Public Outreach Strategy,'' at http://spacescience.nasa.gov/admin/pubs/edu/imp_plan.htm) and the U.S. National Science Foundation's increased emphasis on ``broader impacts'' in merit review of research proposals (see http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2003/nsf032/bicexamples.pdf). Universities, laboratories, and large collaboratives have responded by developing E/O programs that include interaction between students, teachers, and the public in schools; after-school and summer programs; and work through science centers, planetaria, aquaria, and museums.

  12. An Investigation of Graduate Scientists' Understandings of Evaporation and Boiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan; Orlik, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Uses a video presentation of six situations relating to the evaporation and boiling of liquids and the escape of dissolved gases from solution and investigates graduate scientists' understanding of the concepts of boiling and evaporation. (Author/YDS)

  13. An Investigation of Graduate Scientists' Understandings of Evaporation and Boiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan; Orlik, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Uses a video presentation of six situations relating to the evaporation and boiling of liquids and the escape of dissolved gases from solution and investigates graduate scientists' understanding of the concepts of boiling and evaporation. (Author/YDS)

  14. Helping early career research scientists ascend the professional ladder.

    PubMed

    King, Laina

    2013-08-01

    The Keystone Symposia Early Career Investigator Travel Award initiative is a unique successful research mentoring program tailored for 'end of the pipeline' life and biomedical scientists from academia and industry. Using targeted educational, mentoring, and networking activities, the program benefits early career scientists in solving a specific laboratory-based research question that is limiting their evolving research and could increase their ability to obtain new grants and improve their career progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. National Academy of Sciences: Helping Scientists Navigate & Troubleshoot Visa Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Kathie

    2014-03-01

    The International Visitors Office (IVO) is a program operated by the Board on International Scientific Organizations of the National Academy of Sciences. The IVO serves as a resource on visa-related issues for scientists and students traveling to the United States for professional activities. The speaker will address visa issues for international scientists wishing to visit the United States, tips for trouble-shooting visa issues, and statistics on the current visa system.

  16. Internet-Based "Collaboratories" Help Scientists Work Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    Internet collaboration among laboratories allows scientists to work together at a distance, and will eventually enable researchers to examine microscope-produced images simultaneously and participate in meetings and seminars remotely. If the ventures succeed, the resulting technology will allow smaller institutions to cooperate more easily.…

  17. Helping Adult Educators Understand Disability Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Tonette S.

    2001-01-01

    To help adult educators understand the process of disability disclosure, descriptions of the following are provided: the Americans with Disability Act of 1990, self-disclosure, disability disclosure, and identifying an undiagnosed disability. (Author/JOW)

  18. Scientists and Scientific Thinking: Understanding Scientific Thinking through an Investigation of Scientists Views about Superstitions and Religious Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Lay, Mark C.; Taylor, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Scientific literacy is explored in this paper which describes two studies that seek to understand a particular feature of the nature of science; namely scientists' habits of mind. The research investigated scientists' views of scientific evidence and how scientists judge evidence claims. The first study is concerned with scientists' views of what…

  19. Scientists and Scientific Thinking: Understanding Scientific Thinking through an Investigation of Scientists Views about Superstitions and Religious Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Lay, Mark C.; Taylor, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Scientific literacy is explored in this paper which describes two studies that seek to understand a particular feature of the nature of science; namely scientists' habits of mind. The research investigated scientists' views of scientific evidence and how scientists judge evidence claims. The first study is concerned with scientists' views of what…

  20. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  1. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  2. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes.

  3. Do Scientists Help People? Beliefs about Scientists and the Influence of Prosocial Context on Girls' Attitudes Toward Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanowitz, Karen L.

    Despite many efforts, science is still a male-dominated field. Girls who do persist in science often express a desire to use their knowledge in socially relevant ways. The current study examined elementary school girls' beliefs about the work of scientists and how presenting information about a prosocial aspect of physics would influence their attitudes toward that information. Participants were asked an open-ended question to assess their knowledge of what scientists do and were presented with scenarios describing physicists in either a discovery context or as helping society. The results revealed that relatively few participants generated prosocial responses to the open-ended question, and the helping context story was rated as significantly more likable than the discovery context. Suggestions are given for educators to include prosocial aspects of science in their teaching.

  4. FNL Scientists Introduce Concept That Could Help the Immune System Respond to Vaccines | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have discovered an efficient and straightforward model to manipulate RNA nanoparticles, a new concept that could help trigger desirable activation of the immune system with vaccines and therapies. A multi-institutional team of researchers

  5. FNL Scientists Introduce Concept That Could Help the Immune System Respond to Vaccines | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have discovered an efficient and straightforward model to manipulate RNA nanoparticles, a new concept that could help trigger desirable activation of the immune system with vaccines and therapies. A multi-institutional team of researchers

  6. Helping Students Make Meaning of Authentic Investigations: Findings from a Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peker, Deniz; Dolan, Erin

    2012-01-01

    As student-teacher-scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research…

  7. Helping Students Make Meaning of Authentic Investigations: Findings from a Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peker, Deniz; Dolan, Erin

    2012-01-01

    As student-teacher-scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research…

  8. Understanding and managing enhancements: why fisheries scientists should care.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, K

    2014-12-01

    Fisheries enhancements are a set of management approaches involving the use of aquaculture technologies to enhance or restore fisheries in natural ecosystems. Enhancements are widely used in inland and coastal fisheries, but have received limited attention from fisheries scientists. This paper sets out 10 reasons why fisheries scientists should care about understanding and managing enhancements. (1) Enhancements happen, driven mostly by resource users and managers rather than scientists. (2) Enhancements create complex fisheries systems that encompass and integrate everything fisheries stakeholders can practically manage. (3) Enhancements emerge in fisheries where the scope for technical and governance control is high, and they synergistically reinforce both. (4) Successful enhancements expand management options and achievable outcomes. (5) Many enhancements fail or do ecological harm but persist regardless. (6) Effective science engagement is crucial to developing beneficial enhancements and preventing harmful ones. (7) Good scientific guidance is available to aid development or reform of enhancements but is not widely applied. (8) Enhancement research advances, integrates and unifies the fisheries sciences. (9) Enhancements provide unique opportunities for learning about natural fish populations and fisheries. (10) Needs, opportunities and incentives for enhancements are bound to increase. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. CCR scientists gain new understanding of cellular mechanisms during infection | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A new study published August 10, 2017, in Molecular Cell reveals how changes in the architecture of the nucleus can enable B lymphocytes to spring to action during an immune system attack and help fight infection. The discovery could lead scientists to a better understanding of how some tumor cells, especially blood cancer cells, make similar transitions from a dormant to an active state. Read more. . .

  10. Helping Students to Think Like Scientists in Socratic Dialogue-Inducing Labsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hake, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Socratic dialogue-inducing (SDI) labs1,2 are based on Arnold Arons' half-century of ethnographic research, listening carefully to students' responses to probing Socratic questions on physics, science, and ways of thinking, and culminating in his landmark Teaching Introductory Physics.3 They utilize "interactive engagement" methods4 and are designed, in part, to help students think like scientists, e.g., to: (1) appreciate the need for operational definitions; (2) use and interpret pictorial, graphical, vectorial, mathematical, and written representations; and (3) consider dimensions, thought experiments, and limiting conditions. After giving some SDI lab examples from those categories, I conclude that the SDI lab attempts to help students think like scientists have been relatively successful.

  11. Helping Students Construct Understanding about Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2012-01-01

    The study of shadows is a common elementary science topic that facilitates students' development of understanding about light and associated waves. All elementary students have observed numerous shadows, but need assistance in developing understanding. Previous research studies about shadows were utilized in organizing aspects associated with…

  12. Helping Students Understand the Composer's Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the string orchestra students of Natchitoches Central High School in Natchitoches (Louisiana) and their director commissioned the composer Jody Nagel to write a composition dedicated to their ensemble in order to increase the students' understanding of composition. Discusses student reaction to the project and use of discipline-based…

  13. Helping Your Students Better Understand Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaney, Judi

    1997-01-01

    Outlines 10 issues concerning credit that students should understand: credit reports; credit reporting; obligations when signing/cosigning a loan; creating positive credit history; privacy and the credit report; how lenders make and monitor credit decisions; mailing lists and preapproved credit offers; protecting against credit card fraud; use of…

  14. Helping Children Understand and Cope with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Charles P.

    Experiencing the loss of a loved one can be one of the most traumatic events in a child's life. Grief resolution must be attained no matter how trivial a loss and it becomes even more important when a child's parent dies. School psychologists need to understand how the age of the child influences his ability to grieve and what behaviors might be…

  15. Helping Your Students Better Understand Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaney, Judi

    1997-01-01

    Outlines 10 issues concerning credit that students should understand: credit reports; credit reporting; obligations when signing/cosigning a loan; creating positive credit history; privacy and the credit report; how lenders make and monitor credit decisions; mailing lists and preapproved credit offers; protecting against credit card fraud; use of…

  16. UNDERSTANDING AND HELPING THE RETARDED READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRANG, RUTH, ED.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1962 STATEWIDE ARIZONA CONFERENCE ON READING DEVELOPMENT AND READING DIFFICULTIES INCLUDE 15 PAPERS. ARTICLES ON THE ABLE RETARDED READER ARE "UNDERSTANDING THE ABLE RETARDED READER" BY HELEN M. ROBINSON, AND "CLASSROOM PROCEDURES" BY ROSEMARY YOAKUM. PAPERS ON EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN ARE "IDENTIFICATION OF EMOTIONAL…

  17. Crowdsourcing Austrian data on decomposition with the help of citizen scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandén, Taru; Berthold, Helene; Schwarz, Michael; Baumgarten, Andreas; Spiegel, Heide

    2017-04-01

    Decay of organic material, decomposition, is a critical process for life on earth. Through decomposition, food becomes available for plants and soil organisms that they use in their growth and maintenance. When plant material decomposes, it loses weight and releases the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Terrestrial soils contain about three times more carbon than the atmosphere and, therefore, changes in the balance of soil carbon storage and release can significantly amplify or attenuate global warming. Many factors affecting the global carbon cycle are already known and mapped; however, an index for decomposition rate is still missing, even though it is needed for climate modelling. The Tea Bag Index (TBI) measures decomposition in a standardised, achievable, climate-relevant, and time-relevant way by burying commercial nylon tea bags in soils for three months (Keuskamp et al., 2013). In the summer of 2016, TBI (expressed as decomposition rate (k) and stabilisation index (S)) was measured with the help of Austrian citizen scientists at 7-8 cm soil depth in three different land uses (maize croplands, grasslands and forests). In total ca. 2700 tea bags were sent to the citizen scientists of which ca. 50% were returned. The data generated by the citizen scientists will be incorporated into an Austrian as well as a global soil map of decomposition. This map can be used as input to improve climate modelling in the future.

  18. Toward an Understanding of the Epistemic Values of Biological Scientists as Expressed in Scholarly Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kathel

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation develops a deeper understanding of the epistemic values of scientists, specifically exploring the proposed values of community, collaboration, connectivity and credit as part of the scholarly communication system. These values are the essence of scientists actively engaged in conducting science and in communicating their work to…

  19. Toward an Understanding of the Epistemic Values of Biological Scientists as Expressed in Scholarly Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kathel

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation develops a deeper understanding of the epistemic values of scientists, specifically exploring the proposed values of community, collaboration, connectivity and credit as part of the scholarly communication system. These values are the essence of scientists actively engaged in conducting science and in communicating their work to…

  20. How can a multimodal approach to primate communication help us understand the evolution of communication?

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Liebal, Katja; Burrows, Anne M; Slocombe, Katie E

    2013-07-18

    Scientists studying the communication of non-human animals are often aiming to better understand the evolution of human communication, including human language. Some scientists take a phylogenetic perspective, where the goal is to trace the evolutionary history of communicative traits, while others take a functional perspective, where the goal is to understand the selection pressures underpinning specific traits. Both perspectives are necessary to fully understand the evolution of communication, but it is important to understand how the two perspectives differ and what they can and cannot tell us. Here, we suggest that integrating phylogenetic and functional questions can be fruitful in better understanding the evolution of communication. We also suggest that adopting a multimodal approach to communication might help to integrate phylogenetic and functional questions, and provide an interesting avenue for research into language evolution.

  1. Charting a path forward: building AGU's capacity to help foster scientist-decision maker engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.; Behar, D. H.; Mote, P.; Ferguson, D. B.; Pandya, R.

    2016-12-01

    Most research proposals, papers, and presentation abstracts begin with the motivation that the new science presented will benefit society. Behind this, beyond making good on the promises to get funding, is a sincere effort to contribute our knowledge and talent to build a better (safer, sustainable, more resilient) world. For this to happen, however, the science needs to be connected to people in communities who make decisions. While this happens in a variety of ways, often for research to be most useful to society, engagement with decision makers should occur at the beginning and throughout the research process. Increasingly this is being recognized as important, as evidenced by the growing number of boundary organizations (e.g., U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers, NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment programs). Even within AGU, in recent years there has been a number of new activities and networks that suggest a growing community of practice for those doing work at the science-society interface (e.g., The Thriving Earth Exchange, the Water and Society Technical Committee in the Hydrology Section). In this presentation, we highlight what these activities are and share insights from those involved. We evaluate trends (e.g., have the number of abstracts on this topic increased?) and present responses from AGU members to questions on where this community of practice should go next (e.g., What is the most important task the AGU community should do to improve decision maker-scientist engagement?). The goal of this presentation is to promote a conversation about how the AGU community can be better prepared to foster engagement with decision makers that will lead to more actionable science. This will help us ensure our science is useful to society, fulfilling our motivations, and arguably responsibilities, both individually and as a community. It will also serve to prepare new scientists for a broader range of careers beyond

  2. Waterlust - An Example of How Online Video Can Help Scientists and Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynne, P.; Graham, F.; Caster, J.; Adler, J.

    2014-12-01

    Online videos and the social networks used to disseminate them provide scientists, educators, and students an opportunity to reach new audiences on a global scale. The ability to inspire people to think about a given subject that are not otherwise engaged is an important strategy in growing the societal impact of your work. Especially to those working in the field of physical science as it relates to environmental conservation and preservation, targeting new audiences helps avoid "preaching to the choir." Towards this goal, three graduate students at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science began an online film project in 2011 aimed at motivating the general public to think about their relationship with water and the marine environment. Here we present lessons from our first three years that include: tips for making an engaging video, promoting creativity and self-expression in science, video editing tips 101, getting the most out of your GoPro, and how to get your video seen by more people. For more information about our work, visit www.waterlust.org

  3. The pallid sturgeon: Scientific investigations help understand recovery needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  4. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  5. Asking the Right Questions: Helping Mainstream Students Understand Other Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jefferey H.

    Two common tendencies that lead many mainstream students to misinterpret other cultures are the combative response and the exoticizing response. These misinterpretations, however, can be excellent learning moments for helping students understand the constructed nature of culture and the contextual nature of learning. Transformational multicultural…

  6. A Helpful Way to Conceptualize and Understand Reenactments

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to understand the purpose and the etiology of reenactments can lead to confusion because reenactments can occur for a variety of reasons. At times, individuals actively reenact past traumas as a way to master them. However, in other cases, reenactments occur inadvertently and result from the psychological vulnerabilities and defensive strategies characteristic of trauma survivors. This article offers a means to conceptualize and understand the many ways in which reenactments can occur. Psychotherapeutic strategies are offered to help individuals integrate past traumas and decrease their chances of becoming involved in destructive reenactments.(The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1998; 7:227–235) PMID:9631344

  7. From the Horse's Mouth: Why scientists' views are crucial to nature of science understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Derek; Wong, Siu Ling

    2014-11-01

    Written in response to criticism of our work by Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, this position paper reaffirms and reinforces our position about the need to broaden and enrich the scope of nature of science (NOS) oriented curricula by exposing students to the voices of practising scientists. While Abd-El-Khalick's motivation for promoting the so-called consensus view of NOS is rooted in issues of assessment (or 'benchmarking', as he calls it), we argue that the major reason for teaching about NOS is its contribution to what Shen calls civic and cultural scientific literacy. We are critical of the consensus view for its philosophical naivety, failure to reflect contemporary scientific practice and potential for confusing students, and we re-state our view that it is important to expose students to a diversity of practice among the sub-disciplines of science. We argue that richer NOS understanding and a more authentic view of scientific practice can be achieved through direct and indirect contact with scientists at the cutting edge of research and development, which we characterise as learning about scientists, learning from scientists and learning with scientists.

  8. Helping Basic Scientists Engage With Community Partners to Enrich and Accelerate Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Kost, Rhonda G; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Evering, Teresa H; Holt, Peter R; Neville-Williams, Maija; Vasquez, Kimberly S; Coller, Barry S; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2017-03-01

    Engaging basic scientists in community-based translational research is challenging but has great potential for improving health. In 2009, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science partnered with Clinical Directors Network, a practice-based research network (PBRN), to create a community-engaged research navigation (CEnR-Nav) program to foster research pairing basic science and community-driven scientific aims. The program is led by an academic navigator and a PBRN navigator. Through meetings and joint activities, the program facilitates basic science-community partnerships and the development and conduct of joint research protocols. From 2009-2014, 39 investigators pursued 44 preliminary projects through the CEnR-Nav program; 25 of those became 23 approved protocols and 2 substudies. They involved clinical scholar trainees, early-career physician-scientists, faculty, students, postdoctoral fellows, and others. Nineteen (of 25; 76%) identified community partners, of which 9 (47%) named them as coinvestigators. Nine (of 25; 36%) included T3-T4 translational aims. Seven (of 25; 28%) secured external funding, 11 (of 25; 44%) disseminated results through presentations or publications, and 5 (71%) of 7 projects publishing results included a community partner as a coauthor. Of projects with long-term navigator participation, 9 (of 19; 47%) incorporated T3-T4 aims and 7 (of 19; 37%) secured external funding. The CEnR-Nav program provides a model for successfully engaging basic scientists with communities to advance and accelerate translational science. This model's durability and generalizability have not been determined, but it achieves valuable short-term goals and facilitates scientifically meaningful community-academic partnerships.

  9. Helping Basic Scientists Engage With Community Partners to Enrich and Accelerate Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Evering, Teresa H.; Holt, Peter R.; Neville-Williams, Maija; Vasquez, Kimberly S.; Coller, Barry S.; Tobin, Jonathan N.

    2017-01-01

    Problem Engaging basic scientists in community-based translational research is challenging but has great potential for improving health. Approach In 2009, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science partnered with Clinical Directors Network, a practice-based research network (PBRN), to create a community-engaged research navigation (CEnR-Nav) program to foster research pairing basic science and community-driven scientific aims. The program is led by an academic navigator and a PBRN navigator. Through meetings and joint activities, the program facilitates basic science–community partnerships and the development and conduct of joint research protocols. Outcomes From 2009–2014, 39 investigators pursued 44 preliminary projects through the CEnR-Nav program; 25 of those became 23 approved protocols and 2 substudies. They involved clinical scholar trainees, early-career physician–scientists, faculty, students, postdoctoral fellows, and others. Nineteen (of 25; 76%) identified community partners, of which 9 (47%) named them as coinvestigators. Nine (of 25; 36%) included T3–T4 translational aims. Seven (of 25; 28%) secured external funding, 11 (of 25; 44%) disseminated results through presentations or publications, and 5 (71%) of 7 projects publishing results included a community partner as a coauthor. Of projects with long-term navigator participation, 9 (of 19; 47%) incorporated T3–T4 aims and 7 (of 19; 37%) secured external funding. Next Steps The CEnR-Nav program provides a model for successfully engaging basic scientists with communities to advance and accelerate translational science. This model's durability and generalizability have not been determined, but it achieves valuable short-term goals and facilitates scientifically meaningful community–academic partnerships. PMID:27119330

  10. When scientists know too much - using citizen science to understand delta morphology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeyta, A.; Baumgardner, S. E.; Im, D.; Nguyen, C.; Paola, C.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas are bodies of land created by the deposition of sediment from a river. The deposits formed by these systems are incredibly diverse and complex in shapes, sizes and form. It is believed that the morphology of these systems is controlled by the relative wave, tidal and fluvial forcings on the system, which control the removal and redistribution of the sediment. As a result, we are often trained to classify deltas this way based on qualitative assessments of subaerial features. While this approach has led to many interesting breakthroughs and discoveries, it has also limited our scope of view on what controls delta morphology. As a result, delta scientists are trained to look at the system from a narrow point of view with initial biases. By knowing too much about the system and with strong ideas of what controls the shape of a deltas, we have to ask ourselves if we are overlooking key features by trying to fit a square peg into a round hole. We are proposing a new and novel approach to understand the morphology of the world's deltas by using citizen science. We have built a delta classification game, which gives participants a random set of images of deltas from satellites, numerical models and experiments. All images are free of location, color, scale and orientation to limit the amount of bias introduced and have participants focus only on features of the morphology, rather than extraneous details. Participants are then asked to group the images however they see fit, with the option to describe why they chose that classification system. By collecting the statistics on which deltas are commonly grouped together, we can then assess what features or details they have in common. The data from this project can help us create a new classification system and shed new light on the controls of delta morphology.

  11. Early human communication helps in understanding language evolution.

    PubMed

    Lenti Boero, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Building a theory on extant species, as Ackermann et al. do, is a useful contribution to the field of language evolution. Here, I add another living model that might be of interest: human language ontogeny in the first year of life. A better knowledge of this phase might help in understanding two more topics among the "several building blocks of a comprehensive theory of the evolution of spoken language" indicated in their conclusion by Ackermann et al., that is, the foundation of the co-evolution of linguistic motor skills with the auditory skills underlying speech perception, and the possible phylogenetic interactions of protospeech production with referential capabilities.

  12. Understanding coping with cancer: how can qualitative research help?

    PubMed

    Chittem, Mahati

    2014-01-01

    Research in psycho-oncology investigates the psycho-social and emotional aspects of cancer and how this is related to health, well-being and overall patient care. Coping with cancer is a prime focus for researchers owing to its impact on patients' psychological processing and life in general. Research so far has focused mainly on quantitative study designs such as questionnaires to examine the coping strategies used by cancer patients. However, in order to gain a rich and deep understanding of the reasons, processes and types of strategies that patients use to deal with cancer, qualitative study designs are necessary. Few studies have used qualitative designs such as semi-structured interviews to explore coping with cancer. The current paper aims to review the suitability and benefits of using qualitative research designs to understand coping with cancer with the help of some key literature in psycho-oncology research.

  13. Understanding and Meeting the Needs of Space Scientists in EPO—Survey Results, Responses, and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, J.; Buxner, S.; Schneider, N.

    2015-11-01

    As science literacy is falling in the United States, our world continues to become more complex. Everyone now requires an understanding of science, technology, and the relationship of interconnected systems in order to successfully navigate the complex issues facing us. Scientists are a critical resource, bringing to the table an understanding of the nature of science as a process, as well as up-to-the-minute scientific content. They can function in a wide range of capacities in education and public outreach (EPO) to meet some of the learning challenges of teachers, students, and the general public. Societies that work directly with scientists, such as the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) are interested in understanding how their member scientists view the act of reaching out, how they do it, and how the DPS can continue to support them as they engage with a variety of audiences in an EPO capacity. To this end, we (the NASA Science Mission Directorate Planetary Science Forum and DPS leadership) conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with a subsection of DPS members to learn more about their attitudes and needs, and to begin to pinpoint opportunities and strategies for future consideration. Presented here are our preliminary results and the ideas generated for further conversations.

  14. What more can plant scientists do to help save the green stuff?

    PubMed

    McNeely, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was the first such effort under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and had gone through a 3-year process to reach the level of maturity that enabled it to be approved by consensus by all Governments present at the key session in The Hague in April 2002. It provided a model for subsequent CBD workplans, with targets, and undoubtedly contributed to the 2010 target of reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. In the event, few of the targets were achieved, because of numerous constraints at both policy and implementation levels. Even so, the GSPC stands as an important milestone in the global effort to conserve biodiversity. However, few plant scientists can be satisfied that the essential steps are being taken to ensure the conservation of plants, although, of course, plant scientists are only one part of the complex effort that will be required. This paper offers some suggestions that might be worth consideration, building on the basic principle in politics that a strong constituency is necessary to victory. In other words, although plant scientists play a crucial role, plant conservation is too important to leave in their hands alone; far broader support is required, including from the private sector, agriculture, forestry, trade, economics, tourism and even the military. Although botanical science provides a solid foundation, other branches of science are also important, ranging from anthropology to zoology. The legal profession also has important contributions to make (as well as the ability to hamper progress – for example through using issues such as access and benefit sharing to limit the exchange of genetic materials for even noncommercial use). 2010 was the United Nations Year of Biodiversity, and the GSPC targets reached their due date. It therefore seems timely to add some additional perspectives to the effort to update the GSPC. This paper suggests ways to reach a far broader constituency

  15. Good Morning from Barrow, Alaska! Helping K-12 students understand the importance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation focuses on how an educator experiences scientific research and how those experiences can help foster K-12 students’ understanding of research being conducted in Barrow, Alaska. According to Zhang and Fulford (1994), real-time electronic field trips help to provide a sense of closeness and relevance. In combination with experts in the field, the electronic experience can help students to better understand the phenomenon being studied, thus strengthening the student’s conceptual knowledge (Zhang & Fulford, 1994). During a seven day research trip to study the arctic sea ice, five rural Virginia teachers and their students participated in Skype sessions with the participating educator and other members of the Radford University research team. The students were able to view the current conditions in Barrow, listen to members of the research team describe what their contributions were to the research, and ask questions about the research and Alaska in general. Collaborations between students and scientist can have long lasting benefits for both educators and students in promoting an understanding of the research process and understanding why our world is changing. By using multimedia venues such as Skype students are able to interact with researchers both visually and verbally, forming the basis for students’ interest in science. A learner’s level of engagement is affected by the use of multimedia, especially the level of cognitive processing. Visual images alone do no promote the development of good problem solving skills. However, the students are able to develop better problem solving skills when both visual images and verbal interactions are used together. As students form higher confidence levels by improving their ability to problem solve, their interest in science also increases. It is possible that this interest could turn into a passion for science, which could result in more students wanting to become scientists or science teachers.

  16. How automated image analysis techniques help scientists in species identification and classification?

    PubMed

    Yousef Kalafi, Elham; Town, Christopher; Kaur Dhillon, Sarinder

    2017-09-04

    Identification of taxonomy at a specific level is time consuming and reliant upon expert ecologists. Hence the demand for automated species identification increased over the last two decades. Automation of data classification is primarily focussed on images, incorporating and analysing image data has recently become easier due to developments in computational technology. Research efforts in identification of species include specimens' image processing, extraction of identical features, followed by classifying them into correct categories. In this paper, we discuss recent automated species identification systems, categorizing and evaluating their methods. We reviewed and compared different methods in step by step scheme of automated identification and classification systems of species images. The selection of methods is influenced by many variables such as level of classification, number of training data and complexity of images. The aim of writing this paper is to provide researchers and scientists an extensive background study on work related to automated species identification, focusing on pattern recognition techniques in building such systems for biodiversity studies.

  17. [How human sciences can help to understand blood donation?].

    PubMed

    Danic, B

    2003-06-01

    In France, the necessity of managing sanitary risks associated with blood transfusion has induced a strong medicalization of blood collection. Practicing this activity of transfusion medicine confronts the professional with problems which the medical science is not sufficient to answer: curbs and motivations for donating, seasonal and geographic fluctuations in blood collection, sense of pre-donation interview, individual or collective contestings of guidelines for blood collection. From recent sociological works on donation in France, especially on blood donation, this paper suggests reporting the complexity of blood donation thought process and the necessity to refer to human and social sciences to approach it in a best way. Understanding the gift should help professionals to communicate not only on the promotion of blood donation, but also on the risk and its management.

  18. Women with Diabetes: Understanding Urinary Incontinence and Help Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Ashmi M.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Morrill, Michelle Y.; Schembri, Michael; Thom, David H.; Brown, Jeanette S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of urinary incontinence by diabetes status and race and evaluate beliefs and help-seeking around incontinence in a population-based cohort of women with and without diabetes. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2,270 middle-aged and older racially/ethnically diverse women in Diabetes RRISK. Incontinence, help-seeking behavior, and beliefs were assessed by self-report questionnaires and in-person interviews. Incontinence characteristics of diabetics and non-diabetics were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate models. Results Women with diabetes reported weekly incontinence significantly more than women without diabetes (Weekly: 35.4% vs. 25.7%, respectively, p <0.001). Race prevalence patterns were similar (white and Latina women with the most prevalent incontinence and African-American and Asian women with the least) among women with and without diabetes. Less than 50% of women with diabetes discussed their incontinence with a doctor (42.2% vs. 55.5% (of women without diabetes) p <0.003). Women with diabetes were more likely than women without diabetes to report believing that incontinence is a rare condition (17% vs. 6%, respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Incontinence is highly prevalent among women with diabetes. Race prevalence patterns are similar among women with and without diabetes. Understanding help-seeking behaviors are important to ensure appropriate care for patients. Physicians should be alert for urinary incontinence because it is often unrecognized and thereby under-treated among women with diabetes. PMID:20727547

  19. Flooding facility helps scientists examine the ecophysiology of floodplain species used in bottomland hardwood restorations

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Lockhart; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodore D. Leininger; Kristina F. Connor; Paul B. Hamel; Nathan M. Schiff; A. Dan Wilson; Margaret S. Devall

    2006-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood ecosystems, important for their unique functions and values, have experienced considerable degradation since European settlement through deforestation, development, and drainage. Currently, considerable effort is underway to restore ecological functions on degraded bottomland sites. Restoration requires a better understanding of the biological...

  20. Moving beyond the Lone Scientist: Helping 1st-Grade Students Appreciate the Social Context of Scientific Work Using Stories about Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2009-01-01

    While several studies have documented young children's (K-2) stereotypic views of scientists and scientific work, few have examined students' views of the social nature of scientific work and the strategies effective in broadening these views. The purpose of this study is to examine how stories about scientists influence 1st-grade students' views…

  1. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  2. Understanding and Facilitating Self-Regulated Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Dembo, Myron H.

    2011-01-01

    Help seeking is an important developmental skill, a form of behavioral, or social, self-regulation employed by cognitively, behaviorally, and emotionally engaged learners. Help seeking is unique among learning strategies as it may imply that learners are incapable of task completion or satisfactory performance without assistance, which can be…

  3. Understanding and Facilitating Self-Regulated Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Dembo, Myron H.

    2011-01-01

    Help seeking is an important developmental skill, a form of behavioral, or social, self-regulation employed by cognitively, behaviorally, and emotionally engaged learners. Help seeking is unique among learning strategies as it may imply that learners are incapable of task completion or satisfactory performance without assistance, which can be…

  4. A conceptual framework for understanding self-help groups.

    PubMed

    Rootes, L E; Aanes, D L

    1992-04-01

    Although self-help groups are recognized as an important part of the continuum of services in the mental health system, confusion about what constitutes a self-help group remains. The authors outline seven criteria for defining the self-help group and differentiating it from other types of groups, such as advocacy or support groups. Self-help groups are distinguished by their supportive and educational aims, focus on a single life-disrupting event, primary purpose of supporting personal change, anonymous and confidential nature, voluntary membership, member leadership, and absence of a profit orientation. Eight basic principles underlying successful self-help groups are discussed, including the shared experience of members, their acceptance of responsibility for themselves, and their commitment to personal change.

  5. Lobster on the Sidewalk: Understanding and Helping Children with Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roberta I.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive processes and emotional needs that influence developmental changes related to fears and suggests some techniques which adults may use to help children cope with their fears. (Author/MP)

  6. Lobster on the Sidewalk: Understanding and Helping Children with Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roberta I.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive processes and emotional needs that influence developmental changes related to fears and suggests some techniques which adults may use to help children cope with their fears. (Author/MP)

  7. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  8. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  9. Science Outside the Lab: Helping Graduate Students in Science and Engineering Understand the Complexities of Science Policy.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Michael J; Reifschneider, Kiera; Bennett, Ira; Wetmore, Jameson M

    2016-09-28

    Helping scientists and engineers challenge received assumptions about how science, engineering, and society relate is a critical cornerstone for macroethics education. Scientific and engineering research are frequently framed as first steps of a value-free linear model that inexorably leads to societal benefit. Social studies of science and assessments of scientific and engineering research speak to the need for a more critical approach to the noble intentions underlying these assumptions. "Science Outside the Lab" is a program designed to help early-career scientists and engineers understand the complexities of science and engineering policy. Assessment of the program entailed a pre-, post-, and 1 year follow up survey to gauge student perspectives on relationships between science and society, as well as a pre-post concept map exercise to elicit student conceptualizations of science policy. Students leave Science Outside the Lab with greater humility about the role of scientific expertise in science and engineering policy; greater skepticism toward linear notions of scientific advances benefiting society; a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the actors involved in shaping science policy; and a continued appreciation of the contributions of science and engineering to society. The study presents an efficacious program that helps scientists and engineers make inroads into macroethical debates, reframe the ways in which they think about values of science and engineering in society, and more thoughtfully engage with critical mediators of science and society relationships: policy makers and policy processes.

  10. Helping the International Student Understand the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mary

    2011-01-01

    To be successful in navigating the waters of American higher education, international students need to demonstrate proficiency in the English language and an understanding of the educational expectations of American academia. Unlike Americans who apply to a US university, international students must demonstrate that they understand enough English…

  11. Helping the International Student Understand the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mary

    2011-01-01

    To be successful in navigating the waters of American higher education, international students need to demonstrate proficiency in the English language and an understanding of the educational expectations of American academia. Unlike Americans who apply to a US university, international students must demonstrate that they understand enough English…

  12. Terrorism: Online Resources for Helping Students Understand and Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tim; Ramirez, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on the issue of terrorism. Aims to assist teachers in educating their students and helping them cope with terrorism since the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. Offers sites on other terrorist attacks on the U.S. (CMK)

  13. Terrorism: Online Resources for Helping Students Understand and Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tim; Ramirez, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on the issue of terrorism. Aims to assist teachers in educating their students and helping them cope with terrorism since the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. Offers sites on other terrorist attacks on the U.S. (CMK)

  14. Used Jmol to Help Students Better Understand Fluxional Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    This new WebWare combines instructional text and Jmol interactive, animated illustrations that help students visualize the mechanism. It is concluded that by animating the fluxional behavior of a simple model for chiral metal catalyst Sn(amidinate)[subscript 2], in which axial/equatorial exchange within the amidinate rings occurs through a Berry…

  15. Understanding Emotions through Games: Helping Trainee Teachers to Make Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavega, Pere; Filella, Gemma; Agullo, Maria Jesus; Soldevila, Anna; March, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to provide guidelines to help professionals make decisions regarding the types of emotions produced by different sporting games classified into four domains of motor action (psychomotor, co-operation, opposition and cooperation/opposition). Method: The sample comprised 284 first-year university students of…

  16. Elementary children's epistemological beliefs and understandings of science in the context of computer-mediated video conferencing with scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaklee, Janie Mefford

    The relationship between children's epistemological beliefs and their understandings of the processes of science was explored in this study. In addition, changes in children's understanding of science when exposed to remote scientists doing science was investigated. The context for the study was a self-contained, multi-level elementary Colorado classroom (combined second, third and fourth grades, n=22). Two Colorado classroom teachers collaborated with scientists in New Jersey, via computer-mediated video teleconferencing over ISDN lines, providing Science instruction for this distance education experience. Data on the children's understanding of science were gathered using a drawing/interview process. Coding was developed according to categories based on the National Science Education Standards (1996). Students were found to have increased their understanding of science based in this brief contact with scientists. Results of the epistemological investigation were inconclusive. Further study, with a larger sample size, was recommended.

  17. Understanding barriers to Malaysian women with breast cancer seeking help.

    PubMed

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Rahmah, Mohd Amin; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Knight, Aishah

    2012-01-01

    Delay in help-seeking behaviour which is potentially preventable has a major effect on the prognosis and survival of patients with breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore reasons for delay in seeking help among patients with breast cancer from the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia. A qualitative study using face- to-face in-depth interview was carried out involving 12 breast cancer patients who had been histo-pathologically confirmed and were symptomatic on presentation. Respondents were selected purposely based on their history of delayed consultation, diagnosis or treatment. All were of Malay ethnicity and the age range was 26-67 years. Three were in stage ll, seven in stage lll and two in stage lV. At the time of interview, all except one respondent had accepted treatment. The range of consultation time was 0.2-72.2 months with a median of 1.7 months, diagnosis time was 1.4-95.8 months( median 5.4 months )and treatment time was 0-33.3 months (median 1.2 months). The themes derived from the study were poor knowledge or awareness of breast cancer, fear of cancer consequences, beliefs in complementary alternative medicine, sanction by others, other priorities, denial of disease, attitude of wait and see and health care system weakness. Help-seeking behaviour was influenced by a complex interaction of cognitive, environmental, beliefs, culture and psycho-social factors. Breast cancer awareness and psychological counselling are recommended for all patients with breast symptoms to prevent delay in seeking clinical help.

  18. Helping Secondary School Students Develop a Conceptual Understanding of Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students' conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and…

  19. Helping Prospective Teachers to Understand Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Genevieve L.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two video-based interventions, one guided, the other non-guided, on pre-service early childhood education teachers' understanding of students' mathematical thinking. Five web-based lessons on various topics in children's mathematical development were created for this study. Each…

  20. Scientific Models Help Students Understand the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Cory; Vo, Tina; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The water cycle is a large, complex system that encompasses ideas across the K-12 science curriculum. By the time students leave fifth grade, they should understand "that a system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot" and be able to describe both components and processes…

  1. Scientific Models Help Students Understand the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Cory; Vo, Tina; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The water cycle is a large, complex system that encompasses ideas across the K-12 science curriculum. By the time students leave fifth grade, they should understand "that a system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot" and be able to describe both components and processes…

  2. Guidelines for discharge: do standardized cards help in patient understanding?

    PubMed

    Reis, Phillipe Geraldo Teixeira de Abreu; Nakakogue, Camila; Nakakogue, Tabatha; Nasr, Adonis; Tomasich, Flávio Daniel Saavedra; Collaço, Iwan Augusto

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether the addition of discharge standard illustrated cards improves understanding of patients in the emergency room. We conducted a prospective, randomized, interventional study with 228 patients discharged from the emergency department. All patients were interviewed and tested for the level of understanding of discharge instructions. Some of them received the intervention, with the standard cards, and another did not, constituting the control group. The average of followed discharge guidelines of the group that received the cards was higher than the control group, with statistical significance (p=0.009). When segregated by age, the group between 16 and 35 years of both sexes had the best average of followed guidelines, statistically, than the average of the control group (p=0.01). The difference between the mean orientations between the control group and the card for patients undergoing procedures was statistically significant (p=0.02); as for the stratification according to the number of procedures, the significance increases when that is equal to 1 (p=0.001) and decreased the more procedures were carried out. The introduction of discharge standard orientation cards was associated with improvement in the understanding of patients. Without replacing the verbal directions, which establishes dialogue and doctor-patient bonding, cards appear as auxiliary elements, facilitating understanding and care guidelines.

  3. Viewing a Poem as Argument: Helping Students Understand Contemporary Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When high school honors students were put off by contemporary poetry, the author engaged them by analyzing the poem as an "argument." Using the Toulmin model to establish a warrant, advance a claim, and locate details to support that claim, students were able, by treating a poem as an argument, to increase their understanding of the…

  4. How Understanding Attachment Theory Can Help Make Us Better Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mardell, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding children's relationships to their primary and secondary caregivers. The theory describes how secure attachment bonds are formed between children and caregivers and the consequences of both secure and insecure attachment relationships. Recommendations for putting attachment theory into…

  5. Helping Prospective Teachers to Understand Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Genevieve L.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two video-based interventions, one guided, the other non-guided, on pre-service early childhood education teachers' understanding of students' mathematical thinking. Five web-based lessons on various topics in children's mathematical development were created for this study. Each…

  6. Empowering Andrea to Help Year 5 Students Construct Fraction Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baturo, Annette R

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a glimpse into the positive effect on student learning as a result of empowering a classroom teacher of 20 years (Andrea) with subject matter knowledge relevant to developing fraction understanding. Having a facility with fractions is essential for life skills in any society, whether metricated or non-metricated, and yet…

  7. Using Story to Help Student Understanding of Gas Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Rick; Stinner, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Students tend to have a poor understanding of the concept of gas pressure. Usually, gas pressure is taught in terms of the various formulaic gas laws. The development of the concept of gas pressure according to the early Greeks did not include the concept of a vacuum. It was not for another 2000 years that Torricelli proposed that a vacuum can…

  8. Using Story to Help Student Understanding of Gas Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Rick; Stinner, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Students tend to have a poor understanding of the concept of gas pressure. Usually, gas pressure is taught in terms of the various formulaic gas laws. The development of the concept of gas pressure according to the early Greeks did not include the concept of a vacuum. It was not for another 2000 years that Torricelli proposed that a vacuum can…

  9. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  10. Helping Secondary School Students Develop a Conceptual Understanding of Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students' conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and…

  11. Episodic Mapping: A Technique To Help Students Understand Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmelzer, Ronald; Henson, Kenneth

    Semantic mapping is effective with expository prose but not as effective with narrative prose. To achieve a better understanding of narrative prose, yet still keep the benefits of semantic mapping, the traditional approach can be modified into a technique called "episodic mapping." Episodic mapping is based on the idea that most stories…

  12. Commentary: how can technology help us understand the communication process?

    PubMed

    Keyton, Joann

    2012-08-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on the articles chosen for the special section on communications analysis. These articles problematize communication and raise an interesting set of questions for both human factors and communication scholars to ponder. In the end, both sets of scholars seek the same goal: How do we better examine communication to improve it? Problematizing communication requires scholars to challenge their fundamental assumptions about the phenomenon as well as to tease out the distinctions of methodological approaches typically used by both human factors and communication scholars. Human factors scholars tend to favor forms of communication in which technology or task roles control who can communicate and how. Communication scholars tend to favor contexts in which information flows more freely with fewer explicit restrictions. Creating opportunities to collaborate in research on the communication process may create the best understanding of technology that can better serve our understanding of communication.

  13. Can Genetics Help Us Understand Indian Social History?

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Romila

    2014-01-01

    Attempts have been made recently to determine the identity of the so-called “Aryans” as components of the Indian population by using DNA analysis. This is largely to ascertain whether they were indigenous to India or were foreign arrivals. Similar attempts have been made to trace the origins of caste groups on the basis of varna identities and record their distribution. The results so far have been contradictory and, therefore, not of much help to social historians. There are problems in the defining of categories and the techniques of analysis. Aryan is a linguistic and cultural category and not a biological one. Caste groups have no well-defined and invariable boundaries despite marriage codes. Various other categories have been assimilated into particular castes as part of the evolution of social history on the subcontinent. A few examples of these are discussed. The problems with using DNA analysis are also touched on. PMID:24968702

  14. Rotation placements help students' understanding of intensive care.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Lisa

    2011-07-01

    It is vital that children's nursing students are fit for practice when they qualify and are able to meet various essential skills as defined by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). To gain the knowledge and skills required, students need placements in areas where high dependency and potentially intensive care are delivered. Efforts to maximise the number of students experiencing intensive care as a placement have led to the development of the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rotation, increasing placements on the PICU from 5 to 40 per cent of the student cohort per year. The lecturer practitioner organises the rotation, providing credible links between university and practice areas, while supporting students and staff in offering a high-quality placement experience. Students say the rotation offers a positive insight into PICU nursing, helping them develop knowledge and skills in a technical area and creating an interest in this specialty.

  15. Can genetics help us understand Indian social history?

    PubMed

    Thapar, Romila

    2014-06-26

    Attempts have been made recently to determine the identity of the so-called "Aryans" as components of the Indian population by using DNA analysis. This is largely to ascertain whether they were indigenous to India or were foreign arrivals. Similar attempts have been made to trace the origins of caste groups on the basis of varna identities and record their distribution. The results so far have been contradictory and, therefore, not of much help to social historians. There are problems in the defining of categories and the techniques of analysis. Aryan is a linguistic and cultural category and not a biological one. Caste groups have no well-defined and invariable boundaries despite marriage codes. Various other categories have been assimilated into particular castes as part of the evolution of social history on the subcontinent. A few examples of these are discussed. The problems with using DNA analysis are also touched on. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Helping secondary school students develop a conceptual understanding of refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students’ conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and refraction occur. The use of ray diagrams can be useful in (a) the teacher modelling a correct explanation to a situation where refraction occurs and (b) for students to create as they practice other examples. This paper includes eight examples of increasing complexity that use a cognitive apprenticeship cycle approach to scaffold student learning. The first examples (rock fish, floating penny) are shown and a solution is modeled using a ray diagram. Three more examples (bent pencil, dropping an item in water, sunrise/sunset) are presented for students to practice, with each becoming more sophisticated. Three assessment exercises are then provided (two dots, three coins, broken tube).

  17. Understanding earth system models: how Global Sensitivity Analysis can help

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Computer models are an essential element of earth system sciences, underpinning our understanding of systems functioning and influencing the planning and management of socio-economic-environmental systems. Even when these models represent a relatively low number of physical processes and variables, earth system models can exhibit a complicated behaviour because of the high level of interactions between their simulated variables. As the level of these interactions increases, we quickly lose the ability to anticipate and interpret the model's behaviour and hence the opportunity to check whether the model gives the right response for the right reasons. Moreover, even if internally consistent, an earth system model will always produce uncertain predictions because it is often forced by uncertain inputs (due to measurement errors, pre-processing uncertainties, scarcity of measurements, etc.). Lack of transparency about the scope of validity, limitations and the main sources of uncertainty of earth system models can be a strong limitation to their effective use for both scientific and decision-making purposes. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is a set of statistical analysis techniques to investigate the complex behaviour of earth system models in a structured, transparent and comprehensive way. In this presentation, we will use a range of examples across earth system sciences (with a focus on hydrology) to demonstrate how GSA is a fundamental element in advancing the construction and use of earth system models, including: verifying the consistency of the model's behaviour with our conceptual understanding of the system functioning; identifying the main sources of output uncertainty so to focus efforts for uncertainty reduction; finding tipping points in forcing inputs that, if crossed, would bring the system to specific conditions we want to avoid.

  18. Understanding how education/support groups help lone mothers.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Ellen L; Kenny, Meghan; Jack, Susan; Cameron, Ruth; Secord, Margaret; Byrne, Carolyn

    2010-01-04

    Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted.

  19. Understanding how education/support groups help lone mothers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. Methods A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Results Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted. PMID:20047675

  20. How a professional interest of scientists for music has helped to develop geoethics and cross-cultural differences exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Josef; Ohska, Tokio; Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    Let us start with a story of the conservatory in Prague where a Czech student Jan Snitil met a Japanese girl Masako Nakajima. Their marriage helped to initiate a cultural exchange between their countries of birth. Later Jan Snitil as the conductor of the Opera house in Opava with the help of a NPO group under his wife had a considerable success in introducing the Czech opera Dalibor (from Bedrich Smetana; stage director Josef Novak) in Japan and by realizing the first performance of the Japanese opera "Juzuru" (stage director T. Ohska) in Opava. This brought together both respective stage directors. The intensifying interest of T. Ohska for the operas of Smetana inspired J. Novak to arrange in Prague his meeting with Vaclav Nemec well known for his promotion work of the great Czech composer. In his professional career Vaclav Nemec is the internationally known Earth scientist specialized since early 1960's in the field of mathematical geology (later also in tectonics) and since 1991 respected as the "Father of Geoethics". At the meeting Nemec recognized Ohska as a Physics Professor specialized in nuclear physic and attracted him for an active participation in the field of geoethics. Prof. Ohska prepared valuable presentations for the international session on geoethics at Pribram (2011) and especially for the International Geological Congress in Brisbane (2012). At Pribram in the course of a social party Lidmila Nemcova (co-convenor of the meeting) introduced Prof. Ohska to Waclaw Demecki, Chancellor of the Higher School of Management in Legnica (Poland). Demecki has been inviting Ohska for special lectures on science as well as on cultural heritage of Japan. Professor Ohska arranges his visits to Poland through Prague where he can meet with Novak and Nemec to discuss the staging of the last opera of Smetana "Devil's Wall". Nemec in his research had finally deciphered (2012, i.e. 130 years after the first performance) the "mystery" of this opera: the composer put

  1. The Ocean 180 Video Challenge: An Innovative Broader Impacts Strategy for Helping Scientists Share Discoveries and Connect with Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankersley, R. A.; Watson, M.; Windsor, J. G.; Buckley, M.; Diederick, L.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists conduct exciting, ground-breaking research that addresses many of world's greatest challenges. Yet, far too often, the importance, meaning, and relevance of their discoveries are never shared with persons outside their discipline. Recognizing the need for scientists to communicate more effectively with the public, the Florida Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE Florida) saw an opportunity to connect the two through film. In the fall 2013, COSEE Florida launched the Ocean 180 Video Challenge to tap into the competitive spirit of scientists and inspire them to share their latest discoveries with the public. The competition encouraged scientists to submit short, 3-minute video abstracts summarizing the important findings of recent peer-reviewed papers and highlighting the relevance, meaning, and implications of the research to persons outside their discipline. Videos were initially screened and evaluated by a team of science and communication experts and the winners (from a field of ten finalists) were selected by more than 30,000 middle school students from 285 schools in 13 countries. Our presentation will review the outcomes and lessons learned from the 2014 competition and describe how contest videos are being used for professional development/training and educational purposes. We will also describe how video competitions can benefit both scientists and the target audience and be effective outreach strategies for encouraging scientists to share new discoveries and their enthusiasm for science with K-12 students and the public.

  2. Writing Like a Scientist: Exploring Elementary Teachers' Understandings and Practices of Writing in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study examined the connections between elementary teachers’ conceptions of how scientists use writing and how the teachers used writing during science lessons. Data collected included lesson observations, interviews, handouts to students, and curriculum resources. The findings revealed that teachers in this study thought scientists write for several purposes: the presentation of data, observations, experiences, procedures, and facts. The teachers used writing tasks that mirrored this with their students. The teachers also had a limited definition of creativity in writing, and when they had students write creatively in science it was to add in fictional elements. Implications of this study include providing teachers with better models for how and why scientists write, including these models in more inquiry-based science lessons, and directly relating concepts of nature of science to elementary science writing.

  3. Helping Students Understand Intersectionality: Reflections from a Dialogue Project in Residential Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claros, Sharon Chia; Garcia, Gina A.; Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Mata, Christine

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors share insights from a dialogue project focused on intersectionality within a residential life setting and discuss additional strategies for helping students understand intersectionality.

  4. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rosa, Katemari Diogo

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the…

  5. A Method for Understanding Their Method: Discovering Scientific Inquiry through Biographies of Famous Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, Elizabeth; Fairweather, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Mendel and his peas. Goodall and her chimpanzees. Bentley and his snowflakes. Pasteur and his sheep. Not only do these stories intrigue students, but they also demonstrate the trials and tribulations associated with scientific inquiry. Using scientists' biographies piques student interest while providing an added dimension to their understanding…

  6. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rosa, Katemari Diogo

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the…

  7. A Method for Understanding Their Method: Discovering Scientific Inquiry through Biographies of Famous Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, Elizabeth; Fairweather, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Mendel and his peas. Goodall and her chimpanzees. Bentley and his snowflakes. Pasteur and his sheep. Not only do these stories intrigue students, but they also demonstrate the trials and tribulations associated with scientific inquiry. Using scientists' biographies piques student interest while providing an added dimension to their understanding…

  8. Writing Like a Scientist: Exploring Elementary Teachers' Understandings and Practices of Writing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the connections between elementary teachers' conceptions of how scientists use writing and how the teachers used writing during science lessons. Data collected included lesson observations, interviews, handouts to students, and curriculum resources. The findings revealed that teachers in this study thought…

  9. Writing Like a Scientist: Exploring Elementary Teachers' Understandings and Practices of Writing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the connections between elementary teachers' conceptions of how scientists use writing and how the teachers used writing during science lessons. Data collected included lesson observations, interviews, handouts to students, and curriculum resources. The findings revealed that teachers in this study thought…

  10. Scientist-Science Educator Collaborations: Do They Improve Students' Understanding of the Nature of Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Dunlop, Catherine; Hodum, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a research study in which a biologist and his research on Antarctic seabirds became part of an integrated science course for prospective elementary teachers. Students used the scientist's database on seabird chick growth rates for an experimental design investigation while the "regular" classes had a single science…

  11. Uncertainty in geohazard understanding and communicating hazards and risk between scientists and the UK Insurance industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawley, Russell; Lee, Kathryn; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    At BGS, expert elicitation has been used to evaluate the relative impacts arising from multiple geohazards that can affect UK housing stock. In turn this 'consensus' understanding has been developed into a tool to assist the UK insurance industry underwrite the domestic property market. BGS models six geohazards deemed relevant to UK Housing: Landslides, Shrink-swell (heave), Compressibles, Dissolution (Karst), collapsibles and running sand. The models are widely used and have been developed over 2 decades of research. However, stakeholders such as the insurance industry are not well equipped to managed geohazard models directly and need the information to be categorised in a meaningful way, appropriate to their business models. Creating terminologies to communicate the relative threats for each geohazard has been relatively straightforward, but communicating the impacts of multiple geohazards, or comparing the relative risks of one geohazard against another has proved more difficult. Expert elicitation has been used since 2010 to try and build a consensus model for geohazards and to help BGS communicate its knowledge to stakeholders. Typically, the BGS geohazard models are provided with 5 levels of susceptibility: A (low or absent) ,B, C, D and E (high). Resolving individual models is relatively simple, but the insurance market is extremely dynamic and a need to simplify and convey the possible threats from all geohazards into a single 'rating' of susceptibility has emerged. This poses a problem when trying to convey the geological understanding behind the models. For example, how do you convey the combined (or comparative) susceptibility of a high susceptibility to Dissolution, with a moderate susceptibility to Landslides. This complexity is further hampered when needing to consider that stakeholders resolve spatial distributions via use of frameworks such as 'Postcode' sectors, and that the outputs of most geohazard models are sensitive to scope and scale of

  12. When Young Children Need Help: Understanding and Addressing Emotional, Behavioral, and Developmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    You know what it's like to spend time with youngsters who are particularly puzzling or hard to help. "When Young Children Need Help" helps early childhood educators make sense of what is going on for such children and use that understanding to promote growth and mastery. Written for child care center staff, family child care providers,…

  13. Scientists Shaping the Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

  14. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  15. Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help…

  16. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in…

  17. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in…

  18. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  19. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  20. Evaluating Two Approaches to Helping College Students Understand Evolutionary Trees through Diagramming Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Judy; Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C.; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn…

  1. "Ice out": the contribution of citizen scientists to our understanding of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, R. Timothy; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2016-04-01

    Long-term trends in spring 'ice out' dates (1836-2013) for twelve lakes in Maine, New Brunswick and New Hampshire, in eastern North America reveal a remarkable coherency across the region (rs=0.462-0.933, p<0.01). These data have been compiled since the early 19th century, primarily by amateur citizen scientists, for a variety of purposes, including determining fishing seasons, estimating the spring opening of ferry boat routes, community contests, and general curiosity. Ice out dates correlate closely with late-winter/early-spring, March-April (MA), instrumental temperature records from across the region (rs=0.488-0.816, p<0.01). This correlation permits use of ice out dates as a proxy to extend the shorter MA instrumental record (1876-2013). Mean ice out dates trended progressively earlier during the recovery from the Little Ice Age through to the 1940s, and gradually became later again through to the late 1970s, when ice out dates had returned to values more typical of the late nineteenth century. Post-1970's ice out dates resumed trending toward earlier dates, with the twenty-first century being characterized by the earliest ice out dates on record. Spectral and wavelet time series analysis indicate that ice out is influenced by several teleconnections including the Quasi-biennial Oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation as well as a significant correlation between inland lake records and the Arctic Oscillation. The relative influence of these teleconnections is variable with notable shifts occurring after ~1870, ~1925, and ~1980-2000. The intermittent expression of these cycles in the ice out and MA instrumental record is not only influenced by absolute changes in the intensity of the various teleconnections and other climate drivers, but by phase interference between teleconnections, which periodically damps the various signals.

  2. A Chinese Young Adult Non-Scientist's Epistemologies and Her Understandings of the Concept of Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are…

  3. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment--Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding…

  4. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment--Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding…

  5. A Chinese young adult non-scientist's epistemologies and her understandings of the concept of speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2015-08-01

    Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are native English speakers from Western cultures. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether Hammer and his colleagues' claims concerning learners' epistemologies could be extended to individuals who lack advanced mathematics and science training, have had different cultural and learning experiences, and have grown up speaking and learning in another language. To this end, we interviewed a participant with these characteristics about her understandings of the concept of speed. Our findings show that previous theoretical frameworks can be used to explain the epistemologies of the individual examined in this study. The case suggests that these theories may be relevant regardless of the learner's mathematics and science background, language, educational experience, and cultural background. In the future, more cases should be examined with learners from different academic backgrounds and cultures to further support this finding.

  6. Things That Scientists Don't Understand About NASA Spaceflight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, S. H.; Bauer, Terri; Rogers, Shanna

    2017-01-01

    studies due to this limit. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) provides extensive support, via ISSMP, to help investigators cope with all of the intricacies of conducting human spaceflight research. This presentation will help you take the best advantage of that support.

  7. Playing Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  8. Playing Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  9. The Value of Ellul's Analysis in Understanding Propaganda in the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on Ellul's analysis of propaganda in understanding propaganda in the helping professions. Key in such an analysis is the interweaving of the psychological and sociological. Contrary to the discourse in mission statements of professional organizations and their codes of ethics calling for informed consent, competence of…

  10. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  11. Reasoning, Not Recipes: Helping Your Students Develop Statistical Understanding and Enjoy the Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Gai

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is often presented to students as a series of algorithms to be learnt by heart and applied at the appropriate time to get "the correct answer". This approach, while it may in fact produce the right answer, has been shown to be minimally effective at helping students understand the underlying statistical concepts. As Holmes noted,…

  12. Students Meet Wilfred Gordon: Helping Students with Special Needs Understand Their Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how memory works is important for success in school, for "all" students. One way for teachers to help students with disabilities learn about memory is to use picture books and then learn strategies. Picture books are useful for students with disabilities because these resources have moved beyond a means to scaffold early literacy…

  13. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique to Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Steven W.; Hill, Brent J. F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases…

  14. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  15. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique to Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Steven W.; Hill, Brent J. F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases…

  16. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Measurement Error Tutorial in Helping Teachers Understand Score Report Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Zwick, Rebecca; Vezzu, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a short web-based tutorial in helping teachers to better understand the portrayal of measurement error in test score reports. The short video tutorial included both verbal and graphical representations of measurement error. Results showed a significant difference in comprehension scores…

  17. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Measurement Error Tutorial in Helping Teachers Understand Score Report Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Zwick, Rebecca; Vezzu, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a short web-based tutorial in helping teachers to better understand the portrayal of measurement error in test score reports. The short video tutorial included both verbal and graphical representations of measurement error. Results showed a significant difference in comprehension scores…

  18. Compassion Fatigue as a Theoretical Framework to Help Understand Burnout among Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari; Palladino, John M.; Barnett, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Compassion fatigue is a theoretical framework researchers have applied to helping professions other than teaching. The purpose of this report is to propose the use of this theory to better understand the prevalent rates of special education teachers' exit from the profession often labeled as burnout. A qualitative study with six middle school…

  19. The Value of Ellul's Analysis in Understanding Propaganda in the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on Ellul's analysis of propaganda in understanding propaganda in the helping professions. Key in such an analysis is the interweaving of the psychological and sociological. Contrary to the discourse in mission statements of professional organizations and their codes of ethics calling for informed consent, competence of…

  20. Eighteen-month-old infants show false belief understanding in an active helping paradigm.

    PubMed

    Buttelmann, David; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Recently, several studies have claimed that soon after their first birthday infants understand others' false beliefs. However, some have questioned these findings based on criticisms of the looking-time paradigms used. Here we report a new paradigm to test false belief understanding in infants using a more active behavioral response: helping. Specifically, the task was for infants to help an adult achieve his goal - but to determine that goal infants had to take into account what the adult believed (i.e., whether or not he falsely believed there was a toy inside a box). Results showed that by 18 months of age infants successfully took into account the adult's belief in the process of attempting to determine his goal. Results for 16-month-olds were in the same direction but less clear. These results represent by far the youngest age of false belief understanding in a task with an active behavioral measure.

  1. Peoples' understandings of a primary care-based mental health self-help clinic.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anne; Oliver, Dianne; Bower, Peter; Lovell, Karina; Richards, Dave

    2004-04-01

    Self-help programmes are increasingly advocated as a means of managing mental health problems. This qualitative study explored patients' understandings of the use of a UK primary care-based self-help clinic (facilitated by a nurse). As part of a wider evaluation of the clinic, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sub-sample of clinic users. Data indicate that people understand their problem as one of having lost an ability to cope, and that the ethos underlying the clinic is well matched to restore a sense of coping, by motivating patients to re-establish and retain control over their everyday lives. However, some patients experienced a sense of dissonance between prior expectations and actual use of the self-help clinic. Without prior familiarity with self-help, engaging the patient as the mechanism of change may be difficult. Some patients expected formal counselling and were influenced in this by their previous experience of services and discussions with the GP at the point of referral. It takes time and active engagement with self-help materials before patients become aware that they are a crucial mechanism of change. Patients may benefit from information and a referral process, which emphasises the centrality of self-efficacy and the patient as 'change agent' prior to referral.

  2. Understanding the challenges of integrating scientists and clinical teachers in psychiatry education: findings from an innovative faculty development program.

    PubMed

    Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Hodges, Brian D; Wasylenki, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Medical schools and departments of psychiatry around the world face challenges in integrating science with clinical teaching. This project was designed to identify attitudes toward the integration of science in clinical teaching and address barriers to collaboration between scientists and clinical teachers. The authors explored the interactions of 20 faculty members (10 scientists and 10 clinical teachers) taking part in a 1-year structured faculty development program, based on a partnership model, designed to encourage collaborative interaction between scientists and clinical teachers. Data were collected before, during, and after the program using participant observations, surveys, participant diaries, and focus groups. Qualitative data were analyzed iteratively using the method of meaning condensation, and further informed with descriptive statistics generated from the pre- and postsurveys. Scientists and clinicians were strikingly unfamiliar with each other's worldviews, work experiences, professional expectations, and approaches to teaching. The partnership model appeared to influence integration at a social level, and led to the identification of departmental structural barriers that aggravate the divide between scientists and clinical teachers. Issues related to the integration of social scientists in particular emerged. Creating a formal program to encourage interaction of scientists and clinical teachers provided a forum for identifying some of the barriers associated with the collaboration of scientists and clinical teachers. Our data point to directions for organizational structures and faculty development that support the integration of scientists from a wide range of disciplines with their clinical faculty colleagues.

  3. Purposeful and targeted use of scientists to support in-service teachers' understandings and teaching of scientific inquiry and nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Kevin

    Efforts have been made to enhance teachers' understanding and teaching of NOS and/or SI by immersing teachers into the field and lab work of scientists through intensive summer institutes. Results have been mixed and the samples have been small. This may be due to several factors: implicit strategies to learn and teach about NOS and/or SI (Schwartz, Lederman, & Crawford, 2004), experiences lasting as little as two weeks (Morrison, Raab, & Ingram, 2009), lack of teacher availability during the school year or summer, intimidation of subject matter or scientists, etc. The challenge remains to see if scientist-teacher collaborations are a meaningful and effective way to enhance teachers' understandings and instruction of NOS and SI. Learning about scientists and their culture while experiencing explicit instruction of NOS has demonstrated improved understandings of NOS (Bianchini & Colburn, 2000). However, Morrison, Raab, and Ingram (2009) identify that there is still a shortage of literature available addressing how teachers' view of NOS and SI may be impacted through interactions with scientists when not involved in authentic research. To this author's knowledge, there is no research available that investigates teachers' instruction of NOS and SI while in the same condition. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of in-service teachers' views of scientists, their understandings of NOS and SI, their view of teaching NOS and SI while engaged in a professional development experience that provided participants with a sustained immersion into the culture, beliefs and knowledge of scientists while in a NOS and SI course. Teachers showed substantial changes (pretest to posttest) on all seven aspects of NOS. And, as with NOS, teachers showed substantial improvement on all four aspects of SI investigated. The results of this investigation suggest an approach to teaching nature of science and scientific inquiry that may be an effective, lasting and

  4. Understanding help-seeking decisions in people with heart failure: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander M; Savard, Lori A; Spaling, Melisa A; Heath, Stephanie; Duncan, Amanda S; Spiers, Judith A

    2012-12-01

    To understand the process of help-seeking among heart failure patients from the perspectives of patients, caregivers and health professionals. Systematic review using qualitative meta-synthesis. A systematic search (20th May 2011) was conducted to identify studies published in English as full papers ≥1995 reporting primary qualitative data with extractable heart failure-specific data or themes related to help-seeking in patients, caregivers or health professionals. Databases searched were: CINAHL, Medline, PsycInfo, Social Science Citation Index, Embase, Social policy/Practice, SocIndex, Ageline, Health Source Nursing, Scopus; additionally, we consulted with experts and manually searched references. 58 studies (990 patients; 274 female, 527 male, 189 sex not described; 229 caregivers, 79 health professionals) were included. Heart failure help-seeking was embedded in daily experiences of heart failure but ongoing symptoms were confusing, ambiguous and disruptive; little support was available from professionals to interpret the presence and significance of fluctuations in symptoms for help-seeking. Other significant barriers to help-seeking were: avoidance-based coping, fear of hospitals and misplaced reluctance to be burdensome. Help-seeking was facilitated by good involvement and frank communication between patients, caregivers and health professionals and the presence of a sense of elevated personal risk. Health services should harness primary care providers and support patients and caregivers to prioritize development of objective symptom monitoring skills, recognize and personally assimilate the elevated risks of heart failure and help-seeking delays and discourage avoidance-based coping and unwarranted concerns that downplay the significance of heart failure and urgency to address symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding what's critical in protecting our society: Can satellite observations help? (Invited paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-05-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  6. Understanding What's Critical in Protecting Our Society: Can Satellite Observations Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-01-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  7. Understanding What's Critical in Protecting Our Society: Can Satellite Observations Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-01-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  8. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    PubMed

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Pegasus launch vehicle is moved back to its hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Pegasus will carry the SciSat-1 spacecraft in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-27

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Pegasus launch vehicle is moved back to its hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Pegasus will carry the SciSat-1 spacecraft in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The SciSat-1 spacecraft is uncrated at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. SciSat-1 weighs approximately 330 pounds and will be placed in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The SciSat-1 spacecraft is uncrated at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. SciSat-1 weighs approximately 330 pounds and will be placed in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., the Pegasus launch vehicle is moved toward its hangar. The Pegasus will carry the SciSat-1 spacecraft in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-27

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., the Pegasus launch vehicle is moved toward its hangar. The Pegasus will carry the SciSat-1 spacecraft in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., prepare to move the SciSat-1 spacecraft. SciSat-1 weighs approximately 330 pounds and will be placed in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., prepare to move the SciSat-1 spacecraft. SciSat-1 weighs approximately 330 pounds and will be placed in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., the Pegasus launch vehicle is moved into its hangar. The Pegasus will carry the SciSat-1 spacecraft in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-27

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., the Pegasus launch vehicle is moved into its hangar. The Pegasus will carry the SciSat-1 spacecraft in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The SciSat-1 spacecraft is revealed after being uncrated at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. SciSat-1 weighs approximately 330 pounds and will be placed in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The SciSat-1 spacecraft is revealed after being uncrated at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. SciSat-1 weighs approximately 330 pounds and will be placed in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Inside the hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers wait for the Pegasus launch vehicle to be moved inside. The Pegasus will carry the SciSat-1 spacecraft in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-27

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Inside the hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers wait for the Pegasus launch vehicle to be moved inside. The Pegasus will carry the SciSat-1 spacecraft in a 400-mile-high polar orbit to investigate processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The scientific mission of SciSat-1 is to measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly at high altitudes. The data from the satellite will provide Canadian and international scientists with improved measurements relating to global ozone processes and help policymakers assess existing environmental policy and develop protective measures for improving the health of our atmosphere, preventing further ozone depletion. The mission is designed to last two years.

  16. Yes You Can! A Booklet to Help Young People with Learning Disabilities Understand and Help Themselves. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Joanne

    Intended for students with learning problems, this booklet is designed to help the student deal with his/her learning disability. Presented in simple language and cartoon-like illustrations, this publication addresses the causes of and misconceptions about learning problems, how it feels to have a learning disability, what can be done, and where…

  17. Yes You Can! A Booklet to Help Young People with Learning Disabilities Understand and Help Themselves. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Joanne

    Intended for students with learning problems, this booklet is designed to help the student deal with his/her learning disability. Presented in simple language and cartoon-like illustrations, this publication addresses the causes of and misconceptions about learning problems, how it feels to have a learning disability, what can be done, and where…

  18. How to help patients understand and conquer grief. Avoiding depression in the midst of sadness.

    PubMed

    Crow, H E

    1991-06-01

    Grief is a painful yet normal process that many patients do not fully understand or appreciate. Any person may be at risk for depression as a result of grief-inducing events. Early, organized intervention by primary care physicians can help patients return to full emotional health and maintain self-esteem. When the behavioral markers that measure the intensity of grief are named and used as a scale by which to measure progress, grief reactions can be jointly managed by patient and physician in brief counseling sessions over a reasonable period of time. I believe this is an efficient, effective, and valuable service to patients.

  19. Give Them The HUG: An Innovative Approach to Helping Parents Understand the Language of Their Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Tedder, Janice Lee

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests, and perinatal educators experience, that misunderstanding newborn behavior can undermine a new parent's confidence, decrease breastfeeding success, interfere with bonding, and even contribute to neglect and abuse. This article examines current literature and focuses on three skills parents need in order to become confident and effective mothers and fathers: understanding a newborn's state, reading an infant's cues, and appreciating a baby's capabilities. Using language that is family-friendly, concise, and clear, this article describes an innovative program, called “The HUG,” which provides this information and gives perinatal educators new skills and techniques for explaining newborn behavior to parents in order to help parents understand, enjoy, and attach to their baby. PMID:19252684

  20. Helping individuals to understand synergistic risks: an assessment of message contents depicting mechanistic and probabilistic concepts.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ian G J; Johnson, Johnnie E V; Luke, Michelle A

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that certain hazard combinations interact to present synergistic risks. However, little is known about the most effective ways of helping individuals to understand this complex risk concept. More specifically, there is an absence of empirical research that has assessed the relative efficacy of messages that explain either the causal mechanism and/or the probabilistic components of synergistic risks. In an experiment designed to address this issue, we presented participants with messages concerning the synergistic risk of developing esophageal cancer for individuals who consume both tobacco and alcohol. Relative to a control group, we compared the extent to which messages featuring content detailing the underlying biological mechanism, the probabilistic risk, or both improved understanding of the synergistic risk. Our results showed that messages containing details of both the mechanism and probabilistic information were most effective at enabling individuals to understand that the alcohol-tobacco combination presents a synergistic risk. In addition, large improvements in the accuracy of cancer frequency estimates were observed amongst individuals who received probabilistic information, and the highest relative increase in professed willingness to adopt precautionary behaviors was observed amongst individuals who received the mechanism information only. Importantly, these findings could be utilized in the development of a general model for the communication of synergistic risks. Furthermore, in contrast to previous findings, our study demonstrates that risk messages can be both effective and efficient in helping individuals to acquire a greater understanding of synergistic risks. Acquiring such knowledge could lead to significant improvements in risk-related decisions concerning combined hazards.

  1. Scientists in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, J.

    2009-12-01

    High school science is often the first time students are presented with the scientific method as a tool to assist discovery. I aim to help students ‘think like a scientist’, through my role as a graduate student NSF GK-12 fellow in the Ocean and Coastal Interdisciplinary Science (OACIS) program, where I am paired with a high school science teacher and their classes for the year. To help students gain a familiarity and understanding of how scientists approach research, I will (1) utilize technology, including youtube, powerpoint, and research modeling applications; (2) bring in experts from the University to demonstrate the diversity of the science community; (3) connect with the classroom research from meetings, journals and reports. The goal is to broaden the scope of how research science is conducted, but also to allow individual students to be involved in projects, from developing a hypothesis to presenting their data. A survey at the beginning of the academic year and a survey before the AGU Fall meeting will be compared to assess the influence of having a research scientist present. Results will include how students view of science and scientists has changed, feedback on how successfully technology has improved students’ comprehension, and ideas for making science approachable for diverse high school learners.

  2. A simple classroom teaching technique to help students understand Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

    PubMed

    Runge, Steven W; Hill, Brent J F; Moran, William M; Turrens, Julio F

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases in marble concentration increase the number of marbles transferred per unit time (initial rate, V(0)) until the turnover number becomes rate limiting and V(0) approaches the maximum velocity (V(max)), as described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. With this demonstration, students visualize an important concept: the turnover number is constant and independent of marble concentration. A student assessment of this exercise showed that it helped students visualize the turnover number and V(max) but not K(m), the marble concentration at which V(0) is one-half V(max). To address the concept of K(m), we use supplemental laboratory and lecture exercises. This exercise with plastic containers and marbles is equally suited to demonstrate the kinetics of carrier-mediated membrane transport. We conclude that this exercise helps students visualize the turnover number and V(max) and gives students important insights into the kinetic parameters used to characterize the catalytic activity of enzymes and membrane transporters.

  3. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique To Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brent J.F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases in marble concentration increase the number of marbles transferred per unit time (initial rate, V0) until the turnover number becomes rate limiting and V0 approaches the maximum velocity (Vmax), as described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. With this demonstration, students visualize an important concept: the turnover number is constant and independent of marble concentration. A student assessment of this exercise showed that it helped students visualize the turnover number and Vmax but not Km, the marble concentration at which V0 is one-half Vmax. To address the concept of Km, we use supplemental laboratory and lecture exercises. This exercise with plastic containers and marbles is equally suited to demonstrate the kinetics of carrier-mediated membrane transport. We conclude that this exercise helps students visualize the turnover number and Vmax and gives students important insights into the kinetic parameters used to characterize the catalytic activity of enzymes and membrane transporters. PMID:17146042

  4. Purposeful and Targeted Use of Scientists to Support In-Service Teachers' Understandings and Teaching of Scientific Inquiry and Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts have been made to enhance teachers' understanding and teaching of NOS and/or SI by immersing teachers into the field and lab work of scientists through intensive summer institutes. Results have been mixed and the samples have been small. This may be due to several factors: implicit strategies to learn and teach about NOS and/or SI…

  5. "Sometimes What They Think is Helpful is Not Really Helpful": Understanding Engagement in the Program of Assertive Community Treatment (PACT).

    PubMed

    George, Miriam; Manuel, Jennifer I; Gandy-Guedes, Megan E; McCray, Shenee; Negatu, Dina

    2016-11-01

    This exploratory study recruited a purposive sample of twelve clinical staff from a Program of Assertive Community Treatment (PACT) team in central Virginia to understand the perceptions and experiences related to assertive engagement. The researchers coded the transcribed data initially as twenty-three sub-themes and further refined the data into four overarching themes: characteristics of assertive engagement, PACT engagement strategies and engagement strategies for difficult to engage clients. Further analysis emphasized that PACT team members emphasized the importance of the therapeutic relationship for engagement, which proves challenging for hard-to-engage clients.

  6. Understanding the Sea Ice Zone: Scientists and Communities Partnering to Archive, Analyze and Disseminate Local Ice Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Oldenburg, J.; Liu, M.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Kaufman, M.; Eicken, H.; Parsons, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of sea ice is critical to the hunting, whaling, and cultural activities of many Indigenous communities in Northern and Western Alaska. Experienced hunters have monitored seasonal changes of the sea ice over many years, giving them a unique expertise in assessing the current state of the sea ice as well as any anomalies in seasonal sea ice conditions. The Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network (SIZONet), in collaboration with the Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA), has developed an online application for collecting, storing, and analyzing sea ice observations contributed by local experts from coastal Alaskan communities. Here we present the current iteration of the application, outline future plans and discuss how the development process and resulting system have improved our collective understanding of sea ice processes and changes. The SIZONet application design is based on the needs of the research scientists responsible for entering observation data into the database, the needs of local sea ice experts contributing their observations and knowledge, and the information needs of Alaska coastal communities. Entry forms provide a variety of input methods, including menus, check boxes, and free text input. Input options strive to balance flexibility in capturing concepts and details with the need for analytical consistency. Currently, research staff at the University of Alaska Fairbanks use the application to enter observations received via written or electronic communications from local sea ice experts. Observation data include current weather conditions, snow and ice quantity and quality, and wildlife sighted or taken. Future plans call for direct use of the SIZONet interface by local sea ice experts as well as students, both as contributors to the data collection and as users seeking meaning in the data. This functionality is currently available to a limited number of community members as we extend the application to support

  7. Meet EPA Scientist Dermont Bouchard, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Scientist Dermont Bouchard, Ph.D., is working to better understand how tiny nanomaterials might be released into the environment. His research helps regulators and other decision-makers lower risks and better protect human health and the environment

  8. Meet EPA Scientist Valerie Zartarian, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Senior exposure scientist and research environmental engineer Valerie Zartarian, Ph.D. helps build computer models and other tools that advance our understanding of how people interact with chemicals.

  9. Helping People Understand Soils - Perspectives from the US National Cooperative Soil Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Paul; Cheever, Tammy; Greene, Linda; Southard, Susan; Levin, Maxine; Lindbo, David L.; Monger, Curtis

    2017-04-01

    Throughout the history of the US National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS), soil science education has been a part of the mission to better understand one of our most precious natural resources: the Soil. The poster will highlight the many products and programs related to soils that USDA NRCS (soils.usda.gov) has developed over the years for K-12 and college/professional education. NRCS scientific publications covering topics on soil properties, soil classification, soil health and soil quality have become an important part of the university soil science curriculum. Classroom lesson plans and grade appropriate materials help K-12 teachers introduce soil concepts to students and include detailed instructions and materials for classroom demonstrations of soil properties. A Handbook for Collegiate Soils Contests support universities that conduct Collegiate Soil Judging contests.

  10. 'Genetics home reference': helping patients understand the role of genetics in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Fomous, Cathy; Mitchell, Joyce A; McCray, Alexa

    2006-01-01

    The surge of information generated by the Human Genome Project has left many health professionals and their patients struggling to understand the role of genetics in health and disease. To aid the lay public and health professionals, the US National Library of Medicine developed an online resource called 'Genetics Home Reference' (GHR), located at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/. Launched in April 2003, GHR's goal is to help the public interpret the health implications of the Human Genome Project. It bridges the clinical questions of consumers and the rich technical data emerging from the sequenced human genome. The GHR web site is designed for easy navigation among summaries for genetic conditions and the related gene(s) and chromosome(s). This design strategy enhances the user's appreciation of how genes, chromosomes, and conditions are interrelated.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: understanding the chemistry will help our diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Rozas-Muñoz, E; Lepoittevin, J P; Pujol, R M; Giménez-Arnau, A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to plants is common. Potentially allergenic plants and plant products are found in many everyday environments, such as the home, the garden, the workplace, and recreational settings. By improving our knowledge of allergenic plant-derived chemical compounds, we will be better positioned to identify novel allergens. We review the most relevant chemical allergens that contribute to plant allergic contact dermatitis and propose a clinical classification system based on 5 major families of chemical sensitizers: α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones, quinones, phenol derivatives, terpenes, and miscellaneous structures (disulfides, isothiocyanates, and polyacetylenic derivates). We also describe the different clinical pictures of plant allergic contact dermatitis and review currently available patch test materials. A better understanding of the specific allergens involved in plant allergic contact dermatitis will help to predict cross-reactivity between different plant species or families.

  12. The "Mysteries of Hypnosis:" Helping Us Better Understand Hypnosis and Empathic Involvement Theory (EIT).

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Wickramasekera II (2015) has penned a comprehensive and thoughtful review article demonstrating how empathy is intimately involved in the psychology and neurophysiology of hypnosis and the self. Hypnosis is a very "mental" or subjective phenomenon for both the client and the research participant. To better assess the mind of the client/participant during hypnosis, it is my belief that we need to generate more "precise" phenomenological descriptors of the mind during hypnosis and related empathic conditions, as Wickramasekera II (2015) has suggested in his article. Although any phenomenological methodology will have its limits and disadvantages, noetics (as defined in the article below) can help us better understand hypnosis, empathic involvement theory, and the brain/mind/behavior interface. By quantifying the mind in a comprehensive manner, just as the brain is comprehensively quantified via fMRI and qEEG technologies, noetic analysis can help us more precisely assess the mind and relate it to the brain and human behavior and experience.

  13. Embedding With Scientists Results In Better Understanding Of How Science Is Really Done, More Human Stories, And More Effective Communication About Controversial Topics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently much science communication focused on press conferences and results, "Eureka"-moments issued from podiums. Recent documentaries, however, such as PARTICLE FEVER and THE YEAR OF PLUTO go behind the scenes to show long years of effort, and occasional failures, revealing a more honest—and more engaging—picture of how science is actually done. Audiences respond when researchers show a more human face, and candid moments of stress and exhaustion as well as exhilaration make eventual results more meaningful. This presentation will offer evidence that this approach is also effective on contested topics such as climate change, where long-term relationships between journalists and researchers can help structure communications that avoid distracting controversies. A cameraman spends a full week with ornithologist George Divoky on remote Cooper Island, Alaska: the resulting video podcast informs a stage play in London, and George goes on the road with POLAR-PALOOZA across America and internationally, sharing stories about the birds he studies and the polar bears he has to increasingly avoid, as climate change brings them onshore in search of food. POLAR-PALOOZA also introduced Richard Alley and other Arctic and Antarctic scientists to a team of producers and directors, resulting in a 3-part PBS series and museum outreach that is able to present climate change science in an authoritative and apolitical way. That leads, in turn, to leading researchers including video and more visually-dynamic approaches in communicating their work to the public. An upcoming public television series, THE CROWD & THE CLOUD, will devote one program to insights about climate change gained over decades of interaction between producers and scientists. Many mainstream media outlets have cut back on science coverage and released their dedicated "beat" reporters. However a wealth of new channels offer venues for this approach, and falling prices for high quality cameras and editing

  14. Understanding the Challenges of Integrating Scientists and Clinical Teachers in Psychiatry Education: Findings from an Innovative Faculty Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martimianakis, Maria Athina; Hodges, Brian D.; Wasylenki, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Medical schools and departments of psychiatry around the world face challenges in integrating science with clinical teaching. This project was designed to identify attitudes toward the integration of science in clinical teaching and address barriers to collaboration between scientists and clinical teachers. Methods: The authors explored…

  15. From the Horse's Mouth: Why Scientists' Views Are Crucial to Nature of Science Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, Derek; Wong, Siu Ling

    2014-01-01

    Written in response to criticism of our work by Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, this position paper reaffirms and reinforces our position about the need to broaden and enrich the scope of nature of science (NOS) oriented curricula by exposing students to the voices of practising scientists. While Abd-El-Khalick's motivation for promoting the so-called…

  16. From the Horse's Mouth: Why Scientists' Views Are Crucial to Nature of Science Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, Derek; Wong, Siu Ling

    2014-01-01

    Written in response to criticism of our work by Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, this position paper reaffirms and reinforces our position about the need to broaden and enrich the scope of nature of science (NOS) oriented curricula by exposing students to the voices of practising scientists. While Abd-El-Khalick's motivation for promoting the so-called…

  17. Understanding the Challenges of Integrating Scientists and Clinical Teachers in Psychiatry Education: Findings from an Innovative Faculty Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martimianakis, Maria Athina; Hodges, Brian D.; Wasylenki, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Medical schools and departments of psychiatry around the world face challenges in integrating science with clinical teaching. This project was designed to identify attitudes toward the integration of science in clinical teaching and address barriers to collaboration between scientists and clinical teachers. Methods: The authors explored…

  18. Evaluating Two Approaches to Helping College Students Understand Evolutionary Trees through Diagramming Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C.; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn macroevolutionary topics. Treatment 1 is a laboratory for the software program EvoBeaker designed to teach students about evolutionary trees. We tested Treatment 1 among nine college-level biology classes and administered pre/posttests to assess learning gains. We then sought to determine whether the learning gains from Treatment 1 were comparable to those derived from an alternate hands-on treatment, specifically the combination of a prerecorded lecture on DVD and paper-based activity based on Goldsmith's Great Clade Race (Treatment 2). Comparisons of pre- and posttests among participants using either Treatment 1 or 2 show large learning gains on some misconceptions and skills beyond knowledge gained from reading standard textbook entries. Both treatments performed equivalently in overall learning gains, though both had areas where they performed better or worse. Furthermore, gains among students who used Treatment 1 representing a wide range of universities suggest that outcomes are potentially applicable to a variety of “real-world” biology classes. PMID:18519610

  19. Evaluating two approaches to helping college students understand evolutionary trees through diagramming tasks.

    PubMed

    Perry, Judy; Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn macroevolutionary topics. Treatment 1 is a laboratory for the software program EvoBeaker designed to teach students about evolutionary trees. We tested Treatment 1 among nine college-level biology classes and administered pre/posttests to assess learning gains. We then sought to determine whether the learning gains from Treatment 1 were comparable to those derived from an alternate hands-on treatment, specifically the combination of a prerecorded lecture on DVD and paper-based activity based on Goldsmith's Great Clade Race (Treatment 2). Comparisons of pre- and posttests among participants using either Treatment 1 or 2 show large learning gains on some misconceptions and skills beyond knowledge gained from reading standard textbook entries. Both treatments performed equivalently in overall learning gains, though both had areas where they performed better or worse. Furthermore, gains among students who used Treatment 1 representing a wide range of universities suggest that outcomes are potentially applicable to a variety of "real-world" biology classes.

  20. Postmodernism for animal scientists.

    PubMed

    Schillo, K K; Thompson, P B

    2003-12-01

    Many scientists regard the term "postmodernism" as controversial. Because postmodern theorists question whether science can be objective, some scientists view postmodernism as anti-scientific. In this paper, we argue that traditional accounts of science developed during the modern era (16th, 17th, and 18th centuries) are still influential in animal science, but are no longer plausible. In particular, the view that science automatically leads to human betterment seems to be disingenuous. A postmodern view that portrays science as a political activity seems more plausible, and offers a means to better understand contentious policy issues that involve science. Although most animal scientists accept the view that theory selection, experimental designs, and technology development require value-laden judgments, most fail to recognize that such values may be politically motivated and embrace prevailing political structures. Postmodernists such as Michel Foucault argue that through the generation of knowledge, scientific disciplines create a discourse that serves to maintain a particular social structure that has political implications. Viewed in this way, it becomes clear how various interest groups can be critical of certain scientific programs. For example, groups that oppose research dealing with cloning, genetically modified organisms, and intensive livestock production may not be as much opposed to science as they are to the political interests served by this science. In other words, such groups view these research agendas as promoting policies that place them at risk. Such a postmodern account of science, may help animal scientists better understand the nature of contentious issues, and provide a basis for reforming the animal science discipline in ways that make it more responsive to the diverse interests of a pluralistic society.

  1. The CAULDRON game: Helping decision makers understand extreme weather event attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    There is a recognition from academics and stakeholders that climate science has a fundamental role to play in the decision making process, but too frequently there is still uncertainty about what, when, how and why to use it. Stakeholders suggest that it is because the science is presented in an inaccessible manner, while academics suggest it is because the stakeholders do not have the scientific knowledge to understand and apply the science appropriately. What is apparent is that stakeholders need support, and that there is an onus on academia to provide it. This support is even more important with recent developments in climate science, such as extreme weather event attribution. We are already seeing the impacts of extreme weather events around the world causing lost of life and damage to property and infrastructure with current research suggesting that these events could become more frequent and more intense. If this is to be the case then a better understanding of the science will be vital in developing robust adaptation and business planning. The use of games, role playing and simulations to aid learning has long been understood in education but less so as a tool to support stakeholder understanding of climate science. Providing a 'safe' space where participants can actively engage with concepts, ideas and often emotions, can lead to deep understanding that is not possible through more passive mechanisms such as papers and web sites. This paper reports on a game that was developed through a collaboration led by the Red Cross/Red Crescent, University of Oxford and University of Reading to help stakeholders understand the role of weather event attribution in the decision making process. The game has already been played successfully at a number of high profile events including COP 19 and the African Climate Conference. It has also been used with students as part of a postgraduate environmental management course. As well as describing the design principles of the

  2. Analyzing prospective teachers' images of scientists using positive, negative and stereotypical images of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Esprívalo Harrell, Pamela; Wojnowski, David

    2013-04-01

    Background and purpose : This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the literature on the images, role and work of scientists. Sample, design and method : One hundred and ninety-six drawings of scientists, generated by prospective teachers, were analyzed using the Draw-A-Scientist-Test Checklist (DAST-C), a binary linear regression and the conceptual framework. Results : The results of the binary linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant difference for two DAST-C elements: ethnicity differences with regard to drawing a scientist who was Caucasian and gender differences for indications of danger. Analysis using the conceptual framework helped to categorize the same drawings into positive, stereotypical, negative and composite images of a scientist. Conclusions : The conceptual framework revealed that drawings were focused on the physical appearance of the scientist, and to a lesser extent on the equipment, location and science-related practices that provided the context of a scientist's role and work. Implications for teacher educators include the need to understand that there is a need to provide tools, like the conceptual framework used in this study, to help prospective teachers to confront and engage with their multidimensional perspectives of scientists in light of the current trends on perceiving and valuing scientists. In addition, teacher educators need to use the conceptual framework, which yields qualitative perspectives about drawings, together with the DAST-C, which yields quantitative measure for drawings, to help prospective teachers to gain a holistic outlook on their drawings of scientists.

  3. Helping Students Understand Real Capacitors: Measuring Efficiencies in a School Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeao; Sampaio e Sousa, Adriano

    2008-01-01

    A recent reform in the Portuguese secondary school curriculum reintroduced the study of capacitors. Thus we decided to implement some experimental activities on this subject with our undergraduate students in physics education courses. A recent announcement of a new kind of capacitor being developed by a team of scientists at Massachusetts…

  4. Helping Students Understand Real Capacitors: Measuring Efficiencies in a School Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeao; Sampaio e Sousa, Adriano

    2008-01-01

    A recent reform in the Portuguese secondary school curriculum reintroduced the study of capacitors. Thus we decided to implement some experimental activities on this subject with our undergraduate students in physics education courses. A recent announcement of a new kind of capacitor being developed by a team of scientists at Massachusetts…

  5. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed

    Shugart, Erika C; Racaniello, Vincent R

    2015-12-22

    Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or "Sagan effect" associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist's career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. Copyright © 2015 Shugart and Racaniello.

  6. A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    MOORE,LARRY M.

    2000-04-11

    High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs.

  7. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Aiken, G.R.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs. The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  8. Diabetic retinopathy: Proteomic approaches to help the differential diagnosis and to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Csősz, Éva; Deák, Eszter; Kalló, Gergő; Csutak, Adrienne; Tőzsér, József

    2017-01-06

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness among patients with diabetes. The appearance and the severity of the symptoms correlate with the duration of diabetes and poor blood glucose level management. Diabetic retinopathy is also categorized as a chronic low-level inflammatory disease; the high blood glucose level promotes the accumulation of the advanced glycation end products and leads to the stimulation of monocytes and macrophages. Examination of protein level alterations in tears using state-of the art proteomics techniques have identified several proteins as possible biomarkers for the different stages of the diabetic retinopathy. Some of the differentially expressed tear proteins have a role in the barrier function of tears linking the diabetic retinopathy with another eye complication of diabetes, namely the diabetic keratopathy resulting in impaired wound healing. Understanding the molecular events leading to the eye complications caused by hyperglycemia may help the identification of novel biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets in order to improve quality of life of diabetic patients.

  9. Understanding Texts with the Help of Experimentation: The Example of Cupellation in Arabic Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Moureau, Sébastien; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The article aims to show how experimentation can help us understand historical texts, by focusing on the specific case of cupellation in Arabic scientific literature. It also provides new information about cupellation in the Arab-Muslim Middle Ages. The article consists of translations of three of the most detailed accounts of cupellation: Hamdānī's Kitāb al-jawharatayn al-'atīqatayn (first half of the fourth/tenth century), Maslama b. Qāsim al-Qurṭubī, Rutbat al-ḥakīm (339-342/950-953), and Manṣūr b. Ba'ra, Kitāb kashf al-asrār al-'ilmiyya bi-dār al-ḍarb al-miṣriyya (615-635/1218-1238). These are accompanied by commentaries based on a series of experiments carried out in the course of archaeological research on cupellation, which are here used to shed new light on the medieval texts and resolve several problems in interpreting them.

  10. What the comprehensive economics of blindness and visual impairment can help us understand

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Since the year 2000, the amount written about the economics of blindness and visual impairment has increased substantially. In some cases, the studies listed under this heading are calculations of the costs related to vision impairment and blindness at a national or global level; in other cases the studies examine the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent or modify visual impairment or blindness that are intended to be applied as a guide to treatment recommendations and coverage decisions. In each case the references are just examples of many that could be cited. These important studies have helped advocates, policy makers, practitioners, educators, and others interested in eye and vision health to understand the magnitude of the impact that visual impairment and blindness have on the world, regions, nations, and individuals and the tradeoffs that need to be made to limit the impact. However, these studies only begin to tap into the insights that economic logic might offer to those interested in this field. This paper presents multiple case studies that demonstrate that the economics of blindness and visual impairment encompasses much more than simply measures of the burden of the condition. Case studies demonstrating the usefulness of economic insight include analysis of the prevention of conditions that lead to impairment, decisions about refractive error and presbyopia, decisions about disease and injury treatment, decisions about behavior among those with uncorrectable impairment, and decisions about how to regulate the market all have important economic inputs. PMID:22944750

  11. Can the sociology of social problems help us to understand and manage 'lifestyle drift'?

    PubMed

    Carey, Gemma; Malbon, Eleanor; Crammond, Brad; Pescud, Melanie; Baker, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Lifestyle drift is increasingly seen as a barrier to broad action on the social determinants of health. The term is currently used in the population health literature to describe how broad policy initiatives for tackling inequalities in health that start off with social determinants (upstream) approach drift downstream to largely individual lifestyle factors, as well as the general trend of investing a the individual level. Lifestyle drift occurs despite the on-going efforts of public health advocates, such as anti-obesity campaigners, to draw attention to the social factors which shape health behavior and outcomes. In this article, we explore whether the sociology of social problems can help understand lifestyle drift in the context of obesity. Specifically, we apply Jamrozik and Nocella's residualist conversion model to the problem of obesity in order to explore whether such an approach can provide greater insight into the processes that underpin lifestyle drift and inform our attempts to mitigate it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Damage Patterns at the Head-Stem Taper Junction Helps Understand the Mechanisms of Material Loss.

    PubMed

    Hothi, Harry S; Panagiotopoulos, Andreas C; Whittaker, Robert K; Bills, Paul J; McMillan, Rebecca A; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2017-01-01

    Material loss at the taper junction of metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties has been implicated in their early failure. The mechanisms of material loss are not fully understood; analysis of the patterns of damage at the taper can help us better understand why material loss occurs at this junction. We mapped the patterns of material loss in a series of 155 metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties received at our center by scanning the taper surface using a roundness-measuring machine. We examined these material loss maps to develop a 5-tier classification system based on visual differences between different patterns. We correlated these patterns to surgical, implant, and patient factors known to be important for head-stem taper damage. We found that 63 implants had "minimal damage" at the taper (material loss <1 mm(3)), and the remaining 92 implants could be categorized by 4 distinct patterns of taper material loss. We found that (1) head diameter and (2) time to revision were key significant variables separating the groups. These material loss maps allow us to suggest different mechanisms that dominate the cause of the material loss in each pattern: (1) corrosion, (2) mechanically assisted corrosion, or (3) intraoperative damage or poor size tolerances leading to toggling of trunnion in taper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Network strategies to understand the aging process and help age-related drug design.

    PubMed

    Simkó, Gábor I; Gyurkó, Dávid; Veres, Dániel V; Nánási, Tibor; Csermely, Peter

    2009-09-28

    Recent studies have demonstrated that network approaches are highly appropriate tools for understanding the extreme complexity of the aging process. Moreover, the generality of the network concept helps to define and study the aging of technological and social networks and ecosystems, which may generate novel concepts for curing age-related diseases. The current review focuses on the role of protein-protein interaction networks (inter-actomes) in aging. Hubs and inter-modular elements of both interactomes and signaling networks are key regulators of the aging process. Aging induces an increase in the permeability of several cellular compartments, such as the cell nucleus, introducing gross changes in the representation of network structures. The large overlap between aging genes and genes of age-related major diseases makes drugs that aid healthy aging promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. We also discuss a number of possible research options to further explore the potential of the network concept in this important field, and show that multi-target drugs (representing 'magic-buckshots' instead of the traditional 'magic bullets') may become an especially useful class of age-related drugs in the future.

  14. What the comprehensive economics of blindness and visual impairment can help us understand.

    PubMed

    Frick, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Since the year 2000, the amount written about the economics of blindness and visual impairment has increased substantially. In some cases, the studies listed under this heading are calculations of the costs related to vision impairment and blindness at a national or global level; in other cases the studies examine the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent or modify visual impairment or blindness that are intended to be applied as a guide to treatment recommendations and coverage decisions. In each case the references are just examples of many that could be cited. These important studies have helped advocates, policy makers, practitioners, educators, and others interested in eye and vision health to understand the magnitude of the impact that visual impairment and blindness have on the world, regions, nations, and individuals and the tradeoffs that need to be made to limit the impact. However, these studies only begin to tap into the insights that economic logic might offer to those interested in this field. This paper presents multiple case studies that demonstrate that the economics of blindness and visual impairment encompasses much more than simply measures of the burden of the condition. Case studies demonstrating the usefulness of economic insight include analysis of the prevention of conditions that lead to impairment, decisions about refractive error and presbyopia, decisions about disease and injury treatment, decisions about behavior among those with uncorrectable impairment, and decisions about how to regulate the market all have important economic inputs.

  15. After genomics, what proteomics tools could help us understand the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli?

    PubMed

    Radhouani, Hajer; Pinto, Luís; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2012-06-06

    Proteomic approaches have been considerably improved during the past decade and have been used to investigate the differences in protein expression profiles of cells grown under a broad spectrum of growth conditions and with different stress factors including antibiotics. In Europe, the most significant disease threat remains the presence of microorganisms that have become resistant to antimicrobials and so it is important that different scientific tools are combined to achieve the largest amount of knowledge in this area of expertise. The emergence and spread of the antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, can lead to serious problem public health in humans. E. coli, a very well described prokaryote, has served as a model organism for several biological and biotechnological studies increasingly so since the completion of the E. coli genome-sequencing project. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the different proteomic approaches to antimicrobial-resistant E. coli that will be helpful to obtain a better knowledge of the antibiotic-resistant mechanism(s). This can also aid to understand the molecular determinants involved with pathogenesis, which is essential for the development of effective strategies to combat infection and to reveal new therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  17. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  18. Read Like a Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawyer, Kirsten K. N.; Johnson, Heather J.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists read, and so should students. Unfortunately, many high school teachers overlook science texts as a way to engage students in the work of scientists. This article addresses how to help students develop literacy skills by strategically reading a variety of science texts. Unfortunately, most science teachers aren't trained to teach…

  19. Vaginal pessaries: can an educational brochure help patients to better understand their care?

    PubMed

    Murray, Christine; Thomas, Elizabeth; Pollock, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition, with reported incidence of up to 50%. We aimed to assess whether written information, in addition to face-to-face consultation, improved happiness with information, confidence to self-manage and prolapse knowledge in women attending a pessary clinic. Little is known about the effect of adding a written information brochure on clinical outcomes of patients using pessaries. This prospective study used a pretest-posttest method, conducted following Ethical approval. Between February-December 2013, all women attending Pessary Clinic were eligible for participation. A questionnaire was developed to assess happiness with information, confidence regarding self-management (using a visual analogue scale, 1-10) and prolapse knowledge (using eight multiple-choice questions). Data were collected in person at baseline prior to distribution of a patient brochure and thereafter by telephone at one week and three months. Paired analysis was conducted using the McNemar test and related samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test for VAS items with p < 0.05 significant. Sixty women were recruited. Fifty-eight completed all questionnaires. Improvement in happiness with information, confidence regarding self-management and knowledge scores occurred at one week (p < 0.05) and were maintained at three months (p < 0.05). Changes were unrelated to age (p > 0.05), education level (p > 0.05), first language (p > 0.05) or previous clinic visits (p > 0.05). A written information brochure, in addition to face-to-face consultation, improves happiness with information, confidence to self-manage and knowledge about pessaries compared to verbal instruction alone and helps patients better understand their care. The written brochure was equally effective in women with low education and advanced age, and occurred regardless of the number of clinic visits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    PubMed

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help.

  1. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  2. Using Digital Libraries Non-Visually: Understanding the Help-Seeking Situations of Blind Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Iris; Babu, Rakesh; Joo, Soohyung; Fuller, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores blind users' unique help-seeking situations in interacting with digital libraries. In particular, help-seeking situations were investigated at both the physical and cognitive levels. Method: Fifteen blind participants performed three search tasks, including known- item search, specific information search, and…

  3. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  4. Draw-a-Scientist/Mystery Box Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2007-01-01

    It is important that students have the opportunity to experience the nature and processes of science for themselves. The sequence of activities presented in this paper--Draw-a-Scientist and the Mystery Box Redux--were designed to help students better understand the nature of science (NOS) and engage them in the process of scientific inquiry. These…

  5. Draw-a-Scientist/Mystery Box Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2007-01-01

    It is important that students have the opportunity to experience the nature and processes of science for themselves. The sequence of activities presented in this paper--Draw-a-Scientist and the Mystery Box Redux--were designed to help students better understand the nature of science (NOS) and engage them in the process of scientific inquiry. These…

  6. Understanding help-seeking intentions in male military cadets: An application of perceptual mapping.

    PubMed

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Muñiz, Javier; Gordon, Thomas F; Maurer, Laurie; Patterson, Freda

    2016-05-17

    Research suggests that men are less likely to seek help for depression, substance abuse, and stressful life events due to negative perceptions of asking for and receiving help. This may be exacerbated in male military cadets who exhibit higher levels of gender role conflict because of military culture. This exploratory study examined the perceptions of 78 male military cadets toward help-seeking behaviors. Cadets completed the 31-item Barriers to Help Seeking Scale (BHSS) and a component factor analysis was used to generate five composite variables and compare to validated factors. Perceptual mapping and vector modeling, which produce 3-dimensional models of a group's perceptions, were then used to model how they conceptualize help-seeking. Factor analysis showed slightly different groupings than the BHSS, perhaps attributed to different characteristics of respondents, who are situated in a military school compared to general university males. Perceptual maps show that cadets perceive trust of doctors closest to them and help-seeking farthest, supporting the concept that these males have rigid beliefs about having control and its relationship to health seeking. Differences were seen when comparing maps of White and non-White cadets. White cadets positioned themselves far away from all variables, while non-White cadets were closest to "emotional control". To move these cadets toward help-seeking, vector modeling suggests that interventions should focus on their general trust of doctors, accepting lack of control, and decreasing feelings of weakness when asking for help. For non-White cadets a focus on self-reliance may also need to be emphasized. Use of these unique methods resulted in articulation of specific barriers that if addressed early, may have lasting effects on help-seeking behavior as these young men become adults. Future studies are needed to develop and test specific interventions to promote help-seeking among military cadets.

  7. Understanding rape survivors' decisions not to seek help from formal social systems.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-05-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed about why they did not reach out to these systems for assistance. Using qualitative methodology, this study found that survivors believed that formal social systems would or could not help or would psychologically harm them. Specifically, survivors thought that systems would not help because survivors themselves believed that they were unworthy of services or that their rape experience did not match stereotypical conceptions of rape. Survivors did not see how the systems could help or protect them from their assailants. Finally, survivors anticipated that systems personnel would cause them further psychological harm by not believing they had been raped or not caring about them. Survivors feared that system assistance would have intensified their painful feelings beyond their coping skills. Therefore, survivors who do not seek help may be attempting to protect themselves from perceived psychological harm. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  8. From Atmospheric Scientist to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Most of my career has been spent analyzing data from research projects in the atmospheric sciences. I spent twelve years researching boundary layer interactions in the polar regions, which included five field seasons in the Antarctic. During this time, I got both a M.S. and Ph.D. in atmospheric science. I learned most of my data science and programming skills throughout this time as part of my research projects. When I graduated with my Ph.D., I was looking for a new and fresh opportunity to enhance the skills I already had while learning more advanced technical skills. I found a position at the University of Colorado Boulder as a Data Research Specialist with Research Computing, a group that provides cyber infrastructure services, including high-speed networking, large-scale data storage, and supercomputing, to university students and researchers. My position is the perfect merriment between advanced technical skills and "softer" skills, while at the same time understanding exactly what the busy scientist needs to understand about their data. I have had the opportunity to help shape our university's data education system, a development that is still evolving. This presentation will detail my career story, the lessons I have learned, my daily work in my new position, and some of the exciting opportunities that opened up in my new career.

  9. From Whom Do Student Veterans Seek Help?: Understanding the Roles of Professional, Informal, and Religious Sources.

    PubMed

    Currier, Joseph M; Deiss, Jessie; McDermott, Ryon C

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this brief report was to ascertain student veterans' patterns of help-seeking from professional, informal, and religious sources. In total, 350 veterans from an academic institution on the Gulf Coast completed assessments of help-seeking intentions from a range of potential sources in their communities. Analyses revealed that veterans had a neutral probability to seek help from professional sources (e.g., physicians and psychologists) but were likely to pursue informal sources (e.g., partner/spouse, friend) in a psychological/emotional crisis. However, when compared with their nonclinical counterparts, veterans with a probable need for treatment for PTSD and/or depression generally reported less probability to seek help from informal and religious sources. In addition, sex, ethnicity, and religious background each contributed a significant influence in shaping preferences for seeking help for psychological or emotional concerns. Given unmet mental health needs of student veterans, findings highlight the importance attending to help-seeking preferences in this growing population.

  10. Monitoring Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem wetlands: Can long-term monitoring help us understand their future?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Andrew M.; Sepulveda, Adam; Hossack, Blake R.; Patla, Debra; Thoma, David; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), changes in the drying cycles of wetlands have been documented. Wetlands are areas where the water table is at or near the land surface and standing shallow water is present for much or all of the growing season. We discuss how monitoring data can be used to document variation in annual flooding and drying patterns of wetlands monitored across Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks, investigate how these patterns are related to a changing climate, and explore how drying of wetlands may impact amphibians. The documented declines of some amphibian species are of growing concern to scientists and land managers alike, in part because disappearances have occurred in some of the most protected places. These disappearances are a recognized component of what is being described as Earth’s sixth mass extinction.

  11. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed Central

    Shugart, Erika C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or “Sagan effect” associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist’s career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. PMID:26695633

  12. Physical analogs that help to better understand the modern concepts on continental stretching, hyperextension and rupturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Three facts helped to establish a revolution in the understanding of how mega-continents stretch, rupture and breakup to form new continents and related passive margins: (1) the penetration of the distal portions of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins by several ODP wells (late 70's/early 80's), with the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumation of lower crust and mantle between typical continental and oceanic domains, (2) field works in the Alps and in the Pyrenees that re-interpreted sedimentary successions and associated "ophiolites" as remnants of old Tethyan passive margins that recorded structural domains similar to those found in Iberia-Newfoundland, and (3) the acquisition of long and ultra-deep reflection seismic sections that could image for the first time sub-crustal levels (25-40 km) in several passive margins around the world. The interpretation of such sections showed that the concepts developed in the Iberia-Newfoundland margins and in the Alps could be applied to a great extent to most passive margins, especially those surrounding the North and South Atlantic Oceans. The new concepts of (i) decoupled deformation (upper brittle X lower ductile) within the proximal domain of the continental crust, (ii) of coupled deformation (hyperextension) in the distal crust and, (iii) of exhumation of deeper levels in the outer domain, with the consequent change in the physical properties of the rising rocks, defined an end-member in the new classification of passive margins, the magma-poor type (as opposed to volcanic passive margins). These concepts, together with the new reflection seismic views of the entire crustal structure of passive margins, forced the re-interpretation of older refraction and potential field data and the re-drawing of long established models. Passive margins are prime targets for petroleum exploration, thus, the great interest raised by this subject in both the academy and in the industry. Interestingly enough, the deformation

  13. Helping Children Understand Their Communities: Past and Present, Real and Virtual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Social studies should prepare children to participate in society. Teachers can help children study their local neighborhoods and communities on foot, with maps and books, and on websites. Studying the community can reveal a wealth of issues and ideas that matter to students and their families, while students also learn important things about the…

  14. Rocky to bullwinkle: understanding flying squirrels helps us restore dry forest ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    A century of effective fire suppression has radically transformed many forested landscapes on the east side of the Cascades. Managers of dry forests critically need information to help plan for and implement forest restoration . Management priorities include the stabilization of fire regimes and the maintenance of habitat for the northern spotted owl and other old-...

  15. Sharing Skills. Hermione Helps--S-P-E-W: Understanding and Creating Acronyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lynne Farrell

    2005-01-01

    An acronym, a word formed from the first letters of other words, is often used to name products or organizations. For example, when Hermione Granger, a very clever student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, is enraged over the wizarding world's treatment of house-elves, she creates an organization to help put an end to this injustice.…

  16. Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2008-01-01

    We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

  17. Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2008-01-01

    We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

  18. Helping Children Understand Their Communities: Past and Present, Real and Virtual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Social studies should prepare children to participate in society. Teachers can help children study their local neighborhoods and communities on foot, with maps and books, and on websites. Studying the community can reveal a wealth of issues and ideas that matter to students and their families, while students also learn important things about the…

  19. Using Biography to Help Young Learners Understand the Causes of Historical Change and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Gary

    2008-01-01

    When teachers in elementary and middle school classrooms portray history as an immutable sequence of certain facts, dates, and events, young learners tend to view the past, and by extension the future, as something fixed and inevitable. Learning about the past through investigating biographies can help counter this tendency by teaching students to…

  20. Putting Information in Perspective: A Mapping Activity to Help Students Understand the California Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that, to participate in a modern economy, every region needs at least one "bigjob" (basic income generating-job). Describes a mapping activity that helps students identify bigjobs in state economies. Uses California as an example and reveals that, contrary to popular opinion, real estate is California's bigjob. (MJP)

  1. Putting Information in Perspective: A Mapping Activity to Help Students Understand the California Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that, to participate in a modern economy, every region needs at least one "bigjob" (basic income generating-job). Describes a mapping activity that helps students identify bigjobs in state economies. Uses California as an example and reveals that, contrary to popular opinion, real estate is California's bigjob. (MJP)

  2. Managing Middle School Madness: Helping Parents and Teachers Understand the "Wonder Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilderman, Glen

    2006-01-01

    For many parents and students, the transition from elementary school to middle school can be difficult. This book is a compilation of advice and information to help parents prepare for the behavioral, social, and academic adjustments that students may encounter. In this book, the author offers practical tips on topics such a setting up rewards for…

  3. It's Elementary in Appalachia: Helping Prospective Teachers and Their Students Understand Sexuality and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Patti Capel

    2003-01-01

    The most blatant discrimination that exists today in schools is that directed toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex students (l/g/b/t/i/q). English and language arts teacher education programs can help foster critical awareness among future teachers of sexuality and gender as well as provide the pedagogical skills and…

  4. English Teachers Are from Mars, Students Are from Venus (But YA Books Can Help Interplanetary Understanding).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how alien students and teachers are to each other, especially when it comes to literature. Argues that these differences are at the root of many difficulties faced in helping students become readers and appreciate literature. Offers brief descriptions of 10 new or overlooked young-adult books worth reading. (SR)

  5. Expanding Our Understanding of Self-Help Support Groups for Substance Use Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadich, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Self-Help Support Groups (SHSGs) for substance use issues are recognized in current policies for their role in reducing substance use. However, these policies recognize only their therapeutic value. This article argues that SHSGs can offer more than therapeutic advantage. This contention follows a study involving young people who were involved in…

  6. The Bottom Line: An Exercise to Help Students Understand How Social Inequality Is Actively Constructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelev, Melissa; Vincent, M. Bess; Haney, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important misconceptions in the American view of poverty is that people are poor because they do not work. This article presents an exercise, the "bottom line," which helps dispel students' misconceptions about the working poor. Through extensive primary-data collection and assembling a budget for low-skilled workers, the exercise: (1)…

  7. Managing Middle School Madness: Helping Parents and Teachers Understand the "Wonder Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilderman, Glen

    2006-01-01

    For many parents and students, the transition from elementary school to middle school can be difficult. This book is a compilation of advice and information to help parents prepare for the behavioral, social, and academic adjustments that students may encounter. In this book, the author offers practical tips on topics such a setting up rewards for…

  8. Sharing Skills. Hermione Helps--S-P-E-W: Understanding and Creating Acronyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lynne Farrell

    2005-01-01

    An acronym, a word formed from the first letters of other words, is often used to name products or organizations. For example, when Hermione Granger, a very clever student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, is enraged over the wizarding world's treatment of house-elves, she creates an organization to help put an end to this injustice.…

  9. Another challenge for scientists

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Laura M; Naqvi, Hassan R; Schmidt, Christian; Covarrubias, David; Mathur, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    By nature, scientists contribute to our understanding of nature and ourselves. As communities undergo significant changes, new challenges are presented. Here, we offer alternative views on recent changes in society. PMID:18637170

  10. The utility of administrative data in helping the clinician understand and treat community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David

    2005-03-01

    We illustrate the benefits and limitations of administrative data when trying to understand diseases such as CAP. Administrative data provide an understanding of care provided or risk factors in unselected patients under actual practice conditions. Administrative data can supplement understandings gained from randomized trials in a timely and cost-efficient manner using data previously collected. As the use of administrative data increases, the type of data collected will change to reflect these new uses. Administrative data use may represent a practical solution in monitoring quality of care for entire populations.

  11. Help! I Can't Understand What My Child Is Saying!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Dorothy P.

    2005-01-01

    A child with a speech sound disorder may understand words and phrases and use them to talk. However, if a child's speech sounds different from his peers who are the same age, gender or ethnic group, or if he/she frequently avoids talking because he/she is hard to understand, this child may have a speech sound disorder. In this article, the author…

  12. Famous Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Presents ways to incorporate discussion of the lives of famous scientists into the classroom. Suggests a monthly focus on a different scientist with students researching each subject and using the information in a poster or timeline project toward the end of the year. (DDR)

  13. Drawing Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Brian

    1996-01-01

    Investigates whether students' perceptions of scientists as being white, male, and dressed in laboratory coats is changing. Results from picture drawings made by 132 secondary school students indicate that the image pupils have of scientists is changing to show less gender bias and to be more realistic. (GR)

  14. Famous Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Presents ways to incorporate discussion of the lives of famous scientists into the classroom. Suggests a monthly focus on a different scientist with students researching each subject and using the information in a poster or timeline project toward the end of the year. (DDR)

  15. Towards an ecological understanding of mutual-help groups: the social ecology of "fit".

    PubMed

    Maton, K I

    1989-12-01

    Adopted an ecological framework to view mutual-help groups, and illustrated its usefulness by examining aspects of the social ecology of "fit" among 163 members of Compassionate Friends (bereaved parents; CF), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and Overeaters Anonymous (OA) groups. Concerning person-group fit, personal Spirituality was positively related to (a) Providing Support, and to (b) Group Satisfaction for members of a group whose helping ecology emphasized "reliance on a higher power" (OA). (Contrary to prediction, the relationship with Group Satisfaction was also manifest for members of MS). Furthermore, OA members reported higher levels of Spirituality than CF members. Concerning helping mechanism-focal problem fit, Friendship Development was positively related to Group Satisfaction only for individuals with a focal problem characterized by high levels of social network disruption (MS). In addition, Time in Group was inversely related to Depression for members of life stress (CF) and medical disorder (MS) groups, but not for members of a "behavioral control" type group (OA). The implications of the ecological perspective for future research are discussed.

  16. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…

  17. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  18. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  19. Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  1. How Do Manipulatives Help Students Communicate Their Understanding of Double-Digit Subtraction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abi-Hanna, Rabab

    2016-01-01

    Multi-digit subtraction is difficult for students to learn. The purpose of this study is to explore how second-grade students communicate their understanding of double-digit subtraction through the use of manipulatives/tools. This qualitative study reports on six case studies of second-grade students where clinical interviews were the main source…

  2. Helping Students to Understand the Link between Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Alissa; Ward, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of…

  3. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  4. Using modeling to help understand vaginal microbicide functionality and create better products

    PubMed Central

    Katz, David F.; Gao, Yajing; Kang, Meng

    2012-01-01

    A summary is presented of a range of mathematical models that relate to topical microbicidal molecules, applied vaginally to inhibit HIV transmission. These models contribute to the fundamental understanding of the functioning of those molecules, as introduced in different delivery systems. They also provide computational tools that can be employed in the practical design and evaluation of vaginal microbicide products. Mathematical modeling can be implemented, using stochastic principles, to understand the probability of infection by sexually transmitted HIV virions. This provides a frame of reference for the deterministic models of the various processes that underlie HIV transmission and its inhibition, including: the temporal and spatial history of HIV migration from semen to vaginal epithelial surfaces and thence to the underlying stroma; the time and spatial distribution of microbicidal drugs as delivered by various vehicles (e.g., gels, rings, films, and tablets)—this is central to understanding microbicide product pharmacokinetics; and the time and space history of the drug interactions with HIV directly and with host cells for HIV within the vaginal environment—this informs the understanding of microbicide pharmacodynamics. Models that characterize microbicide functionality and performance should and can interface with both in vitro and in vivo experimental studies. They can serve as a rapidly applied, inexpensive tool, to facilitate microbicide R&D, in advance of more costly and time consuming clinical trials. PMID:22545245

  5. How Photography as Field Notes Helps in Understanding the Building the Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of research conducted between June 2010 and January 2011 as part of understanding the building the education revolution (BER) a major policy initiative of the Australian Federal Government which commenced when Julia Gillard, now PM, was the Federal Minister of Education. The BER policy initiative was part of an economic…

  6. Helping Students to Understand the Link between Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Alissa; Ward, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of…

  7. What the Words Mean: Help for Understanding SBR from the Software & Information Industry Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To appreciate the true impact of scientifically based research on education, it may be useful first to understand the meaning of the various terms that the law employs as part of its definition of SBR (Scientifcally Based Research). The This article presents an explication from a Software & Information Industry Association publication titled…

  8. Learning Disabilities: What Are They? Helping Teachers and Parents Understand the Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert

    2007-01-01

    "Specific Learning Disability" is by far the largest category of conditions served in special education. Unfortunately, few parents (and educators) really understand what learning disabilities are. Many erroneously believe it is a "politically correct" term for "mildly mentally retarded" or "dull normal." Further, while most laypeople have heard…

  9. Understanding Why Students Do What They Do: Using Attribution Theory to Help Students Succeed Academically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaier, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    According to attribution theory, people seek to make sense of their environment through ascribing causality to their behavior and the behavior of others and these attributions impact future behavior (Jones et al., 1972). In essence, people seek to answer and understand why. This fundamental concept associated with attribution theory is important…

  10. The Idea of Temperament: Does It Help Parents to Understand Their Babies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia L.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines whether the idea of "temperament" is a useful construct for families to understand babies' and toddlers' behavior. The author suggests that "regulatory skill" may be a more neutral term than temperament for parents and practitioners to use in discussing individual differences among babies and toddlers and suggests that…

  11. Argonne News Brief: Here be Dragons! Komodo Dragons Help Understanding of Microbial Health

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-29

    Researchers found that captive Komodo Dragons share microbes with their environment, just as humans and pets do within homes. These observations build our understanding of the impact of captivity on health, which could lead to improvements in the care of animals within our homes and other closed environments.

  12. How Do Manipulatives Help Students Communicate Their Understanding of Double-Digit Subtraction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abi-Hanna, Rabab

    2016-01-01

    Multi-digit subtraction is difficult for students to learn. The purpose of this study is to explore how second-grade students communicate their understanding of double-digit subtraction through the use of manipulatives/tools. This qualitative study reports on six case studies of second-grade students where clinical interviews were the main source…

  13. How Photography as Field Notes Helps in Understanding the Building the Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of research conducted between June 2010 and January 2011 as part of understanding the building the education revolution (BER) a major policy initiative of the Australian Federal Government which commenced when Julia Gillard, now PM, was the Federal Minister of Education. The BER policy initiative was part of an economic…

  14. Using Open Educational Resources to Help Students Understand the Sub-Prime Lending Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Evelyn A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I describe an assignment designed to give students an intermediate level of understanding of the causes of the crisis using online educational resources widely available on the internet. I implemented the assignment in an undergraduate intermediate accounting course. Feedback from students indicate the assignment enhanced their…

  15. New Friends: Mainstreaming Activities to Help Young Children Understand and Accept Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heekin, Shelley, Ed.; Mengel, Patricia, Ed.

    The booklet describes the New Friends approach to mainstreaming young handicapped students. The approach focuses on the understanding and acceptance of individual differences through introduction of life-sized dolls with disabilities. Seven units are presented, each with notes to the teacher, discussion guidelines, lists of frequently asked…

  16. Learning Disabilities: What Are They? Helping Teachers and Parents Understand the Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert

    2007-01-01

    "Specific Learning Disability" is by far the largest category of conditions served in special education. Unfortunately, few parents (and educators) really understand what learning disabilities are. Many erroneously believe it is a "politically correct" term for "mildly mentally retarded" or "dull normal." Further, while most laypeople have heard…

  17. Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and Space: A Framework to Help Understand the Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    integration (Washington D.C.: Department of the Air Force, 2000), 3. 6 Steven Watkins, “McPeak: No Additional AWACS,” Air Force Times 55, no. 2...1978), 151-152. 25 Vago Muradian, “A Watchful Eye,” Air Force Times 56, no. 10 (9 October 1995): 13. 12 operations and helped rescue 80 downed...Government Executive 31, no. 6 (June 1999): 48. 47 Steven Watkins, “AWACS Relief in Sight,” Air Force Times 55, no. 33 (20 March 1995): 4-5

  18. How computer science can help in understanding the 3D genome architecture.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Yoli; Merelli, Ivan; Milanesi, Luciano; Lio', Pietro

    2016-09-01

    Chromosome conformation capture techniques are producing a huge amount of data about the architecture of our genome. These data can provide us with a better understanding of the events that induce critical regulations of the cellular function from small changes in the three-dimensional genome architecture. Generating a unified view of spatial, temporal, genetic and epigenetic properties poses various challenges of data analysis, visualization, integration and mining, as well as of high performance computing and big data management. Here, we describe the critical issues of this new branch of bioinformatics, oriented at the comprehension of the three-dimensional genome architecture, which we call 'Nucleome Bioinformatics', looking beyond the currently available tools and methods, and highlight yet unaddressed challenges and the potential approaches that could be applied for tackling them. Our review provides a map for researchers interested in using computer science for studying 'Nucleome Bioinformatics', to achieve a better understanding of the biological processes that occur inside the nucleus.

  19. How Electron Spectroscopy with Synchrotron Light Can Help Us Understand High-Tc Superconductivity and Other Complex States of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Campuzano, Juan Carlos

    2012-03-07

    All the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of materials are controlled by electrons that occupy the highest energy levels in solids, those near the Fermi energy. Many techniques were developed to study those electrons, leading to the great successes of condensed matter physics. Newer and complex materials, such as the high-temperature superconductors, tend to exhibit very large anisotropies in their physical properties, requiring a more detailed knowledge of the behavior of electrons not only as a function of their energy, but also their momentum. Angle-resolved photoemission can contribute to our understanding by providing a great deal of information on many of the momentum-dependent properties of electrons and their interactions. In this talk, I will present a brief overview of how a long-term and focused collaboration between scientists at Argonne and other institutions has contributed to making angle-resolved photoemissions a most useful tool in the study of complex states of matter.

  20. Understanding empathy: why phenomenology and hermeneutics can help medical education and practice.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Claire

    2015-11-01

    This article offers a critique and reformulation of the concept of empathy as it is currently used in the context of medicine and medical care. My argument is three pronged. First, that the instrumentalised notion of empathy that has been common within medicine erases the term's rich epistemological history as a special form of understanding, even a vehicle of social inquiry, and has instead substituted an account unsustainably structured according to the polarisations of modernity (subject/object, active/passive, knower/known, mind/body, doctor/patient). I suggest that understanding empathy by examining its origins within the phenomenological tradition, as a mode of intersubjective understanding, offers a different and profitable approach. Secondly, I argue that the appropriation of empathy in medicine means that, ironically, empathy can function as a technique of pastoral power, in which virtue, knowledge and authority remain with the doctor (Mayes in Bioeth Inq 6:483-493, doi: 10.1007/s11673-009-9195-9 , 2009). And thirdly, empathy is in danger of being resourced as a substitute for equity and funding within health systems. I conclude however with hope for the productive possibilities for empathy.

  1. "It's sort of like being a detective": understanding how Australian men self-monitor their health prior to seeking help.

    PubMed

    Smith, James A; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Wittert, Gary; Warin, Megan

    2008-03-14

    It is commonly held that men delay help seeking because they are ignorant about and disinterested in their health. However, this discussion has not been informed by men's lay perspectives, which have remained almost entirely absent from scholarship relating to men's help seeking practices. In this qualitative paper, we draw on semi-structured interviews with 36 South Australian men to examine their understandings of help seeking and health service use. We use participants' talk about self-monitoring to challenge the assumption that men are disinterested in their health, arguing instead that the men in our study monitored their health status and made conscious decisions about when and how to seek help. Using an inductive approach during the thematic analysis we were able to identify four key factors that influenced how men monitored their health and explain how these intersect with the way men sought help and used health services. We show that the men in our study were actively engaged in the self-monitoring of their health. We suggest that these findings offer an alternative approach for understanding how we can promote men's interaction with health services.

  2. Helping women understand their risk in situations of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2004-12-01

    Only approximately one-half of the 456 women who were killed or almost killed by a husband, boyfriend, or ex-husband or ex-boyfriend in a recent national study of homicide of women accurately perceived their risk of being killed by their abusive partner. Women are unlikely to overestimate their risk; however, many will underestimate the severity of the situation. From the same study, it was found that relatively few of the victims of actual or attempted intimate partner femicide were seen by domestic violence advocates during the year before they were killed; they were far more likely to be seen in the health care system. Implications are drawn as to innovative ways that women who are abused can be identified and with skilled assessment of the danger in their relationship helped make more informed plans for their safety.

  3. Using art to help understand the imagery of irritable bowel syndrome and its response to hypnotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Morris, Julie; Evans, Raymond; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    A medical artist asked 109 patients if they had an image of their IBS pre- and posthypnotherapy, making precise watercolor paintings of any images described. Results were related to treatment outcome, symptoms, anxiety, depression, and absorption (hypnotizability); 49% of patients had an image, and a wide variety were recorded and painted. Imagery was significantly associated with gender (p < .05), anxiety (p < .05), noncolonic symptomatology (p < .05), and absorption (p = .001); 57.8% of responders compared with 35.5% of nonresponders to hypnotherapy had an image of their disease (p < .05) before treatment, and color images were associated with better outcomes (p = .05) than monochrome ones. All images changed in responders, often becoming more nonspecific in nature. Inquiring about IBS imagery helps to identify potential responders and nonresponders to hypnotherapy and may also provide insights into how patients think about their illness.

  4. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical scientists conduct research aimed at improving overall human health. They often use clinical trials and other ... the development of treatments and medicines that improve human health. State & Area Data Explore resources for employment ...

  5. Engineering good: how engineering metaphors help us to understand the moral life and change society.

    PubMed

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society.

  6. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Samia A; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat

    2015-01-01

    Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients' self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students' attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students' reported difficulties in breaking bad news. This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor-patient communication and ethics programs. Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas 'truthfulness' was a concern for the content of the message, 'truth-telling' included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy.

  7. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Samia A; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Layat Burn, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Problem Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients' self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students' attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students' reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor-patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas 'truthfulness' was a concern for the content of the message, 'truth-telling' included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy.

  8. Insights from the Den: How Hibernating Bears May Help Us Understand and Treat Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Berg von Linde, Maria; Arevström, Lilith; Fröbert, Ole

    2015-10-01

    Hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) spend half of the year in a physically inactive state inside their winter dens without food intake and defecating and no or little urination. Under similar extreme conditions, humans would suffer from loss of lean body mass, heart failure, thrombosis, azotemia, osteoporosis, and more. However, bears exit the den in the spring strong without organ injuries. Translational animal models are used in human medicine but traditional experimental animals have several shortcomings; thus, we believe that it is time to systematically explore new models. In this review paper, we describe physiological adaptations of hibernating bears and how similar adaptations in humans could theoretically alleviate medical conditions. The bear has solved most of the health challenges faced by humans, including heart and kidney disease, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, and muscle wasting and osteoporosis. Understanding and applying this library of information could lead to a number of major discoveries that could have implications for the understanding and treatment of human disease.

  9. Requesting Help to Understand Medical Information Among People Living with HIV and Poor Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Pellowski, Jennifer; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Health literacy is known to influence medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. People who experience difficulty reading health information may benefit from asking others to assist them with reading, interpreting, and understanding medical information. We examined medical chart-abstracted HIV viral load, medication adherence assessed by unannounced pill counts, and adherence improvement strategies among 245 individuals with lower-health literacy who do not request assistance, and 229 who do request assistance with reading and understanding health information. Participants were people living with HIV who were taking antiretroviral therapy and scored below 90% correct on a standardized test of functional health literacy. After controlling for health literacy scores, requesting informational assistance was associated with strategies used to improve adherence; individuals who asked for assistance were significantly more likely to use multiple adherence strategies. However, despite requesting informational assistance and using more adherence strategies, participants who requested informational assistance evidenced poorer treatment adherence and poorer suppression of HIV replication. Requesting assistance was more common among those with the poorest health literacy and therefore greatest challenges to adherence. People living with HIV who have poor health literacy skills may benefit from medication adherence programs and requests for assistance afford opportunities for social interventions. PMID:23701199

  10. Using Neuroscience to Help Understand Fear and Anxiety: A Two-System Framework.

    PubMed

    LeDoux, Joseph E; Pine, Daniel S

    2016-11-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in basic neuroscience in recent decades. One area that has been especially successful is research on how the brain detects and responds to threats. Such studies have demonstrated comparable patterns of brain-behavior relationships underlying threat processing across a range of mammalian species, including humans. This would seem to be an ideal body of information for advancing our understanding of disorders in which altered threat processing is a key factor, namely, fear and anxiety disorders. But research on threat processing has not led to significant improvements in clinical practice. The authors propose that in order to take advantage of this progress for clinical gain, a conceptual reframing is needed. Key to this conceptual change is recognition of a distinction between circuits underlying two classes of responses elicited by threats: 1) behavioral responses and accompanying physiological changes in the brain and body and 2) conscious feeling states reflected in self-reports of fear and anxiety. This distinction leads to a "two systems" view of fear and anxiety. The authors argue that failure to recognize and consistently emphasize this distinction has impeded progress in understanding fear and anxiety disorders and hindered attempts to develop more effective pharmaceutical and psychological treatments. The two-system view suggests a new way forward.

  11. How Are Scientists Portrayed in Children's Science Biographies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.; Ford, Danielle J.

    The goal of this study is to analyze the images of science and scientists in science biographies written for children. We examined 12 biographies of historic and contemporary scientists written for primary/middle school children in relation to three dimensions: characteristics of scientists, nature and process of scientific knowledge, and social processes of science. Biographies of historic scientists were characterized by a relative absence of description of how scientists arrived at their knowledge especially in books addressing younger readers. Biographies of contemporary scientists showed richer descriptions of experimental science with limited attention to connections between evidence and theory. Findings reinforce the need for teachers to guide students in their critical reading of biographies and provide additional resources to help them construct a richer understanding of the nature of science

  12. Research goes to School: understanding the content and the procedures of Science through a new dialogue among students, teachers and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The Education system is increasingly interested in a more interactive dialogue with scientists in order to make science taught at school more aware of the models and the ways in which knowledge is produced, revised and discussed within the scientific community. Not always, in fact, the ministerial programs, the media, and the textbooks adopted by schools seem to be able to grasp the content and the procedures of the scientific knowledge as it is today being developed, sometimes spreading the idea of a monolithic and static science, with no reference to revisions, uncertainties, errors and disputes that, on the opposite, characterize the debate about science. On the other side, scientists, that in several surveys define students and teachers as one of the key groups that are most important to communicate with, often do not seem to be aware that scientific knowledge is continuously revised by the school and its protagonists. Science teaching, in all classes, has a highly educational role, as it offers the opportunity to value individual differences, to make students acquire specific tools and methods that enable them understand the world and critically interact with it. In this process of conscious learning, in which teachers play the role of tutors, the student participates actively bringing his tacit knowledge and beliefs. In this context, an educational proposal has recently been developed by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), aimed at starting a new dialogue between Education and Research. It's a way to encourage the technical and scientific culture among young people and a mutual exchange between the two main actors of the scientific production and promotion, considering weaknesses and strengths of the relationship between these two systems. In this proposal, students and teachers follow side by side a group of CNR scientists involved in an ongoing research project based on the use of innovative methodologies of aerospace Earth Observation (EO) for

  13. Can cone-beam computed tomography superimposition help orthodontists better understand relapse in surgical patients?

    PubMed

    Porciúncula, Guilherme Machado; Koerich, Leonardo; Eidson, Lindsey; Gandini Junior, Luiz Gonzaga; Gonçalves, João Roberto

    2014-11-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary treatment of a 19-year-old Brazilian man with a Class I malocclusion, a hyperdivergent profile, an anterior open bite, and signs of temporomandibular joint internal derangement. The treatment plan included evaluation with a temporomandibular joint specialist and a rheumatologist, orthodontic appliances, and maxillomandibular surgical advancement with counterclockwise rotation. Cone-beam computed tomography images were taken before and after surgery at different times and superimposed at the cranial base to assess the changes after orthognathic surgery and to monitor quantitatively the internal derangement of the temporomandibular joints and surgical relapse. Our protocol can improve the orthodontist's understanding of surgical instability, demonstrate the clinical value of cone-beam computed tomography analysis beyond the multiplanar reconstruction, and guide patient management for the best outcome possible.

  14. From necessity to sufficiency in memory research: when sleep helps to understand wake experiences.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Marie Masako; De Lavilléon, Gaetan; Benchenane, Karim

    2015-12-01

    Memory is the ability to adapt our behavior by using the stored information, previously encoded. The first investigations of the neuronal bases of the memory trace concerned its properties (location, cellular and molecular mechanisms, among others). However, to understand how this is achieved at the scale of neurons, we must provide evidence about the necessity of a neuronal subpopulation to support the memory trace, but also its sufficiency. Here, we will present past and recent studies that provide information about the neuronal nature of memories. We will show that research on sleep, when cells assembly supposedly carrying information from the past are replayed, could also provide valuable information about the memory processes at stake during wake.

  15. Question 2: why an astrobiological study of titan will help us understand the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Raulin, Francois

    2007-10-01

    For understanding the origin(s) of life on Earth it is essential to search for and study extraterrestrial environments where some of the processes which participated in the emergence of Life on our planet are still occurring. This is one of the goals of astrobiology. In that frame, the study of extraterrestrial organic matter is essential and is certainly not of limited interest regarding prebiotic molecular evolution. Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn and the only planetary body with an atmosphere similar to that of the Earth is one of the places of prime interest for these astrobiological questions. It presents many analogies with the primitive Earth, and is a prebiotic-like laboratory at the planetary scale, where a complex organic chemistry in is currently going on.

  16. Engineering Good: How Engineering Metaphors Help us to Understand the Moral Life and Change Society

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society. PMID:19722107

  17. Lost in Translation: Helping patients understand the risks of inflammatory bowel disease therapy

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Corey A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are commonly treated with immunomodulators and biologic therapy. These treatments can be very effective, but are associated with risks of adverse events that need to be discussed with patients. Effectively communicating risks of therapy can be challenging based on time constraints, misinformation available on the Internet and from others, and the lack of tools to efficiently share accurate data with patients and their families. Providers need to acknowledge the emotional aspect involved in the perception of risk, and be aware of mistakes that can easily be made in communicating with patients. Tools are available to make medical data easier to understand, and these techniques have been adapted for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. By more clearly communicating with patients, we can ensure that they are making informed medical decisions that fit with their personal preferences for treatment. PMID:20848508

  18. Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Nemorin, A.; David, J.; Maledon, E.; Nudol, E.; Dalon, J.; Arnau, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids. PMID:23912697

  19. Agent Based Modelling Helps in Understanding the Rules by Which Fibroblasts Support Keratinocyte Colony Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; McMinn, Phil; Holcombe, Mike; Smallwood, Rod; MacNeil, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Background Autologous keratincoytes are routinely expanded using irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine serum for clinical use. With growing concerns about the safety of these xenobiotic materials, it is desirable to culture keratinocytes in media without animal derived products. An improved understanding of epithelial/mesenchymal interactions could assist in this. Methodology/Principal Findings A keratincyte/fibroblast o-culture model was developed by extending an agent-based keratinocyte colony formation model to include the response of keratinocytes to both fibroblasts and serum. The model was validated by comparison of the in virtuo and in vitro multicellular behaviour of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in single and co-culture in Greens medium. To test the robustness of the model, several properties of the fibroblasts were changed to investigate their influence on the multicellular morphogenesis of keratinocyes and fibroblasts. The model was then used to generate hypotheses to explore the interactions of both proliferative and growth arrested fibroblasts with keratinocytes. The key predictions arising from the model which were confirmed by in vitro experiments were that 1) the ratio of fibroblasts to keratinocytes would critically influence keratinocyte colony expansion, 2) this ratio needed to be optimum at the beginning of the co-culture, 3) proliferative fibroblasts would be more effective than irradiated cells in expanding keratinocytes and 4) in the presence of an adequate number of fibroblasts, keratinocyte expansion would be independent of serum. Conclusions A closely associated computational and biological approach is a powerful tool for understanding complex biological systems such as the interactions between keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The key outcome of this study is the finding that the early addition of a critical ratio of proliferative fibroblasts can give rapid keratinocyte expansion without the use of irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine

  20. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia A.; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat

    2015-01-01

    Problem Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients’ self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students’ attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students’ reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor–patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas ‘truthfulness’ was a concern for the content of the message, ‘truth-telling’ included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy. PMID:26563958

  1. Helping fathers understand their new infant: a pilot study of a parenting newsletter.

    PubMed

    Waterston, Tony; Welsh, Brenda

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study on the views of first-time fathers in the northeast of England on an aged-paced parenting newsletter, and what being a parent means to them.A monthly newsletter for new parents, initially conceived in Wisconsin, USA, has been adapted for use in the UK. Each issue of the newsletter (named 'Baby Express') contains topics relevant to the particular stage of the child's life, and is delivered free to the home monthly in the first year and bi-monthly in the second and third years, when it is renamed Toddler Express'.'Baby Express' is a glossy, eight-page, easy-to-read newsletter, which focuses on emotional development, parent interaction and play. Topics covered include father-related content, such as the father's role in caring for their child and father-child relationships. As part of a randomised controlled study of new parents, fathers were invited to complete a postal questionnaire at the one year follow-up; 42 of 75 fathers responded (56%). The findings showed that fathers wanted to be more involved in caring for their child, and felt it was important to obtain information that would help them to do this. A total of 37(88%) had read 'Baby Express' and all of the fathers who read it thought it was relevant to dads. We concluded that'Baby Express' is as effective an information tool for fathers as for mothers, but additional material for fathers would be valuable. Fathers need to be included in parenting education to a greater extent.

  2. Helping smokers quit: understanding the barriers to utilization of smoking cessation services.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Schroeder, Steven A; Warner, Kenneth E

    2008-12-01

    Counseling smokers to quit smoking and providing them with pharmaceutical cessation aides are among the most beneficial and cost-effective interventions that clinicians can offer patients. Yet assistance with quitting is not universally covered by health plans or offered by all clinicians. Analysis of stakeholders' perspectives and interests can identify the barriers to more widespread provision of cessation services and suggest strategies for the public policy agenda to advance smoking cessation. Review of literature and discussions with representatives of stakeholders. All stakeholders-health plans, employers, clinicians, smokers, and the government-face barriers to broader smoking cessation activities. These range from health plans' perceiving that covering counseling and pharmacotherapy will increase costs without producing commensurate health care savings, to clinicians' feeling unprepared and uncompensated for counseling. Like other preventive measures aimed at behavior, efforts directed at smoking cessation have marginal status among health care interventions. State governments can help correct this status by increasing Medicaid coverage of treatment and expanding coverage for state employees. The federal government can promote the adoption of six initiatives recommended by a government subcommittee on cessation: set up a national quit line, develop a media campaign to encourage cessation, include cessation benefits in all federally funded insurance plans, create a research infrastructure to improve cessation rates, develop a clinician training agenda, and create a fund to increase cessation activities through a new $2 per pack cigarette excise tax. Both the federal and state governments can increase cessation by adopting policies such as the higher cigarette tax and laws prohibiting smoking in workplaces and public places. Public policy efforts should assume greater social responsibility for smoking cessation, including more aggressive leadership at the

  3. Helping Smokers Quit: Understanding the Barriers to Utilization of Smoking Cessation Services

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E; Schroeder, Steven A; Warner, Kenneth E

    2008-01-01

    Context Counseling smokers to quit smoking and providing them with pharmaceutical cessation aides are among the most beneficial and cost-effective interventions that clinicians can offer patients. Yet assistance with quitting is not universally covered by health plans or offered by all clinicians. Analysis of stakeholders' perspectives and interests can identify the barriers to more widespread provision of cessation services and suggest strategies for the public policy agenda to advance smoking cessation. Methods Review of literature and discussions with representatives of stakeholders. Findings All stakeholders—health plans, employers, clinicians, smokers, and the government—face barriers to broader smoking cessation activities. These range from health plans' perceiving that covering counseling and pharmacotherapy will increase costs without producing commensurate health care savings, to clinicians' feeling unprepared and uncompensated for counseling. Like other preventive measures aimed at behavior, efforts directed at smoking cessation have marginal status among health care interventions. State governments can help correct this status by increasing Medicaid coverage of treatment and expanding coverage for state employees. The federal government can promote the adoption of six initiatives recommended by a government subcommittee on cessation: set up a national quit line, develop a media campaign to encourage cessation, include cessation benefits in all federally funded insurance plans, create a research infrastructure to improve cessation rates, develop a clinician training agenda, and create a fund to increase cessation activities through a new $2 per pack cigarette excise tax. Both the federal and state governments can increase cessation by adopting policies such as the higher cigarette tax and laws prohibiting smoking in workplaces and public places. Conclusions Public policy efforts should assume greater social responsibility for smoking cessation

  4. Understanding differences between synthetic and natural antibodies can help improve antibody engineering

    PubMed Central

    Burkovitz, Anat; Ofran, Yanay

    2016-01-01

    abstract Synthetic libraries are a major source of human-like antibody (Ab) drug leads. To assess the similarity between natural Abs and the products of these libraries, we compared large sets of natural and synthetic Abs using “CDRs Analyzer,” a tool we introduce for structural analysis of Ab-antigen (Ag) interactions. Natural Abs, we found, recognize their Ags by combining multiple complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to create an integrated interface. Synthetic Abs, however, rely dominantly, sometimes even exclusively on CDRH3. The increased contribution of CDRH3 to Ag binding in synthetic Abs comes with a substantial decrease in the involvement of CDRH2 and CDRH1. Furthermore, in natural Abs CDRs specialize in specific types of non-covalent interactions with the Ag. CDRH1 accounts for a significant portion of the cation-pi interactions; CDRH2 is the major source of salt-bridges and CDRH3 accounts for most hydrogen bonds. In synthetic Abs this specialization is lost, and CDRH3 becomes the main sources of all types of contacts. The reliance of synthetic Abs on CDRH3 reduces the complexity of their interaction with the Ag: More Ag residues contact only one CDR and fewer contact 3 CDRs or more. We suggest that the focus of engineering attempts on CDRH3 results in libraries enriched with variants that are not natural-like. This may affect not only Ag binding, but also Ab expression, stability and selectivity. Our findings can help guide library design, creating libraries that can bind more epitopes and Abs that better mimic the natural antigenic interactions. PMID:26652053

  5. How Can Genetic Studies Help Us to Understand Links Between Birth Weight and Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Robin N; Horikoshi, Momoko; McCarthy, Mark I; Freathy, Rachel M

    2017-04-01

    In observational epidemiology, both low and high birth weights are associated with later type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the associations are poorly understood. We review evidence for the roles of genetic and non-genetic factors linking both sides of the birth weight distribution to risk of type 2 diabetes, focusing on contributions made by the most recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of birth weight. There are now nine genetic loci robustly implicated in both fetal growth and type 2 diabetes. At many of these, the same alleles are associated both with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and a lower birth weight. This supports the Fetal Insulin Hypothesis and reflects a general pattern for type 2 diabetes susceptibility alleles: genome-wide, there is an inverse genetic correlation with birth weight, and initial estimates suggest genetic factors explain a large part of the covariance between the two traits. However, the associations at individual loci show heterogeneity; some fetal risk alleles are associated with higher birth weight. For most of these, the association reflects their correlation with the maternal risk allele which raises maternal glucose, thus increasing fetal insulin-mediated growth. GWAS have improved our understanding of the mechanisms underlying associations between type 2 diabetes and birth weight but questions remain about the relative importance of genetic versus non-genetic factors and of maternal versus fetal genotypes. To answer these questions, future work will require well-powered analyses of parents and offspring.

  6. Musculoskeletal features of Lyme disease: understanding the pathogenesis of clinical findings helps make appropriate therapeutic choices.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Leonard H

    2011-08-01

    Patients with Lyme disease, that is, active infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, experience many types of musculoskeletal complaints, with different explanatory mechanisms. Appropriate therapy depends on understanding the underlying cause of the complaint and addressing that specific root cause. In the case of active infection the dosage, duration, drug, and method of administration of antibiotics should be determined by the state of the infection and history of prior therapy, according to the established and validated recommendations of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Many patients have musculoskeletal complaints not attributable to active infection; some patients have residual complaints following a documented infection that has been adequately treated with antibiotics previously, and others never had true B. burgdorferi infection in the first place. For such patients, antibiotics are not warranted and in fact may be physically and emotionally harmful. Complaints following an episode of Lyme disease are not necessarily due to ongoing infection, especially adequately treated. Consideration of other diagnoses may suggest use of other effective modalities, including physical therapy and emotional support. Appropriate ordering and interpretation of the various validated seroconfirmatory tests available to study B. burgdorferi infection are critical, as these tests are often misapplied and misconstrued in pursuit of strategies aimed at eliminating patients' suffering. Although seronegative Lyme disease has been reported, seronegativity in a reputable laboratory makes the likelihood of Lyme arthritis very low. On the other hand, a positive result from certain unvalidated laboratories or novel assays proves nothing and should not be viewed as substantiating the diagnosis.

  7. Comic strips help children understand medical research: targeting the informed consent procedure to children's needs.

    PubMed

    Grootens-Wiegers, Petronella; de Vries, Martine C; van Beusekom, Mara M; van Dijck, Laura; van den Broek, Jos M

    2015-04-01

    Children involved in medical research often fail to comprehend essential research aspects. In order to improve information provision, a participatory approach was used to develop new information material explaining essential concepts of medical research. A draft of a comic strip was developed by a science communicator in collaboration with pediatricians. The draft was presented to children participating in a clinical trial and to two school classes. Children were consulted for further development in surveys and interviews. Subsequently, the material was revised and re-evaluated in four school classes with children of varying ages and educational levels. In the first evaluation, children provided feedback on the storyline, wording and layout. Children thought the comic strip was 'fun' and 'informative'. Understanding of 8 basic research aspects was on average 83% and all above 65%, illustrating that children understood and remembered key messages. A comic strip was developed to support the informed consent process. Children were consulted and provided feedback. The resulting material was well understood and accepted. Involving children in the development of information material can substantially contribute to the quality of the material. Children were excited to participate and to 'be a part of science'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lessons from retrievals: Retrievals help understand the reason for revision of coated hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Danielle; Hothi, Harry; Khatkar, Harman; Meswania, Jayantilal; Blunn, Gordon; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2015-11-01

    Coatings have been applied to all surfaces of hip implants with the majority performing well in the laboratory, but there are few reports of their performance in humans. The rationale for coating the metal-on-metal bearing surfaces includes a reduction in metal ion release and risk of adverse reaction to metal debris; yet there are no reports of retrieved coated metal-on-metal hip implants despite the concern that they may delaminate. The aim of this study was to better understand the performance of coated hip implants in humans through findings of three coated metal-on-metal hip resurfacings, retrieved after failure for unexplained pain. Analysis of these implants included quantification of the amount and mechanism of coating loss which was correlated with clinical, imaging and blood data. In all cases, there were large areas of complete coating loss in which the metal substrate was exposed and found to be rougher than the coated areas. The coating loss gave rise to third body abrasive wear of the coating and the exposed metal, the latter of which led to high blood levels of cobalt and chromium. Coating of the bearing surfaces of metal-on-metal hip resurfacings, therefore, do not prevent metal ion release when implanted into humans. This is an example of a need for increased retrieval analysis of newly introduced implants and expansion of laboratory testing regulations to better reflect the clinical environment.

  9. How LIF has helped to understand ion loss at the boundaries of weakly collisional plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Ko, E.; Wang, X.; Oksuza, L.; Halab, A.; Servern, G.

    2003-10-01

    Recent experiments in weakly collisional multi-dipole plasmas with one and two positive ion species have provided a much better understanding of ion motion in presheaths near the boundaries of such plasmas. Plasma potential was determined with emissive probes, ion density with Langmuir probes and diode laser LIF, ion drift velocity with Mach probes calibrated with LIF, and directly with LIF, and from the phase velocity of ion acoustic waves. LIF provided measurements of the ion velocity distribution functions and showed that ion-neutral charge exchange results in ion "heating" near boundaries. LIF showed that Ar ions in Ar-He plasma exit the plasma at the plasma/sheath boundary with a velocity greater than the Ar ion Bohm velocity. In single species plasma, the same diagnostic shows Ar average ion exit velocity equals the Bohm velocity. ^A Suleyman Demirel University, Physics Dept., Isparta Turkey ^B KACST, Space Research Institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia *Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER 54437

  10. Helping Resource Managers Understand Hydroclimatic Variability and Forecasts: A Case Study in Research Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H. C.; Pagano, T. C.; Sorooshian, S.; Bales, R.

    2002-12-01

    enable low-end users to increase their understanding of probabilistic forecasts, credibility concepts, and implications for decision making. We also developed an interactive forecast assessment tool accessible over the Internet, to support resource decisions by individuals as well as agencies. The tool provides tutorials for guiding forecast interpretation, including quizzes that allow users to test their forecast interpretation skills. Users can monitor recent and historical observations for selected regions, communicated using terminology consistent with available forecast products. The tool also allows users to evaluate forecast performance for the regions, seasons, forecast lead times, and performance criteria relevant to their specific decision making situations. Using consistent product formats, the evaluation component allows individuals to use results at the level they are capable of understanding, while offering opportunity to shift to more sophisticated criteria. Recognizing that many individuals lack Internet access, the forecast assessment webtool design also includes capabilities for customized report generation so extension agents or other trusted information intermediaries can provide material to decision makers at meetings or site visits.

  11. Can Photo Sensors Help Us Understand the Intrinsic Differences Between Quantum and Classical Statistical Behaviors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2009-03-01

    We use the following epistemology—understanding and visualizing the invisible processes behind all natural phenomena through iterative reconstruction and/or refinement of current working theories towards their limits, constitute our best approach towards discovering actual realities of nature followed by new break-through theories. We use this epistemology to explore the roots of statistical nature of the real world—classical physics, quantum physics and even our mental constructs. Diversity is a natural and healthy outcome of this statistical nature. First, we use a two-beam superposition experiment as an illustrative example of the quantum world to visualize the root of fluctuations (or randomness) in the photo electron counting statistics. We recognize that the fluctuating weak background fields make the quantum world inherently random but the fluctuations are still statistically bounded, indicating that the fundamental laws of nature are still causal. Theoreticians will be challenged for ever to construct a causal and closed form theory free of statistical randomness out of incomplete information. We show by analyzing the essential steps behind any experiment that gaps in the information gathered about any phenomenon is inevitable. This lack of information also influences our personal epistemologies to have "statistical spread" due to its molecular origin, albeit bounded and constrained by the causally driven atomic and molecular interactions across the board. While there are clear differences in the root and manifestation of classical and quantum statistical behavior, on a fundamental level they originate in our theories due to lack of complete information about everything that is involved in every interaction in our experiments. Statistical nature of our theories is a product of incomplete information and we should take it as an inevitable paradigm.

  12. The case of Carla: Dilemmas of helping all students to understand science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Lori A.; Anderson, Charles W.; Palincsar, Annemarie S.

    2002-05-01

    This paper tells the story of four sixth-grade students, of mixed race and social class, who worked together in a small group. All four students were intrigued as they experimented with colored solutions of different densities. They all wanted to share ideas about the techniques they had used, the observations they had made, and the patterns they had seen. They all wanted to understand why the colored solutions acted as they did. In spite of these common interests, they often failed to achieve intersubjective communication about the colored solutions or about the process of planning and making a poster to report their findings. We explain these failures using the sociolinguistic concepts of polysemy, privileging, and holding the floor. In particular, Carla (an African American girl) was unable to hold the floor within the group, so her opportunities for science learning were diminished. The four students were not overtly prejudiced in their speech or actions. Yet the expectations they brought with them about how and when people should talk, how work should be done, and what standards of quality they should aspire to led them to reconstruct among themselves some of the most troubling inequities of our society as a whole. This story is about important connections. In particular it is about how the actions of children are connected to the histories of their families, and how the privileging of ideas is connected to that of people, and how the practice of science is connected to that of discrimination. Science education reformers may underestimate the difficulty of separating conceptual conflict about ideas from interpersonal conflict about privilege and status.

  13. Perceived usefulness of a usability issues reporting form to help understand "usability-induced use-errors": a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Boog, Cesar; Leroy, Nicolas; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Device regulation requires manufacturers to anticipate and prevent risks of use errors of their medical device. However, manufacturers experience difficulties to understand the concept of "usability-induced use-errors". Based on a "usability framework" aiming at describing the relationship between usability design principles, usability flaws, usage problems, and outcomes, a usability evaluation reporting form had been designed to support understanding the use-error concept. This paper reports the preliminary evaluation of the perceived usefulness of this form. Results show that manufacturers found helpful the presentation of the results of a usability evaluation through this form for it supports the understanding of the usability origins and the consequences of use-errors. Even if the use of this reporting form should be made easier as usability experts experience difficulties to fill it, it seems a promising way to clearly present "usability-induced use-errors" to manufacturers.

  14. Dynamics of the mammalian nucleus: can microscopic movements help us to understand our genes?

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Judith E

    2004-12-15

    scrutiny over the past few years. This has largely been driven by advances in microscopy as well as the advent of in vivo labelling techniques for sub-nuclear structures. It is now possible, using a protein originally isolated from jellyfish, to visualize sub-nuclear structures in living cultured cells. Together with three-dimensional time-lapse microscopy and an ever-expanding range of photo-bleaching techniques, this technology allows us to ask detailed questions about movements of sub-nuclear structures themselves and of the proteins contained within them. It has recently become clear that sub-nuclear structures are capable of moving within the nucleus and of physically interacting with each other. It is also now known that there is a constant flux of molecules into and out of these mobile structures as well as exchange of molecules between them, rather like passengers travelling on the London Underground. The challenge for the future is to relate dynamic events at the microscopic and molecular levels back to the organism as a whole. Only by understanding how the information encoded on genes is accurately expressed at the right time and in the right place can we really take advantage of the knowledge currently available to us.

  15. Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

  16. Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

  17. Scientist contributions

    Treesearch

    R. Blank; W. Burkhardt; J. Chatterton; W. Dollarhide; L. James; D. Klebenow; W. Krueger; S. Leonard; E. Miller; N. Rimbey; K. Sanders; S. Swanson; R. Tausch; P. Tueller; N. West; J. Young

    2008-01-01

    The primary impetus for this Wildfire Forum is a document authored by John McLain and Sheila Anderson of Resource Concepts, Inc. entitled "Urgent Need for a Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of the Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration." This document urged prominent scientists who have...

  18. Helping Students Understand Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Roger

    To force students--at the very beginning of the writing process--to be aware of audience and to gain insight into their own writing, in-class writing and sharing exercises can be invaluable. For example, students can present to the class their subject for an upcoming paper, with the class responding on paper to such questions as: (1) What do you…

  19. The effects of conducting authentic field-geology research on high school students' understanding of the nature of science, and their views of themselves as research scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millette, Patricia M.

    Authentic field geology research is a inquiry method that encourages students to interact more with their local environment, and by solving genuine puzzles, begin to increase their intuitive understanding of the nature and processes of science. The goal of the current study was to determine if conducting authentic field research and giving high school students the opportunity to present findings to adult audiences outside of the school setting 1) enhances students' understanding of the nature of science, and 2) affects students views of themselves as researchers. To accomplish this, ninth-grade students from a public school in northern New England engaged in a community-initiated glacial geology problem, completed a field research investigation, and presented their findings at several professional conferences. Following the completion of this student-centered field research, I investigated its effects by using a mixed methods approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative data from two sources. These included selected questions from an open-response survey (VNOS-c), and interviews that were conducted with fifteen of the students of different ages and genders. Findings show that conducting original field research seems to have a positive influence on these students' understanding of the NOS as well as the processes of science. Many of the students reported feelings of accomplishment, acceptance of responsibility for the investigation, a sense of their authentic contribution to the body of scientific knowledge in the world, and becoming scientists. This type of authentic field investigation is significant because recent reforms in earth-science education stress the importance of students learning about the nature and processes of scientific knowledge along with science content.

  20. Understanding symptom appraisal and help-seeking in people with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katie; Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicola; Banks, Jonathan; Johnson, Margaret; Lancaster, John; Hamilton, William; Rubin, Greg P

    2017-01-01

    Objective Pancreatic cancer has poor survival rates due to non-specific symptoms leading to later diagnosis. Understanding how patients interpret their symptoms could inform approaches to earlier diagnosis. This study sought to explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking among patients referred to secondary care for symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer. Design Qualitative analysis of semistructured in-depth interviews. Data were analysed iteratively and thematically, informed by the Model of Pathways to Treatment. Participants and setting Pancreatic cancer occurs rarely in younger adults, therefore patients aged ≥40 years were recruited from nine hospitals after being referred to hospital with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer; all were participants in a cohort study. Interviews were conducted soon after referral, and where possible, before diagnosis. Results Twenty-six interviews were conducted (cancer n=13 (pancreas n=9, other intra-abdominal n=4), non-cancer conditions n=13; age range 48–84 years; 14 women). Time from first symptoms to first presentation to healthcare ranged from 1 day to 270 days, median 21 days. We identified three main themes. Initial symptom appraisal usually began with intermittent, non-specific symptoms such as tiredness or appetite changes, attributed to diet and lifestyle, existing gastrointestinal conditions or side effects of medication. Responses to initial symptom appraisal included changes in meal type or frequency, or self-medication. Symptom changes such as alterations in appetite and enjoyment of food or weight loss usually prompted further appraisal. Triggers to seek help included a change or worsening of symptoms, particularly pain, which was often a ‘tipping point’. Help-seeking was often encouraged by others. We found no differences in symptom appraisal and help-seeking between people diagnosed with cancer and those with other conditions. Conclusions Greater public and healthcare professional awareness of

  1. Assessing the Impact of Education and Outreach Activities on Research Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Brian M.; Cramer, Catherine B.; Taylor, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of university-level research scientists toward educational and outreach activities that aim to help the general public understand more about their scientific endeavors. Interviews, observations, and survey results from 12 university research scientists, their colleagues, students, and the…

  2. Scientists' Participation in Teacher Professional Development: The Impact on Fourth to Eighth Grade Teachers' Understanding and Implementation of Inquiry Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a professional development experience involving scientists and fourth to eighth grade teachers of science was explored. Teachers attended a summer program at a research facility where they had various experiences such as job shadowing and interviewing scientists. They also participated in authentic inquiry investigations and planned…

  3. Scientists' Participation in Teacher Professional Development: The Impact on Fourth to Eighth Grade Teachers' Understanding and Implementation of Inquiry Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a professional development experience involving scientists and fourth to eighth grade teachers of science was explored. Teachers attended a summer program at a research facility where they had various experiences such as job shadowing and interviewing scientists. They also participated in authentic inquiry investigations and planned…

  4. Understanding help-seeking amongst university students: the role of group identity, stigma, and exposure to suicide and help-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Michelle; Muldoon, Orla T.; Msetfi, Rachel M.; Surgenor, Paul W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of suicide ideation and mental health issues amongst university students, the stigma of help-seeking remains a barrier to those who are in real need of professional support. Social identity theory states that help received from an ingroup source is more welcome and less threatening to one's identity than that from a source perceived as outgroup. Therefore, we hypothesized that students' stigma toward seeking help from their university mental health service would differ based on the strength of their identification with the university. Method: An online survey including measures of stigma of suicide, group identification, experience with help-seeking and exposure to suicide was administered to Irish university students (N = 493). Results: Group identification was a significant predictor of help-seeking attitudes after controlling for already known predictors. Contrary to our expectations, those who identified more strongly with their university demonstrated a higher stigma of seeking help from their university mental health service. Conclusions: Results are discussed in relation to self-categorization theory and the concept of normative fit. Practical implications for mental health service provision in universities are also addressed, specifically the need for a range of different mental health services both on and off-campus. PMID:26483722

  5. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  6. Nurturing the Child Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

  7. Nurturing the Child Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

  8. Refugee scientists under the spotlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extance, Andy

    2017-07-01

    Thousands of people are forced to flee war-torn regions every year, but the struggles of scientists who have to leave their homeland often goes under the radar. Andy Extance reports on initiatives to help

  9. Teaching Scientists to Fish, as Inspired by Jack Dymond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    It is almost inconceivable that as Jack Dymond's graduate student for eight years, I never mastered the skill of fly-fishing, a pursuit so near and dear to his heart. In fact, Jack did inspire me, not to tie flies and cast, but eventually to teach fellow scientists to fish. The work I'll present - connecting scientists and educators to achieve societal benefit - is profoundly influenced by Jack's dedication to applying scientific understanding and critical thinking to societal issues. With colleagues in the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), http://www.cosee.net/, I enable scientists to efficiently make meaningful contributions to educational outreach. A key goal of the multi-Center, national COSEE Network is helping scientists build the skills and acquire the resources needed to share their science with diverse audiences. At Scripps, we are piloting an innovative approach to helping scientists meet funding agencies' broader impact requirements. Key elements of the approach include: 1) services to identify educational outreach options that best fit scientists' research and preferences; 2) assistance establishing partnerships with educational outreach providers who have the skills and resources to develop and implement effective programs and exhibits; and 3) nuts and bolts (line and fly) assistance writing proposal text, drafting budgets, and coordinating with institutional business offices to ensure that the proposed educational outreach effort is compelling and sufficiently funded. Where does the fishing lesson come in? We facilitators of scientist-educator partnerships empower scientists to launch enduring collaborations. Once comfortable working with top-notch educational organizations, scientists can tap these resources, project after project, often with little or no additional involvement on our part. Our initial investment in brokering the relationships is richly rewarded. By helping scientists get started, it's as if we are teaching

  10. Sustainable Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  11. Understanding symptom appraisal and help-seeking in people with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katie; Birt, Linda; Emery, Jon D; Hall, Nicola; Banks, Jonathan; Johnson, Margaret; Lancaster, John; Hamilton, William; Rubin, Greg P; Walter, Fiona M

    2017-09-03

    Pancreatic cancer has poor survival rates due to non-specific symptoms leading to later diagnosis. Understanding how patients interpret their symptoms could inform approaches to earlier diagnosis. This study sought to explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking among patients referred to secondary care for symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer. Qualitative analysis of semistructured in-depth interviews. Data were analysed iteratively and thematically, informed by the Model of Pathways to Treatment. Pancreatic cancer occurs rarely in younger adults, therefore patients aged ≥40 years were recruited from nine hospitals after being referred to hospital with symptoms suggestive of pancreatic cancer; all were participants in a cohort study. Interviews were conducted soon after referral, and where possible, before diagnosis. Twenty-six interviews were conducted (cancer n=13 (pancreas n=9, other intra-abdominal n=4), non-cancer conditions n=13; age range 48-84 years; 14 women). Time from first symptoms to first presentation to healthcare ranged from 1 day to 270 days, median 21 days. We identified three main themes. Initial symptom appraisal usually began with intermittent, non-specific symptoms such as tiredness or appetite changes, attributed to diet and lifestyle, existing gastrointestinal conditions or side effects of medication. Responses to initial symptom appraisal included changes in meal type or frequency, or self-medication. Symptom changes such as alterations in appetite and enjoyment of food or weight loss usually prompted further appraisal. Triggers to seek help included a change or worsening of symptoms, particularly pain, which was often a 'tipping point'. Help-seeking was often encouraged by others. We found no differences in symptom appraisal and help-seeking between people diagnosed with cancer and those with other conditions. Greater public and healthcare professional awareness of the combinations of subtle and intermittent symptoms, and their

  12. Reconciling Scientists and Journalists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, H.

    2006-12-01

    The very nature of scientists' and journalists' jobs can put them at cross-purposes. Scientists work for years on one research project, slowly accumulating data, and are hesitant to draw sweeping conclusions without multiple rounds of hypothesis-testing. Journalists, meanwhile, are often looking for "news"—a discovery that was just made ("scientists have just discovered that...") or that defies conventional wisdom and is therefore about to turn society's thinking on its head. The very criteria that the mediamakers often use to determine newsworthiness can automatically preclude some scientific progress from making the news. There are other built-in problems in the relationship between journalists and scientists, some of which we can try to change and others of which we can learn to work around. Drawing on my personal experience as a journalist who has written for a wide variety of magazines, newspapers, and web sites, this talk will illustrate some of the inherent difficulties and offer some suggestions for how to move beyond them. It will provide a background on the way news decisions are made and how the journalist does her job, with an eye toward finding common ground and demonstrating how scientists can enjoy better relationships with journalists—relationships that can help educate the public on important scientific topics and avoid misrepresentation of scientific knowledge in the media.

  13. Understanding parental locus of control in Latino parents: Examination of cultural influences and help-seeking intentions for childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Kathryn E; Kapke, Theresa L; Gerdes, Alyson C

    2016-04-01

    To address the disparities that exist in utilization of mental health services for ADHD among Latino families and to further our understanding of factors that influence parents' decisions to seek treatment for ADHD, the goal of the current study was to examine parental locus of control (PLOC) in a community sample of Latino parents. Specifically, the current study investigated cultural influences on PLOC, as well as the influence of PLOC on help-seeking. Seventy-four primarily Spanish-speaking, Latino parents of school-age children completed measures to assess their help-seeking intentions, PLOC, and cultural orientation. Results indicated that U.S. mainstream orientation was associated with increased feelings of parental control and decreased beliefs in fate/chance and several Latino cultural values were associated with increased beliefs in fate/chance, and decreased feelings of parental efficacy and parental control. In addition, 2 PLOC domains (e.g., parental efficacy and fate/chance) were associated with beliefs that the behaviors of a child with ADHD would go away on their own. Results highlight the need for interventions aimed at modifying parenting behavior to take parents' cultural beliefs and values into account in order to accommodate and engage Latino families more effectively. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit’s promise in improving students’ understanding of the targeted ideas. PMID:27909024

  15. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit's promise in improving students' understanding of the targeted ideas.

  16. Understanding eldercare users' views on quality of care and strategies for dealing with problems in Swedish home help services.

    PubMed

    Westerberg, Kristina; Hjelte, Jan; Josefsson, Sara

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of eldercare users' strategies for dealing with problems in the quality of care and care satisfaction in relation to home help services. Based on earlier research and evaluations, it was assumed that users would express satisfaction and gratitude, and also be unwilling to complain. The specific research questions were: (i) What, if any, quality of care problems do the users mention? (ii) How do the users explain the reasons for these problems? and (iii) What strategies do the users employ to deal with these problems? A total of 35 interviews were conducted in November 2013 with 15 men and 20 women (66-92 years). The data were analysed using thematic and qualitative content analysis. The results showed that almost all users expressed overall satisfaction with their care. However, all but one also mentioned problems. The users stated very clearly and explicitly the reasons for these problems, and in most cases, they referred to the work conditions, work organisation and lack of other resources in the eldercare organisation. Two strategies were commonly used to deal with these problems: trivialisation and adaptation. A third strategy was expressed dissatisfaction, where the problem led to actions or plans to take action. One interpretation of the findings is that what is actually measured in official quality assessments and follow-ups may be care users' understanding of the work conditions and work organisation of eldercare. The understanding attitude may prevent care users from complaining because it lowers their expectations.

  17. Why Frankenstein is a Stigma Among Scientists.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Wylie, Ruth; Eschrich, Joey; Finn, Ed

    2017-06-26

    As one of the best known science narratives about the consequences of creating life, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) is an enduring tale that people know and understand with an almost instinctive familiarity. It has become a myth reflecting people's ambivalent feelings about emerging science: they are curious about science, but they are also afraid of what science can do to them. In this essay, we argue that the Frankenstein myth has evolved into a stigma attached to scientists that focalizes the public's as well as the scientific community's negative reactions towards certain sciences and scientific practices. This stigma produces ambivalent reactions towards scientific artifacts and it leads to negative connotations because it implies that some sciences are dangerous and harmful. We argue that understanding the Frankenstein stigma can empower scientists by helping them revisit their own biases as well as responding effectively to people's expectations for, and attitudes towards, scientists and scientific artifacts. Debunking the Frankenstein stigma could also allow scientists to reshape their professional identities so they can better show the public what ethical and moral values guide their research enterprises.

  18. Advocating through Argumentation: Supporting Claims with Evidence Helps Students Develop an Understanding of the Impact of Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Golden, Barry; Parmly, Jilynn

    2013-01-01

    Through the construction of arguments, students are invited to make sense of the concept of a species and its connection to both extinction and local biomes. Scientific argumentation is the process by which scientists engage in discourse aimed at developing common knowledge about the natural world (Driver et al. 1994). This article describes a 5E…

  19. Advocating through Argumentation: Supporting Claims with Evidence Helps Students Develop an Understanding of the Impact of Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Golden, Barry; Parmly, Jilynn

    2013-01-01

    Through the construction of arguments, students are invited to make sense of the concept of a species and its connection to both extinction and local biomes. Scientific argumentation is the process by which scientists engage in discourse aimed at developing common knowledge about the natural world (Driver et al. 1994). This article describes a 5E…

  20. How Can Students Be Scientists and Still Be Themselves: Understanding the Intersectionality of Science Identity and Multiple Social Identities through Graduate Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Minh C.

    2011-01-01

    According to a report released in 2005, titled "Rising Above the Gathering Storm," there is a critical priority to develop, recruit, and retain top students, scientists, and engineers to maintain U.S. economic competitiveness in response to rapid globalization. To improve our global competitiveness, the U.S. must retain individuals from…

  1. How Can Students Be Scientists and Still Be Themselves: Understanding the Intersectionality of Science Identity and Multiple Social Identities through Graduate Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Minh C.

    2011-01-01

    According to a report released in 2005, titled "Rising Above the Gathering Storm," there is a critical priority to develop, recruit, and retain top students, scientists, and engineers to maintain U.S. economic competitiveness in response to rapid globalization. To improve our global competitiveness, the U.S. must retain individuals from…

  2. Results from a Pilot Study of a Curriculum Unit Designed to Help Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions in Living Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Students often have trouble understanding key biology ideas because they lack an understanding of foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS Project 2061 is collaborating with BSCS in the development a curriculum unit that connects core chemistry and biochemistry ideas in order to help eighth grade students build the conceptual foundation needed for high…

  3. Astronomer to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.

  4. Model scientists

    PubMed Central

    Staves, Mark

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing trend for the focus of biology to be determined more by administrators who have short-term pecuniary interests in science rather than by individuals who are “doing science” to further the fundamental human desire to understand ourselves, the natural environment, and our place in the world, though questioning. We feel that this ceding of the scope of science from the questioners to the administrators is at variance with the traditions of science, which heretofore have resulted in the remarkable advancements made in the field of biology. In contrast to the plethora of day-to-day conversations on how to fit into the administrators' directives, this essay provides a historical context, particularly though its extensive bibliography, to encourage today's biologists to question authority and question nature. “If it be of importance and of use to us to know the principles of the element we breathe, surely it is not of much less importance nor of much less use to comprehend the principles, and endeavour at the improvement of those laws, by which alone we breathe it in security.”—Jeremy Bentham1 PMID:19513206

  5. Some Psychological Knowledge for Scientists' Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miclea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Relying on empirical evidences our paper presents the most salient personality traits, developmental factors and cognitive characteristics of the scientists. We claim that a sound exploration of scientists' mind and patterns of behavior could improve public support for science and enhance scientists' mutual understanding.

  6. The call, the save, and the threat: understanding expert help-seeking behavior during nonroutine operative scenarios.

    PubMed

    Novick, Richard J; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra M

    2015-01-01

    Asking for help in the operating room occurs within a surgical culture that has traditionally valued independence, decisiveness, and confidence. A tension exists between these deeply ingrained character traits and the new culture of team-based practice that emphasizes maximizing patient safety. The objective of this study is to explore surgeon-to-surgeon help-seeking behaviors during complex and unanticipated operative scenarios. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 14 consultant surgeons from multiple specialties. We used constructivist grounded theory to explore help-seeking experiences. Analysis occurred alongside and informed data collection. Themes were identified iteratively using constant comparisons. The setting included 3 separate hospital sites in a Canadian academic health sciences center. A total of 14 consultant surgeons from 3 separate departments and 7 divisions were included. We developed the "Call-Save-Threat" framework to conceptualize the help-seeking phenomenon. Respondents highlighted both explicit and tacit reasons for calling for help; the former included technical assistance and help with decision making, and the latter included the need for moral support, "saving face," and "political cover." "The Save" included the provision of enhanced technical expertise, a broader intraoperative perspective, emotional support, and a learning experience. "The Threat" included potential downsides to calling, which may result in near-term or delayed negative consequences. These included giving up autonomy as primary surgeon, threats to a surgeon's image as a competent practitioner, and a failure to progress with respect to independent judgment and surgical abilities. Our "Call-Save-Threat" framework suggests that surgeons recurrently negotiate when and how to seek help in the interests of patient safety, while attending to the traditional cultural values of autonomy and decisive action. This has important implications for

  7. The Call, the Save, and the Threat: Understanding Expert Help-Seeking Behavior During Nonroutine Operative Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Richard J.; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Asking for help in the operating room occurs within a surgical culture that has traditionally valued independence, decisiveness, and confidence. A tension exists between these deeply ingrained character traits and the new culture of team-based practice that emphasizes maximizing patient safety. The objective of this study is to explore surgeon-to-surgeon help-seeking behaviors during complex and unanticipated operative scenarios. STUDY DESIGN Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 14 consultant surgeons from multiple specialties. We used constructivist grounded theory to explore help-seeking experiences. Analysis occurred alongside and informed data collection. Themes were identified iteratively using constant comparisons. SETTING The setting included 3 separate hospital sites in a Canadian academic health sciences center. PARTICIPANTS A total of 14 consultant surgeons from 3 separate departments and 7 divisions were included. RESULTS We developed the “Call-Save-Threat” framework to conceptualize the help-seeking phenomenon. Respondents highlighted both explicit and tacit reasons for calling for help; the former included technical assistance and help with decision making, and the latter included the need for moral support, “saving face,” and “political cover.” “The Save” included the provision of enhanced technical expertise, a broader intraoperative perspective, emotional support, and a learning experience. “The Threat” included potential downsides to calling, which may result in near-term or delayed negative consequences. These included giving up autonomy as primary surgeon, threats to a surgeon’s image as a competent practitioner, and a failure to progress with respect to independent judgment and surgical abilities. CONCLUSIONS Our “Call-Save-Threat” framework suggests that surgeons recurrently negotiate when and how to seek help in the interests of patient safety, while attending to the

  8. Set a Structure of Objects with a Help of Grouping to Ten Strategy to Understand the Idea of Unitizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiti, Saliza Safta; Zulkardi; Darmawijoyo

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the present study is to know how the pupils can learn to make a group of ten to understand the idea of unitizing. The pupils were given a contextual problem "Counting the Beads" in order to promote their understanding about the idea of unitizing. The process of designing the problem was based on the 5 tenets of…

  9. Understanding Pain and Depression in Back Pain: the Role of Catastrophizing, Help-/Hopelessness, and Thought Suppression as Potential Mediators.

    PubMed

    Hülsebusch, Janina; Hasenbring, Monika I; Rusu, Adina C

    2016-06-01

    The cognitive mediation hypothesis describes the influence of psychological factors on the relationship between pain and depression such as cognitions of catastrophizing and help-/hopelessness. More recent research also emphasizes the role of suppression of negative thoughts and experiences such as pain. However, there is little research investigating direct and indirect effects of these contrasting cognitions. A total of 164 acute and sub-acute non-specific back pain patients participated in this study. Pain intensity, depression, and pain-related cognitions were measured using questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory and the Kiel Pain Inventory. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results of the path analysis support the hypothesis that cognitive coping strategies have a mediating effect on pain and depression. Consistent with previous research, we found that pain had no direct relation with depression. Help-/hopelessness had a direct path to depression, whereas catastrophizing had an indirect effect via increased help-/hopelessness. The current results also indicate that thought suppression mediated the relationship between pain and depression via both direct and indirect effects. Cognitive mediators, such as help-/hopelessness, catastrophizing, and thought suppression, have a significant impact on depression in patients with acute and sub-acute back pain. The current results may aid in the optimization of treatments for these patients by focusing attention toward the modification of dysfunctional cognitive pain-coping strategies.

  10. Understanding Support Providers' Views of "Helpful" Responses to Sexual Assault Disclosures: The Impacts of Self-Blame and Physical Resistance.

    PubMed

    Sit, Victoria; Schuller, Regina A

    2015-11-20

    Prior research on the factors associated with various disclosure responses has often been conducted on sexual assault victims and formal support providers, while informal helpers, who are the most common recipients of disclosures, have received far less attention. This experimental study examined potential informal helpers' views of disclosure reactions and their influence on the self-reported likelihoods of engaging in those responses. Undergraduate students at a large Canadian university (N = 239) received vignettes describing a hypothetical sexual assault disclosure that varied on victim's self-blame and physical resistance, and then rated common disclosure reactions. The results revealed that participants' perceptions of various responses were at odds with victims' experiences, with many negative responses, such as victim blame and egocentrism, viewed as equally or more helpful than positive responses, such as emotional support. Moreover, when the victim blamed herself and did not physically resist, positive responses were seen as less helpful whereas negative responses were seen as more helpful, with some notable gender differences. Regression analyses indicated that the perceived helpfulness of each response was the strongest predictor of the likelihood of providing that response. Practical implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

    2004-06-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

  12. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  13. Mom and Dad Break Up [and] Helping Children Understand Divorce: A Practical Resource Guide for "Mom and Dad Break Up." Kids Have Feelings Too Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestine, Joan Singleton

    Based on the recognition that nearly all children will experience the direct or indirect effects of divorce through their relatives or friends, and that many children do not openly share their feelings, this book is a guide to help adults assist children from preschool to grade 3 in understanding and dealing with the emotions arising from the…

  14. Use of a Spreadsheet to Help Students Understand the Origin of the Empirical Equation that Allows Estimation of the Extinction Coefficients of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the empirical equation that is used by prominent, Internet-based programs to estimate (or calculate) the extinction coefficients of proteins is presented. In addition, an overview of a series of related assignments designed to help students understand the origin of the empirical equation is provided. The…

  15. Use of a Spreadsheet to Help Students Understand the Origin of the Empirical Equation that Allows Estimation of the Extinction Coefficients of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the empirical equation that is used by prominent, Internet-based programs to estimate (or calculate) the extinction coefficients of proteins is presented. In addition, an overview of a series of related assignments designed to help students understand the origin of the empirical equation is provided. The…

  16. Essential Features of an RET Program: Teachers as Scientists, Scientists as Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Patricia

    2007-04-01

    Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) programs provide the ultimate professional development opportunity for K-12 educators. Unlike typical workshops or summer institutes, however, they are long term, require a great deal of support from scientists acting as mentors, and are administratively demanding. Designed to provide authentic research experiences, science teachers work with a scientist on a research project that typically ends at the completion of the 6-8 week program. Translating this experience into changes in teacher practice or into classroom materials and experiences is the teacher's responsibility. There are several things to consider when discussing a successful RET program and each of these will be addressed in this talk -- teachers as scientists, scientists as teachers, support for teachers, and support for scientists. Our expectations as mentors and/or program managers are that there will be a measurable difference in how teachers understand the enterprise of science, how students become engaged in science, and how science is taught. The realities of classroom instruction and recent research in how RET programs affect teachers point to a much more subtle result. The challenge, then, is how to move from knowing that RET programs are ``effective'' or ``meaningful experiences'' supported by anecdotal data to showing through empirical evidence that it makes a difference in how teachers approach and teach science. This requires purposeful planning and inclusion of program features that address essential elements of science teaching. This talk focuses on structured activities conducted at the Magnet Lab in Tallahassee, Florida, that help teachers make sense of their experiences while working in diverse laboratories and that help teachers translate that into changes in classroom instruction.

  17. Salmonella enterica in the Chicken: How it has Helped Our Understanding of Immunology in a Non-Biomedical Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Wigley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella infection of the chicken is important both as a source of foodborne human salmonellosis and as a source of disease in the chicken itself. Vaccination and other control strategies require an understanding of the immune response and as such have been important in understanding both mucosal immunity and more generally the response to bacterial infection. In this review, we discuss the contribution the study of avian salmonellosis has made to understanding innate immunity including the function of phagocytic cells, pattern recognition receptors, and defensins. The mucosal response to Salmonella infection and its regulation and the contribution this makes in protection against infection and persistence within the gut and future directions in better understanding the role of TH17 and Tregs in this response. Finally, we discuss the role of the immune system and its modulation in persistent infection and infection of the reproductive tract. We also outline key areas of research required to fully understand the interaction between the chicken immune system and Salmonella and how infection is maintained in the absence of substantive gastrointestinal disease. PMID:25346731

  18. Issues in Training Family Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Issues related to graduate education in family science, especially at the doctoral level, are explored. Discusses competencies family scientists should have, as well as experiences necessary to help students acquire them. Proposes ideas for a core curriculum, identifies controversies and unresolved issues, and examines training for the future.…

  19. Meet EPA Scientist Wayne Cascio

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Dr. Wayne Cascio spent over 25 years as a cardiologist helping people take care of their hearts. Now he is bringing a broader view of public health to EPA by leading research on the links between exposures to air pollution and heart health

  20. Issues in Training Family Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Issues related to graduate education in family science, especially at the doctoral level, are explored. Discusses competencies family scientists should have, as well as experiences necessary to help students acquire them. Proposes ideas for a core curriculum, identifies controversies and unresolved issues, and examines training for the future.…

  1. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  2. National Conference on Student & Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, D.

    2001-05-01

    Science education is turning an exciting corner with the development of a new class of projects called Student and Scientist Partnerships for authentic research. Examples include GLOBE, Hands-On Universe and EarthKAM. These projects engage students as learners and as participants in authentic research.Through such projects scientists acquire new research partners. At the same time, students experience real science, learning up-to-date science content and developing essential investigation skills. To better understand the nature and potential of these partnerships, an invitational conference was held in Washington, D.C.,from October 23-25, 1996. The conference, funded by the National Science Foundation and coordinated by TERC and the Concord Consortium, brought together 60 leaders in science and education who have research backgrounds, practical experience, or a high interest in Student, Scientists & Partnerships. The participants confirmed that this shift from the "student as recipient" to the "student as partner" model can be of real and substantive benefit for both the scientists and the students. The primary and most obvious benefits for the students are the excitement of doing authentic science, a new context for hands-on experiential learning, and the linkage of school learning with the "real world." For the scientists, the primary benefits are the help of student partners who enable the scientists to do research that might not otherwise be possible and the personal rewards of supporting education. Beyond these primary benefits, however, is a secondary and perhaps deeper level of benefits, resulting from the cross-fertilization between these two rich cultures. In each partnership, it helps to recognize and articulate what I call "the three authentics". Authentic Science-The science must be real science. It must contribute new knowledge. The research must be central to the scientists' work, and the student participation must contribute in a meaningful way to

  3. Use of a Laboratory Exercise on Molar Absorptivity to Help Students Understand the Authority of the Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread,…

  4. Use of a Laboratory Exercise on Molar Absorptivity to Help Students Understand the Authority of the Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread,…

  5. Increasing Professional Self-Understanding: Self-Study Research by Teachers with the Help of Biography, Core Reflection and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Bob; van den Berg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in self-study methods being used by teachers and teacher educators to improve their own practice. The focus of these self-studies seems to be more on acting than on understanding, and here we focus on a group of teachers who explore their professional identities. Teachers participating in a Master's degree study were…

  6. Using observation as a data collection method to help understand patient and professional roles and actions in palliative care settings.

    PubMed

    Walshe, Catherine; Ewing, Gail; Griffiths, Jane

    2012-12-01

    Observational research methods are important for understanding people's actions, roles and behaviour. However, these techniques are underused generally in healthcare research, including research in the palliative care field. The aim in this paper is to place qualitative observational data collection methods in their methodological context and provide an overview of issues to consider when using observation as a method of data collection. This paper discusses practical considerations when conducting palliative care research using observation. Observational data collection methods span research paradigms, and qualitative approaches contribute by their focus on 'natural' settings which allow the explanation of social processes and phenomena. In particular, they can facilitate understanding of what people do and how these can alter in response to situations and over time, especially where people find their own practice difficult to articulate. Observational studies can be challenging to carry out: we focus on the potentially problematic areas of sampling, consent and ethics, data collection and recording, data management and analysis. Qualitative observational data collection methods can contribute to theoretical and conceptual development and the explanation of social processes in palliative care. In particular this contribution to understanding care structures and processes should improve understanding of patients' experiences of their care journey and thus impact on care outcomes.

  7. Increasing Professional Self-Understanding: Self-Study Research by Teachers with the Help of Biography, Core Reflection and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Bob; van den Berg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in self-study methods being used by teachers and teacher educators to improve their own practice. The focus of these self-studies seems to be more on acting than on understanding, and here we focus on a group of teachers who explore their professional identities. Teachers participating in a Master's degree study were…

  8. Text and Context: Using Multicultural Literature To Help Teacher Education Students Develop Understanding of Self and World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally

    This study compares the responses of black and white preservice teachers as they engaged about a young adult novel which addressed racial and sexual diversity. Student teachers used young adult literature with protagonists from diverse backgrounds as one means of coming to understand and value children of all backgrounds. Small groups met to…

  9. AN INTERACTIVE WEB-BASED RESEARCH PLAN/QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN IS LINKED WITH HELPFUL QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL HINTS AND USED BY THE RESEARCH SCIENTISTS TO DEVELOP PLANS/QAPP

    EPA Science Inventory

    A web based Research Plan/Quality Assurance Project Plan (RP/QAPP) Document is interactively linked to documentation that asks pertinent questions and gives suggested examples and formats to assist the Research Scientist develop a RP/QAPP that will answer the necessary questions ...

  10. The scientist's education and a civic conscience.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kelling J; Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    A civic science curriculum is advocated. We discuss practical mechanisms for (and highlight the possible benefits of) addressing the relationship between scientific knowledge and civic responsibility coextensively with rigorous scientific content. As a strategy, we suggest an in-course treatment of well known (and relevant) historical and contemporary controversies among scientists over science policy or the use of sciences. The scientific content of the course is used to understand the controversy and to inform the debate while allowing students to see the role of scientists in shaping public perceptions of science and the value of scientific inquiry, discoveries and technology in society. The examples of the activism of Linus Pauling, Alfred Nobel and Joseph Rotblat as scientists and engaged citizens are cited. We discuss the role of science professors in informing the social conscience of students and consider ways in which a treatment of the function of science in society may find, coherently, a meaningful space in a science curriculum at the college level. Strategies for helping students to recognize early the crucial contributions that science can make in informing public policy and global governance are discussed.

  11. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.

  12. Linking scientists, decision makers, and organizations to improve understanding of climate-driven changes in coastal storms and their impacts in Western Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. H.; Murphy, K.

    2012-12-01

    The coastal zones of Western Alaska are expected to experience a nexus of climate-driven changes in landform processes resulting from the impacts of sea ice loss; sea level change; permafrost thaw; and changes in frequency, intensity, and direction of coastal storms, etc. These climate-driven changes will cascade through the near-shore and coastal physical systems, ecological systems, and human communities, and thus present major sources of uncertainty for a wide variety of the region's decision makers. To effectively and efficiently address some of the information needs of these decision makers, the Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative created a two-year program of applied science focused on 'Changes in Coastal Storms and their Impacts'. We summarize program components that successfully advanced applied science to address these decision maker information needs. All the components share a common feature of promoting linkages: (i) among resource decision makers, stakeholders and scientists, to identify and address key areas of uncertainty associated with coastal storms and thus align the science activities with decision maker needs for a variety of climate vulnerability assessments; (ii) among researchers, to mutually advance their science efforts; and (iii) among organizations, to efficiently address shared science needs. Resulting applied science benefits include (i) integrative projects using very fine resolution surge modeling to assess impacts of saltwater inundation on migratory waterfowl breeding populations and habitat; (ii) coordinating the selection of historic storms for reanalysis by two surge modeling efforts of differing resolution and domain, thus allowing for cross-model comparisons of performance over their shared spatial domain and future regional-scale application of the higher resolution model; and (iii) collaborative, cross-agency efforts to establish a water level network that meets multiple purposes (from model calibration to

  13. Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxkemper, Andra C.; Hartfiel, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    There is no common agreement on the meaning of the word "understand". However, there is agreement on what students should be able to do with material they understand. Bloom et al. discuss kinds of tasks a student should be able to do, provided that the student understands. In a similar way, Biggs and Collis provide a taxonomy intended to evaluate…

  14. Helping Kids Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  15. Helping Kids Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  16. Stochastic models of cellular circadian rhythms in plants help to understand the impact of noise on robustness and clock structure.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Maria L; Akman, Ozgur E; van Ooijen, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Rhythmic behavior is essential for plants; for example, daily (circadian) rhythms control photosynthesis and seasonal rhythms regulate their life cycle. The core of the circadian clock is a genetic network that coordinates the expression of specific clock genes in a circadian rhythm reflecting the 24-h day/night cycle. Circadian clocks exhibit stochastic noise due to the low copy numbers of clock genes and the consequent cell-to-cell variation: this intrinsic noise plays a major role in circadian clocks by inducing more robust oscillatory behavior. Another source of noise is the environment, which causes variation in temperature and light intensity: this extrinsic noise is part of the requirement for the structural complexity of clock networks. Advances in experimental techniques now permit single-cell measurements and the development of single-cell models. Here we present some modeling studies showing the importance of considering both types of noise in understanding how plants adapt to regular and irregular light variations. Stochastic models have proven useful for understanding the effect of regular variations. By contrast, the impact of irregular variations and the interaction of different noise sources are less well studied.

  17. The Advantage of Throwing the First Stone: How Understanding the Evolutionary Demands of Homo sapiens Is Helping Us Understand Carpal Motion

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Rachel S.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Wolfe, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike any other diarthrodial joint in the human body, the “wrist joint” is composed of numerous articulations between eight carpal bones, the distal radius, the distal ulna, and five metacarpal bones. The carpal bones articulate with each other as well as with the distal radius, distal ulna, and the metacarpal bases. Multiple theories explaining intercarpal motion have been proposed; however, controversy exists concerning the degree and direction of motion of the individual carpal bones within the two carpal rows during different planes of motion. Recent investigations have suggested that traditional explanations of carpal bone motion may not entirely account for carpal motion in all planes. Better understanding of the complexities of carpal motion through the use of advanced imaging techniques and simultaneous appreciation of human anatomic and functional evolution have led to the hypothesis that the “dart thrower’s motion” of the wrist is uniquely human. Carpal kinematic research and current developments in both orthopaedic surgery and anthropology underscore the importance of the dart thrower’s motion in human functional activities and the clinical implications of these concepts for orthopaedic surgery and rehabilitation. PMID:20044492

  18. Understanding school food service characteristics associated with higher competitive food revenues can help focus efforts to improve school food environments.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Newman, Constance; Ralston, Katherine; Prell, Mark; Ollinger, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Many school food services sell extra foods and beverages, popularly referred to as “competitive foods,” in addition to USDA school meals. On the basis of national survey data, most competitive foods and beverages selected by students are of low nutritional value. Recent federal legislation will allow schools that participate in USDA school meal programs to sell competitive foods only if the food items they sell meet nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about the potential effects of limiting competitive foods on local school food service finances. However, national data indicate that only in a subset of schools do food services receive large amounts of revenues from competitive foods. These food services are typically located in secondary schools in more affluent districts, serving higher proportions of students who do not receive free or reduced price meals. Compared to other food services, these food services couple higher competitive food revenues with lower school meal participation. Increasing school meal participation could increase meal revenues to offset any loss of competitive food revenues. Replacing less-healthful competitive items with healthier options could also help maintain school food service revenues while improving the school food environment. Nationally consistent nutrition standards for competitive foods may encourage development and marketing of healthful products.

  19. Performing Desistance: How Might Theories of Desistance From Crime Help Us Understand the Possibilities of Prison Theatre?

    PubMed

    Davey, Linda; Day, Andrew; Balfour, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity of theatre projects in prisons there has been little (published) discussion of the application of theatre to the theories of criminology or rehabilitation of offenders, and scant examination of the potential for criminological theories to inform theatre practice in criminal justice settings. This article seeks to address this deficit and argues that positioning prison theatre within the discipline of positive criminology, specifically contemporary theories of desistance from crime, provides a theoretical framework for understanding the contribution that prison theatre might be making in the correctional setting. Through a review of related literature, the article explores how prison theatre may be motivating offenders toward the construction of a more adaptive narrative identity and toward the acquisition of capabilities that might usefully assist them in the process of desisting from crime.

  20. The Co-Evolution of Asian Aquifers and Arsenic: How Understanding Sedimentary History can Help Predict Patterns of Arsenic Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinman, B. A.; Goodbred, S. L.; Savage, K.; Zheng, Y.; Radloff, K.; Singhvi, A.; Charlet, L.; Berg, M.; Eiche, E.; Cribb, W.; van Geen, A.

    2008-12-01

    After a decade of research, there is still no broad-scale understanding of why Asian aquifers support such heterogeneous distributions of groundwater arsenic. In countries like Bangladesh, Nepal, and Vietnam, it is often the case that wells spaced a few meters apart and drilled to the same depth have vastly different concentrations of dissolved arsenic (i.e., <10μg/L to >100μg/L). While there is a general consensus that older Pleistocene sediments are typically depleted in arsenic relative to younger aquifer sediments, little is known about either the geological and geochemical evolution of these aquifers with time or the exact nature of their 3-dimensional stratigraphy. To better, and more broadly, understand why local groundwater arsenic patterns exhibit such heterogeneity, sedimentological investigations were undertaken in three arsenic-contaminated Asian villages, including: (1) a hyper-avulsive floodplain in Nepal's Terai, (2) an abandoned portion of the Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh, and (3) a meander bend along Vietnam's stable, fault-controlled Red River complex. Stratigraphic cross-sections, facies determinations, and luminescence dating of the aquifer sands along transects (~1 km long and ~15 m deep) from each of these villages indicate that the aquifer deposits are not uniform, that they vary in the subsurface, and that their depositional ages correspond to concentrations of arsenic dissolved in the groundwater. Comparisons of arsenic concentrations with aquifer age show that there is an inverse relationship, indicating that the age of the sediment does play a role in arsenic's availability and distribution. While there is still much to be learned about the exact mechanism(s) and rate(s) by which arsenic is being liberated, our investigations overall support a geologic model where much of the arsenic variance is explainable by stratigraphic variations over small distances (~10 meters) that results from the dynamic depositional conditions created by

  1. Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marty

    1991-01-01

    A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)

  2. Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marty

    1991-01-01

    A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)

  3. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  4. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  5. Radiation scientists and homeland security.

    PubMed

    Rose, Christopher M

    2002-05-01

    Radiation scientists represent an important resource in homeland defense. Security analysts worry that a crude but deadly radiological bomb might be fashioned from stolen nuclear material and a few sticks of dynamite. Such a device could kill dozens, hundreds, and possibly thousands and could contaminate a square mile or more. Emergency workers may call upon radiation scientists to aid the injured. Educational materials are available on the ACR, ASTRO, and RRS websites, linked to the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to provide radiation workers material that they can use to help emergency room and civil defense personnel after a terrorist attack. Radiation scientists are urged to obtain these materials and contact their local hospital and public health authorities to volunteer their services and expertise.

  6. Acid Hydrolysis and Molecular Density of Phytoglycogen and Liver Glycogen Helps Understand the Bonding in Glycogen α (Composite) Particles

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Prudence O.; Sullivan, Mitchell A.; Sheehy, Joshua J.; Schulz, Benjamin L.; Warren, Frederick J.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoglycogen (from certain mutant plants) and animal glycogen are highly branched glucose polymers with similarities in structural features and molecular size range. Both appear to form composite α particles from smaller β particles. The molecular size distribution of liver glycogen is bimodal, with distinct α and β components, while that of phytoglycogen is monomodal. This study aims to enhance our understanding of the nature of the link between liver-glycogen β particles resulting in the formation of large α particles. It examines the time evolution of the size distribution of these molecules during acid hydrolysis, and the size dependence of the molecular density of both glucans. The monomodal distribution of phytoglycogen decreases uniformly in time with hydrolysis, while with glycogen, the large particles degrade significantly more quickly. The size dependence of the molecular density shows qualitatively different shapes for these two types of molecules. The data, combined with a quantitative model for the evolution of the distribution during degradation, suggest that the bonding between β into α particles is different between phytoglycogen and liver glycogen, with the formation of a glycosidic linkage for phytoglycogen and a covalent or strong non-covalent linkage, most probably involving a protein, for glycogen as most likely. This finding is of importance for diabetes, where α-particle structure is impaired. PMID:25799321

  7. Understanding the reasons for the refusal of cholecystectomy in patients with cholelithiasis: how to help them in their decision?

    PubMed

    Peron, Adilson; Schliemann, Ana Laura; Almeida, Fernando Antonio de

    2014-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is prevalent surgical disease, with approximately 60,000 admissions per year in the Unified Health System in Brazil. Is often asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and major complications arise from the migration of calculi to low biliary tract. Despite these complications are severe and life threatening, some patients refuse surgical treatment. To understand why individuals with cholelithiasis refuse cholecystectomy before complications inherent to the presence of gallstones in the bile duct and pancreatitis occur. To investigate the universe of the justifications for refusing to submit to surgery it was performed individual interviews according to a predetermined script. In these interviews, was evaluate the knowledge of individuals about cholelithiasis and its complications and the reasons for the refusal of surgical treatment. Were interviewed 20 individuals with cholelithiasis who refused or postponed surgical treatment without a plausible reason. To these interviews, was applied the technique of thematic analysis (Minayo, 2006). The majority of respondents had good knowledge of their disease and its possible complications, were well oriented and had surgical indications by their physicians. The refusal for surgery was justified primarily on negative experiences of themselves or family members with surgery, including anesthesia; fear of pain or losing their autonomy during surgery and postoperative period, preferring to take the risk and wait for complications to then solve them compulsorily. The reasons for the refusal to surgical resolution of cholelithiasis were diverse, but closely related to personal (or related persons) negative surgical experiences or complex psychological problems that must be adequately addressed by the surgeon and other qualified professionals.

  8. Use of a laboratory exercise on molar absorptivity to help students understand the authority of the primary literature.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread, β-galactosidase, that scaffolds concepts in one exercise with those in later exercises. The substrate for the continuous assay of β-galactosidase is the chromogenic 2-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside that produces 2-NP. In an early laboratory exercise, students determine the wavelength of maximum absorption for the protonated and deprotonated form of 2-NP at various pH values and then determine the molar absorptivity of 2-NP. Students were encouraged to discuss apparent discrepancies not only in their own determinations of molar absorptivity values for 2-NP, but also in the published molar absorptivity values for 2-NP (2,150-21,300 M(-1) cm(-1) ) at almost the same pH and at 420 nm. Finally, the students were led to a publication that serves as an authentic source for molar absorptivity of 2-NP.

  9. Self-care behaviour for minor symptoms: can Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use help us to understand it?

    PubMed

    Porteous, Terry; Wyke, Sally; Hannaford, Philip; Bond, Christine

    2015-02-01

    To explore whether Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use can aid understanding of self-care behaviour and inform development of interventions to promote self-care for minor illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 Scottish participants about their experience and management of minor symptoms normally associated with analgesic use. Synthesised data from the interviews were mapped onto the Behavioral Model. All factors identified as influencing decisions about how to manage the symptoms discussed, mapped onto at least one domain of Andersen's model. Individual characteristics including beliefs, need factors and available resources were associated with health behaviour, including self-care. Outcomes such as perceived health status and consumer satisfaction from previous experience of managing symptoms also appeared to feed back into health behaviour. The Behavioral Model seems relevant to self-care as well as formal health services. Additional work is needed to explore applicability of the Behavioral Model to different types of symptoms, different modalities of self-care and in countries with different health care systems. Future quantitative studies should establish the relative importance of factors influencing the actions people take to manage minor symptoms to inform future interventions aimed at optimising self-care behaviour. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Scientists and the Selection Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of scientists on the Wason four-card selection task, finding little understanding of the effect of disconfirmatory data in assessing conditionals. Found performance influenced by problem content. Explains performance as memory-cueing plus reasoning-by-analogy. (JM)

  11. The Responsibility of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses several kinds of responsibilities scientists have, including moral/ethical responsibilities related to research methodology. Areas addressed include use of science in war, approaches to decision-making, scientists and smoking, importance of education related to social responsibility. (JN)

  12. Meet EPA Environmental Scientist Kira Lynch

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental Scientist Kira Lynch is currently the Superfund and Technology Liaison in EPA’s Region 10, where she uses her expertise in characterizing environmental contamination to help evaluate and clean up hazardous waste sites.

  13. Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163019.html Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus Hope is to eventually make the bugs ... say they have created mosquitoes resistant to the dengue virus, which might eventually help control the spread ...

  14. Animal models of endocrine/organ-specific autoimmune diseases: do they really help us to understand human autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Lam-Tse, W K; Lernmark, A; Drexhage, H A

    2002-12-01

    Organ-specific or endocrine autoimmune diseases are complex, polygenic afflictions the penetrance of which is heavily dependent on various environmental influences. Important target tissues are the thyroid, the islets of Langerhans, gastric parietal cells and steroid-producing cells in the adrenal and ovary. The etiology of these diseases remains to be clarified. The pathogenesis is strongly associated with autoimmune phenomena. None of the current treatment approaches provides a cure; rather they represent replacement therapy. An important objective in the treatment of endocrine/organ-specific autoimmune diseases is the detection of individuals at risk for the development of such diseases and the development of interventions to prevent an outbreak of the diseases. This requires an exquisite knowledge of the early etio-pathogenic stages of these diseases. This review concentrates on the usefulness of animal models for a precise understanding of these very early stages. It must be emphasized that studying animal models cannot answer all the problems presented by endocrine/organ-specific autoimmune diseases as seen in the clinic. It must be expected - considering the different etiologies in the different animal models (see below) - that the causes of the diseases in the human and the involvement of various genes and environmental factors may also vary. Yet, particularly in the study of the pre-autoimmune phases of the diseases, there is hardly any alternative to the study of animal models. Only limited series of experiments can be carried out in human subjects at risk to develop such diseases. Moreover, a general semblance (blueprint) of the etio-pathogenesis found in the animal models can lead the way for human studies. Efforts to understand the patho-physiology of the early stages of endocrine/organ-specific autoimmune diseases have mainly involved animal models that "spontaneously" develop such diseases. Of these the bio-breeding diabetes-prone (BB-DP) rat and the

  15. UNDERSTANDING THE REASONS FOR THE REFUSAL OF CHOLECYSTECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH CHOLELITHIASIS: HOW TO HELP THEM IN THEIR DECISION?

    PubMed Central

    PERON, Adilson; SCHLIEMANN, Ana Laura; de ALMEIDA, Fernando Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholelithiasis is prevalent surgical disease, with approximately 60,000 admissions per year in the Unified Health System in Brazil. Is often asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and major complications arise from the migration of calculi to low biliary tract. Despite these complications are severe and life threatening, some patients refuse surgical treatment. Aim To understand why individuals with cholelithiasis refuse cholecystectomy before complications inherent to the presence of gallstones in the bile duct and pancreatitis occur. Methods To investigate the universe of the justifications for refusing to submit to surgery it was performed individual interviews according to a predetermined script. In these interviews, was evaluate the knowledge of individuals about cholelithiasis and its complications and the reasons for the refusal of surgical treatment. Were interviewed 20 individuals with cholelithiasis who refused or postponed surgical treatment without a plausible reason. To these interviews, was applied the technique of thematic analysis (Minayo, 2006). Results The majority of respondents had good knowledge of their disease and its possible complications, were well oriented and had surgical indications by their physicians. The refusal for surgery was justified primarily on negative experiences of themselves or family members with surgery, including anesthesia; fear of pain or losing their autonomy during surgery and postoperative period, preferring to take the risk and wait for complications to then solve them compulsorily. Conclusion The reasons for the refusal to surgical resolution of cholelithiasis were diverse, but closely related to personal (or related persons) negative surgical experiences or complex psychological problems that must be adequately addressed by the surgeon and other qualified professionals. PMID:25004289

  16. Women Scientists in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Women scientists in training at Marshall Space Flight Center, (top to bottom) Carolyn Griner, Ann Whitaker, and Dr. Mary Johnston, are shown simulating weightlessness while undergoing training in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator. These women were part of a special program dedicated to gaining a better understanding of problems involved in performing experiments in space. The three were engaged in designing and developing experiments for space, such as materials processing for Spacelabs. Dr. Johnston specialized in metallurgical Engineering, Dr. Whitaker in lubrication and surface physics, and Dr. Griner in material science. Dr. Griner went on to become Acting Center Director at Marshall Space Flight Center from January to September 1998. She was the first woman to serve

  17. Inspiring Future Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

  18. Inspiring Future Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

  19. Integrating observations and models to help understanding how flooding impacts upon catchments as a basis for decision making.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; O'Donnell, Greg

    2014-05-01

    This paper explains how flood management projects might be better informed in the future by using more observations and a novel impact modelling tool in a simple transparent framework. The understanding of how local scale impacts propagate downstream to impact on the downstream hydrograph is difficult to determine using traditional rainfall runoff and hydraulic routing methods. The traditional approach to modelling essentially comprises selecting a fixed model structure and then calibrating to an observational hydrograph, which make those model predictions highly uncertain. Here, a novel approach is used in which the structure of the runoff generation is not specified a priori and incorporates expert knowledge. Rather than using externally for calibration, the observed outlet hydrographs are used directly within the model. Essentially the approach involves the disaggregation of the outlet hydrograph by making assumptions about the spatial distribution of runoff generated. The channel network is parameterised through a comparison of the timing of observed hydrographs at a number of nested locations within the catchment. The user is then encouraged to use their expert knowledge to define how runoff is generated locally and what the likely impact of any local mitigation is. Therefore the user can specify any hydrological model or flow estimation method that captures their expertise. Equally, the user is encouraged to install as many instruments as they can afford to cover the catchment network. A Decision Support Matrix (DSM) is used to encapsulate knowledge of the runoff dynamics gained from simulation in a simple visual way and hence to convey the likely impacts that arise from a given flood management scenario. This tool has been designed primarily to inform and educate landowners, catchment managers and decision makers. The DSM outlines scenarios that are likely to increase or decrease runoff rates and allows the user to contemplate the implications and

  20. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with

  1. Understanding of a negative bowel screening result and potential impact on future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Karen N; Weller, David; Smith, Steve; Orbell, Sheina; Vedsted, Peter; Steele, Robert J C; Melia, Jane W; Moss, Sue M; Patnick, Julietta; Campbell, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using a faecal occult blood test (FOBt) has the potential to reduce cancer-related mortality. Symptom vigilance remains crucial as a proportion of cancers will be diagnosed between screening rounds. A negative FOBt has the potential to influence how participants respond to future symptoms of CRC. To explore (i) understanding of a negative FOBt and (ii) the potential impact of a negative FOBt upon future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour. Qualitative methodology utilizing focus groups with participants who received a negative FOBt within the National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in Coventry and Lothian. Topics explored included: experience of screening participation, interpretation and understanding of a negative result, symptom awareness and attitudes towards help-seeking. Four broad themes were identified: (i) emotional response to a negative FOBt, (ii) understanding the limitations of FOBt screening, (iii) symptom knowledge and interpretation and (iv) over-reassurance from a negative FOBt. Participants were reassured by a negative FOBt, but there was variability in the extent to which the result was interpreted as an "all clear". Some participants acknowledged the residual risk of cancer and the temporal characteristic of the result, while others were surprised that the result was not a guarantee that they did not have cancer. Participants recognized that reassurance from a negative FOBt could lead to a short-term delay in help-seeking if symptoms developed. Screening programmes should seek to emphasize the importance of the temporal nature of FOBt results with key messages about symptom recognition and prompt help-seeking behaviour. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Making Sure Helping Helps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Audrey; Riessman, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Benefits to the helper are important to consider in a national-service program, along with the benefits to the recipient. Some suggestions are offered to ensure reciprocity in community service. Democratizing help giving, that is making it available to the widest possible audience, could help remove some of the pitfalls associated with help…

  3. Making Sure Helping Helps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Audrey; Riessman, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Benefits to the helper are important to consider in a national-service program, along with the benefits to the recipient. Some suggestions are offered to ensure reciprocity in community service. Democratizing help giving, that is making it available to the widest possible audience, could help remove some of the pitfalls associated with help…

  4. An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.

    2001-05-01

    Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative

  5. Scientist Participation in Education and Public Outreach - Using Web Tools to Communicate the Scientific Process and Engage an Audience in Understanding Planetary Science: Examples with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists often speak to the public about their science and the current state of understanding of their field. While many talks (including those by this author) typically feature static plots, figures, diagrams, and the odd movie/animation/visualization (when technology allows), it is now possible, using the web to guide an audience through the thought process of how a scientist tackles certain questions. The presentation will highlight examples of web tools that effectively illustrate how datasets are used to address questions of lunar science. Why would a scientist use precious time during a talk to interact with data, in real time? Why not just show the results and move on? Through experience it is evident that illustrating how data is analyzed, even in a simple form, engages an audience, and demonstrates the thought process when interacting with data. While it is clear that scientists are unlikely to use such a tool to conduct science, it illustrates how a member of the public can engage with mission data. An example is discussed below. When discussing the geology of the Moon, there is an enormous volume of data that can be used to explain what we know (or think we know) and how we know it. For example, the QuickMap interface (http://www.actgate.com/home/quickmap.htm) enables interaction with a set of data (images, spectral data, topography, radar data) across the entire Moon (http://target.lroc.asu.edu/q3/). This webtool enables a speaker the opportunity (given adequate web connectivity) to talk about features, such as a crater, and show it from multiple perspectives (e.g., plan view, oblique, topographically exaggerated) in a logical flow. The tool enables illustration of topographic profiles, 3-D perspectives, and data overlays. Now, one might ask why doing this demonstration in real time is valuable, over a set of static slides. In some cases static slides are best, and doing any real time demos is unfeasible. However, guiding an engaged audience through

  6. Inspiring Earth Scientists at Salish Kootenai College: A Working Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, T. D.; Davis, A.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) supported a student GIS and Remote Sensing Internship Program with the Salish Kootenai College for the past three years. We feel the key to our program's success is the close interaction between the NASA scientists and the students, both during the internship and during a visiting scientists program held at the Tribal College. This program now includes a five week intensive internship at GSFC for students working on reservation-based research with LDCM science mentors. Students also received training on geospatial tools, courses that have been unavailable to them at their Tribal College. The close working relationship established during the internship encouraged the students to pursue their interests in geospatial analysis, while exposing them to some of the breadth of research that is accomplished with these tools. In 2004, we added a Visiting Scientist Program to bring the NASA scientist mentors to the reservation, a request well articulated from tribal students and leaders over the past few years. We feel that hosting NASA scientists at the reservation for 1-2 weeks per year will help strengthen the bond between the students and mentors, and encourage these students to continue their education, hopefully matriculating into graduate school in geospatial studies. Hosting the NASA scientists at the reservation enables them to have first hand experience with the tribal college, meet the faculty advisors, and share in the students' field work experience on their reservation-based projects. One desired outcome is that the scientists will have a better understanding of student needs in future efforts with Tribal Colleges. We feel our model of NASA working with a Minority Serving Institution has been a success and will continue to serve these underrepresented populations in a meaningful way.

  7. The Art and Science of Education and Outreach: What Scientists Should Know

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, E. C.; Goehring, L.; Williams, C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Science Foundation Ridge 2000 (R2K) research program has significantly expanded education and outreach (E/O) activities over the past five years, including the employment of dedicated education specialists who help R2K scientists engage meaningfully in E/O. Many scientists gladly enlist the expertise of such program specialists in meeting their E/O needs, considering that the constraints of time, funding, and personal interests often limit the level of their own involvement in these opportunities. This model for communicating science beyond the academic community is often very successful as a result of capitalizing on the strengths of both the scientists and educators. However, the constraints placed on scientists also prevent many of them from developing a deeper appreciation of the art and science of education that must be employed for effective E/O. This presentation will provide scientists and others with insights into the intellectual, philosophical and practical considerations required for the strategic development of opportunities for scientists to 'communicate broadly'. The goal is not to make all scientists educators, but to promote an increased understanding and appreciation for the professional pursuit of science education from the perspective of a national scientific research program. These insights will help scientists to gauge their role and maximize their effectiveness in communicating their science to different audiences. Several R2K E/O initiatives will be featured to show how we effectively engage scientists, identify audiences and meet their needs. We will also discuss intended outcomes and impacts, leveraging partnerships, incorporating educational theory and best practices, responding to the current interests of the education and research communities, and evaluation. We will feature both formal and informal education initiatives that offer a range of opportunities for scientists to engage in E/O, including web-based instructional

  8. Goddard scientist Jennifer Eigenbrode

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    On Saturday, November 26, NASA is scheduled to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission featuring Curiosity, the largest and most advanced rover ever sent to the Red Planet. The Curiosity rover bristles with multiple cameras and instruments, including Goddard's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. By looking for evidence of water, carbon, and other important building blocks of life in the Martian soil and atmosphere, SAM will help discover whether Mars ever had the potential to support life. Curiosity will be delivered to Gale crater, a 96-mile-wide crater that contains a record of environmental changes in its sedimentary rock, in August 2012. ----- Goddard scientist Jennifer Eigenbrode injected a chemical into a rock sample and then heated the test tube to determine whether the sample-preparation method preserved the sample's molecular structure. Her testing proved successful, ultimately leading to the experiment's inclusion on the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Chris Gunn NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  9. Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  10. Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  11. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  12. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  13. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  14. Helping Kids Help Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, E. Perry

    This book explains how many of the behaviors that adults use to "help" kids are, at best, ineffective and, at worst, destructive to the adults' relationships with children. Adults traditionally believe that external cues prompt correct behavior--the premise of stimulus-response psychology. However, the ideas discussed here revolve around the…

  15. Superheroes and supervillains: reconstructing the mad-scientist stereotype in school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Background. Reform recommendations around the world call for an understanding about the nature of science and the work of scientists. However, related research findings provide evidence that students hold stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work. Purpose The aim of this case study was to examine the impact of an intervention on 15 elementary school students' views of scientists. Sample An urban, fifth-grade, European elementary school classroom defined the context of this study. Design and method The intervention was an 11-week-long investigation of a local problem concerning water quality. In carrying out this investigation the students collaborated with a young metrology scientist to collect and analyse authentic data that would help them to construct a claim about the quality of the water. The students' initial views of scientists were investigated through a drawing activity, classroom discussions and interviews. Results Analysis of these data indicated that all students but one girl held very stereotypical views on scientists and the nature of their work. Analysis of interviews with each student and classroom discussions after the intervention illustrated that they reconstructed their stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work owing to their personal engagement in the investigation and their collaboration with the scientist. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that more in-depth study into project-based approaches, out-of-school learning and school-scientist partnerships is warranted, for the purpose of determining appropriate pedagogies that support students in developing up-to-date understanding about scientists and the nature of their work.

  16. The Social Responsibilities of Scientists and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus

    2000-01-01

    Points out the important role of scientists in society as educators. Explains problems caused by not understanding the theory of evolution and discusses possible solutions. First published in 1966. (YDS)

  17. The Social Responsibilities of Scientists and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus

    2000-01-01

    Points out the important role of scientists in society as educators. Explains problems caused by not understanding the theory of evolution and discusses possible solutions. First published in 1966. (YDS)

  18. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    ScienceCinema

    Ron Zuckerman

    2016-07-12

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  19. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Zuckerman

    2009-11-18

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  20. How can hydrological modeling help to understand process dynamics in sparsely gauged tropical regions - case study Mata Âtlantica, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künne, Annika; Penedo, Santiago; Schuler, Azeneth; Bardy Prado, Rachel; Kralisch, Sven; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2015-04-01

    To ensure long-term water security for domestic, agricultural and industrial use in the emerging country of Brazil with fast-growing markets and technologies, understanding of catchment hydrology is essential. Yet, hydrological analysis, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring and reliable meteo-hydrological data are insufficient to fully understand hydrological processes in the region and to predict future trends. Physically based hydrological modeling can help to expose uncertainties of measured data, predict future trends and contribute to physical understanding about the watershed. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. After the Portuguese colonization, its original expansion of 1.5 million km² was reduced to only 7% of the former area. Due to forest fragmentation, overexploitation and soil degradation, pressure on water resources in the region has significantly increased. Climatically, the region possesses distinctive wet and dry periods. While extreme precipitation events in the rainy season cause floods and landslides, dry periods can lead to water shortages, especially in the agricultural and domestic supply sectors. To ensure both, the protection of the remnants of Atlantic rainforest biome as well as water supply, a hydrological understanding of this sparsely gauged region is essential. We will present hydrological models of two meso- to large-scale catchments (Rio Macacu and Rio Dois Rios) within the Mata Âtlantica in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The results show how physically based models can contribute to hydrological system understanding within the region and answer what-if scenarios, supporting regional planners and decision makers in integrated water resources management.

  1. Scientists in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisemon, Thomas Owen

    1980-01-01

    Nigeria and Kenya have pressed the development of scientific capacities within their nations. The challenges to which the first generation of scientists responded are being displaced by the need to consolidate advancements and justify investment in science and higher education. Thus, scientists are or will be scrutinized in this context.…

  2. Misquoted Scientists Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

  3. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  4. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  5. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  6. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  7. Collaborating with WISE Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michelle; Linn, Marcia C.

    2003-01-01

    Through an interactive partnership, fifth-grade students collected data on plants and joined an active scientific community of working scientists. This Web-based Integrated Science Environment (WISE) project involved asking questions about plants, growing plants in the classroom, and discussing their data with scientists online. (Contains 5…

  8. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  9. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  10. Misquoted Scientists Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

  11. Scientists and Middle School Students; Learning and Working Together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haste, T.

    2007-12-01

    Johns Hopkins University's Center for Talented Youth students enrolled in the Dynamic Earth class come from all over the world to study earth systems. Investigating plate action, crustal formation, glaciers, currents, weathering and atmospheric interactions, students develop a strong ability to identify the forces that continually change the landscape and the interconnectedness of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. As part of their regular course work, students work with a variety of cooperating scientists. US Geological Survey staff assists students in examining sand samples and exploring monitoring research on invasive foraminiferas in San Francisco Bay. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary and Mavericks Surf Ventures staff help students explore the off shore submarine formations of a storm swell at Half Moon Bay that develops into a world-class big wave. Students met a big wave surfer who described the ride and shared surf stories. A wave forecaster helped students use modeling software to create real-time forecasts. In the final project students assist faculty of University of Texas at Austin, Institute of Geophysics using cruise reports, project abstracts, and bathymetry images, in evaluating a series of submarine features in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Students develop proposals and present their ideas in a seminar format, attended by cooperating scientists. Students have an opportunity to work with current scientists and learn how classroom "stuff" is used. One student commented, "I felt like I could talk with them about what they were doing and actually understand what they were talking about." Another stated, "I didn't know you could learn so much from forams. I always thought paleontology was about dinosaurs." As a result of the class, students understand the relevance of their learning, scientists like working with kids, and educators get excited about science. To evaluate program outcomes, the staff holds regular meetings with

  12. The importance of presentation skills for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feklyunina, Valentina; Grebenyuk, Konstantin

    2004-07-01

    The importance of presentation and debate skills for scientists is obvious. However it may be difficult to find the right balance between the time spent on mastering these skills and that spent on science. Application of Pareto principle or "the eighty to twenty rule" can be a solution of this problem. In practice Students Speech and Debate Club can help young scientists master the required speech and debate skills with minimum of effort and maximum of result.

  13. Disparate foundations of scientists' policy positions on contentious biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Achim; Moody, James; Light, Ryan

    2017-06-13

    What drives scientists' position taking on matters where empirical answers are unavailable or contradictory? We examined the contentious debate on whether to limit experiments involving the creation of potentially pandemic pathogens. Hundreds of scientists, including Nobel laureates, have signed petitions on the debate, providing unique insights into how scientists take a public stand on important scientific policies. Using 19,257 papers published by participants, we reconstructed their collaboration networks and research specializations. Although we found significant peer associations overall, those opposing "gain-of-function" research are more sensitive to peers than are proponents. Conversely, specializing in fields directly related to gain-of-function research (immunology, virology) predicts public support better than specializing in fields related to potential pathogenic risks (such as public health) predicts opposition. These findings suggest that different social processes might drive support compared with opposition. Supporters are embedded in a tight-knit scholarly community that is likely both more familiar with and trusting of the relevant risk mitigation practices. Opponents, on the other hand, are embedded in a looser federation of widely varying academic specializations with cognate knowledge of disease and epidemics that seems to draw more heavily on peers. Understanding how scientists' social embeddedness shapes the policy actions they take is important for helping sides interpret each other's position accurately, avoiding echo-chamber effects, and protecting the role of scientific expertise in social policy.

  14. Development of clinical scientists.

    PubMed

    Smith, R V

    1987-01-01

    The education and training of clinical scientists has served society in several ways. For academic pharmacy, the emergence of clinical science has provided research and scholarship opportunities for clinical faculty development. Clinical scientists have also begun to play important roles in industrial drug research and development. For all faculty and students, clinical science research reinforces a "research mindset" that will become increasingly important as our society moves from a production/extraction to an information-based economy. Pharmacy will best evolve by increasing its commitment to clinical science research. In the process, academic pharmacy must continue to improve and support excellent education and training programs for clinical scientists.

  15. Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

    2010-08-01

    During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

  16. Ask a Climate Scientist

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

  17. Scientists in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the scientific objectives of the space missions to illustrate the role of scientists in space-borne research studies. Included is a tentative list of demonstration experiments worth conducting in order to attain pedagogical goals. (CC)

  18. Sky Fest: A Model of Successful Scientist Participation in E/PO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Shaner, A. J.; LaConte, K.; Shupla, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Participation in outreach events is an easy way for scientists to get involved with E/PO and reach many people with minimal time commitment. At the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas, the E/PO team holds Sky Fest outreach events several times a year. These events each have a science content theme and include several activities for children and their parents, night sky viewing through telescopes, and scientist presentations. LPI scientists have the opportunity to participate in Sky Fest events either by helping lead an activity or by giving the scientist presentation (a short lecture and/or demonstration). Scientists are involved in at least one preparation meeting before the event. This allows them to ask questions, understand what activity they will be leading, and learn the key points that they should be sharing with the public, as well as techniques for effectively teaching members of the public about the event topic. During the event, each activity is run by one E/PO specialist and one scientist, enabling the scientist to learn about effective E/PO practices from the E/PO specialist and the E/PO specialist to get more science information about the event topic. E/PO specialists working together with scientists at stations provides a more complete, richer experience for event participants. Surveys of event participants have shown that interacting one-on-one with scientists is often one of their favorite parts of the events. Interviews with scientists indicated that they enjoyed Sky Fest because there was very little time involved on their parts outside of the actual event; the activities were created and/or chosen by the E/PO professionals, and setup for the events was completed before they arrived. They also enjoyed presenting their topic to people without a background in science, and who would not have otherwise sought out the information that was presented.

  19. Scientists as writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre

  20. Predicting scientists' participation in public life.

    PubMed

    Besley, John C; Oh, Sang Hwa; Nisbet, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This research provides secondary data analysis of two large-scale scientist surveys. These include a 2009 survey of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) members and a 2006 survey of university scientists by the United Kingdom's Royal Society. Multivariate models are applied to better understand the motivations, beliefs, and conditions that promote scientists' involvement in communication with the public and the news media. In terms of demographics, scientists who have reached mid-career status are more likely than their peers to engage in outreach, though even after controlling for career stage, chemists are less likely than other scientists to do so. In terms of perceptions and motivations, a deficit model view that a lack of public knowledge is harmful, a personal commitment to the public good, and feelings of personal efficacy and professional obligation are among the strongest predictors of seeing outreach as important and in participating in engagement activities.

  1. Students' Views about Scientists and School Science: Engaging K-8 Teachers in a National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    Studies elementary and middle school students' understanding of scientists and doing science in school by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST). Recommends creating opportunities for students to see scientists in different settings and roles. (Contains 23 references.) (YDS)

  2. [Strategy and collaboration between medicinal chemists and pharmaceutical scientists for drug delivery systems].

    PubMed

    Mano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully apply drug delivery systems (DDS) to new chemical entities (NCEs), collaboration between medicinal chemists and formulation scientists is critical for efficient drug discovery. Formulation scientists have to use 'language' that medicinal chemists understand to help promote mutual understanding, and medicinal chemists and formulation scientists have to set up strategies to use suitable DDS technologies at the discovery phase of the programmes to ensure successful transfer into the development phase. In this review, strategies of solubilisation formulation for oral delivery, inhalation delivery, nasal delivery and bioconjugation are all discussed. For example, for oral drug delivery, multiple initiatives can be proposed to improve the process to select an optimal delivery option for an NCE. From a technical perspective, formulation scientists have to explain the scope and limitations of formulations as some DDS technologies might be applicable only to limited chemical spaces. Other limitations could be the administered dose and, cost, time and resources for formulation development and manufacturing. Since DDS selection is best placed as part of lead-optimisation, formulation scientists need to be involved in discovery projects at lead selection and optimisation stages. The key to success in their collaboration is to facilitate communication between these two areas of expertise at both a strategic and scientific level. Also, it would be beneficial for medicinal chemists and formulation scientists to set common goals to improve the process of collaboration and build long term partnerships to improve DDS.

  3. Engaging Students and Scientists through ROV Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zande, J.

    2004-12-01

    while doing your work. -Recruiting students to your institution. -Heightening your and your institution's visibility within the scientific community -Building a positive image within your own local community. -Networking with other scientists and research and academic institutions as well as professional societies, industry, government, and other organizations such as aquaria. Whether or not you use ROVs to support your work is not important. What is important are the knowledge and skills that you do use to accomplish your research goals. In the case of the competition, ROVs are the vehicle to teach concepts such as physics, oceanography, math, science, and engineering - the same concepts that you understand and apply when doing your science. By sharing your time and expertise, you can help students solidify what they are learning as they design and build their ROVs and make the connection to how it can be applied to other disciplines.

  4. Supporting Scientists' Efforts in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; NASA SMD Astrophysics Science Education; Public Outreach Forum

    2011-12-01

    Earth and space scientists have a long history of engagement in science education and outreach to K-12 students, educators and the public. While a few scientists obtain funding to do science education and public outreach (E/PO), often in partnership with formal or informal educators, many volunteer their time to such efforts. Nevertheless, faced with lingering challenges to science education and science literacy in the US, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, and professional societies are calling for greater numbers of scientists to provide more effective science outreach. The realization of this goal requires understanding the challenges and needs of scientists engaged or interested in education and outreach, figuring out best practices in scientist-educator partnerships, and offering resources and support structures that maximize scientists' efforts in E/PO. The NASA Science Mission Directorate's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum has initiated several activities toward these ends. Among them are: creating samplers and quick start guides to existing NASA Astrophysics E/PO resources and funding opportunities, a compilation from a variety of sources of credible online guides to doing E/PO, and tip sheets on audience misconceptions about astronomical topics. Feedback from both scientists and E/PO professionals has indicated these efforts are headed in the right direction. This presentation will introduce these resources to the AGU meeting participants, forming a basis for further discussions on how we can better support scientists in E/PO.

  5. Learning to Think as Scientists: District Program Changes its Focus to Zero in on Science Inquiry for Staff and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashey, Jane M.; Sarton, E. Jay, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    A district harnesses the energy of individuals committed to change to create a new approach to science teaching and learning--one that emphasizes inquiry alongside content. Staff developers helped teachers understand how scientists think and work, using an inquiry process that teachers, in turn, now use with students.

  6. Scientists Needed! The Year of the Solar System: Opportunities for Scientist Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.

    2011-12-01

    Spanning a Martian Year - 23 months from October 2010 through August 2012 - the Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebrates the amazing discoveries of numerous new and ongoing NASA missions and research efforts as they explore our near and distant neighbors and probe the outer edges of our solar system. The science revealed by these endeavors is dramatically revising our understanding of the formation and evolution of our solar system. YSS offers opportunities for planetary scientists to become involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) in meaningful ways. By getting involved in YSS E/PO activities, scientists can help to raise awareness of, build excitement in, and make connections with educators, students and the public about current planetary science research and exploration. Each month during YSS a different compelling aspect of the solar system - its formation, volcanism, ice, life - is explored. The monthly topics, tied to the big questions of planetary science, include online resources that can be used by scientists to engage their audiences: hands-on learning activities, demonstrations, connections to solar system and mission events, ideas for partnering with other organizations, and other programming ideas. Resources for past, present, and future YSS monthly topics can be found at: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. Scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS through an avenue that best fits their available time and interests. Possible paths include: contacting the YSS organizational team to provide content for or to review the monthly topics; integrating current planetary research discoveries into your introductory college science classes; starting a science club; prompting an interview with the local media, creating a podcast about your science, sharing YSS with educators or program coordinators at your local schools, museums, libraries, astronomical clubs and societies, retirement homes, or rotary club; volunteering to present your science in one

  7. Science, the Scientists and Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshner, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Although individual scientists engage in research for diverse reasons, society only supports the enterprise because it benefits humankind. We cannot always predict how that will happen, or whether individual projects will have clear and direct benefits, but in the aggregate, there is widespread agreement that we are all better off because of the quality and diversity of the science that is done. However, what scientists do and how it benefits humankind is often unclear to the general public and can at times be misunderstood or misrepresented. Moreover, even when members of the public do understand what science is being done they do not always like what it is showing and feel relatively free to disregard or distort its findings. This happens most often when findings are either politically inconvenient or encroach upon issues of core human values. The origins of the universe can fit into that latter category. This array of factors contributes to the obligation of scientists to reach out to the public and share the results of their work and its implications. It also requires the scientific community to engage in genuine dialogue with the public and find common ground where possible.

  8. From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE) Student-Scientist Online Forums: hypothesis-based research examining ways to involve scientists in effective science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.

    2011-12-01

    Science education reform since the mid-1990's has called for a "new way of teaching and learning about science that reflects how science itself is done, emphasizing inquiry as a way of achieving knowledge and understanding about the world" (NRC, 1996). Scientists and engineers, experts in inquiry thinking, have been called to help model these practices for students and demonstrate scientific habits of mind. The question, however, is "how best to involve these experts?" given the very real challenges of limited availability of scientists, varying experience with effective pedagogy, widespread geographic distribution of schools, and the sheer number of students involved. Technology offers partial solutions to enable Student-Scientist Interactions (SSI). The FLEXE Project has developed online FLEXE Forums to support efficient, effective SSIs, making use of web-based and database technology to facilitate communication between students and scientists. More importantly, the FLEXE project has approached this question of "how best to do this?" scientifically, combining program evaluation with hypothesis-based research explicitly testing the effects of such SSIs on student learning and attitudes towards science. FLEXE Forums are designed to showcase scientific practices and habits of mind through facilitated interaction between students and scientists. Through these Forums, students "meet" working scientists and learn about their research and the environments in which they work. Scientists provide students with intriguing "real-life" datasets and challenge students to analyze and interpret the data through guiding questions. Students submit their analyses to the Forum, and scientists provide feedback and connect the instructional activity with real-life practice, showcasing their activities in the field. In the FLEXE project, Forums are embedded within inquiry-based instructional units focused on essential learning concepts, and feature the deep-sea environment in contrast

  9. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

  10. Legal education for scientists at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-10-01

    In today's increasingly polarized political climate, science is becoming more politicized, which in turn leads to scientists facing an increased involvement in legal discussion about their work, their correspondence, and their public statements. At times these attacks on scientists and their academic freedom are unwarranted and can leave many confused and wondering how to handle the situation. To help out, AGU and the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF) have partnered to prepare the scientific community for these challenges through a Legal Education Series, a series of webinars along with events at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting. This series provides scientists with information to help guide and update them on legal issues and situations currently making their way through the courts.

  11. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  12. Women Scientists. American Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglahn, Nancy, J.

    This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…

  13. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  14. Scientists and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanowicz, Joseph C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results from in-depth interviews in which respondents at a range of U.S. universities provided detailed accounts of their experience in, and identification with, academe. Studies satisfaction from the angle of the self-doubts scientists have about their work and careers, and investigates how self-doubts may systematically differ across…

  15. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his…

  16. ORIGINS OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNAPP, R.H.; GOODRICH, H.B.

    REPORTED ARE FACTORS WHICH HAVE BEEN EFFECTIVE AT THE UNDERGRADUATE LEVEL IN INFLUENCING MEN TO ENTER CAREERS IN SCIENCE. THE RESEARCH IS ESSENTIALLY DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS. PART 1 ASSESSES STATISTICALLY THE SCIENTIST PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF 490 UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES BY DETERMINING WHAT PROPORTION OF THEIR GRADUATES ENTERED CAREERS IN…

  17. Working Like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    "Real" science is about formulating and trying to solve practical and conceptual problems on the basis of shared beliefs about the world. Scientists build theories and test hypotheses by observation and experiment. They try their best to eliminate personal bias, and are "extremely canny in their acceptance of the claims of others" (Ziman, 2000).…

  18. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  19. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  20. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his…

  1. Teaming Up with Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

  2. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  3. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  4. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

  5. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

  6. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  7. Teaming Up with Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

  8. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  9. Women Scientists. American Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglahn, Nancy, J.

    This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…

  10. Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164475.html Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure? Small improvement seen over ... Scientists report another step in the use of stem cells to help treat people with debilitating heart failure. ...

  11. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  12. High School Students as Social Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Edward; And Others

    This paper describes an informal, two-year collaboration of high school students, a teacher, and a psychologist; offered as an optional part of an elective, experimental psychology course. The goal was to help students begin to adopt the perspectives, tools, and research skills of the social scientist. The school has a student body of 2400; more…

  13. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  14. Time-use diaries are acceptable to parents with a disabled preschool child and are helpful in understanding families' daily lives.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M; Hunt, A; Hurley, M; Robertson, S; Carter, B

    2011-03-01

    In order to provide services for children with disabilities which are family focused, strengthening and enabling families in addition to meeting the child's identified needs, it is important to understand families' lives. This study investigates whether time-use diaries can provide an acceptable tool to explore the daily lives of parents with a disabled child. A precoded time-use diary divided into 15 min time slots was designed. Father-mother pairs with a preschool child with either autism (ASD) or technology dependence (TD) were asked to complete a 7-day diary independently, over the same time period. Each parent was then interviewed separately to ascertain their experiences of using the diary. Participants were identified through their involvement with a Child Development Centre. Twenty-six parents (13 father-mother pairs) were invited to participate. Eighteen parents agreed to be involved; 16 completed the diaries and interviews. Three father-mother pairs in the ASD group and one father-mother pair in the TD group declined to be involved. One father-mother pair from the TD group withdrew from the study. Of the 18 parents who agreed to participate, 15 found the diaries acceptable and either easy or straightforward to complete. One parent with dyslexia and one who described himself as a non-reader completed the diaries successfully, finding the colour coding helpful. Parents spent between 10 and 60 min a day completing the diaries, with the median 20-30 min. The diaries provided information on the total amount of time spent on different activities and how much time parents spent together, with their other children, at home or elsewhere. The time-use diaries designed for this study were acceptable to the majority of parents and provided detailed information about their daily lives. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Join the NASA Science Mission Directorate Scientist Speaker's Bureau!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shupla, C. B.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker's Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. Aside from name, organization, location, bio, and (optional) photo and website, the information that scientists enter into this database will not be made public; instead, it will be used to help match scientists with the requests being placed. One of the most common ways for scientists to interact with students, adults, and general public audiences is to give presentations about or related to their science. However, most educators do not have a simple way to connect with those planetary scientists, Earth scientists, heliophysicists, and astronomers who are interested and available to speak with their audiences. This system is designed to help meet the need for connecting potential audiences to interested scientists. The information input into the database (availability to travel, willingness to present online or in person, interest in presenting to different age groups and sizes of audience, topics, and more) will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All NASA-funded Earth and space scientists engaged in active research are invited to fill out the short registration form, including those who are involved in missions, institutes, grants, and those who are using NASA science data in their research, and more. There is particular need for young scientists, such as graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, and women and people of diverse backgrounds. Submit your information at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  16. Scientists Must Not Film but Must Appear on Screen!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdes, A.; Madlener, S.

    2013-12-01

    Film production in science has affected its subjects in a truly remarkable way. Where scientists were once perceived to be poor communicators with an overwhelming aptitude for numbers and figures, audiences now have access to scientists they can understand and even relate to. Over the years, scientists have grown accustomed to involving and using the media in their research and exposing their science to wider audiences, making them better communicators. This is a huge development, and one that is especially noticeable at MARUM, the Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen/Germany. Over time, the collaboration between the scientists and public relations staff has taught us all to be better at what we do. A unique characteristic of MARUM TV is that more or less all videos are produced 'in house'; we have established the small yet effective infrastructure necessary do develop, execute, and distribute semi-professional videos to access broader audiences and increase world-wide visibility. MARUM TV relies on our research scientists to operate cameras and capture important moments offshore on expedition, and to cooperate with us as we shoot footage of them and conduct interviews onshore in the lab. In turn, we promote their research and help increase their accessibility. At the forefront of our success is the relatively recent implementation of HD cameras on MARUM's fleet of remotely operated vehicles, which capture stunning video footage of the deep sea. Furthermore, sustained collaborations with national tv stations, online media portals, and large production companies helps inform our process and increases MARUM's visibility. The result is an extensive suite of about 70 short and long format science videos with some of the highest view counts on YouTube compared to other marine institutes. In the session PA011 'Scientists must film!' we intent to address issues regarding roadblocks to bridging science and media: a) Science communication

  17. Lessons Learned at LPI for Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, C. B.; Kramer, G. Y.; Gross, J.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.; Grier, J.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.; Hackler, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) has engaged scientists in a variety of education programs, including teacher workshops, family events, public presentations, informal educator trainings, communication workshops, and outreach events. Scientists have helped conduct hands-on activities, participated in group discussions, and given talks, while sharing their own career paths and interests; these activities have provided audiences with a clearer vision of how science is conducted and how they can become engaged in science themselves. We will share the lessons we have learned through these experiences, including the value of collaborations between scientists and educators, the importance of understanding the audience's interests and knowledge, and the insights that audiences gain during unstructured discussion and interactions with scientists. LPI has also worked with the NASA Science Mission Directorate E/PO community to determine ways to enable scientists and engineers to engage in E/PO and STEM learning, including examining the research and programs for becoming involved in the preparation of future teachers (see the Menu of Opportunities at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/pre_service_edu/). We will share key research-based best practices that are recommended for scientists and engineers interested in participating in E/PO activities.

  18. The Trench Throws a Dirt Clod at Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture, obtained by the microscopic imager on NASA's Opportunity rover during sol 24, February 17 PST, shows soil clods exposed in the upper wall of the trench dug by Opportunity's right front wheel on sol 23. The clods were not exposed until the trench was made. The presence of soil clods implies weak bonding between individual soil grains. The chemical agent or mineral that causes the dirt to bind together into a clod, which scientists call the 'bonding agent,' is currently unknown. Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer measurements of this spot, planned for sol 25, might help explain the bonding, which would ultimately help the rover team understand how geological processes vary across the red planet. In any case, the bonds between soil grains here cannot be very strong because the wheel dug down through this layer with little trouble.

  19. The Trench Throws a Dirt Clod at Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture, obtained by the microscopic imager on NASA's Opportunity rover during sol 24, February 17 PST, shows soil clods exposed in the upper wall of the trench dug by Opportunity's right front wheel on sol 23. The clods were not exposed until the trench was made. The presence of soil clods implies weak bonding between individual soil grains. The chemical agent or mineral that causes the dirt to bind together into a clod, which scientists call the 'bonding agent,' is currently unknown. Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer measurements of this spot, planned for sol 25, might help explain the bonding, which would ultimately help the rover team understand how geological processes vary across the red planet. In any case, the bonds between soil grains here cannot be very strong because the wheel dug down through this layer with little trouble.

  20. Integrating Scientists into Teacher Professional Development—Strategies for Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, S. E.; Buhr, S. M.; Smith, L. K.

    2010-12-01

    Professional development workshops for science teachers can be greatly enhanced by scientist participation. Such workshops may promote a collegial community and mutual understanding between researchers and educators. The CIRES (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences) Education and Outreach (EO) group at the University of Colorado, Boulder, has over a decade of experience in successfully developing and hosting such events. Scientist participation in these workshops varies widely—from giving formal presentations to working one-on-one with educators in designing a research project. Researchers from CIRES, NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center), and other Colorado agencies and institutions have participated in the workshops. In addition, graduate students in scientific research programs at the University of Colorado are frequently involved. Such workshops can be effective broader impacts components of scientific programs. One example of a long-running successful program was the Earthworks project (1998-2007), a one-week workshop for secondary science teachers from around the country. With the help of practicing geoscientists, participants working in teams designed and conducted a field-based interdisciplinary study. Attendees were so enthusiastic that the ongoing Listserv community (including both scientist and educators) is still active and engaged three years after the last workshop. In a more recent example, since 2009 CIRES EO has been hosting an annual week-long summer workshop as the COSEE (Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence) West—Colorado Collaborative. The COSEE workshops have had a different theme each year. In 2010, the workshop explored the link between Arctic sea ice, the Greenland ice sheet, sea level, and global climate processes. Extensive evaluation efforts have been included in the design of each workshop and the evaluation results are used to improve

  1. Why scientists should cooperate with journalists.

    PubMed

    Rensberger, B

    2000-10-01

    Despite a widespread impression that the public is woefully ignorant of science and cares little for the subject, U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) surveys show the majority are very interested and understand that they are not well informed about science. The data are consistent with the author's view that the popularity of pseudoscience does not indicate a rejection of science. If this is so, opportunities for scientists to communicate with the public promise a more rewarding result than is commonly believed among scientists. In fact, the increasing visibility of science in the mass media correlates with a slow, steady improvement in public understanding of science in recent years.

  2. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  3. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of

  4. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists

    PubMed Central

    Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D.; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L.; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K.

    2013-01-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists. PMID:23803301

  5. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists.

    PubMed

    Via, Allegra; Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K

    2013-09-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists.

  6. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  7. Comet Scientists Honor Colleagues

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-29

    Scientists from the European Space Agency Rosetta team have honored two late team members by naming comet features after them. The comet is 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, where the mission successfully landed a probe. One of the features is shown here in these Rosetta images, with the picture on the right being a close-up view. The "C. Alexander Gate" is found on the comet's smaller lobe, and is dedicated to Claudia Alexander, the U.S. project scientist from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, who passed away in July of this year. Image credit left: ESA's comet viewer http://sci.esa.int/comet-viewer. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19838

  8. Data Scientist Training for Librarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, C.

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that there will be a shortfall in the near future of skilled talent available to help take advantage of big data in organizations. Meanwhile, government initiatives have encouraged the research community to share their data more openly, raising new challenges for researchers. Librarians can assist in this new data-driven environment. Data Scientist Training for Librarians (or Data Savvy Librarians) is an experimental course being offered by the Harvard Library to train librarians to respond to the growing data needs of their communities. In the course, librarians familiarize themselves with the research data lifecycle, working hands-on with the latest tools for extracting, wrangling, storing, analyzing, and visualizing data. By experiencing the research data lifecycle themselves, and becoming data savvy and embracing the data science culture, librarians can begin to imagine how their services might be transformed.

  9. Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, David

    As Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist, my goal will be to maximize the science capability of the mission in a cost-contained environment. I hope to work with the HQ, project and the FSWG to assure mission success. I plan to play a leadership role in communicating the WFIRST science capabilities to the astronomy community , obtain input from both science teams and the broader community that help derive performance requirements and calibration metrics. I plan to focus on developing the observing program for the deep fields and focus on using them to calibrate instrument performance and capabilities. I plan to organize workshops that will bring together WFIRST team members with astronomers working on LSST, Euclid, JWST, and the ELTs to maximize combined science return. I am also eager to explore the astrometric and stellar seismology capabilities of the instrument with a goal of maximizing science return without affecting science requirements.

  10. NASA chief scientist visit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-19

    NASA Chief Scientist Dr. Waleed Abdalati visited Stennis Space Center on July 19, to learn about the extensive science capabilities onsite. Shown at right are: (seated, l to r), Stennis Center Director Patrick Scheuermann; Dr. Abdalati; U.S. Navy Rear Adm. Jonathan White; NOAA National Data Buoy Center Program Manager Shannon McArthur; (standing, l to r) Stennis Project Directorate Assistant Director Anne Peek; Stennis Applied Science & Technology Project Office Chief Duane Armstrong; and Stennis Project Directorate Director Keith Brock.

  11. Can't get no satisfaction? Will pay for performance help?: toward an economic framework for understanding performance-based risk-sharing agreements for innovative medical products.

    PubMed

    Towse, Adrian; Garrison, Louis P

    2010-01-01

    This article examines performance-based risk-sharing agreements for pharmaceuticals from a theoretical economic perspective. We position these agreements as a form of coverage with evidence development. New performance-based risk sharing could produce a more efficient market equilibrium, achieved by adjustment of the price post-launch to reflect outcomes combined with a new approach to the post-launch costs of evidence collection. For this to happen, the party best able to manage or to bear specific risks must do so. Willingness to bear risk will depend not only on ability to manage it, but on the degree of risk aversion. We identify three related frameworks that provide relevant insights: value of information, real option theory and money-back guarantees. We identify four categories of risk sharing: budget impact, price discounting, outcomes uncertainty and subgroup uncertainty. We conclude that a value of information/real option framework is likely to be the most helpful approach for understanding the costs and benefits of risk sharing. There are a number of factors that are likely to be crucial in determining if performance-based or risk-sharing agreements are efficient and likely to become more important in the future: (i) the cost and practicality of post-launch evidence collection relative to pre-launch; (ii) the feasibility of coverage with evidence development without a pre-agreed contract as to how the evidence will be used to adjust price, revenues or use, in which uncertainty around the pay-off to additional research will reduce the incentive for the manufacturer to collect the information; (iii) the difficulty of writing and policing risk-sharing agreements; (iv) the degree of risk aversion (and therefore opportunity to trade) on the part of payers and manufacturers; and (v) the extent of transferability of data from one country setting to another to support coverage with evidence development in a risk-sharing framework. There is no doubt that

  12. The Cultural Turn in Sociology: Can It Help Us Resolve an Age-Old Problem in Understanding Decision Making for Health Care?

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2010-12-01

    Culture has long affected individuals' response to problems. A classic puzzle in the sociology of health and illness is discrepancy between theory and research regarding cultural beliefs and knowledge of medical care service use. "Utilization research," examining individuals' responses to the onset of health problems, has not consistently affected culture on the uptake of formal treatment. First, while ethnographic research often describes how culture shapes illness behaviors, survey-based studies rarely find significant beliefs or predispositions once "need" is controlled. Second, in quantitative studies, individuals report supportive treatment beliefs or predispositions to use services but low utilization levels, reinforcing claims about lack of utility of cultural ideologies in health-care decision making. We ask whether innovations in the sociology of culture and cognition provide theoretical scaffolding to conceptualize and measure culture in health service utilization. Rather than estimating effect of cultural beliefs on health-care decisionmaking, we question the measurement of cultural beliefs in understanding service use. Examining data from the General Social Survey, we focus on how approaches to culture might explain the paradox of high cultural predispositions and low actual use. Children with mental health problems provide a comparison between suggestions and endorsements. Suggestions, sources of care offered by individuals in response to a case description without any other social cues, align with new cultural approaches, and are measured by responses to open-ended questions about what should be done for the child described (with clinical criteria for ADHD, major depression, asthma, or "daily troubles"). Endorsements, requiring less cognitive work and cultural resistance, align with traditional conceptualizations of culture, and are measured by closed-ended questions that ask respondents to agree or disagree with seeking help from different treatment

  13. [The critical scientists' voice].

    PubMed

    Lewgoy, F

    2000-01-01

    The intricate debate over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) involves powerful economic interests, as well as ethical, legal, emotional and scientific aspects, some of which are dealt with in this paper.(It is possible to identify two main groups of scientists across the GMOs divide: the triumphalist and the critical group.) Scientists in the triumphalist group state that GMOs and their derivatives are safe for the environment and do not offer health hazards any more than similar, non-genetically modified, products. This view is disputed by the critical scientists, who are prompted by the scarcity of studies on the environmental impacts and toxicity of GMOs, and who point out flaws in tests performed by the same companies which hold the patents. They are also critical of the current state of the process of gene transference, lacking accuracy, a fact which, coupled with the scant knowledge available about 97% of the genome functions, may produce unforseeable effects with risks for the environment and public health yet to be assessed. Examples of such effects are: the transference of alien genes [??] to other species, the emergence of toxins, the creation of new viruses, the impacts on beneficial insects and on biodiversity in general.

  14. Career Management for Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchardt, John K.

    2000-05-01

    This book will be an important resource for both new graduates and mid-career scientists, engineers, and technicians. Through taking stock of existing or desired skills and goals, it provides both general advice and concrete examples to help asses a current job situation or prospect, and to effectively pursue and attain new ones. Many examples of properly adapted resumes and interview techniques, as well as plenty of practical advice about adaptation to new workplace cultural paradigms, such as team-based management, make this book an invaluable reference for the professional scientist in today's volatile job market.

  15. What is a scientist-practitioner anyway?

    PubMed

    Stricker, George

    2002-10-01

    The scientist-practitioner model is the dominant approach to training in clinical psychology, but it is more readily realized in theory than in practice. The articles in this series consider ways to make research more accessible to the practitioner in a realistic and helpful manner, and to allow practitioners to influence the course of research. Many innovative models are described, and they converge on a high value placed on methodological pluralism. Many of the authors, explicitly or implicitly, endorse psychotherapy integration, and also portray a practitioner who bears resemblance to the local clinical scientist.

  16. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Oratorical Scientist: A Guide for Speechcraft and Presentation for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Public speaking organizations are highly valuable for individuals seeking to improve their skills in speech development and delivery. The methodology of such groups usually focuses on repetitive, guided practice. Toastmasters International, for instance, uses a curriculum based on topical manuals that guide their members through some number of prepared speeches with specific goals for each speech. I have similarly developed a public speaking manual for scientists with the intention of guiding scientists through the development and presentation of speeches that will help them hone their abilities as public speakers. I call this guide The Oratorical Scientist. The Oratorical Scientist will be a free, digital publication that is meant to guide scientists through five specific types of speech that the scientist may be called upon to deliver during their career. These five speeches are: The Coffee Talk, The Educational Talk, Research Talks for General Science Audiences, Research Talks for Specific Subdiscipline Audiences, and Taking the Big Stage (talks for public engagement). Each section of the manual focuses on speech development, rehearsal, and presentation for each of these specific types of speech. The curriculum was developed primarily from my personal experiences in public engagement. Individuals who use the manual may deliver their prepared speeches to groups of their peers (e.g. within their research group) or through video sharing websites like Youtube and Vimeo. Speeches that are broadcast online can then be followed and shared through social media networks (e.g. #OratoricalScientist), allowing a larger audience to evaluate the speech and to provide criticism. I will present The Oratorical Scientist, a guide for scientists to become better public speakers. The process of guided repetitive practice of scientific talks will improve the speaking capabilities of scientists, in turn benefitting science communication and public engagement.

  18. Of Science and Scientists an Anthology of Anecdotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothare, A. N.

    Although a lot is available in the form of biographies and writings of scientists, very little information is found on what made them not only great discoverers but humane too, blessed with humour, humility and humanism. This book helps to convey this very aspect of scientists who while being involved in their unique adventure are like us, the lesser mortals.

  19. The GLOBE International Scientists Network: Connecting scientists, teachers and students from around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Tessendorf, S. A.; Mackaro, J.

    2011-12-01

    The GLOBE Program invites scientists in all areas of Earth System Science to work with students and teachers around the work on exploring local scientific problems. GLOBE has a rich history of connecting scientists with schools around the world around issues of environmental and relevance. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with students, teachers and scientists in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has initiated a focus on climate science during the next two years and we are especially interested in connecting scientists with teachers and students in geographic and disciplinary areas of interest to climate scientists. In addition, GLOBE is revitalizing the technology support for science and communications which will provide an easy mechanism for scientists to connect with GLOBE schools. GLOBE is based on spheres of the Earth system with five investigation areas: Atmosphere, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover / Biology, and Phenology. Classroom learning activities for each area help guide students in the classroom. Scientific protocols for data collection designed by scientists provide guidance for students to collect scientifically valid, high-quality data that can be used by professional scientists. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign aims to develop a framework for robust scientist participation in the program whereby scientists and GLOBE schools with mutual science interest can connect and develop collaborations. Scientist participation ranges from mentoring students on science investigations to working collaborative on local climate science research problems. Scientists interested in working with GLOBE are encouraged to participate in whatever level of engagement is appropriate to compliment their research program and professional goals. Scientists will become a part of the GLOBE International Scientist Network, which may provide entrée into other avenues of research and funding. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered

  20. A Tale of Two scientists and their Involvement in Education & Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, J.

    2004-12-01

    Many scientists, when faced with developing an education and outreach plan for their research proposals, are unclear on what kinds of impacts they can have on broader non scientist audiences. Many scientists feel their only options are to develop a website or invite a teacher to get involved in their sampling or research cruises. Scientists, who are constrained by time and resources, are not aware of the range of education and outreach options available to them and of the great value their involvement can bring to the public. In an recent survey at the National Science Foundation sponsored ORION conference (January 2004), respondents stated that the greatest public benefits to having scientists involved in public education are (1) that they can present the benefits and relevance of research (26%), (2) focus awareness on environmental issues (26%), (3) serve as models for teachers and motivators for children (25%) and (4) increase public understanding, awareness and appreciation of science (about 22%). As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (MACOSEE), the Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences (IMCS) at Rutgers University is dedicated to helping scientists and educators realize the benefits of working together to advance ocean discovery and make known the vital role of the ocean in our lives. A website called "Scientist Connection" (www.macosee.net) was developed to help busy scientists choose a role in education and outreach that will make the most of their talent and time. The goal of the web site is to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. In this session, the author will present two case studies that demonstrate very different but effective approaches to scientist's involvement in education and outreach projects. In the first case, we will chronicle how a team of biologists and oceanographers in the Rutgers University, Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory (or

  1. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  2. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  3. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science…

  4. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science…

  6. Software for Scientists Facing Wicked Problems: Lessons from the VISTAS Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations for their own use and for use in presenting their work to a wide range of stakeholders (including other scientists, decision maker...

  7. Software for Scientists Facing Wicked Problems: Lessons from the VISTAS Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations for their own use and for use in presenting their work to a wide range of stakeholders (including other scientists, decision maker...

  8. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  9. Personalized medical education: Reappraising clinician-scientist training.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, Gabriele C; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-13

    Revitalizing the Oslerian ideal of the clinician-scientist-teacher may help in the training of the next generation of translational researchers. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Space Scientists in Education and Public Outreach: A Summary of NASA Resources for Effective Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Schneider, Nick; Meinke, Bonnie; Shipp, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The NASA Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums developed and provided resources for scientists through a five-year cooperative agreement. Through this work, the Fourms have supported scientists who are involved in E/PO and who wish to become involved. Forums have conducted interviews, facilitated education oral and poster sessions, provided ‘Help Desks’ for more information, curated activities, as well as produced guides, pamphlets, and tips sheets. Our interviews with over 30 planetary scientists allowed us to identify needs and target gaps in resources, ensuring we could provide scientists with effective support and products. Interviews were conducted in collaboration with the AAS Division of Planetary Sciences, with the goal of better understanding scientists’ requirements, barriers, attitudes, and perception of education and outreach work. We collected information about how scientists were engaged in E/PO activities (or not), what support they did or did not have, what resources they used in their efforts, and what resources they would like to have to support and improve their E/PO engagement. The Forums have convened and/or supported E/PO oral and poster sessions at a variety of annual meetings. These sessions allowed scientists to network, share lessons learned, and become aware of new resources and products. These meetings included the DPS, AAS, LPSC, AGU, ASP, IAU, and more. ‘Help Desks’ were offered to allow scientists the chance to have extended one-on-one conversations with E/PO providers in order to share their programs, and learn how to become involved. These have been particularly popular with early career scientists looking to extend their E/PO efforts. A host of education activities developed by the space science community have been archived at the NASA site “Wavelength” (nasawavelength.org). Special lists have been curated to allow scientists to easily target those activities that fit their particular needs, from engineering to

  11. [The happy scientist].

    PubMed

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Vergouwen, Anton C M; Smulders, Yvo M

    2012-01-01

    The H-index is a frequently used scale to rank scientists on their scientific output. Whether subjective feeling of happiness is influenced by the level of the H-index on scientists has never been investigated. To investigate the relation between the level of the H index as a measure of scientific success and feelings of unhappiness among Dutch professors. Descriptive; national online questionnaire. All medical professors working at the Dutch university medical centres were invited to participate in an online questionnaire. Pressure to publish was measured by a questionnaire developed for this purpose and signs of burnout were measured on the Utrecht Burnout Scale. The area of emotional exhaustion on this scale was used to measure feelings of unhappiness. Every professor was asked for his or her H-index as an outcome measure. A total of 437 professors completed the questionnaire. Those in the highest tertile of the H index had significantly lower scores for emotional exhaustion (p < 0.025). Younger age was correlated with an, on average, higher score for emotional exhaustion. Professors with children living at home had a 25% higher score on emotional exhaustion than those who did not (p < 0.01). The H index appears to be of influence on emotional exhaustion: a lower H index is associated with higher scores on emotional exhaustion while a high H index is associated with lower scores.

  12. Metadata Management on the SCEC PetaSHA Project: Helping Users Describe, Discover, Understand, and Use Simulation Data in a Large-Scale Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, D.; Deelman, E.; Maechling, P.; Wong-Barnum, M.; Jordan, T. H.; Meyers, D.

    2007-12-01

    Large scientific collaborations, such as the SCEC Petascale Cyberfacility for Physics-based Seismic Hazard Analysis (PetaSHA) Project, involve interactions between many scientists who exchange ideas and research results. These groups must organize, manage, and make accessible their community materials of observational data, derivative (research) results, computational products, and community software. The integration of scientific workflows as a paradigm to solve complex computations provides advantages of efficiency, reliability, repeatability, choices, and ease of use. The underlying resource needed for a scientific workflow to function and create discoverable and exchangeable products is the construction, tracking, and preservation of metadata. In the scientific workflow environment there is a two-tier structure of metadata. Workflow-level metadata and provenance describe operational steps, identity of resources, execution status, and product locations and names. Domain-level metadata essentially define the scientific meaning of data, codes and products. To a large degree the metadata at these two levels are separate. However, between these two levels is a subset of metadata produced at one level but is needed by the other. This crossover metadata suggests that some commonality in metadata handling is needed. SCEC researchers are collaborating with computer scientists at SDSC, the USC Information Sciences Institute, and Carnegie Mellon Univ. in order to perform earthquake science using high-performance computational resources. A primary objective of the "PetaSHA" collaboration is to perform physics-based estimations of strong ground motion associated with real and hypothetical earthquakes located within Southern California. Construction of 3D earth models, earthquake representations, and numerical simulation of seismic waves are key components of these estimations. Scientific workflows are used to orchestrate the sequences of scientific tasks and to access

  13. Censorship in All Seasons: Considering the Fiction of the Past, the Present, and the Future to Help Students Understanding the Concept of Censorship in Our World Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boreen, Jean

    A curriculum that asks students to consider the implications of censorship would include not only "Fahrenheit 451" but also other works of adolescent literature, Holocaust literature, and science fiction. Works written about the Holocaust, which can be considered a type of absolute censorship, help students to consider censorship's…

  14. Understanding the Phases of Recovery from Serious Mental Illness: The Roles of Referent and Expert Power in a Mutual-Help Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Salem, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored an approach to studying recovery that is sensitive to the multiphase and contextual nature of the recovery process. The authors focused on the experience of recovery in a mutual-help group, Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA). Prior qualitative research conducted with SA revealed that SA participants experience four phases of…

  15. Understanding the Phases of Recovery from Serious Mental Illness: The Roles of Referent and Expert Power in a Mutual-Help Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Salem, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored an approach to studying recovery that is sensitive to the multiphase and contextual nature of the recovery process. The authors focused on the experience of recovery in a mutual-help group, Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA). Prior qualitative research conducted with SA revealed that SA participants experience four phases of…

  16. Developmental Potential among Creative Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culross, Rita R.

    2008-01-01

    The world of creative scientists is dramatically different in the 21st century than it was during previous centuries. Whether biologists, chemists, physicists, engineers, mathematicians, or computer scientists, the livelihood of research scientists is dependent on their abilities of creative expression. The view of a solitary researcher who…

  17. Another Kind of Scientist Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

  18. Another Kind of Scientist Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

  19. Developmental Potential among Creative Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culross, Rita R.

    2008-01-01

    The world of creative scientists is dramatically different in the 21st century than it was during previous centuries. Whether biologists, chemists, physicists, engineers, mathematicians, or computer scientists, the livelihood of research scientists is dependent on their abilities of creative expression. The view of a solitary researcher who…

  20. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.