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Sample records for helps scientists understand

  1. New Gas Gun Helping Scientists Better Understand Plutonium Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    One of the most daunting scientific and engineering challenges today is ensuring the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear arsenal. To effectively meet that challenge, scientists need better data showing how plutonium, a key component of nuclear warheads, behaves under extreme pressures and temperatures. On July 8, 2003, Lawrence Livermore researchers performed the inaugural experiment of a 30-meter-long, two-stage gas gun designed to obtain those data. The results from a continuing stream of successful experiments on the gas gun are strengthening scientists' ability to ensure that the nation's nuclear stockpile is safe and reliable. The JASPER (Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research) Facility at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is home to the two-stage gas gun. In the gun's first test, an unqualified success, Livermore scientists fired a projectile weighing 28.6 grams and traveling about 5.21 kilometers per second when it impacted an extremely small (about 30-gram) plutonium target. This experiment marked the culmination of years of effort in facility construction, gun installation, system integration, design reviews, and federal authorizations required to bring the experimental facility online. Ongoing experiments have drawn enthusiastic praise from throughout DOE, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and the scientific community. NNSA Administrator Linton Brooks said, ''Our national laboratories now have at their disposal a valuable asset that enhances our due diligence to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear weapons testing.''

  2. Helping Health Care Providers and Clinical Scientists Understand Apparently Irrational Policy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Health care providers (HCP) and clinical scientists (CS) are generally most comfortable using evidence-based rational decision-making models. They become very frustrated when policymakers make decisions that, on the surface, seem irrational and unreasonable. However, such decisions usually make sense when analysed properly. The goal of this paper to provide a basic theoretical understanding of major policy models, to illustrate which models are most prevalent in publicly funded health care systems, and to propose a policy analysis framework to better understand the elements that drive policy decision-making. The proposed policy framework will also assist HCP and CS achieve greater success with their own proposals. PMID:28123917

  3. Helping Children Understand Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1978-01-01

    The program described uses simulation activities; exposure to aids and appliances; guest speakers; books, movies, slides, and videotapes; and class discussion to help elementary students understand disabilities. (IRT)

  4. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  5. ESPMIS: Helping Young Scientists Navigate the Molecular Imaging Landscape.

    PubMed

    Zeglis, Brian M; Vugts, Danielle J

    2017-02-13

    The core mission of the Early Stage Professionals in Molecular Imaging Sciences (ESPMIS) Interest Group is to help young scientists navigate the professional landscape of molecular imaging. Since its formation in early 2015, ESPMIS has used the annual World Molecular Imaging Congress (WMIC) as a platform to provide education and guidance on three areas that are particularly critical to young scientists: networking, career development, and funding. In the coming years, ESPMIS plans to continue its focus on these topics, work with the WMIS on the creation of new digital tools for young scientists, and introduce two new areas of emphasis: the importance of mentoring and international career opportunities. We at ESPMIS sincerely believe that the future is bright for young scientists in molecular imaging, and we are here to help.

  6. Helping students make meaning of authentic investigations: findings from a student-teacher-scientist partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peker, Deniz; Dolan, Erin

    2012-03-01

    As student-teacher-scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research about the roles that scientists assume in their interactions with students. Socio-cultural perspectives on learning emphasize social interaction as a means for students to make meaning of scientific ideas. Thus, this naturalistic study of classroom discourse aims to explore the ways scientists and teachers help high school students make meaning during authentic inquiry investigations. Conversational analysis is conducted of video recordings of discussions between students and teachers and students and scientists from two instances of a student-teacher-scientist partnership program. A social semiotic analytic framework is used to interpret the actions of scientists and teachers. The results indicate a range of common and distinct roles for scientists and teachers with respect to the conceptual, social, pedagogical, and epistemological aspects of meaning making. While scientists provided conceptual and epistemological support related to their scientific expertise, such as explaining scientific phenomena or aspects of the nature of science, teachers played a critical role in ensuring students' access to this knowledge. The results have implications for managing the division of labor between scientists and teachers in partnership programs.

  7. Helping Scientists Become Effective Partners in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, Sandra L.; Smith, Lesley K.

    2009-01-01

    How does a scientist find herself standing before a group of lively third-graders? She may be personally motivated-seeking to improve public understanding of scientific issues and the nature of science, or to see her own children receive a good science education-or perhaps she simply enjoys this kind of work [Andrews et al., 2005; Kim and Fortner, 2008]. In addition to internal motivating factors, federal funding agencies have begun to encourage scientists to participate in education and outreach (E/O) related to their research, through NASA program requirements for such activities (see ``Implementing the Office of Space Science Education/Public Outreach Strategy,'' at http://spacescience.nasa.gov/admin/pubs/edu/imp_plan.htm) and the U.S. National Science Foundation's increased emphasis on ``broader impacts'' in merit review of research proposals (see http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2003/nsf032/bicexamples.pdf). Universities, laboratories, and large collaboratives have responded by developing E/O programs that include interaction between students, teachers, and the public in schools; after-school and summer programs; and work through science centers, planetaria, aquaria, and museums.

  8. An Investigation of Graduate Scientists' Understandings of Evaporation and Boiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan; Orlik, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Uses a video presentation of six situations relating to the evaporation and boiling of liquids and the escape of dissolved gases from solution and investigates graduate scientists' understanding of the concepts of boiling and evaporation. (Author/YDS)

  9. Internet-Based "Collaboratories" Help Scientists Work Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    Internet collaboration among laboratories allows scientists to work together at a distance, and will eventually enable researchers to examine microscope-produced images simultaneously and participate in meetings and seminars remotely. If the ventures succeed, the resulting technology will allow smaller institutions to cooperate more easily.…

  10. Scientists and Scientific Thinking: Understanding Scientific Thinking through an Investigation of Scientists Views about Superstitions and Religious Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Lay, Mark C.; Taylor, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Scientific literacy is explored in this paper which describes two studies that seek to understand a particular feature of the nature of science; namely scientists' habits of mind. The research investigated scientists' views of scientific evidence and how scientists judge evidence claims. The first study is concerned with scientists' views of what…

  11. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes.

  12. Do Scientists Help People? Beliefs about Scientists and the Influence of Prosocial Context on Girls' Attitudes Toward Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanowitz, Karen L.

    Despite many efforts, science is still a male-dominated field. Girls who do persist in science often express a desire to use their knowledge in socially relevant ways. The current study examined elementary school girls' beliefs about the work of scientists and how presenting information about a prosocial aspect of physics would influence their attitudes toward that information. Participants were asked an open-ended question to assess their knowledge of what scientists do and were presented with scenarios describing physicists in either a discovery context or as helping society. The results revealed that relatively few participants generated prosocial responses to the open-ended question, and the helping context story was rated as significantly more likable than the discovery context. Suggestions are given for educators to include prosocial aspects of science in their teaching.

  13. Helping Students Make Meaning of Authentic Investigations: Findings from a Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peker, Deniz; Dolan, Erin

    2012-01-01

    As student-teacher-scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research…

  14. Understanding and managing enhancements: why fisheries scientists should care.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, K

    2014-12-01

    Fisheries enhancements are a set of management approaches involving the use of aquaculture technologies to enhance or restore fisheries in natural ecosystems. Enhancements are widely used in inland and coastal fisheries, but have received limited attention from fisheries scientists. This paper sets out 10 reasons why fisheries scientists should care about understanding and managing enhancements. (1) Enhancements happen, driven mostly by resource users and managers rather than scientists. (2) Enhancements create complex fisheries systems that encompass and integrate everything fisheries stakeholders can practically manage. (3) Enhancements emerge in fisheries where the scope for technical and governance control is high, and they synergistically reinforce both. (4) Successful enhancements expand management options and achievable outcomes. (5) Many enhancements fail or do ecological harm but persist regardless. (6) Effective science engagement is crucial to developing beneficial enhancements and preventing harmful ones. (7) Good scientific guidance is available to aid development or reform of enhancements but is not widely applied. (8) Enhancement research advances, integrates and unifies the fisheries sciences. (9) Enhancements provide unique opportunities for learning about natural fish populations and fisheries. (10) Needs, opportunities and incentives for enhancements are bound to increase.

  15. Helping Your Students Better Understand Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaney, Judi

    1997-01-01

    Outlines 10 issues concerning credit that students should understand: credit reports; credit reporting; obligations when signing/cosigning a loan; creating positive credit history; privacy and the credit report; how lenders make and monitor credit decisions; mailing lists and preapproved credit offers; protecting against credit card fraud; use of…

  16. Helping Teachers Connect Vocabulary and Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, A. Susan

    2008-01-01

    A focus on mathematics vocabulary must be part of teachers' instructional plans to develop students' understanding of key ideas. The author presents examples from work with preservice teachers regarding two vocabulary strategies and other related activities that can be used by middle and high school mathematics teachers. (Contains 8 figures.)

  17. How can a multimodal approach to primate communication help us understand the evolution of communication?

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Liebal, Katja; Burrows, Anne M; Slocombe, Katie E

    2013-07-18

    Scientists studying the communication of non-human animals are often aiming to better understand the evolution of human communication, including human language. Some scientists take a phylogenetic perspective, where the goal is to trace the evolutionary history of communicative traits, while others take a functional perspective, where the goal is to understand the selection pressures underpinning specific traits. Both perspectives are necessary to fully understand the evolution of communication, but it is important to understand how the two perspectives differ and what they can and cannot tell us. Here, we suggest that integrating phylogenetic and functional questions can be fruitful in better understanding the evolution of communication. We also suggest that adopting a multimodal approach to communication might help to integrate phylogenetic and functional questions, and provide an interesting avenue for research into language evolution.

  18. Toward an Understanding of the Epistemic Values of Biological Scientists as Expressed in Scholarly Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kathel

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation develops a deeper understanding of the epistemic values of scientists, specifically exploring the proposed values of community, collaboration, connectivity and credit as part of the scholarly communication system. These values are the essence of scientists actively engaged in conducting science and in communicating their work to…

  19. Waterlust - An Example of How Online Video Can Help Scientists and Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynne, P.; Graham, F.; Caster, J.; Adler, J.

    2014-12-01

    Online videos and the social networks used to disseminate them provide scientists, educators, and students an opportunity to reach new audiences on a global scale. The ability to inspire people to think about a given subject that are not otherwise engaged is an important strategy in growing the societal impact of your work. Especially to those working in the field of physical science as it relates to environmental conservation and preservation, targeting new audiences helps avoid "preaching to the choir." Towards this goal, three graduate students at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science began an online film project in 2011 aimed at motivating the general public to think about their relationship with water and the marine environment. Here we present lessons from our first three years that include: tips for making an engaging video, promoting creativity and self-expression in science, video editing tips 101, getting the most out of your GoPro, and how to get your video seen by more people. For more information about our work, visit www.waterlust.org

  20. The pallid sturgeon: Scientific investigations help understand recovery needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  1. Asking the Right Questions: Helping Mainstream Students Understand Other Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jefferey H.

    Two common tendencies that lead many mainstream students to misinterpret other cultures are the combative response and the exoticizing response. These misinterpretations, however, can be excellent learning moments for helping students understand the constructed nature of culture and the contextual nature of learning. Transformational multicultural…

  2. A Helpful Way to Conceptualize and Understand Reenactments

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to understand the purpose and the etiology of reenactments can lead to confusion because reenactments can occur for a variety of reasons. At times, individuals actively reenact past traumas as a way to master them. However, in other cases, reenactments occur inadvertently and result from the psychological vulnerabilities and defensive strategies characteristic of trauma survivors. This article offers a means to conceptualize and understand the many ways in which reenactments can occur. Psychotherapeutic strategies are offered to help individuals integrate past traumas and decrease their chances of becoming involved in destructive reenactments.(The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1998; 7:227–235) PMID:9631344

  3. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  4. Early human communication helps in understanding language evolution.

    PubMed

    Lenti Boero, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Building a theory on extant species, as Ackermann et al. do, is a useful contribution to the field of language evolution. Here, I add another living model that might be of interest: human language ontogeny in the first year of life. A better knowledge of this phase might help in understanding two more topics among the "several building blocks of a comprehensive theory of the evolution of spoken language" indicated in their conclusion by Ackermann et al., that is, the foundation of the co-evolution of linguistic motor skills with the auditory skills underlying speech perception, and the possible phylogenetic interactions of protospeech production with referential capabilities.

  5. Helping Basic Scientists Engage With Community Partners to Enrich and Accelerate Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Evering, Teresa H.; Holt, Peter R.; Neville-Williams, Maija; Vasquez, Kimberly S.; Coller, Barry S.; Tobin, Jonathan N.

    2017-01-01

    Problem Engaging basic scientists in community-based translational research is challenging but has great potential for improving health. Approach In 2009, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science partnered with Clinical Directors Network, a practice-based research network (PBRN), to create a community-engaged research navigation (CEnR-Nav) program to foster research pairing basic science and community-driven scientific aims. The program is led by an academic navigator and a PBRN navigator. Through meetings and joint activities, the program facilitates basic science–community partnerships and the development and conduct of joint research protocols. Outcomes From 2009–2014, 39 investigators pursued 44 preliminary projects through the CEnR-Nav program; 25 of those became 23 approved protocols and 2 substudies. They involved clinical scholar trainees, early-career physician–scientists, faculty, students, postdoctoral fellows, and others. Nineteen (of 25; 76%) identified community partners, of which 9 (47%) named them as coinvestigators. Nine (of 25; 36%) included T3–T4 translational aims. Seven (of 25; 28%) secured external funding, 11 (of 25; 44%) disseminated results through presentations or publications, and 5 (71%) of 7 projects publishing results included a community partner as a coauthor. Of projects with long-term navigator participation, 9 (of 19; 47%) incorporated T3–T4 aims and 7 (of 19; 37%) secured external funding. Next Steps The CEnR-Nav program provides a model for successfully engaging basic scientists with communities to advance and accelerate translational science. This model's durability and generalizability have not been determined, but it achieves valuable short-term goals and facilitates scientifically meaningful community–academic partnerships. PMID:27119330

  6. From the Horse's Mouth: Why scientists' views are crucial to nature of science understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Derek; Wong, Siu Ling

    2014-11-01

    Written in response to criticism of our work by Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, this position paper reaffirms and reinforces our position about the need to broaden and enrich the scope of nature of science (NOS) oriented curricula by exposing students to the voices of practising scientists. While Abd-El-Khalick's motivation for promoting the so-called consensus view of NOS is rooted in issues of assessment (or 'benchmarking', as he calls it), we argue that the major reason for teaching about NOS is its contribution to what Shen calls civic and cultural scientific literacy. We are critical of the consensus view for its philosophical naivety, failure to reflect contemporary scientific practice and potential for confusing students, and we re-state our view that it is important to expose students to a diversity of practice among the sub-disciplines of science. We argue that richer NOS understanding and a more authentic view of scientific practice can be achieved through direct and indirect contact with scientists at the cutting edge of research and development, which we characterise as learning about scientists, learning from scientists and learning with scientists.

  7. Good Morning from Barrow, Alaska! Helping K-12 students understand the importance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation focuses on how an educator experiences scientific research and how those experiences can help foster K-12 students’ understanding of research being conducted in Barrow, Alaska. According to Zhang and Fulford (1994), real-time electronic field trips help to provide a sense of closeness and relevance. In combination with experts in the field, the electronic experience can help students to better understand the phenomenon being studied, thus strengthening the student’s conceptual knowledge (Zhang & Fulford, 1994). During a seven day research trip to study the arctic sea ice, five rural Virginia teachers and their students participated in Skype sessions with the participating educator and other members of the Radford University research team. The students were able to view the current conditions in Barrow, listen to members of the research team describe what their contributions were to the research, and ask questions about the research and Alaska in general. Collaborations between students and scientist can have long lasting benefits for both educators and students in promoting an understanding of the research process and understanding why our world is changing. By using multimedia venues such as Skype students are able to interact with researchers both visually and verbally, forming the basis for students’ interest in science. A learner’s level of engagement is affected by the use of multimedia, especially the level of cognitive processing. Visual images alone do no promote the development of good problem solving skills. However, the students are able to develop better problem solving skills when both visual images and verbal interactions are used together. As students form higher confidence levels by improving their ability to problem solve, their interest in science also increases. It is possible that this interest could turn into a passion for science, which could result in more students wanting to become scientists or science teachers.

  8. When scientists know too much - using citizen science to understand delta morphology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeyta, A.; Baumgardner, S. E.; Im, D.; Nguyen, C.; Paola, C.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas are bodies of land created by the deposition of sediment from a river. The deposits formed by these systems are incredibly diverse and complex in shapes, sizes and form. It is believed that the morphology of these systems is controlled by the relative wave, tidal and fluvial forcings on the system, which control the removal and redistribution of the sediment. As a result, we are often trained to classify deltas this way based on qualitative assessments of subaerial features. While this approach has led to many interesting breakthroughs and discoveries, it has also limited our scope of view on what controls delta morphology. As a result, delta scientists are trained to look at the system from a narrow point of view with initial biases. By knowing too much about the system and with strong ideas of what controls the shape of a deltas, we have to ask ourselves if we are overlooking key features by trying to fit a square peg into a round hole. We are proposing a new and novel approach to understand the morphology of the world's deltas by using citizen science. We have built a delta classification game, which gives participants a random set of images of deltas from satellites, numerical models and experiments. All images are free of location, color, scale and orientation to limit the amount of bias introduced and have participants focus only on features of the morphology, rather than extraneous details. Participants are then asked to group the images however they see fit, with the option to describe why they chose that classification system. By collecting the statistics on which deltas are commonly grouped together, we can then assess what features or details they have in common. The data from this project can help us create a new classification system and shed new light on the controls of delta morphology.

  9. What more can plant scientists do to help save the green stuff?

    PubMed

    McNeely, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was the first such effort under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and had gone through a 3-year process to reach the level of maturity that enabled it to be approved by consensus by all Governments present at the key session in The Hague in April 2002. It provided a model for subsequent CBD workplans, with targets, and undoubtedly contributed to the 2010 target of reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. In the event, few of the targets were achieved, because of numerous constraints at both policy and implementation levels. Even so, the GSPC stands as an important milestone in the global effort to conserve biodiversity. However, few plant scientists can be satisfied that the essential steps are being taken to ensure the conservation of plants, although, of course, plant scientists are only one part of the complex effort that will be required. This paper offers some suggestions that might be worth consideration, building on the basic principle in politics that a strong constituency is necessary to victory. In other words, although plant scientists play a crucial role, plant conservation is too important to leave in their hands alone; far broader support is required, including from the private sector, agriculture, forestry, trade, economics, tourism and even the military. Although botanical science provides a solid foundation, other branches of science are also important, ranging from anthropology to zoology. The legal profession also has important contributions to make (as well as the ability to hamper progress – for example through using issues such as access and benefit sharing to limit the exchange of genetic materials for even noncommercial use). 2010 was the United Nations Year of Biodiversity, and the GSPC targets reached their due date. It therefore seems timely to add some additional perspectives to the effort to update the GSPC. This paper suggests ways to reach a far broader constituency

  10. Women with Diabetes: Understanding Urinary Incontinence and Help Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Ashmi M.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Morrill, Michelle Y.; Schembri, Michael; Thom, David H.; Brown, Jeanette S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of urinary incontinence by diabetes status and race and evaluate beliefs and help-seeking around incontinence in a population-based cohort of women with and without diabetes. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2,270 middle-aged and older racially/ethnically diverse women in Diabetes RRISK. Incontinence, help-seeking behavior, and beliefs were assessed by self-report questionnaires and in-person interviews. Incontinence characteristics of diabetics and non-diabetics were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate models. Results Women with diabetes reported weekly incontinence significantly more than women without diabetes (Weekly: 35.4% vs. 25.7%, respectively, p <0.001). Race prevalence patterns were similar (white and Latina women with the most prevalent incontinence and African-American and Asian women with the least) among women with and without diabetes. Less than 50% of women with diabetes discussed their incontinence with a doctor (42.2% vs. 55.5% (of women without diabetes) p <0.003). Women with diabetes were more likely than women without diabetes to report believing that incontinence is a rare condition (17% vs. 6%, respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Incontinence is highly prevalent among women with diabetes. Race prevalence patterns are similar among women with and without diabetes. Understanding help-seeking behaviors are important to ensure appropriate care for patients. Physicians should be alert for urinary incontinence because it is often unrecognized and thereby under-treated among women with diabetes. PMID:20727547

  11. Understanding and Meeting the Needs of Space Scientists in EPO—Survey Results, Responses, and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, J.; Buxner, S.; Schneider, N.

    2015-11-01

    As science literacy is falling in the United States, our world continues to become more complex. Everyone now requires an understanding of science, technology, and the relationship of interconnected systems in order to successfully navigate the complex issues facing us. Scientists are a critical resource, bringing to the table an understanding of the nature of science as a process, as well as up-to-the-minute scientific content. They can function in a wide range of capacities in education and public outreach (EPO) to meet some of the learning challenges of teachers, students, and the general public. Societies that work directly with scientists, such as the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) are interested in understanding how their member scientists view the act of reaching out, how they do it, and how the DPS can continue to support them as they engage with a variety of audiences in an EPO capacity. To this end, we (the NASA Science Mission Directorate Planetary Science Forum and DPS leadership) conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with a subsection of DPS members to learn more about their attitudes and needs, and to begin to pinpoint opportunities and strategies for future consideration. Presented here are our preliminary results and the ideas generated for further conversations.

  12. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  13. Moving beyond the Lone Scientist: Helping 1st-Grade Students Appreciate the Social Context of Scientific Work Using Stories about Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2009-01-01

    While several studies have documented young children's (K-2) stereotypic views of scientists and scientific work, few have examined students' views of the social nature of scientific work and the strategies effective in broadening these views. The purpose of this study is to examine how stories about scientists influence 1st-grade students' views…

  14. Understanding and Facilitating Self-Regulated Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Dembo, Myron H.

    2011-01-01

    Help seeking is an important developmental skill, a form of behavioral, or social, self-regulation employed by cognitively, behaviorally, and emotionally engaged learners. Help seeking is unique among learning strategies as it may imply that learners are incapable of task completion or satisfactory performance without assistance, which can be…

  15. Lobster on the Sidewalk: Understanding and Helping Children with Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roberta I.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive processes and emotional needs that influence developmental changes related to fears and suggests some techniques which adults may use to help children cope with their fears. (Author/MP)

  16. Helping the International Student Understand the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mary

    2011-01-01

    To be successful in navigating the waters of American higher education, international students need to demonstrate proficiency in the English language and an understanding of the educational expectations of American academia. Unlike Americans who apply to a US university, international students must demonstrate that they understand enough English…

  17. Terrorism: Online Resources for Helping Students Understand and Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tim; Ramirez, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on the issue of terrorism. Aims to assist teachers in educating their students and helping them cope with terrorism since the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. Offers sites on other terrorist attacks on the U.S. (CMK)

  18. Used Jmol to Help Students Better Understand Fluxional Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    This new WebWare combines instructional text and Jmol interactive, animated illustrations that help students visualize the mechanism. It is concluded that by animating the fluxional behavior of a simple model for chiral metal catalyst Sn(amidinate)[subscript 2], in which axial/equatorial exchange within the amidinate rings occurs through a Berry…

  19. Science Outside the Lab: Helping Graduate Students in Science and Engineering Understand the Complexities of Science Policy.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Michael J; Reifschneider, Kiera; Bennett, Ira; Wetmore, Jameson M

    2016-09-28

    Helping scientists and engineers challenge received assumptions about how science, engineering, and society relate is a critical cornerstone for macroethics education. Scientific and engineering research are frequently framed as first steps of a value-free linear model that inexorably leads to societal benefit. Social studies of science and assessments of scientific and engineering research speak to the need for a more critical approach to the noble intentions underlying these assumptions. "Science Outside the Lab" is a program designed to help early-career scientists and engineers understand the complexities of science and engineering policy. Assessment of the program entailed a pre-, post-, and 1 year follow up survey to gauge student perspectives on relationships between science and society, as well as a pre-post concept map exercise to elicit student conceptualizations of science policy. Students leave Science Outside the Lab with greater humility about the role of scientific expertise in science and engineering policy; greater skepticism toward linear notions of scientific advances benefiting society; a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the actors involved in shaping science policy; and a continued appreciation of the contributions of science and engineering to society. The study presents an efficacious program that helps scientists and engineers make inroads into macroethical debates, reframe the ways in which they think about values of science and engineering in society, and more thoughtfully engage with critical mediators of science and society relationships: policy makers and policy processes.

  20. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...

  1. How Understanding Attachment Theory Can Help Make Us Better Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mardell, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding children's relationships to their primary and secondary caregivers. The theory describes how secure attachment bonds are formed between children and caregivers and the consequences of both secure and insecure attachment relationships. Recommendations for putting attachment theory into…

  2. Empowering Andrea to Help Year 5 Students Construct Fraction Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baturo, Annette R

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a glimpse into the positive effect on student learning as a result of empowering a classroom teacher of 20 years (Andrea) with subject matter knowledge relevant to developing fraction understanding. Having a facility with fractions is essential for life skills in any society, whether metricated or non-metricated, and yet…

  3. Viewing a Poem as Argument: Helping Students Understand Contemporary Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When high school honors students were put off by contemporary poetry, the author engaged them by analyzing the poem as an "argument." Using the Toulmin model to establish a warrant, advance a claim, and locate details to support that claim, students were able, by treating a poem as an argument, to increase their understanding of the…

  4. Helping Prospective Teachers to Understand Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Genevieve L.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two video-based interventions, one guided, the other non-guided, on pre-service early childhood education teachers' understanding of students' mathematical thinking. Five web-based lessons on various topics in children's mathematical development were created for this study. Each…

  5. Using Story to Help Student Understanding of Gas Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Rick; Stinner, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Students tend to have a poor understanding of the concept of gas pressure. Usually, gas pressure is taught in terms of the various formulaic gas laws. The development of the concept of gas pressure according to the early Greeks did not include the concept of a vacuum. It was not for another 2000 years that Torricelli proposed that a vacuum can…

  6. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  7. Scientific Models Help Students Understand the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Cory; Vo, Tina; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The water cycle is a large, complex system that encompasses ideas across the K-12 science curriculum. By the time students leave fifth grade, they should understand "that a system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot" and be able to describe both components and processes…

  8. Helping Secondary School Students Develop a Conceptual Understanding of Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students' conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and…

  9. Commentary: how can technology help us understand the communication process?

    PubMed

    Keyton, Joann

    2012-08-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on the articles chosen for the special section on communications analysis. These articles problematize communication and raise an interesting set of questions for both human factors and communication scholars to ponder. In the end, both sets of scholars seek the same goal: How do we better examine communication to improve it? Problematizing communication requires scholars to challenge their fundamental assumptions about the phenomenon as well as to tease out the distinctions of methodological approaches typically used by both human factors and communication scholars. Human factors scholars tend to favor forms of communication in which technology or task roles control who can communicate and how. Communication scholars tend to favor contexts in which information flows more freely with fewer explicit restrictions. Creating opportunities to collaborate in research on the communication process may create the best understanding of technology that can better serve our understanding of communication.

  10. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  11. Can Genetics Help Us Understand Indian Social History?

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Romila

    2014-01-01

    Attempts have been made recently to determine the identity of the so-called “Aryans” as components of the Indian population by using DNA analysis. This is largely to ascertain whether they were indigenous to India or were foreign arrivals. Similar attempts have been made to trace the origins of caste groups on the basis of varna identities and record their distribution. The results so far have been contradictory and, therefore, not of much help to social historians. There are problems in the defining of categories and the techniques of analysis. Aryan is a linguistic and cultural category and not a biological one. Caste groups have no well-defined and invariable boundaries despite marriage codes. Various other categories have been assimilated into particular castes as part of the evolution of social history on the subcontinent. A few examples of these are discussed. The problems with using DNA analysis are also touched on. PMID:24968702

  12. Helping secondary school students develop a conceptual understanding of refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students’ conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and refraction occur. The use of ray diagrams can be useful in (a) the teacher modelling a correct explanation to a situation where refraction occurs and (b) for students to create as they practice other examples. This paper includes eight examples of increasing complexity that use a cognitive apprenticeship cycle approach to scaffold student learning. The first examples (rock fish, floating penny) are shown and a solution is modeled using a ray diagram. Three more examples (bent pencil, dropping an item in water, sunrise/sunset) are presented for students to practice, with each becoming more sophisticated. Three assessment exercises are then provided (two dots, three coins, broken tube).

  13. How a professional interest of scientists for music has helped to develop geoethics and cross-cultural differences exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Josef; Ohska, Tokio; Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    Let us start with a story of the conservatory in Prague where a Czech student Jan Snitil met a Japanese girl Masako Nakajima. Their marriage helped to initiate a cultural exchange between their countries of birth. Later Jan Snitil as the conductor of the Opera house in Opava with the help of a NPO group under his wife had a considerable success in introducing the Czech opera Dalibor (from Bedrich Smetana; stage director Josef Novak) in Japan and by realizing the first performance of the Japanese opera "Juzuru" (stage director T. Ohska) in Opava. This brought together both respective stage directors. The intensifying interest of T. Ohska for the operas of Smetana inspired J. Novak to arrange in Prague his meeting with Vaclav Nemec well known for his promotion work of the great Czech composer. In his professional career Vaclav Nemec is the internationally known Earth scientist specialized since early 1960's in the field of mathematical geology (later also in tectonics) and since 1991 respected as the "Father of Geoethics". At the meeting Nemec recognized Ohska as a Physics Professor specialized in nuclear physic and attracted him for an active participation in the field of geoethics. Prof. Ohska prepared valuable presentations for the international session on geoethics at Pribram (2011) and especially for the International Geological Congress in Brisbane (2012). At Pribram in the course of a social party Lidmila Nemcova (co-convenor of the meeting) introduced Prof. Ohska to Waclaw Demecki, Chancellor of the Higher School of Management in Legnica (Poland). Demecki has been inviting Ohska for special lectures on science as well as on cultural heritage of Japan. Professor Ohska arranges his visits to Poland through Prague where he can meet with Novak and Nemec to discuss the staging of the last opera of Smetana "Devil's Wall". Nemec in his research had finally deciphered (2012, i.e. 130 years after the first performance) the "mystery" of this opera: the composer put

  14. The Ocean 180 Video Challenge: An Innovative Broader Impacts Strategy for Helping Scientists Share Discoveries and Connect with Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankersley, R. A.; Watson, M.; Windsor, J. G.; Buckley, M.; Diederick, L.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists conduct exciting, ground-breaking research that addresses many of world's greatest challenges. Yet, far too often, the importance, meaning, and relevance of their discoveries are never shared with persons outside their discipline. Recognizing the need for scientists to communicate more effectively with the public, the Florida Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE Florida) saw an opportunity to connect the two through film. In the fall 2013, COSEE Florida launched the Ocean 180 Video Challenge to tap into the competitive spirit of scientists and inspire them to share their latest discoveries with the public. The competition encouraged scientists to submit short, 3-minute video abstracts summarizing the important findings of recent peer-reviewed papers and highlighting the relevance, meaning, and implications of the research to persons outside their discipline. Videos were initially screened and evaluated by a team of science and communication experts and the winners (from a field of ten finalists) were selected by more than 30,000 middle school students from 285 schools in 13 countries. Our presentation will review the outcomes and lessons learned from the 2014 competition and describe how contest videos are being used for professional development/training and educational purposes. We will also describe how video competitions can benefit both scientists and the target audience and be effective outreach strategies for encouraging scientists to share new discoveries and their enthusiasm for science with K-12 students and the public.

  15. When Young Children Need Help: Understanding and Addressing Emotional, Behavioral, and Developmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    You know what it's like to spend time with youngsters who are particularly puzzling or hard to help. "When Young Children Need Help" helps early childhood educators make sense of what is going on for such children and use that understanding to promote growth and mastery. Written for child care center staff, family child care providers,…

  16. Writing Like a Scientist: Exploring Elementary Teachers' Understandings and Practices of Writing in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study examined the connections between elementary teachers’ conceptions of how scientists use writing and how the teachers used writing during science lessons. Data collected included lesson observations, interviews, handouts to students, and curriculum resources. The findings revealed that teachers in this study thought scientists write for several purposes: the presentation of data, observations, experiences, procedures, and facts. The teachers used writing tasks that mirrored this with their students. The teachers also had a limited definition of creativity in writing, and when they had students write creatively in science it was to add in fictional elements. Implications of this study include providing teachers with better models for how and why scientists write, including these models in more inquiry-based science lessons, and directly relating concepts of nature of science to elementary science writing.

  17. Writing Like a Scientist: Exploring Elementary Teachers' Understandings and Practices of Writing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the connections between elementary teachers' conceptions of how scientists use writing and how the teachers used writing during science lessons. Data collected included lesson observations, interviews, handouts to students, and curriculum resources. The findings revealed that teachers in this study thought…

  18. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rosa, Katemari Diogo

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the…

  19. A Method for Understanding Their Method: Discovering Scientific Inquiry through Biographies of Famous Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, Elizabeth; Fairweather, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Mendel and his peas. Goodall and her chimpanzees. Bentley and his snowflakes. Pasteur and his sheep. Not only do these stories intrigue students, but they also demonstrate the trials and tribulations associated with scientific inquiry. Using scientists' biographies piques student interest while providing an added dimension to their understanding…

  20. Uncertainty in geohazard understanding and communicating hazards and risk between scientists and the UK Insurance industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawley, Russell; Lee, Kathryn; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    At BGS, expert elicitation has been used to evaluate the relative impacts arising from multiple geohazards that can affect UK housing stock. In turn this 'consensus' understanding has been developed into a tool to assist the UK insurance industry underwrite the domestic property market. BGS models six geohazards deemed relevant to UK Housing: Landslides, Shrink-swell (heave), Compressibles, Dissolution (Karst), collapsibles and running sand. The models are widely used and have been developed over 2 decades of research. However, stakeholders such as the insurance industry are not well equipped to managed geohazard models directly and need the information to be categorised in a meaningful way, appropriate to their business models. Creating terminologies to communicate the relative threats for each geohazard has been relatively straightforward, but communicating the impacts of multiple geohazards, or comparing the relative risks of one geohazard against another has proved more difficult. Expert elicitation has been used since 2010 to try and build a consensus model for geohazards and to help BGS communicate its knowledge to stakeholders. Typically, the BGS geohazard models are provided with 5 levels of susceptibility: A (low or absent) ,B, C, D and E (high). Resolving individual models is relatively simple, but the insurance market is extremely dynamic and a need to simplify and convey the possible threats from all geohazards into a single 'rating' of susceptibility has emerged. This poses a problem when trying to convey the geological understanding behind the models. For example, how do you convey the combined (or comparative) susceptibility of a high susceptibility to Dissolution, with a moderate susceptibility to Landslides. This complexity is further hampered when needing to consider that stakeholders resolve spatial distributions via use of frameworks such as 'Postcode' sectors, and that the outputs of most geohazard models are sensitive to scope and scale of

  1. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in…

  2. Understanding Undergraduate Student Perceptions of Mental Health, Mental Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…

  3. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  4. Evaluating Two Approaches to Helping College Students Understand Evolutionary Trees through Diagramming Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Judy; Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C.; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn…

  5. Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help…

  6. "Ice out": the contribution of citizen scientists to our understanding of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, R. Timothy; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2016-04-01

    Long-term trends in spring 'ice out' dates (1836-2013) for twelve lakes in Maine, New Brunswick and New Hampshire, in eastern North America reveal a remarkable coherency across the region (rs=0.462-0.933, p<0.01). These data have been compiled since the early 19th century, primarily by amateur citizen scientists, for a variety of purposes, including determining fishing seasons, estimating the spring opening of ferry boat routes, community contests, and general curiosity. Ice out dates correlate closely with late-winter/early-spring, March-April (MA), instrumental temperature records from across the region (rs=0.488-0.816, p<0.01). This correlation permits use of ice out dates as a proxy to extend the shorter MA instrumental record (1876-2013). Mean ice out dates trended progressively earlier during the recovery from the Little Ice Age through to the 1940s, and gradually became later again through to the late 1970s, when ice out dates had returned to values more typical of the late nineteenth century. Post-1970's ice out dates resumed trending toward earlier dates, with the twenty-first century being characterized by the earliest ice out dates on record. Spectral and wavelet time series analysis indicate that ice out is influenced by several teleconnections including the Quasi-biennial Oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation as well as a significant correlation between inland lake records and the Arctic Oscillation. The relative influence of these teleconnections is variable with notable shifts occurring after ~1870, ~1925, and ~1980-2000. The intermittent expression of these cycles in the ice out and MA instrumental record is not only influenced by absolute changes in the intensity of the various teleconnections and other climate drivers, but by phase interference between teleconnections, which periodically damps the various signals.

  7. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment--Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding…

  8. A Chinese Young Adult Non-Scientist's Epistemologies and Her Understandings of the Concept of Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are…

  9. The Value of Ellul's Analysis in Understanding Propaganda in the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on Ellul's analysis of propaganda in understanding propaganda in the helping professions. Key in such an analysis is the interweaving of the psychological and sociological. Contrary to the discourse in mission statements of professional organizations and their codes of ethics calling for informed consent, competence of…

  10. Reasoning, Not Recipes: Helping Your Students Develop Statistical Understanding and Enjoy the Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Gai

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is often presented to students as a series of algorithms to be learnt by heart and applied at the appropriate time to get "the correct answer". This approach, while it may in fact produce the right answer, has been shown to be minimally effective at helping students understand the underlying statistical concepts. As Holmes noted,…

  11. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique to Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Steven W.; Hill, Brent J. F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases…

  12. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  13. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Measurement Error Tutorial in Helping Teachers Understand Score Report Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Zwick, Rebecca; Vezzu, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a short web-based tutorial in helping teachers to better understand the portrayal of measurement error in test score reports. The short video tutorial included both verbal and graphical representations of measurement error. Results showed a significant difference in comprehension scores…

  14. Students Meet Wilfred Gordon: Helping Students with Special Needs Understand Their Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how memory works is important for success in school, for "all" students. One way for teachers to help students with disabilities learn about memory is to use picture books and then learn strategies. Picture books are useful for students with disabilities because these resources have moved beyond a means to scaffold early literacy…

  15. Compassion Fatigue as a Theoretical Framework to Help Understand Burnout among Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari; Palladino, John M.; Barnett, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Compassion fatigue is a theoretical framework researchers have applied to helping professions other than teaching. The purpose of this report is to propose the use of this theory to better understand the prevalent rates of special education teachers' exit from the profession often labeled as burnout. A qualitative study with six middle school…

  16. A Chinese young adult non-scientist's epistemologies and her understandings of the concept of speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2015-08-01

    Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are native English speakers from Western cultures. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether Hammer and his colleagues' claims concerning learners' epistemologies could be extended to individuals who lack advanced mathematics and science training, have had different cultural and learning experiences, and have grown up speaking and learning in another language. To this end, we interviewed a participant with these characteristics about her understandings of the concept of speed. Our findings show that previous theoretical frameworks can be used to explain the epistemologies of the individual examined in this study. The case suggests that these theories may be relevant regardless of the learner's mathematics and science background, language, educational experience, and cultural background. In the future, more cases should be examined with learners from different academic backgrounds and cultures to further support this finding.

  17. Things That Scientists Don't Understand About NASA Spaceflight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, S. H.; Bauer, Terri; Rogers, Shanna

    2017-01-01

    studies due to this limit. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) provides extensive support, via ISSMP, to help investigators cope with all of the intricacies of conducting human spaceflight research. This presentation will help you take the best advantage of that support.

  18. Playing Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  19. Understanding what's critical in protecting our society: Can satellite observations help? (Invited paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-05-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  20. Understanding What's Critical in Protecting Our Society: Can Satellite Observations Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-01-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  1. Yes You Can! A Booklet to Help Young People with Learning Disabilities Understand and Help Themselves. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Joanne

    Intended for students with learning problems, this booklet is designed to help the student deal with his/her learning disability. Presented in simple language and cartoon-like illustrations, this publication addresses the causes of and misconceptions about learning problems, how it feels to have a learning disability, what can be done, and where…

  2. Helping individuals to understand synergistic risks: an assessment of message contents depicting mechanistic and probabilistic concepts.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ian G J; Johnson, Johnnie E V; Luke, Michelle A

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that certain hazard combinations interact to present synergistic risks. However, little is known about the most effective ways of helping individuals to understand this complex risk concept. More specifically, there is an absence of empirical research that has assessed the relative efficacy of messages that explain either the causal mechanism and/or the probabilistic components of synergistic risks. In an experiment designed to address this issue, we presented participants with messages concerning the synergistic risk of developing esophageal cancer for individuals who consume both tobacco and alcohol. Relative to a control group, we compared the extent to which messages featuring content detailing the underlying biological mechanism, the probabilistic risk, or both improved understanding of the synergistic risk. Our results showed that messages containing details of both the mechanism and probabilistic information were most effective at enabling individuals to understand that the alcohol-tobacco combination presents a synergistic risk. In addition, large improvements in the accuracy of cancer frequency estimates were observed amongst individuals who received probabilistic information, and the highest relative increase in professed willingness to adopt precautionary behaviors was observed amongst individuals who received the mechanism information only. Importantly, these findings could be utilized in the development of a general model for the communication of synergistic risks. Furthermore, in contrast to previous findings, our study demonstrates that risk messages can be both effective and efficient in helping individuals to acquire a greater understanding of synergistic risks. Acquiring such knowledge could lead to significant improvements in risk-related decisions concerning combined hazards.

  3. Purposeful and targeted use of scientists to support in-service teachers' understandings and teaching of scientific inquiry and nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Kevin

    Efforts have been made to enhance teachers' understanding and teaching of NOS and/or SI by immersing teachers into the field and lab work of scientists through intensive summer institutes. Results have been mixed and the samples have been small. This may be due to several factors: implicit strategies to learn and teach about NOS and/or SI (Schwartz, Lederman, & Crawford, 2004), experiences lasting as little as two weeks (Morrison, Raab, & Ingram, 2009), lack of teacher availability during the school year or summer, intimidation of subject matter or scientists, etc. The challenge remains to see if scientist-teacher collaborations are a meaningful and effective way to enhance teachers' understandings and instruction of NOS and SI. Learning about scientists and their culture while experiencing explicit instruction of NOS has demonstrated improved understandings of NOS (Bianchini & Colburn, 2000). However, Morrison, Raab, and Ingram (2009) identify that there is still a shortage of literature available addressing how teachers' view of NOS and SI may be impacted through interactions with scientists when not involved in authentic research. To this author's knowledge, there is no research available that investigates teachers' instruction of NOS and SI while in the same condition. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of in-service teachers' views of scientists, their understandings of NOS and SI, their view of teaching NOS and SI while engaged in a professional development experience that provided participants with a sustained immersion into the culture, beliefs and knowledge of scientists while in a NOS and SI course. Teachers showed substantial changes (pretest to posttest) on all seven aspects of NOS. And, as with NOS, teachers showed substantial improvement on all four aspects of SI investigated. The results of this investigation suggest an approach to teaching nature of science and scientific inquiry that may be an effective, lasting and

  4. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique To Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brent J.F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases in marble concentration increase the number of marbles transferred per unit time (initial rate, V0) until the turnover number becomes rate limiting and V0 approaches the maximum velocity (Vmax), as described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. With this demonstration, students visualize an important concept: the turnover number is constant and independent of marble concentration. A student assessment of this exercise showed that it helped students visualize the turnover number and Vmax but not Km, the marble concentration at which V0 is one-half Vmax. To address the concept of Km, we use supplemental laboratory and lecture exercises. This exercise with plastic containers and marbles is equally suited to demonstrate the kinetics of carrier-mediated membrane transport. We conclude that this exercise helps students visualize the turnover number and Vmax and gives students important insights into the kinetic parameters used to characterize the catalytic activity of enzymes and membrane transporters. PMID:17146042

  5. A simple classroom teaching technique to help students understand Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

    PubMed

    Runge, Steven W; Hill, Brent J F; Moran, William M; Turrens, Julio F

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases in marble concentration increase the number of marbles transferred per unit time (initial rate, V(0)) until the turnover number becomes rate limiting and V(0) approaches the maximum velocity (V(max)), as described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. With this demonstration, students visualize an important concept: the turnover number is constant and independent of marble concentration. A student assessment of this exercise showed that it helped students visualize the turnover number and V(max) but not K(m), the marble concentration at which V(0) is one-half V(max). To address the concept of K(m), we use supplemental laboratory and lecture exercises. This exercise with plastic containers and marbles is equally suited to demonstrate the kinetics of carrier-mediated membrane transport. We conclude that this exercise helps students visualize the turnover number and V(max) and gives students important insights into the kinetic parameters used to characterize the catalytic activity of enzymes and membrane transporters.

  6. "Sometimes What They Think is Helpful is Not Really Helpful": Understanding Engagement in the Program of Assertive Community Treatment (PACT).

    PubMed

    George, Miriam; Manuel, Jennifer I; Gandy-Guedes, Megan E; McCray, Shenee; Negatu, Dina

    2016-11-01

    This exploratory study recruited a purposive sample of twelve clinical staff from a Program of Assertive Community Treatment (PACT) team in central Virginia to understand the perceptions and experiences related to assertive engagement. The researchers coded the transcribed data initially as twenty-three sub-themes and further refined the data into four overarching themes: characteristics of assertive engagement, PACT engagement strategies and engagement strategies for difficult to engage clients. Further analysis emphasized that PACT team members emphasized the importance of the therapeutic relationship for engagement, which proves challenging for hard-to-engage clients.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: understanding the chemistry will help our diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Rozas-Muñoz, E; Lepoittevin, J P; Pujol, R M; Giménez-Arnau, A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to plants is common. Potentially allergenic plants and plant products are found in many everyday environments, such as the home, the garden, the workplace, and recreational settings. By improving our knowledge of allergenic plant-derived chemical compounds, we will be better positioned to identify novel allergens. We review the most relevant chemical allergens that contribute to plant allergic contact dermatitis and propose a clinical classification system based on 5 major families of chemical sensitizers: α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones, quinones, phenol derivatives, terpenes, and miscellaneous structures (disulfides, isothiocyanates, and polyacetylenic derivates). We also describe the different clinical pictures of plant allergic contact dermatitis and review currently available patch test materials. A better understanding of the specific allergens involved in plant allergic contact dermatitis will help to predict cross-reactivity between different plant species or families.

  8. 'Genetics home reference': helping patients understand the role of genetics in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Fomous, Cathy; Mitchell, Joyce A; McCray, Alexa

    2006-01-01

    The surge of information generated by the Human Genome Project has left many health professionals and their patients struggling to understand the role of genetics in health and disease. To aid the lay public and health professionals, the US National Library of Medicine developed an online resource called 'Genetics Home Reference' (GHR), located at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/. Launched in April 2003, GHR's goal is to help the public interpret the health implications of the Human Genome Project. It bridges the clinical questions of consumers and the rich technical data emerging from the sequenced human genome. The GHR web site is designed for easy navigation among summaries for genetic conditions and the related gene(s) and chromosome(s). This design strategy enhances the user's appreciation of how genes, chromosomes, and conditions are interrelated.

  9. The "Mysteries of Hypnosis:" Helping Us Better Understand Hypnosis and Empathic Involvement Theory (EIT).

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Wickramasekera II (2015) has penned a comprehensive and thoughtful review article demonstrating how empathy is intimately involved in the psychology and neurophysiology of hypnosis and the self. Hypnosis is a very "mental" or subjective phenomenon for both the client and the research participant. To better assess the mind of the client/participant during hypnosis, it is my belief that we need to generate more "precise" phenomenological descriptors of the mind during hypnosis and related empathic conditions, as Wickramasekera II (2015) has suggested in his article. Although any phenomenological methodology will have its limits and disadvantages, noetics (as defined in the article below) can help us better understand hypnosis, empathic involvement theory, and the brain/mind/behavior interface. By quantifying the mind in a comprehensive manner, just as the brain is comprehensively quantified via fMRI and qEEG technologies, noetic analysis can help us more precisely assess the mind and relate it to the brain and human behavior and experience.

  10. The CAULDRON game: Helping decision makers understand extreme weather event attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    There is a recognition from academics and stakeholders that climate science has a fundamental role to play in the decision making process, but too frequently there is still uncertainty about what, when, how and why to use it. Stakeholders suggest that it is because the science is presented in an inaccessible manner, while academics suggest it is because the stakeholders do not have the scientific knowledge to understand and apply the science appropriately. What is apparent is that stakeholders need support, and that there is an onus on academia to provide it. This support is even more important with recent developments in climate science, such as extreme weather event attribution. We are already seeing the impacts of extreme weather events around the world causing lost of life and damage to property and infrastructure with current research suggesting that these events could become more frequent and more intense. If this is to be the case then a better understanding of the science will be vital in developing robust adaptation and business planning. The use of games, role playing and simulations to aid learning has long been understood in education but less so as a tool to support stakeholder understanding of climate science. Providing a 'safe' space where participants can actively engage with concepts, ideas and often emotions, can lead to deep understanding that is not possible through more passive mechanisms such as papers and web sites. This paper reports on a game that was developed through a collaboration led by the Red Cross/Red Crescent, University of Oxford and University of Reading to help stakeholders understand the role of weather event attribution in the decision making process. The game has already been played successfully at a number of high profile events including COP 19 and the African Climate Conference. It has also been used with students as part of a postgraduate environmental management course. As well as describing the design principles of the

  11. Helping Students Understand Real Capacitors: Measuring Efficiencies in a School Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeao; Sampaio e Sousa, Adriano

    2008-01-01

    A recent reform in the Portuguese secondary school curriculum reintroduced the study of capacitors. Thus we decided to implement some experimental activities on this subject with our undergraduate students in physics education courses. A recent announcement of a new kind of capacitor being developed by a team of scientists at Massachusetts…

  12. A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    MOORE,LARRY M.

    2000-04-11

    High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs.

  13. Understanding the Sea Ice Zone: Scientists and Communities Partnering to Archive, Analyze and Disseminate Local Ice Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Oldenburg, J.; Liu, M.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Kaufman, M.; Eicken, H.; Parsons, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of sea ice is critical to the hunting, whaling, and cultural activities of many Indigenous communities in Northern and Western Alaska. Experienced hunters have monitored seasonal changes of the sea ice over many years, giving them a unique expertise in assessing the current state of the sea ice as well as any anomalies in seasonal sea ice conditions. The Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network (SIZONet), in collaboration with the Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA), has developed an online application for collecting, storing, and analyzing sea ice observations contributed by local experts from coastal Alaskan communities. Here we present the current iteration of the application, outline future plans and discuss how the development process and resulting system have improved our collective understanding of sea ice processes and changes. The SIZONet application design is based on the needs of the research scientists responsible for entering observation data into the database, the needs of local sea ice experts contributing their observations and knowledge, and the information needs of Alaska coastal communities. Entry forms provide a variety of input methods, including menus, check boxes, and free text input. Input options strive to balance flexibility in capturing concepts and details with the need for analytical consistency. Currently, research staff at the University of Alaska Fairbanks use the application to enter observations received via written or electronic communications from local sea ice experts. Observation data include current weather conditions, snow and ice quantity and quality, and wildlife sighted or taken. Future plans call for direct use of the SIZONet interface by local sea ice experts as well as students, both as contributors to the data collection and as users seeking meaning in the data. This functionality is currently available to a limited number of community members as we extend the application to support

  14. Understanding Texts with the Help of Experimentation: The Example of Cupellation in Arabic Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Moureau, Sébastien; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The article aims to show how experimentation can help us understand historical texts, by focusing on the specific case of cupellation in Arabic scientific literature. It also provides new information about cupellation in the Arab-Muslim Middle Ages. The article consists of translations of three of the most detailed accounts of cupellation: Hamdānī's Kitāb al-jawharatayn al-'atīqatayn (first half of the fourth/tenth century), Maslama b. Qāsim al-Qurṭubī, Rutbat al-ḥakīm (339-342/950-953), and Manṣūr b. Ba'ra, Kitāb kashf al-asrār al-'ilmiyya bi-dār al-ḍarb al-miṣriyya (615-635/1218-1238). These are accompanied by commentaries based on a series of experiments carried out in the course of archaeological research on cupellation, which are here used to shed new light on the medieval texts and resolve several problems in interpreting them.

  15. Diabetic retinopathy: Proteomic approaches to help the differential diagnosis and to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Csősz, Éva; Deák, Eszter; Kalló, Gergő; Csutak, Adrienne; Tőzsér, József

    2017-01-06

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness among patients with diabetes. The appearance and the severity of the symptoms correlate with the duration of diabetes and poor blood glucose level management. Diabetic retinopathy is also categorized as a chronic low-level inflammatory disease; the high blood glucose level promotes the accumulation of the advanced glycation end products and leads to the stimulation of monocytes and macrophages. Examination of protein level alterations in tears using state-of the art proteomics techniques have identified several proteins as possible biomarkers for the different stages of the diabetic retinopathy. Some of the differentially expressed tear proteins have a role in the barrier function of tears linking the diabetic retinopathy with another eye complication of diabetes, namely the diabetic keratopathy resulting in impaired wound healing. Understanding the molecular events leading to the eye complications caused by hyperglycemia may help the identification of novel biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets in order to improve quality of life of diabetic patients.

  16. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Aiken, G.R.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs. The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  17. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  18. Embedding With Scientists Results In Better Understanding Of How Science Is Really Done, More Human Stories, And More Effective Communication About Controversial Topics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently much science communication focused on press conferences and results, "Eureka"-moments issued from podiums. Recent documentaries, however, such as PARTICLE FEVER and THE YEAR OF PLUTO go behind the scenes to show long years of effort, and occasional failures, revealing a more honest—and more engaging—picture of how science is actually done. Audiences respond when researchers show a more human face, and candid moments of stress and exhaustion as well as exhilaration make eventual results more meaningful. This presentation will offer evidence that this approach is also effective on contested topics such as climate change, where long-term relationships between journalists and researchers can help structure communications that avoid distracting controversies. A cameraman spends a full week with ornithologist George Divoky on remote Cooper Island, Alaska: the resulting video podcast informs a stage play in London, and George goes on the road with POLAR-PALOOZA across America and internationally, sharing stories about the birds he studies and the polar bears he has to increasingly avoid, as climate change brings them onshore in search of food. POLAR-PALOOZA also introduced Richard Alley and other Arctic and Antarctic scientists to a team of producers and directors, resulting in a 3-part PBS series and museum outreach that is able to present climate change science in an authoritative and apolitical way. That leads, in turn, to leading researchers including video and more visually-dynamic approaches in communicating their work to the public. An upcoming public television series, THE CROWD & THE CLOUD, will devote one program to insights about climate change gained over decades of interaction between producers and scientists. Many mainstream media outlets have cut back on science coverage and released their dedicated "beat" reporters. However a wealth of new channels offer venues for this approach, and falling prices for high quality cameras and editing

  19. From the Horse's Mouth: Why Scientists' Views Are Crucial to Nature of Science Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, Derek; Wong, Siu Ling

    2014-01-01

    Written in response to criticism of our work by Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, this position paper reaffirms and reinforces our position about the need to broaden and enrich the scope of nature of science (NOS) oriented curricula by exposing students to the voices of practising scientists. While Abd-El-Khalick's motivation for promoting the so-called…

  20. Understanding the Challenges of Integrating Scientists and Clinical Teachers in Psychiatry Education: Findings from an Innovative Faculty Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martimianakis, Maria Athina; Hodges, Brian D.; Wasylenki, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Medical schools and departments of psychiatry around the world face challenges in integrating science with clinical teaching. This project was designed to identify attitudes toward the integration of science in clinical teaching and address barriers to collaboration between scientists and clinical teachers. Methods: The authors explored…

  1. Meet EPA Scientist Dermont Bouchard, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Scientist Dermont Bouchard, Ph.D., is working to better understand how tiny nanomaterials might be released into the environment. His research helps regulators and other decision-makers lower risks and better protect human health and the environment

  2. Meet EPA Scientist Valerie Zartarian, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Senior exposure scientist and research environmental engineer Valerie Zartarian, Ph.D. helps build computer models and other tools that advance our understanding of how people interact with chemicals.

  3. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    PubMed

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help.

  4. Postmodernism for animal scientists.

    PubMed

    Schillo, K K; Thompson, P B

    2003-12-01

    Many scientists regard the term "postmodernism" as controversial. Because postmodern theorists question whether science can be objective, some scientists view postmodernism as anti-scientific. In this paper, we argue that traditional accounts of science developed during the modern era (16th, 17th, and 18th centuries) are still influential in animal science, but are no longer plausible. In particular, the view that science automatically leads to human betterment seems to be disingenuous. A postmodern view that portrays science as a political activity seems more plausible, and offers a means to better understand contentious policy issues that involve science. Although most animal scientists accept the view that theory selection, experimental designs, and technology development require value-laden judgments, most fail to recognize that such values may be politically motivated and embrace prevailing political structures. Postmodernists such as Michel Foucault argue that through the generation of knowledge, scientific disciplines create a discourse that serves to maintain a particular social structure that has political implications. Viewed in this way, it becomes clear how various interest groups can be critical of certain scientific programs. For example, groups that oppose research dealing with cloning, genetically modified organisms, and intensive livestock production may not be as much opposed to science as they are to the political interests served by this science. In other words, such groups view these research agendas as promoting policies that place them at risk. Such a postmodern account of science, may help animal scientists better understand the nature of contentious issues, and provide a basis for reforming the animal science discipline in ways that make it more responsive to the diverse interests of a pluralistic society.

  5. Using Digital Libraries Non-Visually: Understanding the Help-Seeking Situations of Blind Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Iris; Babu, Rakesh; Joo, Soohyung; Fuller, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores blind users' unique help-seeking situations in interacting with digital libraries. In particular, help-seeking situations were investigated at both the physical and cognitive levels. Method: Fifteen blind participants performed three search tasks, including known- item search, specific information search, and…

  6. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  7. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed

    Shugart, Erika C; Racaniello, Vincent R

    2015-12-22

    Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or "Sagan effect" associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist's career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication.

  8. Monitoring Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem wetlands: Can long-term monitoring help us understand their future?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Andrew M.; Sepulveda, Adam; Hossack, Blake R.; Patla, Debra; Thoma, David; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), changes in the drying cycles of wetlands have been documented. Wetlands are areas where the water table is at or near the land surface and standing shallow water is present for much or all of the growing season. We discuss how monitoring data can be used to document variation in annual flooding and drying patterns of wetlands monitored across Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks, investigate how these patterns are related to a changing climate, and explore how drying of wetlands may impact amphibians. The documented declines of some amphibian species are of growing concern to scientists and land managers alike, in part because disappearances have occurred in some of the most protected places. These disappearances are a recognized component of what is being described as Earth’s sixth mass extinction.

  9. Physical analogs that help to better understand the modern concepts on continental stretching, hyperextension and rupturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Three facts helped to establish a revolution in the understanding of how mega-continents stretch, rupture and breakup to form new continents and related passive margins: (1) the penetration of the distal portions of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins by several ODP wells (late 70's/early 80's), with the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumation of lower crust and mantle between typical continental and oceanic domains, (2) field works in the Alps and in the Pyrenees that re-interpreted sedimentary successions and associated "ophiolites" as remnants of old Tethyan passive margins that recorded structural domains similar to those found in Iberia-Newfoundland, and (3) the acquisition of long and ultra-deep reflection seismic sections that could image for the first time sub-crustal levels (25-40 km) in several passive margins around the world. The interpretation of such sections showed that the concepts developed in the Iberia-Newfoundland margins and in the Alps could be applied to a great extent to most passive margins, especially those surrounding the North and South Atlantic Oceans. The new concepts of (i) decoupled deformation (upper brittle X lower ductile) within the proximal domain of the continental crust, (ii) of coupled deformation (hyperextension) in the distal crust and, (iii) of exhumation of deeper levels in the outer domain, with the consequent change in the physical properties of the rising rocks, defined an end-member in the new classification of passive margins, the magma-poor type (as opposed to volcanic passive margins). These concepts, together with the new reflection seismic views of the entire crustal structure of passive margins, forced the re-interpretation of older refraction and potential field data and the re-drawing of long established models. Passive margins are prime targets for petroleum exploration, thus, the great interest raised by this subject in both the academy and in the industry. Interestingly enough, the deformation

  10. The Bottom Line: An Exercise to Help Students Understand How Social Inequality Is Actively Constructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelev, Melissa; Vincent, M. Bess; Haney, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important misconceptions in the American view of poverty is that people are poor because they do not work. This article presents an exercise, the "bottom line," which helps dispel students' misconceptions about the working poor. Through extensive primary-data collection and assembling a budget for low-skilled workers, the exercise: (1)…

  11. Managing Middle School Madness: Helping Parents and Teachers Understand the "Wonder Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilderman, Glen

    2006-01-01

    For many parents and students, the transition from elementary school to middle school can be difficult. This book is a compilation of advice and information to help parents prepare for the behavioral, social, and academic adjustments that students may encounter. In this book, the author offers practical tips on topics such a setting up rewards for…

  12. English Teachers Are from Mars, Students Are from Venus (But YA Books Can Help Interplanetary Understanding).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how alien students and teachers are to each other, especially when it comes to literature. Argues that these differences are at the root of many difficulties faced in helping students become readers and appreciate literature. Offers brief descriptions of 10 new or overlooked young-adult books worth reading. (SR)

  13. It's Elementary in Appalachia: Helping Prospective Teachers and Their Students Understand Sexuality and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Patti Capel

    2003-01-01

    The most blatant discrimination that exists today in schools is that directed toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex students (l/g/b/t/i/q). English and language arts teacher education programs can help foster critical awareness among future teachers of sexuality and gender as well as provide the pedagogical skills and…

  14. Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2008-01-01

    We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

  15. Putting Information in Perspective: A Mapping Activity to Help Students Understand the California Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that, to participate in a modern economy, every region needs at least one "bigjob" (basic income generating-job). Describes a mapping activity that helps students identify bigjobs in state economies. Uses California as an example and reveals that, contrary to popular opinion, real estate is California's bigjob. (MJP)

  16. Helping Children Understand Their Communities: Past and Present, Real and Virtual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Social studies should prepare children to participate in society. Teachers can help children study their local neighborhoods and communities on foot, with maps and books, and on websites. Studying the community can reveal a wealth of issues and ideas that matter to students and their families, while students also learn important things about the…

  17. Sharing Skills. Hermione Helps--S-P-E-W: Understanding and Creating Acronyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lynne Farrell

    2005-01-01

    An acronym, a word formed from the first letters of other words, is often used to name products or organizations. For example, when Hermione Granger, a very clever student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, is enraged over the wizarding world's treatment of house-elves, she creates an organization to help put an end to this injustice.…

  18. The utility of administrative data in helping the clinician understand and treat community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David

    2005-03-01

    We illustrate the benefits and limitations of administrative data when trying to understand diseases such as CAP. Administrative data provide an understanding of care provided or risk factors in unselected patients under actual practice conditions. Administrative data can supplement understandings gained from randomized trials in a timely and cost-efficient manner using data previously collected. As the use of administrative data increases, the type of data collected will change to reflect these new uses. Administrative data use may represent a practical solution in monitoring quality of care for entire populations.

  19. Help! I Can't Understand What My Child Is Saying!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Dorothy P.

    2005-01-01

    A child with a speech sound disorder may understand words and phrases and use them to talk. However, if a child's speech sounds different from his peers who are the same age, gender or ethnic group, or if he/she frequently avoids talking because he/she is hard to understand, this child may have a speech sound disorder. In this article, the author…

  20. Draw-a-Scientist/Mystery Box Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2007-01-01

    It is important that students have the opportunity to experience the nature and processes of science for themselves. The sequence of activities presented in this paper--Draw-a-Scientist and the Mystery Box Redux--were designed to help students better understand the nature of science (NOS) and engage them in the process of scientific inquiry. These…

  1. Towards an ecological understanding of mutual-help groups: the social ecology of "fit".

    PubMed

    Maton, K I

    1989-12-01

    Adopted an ecological framework to view mutual-help groups, and illustrated its usefulness by examining aspects of the social ecology of "fit" among 163 members of Compassionate Friends (bereaved parents; CF), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and Overeaters Anonymous (OA) groups. Concerning person-group fit, personal Spirituality was positively related to (a) Providing Support, and to (b) Group Satisfaction for members of a group whose helping ecology emphasized "reliance on a higher power" (OA). (Contrary to prediction, the relationship with Group Satisfaction was also manifest for members of MS). Furthermore, OA members reported higher levels of Spirituality than CF members. Concerning helping mechanism-focal problem fit, Friendship Development was positively related to Group Satisfaction only for individuals with a focal problem characterized by high levels of social network disruption (MS). In addition, Time in Group was inversely related to Depression for members of life stress (CF) and medical disorder (MS) groups, but not for members of a "behavioral control" type group (OA). The implications of the ecological perspective for future research are discussed.

  2. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…

  3. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  4. Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners.

  5. Understanding Why Students Do What They Do: Using Attribution Theory to Help Students Succeed Academically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaier, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    According to attribution theory, people seek to make sense of their environment through ascribing causality to their behavior and the behavior of others and these attributions impact future behavior (Jones et al., 1972). In essence, people seek to answer and understand why. This fundamental concept associated with attribution theory is important…

  6. The Idea of Temperament: Does It Help Parents to Understand Their Babies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia L.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines whether the idea of "temperament" is a useful construct for families to understand babies' and toddlers' behavior. The author suggests that "regulatory skill" may be a more neutral term than temperament for parents and practitioners to use in discussing individual differences among babies and toddlers and suggests that…

  7. How Photography as Field Notes Helps in Understanding the Building the Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of research conducted between June 2010 and January 2011 as part of understanding the building the education revolution (BER) a major policy initiative of the Australian Federal Government which commenced when Julia Gillard, now PM, was the Federal Minister of Education. The BER policy initiative was part of an economic…

  8. What the Words Mean: Help for Understanding SBR from the Software & Information Industry Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To appreciate the true impact of scientifically based research on education, it may be useful first to understand the meaning of the various terms that the law employs as part of its definition of SBR (Scientifcally Based Research). The This article presents an explication from a Software & Information Industry Association publication titled…

  9. Using modeling to help understand vaginal microbicide functionality and create better products

    PubMed Central

    Katz, David F.; Gao, Yajing; Kang, Meng

    2012-01-01

    A summary is presented of a range of mathematical models that relate to topical microbicidal molecules, applied vaginally to inhibit HIV transmission. These models contribute to the fundamental understanding of the functioning of those molecules, as introduced in different delivery systems. They also provide computational tools that can be employed in the practical design and evaluation of vaginal microbicide products. Mathematical modeling can be implemented, using stochastic principles, to understand the probability of infection by sexually transmitted HIV virions. This provides a frame of reference for the deterministic models of the various processes that underlie HIV transmission and its inhibition, including: the temporal and spatial history of HIV migration from semen to vaginal epithelial surfaces and thence to the underlying stroma; the time and spatial distribution of microbicidal drugs as delivered by various vehicles (e.g., gels, rings, films, and tablets)—this is central to understanding microbicide product pharmacokinetics; and the time and space history of the drug interactions with HIV directly and with host cells for HIV within the vaginal environment—this informs the understanding of microbicide pharmacodynamics. Models that characterize microbicide functionality and performance should and can interface with both in vitro and in vivo experimental studies. They can serve as a rapidly applied, inexpensive tool, to facilitate microbicide R&D, in advance of more costly and time consuming clinical trials. PMID:22545245

  10. Helping Students to Understand the Link between Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Alissa; Ward, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of…

  11. Argonne News Brief: Here be Dragons! Komodo Dragons Help Understanding of Microbial Health

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-29

    Researchers found that captive Komodo Dragons share microbes with their environment, just as humans and pets do within homes. These observations build our understanding of the impact of captivity on health, which could lead to improvements in the care of animals within our homes and other closed environments.

  12. Learning Disabilities: What Are They? Helping Teachers and Parents Understand the Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert

    2007-01-01

    "Specific Learning Disability" is by far the largest category of conditions served in special education. Unfortunately, few parents (and educators) really understand what learning disabilities are. Many erroneously believe it is a "politically correct" term for "mildly mentally retarded" or "dull normal." Further, while most laypeople have heard…

  13. How Do Manipulatives Help Students Communicate Their Understanding of Double-Digit Subtraction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abi-Hanna, Rabab

    2016-01-01

    Multi-digit subtraction is difficult for students to learn. The purpose of this study is to explore how second-grade students communicate their understanding of double-digit subtraction through the use of manipulatives/tools. This qualitative study reports on six case studies of second-grade students where clinical interviews were the main source…

  14. Using Open Educational Resources to Help Students Understand the Sub-Prime Lending Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Evelyn A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I describe an assignment designed to give students an intermediate level of understanding of the causes of the crisis using online educational resources widely available on the internet. I implemented the assignment in an undergraduate intermediate accounting course. Feedback from students indicate the assignment enhanced their…

  15. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  16. From Atmospheric Scientist to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Most of my career has been spent analyzing data from research projects in the atmospheric sciences. I spent twelve years researching boundary layer interactions in the polar regions, which included five field seasons in the Antarctic. During this time, I got both a M.S. and Ph.D. in atmospheric science. I learned most of my data science and programming skills throughout this time as part of my research projects. When I graduated with my Ph.D., I was looking for a new and fresh opportunity to enhance the skills I already had while learning more advanced technical skills. I found a position at the University of Colorado Boulder as a Data Research Specialist with Research Computing, a group that provides cyber infrastructure services, including high-speed networking, large-scale data storage, and supercomputing, to university students and researchers. My position is the perfect merriment between advanced technical skills and "softer" skills, while at the same time understanding exactly what the busy scientist needs to understand about their data. I have had the opportunity to help shape our university's data education system, a development that is still evolving. This presentation will detail my career story, the lessons I have learned, my daily work in my new position, and some of the exciting opportunities that opened up in my new career.

  17. How computer science can help in understanding the 3D genome architecture.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Yoli; Merelli, Ivan; Milanesi, Luciano; Lio', Pietro

    2016-09-01

    Chromosome conformation capture techniques are producing a huge amount of data about the architecture of our genome. These data can provide us with a better understanding of the events that induce critical regulations of the cellular function from small changes in the three-dimensional genome architecture. Generating a unified view of spatial, temporal, genetic and epigenetic properties poses various challenges of data analysis, visualization, integration and mining, as well as of high performance computing and big data management. Here, we describe the critical issues of this new branch of bioinformatics, oriented at the comprehension of the three-dimensional genome architecture, which we call 'Nucleome Bioinformatics', looking beyond the currently available tools and methods, and highlight yet unaddressed challenges and the potential approaches that could be applied for tackling them. Our review provides a map for researchers interested in using computer science for studying 'Nucleome Bioinformatics', to achieve a better understanding of the biological processes that occur inside the nucleus.

  18. Using art to help understand the imagery of irritable bowel syndrome and its response to hypnotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Morris, Julie; Evans, Raymond; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    A medical artist asked 109 patients if they had an image of their IBS pre- and posthypnotherapy, making precise watercolor paintings of any images described. Results were related to treatment outcome, symptoms, anxiety, depression, and absorption (hypnotizability); 49% of patients had an image, and a wide variety were recorded and painted. Imagery was significantly associated with gender (p < .05), anxiety (p < .05), noncolonic symptomatology (p < .05), and absorption (p = .001); 57.8% of responders compared with 35.5% of nonresponders to hypnotherapy had an image of their disease (p < .05) before treatment, and color images were associated with better outcomes (p = .05) than monochrome ones. All images changed in responders, often becoming more nonspecific in nature. Inquiring about IBS imagery helps to identify potential responders and nonresponders to hypnotherapy and may also provide insights into how patients think about their illness.

  19. Helping women understand their risk in situations of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2004-12-01

    Only approximately one-half of the 456 women who were killed or almost killed by a husband, boyfriend, or ex-husband or ex-boyfriend in a recent national study of homicide of women accurately perceived their risk of being killed by their abusive partner. Women are unlikely to overestimate their risk; however, many will underestimate the severity of the situation. From the same study, it was found that relatively few of the victims of actual or attempted intimate partner femicide were seen by domestic violence advocates during the year before they were killed; they were far more likely to be seen in the health care system. Implications are drawn as to innovative ways that women who are abused can be identified and with skilled assessment of the danger in their relationship helped make more informed plans for their safety.

  20. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed Central

    Shugart, Erika C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or “Sagan effect” associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist’s career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. PMID:26695633

  1. How Electron Spectroscopy with Synchrotron Light Can Help Us Understand High-Tc Superconductivity and Other Complex States of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Campuzano, Juan Carlos

    2012-03-07

    All the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of materials are controlled by electrons that occupy the highest energy levels in solids, those near the Fermi energy. Many techniques were developed to study those electrons, leading to the great successes of condensed matter physics. Newer and complex materials, such as the high-temperature superconductors, tend to exhibit very large anisotropies in their physical properties, requiring a more detailed knowledge of the behavior of electrons not only as a function of their energy, but also their momentum. Angle-resolved photoemission can contribute to our understanding by providing a great deal of information on many of the momentum-dependent properties of electrons and their interactions. In this talk, I will present a brief overview of how a long-term and focused collaboration between scientists at Argonne and other institutions has contributed to making angle-resolved photoemissions a most useful tool in the study of complex states of matter.

  2. Engineering good: how engineering metaphors help us to understand the moral life and change society.

    PubMed

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society.

  3. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Samia A; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Layat Burn, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Problem Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients' self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students' attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students' reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor-patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas 'truthfulness' was a concern for the content of the message, 'truth-telling' included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy.

  4. Requesting Help to Understand Medical Information Among People Living with HIV and Poor Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Pellowski, Jennifer; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Health literacy is known to influence medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. People who experience difficulty reading health information may benefit from asking others to assist them with reading, interpreting, and understanding medical information. We examined medical chart-abstracted HIV viral load, medication adherence assessed by unannounced pill counts, and adherence improvement strategies among 245 individuals with lower-health literacy who do not request assistance, and 229 who do request assistance with reading and understanding health information. Participants were people living with HIV who were taking antiretroviral therapy and scored below 90% correct on a standardized test of functional health literacy. After controlling for health literacy scores, requesting informational assistance was associated with strategies used to improve adherence; individuals who asked for assistance were significantly more likely to use multiple adherence strategies. However, despite requesting informational assistance and using more adherence strategies, participants who requested informational assistance evidenced poorer treatment adherence and poorer suppression of HIV replication. Requesting assistance was more common among those with the poorest health literacy and therefore greatest challenges to adherence. People living with HIV who have poor health literacy skills may benefit from medication adherence programs and requests for assistance afford opportunities for social interventions. PMID:23701199

  5. Insights from the Den: How Hibernating Bears May Help Us Understand and Treat Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Berg von Linde, Maria; Arevström, Lilith; Fröbert, Ole

    2015-10-01

    Hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) spend half of the year in a physically inactive state inside their winter dens without food intake and defecating and no or little urination. Under similar extreme conditions, humans would suffer from loss of lean body mass, heart failure, thrombosis, azotemia, osteoporosis, and more. However, bears exit the den in the spring strong without organ injuries. Translational animal models are used in human medicine but traditional experimental animals have several shortcomings; thus, we believe that it is time to systematically explore new models. In this review paper, we describe physiological adaptations of hibernating bears and how similar adaptations in humans could theoretically alleviate medical conditions. The bear has solved most of the health challenges faced by humans, including heart and kidney disease, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, and muscle wasting and osteoporosis. Understanding and applying this library of information could lead to a number of major discoveries that could have implications for the understanding and treatment of human disease.

  6. Question 2: why an astrobiological study of titan will help us understand the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Raulin, Francois

    2007-10-01

    For understanding the origin(s) of life on Earth it is essential to search for and study extraterrestrial environments where some of the processes which participated in the emergence of Life on our planet are still occurring. This is one of the goals of astrobiology. In that frame, the study of extraterrestrial organic matter is essential and is certainly not of limited interest regarding prebiotic molecular evolution. Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn and the only planetary body with an atmosphere similar to that of the Earth is one of the places of prime interest for these astrobiological questions. It presents many analogies with the primitive Earth, and is a prebiotic-like laboratory at the planetary scale, where a complex organic chemistry in is currently going on.

  7. From necessity to sufficiency in memory research: when sleep helps to understand wake experiences.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Marie Masako; De Lavilléon, Gaetan; Benchenane, Karim

    2015-12-01

    Memory is the ability to adapt our behavior by using the stored information, previously encoded. The first investigations of the neuronal bases of the memory trace concerned its properties (location, cellular and molecular mechanisms, among others). However, to understand how this is achieved at the scale of neurons, we must provide evidence about the necessity of a neuronal subpopulation to support the memory trace, but also its sufficiency. Here, we will present past and recent studies that provide information about the neuronal nature of memories. We will show that research on sleep, when cells assembly supposedly carrying information from the past are replayed, could also provide valuable information about the memory processes at stake during wake.

  8. Engineering Good: How Engineering Metaphors Help us to Understand the Moral Life and Change Society

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society. PMID:19722107

  9. Can cone-beam computed tomography superimposition help orthodontists better understand relapse in surgical patients?

    PubMed

    Porciúncula, Guilherme Machado; Koerich, Leonardo; Eidson, Lindsey; Gandini Junior, Luiz Gonzaga; Gonçalves, João Roberto

    2014-11-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary treatment of a 19-year-old Brazilian man with a Class I malocclusion, a hyperdivergent profile, an anterior open bite, and signs of temporomandibular joint internal derangement. The treatment plan included evaluation with a temporomandibular joint specialist and a rheumatologist, orthodontic appliances, and maxillomandibular surgical advancement with counterclockwise rotation. Cone-beam computed tomography images were taken before and after surgery at different times and superimposed at the cranial base to assess the changes after orthognathic surgery and to monitor quantitatively the internal derangement of the temporomandibular joints and surgical relapse. Our protocol can improve the orthodontist's understanding of surgical instability, demonstrate the clinical value of cone-beam computed tomography analysis beyond the multiplanar reconstruction, and guide patient management for the best outcome possible.

  10. Agent Based Modelling Helps in Understanding the Rules by Which Fibroblasts Support Keratinocyte Colony Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; McMinn, Phil; Holcombe, Mike; Smallwood, Rod; MacNeil, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Background Autologous keratincoytes are routinely expanded using irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine serum for clinical use. With growing concerns about the safety of these xenobiotic materials, it is desirable to culture keratinocytes in media without animal derived products. An improved understanding of epithelial/mesenchymal interactions could assist in this. Methodology/Principal Findings A keratincyte/fibroblast o-culture model was developed by extending an agent-based keratinocyte colony formation model to include the response of keratinocytes to both fibroblasts and serum. The model was validated by comparison of the in virtuo and in vitro multicellular behaviour of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in single and co-culture in Greens medium. To test the robustness of the model, several properties of the fibroblasts were changed to investigate their influence on the multicellular morphogenesis of keratinocyes and fibroblasts. The model was then used to generate hypotheses to explore the interactions of both proliferative and growth arrested fibroblasts with keratinocytes. The key predictions arising from the model which were confirmed by in vitro experiments were that 1) the ratio of fibroblasts to keratinocytes would critically influence keratinocyte colony expansion, 2) this ratio needed to be optimum at the beginning of the co-culture, 3) proliferative fibroblasts would be more effective than irradiated cells in expanding keratinocytes and 4) in the presence of an adequate number of fibroblasts, keratinocyte expansion would be independent of serum. Conclusions A closely associated computational and biological approach is a powerful tool for understanding complex biological systems such as the interactions between keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The key outcome of this study is the finding that the early addition of a critical ratio of proliferative fibroblasts can give rapid keratinocyte expansion without the use of irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine

  11. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia A.; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat

    2015-01-01

    Problem Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients’ self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students’ attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students’ reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor–patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas ‘truthfulness’ was a concern for the content of the message, ‘truth-telling’ included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy. PMID:26563958

  12. Helping fathers understand their new infant: a pilot study of a parenting newsletter.

    PubMed

    Waterston, Tony; Welsh, Brenda

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the findings of a pilot study on the views of first-time fathers in the northeast of England on an aged-paced parenting newsletter, and what being a parent means to them.A monthly newsletter for new parents, initially conceived in Wisconsin, USA, has been adapted for use in the UK. Each issue of the newsletter (named 'Baby Express') contains topics relevant to the particular stage of the child's life, and is delivered free to the home monthly in the first year and bi-monthly in the second and third years, when it is renamed Toddler Express'.'Baby Express' is a glossy, eight-page, easy-to-read newsletter, which focuses on emotional development, parent interaction and play. Topics covered include father-related content, such as the father's role in caring for their child and father-child relationships. As part of a randomised controlled study of new parents, fathers were invited to complete a postal questionnaire at the one year follow-up; 42 of 75 fathers responded (56%). The findings showed that fathers wanted to be more involved in caring for their child, and felt it was important to obtain information that would help them to do this. A total of 37(88%) had read 'Baby Express' and all of the fathers who read it thought it was relevant to dads. We concluded that'Baby Express' is as effective an information tool for fathers as for mothers, but additional material for fathers would be valuable. Fathers need to be included in parenting education to a greater extent.

  13. Another challenge for scientists

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Laura M; Naqvi, Hassan R; Schmidt, Christian; Covarrubias, David; Mathur, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    By nature, scientists contribute to our understanding of nature and ourselves. As communities undergo significant changes, new challenges are presented. Here, we offer alternative views on recent changes in society. PMID:18637170

  14. Lessons from retrievals: Retrievals help understand the reason for revision of coated hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Danielle; Hothi, Harry; Khatkar, Harman; Meswania, Jayantilal; Blunn, Gordon; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2015-11-01

    Coatings have been applied to all surfaces of hip implants with the majority performing well in the laboratory, but there are few reports of their performance in humans. The rationale for coating the metal-on-metal bearing surfaces includes a reduction in metal ion release and risk of adverse reaction to metal debris; yet there are no reports of retrieved coated metal-on-metal hip implants despite the concern that they may delaminate. The aim of this study was to better understand the performance of coated hip implants in humans through findings of three coated metal-on-metal hip resurfacings, retrieved after failure for unexplained pain. Analysis of these implants included quantification of the amount and mechanism of coating loss which was correlated with clinical, imaging and blood data. In all cases, there were large areas of complete coating loss in which the metal substrate was exposed and found to be rougher than the coated areas. The coating loss gave rise to third body abrasive wear of the coating and the exposed metal, the latter of which led to high blood levels of cobalt and chromium. Coating of the bearing surfaces of metal-on-metal hip resurfacings, therefore, do not prevent metal ion release when implanted into humans. This is an example of a need for increased retrieval analysis of newly introduced implants and expansion of laboratory testing regulations to better reflect the clinical environment.

  15. How LIF has helped to understand ion loss at the boundaries of weakly collisional plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Ko, E.; Wang, X.; Oksuza, L.; Halab, A.; Servern, G.

    2003-10-01

    Recent experiments in weakly collisional multi-dipole plasmas with one and two positive ion species have provided a much better understanding of ion motion in presheaths near the boundaries of such plasmas. Plasma potential was determined with emissive probes, ion density with Langmuir probes and diode laser LIF, ion drift velocity with Mach probes calibrated with LIF, and directly with LIF, and from the phase velocity of ion acoustic waves. LIF provided measurements of the ion velocity distribution functions and showed that ion-neutral charge exchange results in ion "heating" near boundaries. LIF showed that Ar ions in Ar-He plasma exit the plasma at the plasma/sheath boundary with a velocity greater than the Ar ion Bohm velocity. In single species plasma, the same diagnostic shows Ar average ion exit velocity equals the Bohm velocity. ^A Suleyman Demirel University, Physics Dept., Isparta Turkey ^B KACST, Space Research Institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia *Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER 54437

  16. Famous Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Presents ways to incorporate discussion of the lives of famous scientists into the classroom. Suggests a monthly focus on a different scientist with students researching each subject and using the information in a poster or timeline project toward the end of the year. (DDR)

  17. Helping Resource Managers Understand Hydroclimatic Variability and Forecasts: A Case Study in Research Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H. C.; Pagano, T. C.; Sorooshian, S.; Bales, R.

    2002-12-01

    enable low-end users to increase their understanding of probabilistic forecasts, credibility concepts, and implications for decision making. We also developed an interactive forecast assessment tool accessible over the Internet, to support resource decisions by individuals as well as agencies. The tool provides tutorials for guiding forecast interpretation, including quizzes that allow users to test their forecast interpretation skills. Users can monitor recent and historical observations for selected regions, communicated using terminology consistent with available forecast products. The tool also allows users to evaluate forecast performance for the regions, seasons, forecast lead times, and performance criteria relevant to their specific decision making situations. Using consistent product formats, the evaluation component allows individuals to use results at the level they are capable of understanding, while offering opportunity to shift to more sophisticated criteria. Recognizing that many individuals lack Internet access, the forecast assessment webtool design also includes capabilities for customized report generation so extension agents or other trusted information intermediaries can provide material to decision makers at meetings or site visits.

  18. The case of Carla: Dilemmas of helping all students to understand science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Lori A.; Anderson, Charles W.; Palincsar, Annemarie S.

    2002-05-01

    This paper tells the story of four sixth-grade students, of mixed race and social class, who worked together in a small group. All four students were intrigued as they experimented with colored solutions of different densities. They all wanted to share ideas about the techniques they had used, the observations they had made, and the patterns they had seen. They all wanted to understand why the colored solutions acted as they did. In spite of these common interests, they often failed to achieve intersubjective communication about the colored solutions or about the process of planning and making a poster to report their findings. We explain these failures using the sociolinguistic concepts of polysemy, privileging, and holding the floor. In particular, Carla (an African American girl) was unable to hold the floor within the group, so her opportunities for science learning were diminished. The four students were not overtly prejudiced in their speech or actions. Yet the expectations they brought with them about how and when people should talk, how work should be done, and what standards of quality they should aspire to led them to reconstruct among themselves some of the most troubling inequities of our society as a whole. This story is about important connections. In particular it is about how the actions of children are connected to the histories of their families, and how the privileging of ideas is connected to that of people, and how the practice of science is connected to that of discrimination. Science education reformers may underestimate the difficulty of separating conceptual conflict about ideas from interpersonal conflict about privilege and status.

  19. Dynamics of the mammalian nucleus: can microscopic movements help us to understand our genes?

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Judith E

    2004-12-15

    scrutiny over the past few years. This has largely been driven by advances in microscopy as well as the advent of in vivo labelling techniques for sub-nuclear structures. It is now possible, using a protein originally isolated from jellyfish, to visualize sub-nuclear structures in living cultured cells. Together with three-dimensional time-lapse microscopy and an ever-expanding range of photo-bleaching techniques, this technology allows us to ask detailed questions about movements of sub-nuclear structures themselves and of the proteins contained within them. It has recently become clear that sub-nuclear structures are capable of moving within the nucleus and of physically interacting with each other. It is also now known that there is a constant flux of molecules into and out of these mobile structures as well as exchange of molecules between them, rather like passengers travelling on the London Underground. The challenge for the future is to relate dynamic events at the microscopic and molecular levels back to the organism as a whole. Only by understanding how the information encoded on genes is accurately expressed at the right time and in the right place can we really take advantage of the knowledge currently available to us.

  20. Perceived usefulness of a usability issues reporting form to help understand "usability-induced use-errors": a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Marcilly, Romaric; Boog, Cesar; Leroy, Nicolas; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Device regulation requires manufacturers to anticipate and prevent risks of use errors of their medical device. However, manufacturers experience difficulties to understand the concept of "usability-induced use-errors". Based on a "usability framework" aiming at describing the relationship between usability design principles, usability flaws, usage problems, and outcomes, a usability evaluation reporting form had been designed to support understanding the use-error concept. This paper reports the preliminary evaluation of the perceived usefulness of this form. Results show that manufacturers found helpful the presentation of the results of a usability evaluation through this form for it supports the understanding of the usability origins and the consequences of use-errors. Even if the use of this reporting form should be made easier as usability experts experience difficulties to fill it, it seems a promising way to clearly present "usability-induced use-errors" to manufacturers.

  1. Research goes to School: understanding the content and the procedures of Science through a new dialogue among students, teachers and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The Education system is increasingly interested in a more interactive dialogue with scientists in order to make science taught at school more aware of the models and the ways in which knowledge is produced, revised and discussed within the scientific community. Not always, in fact, the ministerial programs, the media, and the textbooks adopted by schools seem to be able to grasp the content and the procedures of the scientific knowledge as it is today being developed, sometimes spreading the idea of a monolithic and static science, with no reference to revisions, uncertainties, errors and disputes that, on the opposite, characterize the debate about science. On the other side, scientists, that in several surveys define students and teachers as one of the key groups that are most important to communicate with, often do not seem to be aware that scientific knowledge is continuously revised by the school and its protagonists. Science teaching, in all classes, has a highly educational role, as it offers the opportunity to value individual differences, to make students acquire specific tools and methods that enable them understand the world and critically interact with it. In this process of conscious learning, in which teachers play the role of tutors, the student participates actively bringing his tacit knowledge and beliefs. In this context, an educational proposal has recently been developed by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), aimed at starting a new dialogue between Education and Research. It's a way to encourage the technical and scientific culture among young people and a mutual exchange between the two main actors of the scientific production and promotion, considering weaknesses and strengths of the relationship between these two systems. In this proposal, students and teachers follow side by side a group of CNR scientists involved in an ongoing research project based on the use of innovative methodologies of aerospace Earth Observation (EO) for

  2. How Are Scientists Portrayed in Children's Science Biographies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.; Ford, Danielle J.

    The goal of this study is to analyze the images of science and scientists in science biographies written for children. We examined 12 biographies of historic and contemporary scientists written for primary/middle school children in relation to three dimensions: characteristics of scientists, nature and process of scientific knowledge, and social processes of science. Biographies of historic scientists were characterized by a relative absence of description of how scientists arrived at their knowledge especially in books addressing younger readers. Biographies of contemporary scientists showed richer descriptions of experimental science with limited attention to connections between evidence and theory. Findings reinforce the need for teachers to guide students in their critical reading of biographies and provide additional resources to help them construct a richer understanding of the nature of science

  3. Understanding help-seeking amongst university students: the role of group identity, stigma, and exposure to suicide and help-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Michelle; Muldoon, Orla T.; Msetfi, Rachel M.; Surgenor, Paul W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of suicide ideation and mental health issues amongst university students, the stigma of help-seeking remains a barrier to those who are in real need of professional support. Social identity theory states that help received from an ingroup source is more welcome and less threatening to one's identity than that from a source perceived as outgroup. Therefore, we hypothesized that students' stigma toward seeking help from their university mental health service would differ based on the strength of their identification with the university. Method: An online survey including measures of stigma of suicide, group identification, experience with help-seeking and exposure to suicide was administered to Irish university students (N = 493). Results: Group identification was a significant predictor of help-seeking attitudes after controlling for already known predictors. Contrary to our expectations, those who identified more strongly with their university demonstrated a higher stigma of seeking help from their university mental health service. Conclusions: Results are discussed in relation to self-categorization theory and the concept of normative fit. Practical implications for mental health service provision in universities are also addressed, specifically the need for a range of different mental health services both on and off-campus. PMID:26483722

  4. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  5. Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

  6. The effects of conducting authentic field-geology research on high school students' understanding of the nature of science, and their views of themselves as research scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millette, Patricia M.

    Authentic field geology research is a inquiry method that encourages students to interact more with their local environment, and by solving genuine puzzles, begin to increase their intuitive understanding of the nature and processes of science. The goal of the current study was to determine if conducting authentic field research and giving high school students the opportunity to present findings to adult audiences outside of the school setting 1) enhances students' understanding of the nature of science, and 2) affects students views of themselves as researchers. To accomplish this, ninth-grade students from a public school in northern New England engaged in a community-initiated glacial geology problem, completed a field research investigation, and presented their findings at several professional conferences. Following the completion of this student-centered field research, I investigated its effects by using a mixed methods approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative data from two sources. These included selected questions from an open-response survey (VNOS-c), and interviews that were conducted with fifteen of the students of different ages and genders. Findings show that conducting original field research seems to have a positive influence on these students' understanding of the NOS as well as the processes of science. Many of the students reported feelings of accomplishment, acceptance of responsibility for the investigation, a sense of their authentic contribution to the body of scientific knowledge in the world, and becoming scientists. This type of authentic field investigation is significant because recent reforms in earth-science education stress the importance of students learning about the nature and processes of scientific knowledge along with science content.

  7. Scientists' Participation in Teacher Professional Development: The Impact on Fourth to Eighth Grade Teachers' Understanding and Implementation of Inquiry Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a professional development experience involving scientists and fourth to eighth grade teachers of science was explored. Teachers attended a summer program at a research facility where they had various experiences such as job shadowing and interviewing scientists. They also participated in authentic inquiry investigations and planned…

  8. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit’s promise in improving students’ understanding of the targeted ideas. PMID:27909024

  9. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit's promise in improving students' understanding of the targeted ideas.

  10. Assessing the Impact of Education and Outreach Activities on Research Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Brian M.; Cramer, Catherine B.; Taylor, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of university-level research scientists toward educational and outreach activities that aim to help the general public understand more about their scientific endeavors. Interviews, observations, and survey results from 12 university research scientists, their colleagues, students, and the…

  11. Understanding eldercare users' views on quality of care and strategies for dealing with problems in Swedish home help services.

    PubMed

    Westerberg, Kristina; Hjelte, Jan; Josefsson, Sara

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of eldercare users' strategies for dealing with problems in the quality of care and care satisfaction in relation to home help services. Based on earlier research and evaluations, it was assumed that users would express satisfaction and gratitude, and also be unwilling to complain. The specific research questions were: (i) What, if any, quality of care problems do the users mention? (ii) How do the users explain the reasons for these problems? and (iii) What strategies do the users employ to deal with these problems? A total of 35 interviews were conducted in November 2013 with 15 men and 20 women (66-92 years). The data were analysed using thematic and qualitative content analysis. The results showed that almost all users expressed overall satisfaction with their care. However, all but one also mentioned problems. The users stated very clearly and explicitly the reasons for these problems, and in most cases, they referred to the work conditions, work organisation and lack of other resources in the eldercare organisation. Two strategies were commonly used to deal with these problems: trivialisation and adaptation. A third strategy was expressed dissatisfaction, where the problem led to actions or plans to take action. One interpretation of the findings is that what is actually measured in official quality assessments and follow-ups may be care users' understanding of the work conditions and work organisation of eldercare. The understanding attitude may prevent care users from complaining because it lowers their expectations.

  12. Advocating through Argumentation: Supporting Claims with Evidence Helps Students Develop an Understanding of the Impact of Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Golden, Barry; Parmly, Jilynn

    2013-01-01

    Through the construction of arguments, students are invited to make sense of the concept of a species and its connection to both extinction and local biomes. Scientific argumentation is the process by which scientists engage in discourse aimed at developing common knowledge about the natural world (Driver et al. 1994). This article describes a 5E…

  13. Nurturing the Child Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

  14. Teaching Scientists to Fish, as Inspired by Jack Dymond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    It is almost inconceivable that as Jack Dymond's graduate student for eight years, I never mastered the skill of fly-fishing, a pursuit so near and dear to his heart. In fact, Jack did inspire me, not to tie flies and cast, but eventually to teach fellow scientists to fish. The work I'll present - connecting scientists and educators to achieve societal benefit - is profoundly influenced by Jack's dedication to applying scientific understanding and critical thinking to societal issues. With colleagues in the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), http://www.cosee.net/, I enable scientists to efficiently make meaningful contributions to educational outreach. A key goal of the multi-Center, national COSEE Network is helping scientists build the skills and acquire the resources needed to share their science with diverse audiences. At Scripps, we are piloting an innovative approach to helping scientists meet funding agencies' broader impact requirements. Key elements of the approach include: 1) services to identify educational outreach options that best fit scientists' research and preferences; 2) assistance establishing partnerships with educational outreach providers who have the skills and resources to develop and implement effective programs and exhibits; and 3) nuts and bolts (line and fly) assistance writing proposal text, drafting budgets, and coordinating with institutional business offices to ensure that the proposed educational outreach effort is compelling and sufficiently funded. Where does the fishing lesson come in? We facilitators of scientist-educator partnerships empower scientists to launch enduring collaborations. Once comfortable working with top-notch educational organizations, scientists can tap these resources, project after project, often with little or no additional involvement on our part. Our initial investment in brokering the relationships is richly rewarded. By helping scientists get started, it's as if we are teaching

  15. Sustainable Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  16. Results from a Pilot Study of a Curriculum Unit Designed to Help Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions in Living Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Students often have trouble understanding key biology ideas because they lack an understanding of foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS Project 2061 is collaborating with BSCS in the development a curriculum unit that connects core chemistry and biochemistry ideas in order to help eighth grade students build the conceptual foundation needed for high…

  17. How Can Students Be Scientists and Still Be Themselves: Understanding the Intersectionality of Science Identity and Multiple Social Identities through Graduate Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Minh C.

    2011-01-01

    According to a report released in 2005, titled "Rising Above the Gathering Storm," there is a critical priority to develop, recruit, and retain top students, scientists, and engineers to maintain U.S. economic competitiveness in response to rapid globalization. To improve our global competitiveness, the U.S. must retain individuals from…

  18. What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces: A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private-Sector Employers Understand the Nontechnical Skills Taught in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    related terms: demonstrating concern for others, demonstrating insight into behavior, oral communication , intercultural skills): Works well with...What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private-Sector Employers Understand the Nontechnical Skills Taught in...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces : A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private

  19. Set a Structure of Objects with a Help of Grouping to Ten Strategy to Understand the Idea of Unitizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiti, Saliza Safta; Zulkardi; Darmawijoyo

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the present study is to know how the pupils can learn to make a group of ten to understand the idea of unitizing. The pupils were given a contextual problem "Counting the Beads" in order to promote their understanding about the idea of unitizing. The process of designing the problem was based on the 5 tenets of…

  20. Astronomer to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.

  1. Salmonella enterica in the Chicken: How it has Helped Our Understanding of Immunology in a Non-Biomedical Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Wigley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella infection of the chicken is important both as a source of foodborne human salmonellosis and as a source of disease in the chicken itself. Vaccination and other control strategies require an understanding of the immune response and as such have been important in understanding both mucosal immunity and more generally the response to bacterial infection. In this review, we discuss the contribution the study of avian salmonellosis has made to understanding innate immunity including the function of phagocytic cells, pattern recognition receptors, and defensins. The mucosal response to Salmonella infection and its regulation and the contribution this makes in protection against infection and persistence within the gut and future directions in better understanding the role of TH17 and Tregs in this response. Finally, we discuss the role of the immune system and its modulation in persistent infection and infection of the reproductive tract. We also outline key areas of research required to fully understand the interaction between the chicken immune system and Salmonella and how infection is maintained in the absence of substantive gastrointestinal disease. PMID:25346731

  2. Use of a Spreadsheet to Help Students Understand the Origin of the Empirical Equation that Allows Estimation of the Extinction Coefficients of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the empirical equation that is used by prominent, Internet-based programs to estimate (or calculate) the extinction coefficients of proteins is presented. In addition, an overview of a series of related assignments designed to help students understand the origin of the empirical equation is provided. The…

  3. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  4. Mom and Dad Break Up [and] Helping Children Understand Divorce: A Practical Resource Guide for "Mom and Dad Break Up." Kids Have Feelings Too Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestine, Joan Singleton

    Based on the recognition that nearly all children will experience the direct or indirect effects of divorce through their relatives or friends, and that many children do not openly share their feelings, this book is a guide to help adults assist children from preschool to grade 3 in understanding and dealing with the emotions arising from the…

  5. Model scientists

    PubMed Central

    Staves, Mark

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing trend for the focus of biology to be determined more by administrators who have short-term pecuniary interests in science rather than by individuals who are “doing science” to further the fundamental human desire to understand ourselves, the natural environment, and our place in the world, though questioning. We feel that this ceding of the scope of science from the questioners to the administrators is at variance with the traditions of science, which heretofore have resulted in the remarkable advancements made in the field of biology. In contrast to the plethora of day-to-day conversations on how to fit into the administrators' directives, this essay provides a historical context, particularly though its extensive bibliography, to encourage today's biologists to question authority and question nature. “If it be of importance and of use to us to know the principles of the element we breathe, surely it is not of much less importance nor of much less use to comprehend the principles, and endeavour at the improvement of those laws, by which alone we breathe it in security.”—Jeremy Bentham1 PMID:19513206

  6. Increasing Professional Self-Understanding: Self-Study Research by Teachers with the Help of Biography, Core Reflection and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Bob; van den Berg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in self-study methods being used by teachers and teacher educators to improve their own practice. The focus of these self-studies seems to be more on acting than on understanding, and here we focus on a group of teachers who explore their professional identities. Teachers participating in a Master's degree study were…

  7. Text and Context: Using Multicultural Literature To Help Teacher Education Students Develop Understanding of Self and World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally

    This study compares the responses of black and white preservice teachers as they engaged about a young adult novel which addressed racial and sexual diversity. Student teachers used young adult literature with protagonists from diverse backgrounds as one means of coming to understand and value children of all backgrounds. Small groups met to…

  8. Use of a Laboratory Exercise on Molar Absorptivity to Help Students Understand the Authority of the Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread,…

  9. Some Psychological Knowledge for Scientists' Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miclea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Relying on empirical evidences our paper presents the most salient personality traits, developmental factors and cognitive characteristics of the scientists. We claim that a sound exploration of scientists' mind and patterns of behavior could improve public support for science and enhance scientists' mutual understanding.

  10. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.

  11. Helping Kids Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  12. Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxkemper, Andra C.; Hartfiel, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    There is no common agreement on the meaning of the word "understand". However, there is agreement on what students should be able to do with material they understand. Bloom et al. discuss kinds of tasks a student should be able to do, provided that the student understands. In a similar way, Biggs and Collis provide a taxonomy intended to evaluate…

  13. The Advantage of Throwing the First Stone: How Understanding the Evolutionary Demands of Homo sapiens Is Helping Us Understand Carpal Motion

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Rachel S.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Wolfe, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike any other diarthrodial joint in the human body, the “wrist joint” is composed of numerous articulations between eight carpal bones, the distal radius, the distal ulna, and five metacarpal bones. The carpal bones articulate with each other as well as with the distal radius, distal ulna, and the metacarpal bases. Multiple theories explaining intercarpal motion have been proposed; however, controversy exists concerning the degree and direction of motion of the individual carpal bones within the two carpal rows during different planes of motion. Recent investigations have suggested that traditional explanations of carpal bone motion may not entirely account for carpal motion in all planes. Better understanding of the complexities of carpal motion through the use of advanced imaging techniques and simultaneous appreciation of human anatomic and functional evolution have led to the hypothesis that the “dart thrower’s motion” of the wrist is uniquely human. Carpal kinematic research and current developments in both orthopaedic surgery and anthropology underscore the importance of the dart thrower’s motion in human functional activities and the clinical implications of these concepts for orthopaedic surgery and rehabilitation. PMID:20044492

  14. Performing Desistance: How Might Theories of Desistance From Crime Help Us Understand the Possibilities of Prison Theatre?

    PubMed

    Davey, Linda; Day, Andrew; Balfour, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity of theatre projects in prisons there has been little (published) discussion of the application of theatre to the theories of criminology or rehabilitation of offenders, and scant examination of the potential for criminological theories to inform theatre practice in criminal justice settings. This article seeks to address this deficit and argues that positioning prison theatre within the discipline of positive criminology, specifically contemporary theories of desistance from crime, provides a theoretical framework for understanding the contribution that prison theatre might be making in the correctional setting. Through a review of related literature, the article explores how prison theatre may be motivating offenders toward the construction of a more adaptive narrative identity and toward the acquisition of capabilities that might usefully assist them in the process of desisting from crime.

  15. The Co-Evolution of Asian Aquifers and Arsenic: How Understanding Sedimentary History can Help Predict Patterns of Arsenic Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinman, B. A.; Goodbred, S. L.; Savage, K.; Zheng, Y.; Radloff, K.; Singhvi, A.; Charlet, L.; Berg, M.; Eiche, E.; Cribb, W.; van Geen, A.

    2008-12-01

    After a decade of research, there is still no broad-scale understanding of why Asian aquifers support such heterogeneous distributions of groundwater arsenic. In countries like Bangladesh, Nepal, and Vietnam, it is often the case that wells spaced a few meters apart and drilled to the same depth have vastly different concentrations of dissolved arsenic (i.e., <10μg/L to >100μg/L). While there is a general consensus that older Pleistocene sediments are typically depleted in arsenic relative to younger aquifer sediments, little is known about either the geological and geochemical evolution of these aquifers with time or the exact nature of their 3-dimensional stratigraphy. To better, and more broadly, understand why local groundwater arsenic patterns exhibit such heterogeneity, sedimentological investigations were undertaken in three arsenic-contaminated Asian villages, including: (1) a hyper-avulsive floodplain in Nepal's Terai, (2) an abandoned portion of the Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh, and (3) a meander bend along Vietnam's stable, fault-controlled Red River complex. Stratigraphic cross-sections, facies determinations, and luminescence dating of the aquifer sands along transects (~1 km long and ~15 m deep) from each of these villages indicate that the aquifer deposits are not uniform, that they vary in the subsurface, and that their depositional ages correspond to concentrations of arsenic dissolved in the groundwater. Comparisons of arsenic concentrations with aquifer age show that there is an inverse relationship, indicating that the age of the sediment does play a role in arsenic's availability and distribution. While there is still much to be learned about the exact mechanism(s) and rate(s) by which arsenic is being liberated, our investigations overall support a geologic model where much of the arsenic variance is explainable by stratigraphic variations over small distances (~10 meters) that results from the dynamic depositional conditions created by

  16. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

    2004-06-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

  17. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  18. What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces: A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private-Sector Employers Understand the Nontechnical Skills Taught in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Finally, instructors note that students learn oral communication as a matter of course. Students are not formally evaluated on public speaking skills ... skills constantly during the Career Course. Stu- dents conduct mock interviews with news media role-players to get them used to speaking cogently...What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private-Sector Employers Understand the Nontechnical Skills Taught in

  19. Meet EPA Scientist Wayne Cascio

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Dr. Wayne Cascio spent over 25 years as a cardiologist helping people take care of their hearts. Now he is bringing a broader view of public health to EPA by leading research on the links between exposures to air pollution and heart health

  20. Issues in Training Family Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Issues related to graduate education in family science, especially at the doctoral level, are explored. Discusses competencies family scientists should have, as well as experiences necessary to help students acquire them. Proposes ideas for a core curriculum, identifies controversies and unresolved issues, and examines training for the future.…

  1. Use of a laboratory exercise on molar absorptivity to help students understand the authority of the primary literature.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread, β-galactosidase, that scaffolds concepts in one exercise with those in later exercises. The substrate for the continuous assay of β-galactosidase is the chromogenic 2-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside that produces 2-NP. In an early laboratory exercise, students determine the wavelength of maximum absorption for the protonated and deprotonated form of 2-NP at various pH values and then determine the molar absorptivity of 2-NP. Students were encouraged to discuss apparent discrepancies not only in their own determinations of molar absorptivity values for 2-NP, but also in the published molar absorptivity values for 2-NP (2,150-21,300 M(-1) cm(-1) ) at almost the same pH and at 420 nm. Finally, the students were led to a publication that serves as an authentic source for molar absorptivity of 2-NP.

  2. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  3. UNDERSTANDING THE REASONS FOR THE REFUSAL OF CHOLECYSTECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH CHOLELITHIASIS: HOW TO HELP THEM IN THEIR DECISION?

    PubMed Central

    PERON, Adilson; SCHLIEMANN, Ana Laura; de ALMEIDA, Fernando Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholelithiasis is prevalent surgical disease, with approximately 60,000 admissions per year in the Unified Health System in Brazil. Is often asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and major complications arise from the migration of calculi to low biliary tract. Despite these complications are severe and life threatening, some patients refuse surgical treatment. Aim To understand why individuals with cholelithiasis refuse cholecystectomy before complications inherent to the presence of gallstones in the bile duct and pancreatitis occur. Methods To investigate the universe of the justifications for refusing to submit to surgery it was performed individual interviews according to a predetermined script. In these interviews, was evaluate the knowledge of individuals about cholelithiasis and its complications and the reasons for the refusal of surgical treatment. Were interviewed 20 individuals with cholelithiasis who refused or postponed surgical treatment without a plausible reason. To these interviews, was applied the technique of thematic analysis (Minayo, 2006). Results The majority of respondents had good knowledge of their disease and its possible complications, were well oriented and had surgical indications by their physicians. The refusal for surgery was justified primarily on negative experiences of themselves or family members with surgery, including anesthesia; fear of pain or losing their autonomy during surgery and postoperative period, preferring to take the risk and wait for complications to then solve them compulsorily. Conclusion The reasons for the refusal to surgical resolution of cholelithiasis were diverse, but closely related to personal (or related persons) negative surgical experiences or complex psychological problems that must be adequately addressed by the surgeon and other qualified professionals. PMID:25004289

  4. Making Sure Helping Helps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Audrey; Riessman, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Benefits to the helper are important to consider in a national-service program, along with the benefits to the recipient. Some suggestions are offered to ensure reciprocity in community service. Democratizing help giving, that is making it available to the widest possible audience, could help remove some of the pitfalls associated with help…

  5. Linking scientists, decision makers, and organizations to improve understanding of climate-driven changes in coastal storms and their impacts in Western Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. H.; Murphy, K.

    2012-12-01

    The coastal zones of Western Alaska are expected to experience a nexus of climate-driven changes in landform processes resulting from the impacts of sea ice loss; sea level change; permafrost thaw; and changes in frequency, intensity, and direction of coastal storms, etc. These climate-driven changes will cascade through the near-shore and coastal physical systems, ecological systems, and human communities, and thus present major sources of uncertainty for a wide variety of the region's decision makers. To effectively and efficiently address some of the information needs of these decision makers, the Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative created a two-year program of applied science focused on 'Changes in Coastal Storms and their Impacts'. We summarize program components that successfully advanced applied science to address these decision maker information needs. All the components share a common feature of promoting linkages: (i) among resource decision makers, stakeholders and scientists, to identify and address key areas of uncertainty associated with coastal storms and thus align the science activities with decision maker needs for a variety of climate vulnerability assessments; (ii) among researchers, to mutually advance their science efforts; and (iii) among organizations, to efficiently address shared science needs. Resulting applied science benefits include (i) integrative projects using very fine resolution surge modeling to assess impacts of saltwater inundation on migratory waterfowl breeding populations and habitat; (ii) coordinating the selection of historic storms for reanalysis by two surge modeling efforts of differing resolution and domain, thus allowing for cross-model comparisons of performance over their shared spatial domain and future regional-scale application of the higher resolution model; and (iii) collaborative, cross-agency efforts to establish a water level network that meets multiple purposes (from model calibration to

  6. Integrating observations and models to help understanding how flooding impacts upon catchments as a basis for decision making.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; O'Donnell, Greg

    2014-05-01

    This paper explains how flood management projects might be better informed in the future by using more observations and a novel impact modelling tool in a simple transparent framework. The understanding of how local scale impacts propagate downstream to impact on the downstream hydrograph is difficult to determine using traditional rainfall runoff and hydraulic routing methods. The traditional approach to modelling essentially comprises selecting a fixed model structure and then calibrating to an observational hydrograph, which make those model predictions highly uncertain. Here, a novel approach is used in which the structure of the runoff generation is not specified a priori and incorporates expert knowledge. Rather than using externally for calibration, the observed outlet hydrographs are used directly within the model. Essentially the approach involves the disaggregation of the outlet hydrograph by making assumptions about the spatial distribution of runoff generated. The channel network is parameterised through a comparison of the timing of observed hydrographs at a number of nested locations within the catchment. The user is then encouraged to use their expert knowledge to define how runoff is generated locally and what the likely impact of any local mitigation is. Therefore the user can specify any hydrological model or flow estimation method that captures their expertise. Equally, the user is encouraged to install as many instruments as they can afford to cover the catchment network. A Decision Support Matrix (DSM) is used to encapsulate knowledge of the runoff dynamics gained from simulation in a simple visual way and hence to convey the likely impacts that arise from a given flood management scenario. This tool has been designed primarily to inform and educate landowners, catchment managers and decision makers. The DSM outlines scenarios that are likely to increase or decrease runoff rates and allows the user to contemplate the implications and

  7. Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marty

    1991-01-01

    A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)

  8. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  9. Meet EPA Environmental Scientist Kira Lynch

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental Scientist Kira Lynch is currently the Superfund and Technology Liaison in EPA’s Region 10, where she uses her expertise in characterizing environmental contamination to help evaluate and clean up hazardous waste sites.

  10. Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163019.html Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus Hope is to eventually make the bugs ... say they have created mosquitoes resistant to the dengue virus, which might eventually help control the spread ...

  11. Scientists and the Selection Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of scientists on the Wason four-card selection task, finding little understanding of the effect of disconfirmatory data in assessing conditionals. Found performance influenced by problem content. Explains performance as memory-cueing plus reasoning-by-analogy. (JM)

  12. Helping Kids Help Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, E. Perry

    This book explains how many of the behaviors that adults use to "help" kids are, at best, ineffective and, at worst, destructive to the adults' relationships with children. Adults traditionally believe that external cues prompt correct behavior--the premise of stimulus-response psychology. However, the ideas discussed here revolve around the…

  13. Scientists Spot 'Teetotaler' Gene

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162265.html Scientists Spot 'Teetotaler' Gene Discovery might one day lead to drugs to ... HealthDay News) -- Scientists say they've identified a gene variant that dampens the desire to drink alcohol. ...

  14. Women Scientists in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Women scientists in training at Marshall Space Flight Center, (top to bottom) Carolyn Griner, Ann Whitaker, and Dr. Mary Johnston, are shown simulating weightlessness while undergoing training in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator. These women were part of a special program dedicated to gaining a better understanding of problems involved in performing experiments in space. The three were engaged in designing and developing experiments for space, such as materials processing for Spacelabs. Dr. Johnston specialized in metallurgical Engineering, Dr. Whitaker in lubrication and surface physics, and Dr. Griner in material science. Dr. Griner went on to become Acting Center Director at Marshall Space Flight Center from January to September 1998. She was the first woman to serve

  15. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with

  16. Inspiring Future Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

  17. Scientist Participation in Education and Public Outreach - Using Web Tools to Communicate the Scientific Process and Engage an Audience in Understanding Planetary Science: Examples with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists often speak to the public about their science and the current state of understanding of their field. While many talks (including those by this author) typically feature static plots, figures, diagrams, and the odd movie/animation/visualization (when technology allows), it is now possible, using the web to guide an audience through the thought process of how a scientist tackles certain questions. The presentation will highlight examples of web tools that effectively illustrate how datasets are used to address questions of lunar science. Why would a scientist use precious time during a talk to interact with data, in real time? Why not just show the results and move on? Through experience it is evident that illustrating how data is analyzed, even in a simple form, engages an audience, and demonstrates the thought process when interacting with data. While it is clear that scientists are unlikely to use such a tool to conduct science, it illustrates how a member of the public can engage with mission data. An example is discussed below. When discussing the geology of the Moon, there is an enormous volume of data that can be used to explain what we know (or think we know) and how we know it. For example, the QuickMap interface (http://www.actgate.com/home/quickmap.htm) enables interaction with a set of data (images, spectral data, topography, radar data) across the entire Moon (http://target.lroc.asu.edu/q3/). This webtool enables a speaker the opportunity (given adequate web connectivity) to talk about features, such as a crater, and show it from multiple perspectives (e.g., plan view, oblique, topographically exaggerated) in a logical flow. The tool enables illustration of topographic profiles, 3-D perspectives, and data overlays. Now, one might ask why doing this demonstration in real time is valuable, over a set of static slides. In some cases static slides are best, and doing any real time demos is unfeasible. However, guiding an engaged audience through

  18. An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.

    2001-05-01

    Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative

  19. How can hydrological modeling help to understand process dynamics in sparsely gauged tropical regions - case study Mata Âtlantica, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künne, Annika; Penedo, Santiago; Schuler, Azeneth; Bardy Prado, Rachel; Kralisch, Sven; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2015-04-01

    To ensure long-term water security for domestic, agricultural and industrial use in the emerging country of Brazil with fast-growing markets and technologies, understanding of catchment hydrology is essential. Yet, hydrological analysis, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring and reliable meteo-hydrological data are insufficient to fully understand hydrological processes in the region and to predict future trends. Physically based hydrological modeling can help to expose uncertainties of measured data, predict future trends and contribute to physical understanding about the watershed. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. After the Portuguese colonization, its original expansion of 1.5 million km² was reduced to only 7% of the former area. Due to forest fragmentation, overexploitation and soil degradation, pressure on water resources in the region has significantly increased. Climatically, the region possesses distinctive wet and dry periods. While extreme precipitation events in the rainy season cause floods and landslides, dry periods can lead to water shortages, especially in the agricultural and domestic supply sectors. To ensure both, the protection of the remnants of Atlantic rainforest biome as well as water supply, a hydrological understanding of this sparsely gauged region is essential. We will present hydrological models of two meso- to large-scale catchments (Rio Macacu and Rio Dois Rios) within the Mata Âtlantica in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The results show how physically based models can contribute to hydrological system understanding within the region and answer what-if scenarios, supporting regional planners and decision makers in integrated water resources management.

  20. Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  1. Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  2. The Art and Science of Education and Outreach: What Scientists Should Know

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, E. C.; Goehring, L.; Williams, C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Science Foundation Ridge 2000 (R2K) research program has significantly expanded education and outreach (E/O) activities over the past five years, including the employment of dedicated education specialists who help R2K scientists engage meaningfully in E/O. Many scientists gladly enlist the expertise of such program specialists in meeting their E/O needs, considering that the constraints of time, funding, and personal interests often limit the level of their own involvement in these opportunities. This model for communicating science beyond the academic community is often very successful as a result of capitalizing on the strengths of both the scientists and educators. However, the constraints placed on scientists also prevent many of them from developing a deeper appreciation of the art and science of education that must be employed for effective E/O. This presentation will provide scientists and others with insights into the intellectual, philosophical and practical considerations required for the strategic development of opportunities for scientists to 'communicate broadly'. The goal is not to make all scientists educators, but to promote an increased understanding and appreciation for the professional pursuit of science education from the perspective of a national scientific research program. These insights will help scientists to gauge their role and maximize their effectiveness in communicating their science to different audiences. Several R2K E/O initiatives will be featured to show how we effectively engage scientists, identify audiences and meet their needs. We will also discuss intended outcomes and impacts, leveraging partnerships, incorporating educational theory and best practices, responding to the current interests of the education and research communities, and evaluation. We will feature both formal and informal education initiatives that offer a range of opportunities for scientists to engage in E/O, including web-based instructional

  3. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  4. Superheroes and supervillains: reconstructing the mad-scientist stereotype in school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Background. Reform recommendations around the world call for an understanding about the nature of science and the work of scientists. However, related research findings provide evidence that students hold stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work. Purpose The aim of this case study was to examine the impact of an intervention on 15 elementary school students' views of scientists. Sample An urban, fifth-grade, European elementary school classroom defined the context of this study. Design and method The intervention was an 11-week-long investigation of a local problem concerning water quality. In carrying out this investigation the students collaborated with a young metrology scientist to collect and analyse authentic data that would help them to construct a claim about the quality of the water. The students' initial views of scientists were investigated through a drawing activity, classroom discussions and interviews. Results Analysis of these data indicated that all students but one girl held very stereotypical views on scientists and the nature of their work. Analysis of interviews with each student and classroom discussions after the intervention illustrated that they reconstructed their stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work owing to their personal engagement in the investigation and their collaboration with the scientist. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that more in-depth study into project-based approaches, out-of-school learning and school-scientist partnerships is warranted, for the purpose of determining appropriate pedagogies that support students in developing up-to-date understanding about scientists and the nature of their work.

  5. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Zuckerman

    2009-11-18

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  6. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    ScienceCinema

    Ron Zuckerman

    2016-07-12

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  7. The Social Responsibilities of Scientists and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus

    2000-01-01

    Points out the important role of scientists in society as educators. Explains problems caused by not understanding the theory of evolution and discusses possible solutions. First published in 1966. (YDS)

  8. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  9. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  10. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  11. Misquoted Scientists Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, John R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper points out that creationists have developed a skill unique to their trade, namely, that of misquotation and quotation out of context from the works of leading evolutionists. This tactic not only frustrates scientists but it misleads school board members, legislators, and the public. A representative sampling of scientists' responses to…

  12. Scientists and Middle School Students; Learning and Working Together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haste, T.

    2007-12-01

    Johns Hopkins University's Center for Talented Youth students enrolled in the Dynamic Earth class come from all over the world to study earth systems. Investigating plate action, crustal formation, glaciers, currents, weathering and atmospheric interactions, students develop a strong ability to identify the forces that continually change the landscape and the interconnectedness of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. As part of their regular course work, students work with a variety of cooperating scientists. US Geological Survey staff assists students in examining sand samples and exploring monitoring research on invasive foraminiferas in San Francisco Bay. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary and Mavericks Surf Ventures staff help students explore the off shore submarine formations of a storm swell at Half Moon Bay that develops into a world-class big wave. Students met a big wave surfer who described the ride and shared surf stories. A wave forecaster helped students use modeling software to create real-time forecasts. In the final project students assist faculty of University of Texas at Austin, Institute of Geophysics using cruise reports, project abstracts, and bathymetry images, in evaluating a series of submarine features in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Students develop proposals and present their ideas in a seminar format, attended by cooperating scientists. Students have an opportunity to work with current scientists and learn how classroom "stuff" is used. One student commented, "I felt like I could talk with them about what they were doing and actually understand what they were talking about." Another stated, "I didn't know you could learn so much from forams. I always thought paleontology was about dinosaurs." As a result of the class, students understand the relevance of their learning, scientists like working with kids, and educators get excited about science. To evaluate program outcomes, the staff holds regular meetings with

  13. Development of clinical scientists.

    PubMed

    Smith, R V

    1987-01-01

    The education and training of clinical scientists has served society in several ways. For academic pharmacy, the emergence of clinical science has provided research and scholarship opportunities for clinical faculty development. Clinical scientists have also begun to play important roles in industrial drug research and development. For all faculty and students, clinical science research reinforces a "research mindset" that will become increasingly important as our society moves from a production/extraction to an information-based economy. Pharmacy will best evolve by increasing its commitment to clinical science research. In the process, academic pharmacy must continue to improve and support excellent education and training programs for clinical scientists.

  14. Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

    2010-08-01

    During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

  15. Ask a Climate Scientist

    NASA Video Gallery

    Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

  16. Sky Fest: A Model of Successful Scientist Participation in E/PO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Shaner, A. J.; LaConte, K.; Shupla, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Participation in outreach events is an easy way for scientists to get involved with E/PO and reach many people with minimal time commitment. At the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas, the E/PO team holds Sky Fest outreach events several times a year. These events each have a science content theme and include several activities for children and their parents, night sky viewing through telescopes, and scientist presentations. LPI scientists have the opportunity to participate in Sky Fest events either by helping lead an activity or by giving the scientist presentation (a short lecture and/or demonstration). Scientists are involved in at least one preparation meeting before the event. This allows them to ask questions, understand what activity they will be leading, and learn the key points that they should be sharing with the public, as well as techniques for effectively teaching members of the public about the event topic. During the event, each activity is run by one E/PO specialist and one scientist, enabling the scientist to learn about effective E/PO practices from the E/PO specialist and the E/PO specialist to get more science information about the event topic. E/PO specialists working together with scientists at stations provides a more complete, richer experience for event participants. Surveys of event participants have shown that interacting one-on-one with scientists is often one of their favorite parts of the events. Interviews with scientists indicated that they enjoyed Sky Fest because there was very little time involved on their parts outside of the actual event; the activities were created and/or chosen by the E/PO professionals, and setup for the events was completed before they arrived. They also enjoyed presenting their topic to people without a background in science, and who would not have otherwise sought out the information that was presented.

  17. Scientists as writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre

  18. Predicting scientists' participation in public life.

    PubMed

    Besley, John C; Oh, Sang Hwa; Nisbet, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This research provides secondary data analysis of two large-scale scientist surveys. These include a 2009 survey of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) members and a 2006 survey of university scientists by the United Kingdom's Royal Society. Multivariate models are applied to better understand the motivations, beliefs, and conditions that promote scientists' involvement in communication with the public and the news media. In terms of demographics, scientists who have reached mid-career status are more likely than their peers to engage in outreach, though even after controlling for career stage, chemists are less likely than other scientists to do so. In terms of perceptions and motivations, a deficit model view that a lack of public knowledge is harmful, a personal commitment to the public good, and feelings of personal efficacy and professional obligation are among the strongest predictors of seeing outreach as important and in participating in engagement activities.

  19. [Strategy and collaboration between medicinal chemists and pharmaceutical scientists for drug delivery systems].

    PubMed

    Mano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully apply drug delivery systems (DDS) to new chemical entities (NCEs), collaboration between medicinal chemists and formulation scientists is critical for efficient drug discovery. Formulation scientists have to use 'language' that medicinal chemists understand to help promote mutual understanding, and medicinal chemists and formulation scientists have to set up strategies to use suitable DDS technologies at the discovery phase of the programmes to ensure successful transfer into the development phase. In this review, strategies of solubilisation formulation for oral delivery, inhalation delivery, nasal delivery and bioconjugation are all discussed. For example, for oral drug delivery, multiple initiatives can be proposed to improve the process to select an optimal delivery option for an NCE. From a technical perspective, formulation scientists have to explain the scope and limitations of formulations as some DDS technologies might be applicable only to limited chemical spaces. Other limitations could be the administered dose and, cost, time and resources for formulation development and manufacturing. Since DDS selection is best placed as part of lead-optimisation, formulation scientists need to be involved in discovery projects at lead selection and optimisation stages. The key to success in their collaboration is to facilitate communication between these two areas of expertise at both a strategic and scientific level. Also, it would be beneficial for medicinal chemists and formulation scientists to set common goals to improve the process of collaboration and build long term partnerships to improve DDS.

  20. Students' Views about Scientists and School Science: Engaging K-8 Teachers in a National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    Studies elementary and middle school students' understanding of scientists and doing science in school by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST). Recommends creating opportunities for students to see scientists in different settings and roles. (Contains 23 references.) (YDS)

  1. Engaging Students and Scientists through ROV Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zande, J.

    2004-12-01

    while doing your work. -Recruiting students to your institution. -Heightening your and your institution's visibility within the scientific community -Building a positive image within your own local community. -Networking with other scientists and research and academic institutions as well as professional societies, industry, government, and other organizations such as aquaria. Whether or not you use ROVs to support your work is not important. What is important are the knowledge and skills that you do use to accomplish your research goals. In the case of the competition, ROVs are the vehicle to teach concepts such as physics, oceanography, math, science, and engineering - the same concepts that you understand and apply when doing your science. By sharing your time and expertise, you can help students solidify what they are learning as they design and build their ROVs and make the connection to how it can be applied to other disciplines.

  2. Learning to Think as Scientists: District Program Changes its Focus to Zero in on Science Inquiry for Staff and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashey, Jane M.; Sarton, E. Jay, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    A district harnesses the energy of individuals committed to change to create a new approach to science teaching and learning--one that emphasizes inquiry alongside content. Staff developers helped teachers understand how scientists think and work, using an inquiry process that teachers, in turn, now use with students.

  3. Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164475.html Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure? Small improvement seen over ... Scientists report another step in the use of stem cells to help treat people with debilitating heart failure. ...

  4. Scientists Needed! The Year of the Solar System: Opportunities for Scientist Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.

    2011-12-01

    Spanning a Martian Year - 23 months from October 2010 through August 2012 - the Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebrates the amazing discoveries of numerous new and ongoing NASA missions and research efforts as they explore our near and distant neighbors and probe the outer edges of our solar system. The science revealed by these endeavors is dramatically revising our understanding of the formation and evolution of our solar system. YSS offers opportunities for planetary scientists to become involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) in meaningful ways. By getting involved in YSS E/PO activities, scientists can help to raise awareness of, build excitement in, and make connections with educators, students and the public about current planetary science research and exploration. Each month during YSS a different compelling aspect of the solar system - its formation, volcanism, ice, life - is explored. The monthly topics, tied to the big questions of planetary science, include online resources that can be used by scientists to engage their audiences: hands-on learning activities, demonstrations, connections to solar system and mission events, ideas for partnering with other organizations, and other programming ideas. Resources for past, present, and future YSS monthly topics can be found at: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. Scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS through an avenue that best fits their available time and interests. Possible paths include: contacting the YSS organizational team to provide content for or to review the monthly topics; integrating current planetary research discoveries into your introductory college science classes; starting a science club; prompting an interview with the local media, creating a podcast about your science, sharing YSS with educators or program coordinators at your local schools, museums, libraries, astronomical clubs and societies, retirement homes, or rotary club; volunteering to present your science in one

  5. Can't get no satisfaction? Will pay for performance help?: toward an economic framework for understanding performance-based risk-sharing agreements for innovative medical products.

    PubMed

    Towse, Adrian; Garrison, Louis P

    2010-01-01

    This article examines performance-based risk-sharing agreements for pharmaceuticals from a theoretical economic perspective. We position these agreements as a form of coverage with evidence development. New performance-based risk sharing could produce a more efficient market equilibrium, achieved by adjustment of the price post-launch to reflect outcomes combined with a new approach to the post-launch costs of evidence collection. For this to happen, the party best able to manage or to bear specific risks must do so. Willingness to bear risk will depend not only on ability to manage it, but on the degree of risk aversion. We identify three related frameworks that provide relevant insights: value of information, real option theory and money-back guarantees. We identify four categories of risk sharing: budget impact, price discounting, outcomes uncertainty and subgroup uncertainty. We conclude that a value of information/real option framework is likely to be the most helpful approach for understanding the costs and benefits of risk sharing. There are a number of factors that are likely to be crucial in determining if performance-based or risk-sharing agreements are efficient and likely to become more important in the future: (i) the cost and practicality of post-launch evidence collection relative to pre-launch; (ii) the feasibility of coverage with evidence development without a pre-agreed contract as to how the evidence will be used to adjust price, revenues or use, in which uncertainty around the pay-off to additional research will reduce the incentive for the manufacturer to collect the information; (iii) the difficulty of writing and policing risk-sharing agreements; (iv) the degree of risk aversion (and therefore opportunity to trade) on the part of payers and manufacturers; and (v) the extent of transferability of data from one country setting to another to support coverage with evidence development in a risk-sharing framework. There is no doubt that

  6. From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE) Student-Scientist Online Forums: hypothesis-based research examining ways to involve scientists in effective science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.

    2011-12-01

    Science education reform since the mid-1990's has called for a "new way of teaching and learning about science that reflects how science itself is done, emphasizing inquiry as a way of achieving knowledge and understanding about the world" (NRC, 1996). Scientists and engineers, experts in inquiry thinking, have been called to help model these practices for students and demonstrate scientific habits of mind. The question, however, is "how best to involve these experts?" given the very real challenges of limited availability of scientists, varying experience with effective pedagogy, widespread geographic distribution of schools, and the sheer number of students involved. Technology offers partial solutions to enable Student-Scientist Interactions (SSI). The FLEXE Project has developed online FLEXE Forums to support efficient, effective SSIs, making use of web-based and database technology to facilitate communication between students and scientists. More importantly, the FLEXE project has approached this question of "how best to do this?" scientifically, combining program evaluation with hypothesis-based research explicitly testing the effects of such SSIs on student learning and attitudes towards science. FLEXE Forums are designed to showcase scientific practices and habits of mind through facilitated interaction between students and scientists. Through these Forums, students "meet" working scientists and learn about their research and the environments in which they work. Scientists provide students with intriguing "real-life" datasets and challenge students to analyze and interpret the data through guiding questions. Students submit their analyses to the Forum, and scientists provide feedback and connect the instructional activity with real-life practice, showcasing their activities in the field. In the FLEXE project, Forums are embedded within inquiry-based instructional units focused on essential learning concepts, and feature the deep-sea environment in contrast

  7. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

  8. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  9. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  10. High School Students as Social Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Edward; And Others

    This paper describes an informal, two-year collaboration of high school students, a teacher, and a psychologist; offered as an optional part of an elective, experimental psychology course. The goal was to help students begin to adopt the perspectives, tools, and research skills of the social scientist. The school has a student body of 2400; more…

  11. Teaming Up with Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Chang, Kimberly A.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denk, James P.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cutler, Paula H.; Rahmati, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Science Education Leadership Fellows (SELF) program which is an innovative cooperation program between teachers and scientists. Engages teachers in subject areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, immunology, and other professional development activities. Presents an activity in which students observe bacteria cultures and…

  12. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his…

  13. Working Like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    "Real" science is about formulating and trying to solve practical and conceptual problems on the basis of shared beliefs about the world. Scientists build theories and test hypotheses by observation and experiment. They try their best to eliminate personal bias, and are "extremely canny in their acceptance of the claims of others" (Ziman, 2000).…

  14. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

  15. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  16. Scientists and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanowicz, Joseph C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results from in-depth interviews in which respondents at a range of U.S. universities provided detailed accounts of their experience in, and identification with, academe. Studies satisfaction from the angle of the self-doubts scientists have about their work and careers, and investigates how self-doubts may systematically differ across…

  17. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  18. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  19. Women Scientists. American Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglahn, Nancy, J.

    This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…

  20. Join the NASA Science Mission Directorate Scientist Speaker's Bureau!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shupla, C. B.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker's Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. Aside from name, organization, location, bio, and (optional) photo and website, the information that scientists enter into this database will not be made public; instead, it will be used to help match scientists with the requests being placed. One of the most common ways for scientists to interact with students, adults, and general public audiences is to give presentations about or related to their science. However, most educators do not have a simple way to connect with those planetary scientists, Earth scientists, heliophysicists, and astronomers who are interested and available to speak with their audiences. This system is designed to help meet the need for connecting potential audiences to interested scientists. The information input into the database (availability to travel, willingness to present online or in person, interest in presenting to different age groups and sizes of audience, topics, and more) will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All NASA-funded Earth and space scientists engaged in active research are invited to fill out the short registration form, including those who are involved in missions, institutes, grants, and those who are using NASA science data in their research, and more. There is particular need for young scientists, such as graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, and women and people of diverse backgrounds. Submit your information at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  1. The Trench Throws a Dirt Clod at Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture, obtained by the microscopic imager on NASA's Opportunity rover during sol 24, February 17 PST, shows soil clods exposed in the upper wall of the trench dug by Opportunity's right front wheel on sol 23. The clods were not exposed until the trench was made. The presence of soil clods implies weak bonding between individual soil grains. The chemical agent or mineral that causes the dirt to bind together into a clod, which scientists call the 'bonding agent,' is currently unknown. Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer measurements of this spot, planned for sol 25, might help explain the bonding, which would ultimately help the rover team understand how geological processes vary across the red planet. In any case, the bonds between soil grains here cannot be very strong because the wheel dug down through this layer with little trouble.

  2. Scientists Must Not Film but Must Appear on Screen!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdes, A.; Madlener, S.

    2013-12-01

    Film production in science has affected its subjects in a truly remarkable way. Where scientists were once perceived to be poor communicators with an overwhelming aptitude for numbers and figures, audiences now have access to scientists they can understand and even relate to. Over the years, scientists have grown accustomed to involving and using the media in their research and exposing their science to wider audiences, making them better communicators. This is a huge development, and one that is especially noticeable at MARUM, the Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen/Germany. Over time, the collaboration between the scientists and public relations staff has taught us all to be better at what we do. A unique characteristic of MARUM TV is that more or less all videos are produced 'in house'; we have established the small yet effective infrastructure necessary do develop, execute, and distribute semi-professional videos to access broader audiences and increase world-wide visibility. MARUM TV relies on our research scientists to operate cameras and capture important moments offshore on expedition, and to cooperate with us as we shoot footage of them and conduct interviews onshore in the lab. In turn, we promote their research and help increase their accessibility. At the forefront of our success is the relatively recent implementation of HD cameras on MARUM's fleet of remotely operated vehicles, which capture stunning video footage of the deep sea. Furthermore, sustained collaborations with national tv stations, online media portals, and large production companies helps inform our process and increases MARUM's visibility. The result is an extensive suite of about 70 short and long format science videos with some of the highest view counts on YouTube compared to other marine institutes. In the session PA011 'Scientists must film!' we intent to address issues regarding roadblocks to bridging science and media: a) Science communication

  3. Lessons Learned at LPI for Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, C. B.; Kramer, G. Y.; Gross, J.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.; Grier, J.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.; Hackler, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) has engaged scientists in a variety of education programs, including teacher workshops, family events, public presentations, informal educator trainings, communication workshops, and outreach events. Scientists have helped conduct hands-on activities, participated in group discussions, and given talks, while sharing their own career paths and interests; these activities have provided audiences with a clearer vision of how science is conducted and how they can become engaged in science themselves. We will share the lessons we have learned through these experiences, including the value of collaborations between scientists and educators, the importance of understanding the audience's interests and knowledge, and the insights that audiences gain during unstructured discussion and interactions with scientists. LPI has also worked with the NASA Science Mission Directorate E/PO community to determine ways to enable scientists and engineers to engage in E/PO and STEM learning, including examining the research and programs for becoming involved in the preparation of future teachers (see the Menu of Opportunities at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/pre_service_edu/). We will share key research-based best practices that are recommended for scientists and engineers interested in participating in E/PO activities.

  4. Understanding the Phases of Recovery from Serious Mental Illness: The Roles of Referent and Expert Power in a Mutual-Help Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Salem, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored an approach to studying recovery that is sensitive to the multiphase and contextual nature of the recovery process. The authors focused on the experience of recovery in a mutual-help group, Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA). Prior qualitative research conducted with SA revealed that SA participants experience four phases of…

  5. Censorship in All Seasons: Considering the Fiction of the Past, the Present, and the Future to Help Students Understanding the Concept of Censorship in Our World Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boreen, Jean

    A curriculum that asks students to consider the implications of censorship would include not only "Fahrenheit 451" but also other works of adolescent literature, Holocaust literature, and science fiction. Works written about the Holocaust, which can be considered a type of absolute censorship, help students to consider censorship's…

  6. Integrating Scientists into Teacher Professional Development—Strategies for Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, S. E.; Buhr, S. M.; Smith, L. K.

    2010-12-01

    Professional development workshops for science teachers can be greatly enhanced by scientist participation. Such workshops may promote a collegial community and mutual understanding between researchers and educators. The CIRES (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences) Education and Outreach (EO) group at the University of Colorado, Boulder, has over a decade of experience in successfully developing and hosting such events. Scientist participation in these workshops varies widely—from giving formal presentations to working one-on-one with educators in designing a research project. Researchers from CIRES, NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center), and other Colorado agencies and institutions have participated in the workshops. In addition, graduate students in scientific research programs at the University of Colorado are frequently involved. Such workshops can be effective broader impacts components of scientific programs. One example of a long-running successful program was the Earthworks project (1998-2007), a one-week workshop for secondary science teachers from around the country. With the help of practicing geoscientists, participants working in teams designed and conducted a field-based interdisciplinary study. Attendees were so enthusiastic that the ongoing Listserv community (including both scientist and educators) is still active and engaged three years after the last workshop. In a more recent example, since 2009 CIRES EO has been hosting an annual week-long summer workshop as the COSEE (Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence) West—Colorado Collaborative. The COSEE workshops have had a different theme each year. In 2010, the workshop explored the link between Arctic sea ice, the Greenland ice sheet, sea level, and global climate processes. Extensive evaluation efforts have been included in the design of each workshop and the evaluation results are used to improve

  7. Why scientists should cooperate with journalists.

    PubMed

    Rensberger, B

    2000-10-01

    Despite a widespread impression that the public is woefully ignorant of science and cares little for the subject, U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) surveys show the majority are very interested and understand that they are not well informed about science. The data are consistent with the author's view that the popularity of pseudoscience does not indicate a rejection of science. If this is so, opportunities for scientists to communicate with the public promise a more rewarding result than is commonly believed among scientists. In fact, the increasing visibility of science in the mass media correlates with a slow, steady improvement in public understanding of science in recent years.

  8. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of

  9. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists

    PubMed Central

    Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D.; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L.; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K.

    2013-01-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists. PMID:23803301

  10. Best practices in bioinformatics training for life scientists.

    PubMed

    Via, Allegra; Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrönen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K

    2013-09-01

    The mountains of data thrusting from the new landscape of modern high-throughput biology are irrevocably changing biomedical research and creating a near-insatiable demand for training in data management and manipulation and data mining and analysis. Among life scientists, from clinicians to environmental researchers, a common theme is the need not just to use, and gain familiarity with, bioinformatics tools and resources but also to understand their underlying fundamental theoretical and practical concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource-centric demos, using interactivity, problem-solving exercises and cooperative learning to substantially enhance training quality and learning outcomes. In this context, this article discusses various pragmatic criteria for identifying training needs and learning objectives, for selecting suitable trainees and trainers, for developing and maintaining training skills and evaluating training quality. Adherence to these criteria may help not only to guide course organizers and trainers on the path towards bioinformatics training excellence but, importantly, also to improve the training experience for life scientists.

  11. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  12. Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, David

    As Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist, my goal will be to maximize the science capability of the mission in a cost-contained environment. I hope to work with the HQ, project and the FSWG to assure mission success. I plan to play a leadership role in communicating the WFIRST science capabilities to the astronomy community , obtain input from both science teams and the broader community that help derive performance requirements and calibration metrics. I plan to focus on developing the observing program for the deep fields and focus on using them to calibrate instrument performance and capabilities. I plan to organize workshops that will bring together WFIRST team members with astronomers working on LSST, Euclid, JWST, and the ELTs to maximize combined science return. I am also eager to explore the astrometric and stellar seismology capabilities of the instrument with a goal of maximizing science return without affecting science requirements.

  13. Data Scientist Training for Librarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, C.

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that there will be a shortfall in the near future of skilled talent available to help take advantage of big data in organizations. Meanwhile, government initiatives have encouraged the research community to share their data more openly, raising new challenges for researchers. Librarians can assist in this new data-driven environment. Data Scientist Training for Librarians (or Data Savvy Librarians) is an experimental course being offered by the Harvard Library to train librarians to respond to the growing data needs of their communities. In the course, librarians familiarize themselves with the research data lifecycle, working hands-on with the latest tools for extracting, wrangling, storing, analyzing, and visualizing data. By experiencing the research data lifecycle themselves, and becoming data savvy and embracing the data science culture, librarians can begin to imagine how their services might be transformed.

  14. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  15. [The critical scientists' voice].

    PubMed

    Lewgoy, F

    2000-01-01

    The intricate debate over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) involves powerful economic interests, as well as ethical, legal, emotional and scientific aspects, some of which are dealt with in this paper.(It is possible to identify two main groups of scientists across the GMOs divide: the triumphalist and the critical group.) Scientists in the triumphalist group state that GMOs and their derivatives are safe for the environment and do not offer health hazards any more than similar, non-genetically modified, products. This view is disputed by the critical scientists, who are prompted by the scarcity of studies on the environmental impacts and toxicity of GMOs, and who point out flaws in tests performed by the same companies which hold the patents. They are also critical of the current state of the process of gene transference, lacking accuracy, a fact which, coupled with the scant knowledge available about 97% of the genome functions, may produce unforseeable effects with risks for the environment and public health yet to be assessed. Examples of such effects are: the transference of alien genes [??] to other species, the emergence of toxins, the creation of new viruses, the impacts on beneficial insects and on biodiversity in general.

  16. What is a scientist-practitioner anyway?

    PubMed

    Stricker, George

    2002-10-01

    The scientist-practitioner model is the dominant approach to training in clinical psychology, but it is more readily realized in theory than in practice. The articles in this series consider ways to make research more accessible to the practitioner in a realistic and helpful manner, and to allow practitioners to influence the course of research. Many innovative models are described, and they converge on a high value placed on methodological pluralism. Many of the authors, explicitly or implicitly, endorse psychotherapy integration, and also portray a practitioner who bears resemblance to the local clinical scientist.

  17. An 'Orca-stra' of Science and Sound: The Reverberations of Northeast Pacific Whales and How We're Helping People Understand Them Though Games, Demos and Listening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, M.; Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kanes, K.; Ewing, N.

    2015-12-01

    Presented by the Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Leaning and Engagement team, this demonstration focuses on our strategy for engaging and inspiring the next generation of ocean advocates by introducing them to one of the ocean's most charismatic inhabitants: marine mammals (and don't worry, we don't need any tanks or neoprene suits to do it). Using bioacoustic data, we can bring the essence of the animals with us. ONC, an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data onto their computers from anywhere around the globe, in real-time. Our demo focuses on the story of bioacoustics from instrument to animal. When visiting classrooms or hosting booths, we enhance user knowledge and experience by connecting familiar animals with their acoustic data from hydrophones. This includes listening to hydrophone clips collected from the network, analyzing sounds using interactive, real-time software and playing interactive games designed to get participants thinking like a scientist and taking a whale's perspective. For example, participants listen to recordings and guess the sound, identify frequencies and try a working hydrophone. The presentation consists of a suite of activities that meet a broad range of Next Generation Science Standards and includes links to the SoundCloud, https://soundcloud.com/oceannetworkscanada the ONC hydrophone FAQ, http://www.oceannetworks.ca/smart-hydrophone-faq and a classroom ready resource, Shouting Whales http://openschool.bc.ca/shouting_whales/index.html . The included links allow users anywhere to have a similar whale "experience" as the data are classroom ready, accessible and free.

  18. Helping Parents Say No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  19. The Oratorical Scientist: A Guide for Speechcraft and Presentation for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Public speaking organizations are highly valuable for individuals seeking to improve their skills in speech development and delivery. The methodology of such groups usually focuses on repetitive, guided practice. Toastmasters International, for instance, uses a curriculum based on topical manuals that guide their members through some number of prepared speeches with specific goals for each speech. I have similarly developed a public speaking manual for scientists with the intention of guiding scientists through the development and presentation of speeches that will help them hone their abilities as public speakers. I call this guide The Oratorical Scientist. The Oratorical Scientist will be a free, digital publication that is meant to guide scientists through five specific types of speech that the scientist may be called upon to deliver during their career. These five speeches are: The Coffee Talk, The Educational Talk, Research Talks for General Science Audiences, Research Talks for Specific Subdiscipline Audiences, and Taking the Big Stage (talks for public engagement). Each section of the manual focuses on speech development, rehearsal, and presentation for each of these specific types of speech. The curriculum was developed primarily from my personal experiences in public engagement. Individuals who use the manual may deliver their prepared speeches to groups of their peers (e.g. within their research group) or through video sharing websites like Youtube and Vimeo. Speeches that are broadcast online can then be followed and shared through social media networks (e.g. #OratoricalScientist), allowing a larger audience to evaluate the speech and to provide criticism. I will present The Oratorical Scientist, a guide for scientists to become better public speakers. The process of guided repetitive practice of scientific talks will improve the speaking capabilities of scientists, in turn benefitting science communication and public engagement.

  20. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored.

  1. How Do We Help Students Build Beliefs That Allow Them to Avoid Critical Learning Barriers and Develop a Deep Understanding of Geology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal, Burçkin

    2007-01-01

    Students hold a surprising number of ideas about the Earth's structure and process. This paper begins with a discussion on the nature of understanding in the conceptually confined domain of geosciences. There then follows a report on a study of the ideas about a range of concepts relating to "crystals", "volcanoes",…

  2. Of Science and Scientists an Anthology of Anecdotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothare, A. N.

    Although a lot is available in the form of biographies and writings of scientists, very little information is found on what made them not only great discoverers but humane too, blessed with humour, humility and humanism. This book helps to convey this very aspect of scientists who while being involved in their unique adventure are like us, the lesser mortals.

  3. The GLOBE International Scientists Network: Connecting scientists, teachers and students from around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Tessendorf, S. A.; Mackaro, J.

    2011-12-01

    The GLOBE Program invites scientists in all areas of Earth System Science to work with students and teachers around the work on exploring local scientific problems. GLOBE has a rich history of connecting scientists with schools around the world around issues of environmental and relevance. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with students, teachers and scientists in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has initiated a focus on climate science during the next two years and we are especially interested in connecting scientists with teachers and students in geographic and disciplinary areas of interest to climate scientists. In addition, GLOBE is revitalizing the technology support for science and communications which will provide an easy mechanism for scientists to connect with GLOBE schools. GLOBE is based on spheres of the Earth system with five investigation areas: Atmosphere, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover / Biology, and Phenology. Classroom learning activities for each area help guide students in the classroom. Scientific protocols for data collection designed by scientists provide guidance for students to collect scientifically valid, high-quality data that can be used by professional scientists. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign aims to develop a framework for robust scientist participation in the program whereby scientists and GLOBE schools with mutual science interest can connect and develop collaborations. Scientist participation ranges from mentoring students on science investigations to working collaborative on local climate science research problems. Scientists interested in working with GLOBE are encouraged to participate in whatever level of engagement is appropriate to compliment their research program and professional goals. Scientists will become a part of the GLOBE International Scientist Network, which may provide entrée into other avenues of research and funding. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered

  4. A Tale of Two scientists and their Involvement in Education & Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, J.

    2004-12-01

    Many scientists, when faced with developing an education and outreach plan for their research proposals, are unclear on what kinds of impacts they can have on broader non scientist audiences. Many scientists feel their only options are to develop a website or invite a teacher to get involved in their sampling or research cruises. Scientists, who are constrained by time and resources, are not aware of the range of education and outreach options available to them and of the great value their involvement can bring to the public. In an recent survey at the National Science Foundation sponsored ORION conference (January 2004), respondents stated that the greatest public benefits to having scientists involved in public education are (1) that they can present the benefits and relevance of research (26%), (2) focus awareness on environmental issues (26%), (3) serve as models for teachers and motivators for children (25%) and (4) increase public understanding, awareness and appreciation of science (about 22%). As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (MACOSEE), the Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences (IMCS) at Rutgers University is dedicated to helping scientists and educators realize the benefits of working together to advance ocean discovery and make known the vital role of the ocean in our lives. A website called "Scientist Connection" (www.macosee.net) was developed to help busy scientists choose a role in education and outreach that will make the most of their talent and time. The goal of the web site is to help scientists produce a worthwhile education project that complements and enriches their research. In this session, the author will present two case studies that demonstrate very different but effective approaches to scientist's involvement in education and outreach projects. In the first case, we will chronicle how a team of biologists and oceanographers in the Rutgers University, Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory (or

  5. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  6. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  7. Helping nuclear power help us

    SciTech Connect

    Schecker, Jay A

    2009-01-01

    After a prolonged absence, the word 'nuclear' has returned to the lexicon of sustainable domestic energy resources. Due in no small part to its demonstrated reliability, nuclear power is poised to playa greater role in the nation's energy future, producing clean, carbon-neutral electricity and contributing even more to our energy security. To nuclear scientists, the resurgence presents an opportunity to inject new technologies into the industry to maximize the benefits that nuclear energy can provide. 'By developing new options for waste management and exploiting new materials to make key technological advances, we can significantly impact the use of nuclear energy in our future energy mix,' says Chris Stanek, a materials scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stanek approaches the big technology challenges by thinking way small, all the way down to the atoms. He and his colleagues are using cutting edge atomic-scale simulations to address a difficult aspect of nuclear waste -- predicting its behavior far into the future. Their research is part of a broader, coordinated effort on the part of the Laboratory to use its considerable experimental, theoretical, and computational capabilities to explore advanced materials central to not only waste issues, but to nuclear fuels as well.

  8. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  9. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science…

  10. Software for Scientists Facing Wicked Problems: Lessons from the VISTAS Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations for their own use and for use in presenting their work to a wide range of stakeholders (including other scientists, decision maker...

  11. Space Scientists in Education and Public Outreach: A Summary of NASA Resources for Effective Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Schneider, Nick; Meinke, Bonnie; Shipp, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The NASA Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums developed and provided resources for scientists through a five-year cooperative agreement. Through this work, the Fourms have supported scientists who are involved in E/PO and who wish to become involved. Forums have conducted interviews, facilitated education oral and poster sessions, provided ‘Help Desks’ for more information, curated activities, as well as produced guides, pamphlets, and tips sheets. Our interviews with over 30 planetary scientists allowed us to identify needs and target gaps in resources, ensuring we could provide scientists with effective support and products. Interviews were conducted in collaboration with the AAS Division of Planetary Sciences, with the goal of better understanding scientists’ requirements, barriers, attitudes, and perception of education and outreach work. We collected information about how scientists were engaged in E/PO activities (or not), what support they did or did not have, what resources they used in their efforts, and what resources they would like to have to support and improve their E/PO engagement. The Forums have convened and/or supported E/PO oral and poster sessions at a variety of annual meetings. These sessions allowed scientists to network, share lessons learned, and become aware of new resources and products. These meetings included the DPS, AAS, LPSC, AGU, ASP, IAU, and more. ‘Help Desks’ were offered to allow scientists the chance to have extended one-on-one conversations with E/PO providers in order to share their programs, and learn how to become involved. These have been particularly popular with early career scientists looking to extend their E/PO efforts. A host of education activities developed by the space science community have been archived at the NASA site “Wavelength” (nasawavelength.org). Special lists have been curated to allow scientists to easily target those activities that fit their particular needs, from engineering to

  12. Another Kind of Scientist Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

  13. Developmental Potential among Creative Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culross, Rita R.

    2008-01-01

    The world of creative scientists is dramatically different in the 21st century than it was during previous centuries. Whether biologists, chemists, physicists, engineers, mathematicians, or computer scientists, the livelihood of research scientists is dependent on their abilities of creative expression. The view of a solitary researcher who…

  14. What's the word for…? Is there a word for…? How understanding Mi'kmaw language can help support Mi'kmaw learners in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunney Borden, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    As part of a larger project focused on decolonising mathematics education for Aboriginal students in Atlantic Canada, this article reports on the role of the Mi'kmaw language in mathematics teaching. By exploring how mathematical concepts are talked about (or not talked about) in the Mi'kmaw language, teachers and researchers can gain insight into how Mi'kmaw children think about mathematical concepts. It is argued that much can be learned by asking questions such as "What's the word for…?" or "Is there a word for…?" Numerous examples of such conversations are presented. It is argued that particular complexities arise when words such as "flat" and "middle" are taken-for-granted as shared, but in fact do not have common use in the Mi'kmaw language. By understanding these complexities and being aware of the potential challenges for Mi'kmaw learners, teachers can better meet the needs of these students. It is argued that understanding Aboriginal languages can provide valuable insight to support Aboriginal learners in mathematics.

  15. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  16. Black Scientists and Inventors in the United States: 1731-1980. Curriculum Guide: Department of Science, Cambridge Rindge and Latin School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Phyllis B.

    Four units focusing on 16 different Black scientists or inventors who have contributed to American life and research are presented. As part of an interdisciplinary high school science course, the units are designed to help students develop an understanding of and appreciation for the talents of the individuals studied, motivate minority students…

  17. An electrophysiologist perspective on risk stratification in heart failure: can better understanding of the condition of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system help?

    PubMed

    Borgquist, Rasmus; Singh, Jagmeet P

    2015-06-01

    Heart failure is often complicated by arrhythmias that can adversely affect the quality of life and increase the risk for sudden cardiac death. Current risk stratification strategies for sudden cardiac death in the heart failure patient are not ideal, with much potential for further refinement. Overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system has been shown to be associated with worsening heart failure as well as arrhythmic events. Recent advances in our understanding of the autonomic nervous system and new methods for quantification of the pathologic activation of the sympathetic nerves have triggered increasing interest in this field. This viewpoint focuses on the need for and challenges of risk stratification of sudden death in the heart failure patient and discusses the potential value of measuring sympathetic nervous system activity to better stratify risk and to select patients with heart failure for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy.

  18. A survey of Lab Tests Online-UK users: a key resource for patients to empower and help them understand their laboratory test results.

    PubMed

    Leyland, Rebecca; Freedman, Danielle B

    2016-11-01

    Background Lab Tests Online-UK celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2014 and to mark the occasion the first comprehensive survey of website users was undertaken. Methods A pop-up box with a link to Survey Monkey was used to offer website users the chance to participate in the survey, which was live from 4 March 2014 to 11 April 2014. Results Six hundred and sixty-one participants started the questionnaire and 338 completed all of the demographic questions. Although the website is designed and aimed at patients and the public, a significant number of respondents were health-care professionals (47%). The majority of survey participants found the Lab Tests Online-UK website via a search engine and were visiting the site for themselves. The majority of participants found what they were looking for on the website and found the information very easy or fairly easy to understand. The patient respondents were keen to see their laboratory test results (87%), but the majority did not have access (60%) at the time of the survey. Conclusions This survey provides good evidence that the Lab Tests Online-UK website is a useful resource for patients and health-care professionals alike. It comes at a poignant time as the release of results direct to patients starts with access to their medical records. The Lab Tests Online-UK website has a key role in enabling patients to understand their lab test results, and therefore empowering them to take an interest and engage in their own healthcare.

  19. The Cultural Turn In Sociology: Can it Help Us Resolve an Age-Old Problem in Understanding Decision Making for Healthcare?

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Culture has long shaped individuals’ response to problems. A classic puzzle in the sociology of health and illness is discrepancy between theory and research regarding cultural beliefs and medical care service use. “Utilization research,” examining individuals’ responses to the onset of health problems, has not consistently affected culture on the uptake of formal treatment. While ethnographic research often describes how culture shapes illness behaviors, survey-based studies rarely find significant effects of predispositions once “need” is controlled. In quantitative studies, individuals report supportive treatment beliefs or predispositions to use services but low utilization levels, reinforcing claims about lack of utility of cultural ideologies in health-care decision making. We ask whether innovations in the sociology of culture and cognition provide the theoretical scaffolding to conceptualize and measure culture in health service utilization. Examining data from the General Social Survey, we focus on how approaches to culture might explain the paradox of high cultural predispositions and low actual use. Children with mental health problems provide a comparison between suggestions and endorsements. Suggestions, sources of care offered by individuals in response to a case description without any other social cues, align with new cultural approaches, and are measured by responses to open-ended questions about what should be done for the child described meeting clinical criteria f or ADHD, major depression, asthma, or “daily troubles”). Endorsements, requiring less cognitive work and cultural resistance, align with traditional conceptualizations of culture, and are measured by closed-ended questions that ask respondents to agree or disagree with seeking help from different treatment options placed later in the survey. We find that suggestions reveal cultural predispositions to use services corresponding closely to reported utilization levels

  20. Immunolabelling of intervessel pits for polysaccharides and lignin helps in understanding their hydraulic properties in Populus tremula × alba

    PubMed Central

    Herbette, Stéphane; Bouchet, Brigitte; Brunel, Nicole; Bonnin, Estelle; Cochard, Hervé; Guillon, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The efficiency and safety functions of xylem hydraulics are strongly dependent on the pits that connect the xylem vessels. However, little is known about their biochemical composition and thus about their hydraulic properties. In this study, the distribution of the epitopes of different wall components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins and lignins) was analysed in intervessel pits of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × alba). Methods Immunogold labelling with transmission electron microscopy was carried out with a set of antibodies raised against different epitopes for each wall polysaccharide type and for lignins. Analyses were performed on both immature and mature vessels. The effect of sap ionic strength on xylem conductance was also tested. Key Results In mature vessels, the pit membrane (PM) was composed of crystalline cellulose and lignins. None of the hemicellulose epitopes were found in the PM. Pectin epitopes in mature vessels were highly concentrated in the annulus, a restricted area of the PM, whereas they were initially found in the whole PM in immature vessels. The pit border also showed a specific labelling pattern, with higher cellulose labelling compared with the secondary wall of the vessel. Ion-mediated variation of 24 % was found for hydraulic conductance. Conclusions Cellulose microfibrils, lignins and annulus-restricted pectins have different physicochemical properties (rigidity, hydrophobicity, porosity) that have different effects on the hydraulic functions of the PM, and these influence both the hydraulic efficiency and vulnerability to cavitation of the pits, including ion-mediated control of hydraulic conductance. Impregnation of the cellulose microfibrils of the PM with lignins, which have low wettability, may result in lower cavitation pressure for a given pore size and thus help to explain the vulnerability of this species to cavitation. PMID:25452248

  1. Scientists' Prioritization of Communication Objectives for Public Engagement.

    PubMed

    Dudo, Anthony; Besley, John C

    2016-01-01

    Amid calls from scientific leaders for their colleagues to become more effective public communicators, this study examines the objectives that scientists' report drive their public engagement behaviors. We explore how scientists evaluate five specific communication objectives, which include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public's trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the theory of planned behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists' views about these communication objectives. Results show that scientists most prioritize communication designed to defend science from misinformation and educate the public about science, and least prioritize communication that seeks to build trust and establish resonance with the public. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with scientists who prioritize each of the five specific communication objectives. Our findings highlight the need for communication trainers to help scientists select specific communication objectives for particular contexts and audiences.

  2. Habituating field scientists.

    PubMed

    Alcayna-Stevens, Lys

    2016-12-01

    This article explores the sensory dimensions of scientific field research in the only region in the world where free-ranging bonobos ( Pan paniscus) can be studied in their natural environment; the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. If, as sensory anthropologists have argued, the senses are developed, grown and honed in a given cultural and environmental milieu, how is it that field scientists come to dwell among familiarity in a world which is, at first, unfamiliar? This article builds upon previous anthropological and philosophical engagements with habituation that have critically examined primatologists' attempts to become 'neutral objects in the environment' in order to habituate wild apes to their presence. It does so by tracing the somatic modes of attention developed by European and North American researchers as they follow bonobos in these forests. The argument is that as environments, beings and their elements become familiar, they do not become 'neutral', but rather, suffused with meaning.

  3. Visualization tool for the scientist/engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appino, Perry A.; Farrell, Edward J.; Mandelman, Jack A.; Linton, Thomas D., Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Continuing advances in supercomputer technology give the scientist/engineer the ability to run increasingly complex computational experiments and simulations. Gaining insight from the flood of simulation resuits is a difficult task for the scientist. This paper presents the Visual interpretation System (VIS), an easy to use, interactive, discipline-independent tool for understanding multidimensional data sets. Components of the VIS are a database manager, a user interface, and a visualization manager. The database manager facilitates discipline-independent visualization and lets the scientist manipulate data with familiar names and attributes. The visualization manager uses an optical model to generate 3D images with a variety of options including opaque and transparent structures, cutouts, and region highlighting. The effectiveness ofthe VIS is demonstrated using data from a 3D simulation of a transistor device.

  4. Observational information on a temperate reef community helps understanding the marine climate and ecosystem shift of the 1980-90s.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Giulia; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Montefalcone, Monica; Venturini, Sara; Diviacco, Giovanni; Morri, Carla

    2017-01-15

    The dearth of long-time series hampers the measurement of the ecosystem change that followed the global marine climate shift of the 1980-90s. The sessile communities of Portofino Promontory reefs (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean) have been discontinuously studied since the 1950s. Collating information from various sources, three periods of investigations have been distinguished: 1) 1950-70s; 2) 1980-90s; 3) 2000-10s. A cooler phase in time 1 was followed by a rapid warming in time 2, to stabilize at about 0.5°C higher in time 3. Human pressure grew impressively, especially after the establishment of a MPA in 1999. Multivariate analyses evidenced a major change of community composition in time 2. Some species disappeared or got rarer, many found refuge at depth, and among the newcomers there were recently introduced alien species. This study demonstrated the importance of descriptive historical data to understand magnitude and pattern of change in the long term evolution of marine ecosystems.

  5. Toward systematic reviews to understand the determinants of wait time management success to help decision-makers and managers better manage wait times

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    related to implementation were studied more than those related to sustainability. However, this finding was useful in developing a tool to help managers at the local level monitor the implementation of WTMS and highlighted the need for more research on specific factors for sustainability and to assess the unintended consequences of introducing WTMS in healthcare organizations. PMID:23742217

  6. Scientists feature their work in Arctic-focused short videos by FrontierScientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; O'Connell, E.

    2013-12-01

    Whether they're guiding an unmanned aerial vehicle into a volcanic plume to sample aerosols, or documenting core drilling at a frozen lake in Siberia formed 3.6 million years ago by a massive meteorite impact, Arctic scientists are using video to enhance and expand their science and science outreach. FrontierScientists (FS), a forum for showcasing scientific work, produces and promotes radically different video blogs featuring Arctic scientists. Three- to seven- minute multimedia vlogs help deconstruct researcher's efforts and disseminate stories, communicating scientific discoveries to our increasingly connected world. The videos cover a wide range of current field work being performed in the Arctic. All videos are freely available to view or download from the FrontierScientists.com website, accessible via any internet browser or via the FrontierScientists app. FS' filming process fosters a close collaboration between the scientist and the media maker. Film creation helps scientists reach out to the public, communicate the relevance of their scientific findings, and craft a discussion. Videos keep audience tuned in; combining field footage, pictures, audio, and graphics with a verbal explanation helps illustrate ideas, allowing one video to reach people with different learning strategies. The scientists' stories are highlighted through social media platforms online. Vlogs grant scientists a voice, letting them illustrate their own work while ensuring accuracy. Each scientific topic on FS has its own project page where easy-to-navigate videos are featured prominently. Video sets focus on different aspects of a researcher's work or follow one of their projects into the field. We help the scientist slip the answers to their five most-asked questions into the casual script in layman's terms in order to free the viewers' minds to focus on new concepts. Videos are accompanied by written blogs intended to systematically demystify related facts so the scientists can focus

  7. Helping Children Help Themselves. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    Youth leaders and parents can use this activity oriented publication to help children six to twelve years of age become more independent by acquiring daily living skills. The publication consists of five units, each of which contains an introduction, learning activities, and lists of resource materials. Age-ability levels are suggested for…

  8. Help Us to Help Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Local authorities have a strong tradition of supporting communities to help themselves, and this is nowhere better illustrated than in the learning they commission and deliver through the Adult Safeguarded Learning budget. The budget was set up to protect at least a minimum of provision for adult liberal education, family learning and learning for…

  9. Helping students understand planet categories using "sensing" personification: Jupiter as want-to-be star, Earth as want-to-be Jupiter, etc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor-Morris, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Students often, in learning about the classification of planets, consider the planets to be in strict categories (such as gas giants and terrestrial planets) and assume that these categories are drastically different in nature. This is not the case. Small objects such as asteroids have a weak gravitational pull such that they cannot hold an atmosphere, while terrestrial planets are capable of holding a gaseous (often transparent) atmosphere according to their larger mass. However, asteroids and terrestrial planets are very similar in composition (though not necessarily in homogeneity due to varying presence of collisional heating during formation). Meanwhile, gas giant planets (also often referred to as Jovian planets) such as Jupiter have been theorized to contain super-sized rocky terrestrial-like planets interior to their dense cloud covering. Hence, due then to their similar natures, the categorization of the terrestrial and gas giant planets is made not due to fundamental differences in the nature of the planets, a concept often ill-understood by students. Examining this further, the gas giants are planets whose masses, and hence gravitational ability to condense their gases, especially those close to their core, is less than those of stars wherein thermonuclear fusion initiates. This implies that stars also have terrestrial cores (albeit likely extremely densely packed), but the gaseous environments of hydrogen are dense enough to start and sustain this process of thermonuclear fusion. It is proposed here that seeing planets as fundamentally related to each other in composition though differing in size allows students to better understand the variety of planet types AND describing these as want-to-be (or wanna-be) in terms of ranking and according to a “sensing” personification that eschews anthropomorphism, animism, or teleology [see A. E. Tabor-Morris, “Thinking in terms of sensors: personification of self as an object in physics problem solving

  10. Lay abstracts and summaries: writing advice for scientists.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Catherine E; Lapane, Kate L

    2014-09-01

    Scientific journals, institutional review boards, and funding sources often require abstracts or research summaries written specifically for the lay public. Making research findings understandable to the public helps raise awareness and speed adoption of practices that may lead to improved health. We provide advice on writing lay abstracts and summaries which includes the following: (1) make reasonable assumptions about grade-level, vocabulary, prior experience, and interests of the audience; (2) practice a verbal explanation with someone from your audience; (3) start writing by using a simple headline followed by a brief and relevant synopsis in common language then expand; (4) read your draft aloud and revise; (5) check readability statistics and simplify as needed; and (6) have both lay audience and peer scientists read your summary to assure that it is accessible to the public while remaining true to the science.

  11. Advice to young behavioral and cognitive scientists.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Ronald G

    2008-02-01

    Modeled on Medawar's Advice to a Young Scientist [Medawar, P.B., 1979. Advice to a Young Scientist. Basic Books, New York], this article provides advice to behavioral and cognitive scientists. An important guiding principle is that the study of comparative cognition and behavior are natural sciences tasked with explaining nature. The author advises young scientists to begin with a natural phenomenon and then bring it into the laboratory, rather than beginning in the laboratory and hoping for an application in nature. He suggests collaboration as a way to include research outside the scientist's normal competence. He then discusses several guides to good science. These guides include Tinbergen's [Tinbergen, N., 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410-433. This journal was renamed Ethology in 1986. Also reprinted in Anim. Biol. 55, 297-321, 2005] four "why" questions, Platt's [Platt, J.R., 1964. Strong inference. Science 146, 347-353, (http://weber.ucsd.edu/~jmoore/courses/Platt1964.pdf)] notion of strong inference using multiple alternative hypotheses, and the idea that positive controls help scientists to follow Popper's [Popper, K.R., 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books, New York, p. 41] advice about disproving hypotheses. The author also recommends Strunk and White's [Strunk, W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York] rules for sound writing, and he provides his personal advice on how to use the anticipation of peer review to improve research and how to decode editors' and reviewers' comments about submitted articles.

  12. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming.

  13. Advocacy is scientists' responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstadt, Gene

    In reading S. Fred Singer's comments in Forum (Eos, May 21, 1991) on the earlier letter by Kaula and Anderson on AGU's proper role in society (Eos, April 9, 1991), I find myself entirely in agreement with his admonition that AGU positions, in this case specifically on global warming, must add “a certain amount of political sophistication.” But while I cannot disagree with the view that geophysicists should confine their advice to matters in which they have expertise, I also wonder if any of us deserves criticism when, noting the difficulty political leaders have in connecting causes with effects, we yield occasionally to the temptation to stray beyond mere facts and spell out potentially unfavorable connections. Early linking of complex but subtly related phenomena is one of the areas in which we have some credibility, is it not?Even as scientists we are, after all, compelled to share destinies with the other passengers crammed into the stairwells of the national vehicle, a bus tailgating an oil tanker careening right and left at high speed down the global highway, driven by a crew of politicians drunk on paleozoic distillate and trained in the Alfred E. Newman College of Navigation, where the principal graduation requirement is an intense desire to sit in front and steer.

  14. Collaborating with Scientists in Education and Public Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; Smith Hackler, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    The Education and Public Engagement team at the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) is developing a scientific advisory board, to gather input from planetary scientists for ways that LPI can help them with public engagement, such as connecting them to opportunities, creating useful resources, and providing training. The advisory board will assist in outlining possible roles of scientists in public engagement, provide feedback on LPI scientist engagement efforts, and encourage scientists to participate in various education and public engagement events.LPI's scientists have participated in a variety of education programs, including teacher workshops, family events, public presentations, informal educator trainings, and communication workshops. Scientists have helped conduct hands-on activities, participated in group discussions, and given talks, while sharing their own career paths and interests; these activities have provided audiences with a clearer vision of how science is conducted and how they can become engaged in science themselves.This poster will share the status and current findings of the scientist advisory board, and the lessons learned regarding planetary scientists' needs, abilities, and interests in participating in education and public engagement programs.

  15. Use of Cooperative K-12 Water Quality Data by Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M. H.; Clemons, J.; Bales, R. C.

    2001-05-01

    Cooperative data collected by volunteers who are not paid professionals has been successfully used in weather observations, groundwater levels, and water quality. However, the notion of involving K-12 students directly in research, specifically concerning water quality data, has left many research scientists wondering "what about quality assurance and control (QA/QC)?" Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is a worldwide network of K-12 students, teachers, and scientists working together to study and understand the global environment. Students and teachers from over 8,000 schools in more than 80 countries are working with research scientists to learn more about our planet. GLOBE students make environmental observations (hydrology, meteorology, soils, and other measurements) at or near their schools and report their data through the Internet (www.globe.gov). GLOBE and other parallel K-12 volunteer measurement programs have developed multi-year records of stream water quality at locations where career scientists do not or only infrequently sample. Since 1995, over 600 GLOBE schools throughout the U.S. have gathered and reported surface water quality data for alkalinity, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature. A comparative analysis of GLOBE and USGS water quality data, and the protocols used to make these measurements, was done to assess: i) how measurement protocols compare qualitatively, ii) how the variability in data compare, and iii) what spatial and/or temporal patterns are apparent in the data. When compared to equivalent USGS protocols, it becomes apparent that some of the GLOBE hydrology protocols can be improved. However there are limits to the quality of K-12 data imposed by the levels of scientific training of participants and sophistication of instrumentation. The higher spatial and statistical variability of GLOBE data compared to USGS data makes it unsuited for use as a stand-alone method for

  16. Comparing Scientists' Views of Nature of Science within and across Disciplines, and Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Praweena

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how Thai scientists from four disciplines viewed nature of science (NOS). The sixteen participating scientists were chosen from the areas of chemistry, physics, biology/life sciences, and geology/earth sciences and were separated into novice and expert groups. The scientists' understandings about NOS…

  17. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist. PMID:20119518

  18. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Clare, Amanda; Khan, Muhammed N; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Rowland, Jem; Soldatova, Larisa N; Whelan, Kenneth E; Young, Michael; King, Ross D

    2010-01-04

    We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist.

  19. Deep understanding of electromagnetism using crosscutting concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Poorter, John; De Lange, Jan; Devoldere, Lies; Van Landeghem, Jouri; Strubbe, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Crosscutting concepts like patterns and models are fundamental parts in both the American framework of science education (from the AAAS) and our proposals for a new science education framework in Flanders. These concepts deepen the insight of both students and teachers. They help students to ask relevant questions during an inquiry and they give an understanding in how scientists built up their scientific theories. We illustrate the didactical possibilities of crosscutting concepts within the field of electromagnetism.

  20. Media and the making of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Moira

    This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the

  1. Empirically derived guidance for social scientists to influence environmental policy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katrina; Crissman, Charles; De Young, Cassandra; Gooch, Margaret; James, Craig; Jessen, Sabine; Johnson, Dave; Marshall, Paul; Wachenfeld, Dave; Wrigley, Damian

    2017-01-01

    Failure to stem trends of ecological disruption and associated loss of ecosystem services worldwide is partly due to the inadequate integration of the human dimension into environmental decision-making. Decision-makers need knowledge of the human dimension of resource systems and of the social consequences of decision-making if environmental management is to be effective and adaptive. Social scientists have a central role to play, but little guidance exists to help them influence decision-making processes. We distil 348 years of cumulative experience shared by 31 environmental experts across three continents into advice for social scientists seeking to increase their influence in the environmental policy arena. Results focus on the importance of process, engagement, empathy and acumen and reveal the importance of understanding and actively participating in policy processes through co-producing knowledge and building trust. The insights gained during this research might empower a science-driven cultural change in science-policy relations for the routine integration of the human dimension in environmental decision making; ultimately for an improved outlook for earth’s ecosystems and the billions of people that depend on them. PMID:28278238

  2. SunBlock '99: Young Scientists Investigate the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. W.; Pike, C. D.; Mason, H.; Young, P.; Ireland, J.; Galsgaard, K.

    1999-10-01

    SunBlock `99 is a Web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which seeks to present the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. These ``solar guides'' discuss not only their scientific interests, but also their extra-curricular activities and the reasons they chose scientific careers; in other words the human face of scientific research. The SunBlock '99 pages gather a range of solar images and movies from current solar space observatories and discuss the underlying physics and its relationship to the school curriculum. The instructional level is pitched at UK secondary school children (aged 13-16 years). It is intended that the material should not only provide a visually appealing introduction to the study of the Sun, but that it should help bridge the often wide gap between classroom science lessons and the research scientist `out in the field'. SunBlock '99 is managed by a team from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Universities of St Andrews and Cambridge, together with educational consultants. The production has, in part, been sponsored by PPARC and the Millennium Mathematics Project. Web site addresss: http://www.sunblock99.org.uk

  3. Weird Stellar Pair Puzzles Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have discovered a speedy spinning pulsar in an elongated orbit around an apparent Sun-like star, a combination never seen before, and one that has them puzzled about how the strange system developed. Orbital Comparison Comparing Orbits of Pulsar and Its Companion to our Solar System. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for full caption information and available graphics. "Our ideas about how the fastest-spinning pulsars are produced do not predict either the kind of orbit or the type of companion star this one has," said David Champion of the Australia Telescope National Facility. "We have to come up with some new scenarios to explain this weird pair," he added. Astronomers first detected the pulsar, called J1903+0327, as part of a long-term survey using the National Science Foundation's Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico. They made the discovery in 2006 doing data analysis at McGill University, where Champion worked at the time. They followed up the discovery with detailed studies using the Arecibo telescope, the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, the Westerbork radio telescope in the Netherlands, and the Gemini North optical telescope in Hawaii. The pulsar, a city-sized superdense stellar corpse left over after a massive star exploded as a supernova, is spinning on its axis 465 times every second. Nearly 21,000 light-years from Earth, it is in a highly-elongated orbit that takes it around its companion star once every 95 days. An infrared image made with the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii shows a Sun-like star at the pulsar's position. If this is an orbital companion to the pulsar, it is unlike any companions of other rapidly rotating pulsars. The pulsar, a neutron star, also is unusually massive for its type. "This combination of properties is unprecedented. Not only does it require us to figure out how this system was produced, but the large mass may help us understand how matter behaves at extremely

  4. The Evolution of the Data Scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    When did the data scientist come into being? The National Science Board formally defined the term in 2005. Prior to that, the term was used sporadically, but typically to refer to statisticians or analysts. Nevertheless, the data scientist function has existed for a long time. Those who performed the function were called data managers or librarians or curators. Their role with digital data was critical but ill defined and poorly understood, especially by outsiders. Today, the tem data scientist is gaining currency and the discipline is gaining prominence, but it is a very dynamic field. And while it may be better defined, the term is still poorly understood. This lack of understanding can partly be attributed to the dynamic and evolutionary nature of the field. Domain scientists have developed new expectations for technology and services that enhance their ability to handle massive and complex data and present new challenges to data scientists. In response, data scientists are redefining and adapting their role to these rapidly changing demands of data-driven science and the fourth paradigm. In this paper, I explore the recent evolution of the field of data science as a socio-technical discipline. I discuss what has changed as well as what has remained the same and how some things that seem new may be a recasting of old problems. I take the view that data science is necessarily an evolutionary field that will need to continue to adapt in response to known and unknown challenges in order to ensure a healthy data ecosystem.

  5. How Do Scientists Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Amy V.; Johns, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    In supporting students toward literacy, teachers must provide experiences that support the formation of informed understandings of the nature of science (NOS), as well as a structure for developing evidence-based explanations. In this article the authors describe how they guided their students through this learning cycle to answer the essential…

  6. Meet EPA Scientist Robert Devlin, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Dr. Robert Devlin's main research interest is understanding the health effects of air pollution. His research characterizes the effects that inhaled substances, such as air pollutants, have on human pulmonary and cardiovascular health

  7. Children and Stress: Understanding and Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle, Ed.; Yamamoto, Kaoru, Ed.

    Based on the view that children have special needs that must be recognized and attended to by the adults who care for them, this book explores the stressful experiences faced by children on a daily basis and presents advice and techniques for protecting children during those challenging experiences. Part 1 of the book focuses on children's…

  8. A guide to help children understand cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as fun ways to take medicine, new books or videos during treatments, or mixing medicines with different juices. Let your child know you will always be by their side at the hospital. Explain how long they will ...

  9. Helping Students Understand and Accept Sexual Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, James T.

    1991-01-01

    Although educators seem reluctant to integrate sex into the curriculum, covert sexual instruction comprises a large part of the hidden curriculum and ambience of any junior or high school. When presenting heterosexual mechanics, most health classes bypass homosexuality, safer sex practices, abortion ethics, and birth control methods. Honest…

  10. Helping Students Understand Formal Chemical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Charles R.; Herron, J. Dudley

    1980-01-01

    Investigated outcomes of the use of the learning cycle, which divides instruction into the Piagetian phases of exploration, invention, and discovery in general college chemistry laboratory experiments. Differences between concrete and formal operational students were explored in students' ability to master chemistry material varying in cognitive…

  11. Helping Students Understand Factors and Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Joseph G. R.

    1988-01-01

    An approach to teaching factors and terms is offered that builds directly on students' knowledge of arithmetic. Errors arising from factor and term confusions are noted, followed by the pedagogical strategy of exploration, invention, and discovery. (MNS)

  12. Reading Guidelines--Helping Students Understand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Diane P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports on the effective use of hierarchcial and nonhierarchical reading guides with John Steinbeck's "Grapes of Wrath." Indicates reading guides improve comprehension, provide transferable skills, and create positive feelings about learning. (NH)

  13. Helping Education Students Understand Learning through Designing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronen-Fuhrmann, Tamar; Kali, Yael; Hoadley, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a course in which graduate students in education learn practical and theoretical aspects of educational design by creating technologies for learning. The course was built around three themes: "Analyzing technologies," in which students study state-of- the-art technologies and interview their designers; "design studio," in…

  14. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... if your child seems upset after seeing other people who have lost their hair, talk about what symptoms he may have from treatment. Keep in mind that your child may have heard things about cancer from other sources, such as TV, the movies, or other kids. It is a good idea ...

  15. Constructing target product profiles (TPPs) to help vaccines overcome post-approval obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Burke, Donald S.

    2012-01-01

    As history has demonstrated, post-approval obstacles can impede a vaccine’s use and potentially lead to its withdrawal. Addressing these potential obstacles when changes in a vaccine’s technology can still be easily made may improve a vaccine’s chances of success. Augmented vaccine target product profiles (TPPs) can help vaccine scientists better understand and anticipate these obstacles and galvanize conversations among various vaccine stakeholders (e.g., scientists, marketers, business development managers, policy makers, public health officials, health care workers, third party payors, etc.) earlier in a vaccine’s development. PMID:19782109

  16. Impact of a Scientist-Teacher Collaborative Model on Students, Teachers, and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shein, Paichi Pat; Tsai, Chun-Yen

    2015-09-01

    Collaborations between the K-12 teachers and higher education or professional scientists have become a widespread approach to science education reform. Educational funding and efforts have been invested to establish these cross-institutional collaborations in many countries. Since 2006, Taiwan initiated the High Scope Program, a high school science curriculum reform to promote scientific innovation and inquiry through an integration of advanced science and technology in high school science curricula through partnership between high school teachers and higher education scientists and science educators. This study, as part of this governmental effort, a scientist-teacher collaborative model (STCM) was constructed by 8 scientists and 4 teachers to drive an 18-week high school science curriculum reform on environmental education in a public high school. Partnerships between scientists and teachers offer opportunities to strengthen the elements of effective science teaching identified by Shulman and ultimately affect students' learning. Mixed methods research was used for this study. Qualitative methods of interviews were used to understand the impact on the teachers' and scientists' science teaching. A quasi-experimental design was used to understand the impact on students' scientific competency and scientific interest. The findings in this study suggest that the use of the STCM had a medium effect on students' scientific competency and a large effect on students' scientific individual and situational interests. In the interviews, the teachers indicated how the STCM allowed them to improve their content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and the scientists indicated an increased knowledge of learners, knowledge of curriculum, and PCK.

  17. AGU climate scientists visit Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2012-02-01

    On 1 February 2012, AGU teamed with 11 other scientific societies to bring 29 scientists researching various aspects of climate change to Washington, D. C., for the second annual Climate Science Day on Capitol Hill. The participants represented a wide range of expertise, from meteorology to agriculture, paleoclimatology to statistics, but all spoke to the reality of climate change as demonstrated in their scientific research. With Congress debating environmental regulations and energy policy amid tight fiscal pressures, it is critical that lawmakers have access to the best climate science to help guide policy decisions. The scientists met with legislators and their staff to discuss the importance of climate science for their districts and the nation and offered their expertise as an ongoing resource to the legislators.

  18. Frontier Scientists use Modern Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'connell, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

  19. In Service to the Nation: The Geology Scientist Emeritus Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adrian, B.M.; Bybell, L.M.; Brady, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The Geology Scientist Emeritus Program of the U.S. Geological Survey was established in 1986 as part of the Bureau's Volunteer for Science Program. The purpose of the Scientist Emeritus (SE) Program is to help support retired USGS senior scientists as they volunteer their expertise, intellect, and creativity in efforts that allow them to remain active in the geoscience community, enhance the program activities of the Geology Discipline, and serve the public. The SE Program is open to all scientists and technical experts who have demonstrated leadership qualities and contributed to the goals of the USGS during a productive career. As long as the individual applying has been a scientist or technical expert, he or she may be considered for the SE Program, regardless of their previous position with the USGS.

  20. Helping, Manipulation, and Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Louise A.; Edinburg, Golda M.

    1978-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that an understanding of the primitive origins of the helping process in myth, magic, and ritual may prevent social workers from engaging in practices that negate their clients' ability to work out their own solutions to problems. (Author)

  1. Helping Teachers Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kise, Jane; Russell, Beth; Shumate, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Personality type theory describes normal differences in how people are energized, take in information, make decisions, and approach work and life--all key elements in how people teach and learn. Understanding one another's personality type preferences helps teachers share their instructional strategies and classroom information. Type theory…

  2. Teen Science Cafés: A Vehicle for Scientists Seeking Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Teen Science Cafés are a global phenomenon where scientists and teenagers engage in lively conversations about current, relevant, and intriguing science. In the past two years, Teen Café programs have been initiated in 41 sites in 18 U.S. states via the Teen Science Cafe Network, teensciencecafe.org. Other such programs are growing in the UK, eastern Africa, South Africa, and Singapore. The events are a free, informal, and low risk way for scientists to share their science with a receptive audience much focused on future careers. The success of a Café depends on the core principle that rich conversation occurs; a Café program is not a lecture series. Engaging teen participants brings out different perspectives and new dimensions to the topic; this has typically given scientists new ways of thinking about their own research! Presenting the event as a conversation and inviting the teens to bring in questions and points of view is key to fostering a dynamic Café. Scientists report that the training provided for these engagements has changed the way they talk about their science to peers, managers, and funding agencies. Teen Cafés have been shown to significantly change teens' view of the importance of science in their lives, positively influence teens' understanding of science in the news, and increase their ability and confidence to use facts to support scientific points of view. The Café events also positively influenced teens' interest in science and science careers, and revealed to them the true nature of scientific research and the interesting lives that scientists lead. Cafés are an excellent vehicle for scientists to have broader impact on the current generation of students, our future adult citizens. The Teen Science Café Network is an open community of practice committed to helping others implement Teen Cafés.

  3. Exploring Natural and Social Scientists' Views of Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayir, Eylem; Cakici, Yilmaz; Ertas, Ozge

    2014-05-01

    Science education researchers recently turned their attention to exploring views about nature of science (NOS). A large body of research indicates that both students and teachers have many naïve views about the NOS. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed at the issue of exploring the views of the scientists. Also, the little research in the literature generally took into consideration NOS views of only natural scientists. This study primarily proposes to explore the views of scientists in both the natural and social sciences regarding the seven target aspects of NOS. The second aim of the study is to find out the similarities and dissimilarities between the views of scientists who majored in social sciences and those who majored in natural sciences in terms of the target aspects of NOS. The sample was 69 scientists representing 5 scientific disciplines from natural and social sciences. Interviews were employed for obtaining data. The data were analyzed by means of cognitive maps. This study revealed that the scientists in the sample have neither completely informed views nor completely naïve views according to contemporary scientific understanding. Their views were a blend of the two in terms of almost all the target aspects of NOS. The views of the scientists in natural science and in social science were not substantially different. The scientists from both groups generally had similar viewpoints. This situation suggested that the scientists' views about NOS are not related to their scientific disciplines.

  4. On advocacy by environmental scientists: what, whether, why, and how.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael P; Vucetich, John A

    2009-10-01

    Debate about the nature and appropriateness of advocacy by environmental scientists is important--it represents understanding the role of these citizens in our society. Much has been written about advocacy by scientists, and that literature describes substantial diversity in reasons why advocacy by scientists is or is not appropriate. Despite the nature of this literature there has been no comprehensive, systematic review of why some favor and others oppose advocacy by environmental scientists. Through a literature review we catalogued, categorized, and critiqued the arguments used for and against the appropriateness of advocacy by environmental scientists. Most arguments, whether for or against advocacy, are characterized by some significant deficiency. From our analysis of the literature an argument emerges that to date has never been fully articulated: that advocacy is nearly unavoidable, and that scientists, by virtue of being citizens first and scientists second, have a responsibility to advocate to the best of their abilities, to improve their advocacy abilities, and to advocate in a justified and transparent manner. We also discuss the meaning and relevance of advocacy being justified and transparent. We suggest scientists expend their efforts to better understand what constitutes appropriate advocacy and spend less effort pondering whether they should advocate.

  5. a Review of High Performance Computing Foundations for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Risueño, Pablo; Ibáñez, Pablo E.

    2012-07-01

    The increase of existing computational capabilities has made simulation emerge as a third discipline of Science, lying midway between experimental and purely theoretical branches [G. Makov, C. Gattinoni and A. D. Vita, Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.17, 084008 (2009); C. J. Cramer, Essentials of Computational Chemistry: Theories and Models, 2nd edn. (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2002)]. Simulation enables the evaluation of quantities which otherwise would not be accessible, helps to improve experiments and provides new insights on systems which are analyzed [T. C. Germann, K. Kadau and S. Swaminarayan, Concurrency Comput. Pract. Exp.21, 2143 (2009); M. A. L. Marques, X. Lopez, D. Varsano, A. Castro and A. Rubio, Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 258101 (2003); D. E. Shaw, P. Maragakis, K. Lindorff-Larsen, S. Piana, R. O. Dror, M. P. Eastwood, J. A. Bank, J. M. Jumper, J. K. Salmon, Y. Shan and W. Wriggers, Science330, 341 (2010); D. Marx, Chem. Phys. Chem.7, 1848 (2006)]. Knowing the fundamentals of computation can be very useful for scientists, for it can help them to improve the performance of their theoretical models and simulations. This review includes some technical essentials that can be useful to this end, and it is devised as a complement for researchers whose education is focused on scientific issues and not on technological respects. In this document, we attempt to discuss the fundamentals of high performance computing (HPC) [G. Hager and G. Wellein, Introduction to High Performance Computing for Scientists and Engineers, 1st edn. (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011)] in a way which is easy to understand without much previous background. We sketch the way standard computers and supercomputers work, as well as discuss distributed computing and discuss essential aspects to take into account when running scientific calculations in computers.

  6. Forging Educational Partnerships Between Science Centers and Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. K.

    2006-12-01

    When most people think about science education, they usually consider classrooms as ideal venues for communicating and disseminating knowledge. But most learning that we humans engage in happens outside of the classroom and after we finish our formal education. That is where informal science education picks up the ball. The forums for these learning opportunities are diverse: museum exhibits, the Web, documentaries, and after school settings are becoming increasingly important as venues to keep up with the ever changing world of science. . The Exploratorium and other science centers act as transformers between the world of science and the public. As such they are ideal partners for scientists who would like to reach a large and diverse audience of families, adults, teens, and teachers. In this session, Senior Science Producer Mary Miller will discuss the ways that the Exploratorium engages working scientists in helping the museum-going public and Web audiences understand the process and results of scientific research.

  7. Big Data: An Opportunity for Collaboration with Computer Scientists on Data-Driven Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.

    2014-12-01

    Big data technologies are evolving rapidly, driven by the need to manage ever increasing amounts of historical data; process relentless streams of human and machine-generated data; and integrate data of heterogeneous structure from extremely heterogeneous sources of information. Big data is inherently an application-driven problem. Developing the right technologies requires an understanding of the applications domain. Though, an intriguing aspect of this phenomenon is that the availability of the data itself enables new applications not previously conceived of! In this talk, we will discuss how the big data phenomenon creates an imperative for collaboration among domain scientists (in this case, geoscientists) and computer scientists. Domain scientists provide the application requirements as well as insights about the data involved, while computer scientists help assess whether problems can be solved with currently available technologies or require adaptaion of existing technologies and/or development of new technologies. The synergy can create vibrant collaborations potentially leading to new science insights as well as development of new data technologies and systems. The area of interface between geosciences and computer science, also referred to as geoinformatics is, we believe, a fertile area for interdisciplinary research.

  8. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  9. The Scientist as Illustrator

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, Janet H.

    2016-01-01

    Proficiency in art and illustration was once considered an essential skill for biologists, as text alone often could not suffice to describe observations of biological systems. With modern imaging technology, it is no longer necessary to illustrate what we can see by eye. However, in molecular and cellular biology, however, our understanding of biological processes is dependent on our ability to synthesize diverse data to generate a hypothesis. Creating visual models of these hypotheses is important for generating new ideas and for communicating to our peers and to the public. Here, I will discuss the benefits of creating visual models in molecular and cellular biology and consider steps to enable researchers to become more effective visual communicators. PMID:26968491

  10. Scientists' Perceptions of Communicating During Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohaney, J. A.; Hudson-Doyle, E.; Brogt, E.; Wilson, T. M.; Kennedy, B.

    2015-12-01

    To further our understanding of how to enhance student science and risk communication skills in natural hazards and earth science courses, we conducted a pilot study to assess the different perceptions of expert scientists and risk communication practitioners versus the perceptions of students. These differences will be used to identify expert views on best practice, and improve the teaching of communication skills at the University level. In this pilot study, a perceptions questionnaire was developed and validated. Within this, respondents (geoscientists, engineers, and emergency managers; n=44) were asked to determine their agreement with the use and effectiveness of specific communication strategies (within the first 72 hours after a devastating earthquake) when communicating to the public. In terms of strategies and information to the public, the respondents were mostly in agreement, but there were several statements which elicited large differences between expert responses: 1) the role and purpose of the scientific communication during crises (to persuade people to care, to provide advice, to empower people to take action); 2) the scientist's delivery (showing the scientists emotions and enthusiasm for scientific concepts they are discussing); and 3) the amount of data that is discussed (being comprehensive versus 'only the important' data). The most disagreed upon dimension was related to whether to disclose any political influence on the communication. Additionally, scientists identified that being an effective communicator was an important part of their job, and agreed that it is important to practice these skills. Respondents generally indicated that while scientists should be accountable for the science advice provided, they should not be held liable.

  11. Partnership for Research & Education in Plants (PREP): Involving High School Students in Authentic Research in Collaboration with Scientists

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, ERIC; DOLAN, ERIN; TAX, FRANS

    2013-01-01

    A partnership between scientists, high school teachers, and their students provides authentic research experiences to help students understand the nature and processes of science. The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP) engages students in a large-scale genomics research project using classroom-tested protocols that can help to find the function of a disabled gene in the widely studied plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe the framework of PREP in the classroom within the context of the National Science Education Standards. PMID:24339450

  12. Do Scientists Really Reject God?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the title of the recent Larson and Witham article in the journal Nature, "Leading Scientists Still Reject God", is premature and without reliable data upon which to base it. (Author/CCM)

  13. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  14. Ames Scientists Develop MSL Instrument

    NASA Video Gallery

    David Blake, a research scientist at NASA Ames, led the development of CheMin, one of ten scientific instruments onboard Curiosity, the Mars Scientific Laboratory. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction tool...

  15. [Scientists in cartoons: humanizing science].

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Carlos Henrique; Andrade, Rodrigo de Oliveira; Marques, Ivan da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Published daily from 1994 to 2002 in Correio Popular, a Campinas-based newspaper, Os cientistas (The scientists) comic strips produced by Brazilian researchers and journalists presented science critically and irreverently, exposing the insecurities and frustrations of scientists, as well as the conflicts between them and their communication difficulties with other groups, like journalists. This article shows the diversity of personalities, subjects, graphic styles, and potential meanings in a sample of comic strips published in the first four years.

  16. Rice scientists lay biotech network foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-29

    To help agricultural researchers in poorly funded Asian laboratories improve food crops, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is proposing a biotechnology network that would disseminate instruments, plant genetic materials, chemicals, and scientific information free of charge. The network will focus primarily on Asian researchers trained at the Philippines-based IRRI who are trying to breed high-yield, disease-resistant rice strains and thereby pump up the world's rice production by about 10 million metric tons a year. The total crop in 1990 was about 520 million tons. Not all biological substances are legal to import and export, and this may impede distributing some plant genetic material to network scientists. However, at present it is legal to ship molecular DNA markers that are essential for tagging important genes in lab studies. As a test balloon for the network, markers are being distributed to scientists in national agricultural research programs in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. IRRI is seeking $5.5 million in funding, enough to run the network for 5 years. If the network becomes a reality, Asian rice scientists may pluck out of the mail something far more valuable than DNA markers or even sweepstakes notices: genetically engineered plants, which might be allowed across national boundaries in 2 or 3 years.

  17. Critical issues facing animal scientists.

    PubMed

    Friess, S L

    1983-01-01

    An important series of issues confronts the animal research scientist involved in meeting world needs for food products from animal agriculture. The major issues stem from societal pressures for improved products, for prevention of chemical pollution of the biosphere, and for wise use of animal resources in toxicological testing and research. The following issues are among those treated in the present discussion: (1) There is a need to obtain reliable dosage vs response information for chronic effects produced in the human by food additive chemicals. (2) There is a need for toxicological research on combined hazard from multiple contaminants in animal food products. (3) There is a requirement for development of methodology for proper usage and (or) disposal of chemically contaminated animal food products. (4) The public must be educated with respect to the absolute necessity for use of intact animals in biological research, to supplement information from in vitro systems. (5) Animal scientists must characterize fully each animal species and strain employed in research and testing, to guarantee reproducibility of results. (6) Animal scientists must evolve a universal set of principles for translation of animal toxicity data into prediction of human hazard. (7) Animal scientists should develop universally uniform methodology for toxicological testing of foods and food chemical residues. (8) Animal scientists should rebut national regulatory philosophies that derive from unsound science. (9) The animal scientist should assist regulatory authorities in developing sound, practical "Good Laboratory Practice" guidelines.

  18. Credentialing Data Scientists: A Domain Repository Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Furukawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    A career in data science can have many paths: data curation, data analysis, metadata modeling - all of these in different commercial or scientific applications. Can a certification as 'data scientist' provide the guarantee that an applicant or candidate for a data science position has just the right skills? How valuable is a 'generic' certification as data scientist for an employer looking to fill a data science position? Credentials that are more specific and discipline-oriented may be more valuable to both the employer and the job candidate. One employment sector for data scientists are the data repositories that provide discipline-specific data services for science communities. Data science positions within domain repositories include a wide range of responsibilities in support of the full data life cycle - from data preservation and curation to development of data models, ontologies, and user interfaces, to development of data analysis and visualization tools to community education and outreach, and require a substantial degree of discipline-specific knowledge of scientific data acquisition and analysis workflows, data quality measures, and data cultures. Can there be certification programs for domain-specific data scientists that help build the urgently needed workforce for the repositories? The American Geophysical Union has recently started an initiative to develop a program for data science continuing education and data science professional certification for the Earth and space sciences. An Editorial Board has been charged to identify and develop curricula and content for these programs and to provide input and feedback in the implementation of the program. This presentation will report on the progress of this initiative and evaluate its utility for the needs of domain repositories in the Earth and space sciences.

  19. Introducing Astronomy Allies: We are here to help!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting will be the first meeting that has Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies will provide a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  20. Patent issues in drug development: perspectives of a pharmaceutical scientist-attorney.

    PubMed

    Melethil, Srikumaran

    2005-10-27

    The major purpose of this article is to emphasize the need for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Economic incentives for drug discovery and development clash with societal needs for low-cost pharmaceuticals in the United States and all over the world. The Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984 was enacted to promote public health by balancing the interests of brand name and generic companies. Patent protection, which provides a monopoly for a limited time, is aimed to provide such incentives. Creation of patents requires the interaction between scientists and lawyers, an endeavor made difficult by the differing intellectual spheres of their respective disciplines. Therefore, in the first place, a thorough understanding of patent fundamentals among pharmaceutical scientists will help them work more efficiently with patent attorneys. Second, it will enable them to appreciate the strengths and weaknesses of individual patents, which is critical in developing strategies amidst the ongoing patent tug-of-war between brand-name and generic companies.

  1. Thinking like a scientist: innateness as a case study.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Joshua; Samuels, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of innateness appears in systematic research within cognitive science, but it also appears in less systematic modes of thought that long predate the scientific study of the mind. The present studies therefore explore the relationship between the properly scientific uses of this concept and its role in ordinary folk understanding. Studies 1-4 examined the judgments of people with no specific training in cognitive science. Results showed (a) that judgments about whether a trait was innate were not affected by whether or not the trait was learned, but (b) such judgments were impacted by moral considerations. Study 5 looked at the judgments of both non-scientists and scientists, in conditions that encouraged either thinking about individual cases or thinking about certain general principles. In the case-based condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of moral considerations but little impact of learning. In the principled condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of learning but little impact of moral considerations. These results suggest that both non-scientists and scientists are drawn to a conception of innateness that differs from the one at work in contemporary scientific research but that they are also both capable of 'filtering out' their initial intuitions and using a more scientific approach.

  2. Reciprocal Engagement Between a Scientist and Visual Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolasco, Michelle Maria

    In this study the focus of investigation was the reciprocal engagement between a professional scientist and the visual displays with which he interacted. Visual displays are considered inextricable from everyday scientific endeavors and their interpretation requires a "back-and-forthness" between the viewers and the objects being viewed. The query that drove this study was: How does a scientist engage with visual displays during the explanation of his understanding of extremely small biological objects? The conceptual framework was based in embodiment where the scientist's talk, gesture, and body position were observed and microanalyzed. The data consisted of open-ended interviews that positioned the scientist to interact with visual displays when he explained the structure and function of different sub-cellular features. Upon microanalyzing the scientist's talk, gesture, and body position during his interactions with two different visual displays, four themes were uncovered: Naming, Layering, Categorizing, and Scaling . Naming occurred when the scientist added markings to a pre-existing, hand-drawn visual display. The markings had meaning as stand-alone label and iconic symbols. Also, the markings transformed the pre-existing visual display, which resulted in its function as a new visual object. Layering occurred when the scientist gestured over images so that his gestures aligned with one or more of the image's features, but did not touch the actual visual display. Categorizing occurred when the scientist used contrasting categories, e.g. straight vs. not straight, to explain his understanding about different characteristics that the small biological objects held. Scaling occurred when the scientist used gesture to resize an image's features so that they fit his bodily scale. Three main points were drawn from this study. First, the scientist employed a variety of

  3. Modelling biological complexity: a physical scientist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Peter V; Fowler, Philip W

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the modern approaches of complexity and self-organization to understanding dynamical systems and how these concepts can inform current interest in systems biology. From the perspective of a physical scientist, it is especially interesting to examine how the differing weights given to philosophies of science in the physical and biological sciences impact the application of the study of complexity. We briefly describe how the dynamics of the heart and circadian rhythms, canonical examples of systems biology, are modelled by sets of nonlinear coupled differential equations, which have to be solved numerically. A major difficulty with this approach is that all the parameters within these equations are not usually known. Coupled models that include biomolecular detail could help solve this problem. Coupling models across large ranges of length- and time-scales is central to describing complex systems and therefore to biology. Such coupling may be performed in at least two different ways, which we refer to as hierarchical and hybrid multiscale modelling. While limited progress has been made in the former case, the latter is only beginning to be addressed systematically. These modelling methods are expected to bring numerous benefits to biology, for example, the properties of a system could be studied over a wider range of length- and time-scales, a key aim of systems biology. Multiscale models couple behaviour at the molecular biological level to that at the cellular level, thereby providing a route for calculating many unknown parameters as well as investigating the effects at, for example, the cellular level, of small changes at the biomolecular level, such as a genetic mutation or the presence of a drug. The modelling and simulation of biomolecular systems is itself very computationally intensive; we describe a recently developed hybrid continuum-molecular model, HybridMD, and its associated molecular insertion algorithm, which point the way towards the

  4. Modelling biological complexity: a physical scientist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Peter V; Fowler, Philip W

    2005-09-22

    We discuss the modern approaches of complexity and self-organization to understanding dynamical systems and how these concepts can inform current interest in systems biology. From the perspective of a physical scientist, it is especially interesting to examine how the differing weights given to philosophies of science in the physical and biological sciences impact the application of the study of complexity. We briefly describe how the dynamics of the heart and circadian rhythms, canonical examples of systems biology, are modelled by sets of nonlinear coupled differential equations, which have to be solved numerically. A major difficulty with this approach is that all the parameters within these equations are not usually known. Coupled models that include biomolecular detail could help solve this problem. Coupling models across large ranges of length- and time-scales is central to describing complex systems and therefore to biology. Such coupling may be performed in at least two different ways, which we refer to as hierarchical and hybrid multiscale modelling. While limited progress has been made in the former case, the latter is only beginning to be addressed systematically. These modelling methods are expected to bring numerous benefits to biology, for example, the properties of a system could be studied over a wider range of length- and time-scales, a key aim of systems biology. Multiscale models couple behaviour at the molecular biological level to that at the cellular level, thereby providing a route for calculating many unknown parameters as well as investigating the effects at, for example, the cellular level, of small changes at the biomolecular level, such as a genetic mutation or the presence of a drug. The modelling and simulation of biomolecular systems is itself very computationally intensive; we describe a recently developed hybrid continuum-molecular model, HybridMD, and its associated molecular insertion algorithm, which point the way towards the

  5. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  6. Scientists in an alternative vision of a globalized world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzan, Ayse

    2008-03-01

    Why should ``increasing the visibility of scientists in emergent countries'' be of interest? Can increasing the relevance and connectedness of scientific output, both to technological applications at home and cutting edge basic research abroad contribute to the general welfare in such countries? For this to happen, governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations must provide incentives for the local industry to help fund and actively engage in the creation of new technologies, rather than settling for the solution of well understood engineering problems under the rubric of collaboration between scientists and industry. However, the trajectory of the highly industrialized countries cannot be retraced. Globalization facilitates closer interaction and collaboration between scientists but also deepens the contrasts between the center and the periphery, both world wide and within national borders; as it is understood today, it can lead to the redundancy of local technology oriented research, as the idea of a ``local industry'' is rapidly made obsolete. Scientists from all over the world are sucked into the vortex as both the economic and the cultural world increasingly revolve around a single axis. The challenge is to redefine our terms of reference under these rapidly changing boundary conditions and help bring human needs, human security and human happiness to the fore in elaborating and forging alternative visions of a globalized world. Both natural scientists and social scientists will be indispensable in such an endeavor.

  7. Real Science, Real Learning: Bridging the Gap Between Scientists, Educators and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Y.

    2006-05-01

    technology in science education by designing animated interactive visualizations that promote student understanding of complex scientific concepts and systems (Rieber, 1990, 1996). JASON's experience in utilizing the power of simulation technology has been widely recognized for its effectiveness in exciting and engaging students in science learning by independent evaluations of JASON's multimedia science curriculum (Ba et al., 2001; Goldenberg et al., 2003). The data collected indicates that JASON's science products have had a positive impact on students' science learning, have positively influenced their perceptions of scientists and of becoming scientists, and have helped diverse students grasp a deeper understanding of complex scientific content, concepts and technologies.

  8. Mentors, networks, and resources for early career female atmospheric scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Edwards, L. M.; Thiry, H.; Ascent

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT is a multi-faceted approach to retaining these junior scientists through the challenges in their research and teaching career paths. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory - Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. An external evaluation of the three workshop cohorts concludes that the workshops have been successful in establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

  9. Women scientists in Taiwan: an update.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Yun; Stocker, Joel Floyd

    2010-06-01

    This paper reflects upon issues of gender and science in Taiwan. Its starting point is the first academic paper on the subject published in Taiwan in 1996 by Fu and Wang, and then it draws upon the biographical accounts of 20 women scientists. We emphasize the importance of focusing on the specific contexts of the history of science and women in Taiwan. Partly as a result of Taiwan's colonial past and women's limited access to education, women scientists did not emerge in Taiwan until the second half of the 20(th) century when higher education became available to women. The gender issues with which women scientists in Taiwan have had to cope include the ways in which women have been excluded or included, their marital and career status, the local and global politics of scientific knowledge, and negotiating social networks. These issues have remained largely the same since the Fu and Wang study, but they have certainly gained wider attention and understanding, and greater articulation, both within academia and society.

  10. Active and Focused Scientist Participation Improves Public Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekwurzel, B.; Grifo, F.; Cole, N.; Halpern, M.; Rogers, E.

    2007-12-01

    Scientists are often dismayed at how the public discourse of controversial topics, such as global climate change, is often missing critical science developments. Active and focused scientist participation can help turn this trend around. Researchers who receive public funding for exploration into fundamental science have a wealth of information to share when their research touches upon topics that are relevant to the public. Taking the time to translate the top findings of your research into publicly accessible language is often a rewarding experience and can make all the difference. Scientists are viewed with trust by the public, the media, and policymakers. Case studies from the northeast United States and California will illustrate the best practices to enhance the active engagement of the scientific community and demonstrate how this can create change. The public discourse on climate change is moving rapidly forward and the consequences of scientists not participating will mount.

  11. The Small Breathing Amplitude at the Upper Lobes Favors the Attraction of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lesions and Helps to Understand the Evolution toward Active Disease in An Individual-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Prats, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can induce two kinds of lesions, namely proliferative and exudative. The former are based on the presence of macrophages with controlled induction of intragranulomatous necrosis, and are even able to stop its physical progression, thus avoiding the induction of active tuberculosis (TB). In contrast, the most significant characteristic of exudative lesions is their massive infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which favor enlargement of the lesions and extracellular growth of the bacilli. We have built an individual-based model (IBM) (known as “TBPATCH”) using the NetLogo interface to better understand the progression from Mtb infection to TB. We have tested four main factors previously identified as being able to favor the infiltration of Mtb-infected lesions with PMNs, namely the tolerability of infected macrophages to the bacillary load; the capacity to modulate the Th17 response; the breathing amplitude (BAM) (large or small in the lower and upper lobes respectively), which influences bacillary drainage at the alveoli; and the encapsulation of Mtb-infected lesions by the interlobular septae that structure the pulmonary parenchyma into secondary lobes. Overall, although all the factors analyzed play some role, the small BAM is the major factor determining whether Mtb-infected lesions become exudative, and thus induce TB, thereby helping to understand why this usually takes place in the upper lobes. This information will be very useful for the design of future prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against TB. PMID:27065951

  12. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-07-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  13. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects. PMID:23856680

  14. Preparing Scientists to be Community Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Many students, especially students from historically under-represented communities, leave science majors or avoid choosing them because scientific careers do not offer enough opportunity to contribute to their communities. Citizen science, or public participation in scientific research, may address these challenges. At its most collaborative, it means inviting communities to partner in every step of the scientific process from defining the research question to applying the results to community priorities. In addition to attracting and retaining students, this level of community engagement will help diversify science, ensure the use and usability of our science, help buttress public support of science, and encourage the application of scientific results to policy. It also offers opportunities to tackle scientific questions that can't be accomplished in other way and it is demonstrably effective at helping people learn scientific concepts and methods. In order to learn how to prepare scientists for this kind of intensive community collaboration, we examined several case studies, including a project on disease and public health in Africa and the professionally evaluated experience of two summer interns in Southern Louisiana. In these and other cases, we learned that scientific expertise in a discipline has to be accompanied by a reservoir of humility and respect for other ways of knowing, the ability to work collaboratively with a broad range of disciplines and people, patience and enough career stability to allow that patience, and a willingness to adapt research to a broader set of scientific and non-scientific priorities. To help students achieve this, we found that direct instruction in participatory methods, mentoring by community members and scientists with participatory experience, in-depth training on scientific ethics and communication, explicit articulation of the goal of working with communities, and ample opportunity for personal reflection were essential

  15. Pragmatism: a practical philosophy for environmental scientists.

    PubMed

    Suter, Glenn W; Cormier, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    Challenges to the credibility of the scientific community make it particularly important for environmental scientists to understand the bases for the authority of their science. We argue that pragmatism provides a defensible and effective scientific philosophy. It provides a transparent basis for justifying belief and a set of practices and concepts for inference. It makes the scientific community the author of scientific truth, which has implications for the opening of science in the age of social media and the communication of consensus positions on important issues. We describe how pragmatism acknowledges the social aspect of science without losing the scientific tradition of critical thinking.

  16. Probing Scientists' Beliefs: How Open-Minded Are Modern Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard; Taylor, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews…

  17. Environmental Litigation and the Role of Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, J. L.; Mandia, S. A.; Abraham, J. P.; Moffitt, S. E.; Tootle, G.

    2012-12-01

    There has been an increase in environmental litigation at both state and national levels as various environmental laws take effect or are challenged. The litigation occurs in a wide variety of areas including water quality, air quality, hazardous waste handling, and climate change. In some cases, practicing scientists are called upon to provide expert testimony or support documentation to the parties of the litigation. Very recently, two challenges to state climate laws have occurred in Minnesota and California. Climate scientists have taken an active role in providing accurate information to the state's defending laws aimed at protecting the environment. For the case of Minnesota, scientists have helped to identify areas in which the climate change affects the health of Minnesotans or the economic vitality of the state's industries or the industries across the nation. In particular, scientists have helped identify areas such as acute health risks of heat-related stresses, respiratory concerns with increases in temperature, ground ozone/smog increases, changes in extreme weather, droughts, or floods, water acidification, increases in lake temperatures, invasive species control, agricultural impacts, and reductions in soil moisture, snow or precipitation. The scientists involved in the litigation are uniquely positioned to identify key experts in the field and documentary evidence to support the case for regulating greenhouse gases. We expect that as more cases develop and these cases progress, practicing scientists need to consider the proper involvement in such statewide litigation. Scientists are able to bring an expertise to the cases that are highly prized, however the involvement often requires extensive time commitments. We provide a model case study to showcase how a balanced approach allows scientists to meaningfully engage in this process.

  18. Next Generation Scientists, Next Opportunities: EPA's Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M.

    2004-12-01

    Scientific research is one of the most powerful tools we have for understanding and protecting our environment. It provides the foundation for what we know about our planet, how it has changed, and how it could be altered in the future. The National Center for Environmental Research (NCER) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) supports high-quality, extramural research by the nation's leading scientists and engineers to strengthen the basis for decisions about local and national environmental issues. NCER works with academia, state and local governments, other federal agencies, and scientists in EPA to increase human knowledge of how to protect our health and natural resources through its three major programs: · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Grants · Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Fellowships STAR, NCER's primary program, funds research grants and graduate fellowships in environmental science and engineering. Developing the next generation of environmental scientists and engineers is one of NCER's most important objectives. Each year, NCER helps between 80 and 160 students achieve Master's or Ph.D. degrees in environmental science and engineering through its STAR and Greater Research Opportunities (GRO) fellowships. Some of these students have moved on to careers in government while others are now full-time professors and researchers. Still others are working for state environmental agencies or furthering their studies through postdoctoral positions at universities. Since the inception of the NCER program, STAR fellowships (along with grants and SBIR projects) have been awarded in every state in the country. With the help of STAR, current and future scientists and engineers have been able to explore ways to preserve and protect human health and our precious resources.

  19. Application of oral history to contemporary history of medicine in Korea: with a focus on medical scientists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ock-Joo

    2013-08-01

    The oral history helps researchers to fill the gap in historical documents in research on the contemporary history of medicine in Korea. More and more studies in history of contemporary medicine in Korea have come out using oral history of doctors and patients. Based upon the author's research on development of neurosurgery in late 20th century Korea, this paper discusses how to apply oral history to contemporary history of medicine, focusing on oral history of doctors in Korea. In this paper the author describes how to do and use oral history of key doctors and medical scientists in the contemporary history of medicine in Korea. The oral history can be a powerful tool to complement the written documents as following. First, from their interview, doctors and medical scientists often provide valuable information which historians cannot get from documents and written sources. As intelligent interviewees, they not only understand the purpose of research but also help actively the historianresearcher- interviewer. Second, the oral history facilitates further searches and often it leads to more findings of informants, and written and image material. More often than not, doctors and medical scientists do their own research on the topic and provide the historian with valuable historical source material from their laboratories, bedsides, family and friends. Third, interviews with medical scientists and oral material produced by doctors and medical scientists helped the researcher to understand and interpret the papers and written documents. Fourth, the subjective stories told by the medical scientists provide perspectives and historical source as narrative truth. Before a historian attempts to use the oral material as complementary historial evidence, he or she needs to cross-check the validity and of objectivity of the oral material. Oral material is produced through bidirectional intersubjective interaction between the interviewer and interviewee, and critical reflection

  20. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Force, Crista Marie

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed

  1. Kids as Airborne Mission Scientists: Designing PBL To Inspire Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Grabowski, Barbara L.; Kim, Younghoon

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has great potential for inspiring K-12 learning. KaAMS, a NASA funded project and an example of PBL, was designed to help teachers inspire middle school students to learn science. The students participate as scientists investigating environmental problems using NASA airborne remote sensing data. Two PBL modules were…

  2. Participant Observation and the Political Scientist: Possibilities, Priorities, and Practicalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Andra; Michelson, Melissa R.

    2011-01-01

    Surveys, experiments, large-"N" datasets and formal models are common instruments in the political scientist's toolkit. In-depth interviews and focus groups play a critical role in helping scholars answer important political questions. In contrast, participant observation techniques are an underused methodological approach. In this article, we…

  3. Africa Steps up Efforts to Train Top Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on new programs that focus on training skilled scientists and mathematicians who will help solve Africa's myriad problems. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, in Cape Town, South Africa, offers one of the first working examples of a growing effort to develop a cadre of highly trained, practically minded scientists…

  4. Leo Szilard Lecturship Award: How can physicists help the public make better decisions about science and technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primack, Joel

    2016-03-01

    For more than 40 years the APS has worked to improve governmental decision-making, mainly through the Congressional Science and Technology Fellowship program and through occasional studies of important science and technology issues. How productive have these been? How can the APS and other professional societies more effectively combat anti-science propaganda and help the public develop better-informed views about science and technology? How can individual scientists communicate scientific concepts in a more understandable and engaging way? How can we encourage young scientists and students to participate in creating a scientifically responsible future?

  5. Meet EPA Scientist Jay Garland

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Scientist Jay Garland Ph.D. spent twenty years at NASA trying to figure out how astronauts could stay in outer space for a long time without needing more supplies. Now he is bringing the same concepts of reusing and recovering resources to his research

  6. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  7. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

  8. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  9. Scientists at Work. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Turnkey Systems, Inc., Falls Church, VA.

    This report summarizes activities related to the development, field testing, evaluation, and marketing of the "Scientists at Work" program which combines computer assisted instruction with database tools to aid cognitively impaired middle and early high school children in learning and applying thinking skills to science. The brief report reviews…

  10. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  11. Scientists Interacting With University Science Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, B. S.

    2004-12-01

    Scientists with limited time to devote to educating the public about their work will get the greatest multiplier effect for their investment of time by successfully interacting with university science educators. These university professors are the smallest and least publicized group of professionals in the chain of people working to create science literate citizens. They connect to all aspects of formal and informal education, influencing everything from what and how youngsters and adults learn science to legislative rulings. They commonly teach methods of teaching science to undergraduates aspiring to teach in K-12 settings and experienced teachers. They serve as agents for change to improve science education inside schools and at the state level K-16, including what science content courses are acceptable for teacher licensure. University science educators are most often housed in a College of Education or Department of Education. Significant differences in culture exist in the world in which marine scientists function and that in which university science educators function, even when they are in the same university. Subsequently, communication and building relationships between the groups is often difficult. Barriers stem from not understanding each other's roles and responsibilities; and different reward systems, assumptions about teaching and learning, use of language, approaches to research, etc. This presentation will provide suggestions to mitigate the barriers and enable scientists to leverage the multiplier effect saving much time and energy while ensuring the authenticity of their message is maintained. Likelihood that a scientist's message will retain its authenticity stems from criteria for a university science education position. These professors have undergraduate degrees in a natural science (e.g., biology, chemistry, physics, geology), and usually a master's degree in one of the sciences, a combination of natural sciences, or a master's including

  12. Finding Common Ground Between Earth Scientists and Evangelical Christians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant Ludwig, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades there has been some tension between earth scientists and evangelical Christians in the U.S., and this tension has spilled over into the political arena and policymaking on important issues such as climate change. From my personal and professional experience engaging with both groups, I find there is much common ground for increasing understanding and communicating the societal relevance of earth science. Fruitful discussions can arise from shared values and principles, and common approaches to understanding the world. For example, scientists and Christians are engaged in the pursuit of truth, and they value moral/ethical decision-making based on established principles. Scientists emphasize the benefits of research "for the common good" while Christians emphasize the value of doing "good works". Both groups maintain a longterm perspective: Christians talk about "the eternal" and geologists discuss "deep time". Both groups understand the importance of placing new observations in context of prior understanding: scientists diligently reference "the literature" while Christians quote "chapter and verse". And members of each group engage with each other in "fellowship" or "meetings" to create a sense of community and reinforce shared values. From my perspective, earth scientists can learn to communicate the importance and relevance of science more effectively by engaging with Christians in areas of common ground, rather than by trying to win arguments or debates.

  13. Scientists Track Collision of Powerful Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have tracked the motion of a violent region where the powerful winds of two giant stars slam into each other. The collision region moves as the stars, part of a binary pair, orbit each other, and the precise measurement of its motion was the key to unlocking vital new information about the stars and their winds. WR 140 Image Sequence Motion of Wind Collision Region Graphic superimposes VLBA images of wind collision region on diagram of orbit of Wolf-Rayet (WR) star and its giant (O) companion. Click on image for larger version (412K) CREDIT: Dougherty et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF In Motion: Shockwave File Animated Gif File AVI file Both stars are much more massive than the Sun -- one about 20 times the mass of the Sun and the other about 50 times the Sun's mass. The 20-solar-mass star is a type called a Wolf-Rayet star, characterized by a very strong wind of particles propelled outward from its surface. The more massive star also has a strong outward wind, but one less intense than that of the Wolf-Rayet star. The two stars, part of a system named WR 140, circle each other in an elliptical orbit roughly the size of our Solar System. "The spectacular feature of this system is the region where the stars' winds collide, producing bright radio emission. We have been able to track this collision region as it moves with the orbits of the stars," said Sean Dougherty, an astronomer at the Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics in Canada. Dougherty and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 10 edition of the Astrophysical Journal. The supersharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA allowed the scientists to measure the motion of the wind collision region and then to determine the details of the stars' orbits and an accurate distance to the system. "Our new calculations of the orbital details and the distance are vitally important to understanding the nature of these

  14. Understanding the INTERNET: A guide for materials scientists and engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, Kenneth J.

    1995-04-01

    Newspapers and magazines are full of stories about the Internet and the coming "information superhighway." Predictions for the future range from on-line video rentals and 500 channels of cable television to video telephones and global electronic libraries. Unfortunately, "infobahn" metaphors and hyperbole have obscured the fact that the the Internet is useful now and that it connects a significant fraction of the United States and the world. This article describes, without too many metaphors, the current and near-future capabilities of the Internet and provides basic information about access methods, popular services, and planned changes. In addition, the article also offers a brief introduction to "Net" culture and etiquette.

  15. AAS Oral History Project - Seeking Planetary Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita

    2016-10-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 100 space scientists from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from space scientists at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees' personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one's family, childhood, strong influences on one's scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. We will present preliminary analysis of those interviewed including characterizing career status, age range, nationality, and primary field. Additionally, we will discuss trends beginning to emerge in analysis of participants' responses about data driven science and advice to the next generation. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of space scientists and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are actively recruiting individuals to be interviewed at this meeting from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. We are especially interested in interviewing 40+E members of DPS. Contact Sanlyn Buxner to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (buxner@psi.edu). Contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com).

  16. Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IAVCEI SubcommitteeCrisis Protocols; Newhall, Chris; Aramaki, Shigeo; Barberi, Franco; Blong, Russell; Calvache, Marta; Cheminee, Jean-Louis; Punongbayan, Raymundo; Siebe, Claus; Simkin, Tom; Sparks, Stephen; Tjetjep, Barry; Newhall, Chris

    Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing investment is still busy with public safety work. Some problems arise within existing scientific teams; others are brought on by visiting scientists. Friction can also arise between volcanologists and public officials. Two general measures may avert or reduce friction: (a) National volcanologic surveys and other scientific groups that advise civil authorities in times of volcanic crisis should prepare, in advance of crises, a written plan that details crisis team policies, procedures, leadership and other roles of team members, and other matters pertinent to crisis conduct. A copy of this plan should be given to all current and prospective team members. (b) Each participant in a crisis team should examine his or her own actions and contribution to the crisis effort. A personal checklist is provided to aid this examination. Questions fall generally in two categories: Are my presence and actions for the public good? Are my words and actions collegial, i.e., courteous, respectful, and fair? Numerous specific solutions to common crisis problems are also offered. Among these suggestions are: (a) choose scientific team leaders primarily for their leadership skills; (b) speak publicly with a single scientific voice, especially when forecasts, warnings, or scientific disagreements are involved; (c) if you are a would-be visitor, inquire from the primary scientific team whether your help would be welcomed, and, in general, proceed only if the reply is genuinely positive; (d) in publications, personnel evaluations, and funding, reward rather than discourage teamwork. Models are

  17. Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Newhall, Chris; Aramaki, Shigeo; Barberi, Franco; Blong, Russell; Calvache, Marta; Cheminee, Jean-Louis; Punongbayan, Raymundo; Siebe, Claus; Simkin, Tom; Sparks, Stephen; Tjetjep, Wimpy

    1999-01-01

    Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing investment is still busy with public safety work. Some problems arise within existing scientific teams; others are brought on by visiting scientists. Friction can also arise between volcanologists and public officials. Two general measures may avert or reduce friction: (a) National volcanologic surveys and other scientific groups that advise civil authorities in times of volcanic crisis should prepare, in advance of crises, a written plan that details crisis team policies, procedures, leadership and other roles of team members, and other matters pertinent to crisis conduct. A copy of this plan should be given to all current and prospective team members. (b) Each participant in a crisis team should examine his or her own actions and contribution to the crisis effort. A personal checklist is provided to aid this examination. Questions fall generally in two categories: Are my presence and actions for the public good? Are my words and actions collegial, i.e., courteous, respectful, and fair? Numerous specific solutions to common crisis problems are also offered. Among these suggestions are: (a) choose scientific team leaders primarily for their leadership skills; (b) speak publicly with a single scientific voice, especially when forecasts, warnings, or scientific disagreements are involved; (c) if you are a would-be visitor, inquire from the primary scientific team whether your help would be welcomed, and, in general, proceed only if the reply is genuinely positive; (d) in publications, personnel evaluations, and funding, reward rather than discourage teamwork. Models are

  18. Helping children talk.

    PubMed

    Day, L

    1998-01-01

    Many children and young people living in London are affected by HIV. Most such children come from families from sub-Saharan Africa. Some HIV-positive parents have died, some are ill, and some are well. Some older children know that their parents are infected with HIV, but most children are unaware. To help these children understand their situations, children with a parent or parents who have died or are very sick are invited to 6 half-days of storytelling and play, led by a family counselor and someone who uses drama. Trained volunteers come from local AIDS organizations. The sessions vary depending upon what the children choose to discuss. The adults' role is to help the children begin to reflect upon their feelings in a way which is easy for them to express. Sessions usually begin with the creation of a story using a toy animal, after which children subsequently act out the imaginary family in different ways.

  19. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This

  20. SED Alumni---breeding ground for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2006-04-01

    In 1943 the US Army established the Special Engineering Detachment (SED), in which mostly drafted young soldiers possessing some scientific credentials (though usually quite minimal) were reassigned from other duties to the Manhattan Project to assist in various research and development aspects of nuclear weapons. The Los Alamos contingent, never more than a few hundred GIs, worked with more senior scientists and engineers, often assuming positions of real responsibility. An unintended consequence of this circumstance was the fact that being in the SEDs turned out to be a fortuitous breeding ground for future physicists, chemists, and engineers. SEDs benefited from their close contacts with established scientists, working with them side by side, attended lectures by luminaries, and gained invaluable experience that would help them establish academic and industrial careers later in life. I will discuss some of these individuals (I list only those of whom I am personally aware). These include Henry ``Heinz'' Barschall*, Richard Bellman*-RAND Corporation, Murray Peshkin-ANL, Peter Lax-Courant Institute, NYU, William Spindel*-NRC,NAS, Bernard Waldman- Notre Dame, Richard Davisson*-U of Washington, Arnold Kramish- RAND, UNESCO, Josef Hofmann- Acoustic Research Corp, Val Fitch- Princeton U. *deceased

  1. The Road to Stockholm - Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargittai, István

    2002-05-01

    The Nobel Prize is by far the highest recognition a scientist may receive and the only one with which the general public is familiar. Its prestige has reached improbable heights. At the same time a lot of myth surrounds the Nobel Prize, and this is compounded by the fact that people tend to view scientists with some bewilderment.This book introduces the process of selection of the laureates, discusses the ingredients for scientific discovery and for getting recognition. It reviews the decisive moments of scientific careers en route to the Nobel Prize, points to characteristic features of the laureates, the importance of mentors and venues in scientific careers and other components of success. It also covers some discoverers and discoveries for whom and for which the Nobel Prize never materialized.Whereas there is no general recipe for receiving the Nobel Prize, there are common features of successful scientific careers. The book reveals some information about the scientists' lives and careers that may guide other scientists in increasing their chances of becoming more effective and better recognized players--although it is not expected to help anyone to receive the Nobel Prize!For the general reader The Road to Stockholm reveals the human face of scientists and the human side of their endeavours. The Nobel Prize has served as inspiration for scientists and the general public for a hundred years: this book discusses its problems and celebrates its triumphs.

  2. Connecting Ocean Scientists with Future Educators - COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; Cetrulo, B.; Capers, J.

    2012-12-01

    To bring real world ocean science into the classroom, COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers (REPT) program provides an opportunity for future science teachers to work with marine scientists on research projects. In 2011 and 2012, eleven middle school education majors at Indian River State College in Fort Pierce, FL, participated in a seven week summer experience. Scientist teams at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute of Florida Atlantic University, the Smithsonian Marine Station, and the Ocean Research & Conservation Association each mentored two students for 20 hours of research per week with 5 hours of support from Indian River State College (IRSC) faculty. Mentors helped students develop a scientific poster describing their research and guided them in the production of a video vignette called a CSTAR (COSEE Student Teachers as Researchers). The CSTAR videos address a 'nature of science' Florida state standard, have been shown to a variety of audiences in and out of the classroom and are expected to be a more frequently used educational product than a single lesson plan. To showcase the REPT intern accomplishments, an 'end-of-program' symposium open to the COSEE and IRSC communities was held at IRSC. Evaluation data indicate that the first two iterations of the COSEE Florida REPT program have given future teachers an authentic and deeper understanding of scientific practices and have provided ocean scientists with a meaningful opportunity to contribute to ocean science education.

  3. NASA and Earth Science Week: a Model for Engaging Scientists and Engineers in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerin, T. G.; deCharon, A.; Brown de Colstoun, E. C.; Chambers, L. H.; Woroner, M.; Taylor, J.; Callery, S.; Jackson, R.; Riebeek, H.; Butcher, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Earth Science Week (ESW) - the 2nd full week in October - is a national and international event to help the public, particularly educators and students, gain a better understanding and appreciation for the Earth sciences. The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) organizes ESW, along with partners including NASA, using annual themes (e.g., the theme for 2014 is Earth's Connected Systems). ESW provides a unique opportunity for NASA scientists and engineers across multiple missions and projects to share NASA STEM, their personal stories and enthusiasm to engage and inspire the next generation of Earth explorers. Over the past five years, NASA's ESW campaign has been planned and implemented by a cross-mission/cross-project group, led by the NASA Earth Science Education and Pubic Outreach Forum, and utilizing a wide range of media and approaches (including both English- and Spanish-language events and content) to deliver NASA STEM to teachers and students. These included webcasts, social media (blogs, twitter chats, Google+ hangouts, Reddit Ask Me Anything), videos, printed and online resources, and local events and visits to classrooms. Dozens of NASA scientists, engineers, and communication and education specialists contribute and participate each year. This presentation will provide more information about this activity and offer suggestions and advice for others engaging scientists and engineers in education and outreach programs and events.

  4. Engaging Scientists in K-12 Education and Public Outreach at the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. M.; Carbone, L.; Foster, S.; Henderson, S.; Lemone, P.; McLaren, C.; Munoz, R.

    2001-05-01

    Scientists interested in helping to address our national priority to improve math, science, and technology education have a range of opportunities by which they can make significant contributions. Working in collaboration with professionals from the education and outreach communities, scientists bring their scientific knowledge and understanding of the scientific process to the table. Professional partners from educational organizations, museums, and the media bring their specialized knowledge of the educational needs of their target audience and their front-line experience working with students, educators, and the public in their own settings and media. With these combined sets of knowledge and skills, creative and scientifically accurate programs and resources can be developed that leverage the experience of all the collaborating partners. We describe the roles of some of the scientists involved in programs developed and implemented at the National Center of Atmospheric Research, in collaboration with our education and outreach partners. In addition, we illustrate how involvement in education and outreach programs can lead to new paradigms for scientific careers.

  5. Increasing retention of early career female atmospheric scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, L. M.; Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Thiry, H.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT uses a multi-faceted approach to provide junior scientists with tools that will help them meet the challenges in their research and teaching career paths and will promote their retention in the field. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful and prepared to fill vacancies created by the “baby boomer” retirees. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory, Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. Post-workshop reunion events are held at national scientific meetings to maintain connectivity among each year’s participants, and for collaborating among participants of all workshops held to date. Evaluations of the two workshop cohorts thus far conclude that the workshops have been successful in achieving the goals of establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

  6. Science experiences of citizen scientists in entomology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Louise I.

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular collaboration between members of the public and the scientific community to pursue current research questions. In addition to providing researchers with much needed volunteer support, it is a unique and promising form of informal science education that can counter declining public science literacy, including attitudes towards and understanding of science. However, the impacts of citizen science programs on participants' science literacy remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to balance the top-down approach to citizen science research by exploring how adult citizen scientists participate in entomology research based on their perceptions and pioneer mixed methods research to investigate and explain the impacts of citizen science programs. Transference, in which citizen scientists transfer program impacts to people around them, was uncovered in a grounded theory study focused on adults in a collaborative bumble bee research program. Most of the citizen scientists involved in entomology research shared their science experiences and knowledge with people around them. In certain cases, expertise was attributed to the individual by others. Citizen scientists then have the opportunity to acquire the role of expert to those around them and influence knowledge, attitudinal and behavioral changes in others. An intervention explanatory sequential mixed methods design assessed how entomology-based contributory citizen science affects science self-efficacy, self-efficacy for environmental action, nature relatedness and attitude towards insects in adults. However, no statistically significant impacts were evident. A qualitative follow-up uncovered a discrepancy between statistically measured changes and perceived influences reported by citizen scientists. The results have important implications for understanding how citizen scientists learn, the role of citizen scientists in entomology research, the broader program impacts and

  7. Growing scientists: A partnership between a university and a school district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Teresa Marie

    Precollege science education in the United States has virtually always been influenced by university scientists to one degree or another. Partnership models for university scientist---school district collaborations are being advocated to replace outreach models. Although the challenges for such partnerships are well documented, the means of fostering successful and sustainable science education partnerships are not well studied. This study addresses this need by empirically researching a unique scientist-educator partnership between a university and a school district utilizing case study methods. The development of the partnership, emerging issues, and multiple perspectives of participants were examined in order to understand the culture of the partnership and identify means of fostering successful science education partnerships. The findings show the partnership was based on a strong network of face-to-face relationships that fostered understanding, mutual learning and synergy. Specific processes instituted ensured equity and respect, and created a climate of trust so that an evolving common vision was maintained. The partnership provided synergy and resilience during the recent economic crisis, indicating the value of partnerships when public education institutions must do more with less. High staff turnover, however, especially of a key leader, threatened the partnership, pointing to the importance of maintaining multiple-level integration between institutions. The instrumental roles of a scientist-educator coordinator in bridging cultures and nurturing the collaborative environment are elucidated. Intense and productive collaborations between teams of scientists and educators helped transform leading edge disciplinary science content into school science learning. The innovative programs that resulted not only suggest important roles science education partnerships can play in twenty-first century learning, but they also shed light on the processes of educational

  8. Understanding Biodiversity through Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrer, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Science is exciting because it is so accessible to the enthusiastic beginner. However, there is still a separation between professional scientists and novices, even in relatively open fields such as natural history. To help overcome this, the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) network is supporting projects that bring scientists, amateur experts and…

  9. Scientists assess impact of Indonesia fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The fires burning in Indonesia over the past several months are setting aflame the biomass and wildlife habitat of the tropical forests, spreading a dangerously unhealthy haze across the populous country and nearby nations in southeast Asia, causing transportation hazards, and sending plumes of smoke up into the troposphere.Most of the fires have been set—by big landowners, commercial loggers, and small farmers—in attempts to clear and cultivate the land, as people have done in the past. But this year a drought induced by El Niño limited the rainfall that could help extinguish the flames and wash away the smoke and haze. In addition, some scientists say that smoke could even delay the monsoon, which usually arrives in early November.

  10. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  11. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  12. Scientists' Habits of Mind as Evidenced by the Interaction between Their Science Training and Religious Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil; Lay, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    The science education literature suggests that the public and students often hold narrow stereotypical views of scientists and science. Here we argue that it is important that students and the public understand the basis on which scientists make scientific claims. The inquiry sought to develop an understanding of the scientific mind, explored…

  13. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  14. Parent Tookit: Homework Help. Helpful Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Kinds of Minds, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This check list contains tips for parents to help students reinforce and build upon what children learn at school: (1) Set a consistent time each day for doing homework; (2) Encourage children to make a homework checklist; (3) Provide assistance to help get started on a task; (4) Help children make a list of all needed materials before starting…

  15. VLBA Scientists Study Birth of Sunlike Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    Three teams of scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to learn tantalizing new details about how Sun-like stars are formed. Young stars, still growing by drawing in nearby gas, also spew some of that material back into their surroundings, like impatient infants that eat too quickly. The VLBA observations are giving astronomers new insights on both processes -- the accretion of material by the new stars and the outflows of material from them. "For the first time, we're actually seeing what happens right down next to the star in these young systems," said Mark Claussen, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Claussen and other researchers announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. Material attracted by a young star's gravitational pull forms a flat, orbiting disk, called an accretion disk, in which the material circles closer and closer to the star until finally drawn into it. At the same time, material is ejected in "jets" speeding from the poles of the accretion disk. "The VLBA is showing us the first images of the region close to the star where the material in these jets is accelerated and formed into the `beams' of the jet," Claussen said. "We don't understand the details of these processes well," Claussen said. "These VLBA research projects are beginning to help unravel the mysteries of how stars like the Sun form." The teams are observing clumps of water vapor that naturally amplify radio emissions to see details smaller than the orbit of Mercury in young stellar systems as well as track gas motions. The clumps of gas are called masers, and amplify radio emission in much the same way that a laser amplifies light emission. "These images are just fantastic," said Al Wootten of NRAO in Charlottesville, VA. The maser clumps or "spots," emitting radio waves at a specific wavelength, can be tracked as they move over time. In addition

  16. Scientists' sense making when hypothesizing about disease mechanisms from expression data and their needs for visualization support.

    PubMed

    Mirel, Barbara; Görg, Carsten

    2014-04-26

    A common class of biomedical analysis is to explore expression data from high throughput experiments for the purpose of uncovering functional relationships that can lead to a hypothesis about mechanisms of a disease. We call this analysis expression driven, -omics hypothesizing. In it, scientists use interactive data visualizations and read deeply in the research literature. Little is known, however, about the actual flow of reasoning and behaviors (sense making) that scientists enact in this analysis, end-to-end. Understanding this flow is important because if bioinformatics tools are to be truly useful they must support it. Sense making models of visual analytics in other domains have been developed and used to inform the design of useful and usable tools. We believe they would be helpful in bioinformatics. To characterize the sense making involved in expression-driven, -omics hypothesizing, we conducted an in-depth observational study of one scientist as she engaged in this analysis over six months. From findings, we abstracted a preliminary sense making model. Here we describe its stages and suggest guidelines for developing visualization tools that we derived from this case. A single case cannot be generalized. But we offer our findings, sense making model and case-based tool guidelines as a first step toward increasing interest and further research in the bioinformatics field on scientists' analytical workflows and their implications for tool design.

  17. MEDLI Will Aid in Understanding of Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    The MEDLI instrument package, contained in the heat shield of the Mars Science Laboratory, will help scientists and engineers improve their computer models and simulations, and provide data to help...

  18. Scientist to scientist colloquium steering committee planning session. Summary report of the proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The reason for holding a scientific colloquium of this nature is to bring together the most active scientific researchers for cross-disciplinary exchanges. As one scientist commented, it is a way to compensate for over-specialization. As a scientist/administrator noted, it helps administrators to have access to high-level scientific information in a setting where they can ask stupid questions. At a meeting of between 80 and 100 people small group exchanges are possible, allowing more in-depth discussion. In five days of meetings, there are many opportunities for a great number of these exchanges. The Keystone Process facilitates intermingling across disciplines and encourages debate. Because this meeting is unlike discipline-specific meetings, presenters must write a talk specifically for an interdisciplinary audience, touching on various scientific and social implications of their work. They use this opportunity to practice addressing a broad audience which includes their peers from other /fields, university administrators, industry executives, government officials, and members of the media who will help bring forefront scientific findings to the public. This report discusses purpose, funding, and outcome of the colloquium.

  19. Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Brenda

    Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

  20. Writing for Non-scientists about Physics1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2011-05-01

    Physicists should communicate their knowledge to the general public because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." This article discusses what I've learned about writing for non-scientists from working on my physics textbook for non-science college students,2 as well as from my hometown newspaper column and other writings.3 Lessons learned include tips for writing effective prose, do's and dont's when writing for non-scientists, choice of subject matter, being relevant to the needs of non-scientists, unifying one's book by using general themes, and the process of organizing and writing a textbook. Many of these lessons should be helpful in all scientific writing regardless of the target audience.

  1. Telling Your Story: Ocean Scientists in the K-12 Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, H.

    2006-12-01

    Most scientists and engineers are accustomed to presenting their research to colleagues or lecturing college or graduate students. But if asked to speak in front of a classroom full of elementary school or junior high school students, many feel less comfortable. TERC, as part of its work with The Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-New England (COSEE-NE) has designed a workshop to help ocean scientists and engineers develop skills for working with K-12 teachers and students. We call this program: Telling Your Story (TYS). TYS has been offered 4 times over 18 months for a total audience of approximately 50 ocean scientists. We will discuss the rationale for the program, the program outline, outcomes, and what we have learned. ne.net/edu_project_3/index.php

  2. Bats and Academics: How Do Scientists Perceive Their Object of Study?

    PubMed

    Boëte, Christophe; Morand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Bats are associated with conflicting perceptions among humans, ranging from affection to disgust. If these attitudes can be associated with various factors among the general public (e.g. social norms, lack of knowledge), it is also important to understand the attitude of scientists who study bats. Such reflexive information on the researchers community itself could indeed help designing adequate mixed communication tools aimed at protecting bats and their ecosystems, as well as humans living in their vicinity that could be exposed to their pathogens. Thus, we conducted an online survey targeting researchers who spend a part of their research activity studying bats. Our aim was to determine (1) how they perceive their object of study, (2) how they perceive the representation of bats in the media and by the general population, (3) how they protect themselves against pathogen infections during their research practices, and (4) their perceptions of the causes underlying the decline in bat populations worldwide. From the 587 completed responses (response rate of 28%) having a worldwide distribution, the heterogeneity of the scientists' perception of their own object of study was highlighted. In the majority of cases, this depended on the type of research they conducted (i.e. laboratory versus field studies) as well as their research speciality. Our study revealed a high level of personal protection equipment being utilised against pathogens during scientific practices, although the role bats play as reservoirs for a number of emerging pathogens remains poorly known. Our results also disclosed the unanimity among specialists in attributing a direct role for humans in the global decline of bat populations, mainly via environmental change, deforestation, and agriculture intensification. Overall, the present study suggests the need for better communication regarding bats and their biology, their role within the scientific community, as well as in the general public

  3. Give Young Scientists a Break

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  4. Genes, Brain, and Cognition: A Roadmap for the Cognitive Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews current progress in genetics in relation to the understanding of human cognition. It is argued that genetics occupies a prominent place in the future of cognitive science, and that cognitive scientists should play an active role in the process. Recent research in genetics and developmental neuroscience is reviewed and argued to…

  5. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  6. An integrated suite of modeling tools that empower scientists in structure- and property-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianwen A; Aliagas, Ignacio; Bergeron, Philippe; Blaney, Jeff M; Bradley, Erin K; Koehler, Michael F T; Lee, Man-Ling; Ortwine, Daniel F; Tsui, Vickie; Wu, Johnny; Gobbi, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Structure- and property-based drug design is an integral part of modern drug discovery, enabling the design of compounds aimed at improving potency and selectivity. However, building molecules using desktop modeling tools can easily lead to poor designs that appear to form many favorable interactions with the protein's active site. Although a proposed molecule looks good on screen and appears to fit into the protein site X-ray crystal structure or pharmacophore model, doing so might require a high-energy small molecule conformation, which would likely be inactive. To help scientists make better design decisions, we have built integrated, easy-to-use, interactive software tools to perform docking experiments, de novo design, shape and pharmacophore based database searches, small molecule conformational analysis and molecular property calculations. Using a combination of these tools helps scientists in assessing the likelihood that a designed molecule will be active and have desirable drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic properties. Small molecule discovery success requires project teams to rapidly design and synthesize potent molecules with good ADME properties. Empowering scientists to evaluate ideas quickly and make better design decisions with easy-to-access and easy-to-understand software on their desktop is now a key part of our discovery process.

  7. An integrated suite of modeling tools that empower scientists in structure- and property-based drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianwen A.; Aliagas, Ignacio; Bergeron, Philippe; Blaney, Jeff M.; Bradley, Erin K.; Koehler, Michael F. T.; Lee, Man-Ling; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Tsui, Vickie; Wu, Johnny; Gobbi, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Structure- and property-based drug design is an integral part of modern drug discovery, enabling the design of compounds aimed at improving potency and selectivity. However, building molecules using desktop modeling tools can easily lead to poor designs that appear to form many favorable interactions with the protein's active site. Although a proposed molecule looks good on screen and appears to fit into the protein site X-ray crystal structure or pharmacophore model, doing so might require a high-energy small molecule conformation, which would likely be inactive. To help scientists make better design decisions, we have built integrated, easy-to-use, interactive software tools to perform docking experiments, de novo design, shape and pharmacophore based database searches, small molecule conformational analysis and molecular property calculations. Using a combination of these tools helps scientists in assessing the likelihood that a designed molecule will be active and have desirable drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic properties. Small molecule discovery success requires project teams to rapidly design and synthesize potent molecules with good ADME properties. Empowering scientists to evaluate ideas quickly and make better design decisions with easy-to-access and easy-to-understand software on their desktop is now a key part of our discovery process.

  8. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  9. Fostering science communication via direct outreach by scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, M.; Weiss, P. L.; O'Neil, K.; Richardson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    While the bread-and-butter of the press operation at the American Geophysical Union remains issuing press releases and organizing press conferences for mainstream media, the implosion of specialized science coverage in print media, TV, and radio, and the heated public debates on science issues require us to find other ways to get science and scientists into the public eye. This means getting volunteers--small armies of scientists interested in and able to communicate with the public. At AGU, we have three programs to foster direct communication between scientists and the public: (1) A suite of blogs launched in Fall 2010, written by external Earth and space science bloggers for an audience of scientists and lay public. We will report on whom the bloggers are, their motivations, who makes up their audiences, what incentives AGU uses to encourage them to participate in this project, blog network traffic, and resources needed to support them. (2) "The Plainspoken Scientist", a science communication-oriented blog for an audience of scientists, was launched in spring 2010 and is a mixture of guest posts and in-house articles. We will report on the response to and effects of the science communication blog, how we obtain and use guest posts from volunteers, and traffic. (3) We began professional development workshops at scientific meetings in spring 2009 to help scientists brush up on how to communicate with the media and the public. We will report on the motivations and interests of the participants in the professional development workshops, impacts, and the lessons we have learned about how to provide useful workshops.

  10. Effective Models for Scientists Engaging in Meaningful Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; InsightSTEM SILC Partnership Team

    2016-10-01

    We present a central paradigm, extending the model of "Teacher-Scientist" partnerships towards a new philosophy of "Scientist-Instructor-Learner-Communicator" Partnerships. In this paradigm modes of, and expertise in, communication, and the learners themselves, are held is as high status as the experts and teachers in the learning setting.We present three distinctive models that rest on this paradigm in different educational settings. First a model in which scientists and teachers work together with a communications-related specialist to design and develop new science exploration tools for the classroom, and gather feedback from learners. Secondly, we present a model which involves an ongoing joint professional development program helping scientists and teachers to be co-communicators of knowledge exploration to their specific audience of learners. And thirdly a model in which scientists remotely support classroom research based on online data, while the teachers and their students learn to become effective communicators of their genuine scientific results.This work was funded in part by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and by NASA awards NNX16AC68A and NNX16AJ21G. All opinions are those of the authors.

  11. Effective Models for Scientists Engaging in Meaningful Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Gurule, Isaiah; InsightSTEM Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Team

    2017-01-01

    We present a central paradigm, extending the model of "Teacher-Scientist" partnerships towards a new philosophy of "Scientist-Instructor-Learner-Communicator" Partnerships. In this paradigm modes of, and expertise in, communication, and the learners themselves, are held is as high status as the experts and teachers in the learning setting.We present three distinctive models that rest on this paradigm in different educational settings. First a model in which scientists and teachers work together with a communications-related specialist to design and develop new science exploration tools for the classroom, and gather feedback from learners. Secondly, we present a model which involves an ongoing joint professional development program helping scientists and teachers to be co-communicators of knowledge exploration to their specific audience of learners. And thirdly a model in which scientists remotely support classroom research based on online data, while the teachers and their students learn to become effective communicators of their genuine scientific results.This work was funded in part by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and by NASA awards NNX16AC68A and NNX16AJ21G. All opinions are those of the authors.

  12. Understanding Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    A language arts teacher at a California middle school describes an exercise he developed to help students understand disabilities through virtual, firsthand experience. As students simulate being blind, unable to walk, they learn how to adjust, innovate, compensate, cooperate, and empathize with one another. (MLH)

  13. Understanding Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Val

    This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…

  14. Understanding Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The learning experiences in the teacher's guide focus on helping students at the ninth grade level develop understanding of themselves as individuals and recognition that others may not perceive them as they see themselves. The materials are best utilized in a group guidance setting. Each student is encouraged to look at himself, to examine his…

  15. Still Persistent Global Problem of Scientists' Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service teachers' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to identify whether there is problem of image of scientists and determine where they receive about scientist image. Three hundred thirty five (105 from Turkey, 162 from Europe, 68 from US) elementary pre-service teachers participated in…

  16. Scientists Talking to Students through Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of connecting school students with scientists are well documented. This paper reports how New Zealand teachers brought scientists into the classrooms through the use of videos of New Zealand scientists talking about themselves and their research. Two researchers observed lessons in 9 different classrooms in which 23 educational videos…

  17. Connect the Book: The Tarantula Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column describes the book, "The Tarantula Scientist," that features the work of arachnologist Sam Marshall, a scientist who studies spiders and their eight-legged relatives. Marshall is one of only four or five scientists who specializes in the study of tarantulas. The informative text and outstanding photographs follow Sam as he…

  18. Developing the Talents of Teacher/Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, George

    2004-01-01

    Going on an expedition enables teachers to become better scientists and researchers and, thus, better classroom instructors. Teachers have the opportunities to go on exotic field trips around the world as amateur research assistants, do hands on research in their own backyards, or vicariously experience another scientist?s work via the Internet. A…

  19. Bangladesh women scientists' association honours ICDDR,B scientist.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Dr. Ayesha Molla, an ICDDR,B biochemist-nutritionist, was awarded a gold medal by the Bangladesh Women Scientists' Association and named Best Woman Scientist of the Year. She was honored for outstanding achievements in diarrhea/nutrition research especially in her classic studies on nutrient absorption during diarrhea. Her recent work has focused on the diarrhea/malnutrition mechanism in children. Her findings indicate that eating during acute diarrhea should be encouraged to reduce post-diarrhea malnutriton in vulnerable developing country children. In another study in collaboration with her husband, a pediatrician and gastroenterologist, it was found that diarrhea has a negligible effect on secretion of digestive enzymes which partially explains why significant digestion and absorption continue during diarrhea. Dr. Molla was also honored for related studies on the vitamin A/diarrhea/malnutrition mechanism. This is of immense importance in developing countries since repeated diarrheal infections in children aggravate malnutrition and lead to vitamin A deficiency blindness. Most blindness seems to be associated with or preceded by recurrent diarrheal infections. Dr. Molla found that water-soluble vitamin A administrated orally was associated with rapid improvement of deteriorating eye conditions. A brief outline of her background is given and her current work discussed. She is presently involved in seeking the best possible diet for children suffering from severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM). This problem results in coincident lack of varying proportions of protein and energy. Dr. Molla is attempting to determine the fastest, most tolerable, low cost, readily available and culturally acceptable diet. Maternal training in feeding practices will be provided. In collaboration with her husband, Dr. Molla is also studying the 2nd generation Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS). They are working to substitute rice or other staples for the traditional sugar in ORS.

  20. Help Seeking and Receiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Arie

    Although social psychology has always had an interest in helping behavior, only recently has the full complexity of helping relations begun to be researched. Help seeking and receiving in the educational setting raise many issues regarding the use and effectiveness of the help itself. Central to all helping relations is the seeking/receiving…

  1. Bridging the Gap Between Scientists and Classrooms: Scientist Engagement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in today s classrooms need to find creative ways to connect students with science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) experts. These STEM experts can serve as role models and help students think about potential future STEM careers. They can also help reinforce academic knowledge and skills. The cost of transportation restricts teachers ability to take students on field trips exposing them to outside experts and unique learning environments. Additionally, arranging to bring in guest speakers to the classroom seems to happen infrequently, especially in schools in rural areas. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program [1], facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate Education Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center has created a way to enable teachers to connect their students with STEM experts virtually. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. Through EEAB, scientists are able to actively engage with students across the nation in multiple ways. They can work with student teams as mentors, participate in virtual student team science presentations, or connect with students through Classroom Connection Distance Learning (DL) Events.

  2. Science Is What Scientists Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jean M.; Cliatt, Mary Jo Puckett

    1981-01-01

    Describes four activities for the elementary science classroom to help students develop their powers of description, explanation, and prediction. Topics of the activities are spool "gears," crystal comparisons, yeast magic, and clay cargo carriers. (DS)

  3. Helping Parents Help Their Children Toward Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, G. Jeane

    A practicum was designed to help parents of kindergartners in a low income area help their children develop literacy. The primary goal was to secure the active involvement of parents in their children's learning experiences. Other goals included improving kindergarten teachers' communication skills and expanding their strategies for reaching out…

  4. Reducing the Analytical Bottleneck for Domain Scientists: Lessons from a Climate Data Visualization Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Aritra; Poco, Jorge; Bertini, Enrico; Silva, Claudio T.

    2016-01-01

    The gap between large-scale data production rate and the rate of generation of data-driven scientific insights has led to an analytical bottleneck in scientific domains like climate, biology, etc. This is primarily due to the lack of innovative analytical tools that can help scientists efficiently analyze and explore alternative hypotheses about the data, and communicate their findings effectively to a broad audience. In this paper, by reflecting on a set of successful collaborative research efforts between with a group of climate scientists and visualization researchers, we introspect how interactive visualization can help reduce the analytical bottleneck for domain scientists.

  5. Working with scientists in the A.A.S. division for planetary sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, E.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary scientists represent an invaluable resource for information on and understanding of the solar system for all aspects of public communication.Yet most scientists have little time, funding, or connections to enable them to use that expertise. The OSS EPO Support Network, with its theme-based forums and regional brokers/facilitators, is already well equipped to assist scientists, non-intrusively, to establish partnerships with those who need their scientific expertise.

  6. A Scientist's Guide to Achieving Broader Impacts through K-12 STEM Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Komoroske, Lisa M; Hameed, Sarah O; Szoboszlai, Amber I; Newsom, Amanda J; Williams, Susan L

    2015-03-01

    The National Science Foundation and other funding agencies are increasingly requiring broader impacts in grant applications to encourage US scientists to contribute to science education and society. Concurrently, national science education standards are using more inquiry-based learning (IBL) to increase students' capacity for abstract, conceptual thinking applicable to real-world problems. Scientists are particularly well suited to engage in broader impacts via science inquiry outreach, because scientific research is inherently an inquiry-based process. We provide a practical guide to help scientists overcome obstacles that inhibit their engagement in K-12 IBL outreach and to attain the accrued benefits. Strategies to overcome these challenges include scaling outreach projects to the time available, building collaborations in which scientists' research overlaps with curriculum, employing backward planning to target specific learning objectives, encouraging scientists to share their passion, as well as their expertise with students, and transforming institutional incentives to support scientists engaging in educational outreach.

  7. Rejuvenating clinician-scientist training.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Balamurali K; Cahoon, Judd

    2014-03-28

    Clinician-scientists are becoming increasingly rare in medicine as a whole, but especially in ophthalmology. There is a structural gap between MD-PhD training and K-series awards where interested candidates go through residency and fellowship without any structured research exposure or involvement. Furthermore, the success rate of the MD-PhD and K awards leaves much to be desired. The authors propose a redeployment of training resources to reconfigure residency and fellowship training programs for interested candidates with sufficient additional time for a credible research project, augmented salary, and sound mentoring. Opportunities for research training in nontraditional pathways to diversify skill sets and build interdisciplinary teams also would be a prime objective of this novel "Learn-and-Earn" approach.

  8. The Reliability of Galaxy Classifications by Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Lennox; Kautsch, Stefan J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Citizen scientists are becoming more and more important in helping professionals working through big data. An example in astronomy is crowdsourced galaxy classification. But how reliable are these classifications for studies of galaxy evolution? We present a tool in order to investigate those morphological classifications and test it on a diverse population on our campus. We observe a slight offset towards earlier Hubble types in the crowdsourced morphologies, when compared to professional classifications.

  9. USGS scientists study sediment deposited by 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2005-01-01

    In January, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists traveled to countries on the Indian Ocean to study sediment deposited by the devastating tsunami of December 26, 2004. They hope to gain knowledge that will help them to identify ancient tsunami deposits in the geologic record—which extends much farther into the past than written records—and so compile a history of tsunamis that can be used to assess a region's future tsunami risk.

  10. Scientists Toast the Discovery of Vinyl Alcohol in Interstellar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope at Kitt Peak, AZ, have discovered the complex organic molecule vinyl alcohol in an interstellar cloud of dust and gas near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The discovery of this long-sought compound could reveal tantalizing clues to the mysterious origin of complex organic molecules in space. Vinyl Alcohol and its fellow isomers "The discovery of vinyl alcohol is significant," said Barry Turner, a scientist at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Va., "because it gives us an important tool for understanding the formation of complex organic compounds in interstellar space. It may also help us better understand how life might arise elsewhere in the Cosmos." Vinyl alcohol is an important intermediary in many organic chemistry reactions on Earth, and the last of the three stable members of the C2H4O group of isomers (molecules with the same atoms, but in different arrangements) to be discovered in interstellar space. Turner and his colleague A. J. Apponi of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory in Tucson detected the vinyl alcohol in Sagittarius B -- a massive molecular cloud located some 26,000 light-years from Earth near the center of our Galaxy. The astronomers were able to detect the specific radio signature of vinyl alcohol during the observational period of May and June of 2001. Their results have been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Of the approximately 125 molecules detected in interstellar space, scientists believe that most are formed by gas-phase chemistry, in which smaller molecules (and occasionally atoms) manage to "lock horns" when they collide in space. This process, though efficient at creating simple molecules, cannot explain how vinyl alcohol and other complex chemicals are formed in detectable amounts. For many years now, scientists have been searching for the right mechanism to explain how the building

  11. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions about Scientist and What Factors Affecting the Image of the Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Students' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze image of scientist from drawn picture of scientists using The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) by 5th grade students and to analyze where this image comes from students minds in changing Turkish educational perspective. Two hundred eighty seven…

  12. Meet the Scientist: The Value of Short Interactions between Scientists and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods-Townsend, Kathryn; Christodoulou, Andri; Rietdijk, Willeke; Byrne, Jenny; Griffiths, Janice B.; Grace, Marcus M.

    2016-01-01

    Students have been reported to have stereotypical views of scientists as middle-aged white men in lab coats. We argue that a way to provide students with a more realistic view of scientists and their work is to provide them with the opportunity to interact with scientists during short, discussion-based sessions. For that reason, 20 scientists from…

  13. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  14. Story-Telling for Science: One Scientist's Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Science is the most successful way humans have developed to understand the world, and application of the knowledge gained has been essential in allowing a few million hunter-gatherers become a few billion grower-builders. Yet, at least anecdotally, there is a growing tendency for many people to reject science without knowing what they are rejecting, and the ranks of scientists are thinned by having so many students arrive at our universities neither prepared to study science nor open to the possibility of doing so. This growing gap represents a growing opportunity for scientists to use their expertise in the service of humanity. Based on my experience, the biggest requirement for scientists to do so is simply to engage, but engagement is more successful in teamwork with experienced communicators and unexpected voices, and using narrative and history.

  15. Stand up and Speak Out: Professional Training Can Help Bridge the Science Communication Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeley, E.; Simler Smith, B.; Baron, N.

    2011-12-01

    our workshops is helping scientists understand the needs of non-scientist audiences, whether they are talking to a U.S. Senator, a local journalist, or a group of school children. Another key is providing a "safe space" for scientists to experiment with new approaches to communication, with an emphasis on both peer feedback and professional advice. We encourage our workshop participants to tell stories rather than quote data, to get to the point quickly, and to convince their audiences why they should care. We actively push scientists outside their comfort zones; if they stumble during the learning process, they are much less likely to do so when they are formally on the record. Peer feedback is a crucial ingredient that can promote a culture of camaraderie and support long after the workshop ends. In our experience, when scientists have solid training and a dependable support network, the courage to reach out and "stand up for their science" follows naturally. In fact, by becoming better communicators, scientists also become better leaders almost by default. In turn, better leaders make for better scientists. Many of the scientist-communicators COMPASS has trained have gone on to pioneer training initiatives at their own institutions, seeding the next generation of scientific leaders in the process.

  16. Was Giordano Bruno a Scientist?: A Scientist's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Lawrence S.; Gosselin, Edward A.

    1973-01-01

    Examines the significance of Bruno's arguments from a scientific viewpoint. It is felt that even when correct in their conclusions, Bruno's scientific'' arguments do not exhibit any understanding of scientific reasoning or purpose. (DF)

  17. The Exponential Function, the Human Race, and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2004-05-01

    "The greatest shortcoming of the human race is our inability to understand the exponential function." This is the opening line of a talk I have given over 1500 times since 1969. In this context, the exponential function is used to give a quantitative description of steady growth of, for example, a population. As we all know, quantities that grow steadily, at even modest rates, quickly become impossibly large. Yet non-scientists in the business and government communities continue to fight for "sustainable growth" of the U.S. economy and population. What are scientists doing to increase public comprehension of the impossibility of "sustainable growth?" The main role of scientists seems to be to avoid calling attention to the impossibility of continued growth of populations and of rates of consumption of resources and, instead, to focus on minor aspects of the related problems. In so doing, we are complicit in making the problems worse. For scientists, this opening line should be revised to read: "The greatest shortcoming of scientists is our unwillingness to apply our knowledge of the exponential function to the great problems that are facing the human race."

  18. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  19. Yes! We Are Rocket Scientists!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macduff, J. Trevor

    2006-01-01

    This article is an outline of what the author did in his classroom to incorporate the help of two volunteer engineers to create a powerful learning unit and cumulative review for his eighth-grade physical science students. This unit reviews what students have learned during the school year regarding force, motion, Newton's laws, gas laws, and…

  20. Scientists Behind the Camera - Increasing Video Documentation in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, S.; Wolfe, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two years, Skypunch Creative has designed and implemented a number of pilot projects to increase the amount of video captured by scientists in the field. The major barrier to success that we tackled with the pilot projects was the conflicting demands of the time, space, storage needs of scientists in the field and the demands of shooting high quality video. Our pilots involved providing scientists with equipment, varying levels of instruction on shooting in the field and post-production resources (editing and motion graphics). In each project, the scientific team was provided with cameras (or additional equipment if they owned their own), tripods, and sometimes sound equipment, as well as an external hard drive to return the footage to us. Upon receiving the footage we professionally filmed follow-up interviews and created animations and motion graphics to illustrate their points. We also helped with the distribution of the final product (http://climatescience.tv/2012/05/the-story-of-a-flying-hippo-the-hiaper-pole-to-pole-observation-project/ and http://climatescience.tv/2013/01/bogged-down-in-alaska/). The pilot projects were a success. Most of the scientists returned asking for additional gear and support for future field work. Moving out of the pilot phase, to continue the project, we have produced a 14 page guide for scientists shooting in the field based on lessons learned - it contains key tips and best practice techniques for shooting high quality footage in the field. We have also expanded the project and are now testing the use of video cameras that can be synced with sensors so that the footage is useful both scientifically and artistically. Extract from A Scientist's Guide to Shooting Video in the Field

  1. Helping Teachers Improve Classroom Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emberger, Marcella

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and implementing effective classroom assessments are skills that are essential to increasing student achievement. Unfortunately, many teachers have had little training in assessment strategies in either graduate or undergraduate programs. Administrators, therefore, must find innovative ways to help their teachers think like assessors…

  2. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  3. Helping Children Develop Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Deanna

    Designed to help family home care providers understand children's cognitive developmental stages, this manual provides practical suggestions for developing and evaluating children's cognitive skills. The manual is divided into four sections focusing respectively on infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school-aged children. Each section…

  4. Helping Students Cope with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodabough, Tillman

    1980-01-01

    Classroom teachers need to understand the broad differences that exist between a child's perception of death and that of an adult and should be prepared to confront and cope with the effects of death and grief upon students. Children's perceptions of death and ways in which the teacher can help the child with his grief are described. (JN)

  5. Helping Students Analyze Business Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devet, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Notes that student writers gain greater insight into the importance of audience by analyzing business documents. Discusses how business writing teachers can help students understand the rhetorical refinements of writing to an audience. Presents an assignment designed to lead writers systematically through an analysis of two advertisements. (SG)

  6. Superheroes and Supervillains: Reconstructing the Mad-Scientist Stereotype in School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reform recommendations around the world call for an understanding about the nature of science and the work of scientists. However, related research findings provide evidence that students hold stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work. Purpose: The aim of this case study was to examine the impact of an intervention…

  7. Why Choose This One? Factors in Scientists' Selection of Bioinformatics Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Joan C.; Ishimura, Yusuke; Kloda, Lorie A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to identify and understand the factors involved in scientists' selection of preferred bioinformatics tools, such as databases of gene or protein sequence information (e.g., GenBank) or programs that manipulate and analyse biological data (e.g., BLAST). Methods: Eight scientists maintained research diaries for a two-week…

  8. Coorientation in Agricultural Development: The Interrelationship between Farmers, Change Agents and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Hans C.

    The role of the agricultural extension worker as intermediary between farmer and scientist is studied using the Chaffee and McLeod coorientation model. It is found that the extension workers' cognitions fall between those of farmers and scientists in terms of agreement, understanding, congruency, and accuracy, as predicted. The subjects in the…

  9. Network Analysis of Beliefs About the Scientific Enterprise: A comparison of scientists, middle school science teachers and eighth-grade science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Burton, Erin; Baynard, Liz R.

    2013-11-01

    An understanding of the scientific enterprise is useful because citizens need to make systematic, rational decisions about projects involving scientific endeavors and technology, and a clearer understanding of scientific epistemology is beneficial because it could encourage more public engagement with science. The purpose of this study was to capture beliefs for three groups, scientists, secondary science teachers, and eighth-grade science students, about the ways scientific knowledge is generated and validated. Open-ended questions were framed by formal scientific epistemology and dimensions of epistemology recognized in the field of educational psychology. The resulting statements were placed in a card sort and mapped in a network analysis to communicate interconnections among ideas. Maps analyzed with multidimensional scaling revealed robust connections among students and scientists but not among teachers. Student and teacher maps illustrated the strongest connections among ideas about experiments while scientist maps present more descriptive and well-rounded ideas about the scientific enterprise. The students' map was robust in terms of numbers of ideas, but were lacking in a hierarchical organization of ideas. The teachers' map displayed an alignment with the learning standards of the state, but not a broader view of science. The scientists map displayed a hierarchy of ideas with elaboration of equally valued statements connected to several foundational statements. Network analysis can be helpful in forwarding the study of views of the nature of science because of the technique's ability to capture verbatim statements from participants and to display the strength of connections among the statements.

  10. Women scientists' scientific and spiritual ways of knowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, Angela Cunningham

    While science education aims for literacy regarding scientific knowledge and the work of scientists, the separation of scientific knowing from other knowing may misrepresent the knowing of scientists. The majority of science educators K-university are women. Many of these women are spiritual and integrate their scientific and spiritual ways of knowing. Understanding spiritual women of science would inform science education and serve to advance the scientific reason and spirituality debate. Using interviews and grounded theory, this study explores scientific and spiritual ways of knowing in six women of science who hold strong spiritual commitments and portray science to non-scientists. From various lived experiences, each woman comes to know through a Passive knowing of exposure and attendance, an Engaged knowing of choice, commitment and action, an Mindful/Inner knowing of prayer and meaning, a Relational knowing with others, and an Integrated lifeworld knowing where scientific knowing, spiritual knowing, and other ways of knowing are integrated. Consequences of separating ways of knowing are discussed, as are connections to current research, implications to science education, and ideas for future research. Understanding women scientists' scientific/ spiritual ways of knowing may aid science educators in linking academic science to the life-worlds of students.

  11. Walter sutton: physician, scientist, inventor.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gregory J; Hulston, Nancy J; Kovac, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Walter S. Sutton (1877-1916) was a physician, scientist, and inventor. Most of the work on Sutton has focused on his recognition that chromosomes carry genetic material and are the basis for Mendelian inheritance. Perhaps less well known is his work on rectal administration of ether. After Sutton's work on genetics, he completed his medical degree in 1907 and began a 2-year surgical fellowship at Roosevelt Hospital, New York City, NY, where he was introduced to the technique of rectal administration of ether. Sutton modified the work of others and documented 100 cases that were reported in his 1910 landmark paper "Anaesthesia by Colonic Absorption of Ether". Sutton had several deaths in his study, but he did not blame the rectal method. He felt that his use of rectal anesthesia was safe when administered appropriately and believed that it offered a distinct advantage over traditional pulmonary ether administration. His indications for its use included (1) head and neck surgery; (2) operations when ether absorption must be minimized due to heart, lung, or kidney problems; and (3) preoperative pulmonary complications. His contraindications included (1) cases involving alimentary tract or weakened colon; (2) laparotomies, except when the peritoneal cavity was not opened; (3) incompetent sphincter or anal fistula; (4) orthopnea; and (5) emergency cases. Sutton wrote the chapter on "Rectal Anesthesia" in one of the first comprehensive textbooks in anesthesia, James Tayloe Gwathmey's Anesthesia. Walter Sutton died of a ruptured appendix in 1916 at age 39.

  12. Understanding Vaccines: A Public Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Federman, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276

  13. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    PubMed

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating.

  14. What Is the (ethical) Role of Scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2014-12-01

    Many scientists are reluctant to speak out on issues of broad societal importance for fear that doing so crosses into territory that is not the scientists' domain. Others fear that scientists lose credibility when they address ethical and moral issues. A related concern is that discussing social or ethical questions runs the risk of politicizing science. Yet history shows that in the past, scientists often have spoken out on broad issues of societal concern, often (although not always) effectively. This paper explores the conditions under which scientists may be effective spokesmen and women on ethical and moral choices, and suggests some criteria by which scientists might decide when and whether it is appropriate for them to speak out beyond the circles of other technical experts.

  15. Opportunities and Resources for Scientist Participation in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Shipp, S.; Hsu, B.

    2012-10-01

    Active engagement of scientists in Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities results in benefits for both the audience and scientists. Most scientists are trained in research but have little formal training in education. The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum helps the Science Mission Directorate support scientists currently involved in E/PO and to help scientists who are interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. We will present current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in education and public outreach. These include upcoming NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities, professional development resources for writing NASA SMD E/PO proposals (webinars and other online tools), toolkits for scientists interested in best practices in E/PO (online guides for K-12 education and public outreach), EarthSpace (a community web space where instructors can find and share about teaching space and earth sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials news and funding opportunities, and the latest education research), thematic resources for teaching about the solar system (archived resources from Year of the Solar System), and an online database of scientists interested in connecting with education programs. Learn more about the Forum and find resources at http://smdepo.org/.

  16. Climate Literacy Through Student-Teacher-Scientist Research Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F.; Brooks, D.; Lefer, B.; Linsley, A.; Duckenfield, K.

    2006-12-01

    Expanding on the GLOBE Program's Atmosphere and Aerosol investigations, high school students can conduct Earth System scientific research that promotes scientific literacy in both content and the science process. Through the use of Student-Teacher-Scientist partnerships, Earth system scientific investigations can be conducted that serve the needs of the classroom as well as participating scientific investigators. During the proof-of-concept phase of this partnership model, teachers and their students developed science plans, through consultation with scientists, and began collecting atmospheric and aerosol data in support of the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) campaign in Houston Texas. This effort uses some pre-existing GLOBE materials, but draws on a variety of other resources to tailor the teacher development activities and intended student participation in a way that addresses local and regional problems. Students and teachers have learned about best practices in scientific inquiry and they also helped to expand the pipeline of potential future scientists and researchers for industry, academia, and government. This work began with a Student-Teacher-Scientist partnership started in 2002 during a GLOBE Aerosol Protocol Cross- Ground Validation of AERONET with MODIS Satellite Aerosol Measurements. Several other GLOBE schools, both national and international, have contributed to this research. The current project support of the intensive GoMACCS air quality and atmospheric dynamics field campaign during September and October of 2006. This model will be evaluated for wider use in other project-focused partnerships led by NOAA's Climate Program Office.

  17. Understanding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McNair, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    To understand the effects of depression on a patient's life, the physician must be aware how depression manifests itself. Somatic tension, strategies to relieve discomfort and social withdrawal must be recognized as symptoms of depression. An awareness of life situations which can give rise to these symptoms, as well as the effect of the physician's own reactions to the patient's depression, are helpful. PMID:21289767

  18. Understanding hospitality.

    PubMed

    Patten, C S

    1994-03-01

    Bridging patient/"customer" issues and business aspects can be aided through developing a specific nursing basis for hospitality. The ancient practice of hospitality has evolved into three distinct levels: public, personal and therapeutic. Understanding these levels is helpful in integrating various dimensions of guest relations programs in hospitals into a more comprehensive vision. Hospitality issues must become a greater part of today's nursing management.

  19. Associate ISS Program Scientist Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Associate ISS Program Scientist Pete Hasbrook participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Clark Creek S...

  20. Clinician-scientist trainee: a German perspective.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Dominick; Milger, Katrin; Morty, Rory E

    2011-12-01

    Clinician-scientists are particularly well positioned to bring basic science findings to the patient's bedside; the ultimate objective of basic research in the health sciences. Concerns have recently been raised about the decreasing workforce of clinician-scientists in both the United States of America and in Canada; however, little is known about clinician-scientists elsewhere around the globe. The purpose of this article is two-fold: 1) to feature clinician-scientist training in Germany; and 2) to provide a comparison with the Canadian system. In a question/answer interview, Rory E. Morty, director of a leading clinician-scientist training program in Germany, and Katrin Milger, a physician and graduate from that program, draw a picture of clinician-scientist training and career opportunities in Germany, outlining the place of clinician-scientists in the German medical system, the advantages and drawbacks of this training, and government initiatives to promote training and career development of clinician-scientists. The interview is followed by a discussion comparing the German and Canadian clinician-scientist development programs, focusing on barriers to trainee recruitment and career progress, and efforts to eliminate the barriers encountered along this very demanding but also very rewarding career path.

  1. Antirationalist critique or fifth column of scientism? Challenges from Doctor Who to the mad scientist trope.

    PubMed

    Orthia, Lindy A

    2011-07-01

    Much of the public understanding of science literature dealing with fictional scientists claims that scientist villains by their nature embody an antiscience critique. I characterize this claim and its founding assumptions as the "mad scientist" trope. I show how scientist villain characters from the science fiction television series Doctor Who undermine the trope via the programme's use of rhetorical strategies similar to Gilbert and Mulkay's empiricist and contingent repertoires, which define and patrol the boundaries between "science" and "non-science." I discuss three such strategies, including the literal framing of scientist villains as "mad." All three strategies exclude the characters from science, relieve science of responsibility for their villainy, and overtly or covertly contribute to the delivery of pro-science messages consistent with rationalist scientism. I focus on scientist villains from the most popular era of Doctor Who, the mid 1970s, when the show embraced the gothic horror genre.

  2. Contemporary Scientists Discuss the Need for Openness and Open-Mindedness in Science and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhall, Pamela J.; Smith, Dorothy V.; Hart, Christina E.; Gunstone, Richard F.

    2016-09-01

    We report on findings from a qualitative study of Australian scientists whose work brings them into contact with the public. This research sought to understand how a school science curriculum could better represent the work of scientists today. We discuss the views expressed by our participant scientists about the importance of openness and open-mindedness in their work, including their engagement with the public. They described openness as an important characteristic of science. Our participants also see open-mindedness on the part of both scientists and members of the public as important for productive relationships. They see the development of such relationships as an essential facet of their work. The views expressed by these scientists provide a provocative insight into the ways in which contemporary scientists see their work and relationships with their communities. Their perspectives have important implications for approaches to teaching science in schools.

  3. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  4. International scientists' priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Murray A; Ankley, Gerald T; Boxall, Alistair B A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-10-01

    's 15 comparisons. There was increasing emphasis on the role of various other stressors relative to PPCPs and on risk prioritization as internal decision making consistency increased. Respondents' consistency in their ranking choices was significantly and positively correlated with SETAC membership, authors' number of publications, and longer survey completion times. Our research highlighted international scientists' research priorities and should help inform decisions about the type of hazard and risk-based research needed to best inform decisions regarding PPCPs in the environment. Disciplinary training of a scientist or engineer appears to strongly influence preferences for research priorities to understand PPCPs in the environment. Selection of participants and the depth and breadth of research prioritization efforts thus have potential effects on the outcomes of research prioritization exercises. Further elucidation of how patterns of research priority vary between academic and government scientists and between scientists and other government and stakeholders would be useful in the future and provide information that helps focus scientific effort on socially relevant challenges relating to PPCPs in the environment. It also suggests the potential for future collaborative research between industry, government, and academia on environmental contaminants beyond PPCPs.

  5. Engaging Climate Change Mitigation Strategies as Citizen-Scientists at SUNY College at Oneonta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, T. D.; McEnroe, N. A.

    2009-12-01

    At SUNY College at Oneonta, we have developed a new course on Global Climate Change that seeks to educate students on the science and policy considerations related to the ongoing discussion of the causes and effects of climatic change. In this course, taught by the Department of Earth Sciences, we engage not only the science behind how and why the climate is changing, but there is a curricular emphasis on improving how we communicate about climate change science. Class activities include developing personal action plans that include evaluation of how effective their plans will be and the challenges they will face; a mock town-hall meeting that will help student-scientists put themselves into different roles in the community and attempt to see things from different perspectives, and a term-project where students will go in-depth on a proposed mitigation plan (local, regional, national, or international), weigh the pros and cons, and recommend a course of action in terms that a lay person can understand. Our goal is to produce citizen-scientists who can communicate more effectively in public about the science and the stakes of mitigating climate change.

  6. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! A A A What's in ... a better look at what's going on to help decide what to do next. For a fungal ...

  7. Help with Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Help With Hives KidsHealth > For Kids > Help With Hives A A A What's in this ... about what happened. The doctor can try to help figure out what might be causing your hives, ...

  8. Energy Projects for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    Energy is a vital topic. Energy costs have risen dramatically during the last decade and home owners are concerned about their energy bills and the costs associated with heating or cooling their homes. An understanding of energy, its sources and ways to reduce its use or improve the efficiency with which people use it will become more important as…

  9. Scientists Take a Close-Up of Key Pain-Sensing Molecule

    MedlinePlus

    ... molecules are made up of large numbers of atoms, connected in elaborate cage-like structures. The electrons ... scientists understand approximately where, within the molecule, individual atoms are located and how they are connected with ...

  10. Meeting report: the road to science-based policy - ESOF through the eyes of young scientists.

    PubMed

    Sinjab, Ansam; Nöske, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Communication and common understanding between politicians, scientists, and the society can lead to evidence-based science policy, a core principle that guides high caliber research and open innovation for a sustainable future.

  11. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  12. [Becoming a scientist: the perspective of Bruno Latour

    PubMed

    Pereira Neto Ad

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of contemporary French philosopher Bruno Latour's perspective on the professionalization process for scientists. We review part of the sociological literature that has attempted to conceptually differentiate occupations from professions. We thus intend to establish a number of comparative parameters for such concepts. The field of knowledge and its role in the stages of the professionalization process assume an important place in this reflection.

  13. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation…

  14. Scientists' Views about Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besley, John C.; Dudo, Anthony; Storksdieck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses how scientists think about science communication training based on the argument that such training represents an important tool in improving the quality of interactions between scientists and the public. It specifically focuses on training related to five goals, including views about training to make science messages…

  15. Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

  16. Scientists' and Teachers' Perspectives about Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Bruce H.; Martz, Marti Ann; Shimek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is resulting in more opportunities for scientists and teachers to collaborate. The relationships can result in failed collaborations or success. We recently completed a 6-year regional project that used several approaches to develop scientist-teacher relationships.…

  17. How Scientists Develop Competence in Visual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergren, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This…

  18. Educators' Views of Collaboration with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated educators' views of collaboration with scientists, a baseline for COSEE Great Lakes efforts in facilitating dynamic collaborative relationships between Great Lakes researchers and educators. Three research questions guided the study: (1) how are educators in the Great Lakes region involved in collaboration with scientists,…

  19. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  20. Secularization and Religious Change among Elite Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Park, Jerry Z.; Veliz, Phil Todd

    2008-01-01

    Sociologists of religion have often connected secularization to science, but have rarely examined the role of religion in the lives of scientists or how the sciences have changed religiously over time. Here we address this shortcoming by comparing religiosity between two samples of elite academic natural and social scientists, one in 1969 and one…