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Sample records for hematologic malignancies final

  1. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  2. Hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogstraten, B.

    1986-01-01

    The principle aim of this book is to give practical guidelines to the modern treatment of the six important hematologic malignancies. Topics considered include the treatment of the chronic leukemias; acute leukemia in adults; the myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis/agnogenic myeloid metaplasia; Hodgkin's Disease; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and Multiple Myeloma.

  3. Galectins in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Mirta; Croci, Diego O; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

    2013-07-01

    Galectins are a family of lectin molecules that have emerged as key players in inflammation and tumor progresssion by displaying intracellular and extracellular activities. This review describes the recent advances on the role of galectins in hematological neoplasms. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 are the best studied galectins in oncohematology. Increased expression of galectin-1 has been associated with tumor progression in Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, whereas galectin-3 plays a supporting role in chronic myelogenous leukemia and multiple myeloma. Functional studies have assigned a key role for galectin-1 as a negative regulator of T-cell immunity in Hodgkin's lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Of therapeutic interest is the development of agents with the capacity to interfere with galectin functions. Current knowledge indicates a key role for galectins in hematological neoplasms by favoring the growth and survival of tumor cells and facilitating tumor immune escape. Intervention using specific galectin inhibitors is emerging as an attractive therapeutic option to alter the course of these malignancies.

  4. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ropio, Joana; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Soares, Paula; Chevret, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT) is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies. PMID:27618103

  5. Immune Modulation in Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Dhodapkar, Kavita M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of the immune system in the context of hematologic malignancies has long been appreciated particularly due to the curative impact of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The role of immune system in shaping the biology and evolution of these tumors is now well recognized. While the contribution of the immune system in anti-tumor effects of certain therapies such as immune-modulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies active in hematologic malignancies is quite evident, the immune system has also been implicated in anti-tumor effects of other targeted therapies. The horizon of immune-based therapies in hematologic malignancies is rapidly expanding with promising results from immune-modulatory drugs, immune-checkpoint blockade and adoptive cellular therapies, including genetically-modified T cells. Hematologic malignancies present distinct issues (relative to solid tumors) for the application of immune therapies due to differences in cell of origin/developmental niche of tumor cells, and patterns of involvement such as common systemic involvement of secondary lymphoid tissues. This article discusses the rapidly changing landscape of immune modulation in hematologic malignancies and emphasizes areas wherein hematologic malignancies present distinct opportunities for immunologic approaches to prevent or treat cancer. PMID:26320065

  6. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. XYY male and hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Oguma, N; Shigeta, C; Kamada, N

    1996-09-01

    Two cases of XYY male with refractory anemia with excess of blasts are reported, and previous reported XYY males with hematologic malignancy are reviewed. Altogether 26 cases were collected for analysis: acute myeloid leukemia (10), acute lymphocytic leukemia (seven), acute leukemia (two), chronic myelocytic leukemia (three), myelodysplastic syndrome (three), and essential thrombocythemia (one). The age at the time of diagnosis ranged in age from 7.5 to 81 years. In three of six XYY/XY mosaicism cases, XYY clone was associated with malignancy. However, in two cases XYY clone was not involved. The evidence presented here suggests that the event of an XYY male with hematologic malignancy is incidental rather than a genetic etiology.

  8. [Kinase inhibitors against hematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Arinobu

    2014-06-01

    Dysregulation of protein phosphorylation, especially on tyrosine residues, plays a crucial role in development and progression of hematological malignancies. Since remarkable success in imatinib therapy of CML and Ph+ALL, extensive efforts have made to explore candidate molecular targets and next breakthrough drugs. Now that next generation ABL kinase inhibitors are available for CML, the therapeutic algorithm has been revolutionized. As for AML and lymphoid malignancies, many kinase inhibitors targeting FLT3, BTK and aurora-A are on early and late clinical trials, and a number of promising drugs including ibrutinib are picked up for further evaluation.

  9. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-28

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  10. Targeting hedgehog in hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Irvine, David A; Copland, Mhairi

    2012-03-08

    The Hedgehog pathway is a critical mediator of embryonic patterning and organ development, including hematopoiesis. It influences stem cell fate, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis in responsive tissues. In adult organisms, hedgehog pathway activity is required for aspects of tissue maintenance and regeneration; however, there is increasing awareness that abnormal hedgehog signaling is associated with malignancy. Hedgehog signaling is critical for early hematopoietic development, but there is controversy over its role in normal hematopoiesis in adult organisms where it may be dispensable. Conversely, hedgehog signaling appears to be an important survival and proliferation signal for a spectrum of hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, hedgehog signaling may be critical for the maintenance and expansion of leukemic stem cells and therefore provides a possible mechanism to selectively target these primitive cell subpopulations, which are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Indeed, phase 1 clinical trials of hedgehog pathway inhibitors are currently underway to test this hypothesis in myeloid leukemias. This review covers: (1) the hedgehog pathway and its role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis, (2) the recent development of clinical grade small molecule inhibitors of the pathway, and (3) the potential utility of hedgehog pathway inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in hemato-oncology.

  11. Oncolytic Virotherapy for Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Swarna; Bartee, Eric; Rahman, Masmudur M.; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Hematological malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma (MM), and the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) primarily affect adults and are difficult to treat. For high-risk disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) can be used. However, in the setting of autologous HCT, relapse due to contamination of the autograft with cancer cells remains a major challenge. Ex vivo manipulations of the autograft to purge cancer cells using chemotherapies and toxins have been attempted. Because these past strategies lack specificity for malignant cells and often impair the normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, prior efforts to ex vivo purge autografts have resulted in prolonged cytopenias and graft failure. The ideal ex vivo purging agent would selectively target the contaminating cancer cells while spare normal stem and progenitor cells and would be applied quickly without toxicities to the recipient. One agent which meets these criteria is oncolytic viruses. This paper details experimental progress with reovirus, myxoma virus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, coxsackievirus, and vaccinia virus as well as requirements for translation of these results to the clinic. PMID:22312362

  12. Novel immunotherapies for hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle H.; Paulos, Chrystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system is designed to discriminate between self and tumor tissue. Through genetic recombination, there is fundamentally no limit to the number of tumor antigens that immune cells can recognize. Yet, tumors use a variety of immunosuppressive mechanisms to evade immunity. Insight into how the immune system interacts with tumors is expanding rapidly and has accelerated the translation of immunotherapies into medical breakthroughs. Herein, we appraise the state of the art in immunotherapy with a focus on strategies that exploit the patient’s immune system to kill cancer. We review various forms of immune-based therapies, which have shown significant promise in patients with hematological malignancies, including (i) conventional monoclonal therapies like rituximab, (ii) engineered monoclonal antibodies called bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs), (iii) monoclonal antibodies and pharmaceutical drugs that block inhibitory T-cell pathways (i.e. PD-1, CTLA-4 and IDO), and (iv) adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy with T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or T-cell receptors (TCRs). We also assess the idea of using these therapies in combination and conclude by suggesting multi-prong approaches to improve treatment outcomes and curative responses in patients. PMID:25510273

  13. Epigenetics of hematopoiesis and hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Deqing; Shilatifard, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Hematological malignancies comprise a diverse set of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms in which normal hematopoiesis has gone awry and together account for ∼10% of all new cancer cases diagnosed in the United States in 2016. Recent intensive genomic sequencing of hematopoietic malignancies has identified recurrent mutations in genes that encode regulators of chromatin structure and function, highlighting the central role that aberrant epigenetic regulation plays in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms for how alterations in epigenetic modifiers, specifically histone and DNA methylases and demethylases, drive hematopoietic cancer could provide new avenues for developing novel targeted epigenetic therapies for treating hematological malignancies. Just as past studies of blood cancers led to pioneering discoveries relevant to other cancers, determining the contribution of epigenetic modifiers in hematologic cancers could also have a broader impact on our understanding of the pathogenesis of solid tumors in which these factors are mutated. PMID:27798847

  14. Role of RUNX1 in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sood, Raman; Kamikubo, Yasuhiko; Liu, Paul

    2017-04-13

    RUNX1 is a member of the core-binding factor family of transcription factors and is indispensable for the establishment of definitive hematopoiesis in vertebrates. RUNX1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in a variety of hematological malignancies. Germ line mutations in RUNX1 cause familial platelet disorder with associated myeloid malignancies. Somatic mutations and chromosomal rearrangements involving RUNX1 are frequently observed in myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemias of myeloid and lymphoid lineages, that is, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. More recent studies suggest that the wild-type RUNX1 is required for growth and survival of certain types of leukemia cells. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current status of our understanding about the role of RUNX1 in hematological malignancies.

  15. Vaccinations in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tsigrelis, C; Ljungman, P

    2016-03-01

    Patients with hematological malignancies are at risk for a number of infections that are potentially preventable by vaccinations such as pneumococcal infections and influenza. Treatment, especially with anti-B-cell antibodies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), negatively impacts the response to vaccination for several months. It is therefore recommended that patients be vaccinated before initiating immunosuppressive therapy if possible. The risk of side-effects with inactivated vaccines is low, but care has to be taken with live vaccines, such as varicella-zoster virus vaccine, since severe and fatal complications have been reported. HSCT patients require repeated doses of most vaccines to achieve long-lasting immune responses. New therapeutic options for patients with hematological malignancies that are rapidly being introduced into clinical practice will require additional research regarding the efficacy of vaccinations. New vaccines are also in development that will require well-designed studies to ascertain efficacy and safety.

  16. Dendritic cells in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Galati, Domenico; Corazzelli, Gaetano; De Filippi, Rosaria; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are bone-marrow-derived immune cells accounted for a crucial role in initiating and modulating the adaptive immune response and supporting the innate immune response independently from T cells. While functioning as the most effective antigen-presenting cells within the immune system, DCs can otherwise induce tolerance in central and peripheral lymphoid organs acting therefore as suppressors rather than stimulators of the immune response. Within mechanisms regulating antitumor immunity, DCs can capture antigens from viable or damaged tumor cells and present the processed peptides to T-cells to prompt the generation and maintenance of an effective tumor-specific T-cell response. Upon a complex cross-talk with other cellular components of the tumor microenvironment, DCs can, on the other hand, exert a potent antigen-dependent and -independent tolerogenic function by favoring the process of tumor immune evasion. Due to this dual-role in balancing antitumor immunity and tolerance, possibly linked to distinct developmental stages and functional subsets, several studies have addressed the regulatory significance of DCs in different types of malignancies. This review summarizes the most significant pieces of evidence highlighting the critical relevance of bone marrow-derived DCs within the immune pathways regulating pathogenesis and progression of hemopoietic tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  18. Fertility issues in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Loren, Alison W

    2015-01-01

    An essential component of a cancer patient's comprehensive care is addressing potential threats to his or her reproductive health. Providers should discuss the risk of infertility with newly diagnosed patients and offer the chance to consult with a reproductive specialist as early as possible. Standard fertility preservation options include embryo or oocyte cryopreservation for women and sperm banking for men; all options for pre-pubertal children are experimental. Patients with hematologic malignancies are a distinct population in whom standard options may present special challenges, and alternative management strategies are being explored. Unique approaches in hematologic malignancy patients include experimental techniques, such as hormonal therapy, referrals to reproductive specialists after cancer treatment, or discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in appropriate chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Importantly, expedited communication between hematologists and reproductive specialists may greatly enhance the quality of care for these patients. Facilitation of referrals will both improve the quality-of-life and expand the prospect of parenthood in survivors. There are ample opportunities to advance the field of oncofertility through additional research, especially in hematologic malignancy patients.

  19. Breast feeding and childhood hematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, A K; Mishra, L; Bakhshi, Sameer; Arya, L S

    2004-05-01

    Breast milk is known to have anti-infective and immunomodulating effects on infants, but its association with childhood cancer has not been well studied. Artificial feeding may affect the immune response in carcinogenesis. In this communication the authors have reviewed different articles describing the association between breast feeding (BF) and subsequent development of childhood hematological malignancy. It appears that BF may have a protective effect on childhood cancer, both the duration of BF as well as the quantity of milk ingested is probably critical to the beneficial immunological effects of BF against childhood cancer if any.

  20. BMI1: A Biomarker of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A.

    2016-01-01

    BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications. PMID:27168727

  1. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed. PMID:25914884

  2. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed.

  3. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review)

    PubMed Central

    SAMIR, AHMED; ELGAMAL, BASMA M; GABR, HALA; SABAAWY, HATEM E

    2015-01-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. PMID:26134389

  4. Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD38 in hematological malignancies and beyond.

    PubMed

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Janmaat, Maarten L; Mutis, Tuna; Lammerts van Bueren, Jeroen J; Ahmadi, Tahamtan; Sasser, A Kate; Lokhorst, Henk M; Parren, Paul W H I

    2016-03-01

    CD38 is a multifunctional cell surface protein that has receptor as well as enzyme functions. The protein is generally expressed at low levels on various hematological and solid tissues, while plasma cells express particularly high levels of CD38. The protein is also expressed in a subset of hematological tumors, and shows especially broad and high expression levels in plasma cell tumors such as multiple myeloma (MM). Together, this triggered the development of various therapeutic CD38 antibodies, including daratumumab, isatuximab, and MOR202. Daratumumab binds a unique CD38 epitope and showed strong anti-tumor activity in preclinical models. The antibody engages diverse mechanisms of action, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, programmed cell death, modulation of enzymatic activity, and immunomodulatory activity. CD38-targeting antibodies have a favorable toxicity profile in patients, and early clinical data show a marked activity in MM, while studies in other hematological malignancies are ongoing. Daratumumab has single agent activity and a limited toxicity profile, allowing favorable combination therapies with existing as well as emerging therapies, which are currently evaluated in the clinic. Finally, CD38 antibodies may have a role in the treatment of diseases beyond hematological malignancies, including solid tumors and antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  5. Expanding role of lenalidomide in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Nilanjan; Grunwald, Michael R; Fasan, Omotayo; Bhutani, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of multiple myeloma, deletion 5q myelodysplastic syndrome, and mantle cell lymphoma. In addition, it has clinical activity in lymphoproliferative disorders and acute myeloid leukemia. The mode of action includes immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and antiproliferative mechanisms. The antitumor effect is a result of direct interference of key pathways in tumor cells and indirect modulation of the tumor microenvironment. There has been no recent collective review on lenalidomide in multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia, and lymphoma. This review summarizes the results of current clinical studies of lenalidomide, alone and in combination with other agents, as a therapeutic option for various hematologic malignancies. PMID:25999761

  6. Impact of interleukin-6 in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Burger, Renate

    2013-10-01

    Almost 3 decades have passed since the discovery and cloning of IL-6, and a tremendous amount of work has contributed to the current knowledge of the biological functions of this cytokine, its receptor, and the signaling pathways that are activated. The understanding of the role of IL-6 in human disease has led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies that block the biological functions of IL-6. In clinical studies, IL-6 and IL-6 receptor antibodies have proven efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and Castleman's disease, conditions that are known to be driven by IL-6. The focus of this overview is the role of IL-6 in the pathophysiology of hematological malignancies.

  7. Cytogenetic effect of 5-azacytidine in patients with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Jessica Romy; Segato, Rosimeire; Barbosa, Waldênia; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, the importance of cytogenetics has grown in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. 5-azacytidine is a drug that has well-known cytogenetical effects and is approved in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. To date, no studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of 5-azacytidine on the chromosomes of patients with hematological neoplasias. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-azacytidine on chromosomes of patients with different hematological malignancies using G-band analyses to identify possible cytogenetical alterations. Methods The peripheral blood of 18 patients with hematological malignancies and 18 controls was collected in heparinized tubes. 5-azacytidine was added, at a final concentration of 10-5M, to cultures 7 hours prior to harvest. Results Uncoiled centromeric/pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes-1, 9 and 16 occurred more frequently in the patients than in controls. This higher frequency of uncoiled heterochromatin was statistically significant (p-value = 0.004) for chromosome-9. Conversely, we observed that the fragile site at 19q13 was more frequent in controls (p-value = 0.0468). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that satellite sequences, located in the heterochromatin of chromosome-9, are hypomethylated in hematological malignancies. This hypomethylation may contribute to the disease, activating transposable elements and/or promoting genomic instability, enabling the loss of heterozygosity of important tumor suppressor genes. An investigation of the 19q13 region may help to understand whether or not the predominant occurrence of the fragile site at 19q13 in controls is due to hypermethylation of this region. PMID:23049342

  8. Cytogenetic effect of 5-azacytidine in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Jessica Romy; Segato, Rosimeire; Barbosa, Waldênia; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the importance of cytogenetics has grown in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. 5-azacytidine is a drug that has well-known cytogenetical effects and is approved in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. To date, no studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of 5-azacytidine on the chromosomes of patients with hematological neoplasias. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-azacytidine on chromosomes of patients with different hematological malignancies using G-band analyses to identify possible cytogenetical alterations. The peripheral blood of 18 patients with hematological malignancies and 18 controls was collected in heparinized tubes. 5-azacytidine was added, at a final concentration of 10-5M, to cultures 7 hours prior to harvest. Uncoiled centromeric/pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes-1, 9 and 16 occurred more frequently in the patients than in controls. This higher frequency of uncoiled heterochromatin was statistically significant (p-value = 0.004) for chromosome-9. Conversely, we observed that the fragile site at 19q13 was more frequent in controls (p-value = 0.0468). The results of this study suggest that satellite sequences, located in the heterochromatin of chromosome-9, are hypomethylated in hematological malignancies. This hypomethylation may contribute to the disease, activating transposable elements and/or promoting genomic instability, enabling the loss of heterozygosity of important tumor suppressor genes. An investigation of the 19q13 region may help to understand whether or not the predominant occurrence of the fragile site at 19q13 in controls is due to hypermethylation of this region.

  9. Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators

    PubMed Central

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Malakhova, Irina V.; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; Bouville, André; Chekin, Sergei; Chumak, Vadim V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gapanovich, Vladimir; Golovanov, Ivan; Hubert, Phillip; Illichev, Sergei V.; Khait, Svetlana E.; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Maceika, Evaldas; Maksyoutov, Marat; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.; Polyakov, Semion; Shchukina, Natalia; Tenet, Vanessa; Tserakhovich, Tatyana I.; Tsykalo, Aleksandr; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries in order to assess the effect of low-to-medium dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked in 1986–87 around the Chernobyl plant. 117 cases (69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue) and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The Excess Relative Risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 (90% confidence interval (CI): −0.02, 2.35). The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90%CI −0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than, but statistically compatible with, those estimated from a-bomb survivors and recent low dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over or underestimation of the risk in this study. PMID:19138033

  10. Risk of hematological malignancies among Chernobyl liquidators.

    PubMed

    Kesminiene, Ausrele; Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Ivanov, Viktor K; Malakhova, Irina V; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Anspaugh, Lynn R; Bouville, André; Chekin, Sergei; Chumak, Vadim V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gapanovich, Vladimir; Golovanov, Ivan; Hubert, Phillipe; Illichev, Sergei V; Khait, Svetlana E; Kryuchkov, Viktor P; Maceika, Evaldas; Maksyoutov, Marat; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K; Polyakov, Semion; Shchukina, Natalia; Tenet, Vanessa; Tserakhovich, Tatyana I; Tsykalo, Aleksandr; Tukov, Aleksandr R; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2008-12-01

    A case-control study of hematological malignancies was conducted among Chernobyl liquidators (accident recovery workers) from Belarus, Russia and Baltic countries to assess the effect of low- to medium-dose protracted radiation exposures on the relative risk of these diseases. The study was nested within cohorts of liquidators who had worked around the Chernobyl plant in 1986-1987. A total of 117 cases [69 leukemia, 34 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 14 other malignancies of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue] and 481 matched controls were included in the study. Individual dose to the bone marrow and uncertainties were estimated for each subject. The main analyses were restricted to 70 cases (40 leukemia, 20 NHL and 10 other) and their 287 matched controls with reliable information on work in the Chernobyl area. Most subjects received very low doses (median 13 mGy). For all diagnoses combined, a significantly elevated OR was seen at doses of 200 mGy and above. The excess relative risk (ERR) per 100 mGy was 0.60 [90% confidence interval (CI) -0.02, 2.35]. The corresponding estimate for leukemia excluding chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) was 0.50 (90% CI -0.38, 5.7). It is slightly higher than but statistically compatible with those estimated from A-bomb survivors and recent low-dose-rate studies. Although sensitivity analyses showed generally similar results, we cannot rule out the possibility that biases and uncertainties could have led to over- or underestimation of the risk in this study.

  11. Treatment of Hematological Malignancies with Glycyrrhizic Acid.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Bryan J; Uchakina, Olga N; Ban, Hao; McKallip, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) in reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in vitro and a mouse lymphoma in vivo. Additionally, we assessed GA as a candidate for combinational therapy in CML along with the current frontline treatment, imatinib (IM). Treatment of K562 CML cells with GA alone resulted in significant induction of apoptosis and loss of cell viability. GA was well tolerated by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) up to 2 mM doses which were subsequently used in combination with IM. Co-treatment of CML with GA and IM greatly enhanced the levels of apoptosis in human CML. The effectiveness of GA was not limited to in vitro studies as treatment of EL-4 lymphoma-bearing mice with GA (50 or 500 mg/kg/day) led to significant dose-related decrease in tumor burden that correlated with a significant increase in the level of apoptotic tumors in vivo. The broad activity of GA against different tumor cell types, its tolerance by PBMCs and synergistic effects when combined with IM suggests that GA may be a viable candidate for combinational treatment strategies in CML and other hematological malignancies. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Role of leptin and leptin receptors in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shahab; Mohammad, Ramzi M

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose-derived cytokine that has an important role in bodyweight homeostasis and energy balance. There are a number of studies which have suggested that leptin and its receptors dysregulation play a critical role in the development of malignancies including hematological malignancies, mainly via activation of the JAK/STAT pathway which regulates downstream signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT signaling and ERK1/2. In this review, current understandings of leptin/leptin receptors mediated pathogenesis in various lymphoid malignancies are described. Blocking of the leptin receptor might be a unique therapeutic approach for many hematological malignancies.

  13. Notch signaling: its roles and therapeutic potential in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yisu; Masiero, Massimo; Banham, Alison H

    2016-05-17

    Notch is a highly conserved signaling system that allows neighboring cells to communicate, thereby controlling their differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, with the outcome of its activation being highly dependent on signal strength and cell type. As such, there is growing evidence that disturbances in physiological Notch signaling contribute to cancer development and growth through various mechanisms. Notch was first reported to contribute to tumorigenesis in the early 90s, through identification of the involvement of the Notch1 gene in the chromosomal translocation t(7;9)(q34;q34.3), found in a small subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Since then, Notch mutations and aberrant Notch signaling have been reported in numerous other precursor and mature hematological malignancies, of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, as well as many epithelial tumor types. Of note, Notch has been reported to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles, dependent on the cancer cell type. In this review, we will first give a general description of the Notch signaling pathway, and its physiologic role in hematopoiesis. Next, we will review the role of aberrant Notch signaling in several hematological malignancies. Finally, we will discuss current and potential future therapeutic approaches targeting this pathway.

  14. Notch signaling: its roles and therapeutic potential in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yisu

    2016-01-01

    Notch is a highly conserved signaling system that allows neighboring cells to communicate, thereby controlling their differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, with the outcome of its activation being highly dependent on signal strength and cell type. As such, there is growing evidence that disturbances in physiological Notch signaling contribute to cancer development and growth through various mechanisms. Notch was first reported to contribute to tumorigenesis in the early 90s, through identification of the involvement of the Notch1 gene in the chromosomal translocation t(7;9)(q34;q34.3), found in a small subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Since then, Notch mutations and aberrant Notch signaling have been reported in numerous other precursor and mature hematological malignancies, of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, as well as many epithelial tumor types. Of note, Notch has been reported to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles, dependent on the cancer cell type. In this review, we will first give a general description of the Notch signaling pathway, and its physiologic role in hematopoiesis. Next, we will review the role of aberrant Notch signaling in several hematological malignancies. Finally, we will discuss current and potential future therapeutic approaches targeting this pathway. PMID:26934331

  15. An update on the management of hematologic malignancies in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Noa; Horowitz, Netanel A; Brenner, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Hematological malignancies during pregnancy are rare, which results in the absence of large prospective studies. The diagnosis is often delayed due to the symptom similarity to those of pregnancy and the recommendation to avoid imaging studies during gestation. Management of hematological malignancies during pregnancy poses challenges both to the patient and the medical team, given the therapy-attributable risks for mother and fetus and the need to consider patient's preferences regarding pregnancy continuation. Chemotherapy during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk for fetal demise and congenital malformations, while these risks diminish as pregnancy progresses. We hereby present a review of updated literature on the management of hematologic malignancies (Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, acute leukemia, multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasms) during pregnancy.

  16. Role of IL-9 and STATs in hematological malignancies (Review).

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Wang, Xin

    2014-03-01

    Although interleukin-9 (IL-9) exhibits pleiotropic functions in the immune system, it remains a well-known cytokine in hematological malignancies. Previous cell culture and animal model studies have revealed that the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway, which may be activated by a number of cytokines including IL-9, is critical in hematological malignancies. The current review summarizes the characterization of the biological activities of IL-9, highlights the clearly defined roles of the cytokine, and outlines questions with regard to the functions of IL-9 that require further exploration and their downstream signaling proteins, signal transducers and activators of transcription.

  17. Hematologic malignancies: at the forefront of immunotherapeutic innovation

    PubMed Central

    Bachireddy, Pavan; Burkhardt, Ute E.; Rajasagi, Mohini; Wu, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The recent successes of cancer immunotherapy have stimulated interest for the potential widespread application of these approaches; hematologic malignancies have provided both initial proofs-of-concept and an informative testing ground for a variety of immune-based therapeutics. The immune-cell origin of many of the blood malignancies provides a unique opportunity to both understand the mechanisms of human immune-responsiveness and immune-evasion as well as to exploit the unique therapeutic opportunities they provide. PMID:25786696

  18. EZH2 in normal hematopoiesis and hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Herviou, Laurie; Cavalli, Giacomo; Cartron, Guillaume; Klein, Bernard; Moreaux, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 2, inhibits gene expression through methylation on lysine 27 of histone H3. EZH2 regulates normal hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. EZH2 also controls normal B cell differentiation. EZH2 deregulation has been described in many cancer types including hematological malignancies. Specific small molecules have been recently developed to exploit the oncogenic addiction of tumor cells to EZH2. Their therapeutic potential is currently under evaluation. This review summarizes the roles of EZH2 in normal and pathologic hematological processes and recent advances in the development of EZH2 inhibitors for the personalized treatment of patients with hematological malignancies. PMID:26497210

  19. Autoimmunity and malignancy in hematology--more than an association.

    PubMed

    Stern, Martin; Buser, Andreas S; Lohri, Andreas; Tichelli, André; Nissen-Druey, Catherine

    2007-08-01

    Several associations between hematological malignancies and autoimmunity directed against hematopoietic cells exist. Antibody mediated elimination of mature blood cells such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are frequent complications of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, most prominently chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Autoimmunity directed against hematopoietic precursor cells is the hallmark of aplastic anemia, but many features of this disease are shared by two related disorders, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). While the clinical associations between hematological malignancy and autoimmunity have been described many decades ago, only in the last several years have the common pathogenetic mechanisms been elucidated. We summarize the recent progress made in understanding how hematological malignancy gives rise to autoimmunity directed against blood cells and vice versa, and illustrate parallels in the etiology of malignant and autoimmune hematological disorders. Specifically, recent progress in the recognition of the association of lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmunity against mature blood cells, and common pathogenetic background of aplastic anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and myelodysplastic syndrome are discussed.

  20. The spectrum of hematologic malignancies involving the pancreas: potential clinical mimics of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rock, Jonathan; Bloomston, Mark; Lozanski, Gerard; Frankel, Wendy L

    2012-03-01

    Hematologic malignancies often involve the pancreas, causing potential diagnostic pitfalls and, rarely, potentially avoidable surgical resection. We review the spectrum of hematologic malignancies involving the pancreas and describe features useful in preoperative distinction from adenocarcinoma. Archived clinical, pathologic, and radiologic data (1965 to present) for hematologic malignancies involving the pancreas were reviewed and compared with the data for 157 surgically resected pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Of 42 cases, 27 (64%) were clinically "suspicious" for hematologic malignancies. Of the remaining 15 cases, 4 patients underwent resection for presumed pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Isolated pancreatic masses proved most difficult to identify clinically. Significant factors in distinguishing hematologic malignancies from adenocarcinoma included history of hematologic malignancy, young age, large tumor size, low CA19-9 level, B symptoms, and lack of jaundice or diabetes mellitus. Various hematologic malignancies involve the pancreas, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Pancreatic masses are usually correctly identified clinically. Preoperative and operative sampling is strongly recommended when hematologic malignancies cannot be excluded.

  1. HIV-related hematological malignancies: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Rios, Adan

    2014-09-01

    HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and its consequence, AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) are responsible for a human tragedy of incalculable proportions. Patients afflicted by it are susceptible due to an early senescence of the immune system to opportunistic infections and malignancies. Since the introduction in 1996 of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the landscape of malignancies associated to HIV/AIDS has changed in a significant manner as a direct result of significant improvement in the morbidity, mortality and life expectancy of HIV infected patients. While there has been a significant decrease in developed countries of malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma and Primary CNS lymphomas associated to the pre-HAART HIV-related immunodeficiency, hematological malignancies, particularly non-Hodgkin lymphomas continue to be the most common cancer-related cause of death in HIV infected individuals. This concise review of the subject highlights aspects of the natural history of HIV disease as it relates to the cause of malignancies with emphasis in the management and treatment of HIV-related hematological malignancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial Infections Following Splenectomy for Malignant and Nonmalignant Hematologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Giuseppe; Pizzigallo, Eligio

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy, while often necessary in otherwise healthy patients after major trauma, finds its primary indication for patients with underlying malignant or nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Indications of splenectomy for hematologic diseases have been reducing in the last few years, due to improved diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In high-income countries, there is a clear decrease over calendar time in the incidence of all indication splenectomy except nonmalignant hematologic diseases. However, splenectomy, even if with different modalities including laparoscopic splenectomy and partial splenectomy, continue to be a current surgical practice both in nonmalignant hematologic diseases, such as Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP), Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA), Congenital Hemolytic Anemia such as Spherocytosis, Sickle Cell Anemia and Thalassemia and Malignant Hematological Disease, such as lymphoma. Today millions of people in the world are splenectomized. Splenectomy, independently of its cause, induces an early and late increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolism and infections. Infections remain the most dangerous complication of splenectomy. After splenectomy, the levels of antibody are preserved but there is a loss of memory B cells against pneumococcus and tetanus, and the loss of marginal zone monocytes deputed to immunological defense from capsulated bacteria. Commonly, the infections strictly correlated to the absence of the spleen or a decreased or absent splenic function are due to encapsulated bacteria that are the most virulent pathogens in this set of patients. Vaccination with polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines again Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis should be performed before the splenectomy. This practice reduces but does not eliminate the occurrence of overwhelming infections due to capsulated bacteria. At present, most of infections found in splenectomized patients are due to Gram

  3. Polo-like kinase inhibitors in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Talati, Chetasi; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Wetzler, Meir; Wang, Eunice S

    2016-02-01

    Polo-like kinases (Plk) are key regulators of the cell cycle and multiple aspects of mitosis. Two agents that inhibit the Plk signaling pathway have shown promising activity in patients with hematologic malignancies and are currently in phase III trials. Volasertib is a Plk inhibitor under evaluation combined with low-dose cytarabine in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ineligible for intensive induction therapy. Rigosertib, a dual inhibitor of the Plk and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways, is under investigation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who have failed azacitidine or decitabine treatment. The prognosis for patients with AML, who are ineligible for intensive induction therapy, and for those with MDS refractory/relapsed after a hypomethylating agent, remains poor. Novel approaches, such as Plk inhibitors, are urgently needed for these patients. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of development of Plk inhibitors for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  4. Selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Das, Arundhati; Wei, Guoqing; Parikh, Kaushal; Liu, Delong

    2015-01-01

    Regulated nucleo-cytoplasmic transport plays a major role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1 or exportin 1 or XPO 1) is responsible for the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of more than 200 proteins, including most of the tumor suppressor proteins (TSP). CRM1 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma, glioma, cervical and hematological malignancies. This inspired the development of novel agents that selectively inhibit nuclear exportins (SINEs). In this review we focus on the significance of CRM1 in carcinogenesis and review the new development of SINE inhibitiors in hematological malignancies. Selinexor (KPT-330) as the first-in-human SINE agent represents this novel class of anti-cancer agents.

  5. Target Therapy in Hematological Malignances: New Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Pawlowski, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Apart from radio- and chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) represent a new, more selective tool in the treatment of hematological malignancies. MoAbs bind with the specific antigens of the tumors. This interaction is a basis for targeted therapies which exhibit few side effects and significant antitumor activity. This review provides an overview of the functional characteristics of MoAbs, with some examples of their clinical application. The promising results in the treatment of hematological malignancies have led to the more frequent usage of MoAbs in the therapy. Development of MoAbs is a subject of extensive research. They are a promising method of cancer treatment in the future. PMID:27433507

  6. Advances in the treatment of hematologic malignancies using immunoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Palanca-Wessels, Maria Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody therapy has revolutionized cancer treatment by significantly improving patient survival both in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Recent technological advances have increased the effectiveness of immunotherapy leading to its broader application in diverse treatment settings. Immunoconjugates (ICs) consist of a cytotoxic effector covalently linked to a monoclonal antibody that enables the targeted delivery of its therapeutic payload to tumors based on cell-surface receptor recognition. ICs are classified into 3 groups based on their effector type: immunotoxins (protein toxin), radioimmunoconjugates (radionuclide), and antibody drug conjugates (small-molecule drug). Optimization of each individual component of an IC (antibody, linker, and effector) is essential for therapeutic efficacy. Clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of ICs in hematologic malignancies both as monotherapy and in multiagent regimens in relapsed/refractory disease as well as frontline settings. These studies have yielded encouraging results particularly in lymphoma. ICs comprise an exciting group of therapeutics that promise to play an increasingly important role in the management of hematologic malignancies. PMID:24578502

  7. Human herpesvirus 6 in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Masao

    2009-11-01

    Pathogenetic roles of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 in lymphoproliferative diseases have been of continued interest. Many molecular studies have tried to establish a pathogenic role for HHV-6 in lymphoid malignancies. However, whether HHV-6 plays a role in these pathologies remains unclear, as positive polymerase chain reaction results for HHV-6 in those studies may reflect latent infection or reactivation rather than presence of HHV-6 in neoplastic cells. A small number of studies have investigated HHV-6 antigen expression in pathologic specimens. As a result, the lack of HHV-6 antigen expression on neoplastic cells argues against any major pathogenic role of HHV-6. The role of HHV-6 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has also been of interest but remains controversial, with 2 studies documenting higher levels of HHV-6 antibody in ALL patients, and another 2 large-scale studies finding no significant differences in HHV-6 seroprevalences between ALL patients and controls. Alternatively, HHV-6 is increasingly recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen. HHV-6 reactivation is common among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), and is linked to various clinical manifestations. In particular, HHV-6 encephalitis appears to be significant, life-threatening complication. Most HHV-6 encephalitis develops in patients receiving transplant from an unrelated donor, particularly cord blood, typically around the time of engraftment. Symptoms are characterized by short-term memory loss and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging typically shows limbic encephalitis. Prognosis for HHV-6 encephalitis is poor, but appropriate prophylactic measures have not been established. Establishment of preventive strategies against HHV-6 encephalitis represents an important challenge for physicians involved with SCT.

  8. Asparaginase in the treatment of non-ALL hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Emadi, Ashkan; Zokaee, Hania; Sausville, Edward A

    2014-05-01

    Asparaginases are among the most effective agents against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are Food and Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of pediatric and adult ALL. However, the efficacy of these drugs for the treatment of other hematologic malignancies particularly acute myeloid leukemia is not well established. The mechanism of action of asparaginases has thought to be related to a swift and sustained reduction in serum L-asparagine, which is required for rapid proliferation of metabolically demanding leukemic cells. However, asparagine depletion alone appears not to be sufficient for effective cytotoxic activity of asparaginase against leukemia cells, because glutamine can rescue asparagine-deprived cells by regeneration of asparagine via a transamidation chemical reaction. For this reason, glutamine reduction is also necessary for full anti-leukemic activity of asparaginase. Indeed, both Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi asparaginases possess glutaminase enzymatic activity, and their administrations have shown to reduce serum glutamine level by deamidating glutamine to glutamate and ammonia. Emerging data have provided evidence that several types of neoplastic cells require glutamine for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. This fundamental role of glutamine and its metabolic pathways for growth and proliferation of individual malignant cells may identify a special group of patients whose solid or hematologic neoplasms may benefit significantly from interruption of glutamine metabolism. To this end, asparaginase products deserve a second look particularly in non-ALL malignant blood disorders. Here, we review mechanisms of anti-tumor activity of asparaginase focusing on importance of glutamine reduction, pharmacology of asparaginase products, in vitro activities as well as clinical experience of incorporating asparaginase in therapeutic regimens for non-ALL hematologic malignancies.

  9. Miniaturized FISH for screening of onco-hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Andrea; Bandiera, Dario; Bertolini, Francesco; Corsini, Chiara Antonia; Gregato, Giuliana; Milani, Paolo; Barborini, Emanuele; Carbone, Roberta

    2010-07-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) represents a major step in the analysis of chromosomal aberrations in cancer. It allows the precise detection of specific rearrangements, both for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Here we present a miniaturized FISH method performed on fresh and fixed hematological samples. This procedure has been developed together with a microfluidic device that integrates cluster-assembled nanostructured TiO2 (ns-TiO2) as a nanomaterial promoting hematopoietic cell immobilization in conditions of shear stress. As a result of miniaturization, FISH can be performed with at least a 10-fold reduction in probe usage and minimal cell requirements, creating the possibility of using FISH in genetic screening applications. We developed the protocol on tumor cells and bone marrow (BM) from a normal donor using commercially sex-specific and onco-hematology probes. The procedure was then validated using either BM or peripheral blood (PB) from six patients with hematological diseases, each associated with different genetic lesions. Miniaturized FISH demonstrated comparable performance to standard FISH, indicating that it is suitable for genetic screenings, in research, and in clinical settings for the diagnosis of samples from onco-hematological malignancies.

  10. How I treat influenza in patients with hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Corey; Englund, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic has heightened the interest of clinicians for options in the prevention and management of influenza virus infection in immunocompromised patients. Even before the emergence of the novel 2009 H1N1 strain, influenza disease was a serious complication in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy or undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here we review the clinical manifestations of seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza and discuss current diagnosis, antiviral treatment, and prophylaxis options. We also summarize infection control and vaccination strategies for patients, family members, and caregivers. PMID:20009037

  11. Development of a Workshop for Malignant Hematology Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Martina, Karelin; Ghadimi, Lucia; Incekol, Diana

    2016-02-01

    As part of a comprehensive orientation for nurses caring for patients with hematologic malignancies, nurses are expected to attend general corporate orientation immediately followed by hospital site-specific nursing orientation. The orientation is comprised of lectures, e-learning, and clinical observership, as well as clinical practice under supervision of a preceptor. Nurses also are expected to attend foundational courses. The goal of these courses is to consolidate practical and theoretical knowledge in a specific oncology nursing specialty. A workshop was developed that offers a unique vision by interweaving theory, practice, and patient voice.
.

  12. Information transfer by exosomes: A new frontier in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Boyiadzis, Michael; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2015-09-01

    Exosomes are small (30-150 mm) vesicles secreted by all cell types and present in all body fluids. They are emerging as vehicles for delivery of membrane-tethered signaling molecules and membrane enclosed genes to target cells. Exosome-mediated information transfer allows for crosstalk of cells within the hematopoietic system and for interactions between hematopoietic cells and local or distant tissue cells. Exosomes carry physiological signals essential for health and participate in pathological processes, including malignant transformation. In hematologic malignancies, exosomes reprogram the bone marrow microenvironment, creating a niche for abnormal cells and favoring their expansion. The molecular and genetic mechanisms exosomes utilize to shuttle information between cells are currently being examined as are the potential roles exosomes play as biomarkers of disease or future therapeutic targets.

  13. Molecular study of the perforin gene in familial hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Perforin gene (PRF1) mutations have been identified in some patients diagnosed with the familial form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and in patients with lymphoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether patients with a familial aggregation of hematological malignancies harbor germline perforin gene mutations. For this purpose, 81 unrelated families from Tunisia and France with aggregated hematological malignancies were investigated. The variants detected in the PRF1 coding region amounted to 3.7% (3/81). Two of the three variants identified were previously described: the p.Ala91Val pathogenic mutation and the p.Asn252Ser polymorphism. A new p.Ala 211Val missense substitution was identified in two related Tunisian patients. In order to assess the pathogenicity of this new variation, bioinformatic tools were used to predict its effects on the perforin protein structure and at the mRNA level. The segregation of the mutant allele was studied in the family of interest and a control population was screened. The fact that this variant was not found to occur in 200 control chromosomes suggests that it may be pathogenic. However, overexpression of mutated PRF1 in rat basophilic leukemia cells did not affect the lytic function of perforin differently from the wild type protein. PMID:21936944

  14. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review).

    PubMed

    Samir, Ahmed; Elgamal, Basma M; Gabr, Hala; Sabaawy, Hatem E

    2015-09-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  15. Targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Ottmann, Oliver G.; Deininger, Michael; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway represents an important anticancer target because it has been implicated in cancer cell growth, survival, and motility. Recent studies show that PI3K may also play a role in the development of resistance to currently available therapies. In a broad range of cancers, various components of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling axis are genetically modified, and the pathway can be activated through many different mechanisms. The frequency of genetic alterations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway, coupled with the impact in oncogenesis and disease progression, make this signaling axis an attractive target in anticancer therapy. A better understanding of the critical function of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in leukemias and lymphomas has led to the clinical evaluation of novel rationally designed inhibitors in this setting. Three main categories of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors have been developed so far: agents that target phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (dual inhibitors), pan-phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors that target all class I isoforms, and isoform-specific inhibitors that selectively target the α, -β, -γ, or -δ isoforms. Emerging data highlight the promise of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors in combination with other therapies for the treatment of patients with hematologic malignancies. Further evaluation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors in first-line or subsequent regimens may improve clinical outcomes. This article reviews the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in hematologic malignancies and the potential clinical utility of inhibitors that target this pathway. PMID:24425689

  16. Discovery and application of immune biomarkers for hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Zafeiris, Dimitrios; Vadakekolathu, Jayakumar; Wagner, Sarah; Pockley, Alan Graham; Ball, Graham Roy; Rutella, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Hematological malignancies originate and progress in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, where they establish a uniquely immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment. Although high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic approaches are being employed to interrogate immune surveillance and escape mechanisms in patients with solid tumours, and to identify actionable targets for immunotherapy, our knowledge of the immunological landscape of hematological malignancies, as well as our understanding of the molecular circuits that underpin the establishment of immune tolerance, is not comprehensive. Areas covered: This article will discuss how multiplexed immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry/mass cytometry, proteomic and genomic techniques can be used to dynamically capture the complexity of tumour-immune interactions. Moreover, the analysis of multi-dimensional, clinically annotated data sets obtained from public repositories such as Array Express, TCGA and GEO is crucial to identify immune biomarkers, to inform the rational design of immune therapies and to predict clinical benefit in individual patients. We will also highlight how artificial neural network models and alternative methodologies integrating other algorithms can support the identification of key molecular drivers of immune dysfunction. Expert commentary: High-dimensional technologies have the potential to enhance our understanding of immune-cancer interactions and will support clinical decision making and the prediction of therapeutic benefit from immune-based interventions.

  17. Mucorales-Specific T Cells in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Forghieri, Fabio; Candoni, Anna; Cesaro, Simone; Quadrelli, Chiara; Maertens, Johan; Rossi, Giulio; Morselli, Monica; Codeluppi, Mauro; Mussini, Cristina; Colaci, Elisabetta; Messerotti, Andrea; Paolini, Ambra; Maccaferri, Monica; Fantuzzi, Valeria; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Stefani, Alessandro; Morandi, Uliano; Maffei, Rossana; Marasca, Roberto; Narni, Franco; Fanin, Renato; Comoli, Patrizia; Romani, Luigina; Beauvais, Anne; Viale, Pier Luigi; Latgè, Jean Paul; Luppi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background Invasive mucormycosis (IM) is an emerging life-threatening fungal infection. It is difficult to obtain a definite diagnosis and to initiate timely intervention. Mucorales-specific T cells occur during the course of IM and are involved in the clearance of the infection. We have evaluated the feasibility of detecting Mucorales-specific T cells in hematological patients at risk for IM, and have correlated the detection of such cells with the clinical conditions of the patients. Methods and Findings By using an enzyme linked immunospot assay, the presence of Mucorales-specific T cells in peripheral blood (PB) samples has been investigated at three time points during high-dose chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. Mucorales-specific T cells producing interferon-γ, interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 were analysed in order to detect a correlation between the immune response and the clinical picture. Twenty-one (10.3%) of 204 patients, accounting for 32 (5.3%) of 598 PB samples, tested positive for Mucorales-specific T cells. Two groups could be identified. Group 1, including 15 patients without signs or symptoms of invasive fungal diseases (IFD), showed a predominance of Mucorales-specific T cells producing interferon-gamma. Group 2 included 6 patients with a clinical picture consistent with invasive fungal disease (IFD): 2 cases of proven IM and 4 cases of possible IFD. The proven patients had significantly higher number of Mucorales-specific T cells producing interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 and higher rates of positive samples by using derived diagnostic cut-offs when compared with the 15 patients without IFD. Conclusions Mucorales-specific T cells can be detected and monitored in patients with hematologic malignancies at risk for IM. Mucorales-specific T cells polarized to the production of T helper type 2 cytokines are associated with proven IM and may be evaluated as a surrogate diagnostic marker for IM. PMID:26871570

  18. Extracorporeal Life Support in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kuk Bin; Kim, Hwan Wook; Jo, Keon Hyon; Kim, Do Yeon; Choi, Hang Jun; Hong, Seok Beom

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in patients with hematologic malignancies is considered to have a poor prognosis. However, to date, there is only one case series reported in the literature. In this study, we compared the in-hospital survival of ECLS in patients with and without hematologic malignancies. Methods We reviewed a total of 66 patients who underwent ECLS for treatment of acute respiratory failure from January 2012 to December 2014. Of these patients, 22 (32%) were diagnosed with hematologic malignancies, and 13 (59%) underwent stem cell transplantation before ECLS. Results The in-hospital survival rate of patients with hematologic malignancies was 5% (1/22), while that of patients without malignancies was 26% (12/46). The number of platelet transfusions was significantly higher in patients with hematologic malignancies (9.69±7.55 vs. 3.12±3.42 units/day). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of hematologic malignancies was a significant negative predictor of survival to discharge (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.01–0.79); p=0.031). Conclusion ECLS in patients with hematologic malignancies had a lower in-hospital survival rate, compared to patients without hematologic malignancies. PMID:27525237

  19. Polymorphism of alpha-1-antitrypsin in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) or serine protease inhibitor A1 (SERPINA1) is an important serine protease inhibitor in humans. The main physiological role of AAT is to inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE) released from triggered neutrophils, with an additional lesser role in the defense against damage inflicted by other serine proteases, such as cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Although there is a reported association between AAT polymorphism and different types of cancer, this association with hematological malignancies (HM) is, as yet, unknown. We identified AAT phenotypes by isoelectric focusing (in the pH 4.2-4.9 range) in 151 serum samples from patients with HM (Hodgkins lymphomas, non-Hodgkins lymphomas and malignant monoclonal gammopathies). Healthy blood-donors constituted the control group (n = 272). The evaluated population of patients as well as the control group, were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the AAT gene (χ2 = 4.42, d.f.11, p = 0.96 and χ2 = 4.71, d.f.11, p = 0.97, respectively). There was no difference in the frequency of deficient AAT alleles (Pi Z and Pi S) between patients and control. However, we found a significantly higher frequency of PiM1M1 homozygote and PiM1 allele in HM patients than in control (for phenotype: f = 0.5166 and 0.4118 respectively, p = 0.037; for allele: f = 0.7020 and 0.6360 respectively, p = 0.05). In addition, PiM homozygotes in HM-patients were more numerous than in controls (59% and 48%, respectively, p = 0.044). PiM1 alleles and PiM1 homozygotes are both associated with hematological malignancies, although this is considered a functionally normal AAT variant. PMID:21637443

  20. Battling the hematological malignancies: the 200 years' war.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Marshall A

    2008-02-01

    The delineation of the hematological malignancies began near the end of the first third of the 19th century with the recognition of the similarity among cases with lymph node tumors and an enlarged spleen (Hodgkin's disease). Descriptions of chronic and acute leukemia and myeloma followed thereafter. In the first years of the 20th century the discovery of x-radiation permitted palliative orthovoltage radiation therapy of Hodgkin's disease. Following World War II, legitimate drug therapy for the hematological malignancies was introduced: nitrogen mustard, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisone acetate, and anti-folic acid derivatives, initially aminopterin. Today, about 14 classes of drugs (different mechanisms of action) and >50 individual agents are being used, with others under study. Several examples of agents targeting specific transcription factors or oncoproteins have been introduced. Despite remarkable progress, including the ability to cure acute leukemia in about 70% of children, cure several genetic variants of acute myelogenous leukemia in younger adults, cure some cases of lymphoma in children and younger adults, and induce prolonged remission in many affected persons, the majority of patients face an uncertain outcome and shortened life. Thus, we have much to do in the next several decades. The significant hurdles we must overcome include: the apparent infrequency of an exogenous cause that can be avoided, the exponential increase in incidence rates with age and the dramatic negative effect of aging on the results of treatment, the challenge of one trillion or more disseminated cancer cells among which are a smaller population of cancer stem cells, the profound genetic diversity of the hematological malignancies (apparently hundreds of unique genetic primary lesions), the redundant growth and survival pathways defining the cancer phenotype, the decreasing market for pharmaceutical companies as therapy becomes more specific (fewer target patients

  1. Tetraspanins as therapeutic targets in hematological malignancy: a concise review

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Kyle A.; Byrd, John C.; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Tetraspanins belong to a family of transmembrane proteins which play a major role in the organization of the plasma membrane. While all immune cells express tetraspanins, most of these are present in a variety of other cell types. There are a select few, such as CD37 and CD53, which are restricted to hematopoietic lineages. Tetraspanins associate with numerous partners involved in a diverse set of biological processes, including cell activation, survival, proliferation, adhesion, and migration. The historical view has assigned them a scaffolding role, but recent discoveries suggest some tetraspanins can directly participate in signaling through interactions with cytoplasmic proteins. Given their potential roles in supporting tumor survival and immune evasion, an improved understanding of tetraspanin activity could prove clinically valuable. This review will focus on emerging data in the study of tetraspanins, advances in the clinical development of anti-CD37 therapeutics, and the future prospects of targeting tetraspanins in hematological malignancy. PMID:25852576

  2. Mechanism of action of lenalidomide in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kotla, Venumadhav; Goel, Swati; Nischal, Sangeeta; Heuck, Christoph; Vivek, Kumar; Das, Bhaskar; Verma, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and pomalidomide are synthetic compounds derived by modifying the chemical structure of thalidomide to improve its potency and reduce its side effects. Lenalidomide is a 4-amino-glutamyl analogue of thalidomide that lacks the neurologic side effects of sedation and neuropathy and has emerged as a drug with activity against various hematological and solid malignancies. It is approved by FDA for clinical use in myelodysplastic syndromes with deletion of chromosome 5q and multiple myeloma. Lenalidomide has been shown to be an immunomodulator, affecting both cellular and humoral limbs of the immune system. It has also been shown to have anti-angiogenic properties. Newer studies demonstrate its effects on signal transduction that can partly explain its selective efficacy in subsets of MDS. Even though the exact molecular targets of lenalidomide are not well known, its activity across a spectrum of neoplastic conditions highlights the possibility of multiple target sites of action. PMID:19674465

  3. Whole genome scanning as a cytogenetic tool in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Mufti, Ghulam J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, methods of cytogenetic analysis evolved and became part of routine laboratory testing, providing valuable diagnostic and prognostic information in hematologic disorders. Karyotypic aberrations contribute to the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of disease and thereby to rational application of therapeutic modalities. Most of the progress in this field stems from the application of metaphase cytogenetics (MC), but recently, novel molecular technologies have been introduced that complement MC and overcome many of the limitations of traditional cytogenetics, including a need for cell culture. Whole genome scanning using comparative genomic hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (CGH-A; SNP-A) can be used for analysis of somatic or clonal unbalanced chromosomal defects. In SNP-A, the combination of copy number detection and genotyping enables diagnosis of copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, a lesion that cannot be detected using MC but may have important pathogenetic implications. Overall, whole genome scanning arrays, despite the drawback of an inability to detect balanced translocations, allow for discovery of chromosomal defects in a higher proportion of patients with hematologic malignancies. Newly detected chromosomal aberrations, including somatic uniparental disomy, may lead to more precise prognostic schemes in many diseases. PMID:18505780

  4. CircRNAs in hematopoiesis and hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bonizzato, A; Gaffo, E; te Kronnie, G; Bortoluzzi, S

    2016-01-01

    Cell states in hematopoiesis are controlled by master regulators and by complex circuits of a growing family of RNA species impacting cell phenotype maintenance and plasticity. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are rapidly gaining the status of particularly stable transcriptome members with distinctive qualities. RNA-seq identified thousands of circRNAs with developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression corroborating earlier suggestions that circular isoforms are a natural feature of the cell expression program. CircRNAs are abundantly expressed also in the hematopoietic compartment. There are a number of studies on circRNAs in blood cells, a specific overview is however lacking. In this review we first present current insight in circRNA biogenesis discussing the relevance for hematopoiesis of the highly interleaved processes of splicing and circRNA biogenesis. Regarding molecular functions circRNAs modulate host gene expression, but also compete for binding of microRNAs, RNA-binding proteins or translation initiation and participate in regulatory circuits. We examine circRNA expression in the hematopoietic compartment and in hematologic malignancies and review the recent breakthrough study that identified pathogenic circRNAs derived from leukemia fusion genes. CircRNA high and regulated expression in blood cell types indicate that further studies are warranted to inform the position of these regulators in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. PMID:27740630

  5. Palliative care in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Lisa; Kang, Tammy I

    2015-01-01

    Children with advanced cancer, including those with hematologic malignancies, can benefit from interdisciplinary palliative care services. Palliative care includes management of distressing symptoms, attention to psychosocial and spiritual needs, and assistance with navigating complex medical decisions with the ultimate goal of maximizing the quality-of-life of the child and family. Palliative care is distinct from hospice care and can assist with the care of patients throughout the cancer continuum, irrespective of prognosis. While key healthcare organizations, including the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Society of Clinical Oncology among many others endorse palliative care for children with advanced illness, barriers to integration of palliative care into cancer care still exist. Providing assistance with advance care planning, guiding patients and families through prognostic uncertainty, and managing transitions of care are also included in goals of palliative care involvement. For patients with advanced malignancy, legislation, included in the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act allows patients and families more options as they make the difficult transition from disease directed therapy to care focused on comfort and quality-of-life.

  6. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Fabian; Grotzer, Michael A; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed.

  7. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Grotzer, Michael A.; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed. PMID:27524931

  8. A risk prediction score for invasive mold disease in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Stanzani, Marta; Lewis, Russell E; Fiacchini, Mauro; Ricci, Paolo; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pierluigi; Ambretti, Simone; Baccarani, Michele; Cavo, Michele; Vianelli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    A risk score for invasive mold disease (IMD) in patients with hematological malignancies could facilitate patient screening and improve the targeted use of antifungal prophylaxis. We retrospectively analyzed 1,709 hospital admissions of 840 patients with hematological malignancies (2005-2008) to collect data on 17 epidemiological and treatment-related risk factors for IMD. Multivariate regression was used to develop a weighted risk score based on independent risk factors associated with proven or probable IMD, which was prospectively validated during 1,746 hospital admissions of 855 patients from 2009-2012. Of the 17 candidate variables analyzed, 11 correlated with IMD by univariate analysis, but only 4 risk factors (neutropenia, lymphocytopenia or lymphocyte dysfunction in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, malignancy status, and prior IMD) were retained in the final multivariate model, resulting in a weighted risk score 0-13. A risk score of < 6 discriminated patients with low (< 1%) versus higher incidence rates (> 5%) of IMD, with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.99, (95% CI 0.98-0.99). During 2009-2012, patients with a calculated risk score at admission of < 6 had significantly lower 90-day incidence rates of IMD compared to patients with scores > 6 (0.9% vs. 10.6%, P <0.001). An objective, weighted risk score for IMD can accurately discriminate patients with hematological malignancies at low risk for developing mold disease, and could possibly facilitate "screening-out" of low risk patients less likely to benefit from intensive diagnostic monitoring or mold-directed antifungal prophylaxis.

  9. A Risk Prediction Score for Invasive Mold Disease in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Marta; Lewis, Russell E.; Fiacchini, Mauro; Ricci, Paolo; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pierluigi; Ambretti, Simone; Baccarani, Michele; Cavo, Michele; Vianelli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Background A risk score for invasive mold disease (IMD) in patients with hematological malignancies could facilitate patient screening and improve the targeted use of antifungal prophylaxis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1,709 hospital admissions of 840 patients with hematological malignancies (2005-2008) to collect data on 17 epidemiological and treatment-related risk factors for IMD. Multivariate regression was used to develop a weighted risk score based on independent risk factors associated with proven or probable IMD, which was prospectively validated during 1,746 hospital admissions of 855 patients from 2009-2012. Results Of the 17 candidate variables analyzed, 11 correlated with IMD by univariate analysis, but only 4 risk factors (neutropenia, lymphocytopenia or lymphocyte dysfunction in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, malignancy status, and prior IMD) were retained in the final multivariate model, resulting in a weighted risk score 0-13. A risk score of < 6 discriminated patients with low (< 1%) versus higher incidence rates (> 5%) of IMD, with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.99, (95% CI 0.98-0.99). During 2009-2012, patients with a calculated risk score at admission of < 6 had significantly lower 90-day incidence rates of IMD compared to patients with scores > 6 (0.9% vs. 10.6%, P <0.001). Conclusion An objective, weighted risk score for IMD can accurately discriminate patients with hematological malignancies at low risk for developing mold disease, and could possibly facilitate “screening-out” of low risk patients less likely to benefit from intensive diagnostic monitoring or mold-directed antifungal prophylaxis. PMID:24086555

  10. Detection of malignancy in body fluids: a comparison of the hematology and cytology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Jaclyn L; Donohue, Rachel E; Mody, Rayomond R; Schwartz, Mary R; Mody, Dina R; Zieske, Arthur W

    2014-05-01

    Body fluids submitted to the hematology laboratory for cell counts may also be examined for the presence of malignancy. Previous studies evaluating the hematology laboratory's performance at detecting malignancy in body fluids have reached conflicting conclusions. To investigate the hematology laboratory's ability to detect malignancy in body fluids by comparison with cytology. Retrospective analysis of 414 body fluid samples during an 18-month period, with introduction of new quality assurance measures after the first 210 cases. If no concurrent cytology was ordered, results were compared with recent previous and/or subsequent cytologic, histologic, or flow cytometric diagnoses. Of the initial 210 cases, the hematology laboratory detected 3 of 13 malignancies diagnosed by concurrent cytology (23% sensitivity), with no false-positives (100% specificity). Malignancy was not identified on retrospective review of the hematology slides in the 10 discrepant cases. After the initial study, educational sessions on morphology for the medical technologists and a more thorough hematology-cytology correlation policy were implemented. The subsequent 204 hematology laboratory cases had increased sensitivity for the detection of malignancy (60%; 6 of 10). Definitive features of malignancy were seen in only one discrepant hematology laboratory slide on retrospective review. This case had not been flagged for hematopathologist review. None of the discrepancies before or after implementation of the additional quality assurance measures impacted patient care. Body fluid processing by the hematology laboratory is not optimized for the detection of malignancy. Concurrent cytologic examination is critical for the detection of malignancy, and needs to be considered as cost-saving measures are increasingly implemented.

  11. Nutritional status among pediatric cancer patients: a comparison between hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Tah, Pei Chien; Nik Shanita, Safii; Poh, Bee Koon

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of pediatric patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors. A total of 74 pediatric cancer patients were assessed for anthropometric status, biochemical profiles, and dietary intake. The prevalence of undernutrition was higher among patients with solid tumors as reflected in their lower dietary intakes of energy and nutrients compared with patients with hematological malignancies. Adequate dietary intake is important for pediatric cancer patients, but nurses need to pay more attention to the diets of patients with solid tumors as compared with those with hematological malignancies. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Acquired uniparental disomy of chromosome 9p in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linghua; Wheeler, David A; Prchal, Josef T

    2016-08-01

    Acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) is a common and recurrent molecular event in human cancers that leads to homozygosity for tumor suppressor genes as well as oncogenes, while retaining the diploid chromosomal complement. Because of the lack of copy number change, aUPD is undetectable by comparative genome hybridization, so the magnitude of this genetic change was underappreciated in the past. 9p aUPD was first described in 2002 in patients with polycythemia vera (PV). Since then, systematic application of genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays has indicated that 9p aUPD is the most common chromosomal aberration in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), contributing to discovery of the PV-defining mutation JAK2V617F21. It was also found in other myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, though at a relatively lower frequency. By leading to JAK2V617F 23 homozygosity, 9p aUPD plays a causal role in the development of PV and is also associated with less favorable clinical outcomes. It is also possible that new targets other than JAK2V617F 25 are present within 9p aUPD that may contribute to diversity of PV outcome and phenotype. This review summarizes recent discoveries on 9p aUPD in hematologic malignancies and discusses possible underlying mechanisms and potential roles of 9p aUPD in the pathogenesis of PV, the relationship between 9p aUPD and JAK2V617F29, and possible new cancer-related targets within the 9p aUPD region.

  13. Epigenetics, autoimmunity and hematologic malignancies: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ngalamika, Owen; Zhang, Yiqun; Yin, Heng; Zhao, Ming; Gershwin, M Eric; Lu, Qianjin

    2012-12-01

    The relationships between immunological dysfunction, loss of tolerance and hematologic malignancies have been a focus of attention in attempts to understand the appearance of a higher degree of autoimmune disease and lymphoma in children with congenital immunodeficiency. Although multiple hypotheses have been offered, it is clear that stochastic processes play an important role in the immunopathology of these issues. In particular, accumulating evidence is defining a role of epigenetic mechanisms as being critical in this continuous spectrum between autoimmunity and lymphoma. In this review, we focus attention predominantly on the relationships between T helper 17 (Th17) and T regulatory populations that alter local microenvironments and ultimately the expression or transcription factors involved in cell activation and differentiation. Abnormal expression in any of the molecules involved in Th17 and/or Treg development alter immune homeostasis and in genetically susceptible hosts may lead to the appearance of autoimmunity and/or lymphoma. These observations have clinical significance in explaining the discordance of autoimmunity in identical twins. They are also particularly important in the relationships between primary immune deficiency syndromes, immune dysregulation and an increased risk of lymphoma. Indeed, defining the factors that determine epigenetic alterations and their relationships to immune homeostasis will be a challenge greater or even equal to the human genome project.

  14. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells in Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shank, Brandon R; Do, Bryan; Sevin, Adrienne; Chen, Sheree E; Neelapu, Sattva S; Horowitz, Sandra B

    2017-03-01

    Patients with B-cell hematologic malignancies who progress through first- or second-line chemotherapy have a poor prognosis. Early clinical trials with autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have demonstrated promising results for patients who have relapsed or refractory disease. Lymphodepleting conditioning regimens, including cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, pentostatin, bendamustine, interleukin-2, and total body irradiation, are often administered before the infusion of CAR T cells, allowing for greater T-cell expansion. The major toxicity associated with CAR T-cell infusions is cytokine release syndrome (CRS), a potentially life-threatening systemic inflammatory disorder. The quick onset and progression of CRS require rapid detection and intervention to reduce treatment-related mortality. Management with tocilizumab can help ameliorate the symptoms of severe CRS, allowing steroids, which diminish the expansion and persistence of CAR T cells, to be reserved for tocilizumab-refractory patients. Other toxicities of CAR T-cell therapy include neutropenia and/or febrile neutropenia, infection, tumor lysis syndrome, neurotoxicity and nausea/vomiting. A review of patients' medications is imperative to eliminate medications that may contribute to treatment-related toxicities. Studies are ongoing to help optimize patient selection, preparation, safety, and management of individuals receiving CAR T cells. Long-term follow-up will help establish the place of CAR T cells in therapy.

  15. Epidemiology of Candida kefyr in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dufresne, Simon F.; Sydnor, Emily; Staab, Janet F.; Karp, Judith E.; Lu, Kit; Zhang, Sean X.; Lavallée, Christian; Perl, Trish M.; Neofytos, Dionysios

    2014-01-01

    Candida kefyr is an emerging pathogen among patients with hematologic malignancies (HM). We performed a retrospective study at Johns Hopkins Hospital to evaluate the epidemiology of C. kefyr colonization and infection in HM patients between 2004 and 2010. Eighty-three patients were colonized and/or infected with C. kefyr, with 8 (9.6%) having invasive candidiasis (IC). The yearly incidence of C. kefyr colonization and candidemia increased over the study period (P < 0.01), particularly after 2009. In 2010, C. kefyr caused 16.7% of candidemia episodes. The monthly incidence of C. kefyr was higher during the summer throughout the study. In a cohort of patients with acute myelogenic leukemia receiving induction chemotherapy, risks for C. kefyr colonization included the summer season (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; P = 0.03); administration of an azole (OR, 0.06; P < 0.001) or amphotericin B (OR, 0.35; P = 0.05) was protective. Fingerprinting of 16 isolates by repetitive sequence-based PCR showed that all were different genotypes. The epidemiology of C. kefyr candidemia was evaluated in another hospital in Montreal, Canada; data confirmed higher rates of C. kefyr infection in the summer. C. kefyr appears to be increasing in HM patients, with prominent summer seasonality. These findings raise questions about the effect of antifungal agents and health care exposures (e.g., yogurt) on the epidemiology of this yeast. PMID:24622105

  16. The role of proteasome inhibition in the treatment of malignant and non-malignant hematologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Citrin, Rebecca; Foster, Jessica B; Teachey, David T

    2016-09-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have garnered interest as novel chemotherapeutic agents based on their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cells by altering the balance of intracellular proteins. Initial clinical trials of this drug class focused on bortezomib, a reversible inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, with promising results for the treatment of adult hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This article will review the use of bortezomib and other proteasome inhibitors in both adult and pediatric populations, with a focus on their use in pediatrics. Expert commentary: Bortezomib moved into the pediatric oncology arena with encouraging results in multiple early phase trials for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. Bortezomib is also being studied in the treatment of non-malignant disorders, including antibody-mediated allograft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, and autoimmune cytopenias. The numerous applications of bortezomib have inspired the development of second-generation proteasome inhibitors.

  17. BET inhibitors in the treatment of hematologic malignancies: current insights and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Abedin, Sameem M; Boddy, Craig S; Munshi, Hidayatullah G

    2016-01-01

    The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family of proteins are important epigenetic regulators involved in promoting gene expression of critical oncogenes. BET inhibitors have been demonstrated to repress c-Myc expression, and were initially shown to have efficacy in a number of c-Myc-dependent hematologic malignancies. Recent studies have now revealed a broader role for BET inhibitors in hematologic malignancies. In this review, we summarize the efficacy of BET inhibitors in preclinical models of acute leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. We also summarize recent results of clinical trials utilizing BET inhibitors in hematologic malignancies, characterize potential resistance mechanisms to BET inhibitors, and discuss potential combination therapies with BET inhibitors in patients with hematologic malignancies. PMID:27729803

  18. BET inhibitors in the treatment of hematologic malignancies: current insights and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Sameem M; Boddy, Craig S; Munshi, Hidayatullah G

    2016-01-01

    The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family of proteins are important epigenetic regulators involved in promoting gene expression of critical oncogenes. BET inhibitors have been demonstrated to repress c-Myc expression, and were initially shown to have efficacy in a number of c-Myc-dependent hematologic malignancies. Recent studies have now revealed a broader role for BET inhibitors in hematologic malignancies. In this review, we summarize the efficacy of BET inhibitors in preclinical models of acute leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. We also summarize recent results of clinical trials utilizing BET inhibitors in hematologic malignancies, characterize potential resistance mechanisms to BET inhibitors, and discuss potential combination therapies with BET inhibitors in patients with hematologic malignancies.

  19. Statistics of hematologic malignancies in Korea: incidence, prevalence and survival rates from 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Eun-Hye; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Byung-Kiu; Lee, Hyewon; Eom, Hyeon-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Background The nationwide statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea has not been reported yet. Methods The Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Korean Society of Hematology jointly investigated domestic incidence rates and prevalence of hematologic malignancies occurred between 1999 and 2008, and analyzed survival rates of patients who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2008. Data of hematologic malignancies from 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Data base. The crude incidence rates, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates, annual percentage change of incidence, and prevalence from 1999-2008 were calculated. Survival rates for patients diagnosed in 1993-2008 were estimated. Results In 2008, a total of 8,006 cases of hematologic malignancies were occurred, which comprised 4.5% of all malignancies. In all genders, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and multiple myeloma were most frequent diseases. In terms of age, ages between 60 and 69 were most prevalent. From 1999 to 2008, the age-standardized incidence rates increased from 10.2 to 13.7, and the annual percentage change was 3.9%. The 5-year survival rate increased from 38.2% during 1993-1995 to 55.2% during 2004-2008. As of January 2009, number of patients with 10-year prevalence was 33,130, and with 5- to 10-year prevalence was 10,515. Conclusion This is the first nationwide statistical report of hematologic malignancies in Korea. It could be used as the basic information to help investigate epidemiologic characteristics, evaluate progress during the past years, and establish future strategies for hematologic malignancies. Periodic statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea should be continued. PMID:22479275

  20. Quality of end-of-life care in patients with hematologic malignancies: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hui, David; Didwaniya, Neha; Vidal, Marieberta; Shin, Seong Hoon; Chisholm, Gary; Roquemore, Joyce; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-05-15

    To the authors' knowledge, only limited data are available regarding the quality of end-of-life care for patients with hematologic malignancies. In this retrospective cohort study, the quality of end-of-life care was compared between patients with hematologic malignancies and those with solid tumors. All adult patients who died of advanced cancer between September 1, 2009 and February 28, 2010 while under the care of the study institution were included. The authors collected baseline demographics and end-of-life care indicators, including emergency room visits, hospitalization, intensive care unit admissions, and systemic cancer therapy use within the last 30 days of life. Of a total of 816 decedents, 113 (14%) had hematologic malignancies. In the last 30 days of life, patients with hematologic malignancies were more likely to have emergency room visits (54% vs 43%; P = .03), hospital admissions (81% vs 47%; P < .001), ≥ 2 hospital admissions (23% vs 10%; P < .001), > 14 days of hospitalization (38% vs 8%; P < .001), intensive care unit admissions (39% vs 8%; P < .001) and death (33% vs 4%; P < .001), chemotherapy use (43% vs 14%; P < .001), and targeted therapy use (34% vs 11%; P < .001) compared with patients with solid tumors. Patients with hematologic malignancies were also less likely to have palliative care unit admissions (8% vs 17%; P = .02). The composite score for aggressiveness of care (with 0 indicating the best and 6 indicating the worst) was significantly higher among patients with hematologic malignancies compared with those with solid tumors (median, 2 vs 0; P < .001). On multivariate analysis, hematologic malignancy was found to be a significant factor associated with aggressive end-of-life care (odds ratio, 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.1-10.7 [P < .001]). The results of the current study indicate that patients with hematologic malignancies received more aggressive care at the end of life. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  1. Targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Axis in Children with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, David; Brown, Valerie I.; Grupp, Stephan A.; Teachey, David T.

    2014-01-01

    TORC1 and mTORC2, mTORC1 and PI3K, and the triad of PI3K, mTORC1, and mTORC2. Preclinical data suggest these dual- and multi-kinase inhibitors are more potent than rapalogs against many of the aforementioned hematologic malignancies. Two classes of AKT inhibitors are under development, the alkyl-lysophospholipids (APLs) and small molecule AKT inhibitors. Both classes have agents currently in clinical trials. A number of drugs are in development that target other components of the pathway, including eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E (eIF4E) and phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1). Finally, a number of other key signaling pathways interact with PI3K/AKT/mTOR, including Notch, MNK, Syk, MAPK, and aurora kinase. These alternative pathways are being targeted alone and in combination with PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors with promising preclinical results in pediatric hematologic malignancies. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the abnormalities in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in pediatric hematologic malignancies, the agents that are used to target this pathway, and the results of preclinical and clinical trials, using those agents in childhood hematologic cancers. PMID:22845486

  2. Targeting hedgehog signaling in myelofibrosis and other hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of myelofibrosis (MF), a BCR-ABL–negative myeloproliferative neoplasm, is challenging. The only current potentially curative option, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, is recommended for few patients. The remaining patients are treated with palliative therapies to manage MF-related anemia and splenomegaly. Identification of a mutation in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene (JAK2 V617F) in more than half of all patients with MF has prompted the discovery and clinical development of inhibitors that target JAK2. Although treatment with JAK2 inhibitors has been shown to improve symptom response and quality of life in patients with MF, these drugs do not alter the underlying disease; therefore, novel therapies are needed. The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been shown to play a role in normal hematopoiesis and in the tumorigenesis of hematologic malignancies. Moreover, inhibitors of the Hh pathway have been shown to inhibit growth and self-renewal capacity in preclinical models of MF. In a mouse model of MF, combined inhibition of the Hh and JAK pathways reduced JAK2 mutant allele burden, reduced bone marrow fibrosis, and reduced white blood cell and platelet counts. Preliminary clinical data also suggest that inhibition of the Hh pathway, alone or in combination with JAK2 inhibition, may enable disease modification in patients with MF. Future studies, including one combining the Hh pathway inhibitor sonidegib and the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib, are underway in patients with MF and will inform whether this combination approach can lead to true disease modification. PMID:24598114

  3. Treatment of Febrile Neutropenia and Prophylaxis in Hematologic Malignancies: A Critical Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Villafuerte-Gutierrez, Paola; Villalon, Lucia; Losa, Juan E.; Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is one of the most serious complications in patients with haematological malignancies and chemotherapy. A prompt identification of infection and empirical antibiotic therapy can prolong survival. This paper reviews the guidelines about febrile neutropenia in the setting of hematologic malignancies, providing an overview of the definition of fever and neutropenia, and categories of risk assessment, management of infections, and prophylaxis. PMID:25525436

  4. Treatment of febrile neutropenia and prophylaxis in hematologic malignancies: a critical review and update.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte-Gutierrez, Paola; Villalon, Lucia; Losa, Juan E; Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is one of the most serious complications in patients with haematological malignancies and chemotherapy. A prompt identification of infection and empirical antibiotic therapy can prolong survival. This paper reviews the guidelines about febrile neutropenia in the setting of hematologic malignancies, providing an overview of the definition of fever and neutropenia, and categories of risk assessment, management of infections, and prophylaxis.

  5. Releasing the Brake on the Immune System: The PD-1 Strategy for Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Locke J; Gordon, Leo I

    2015-06-01

    Manipulation of the immune system as a viable cancer treatment strategy has re-emerged. The programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway is an important, physiologic immune checkpoint necessary to limit autoimmune processes but co-opted by tumors to suppress the antitumor response and allow tumor escape. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway through the use of PD-1 or PD ligand 1(PD-L1) antibodies releases this brake on the immune response. The anti-PD-1 antibodies have produced encouraging results across a broad range of malignancies. Many hematologic malignancies have usurped the PD-1 pathway. Recent investigations have explored the use of anti-PD-1 therapy in hematologic malignancies, with encouraging results. Incorporation of PD-1 blockade into the treatment algorithms for hematologic malignancies is currently being pursued in multiple active clinical trials. Here we review the data on anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies to date and discuss ongoing and future clinical trials.

  6. Hematologic malignancies in patients with cryoglobulinemia: association with autoimmune and chronic viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Trejo, Olga; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; López-Guillermo, Armando; García-Carrasco, Mario; Yagüe, Jordi; Cervera, Ricard; Font, Josep; Ingelmo, Miguel

    2003-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hematologic malignancies occurring in a large series of patients diagnosed with cryoglobulinemia, and to study their association and overlap with autoimmune and/or chronic viral diseases. We retrospectively analyzed the occurrence of hematologic malignancies in 607 patients diagnosed with cryoglobulinemia in a single institution. Clinical, histologic, and serologic characteristics of patients were recorded on a protocol form. Hematologic malignancies were diagnosed according to the Revised European-American Lymphoma/World Health Organization classification criteria. Of the total cohort of 607 patients with cryoglobulinemia, we retrospectively identified 27 patients (5%) in whom a hematologic malignancy was diagnosed, including 24 (89%) lymphoproliferative and 3 (11%) myeloid malignancies. Fifteen (56%) were men and 12 (44%) women, with a median age at diagnosis of hematologic malignancy of 67 years (range, 44 to 88 years). The identified hematologic malignancies were non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 18), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 2), and 1 case each of multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, Castleman disease, chronic myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Of the 18 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, there was a predilection for specific histologic types (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in 8 cases and small lymphocytic lymphoma in 4) and a higher frequency of a primary extranodal origin in 6 (33%) cases. Conditions associated with hematologic malignancies were hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 14 patients (52%) and systemic autoimmune diseases in 13 (48%), with both HCV and systemic autoimmune disease in 6 cases (22%). Hematologic neoplasia associated with cryoglobulinemia is defined by a clear predominance of lymphoproliferative disorders (mainly non-Hodgkin lymphoma), with substantial extranodal involvement and an elevated presence of immunologic markers

  7. Epidemiology and clinical manifestation of fungal infection related to Mucormycosis in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Noorifard, M; Sekhavati, E; Jalaei Khoo, H; Hazraty, I; Tabrizi, R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mucormycosis is an opportunist fungus infection with acute and rapidly progressive nature in the hematologic malignancy patients. This study was done to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this infection among hematologic malignancies. Methodology:This cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical) was performed while investigating medical records of 30 patients with hematologic malignancy affected by Mucormycosis in Imam Reza Hospital between 2001 and 2013. After collecting the data, it was entered in SPSS 19 Software with a provided checklist that included demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, and it was analyzed by using descriptive (mean, frequency) and inferential (chi- square and independent -t-test) statistical methods (p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant). Findings:Overall, the prevalence of Mucormycosis was 4.29 per 100 patient hematologic malignancies. The infection proportion among men and women was 72. 2, 27.6%, respectively. The maximum cases of Mucormycosis were observed among AML patients (62.1%). The most common place of involvement was lung (89.4%) and fever was the most popular sign of the infection (100%). The most considerable and effective factor in the prognosis of infection was using combined therapy of Amphotericin Band surgery (debridement) that has statistically significant correlation (p<0.05). Conclusion:Considerable prevalence and death related to Mucormycosis infection among patients of hematologic malignancy showed the importance of having strategies for its prevention and early diagnosis especially among acute leukemia patients.

  8. Targeted Marrow Irradiation, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Busulfan Before Donor Progenitor Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-27

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Hematologic Malignancies; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Myelofibrosis; Myeloproliferative Syndrome

  9. Antibody-modified T cells: CARs take the front seat for hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Marcela V.; Grupp, Stephan A.; Porter, David L.

    2014-01-01

    T cells redirected to specific antigen targets with engineered chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are emerging as powerful therapies in hematologic malignancies. Various CAR designs, manufacturing processes, and study populations, among other variables, have been tested and reported in over 10 clinical trials. Here, we review and compare the results of the reported clinical trials and discuss the progress and key emerging factors that may play a role in effecting tumor responses. We also discuss the outlook for CAR T-cell therapies, including managing toxicities and expanding the availability of personalized cell therapy as a promising approach to all hematologic malignancies. Many questions remain in the field of CAR T cells directed to hematologic malignancies, but the encouraging response rates pave a wide road for future investigation. PMID:24578504

  10. ARLTS1, potential candidate gene in familial aggregation of hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Hamadou, Walid Sabri; Besbes, Sawsen; Mani, Rahma; Bourdon, Violaine; Ben Youssef, Yosra; Achour, Béchir; Regaieg, Haifa; Eisinger, François; Mari, Véronique; Gesta, Paul; Dreyfus, Hélène; Bonadona, Valérie; Dugast, Catherine; Zattara, Hélène; Faivre, Laurence; Noguchi, Testsuro; Khélif, Abderrahim; Sobol, Hagay; Soua, Zohra

    2017-02-01

    Genetic predisposition to familial hematological malignancies was previously described through several epidemiological analyses, but the genetic basis remains unclear. The tumor-suppressor ARLTS1 gene was previously described in sporadic hematological malignancies and familial cancer context. In this study, we sequence the ARLTS1 gene in 100 patients belonging to 88 independent Tunisian and French families. After gene sequencing, we report 8 genetic variations, most of which were previously reported in several cancer forms. The most common variants were W149X and C148R and were previously associated to B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to high-risk of familial breast cancer. These results emphasize the fact that ARLTS1 gene mutations can be considered as a potential predisposing factor in familial hematological malignancies and other several cancer forms. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Dysregulated expression of SKP2 and its role in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kulinski, Michal; Achkar, Iman W; Haris, Mohammad; Dermime, Said; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Uddin, Shahab

    2017-08-10

    S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) is a well-studied F-box protein and a critical part of the Skp1-Cul1-Fbox (SCF) E3 ligase complex. It controls cell cycle by regulating the expression level of p27 and p21 through ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. SKP2-mediated loss of p27Kip1 is associated with poor clinical outcome in various types of cancers including hematological malignancies. It is however well established that SKP2 is an oncogene, and its targeting may be an attractive therapeutic strategy for the management of hematological malignancies. In this article, we have highlighted the recent findings from our group and other investigators regarding the role of SKP2 in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies.

  12. Antibody-modified T cells: CARs take the front seat for hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Maus, Marcela V; Grupp, Stephan A; Porter, David L; June, Carl H

    2014-04-24

    T cells redirected to specific antigen targets with engineered chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are emerging as powerful therapies in hematologic malignancies. Various CAR designs, manufacturing processes, and study populations, among other variables, have been tested and reported in over 10 clinical trials. Here, we review and compare the results of the reported clinical trials and discuss the progress and key emerging factors that may play a role in effecting tumor responses. We also discuss the outlook for CAR T-cell therapies, including managing toxicities and expanding the availability of personalized cell therapy as a promising approach to all hematologic malignancies. Many questions remain in the field of CAR T cells directed to hematologic malignancies, but the encouraging response rates pave a wide road for future investigation.

  13. Epimutational profile of hematologic malignancies as attractive target for new epigenetic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Fratta, Elisabetta; Montico, Barbara; Rizzo, Aurora; Colizzi, Francesca; Sigalotti, Luca; Dolcetti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, recurrent somatic mutations in epigenetic regulators have been identified in patients with hematological malignancies. Furthermore, chromosomal translocations in which the fusion protein partners are themselves epigenetic regulators or where epigenetic regulators are recruited/targeted by oncogenic fusion proteins have also been described. Evidence has accumulated showing that “epigenetic drugs” are likely to provide clinical benefits in several hematological malignancies, granting their approval for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. A large number of pre-clinical and clinical trials evaluating epigenetic drugs alone or in combination therapies are ongoing. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of known epigenetic alterations and of the current use of epigenetic drugs for the treatment of hematological malignancies. PMID:27329599

  14. High Throughput FISH Analysis: A New, Sensitive Option For Evaluation of Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Savlı, Hakan; Eren, Seda; Üzülmez, Nilüfer; İlkay, Zeynep; Yavuz, Duygu; Sünnetçi, Deniz; Hacıhanifioğlu, Abdullah; Çine, Naci

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of the high throughput FISH analysis (HTFA) method for detecting genetic alterations in hematological malignancies, which is a new bacterial artificial chromosome array-based approach. Materials and Methods: We performed a HTFA study of bone marrow aspiration and peripheral blood samples of 77 cases (n=19 myelodysplastic syndrome, n=17 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, n=9 chronic myeloid leukemia, n=32 acute myeloid leukemia) with hematological malignancies during the periods of initial diagnosis, treatment, and/or follow-up. Results: Both numerical and structural abnormalities were detected by HTFA. We observed aberrations in 88% of our acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, 25% of acute myeloid leukemia patients, and 31% of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. In chronic myeloid leukemia cases, aberration was not detected by HTFA. Conclusion: Our results showed that HTFA, combined with other methods, will gradually take a place in the routine diagnosis of hematologic malignancies. PMID:24385774

  15. End-of-life care for hematological malignancies: the 'technological imperative' and palliative care.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam

    2002-01-01

    Recent research indicates that hospice/palliative care practices have not yet been integrated into the care of patients with hematological malignancies. As research in relation to palliative care and hematological malignancies is in its infancy, many of the end-of-life care practices with these diagnostic groups are based on unexamined ideas. The findings presented in this article, which are taken from recent post-doctoral research on hematological malignancies and palliative care, make a contribution to documenting information on what is happening to patients and their families in this area. In particular, the findings provide insights on issues associated with the patient and carer awareness that the patient is dying, understanding of prognosis, and the desire to die at home. Such insights are placed in the context of descriptions of the patients' experience with treatment during the terminal stage.

  16. Sex chromosome loss and the pseudoautosomal region genes in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Stephanie; Stoner, Samuel A.; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2016-01-01

    Cytogenetic aberrations, such as chromosomal translocations, aneuploidy, and amplifications, are frequently detected in hematological malignancies. For many of the common autosomal aberrations, the mechanisms underlying their roles in cancer development have been well-characterized. On the contrary, although loss of a sex chromosome is observed in a broad range of hematological malignancies, how it cooperates in disease development is less understood. Nevertheless, it has been postulated that tumor suppressor genes reside on the sex chromosomes. Although the X and Y sex chromosomes are highly divergent, the pseudoautosomal regions are homologous between both chromosomes. Here, we review what is currently known about the pseudoautosomal region genes in the hematological system. Additionally, we discuss implications for haploinsufficiency of critical pseudoautosomal region sex chromosome genes, driven by sex chromosome loss, in promoting hematological malignancies. Because mechanistic studies on disease development rely heavily on murine models, we also discuss the challenges and caveats of existing models, and propose alternatives for examining the involvement of pseudoautosomal region genes and loss of a sex chromosome in vivo. With the widespread detection of loss of a sex chromosome in different hematological malignances, the elucidation of the role of pseudoautosomal region genes in the development and progression of these diseases would be invaluable to the field. PMID:27655702

  17. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reischies, Frederike M J; Raggam, Reinhard B; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 patients with underlying hematological malignancies and found that the urine GM/creatinine ratio, i.e., (urine GM level × 100)/urine creatinine level, which takes urine dilution into account, reliably detected invasive aspergillosis and may be a promising diagnostic tool for patients with hematological malignancies. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01576653.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Statins use and the risk of all and subtype hematological malignancies: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Pradelli, Danitza; Soranna, Davide; Zambon, Antonella; Catapano, Alberico; Mancia, Giuseppe; La Vecchia, Carlo; Corrao, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantify the association between use of statins and the risk of all hematological malignancies and of subtypes, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies. We achieved a MEDLINE/EMBASE comprehensive search for studies published up to August 2014 investigating the association between use of statins and the risk of hematological malignancies, including Hodgkin- and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma. Fixed- and random-effect models were fitted to estimate the summary relative risk (RR) based on adjusted study-specific results. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the Q and I2 statistics and the sources of heterogeneity were investigated using Deeks' test. Moreover, an influence analysis was performed. Finally, publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot and Egger's regression asymmetry test. Fourteen studies (10 case–control and four cohort studies) contributed to the analysis. Statin use, compared to nonuse of statins, was negatively associated with all hematological malignancies taken together (summary RR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77–0.96), with leukemia (0.83; 0.74–0.92), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.81; 0.68 to 0.96), but it was not related to the risk of myeloma (0.89; 0.53–1.51). Long-term users of statins showed a statistically significant reduction in the risk of all hematological malignancies taken together (0.78; 0.71–0.87). Statistically significant between-studies heterogeneity was observed for all outcome except for leukemia. Heterogeneity was caused by differences confounding-adjustment level of the included studies only for Myeloma. No significant evidence of publication bias was found. PMID:25809667

  19. XPO1 in B cell hematological malignancies: from recurrent somatic mutations to targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Camus, Vincent; Miloudi, Hadjer; Taly, Antoine; Sola, Brigitte; Jardin, Fabrice

    2017-02-14

    Many recent publications highlight the large role of the pivotal eukaryotic nuclear export protein exportin-1 (XPO1) in the oncogenesis of several malignancies, and there is emerging evidence that XPO1 inhibition is a key target against cancer. The clinical validation of the pharmacological inhibition of XPO1 was recently achieved with the development of the selective inhibitor of nuclear export compounds, displaying an interesting anti-tumor activity in patients with massive pre-treated hematological malignancies. Recent reports have shown molecular alterations in the gene encoding XPO1 and showed a mutation hotspot (E571K) in the following two hematological malignancies with similar phenotypes and natural histories: primary mediastinal diffuse large B cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Emerging evidence suggests that the mutant XPO1 E571K plays a role in carcinogenesis, and this variant is quantifiable in tumor and plasma cell-free DNA of patients using highly sensitive molecular biology techniques, such as digital PCR and next-generation sequencing. Therefore, it was proposed that the XPO1 E571K variant may serve as a minimal residual disease tool in this setting. To clarify and summarize the recent findings on the role of XPO1 in B cell hematological malignancies, we conducted a literature search to present the major publications establishing the landscape of XPO1 molecular alterations, their impact on the XPO1 protein, their interest as biomarkers, and investigations into the development of new XPO1-targeted therapies in B cell hematological malignancies.

  20. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Infection in Patients with Hematologic Disorders and Non-Hematologic Malignancies in a Tertiary Referral Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jalaeikhoo, Hasan; Soleymani, Mosayeb; Rajaeinejad, Mohsen; Keyhani, Manoutchehr

    2017-04-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first retrovirus identified in human. The current evidence is quite scarce regarding the potential role of HTLV-1 in pathogenesis of hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in patients with hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 505 cases of definite diagnosis of hematologic disorders including malignancies as well as non-malignant disorders such as polycythemia and myelofibrosis and non-hematologic malignancies referred to the hematology and medical oncology ward at Army Hospital 501 from January 2015 to January 2016. A 3-mL blood specimen was collected from each patient and tested for the presence of anti-HTLV-1 antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using SPSS software package version 19 (IBM, New York, USA). Data are presented as mean ± SD if normally distributed and otherwise as median (range). Totally, 242 (48%) males and 263 (52%) females with a mean ± SD age of 52.09 ± 16.24 were enrolled in this study. In total, there were 9 (1.78%) cases positive for HTLV-1 infection including 4 males and 5 females. Seven out of 287 (2.4%) patients with hematologic disorders were infected by HTLV-1. In non-hematologic malignancies, 2 out of 211 cases were positive (0.9%). There was no HTLV-1 positive case in 7 patients with both hematologic and non-hematologic disorders. The difference in HTLV-1 infection prevalence between patients with hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies was not statistically significant different (P = 0.31). There was no association between sex and transfusion history with HTLV-1 infection in this population (P = 0.9 and 0.7, respectively). Our study revealed that the prevalence of HTLV-1 in hematologic disorders is higher than the general population. Further larger prospective studies are

  1. Nutritional status of children and adolescents at diagnosis of hematological and solid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Priscila dos Santos Maia; de Oliveira, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli; Caran, Eliana Maria Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the nutritional status of child and adolescent patients with cancer at diagnosis. Methods A total of 1154 patients were included and divided into two groups: solid and hematological malignancies. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percentage weight loss. Results At diagnosis, below adequate body mass index was observed by anthropometric analysis in 10.85% of the patients – 12.2% in the solid tumor group and 9.52% in the hematologic group. The average weight loss adjusted for a period of 7 days was −2.82% in the hematologic group and −2.9% in the solid tumor group. Conclusions The prevalence of malnutrition is higher among patients with malignancies than in the general population, even though no difference was observed between the two groups. PMID:25453652

  2. Invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a young patient with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Parahym, Ana Maria Rabelo de Carvalho; Rolim, Pedro José; da Silva, Carolina Maria; Domingos, Igor de Farias; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Leite, Edinalva Pereira; de Morais, Vera Lúcia Lins; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; de Lima, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a patient with hematological malignancies after chemotherapy treatment and empiric antifungal therapy with caspofungin. Although severely immunocompromised the patient survived been treated with amphotericin B lipid complex associated with voriconazole. PMID:26273269

  3. T-Regulatory Cell and CD3 Depleted Double Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-04

    Hematologic Malignancy; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Blast Crisis; Anemia, Refractory, With Excess of Blasts; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disease; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle-Cell Lymphoma; Prolymphocytic Lymphoma; Large Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Burkitt's Lymphoma; High Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

  4. Exploring Therapeutic Potentials of Baicalin and Its Aglycone Baicalein for Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Gao, Yu; Wu, Jianlei; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Buyuan; Hu, Jianda; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Despite tremendous advances in the targeted therapy for various types of hematological malignancies with successful improvements in the survival rates, emerging resistance issues are startlingly high and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In addition, chemoprevention is currently becoming an elusive goal. Plant-derived natural products have garnered considerable attention in recent years due to the potential dual functions as chemotherapeutics and dietary chemoprevention. One of the particularly ubiquitous families is the polyphenolic flavonoids. Among them, baicalin and its aglycone baicalein have been widely investigated in hematological malignancies because both of them exhibit remarkable pharmacological properties. This review focuses on the recent achievements in drug discovery research associated with baicalin and baicalein for hematological malignancy therapies. The promising anticancer activities of these two flavonoids targeting diverse signaling pathways and their potential biological mechanisms in different types of hematological malignancies, as well as the combination strategy with baicalin or baicalein as chemotherapeutic adjuvants for recent therapies in these intractable diseases are discussed. Meanwhile, the biotransformation of baicalin and baicalein and the relevant approaches to improve their bioavailability are also summarized. PMID:25128647

  5. Siltuximab and hematologic malignancies. A focus in non Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Andrea; Merli, Michele; Basilico, Claudia; Maffioli, Margherita; Passamonti, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    The role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in tumorigenesis and in particular in haematological malignancies is crucial. On the basis of the favourable results obtained in the subset of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD), Siltuximab, a chimeric, human-murine, immunoglobulin (Ig) Gk monoclonal antibody directed against human IL-6 has been evaluated in haematological malignancies such as multiple myeloma, myelodisplastic syndromes and non Hodgkin lymphomas. Areas covered: This review discusses available data related to the role of IL-6 as a therapeutic target, the characteristics of Siltuximab in term pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties and a detailed analysis of the studies involving haematological malignancies with a peculiar focus on non Hodgkin lymphoma. Expert opinion: The results obtained with Siltuximab in haematological malignancies and in particular with non Hodgkin lymphoma are inferior to those obtained in MCD. The complex interaction between malignant clones, inflammatory background and host response could justify this difference. New interesting areas of study are the role of Siltuximab in early phase of multiple myeloma (smoldering multiple myeloma) and if there may be a possible future application in the treatment of Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

  6. A Feasibility Study of Virtual Reality Exercise in Elderly Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Receiving Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Kenji; Sudo, Kazuaki; Goto, Goro; Takai, Makiko; Itokawa, Tatsuo; Isshiki, Takahiro; Takei, Naoko; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Komatsu, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to rehabilitation exercise is much lower in patients with hematologic malignancies (22.5-45.8%) than in patients with solid tumors (60-85%) due to the administration of more intensive chemotherapeutic regimens in the former. Virtual reality exercise can be performed even in a biological clean room and it may improve the adherence rates in elderly patients with hematologic malignancies. Thus, in this pilot study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility and safety of virtual reality exercise intervention using Nintendo Wii Fit in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy. In this feasibility study, 16 hospitalized patients with hematologic malignancies aged ≥60 years performed virtual reality exercise for 20 minutes using the Nintendo Wii Fit once a day, five times a week, from the start of chemotherapy until hospital discharge. The adherence rate, safety, and physical and psychological performances were assessed. The adherence rate for all 16 patients was 66.5%. Nine patients completed the virtual reality exercise intervention with 88 sessions, and the adherence rate was 62.0%. No intervention-related adverse effects >Grade 2, according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, were observed. We noted maintenance of the physical performance (e.g., Barthel index, handgrip strength, knee extension strength, one-leg standing time, and the scores of timed up and go test and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) and psychosocial performance (e.g., score of hospital anxiety and depression scale). Virtual reality exercise using the Wii Fit may be feasible, safe and efficacious, as demonstrated in our preliminary results, for patients with hematologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy.

  7. Family history of hematologic malignancies and risk of multiple myeloma: differences by race and clinical features.

    PubMed

    VanValkenburg, MaryAnn E; Pruitt, Gwendolyn I; Brill, Ilene K; Costa, Luciano; Ehtsham, Maryam; Justement, Ian T; Innis-Shelton, Racquel D; Salzman, Donna; Reddy, E Shyam P; Godby, Kelly N; Mikhail, Fady M; Carroll, Andrew J; Reddy, Vishnu B; Sanderson, Ralph D; Justement, Louis B; Sanders, Paul W; Brown, Elizabeth E

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common hematologic malignancy affecting Blacks in the USA, with standardized incidence rates that are twofold to threefold higher than Whites. The rationale for the disparity is unclear. Using participants enrolled in the Molecular And Genetic Epidemiology study of myeloma (259 MM cases; 461 controls), we examined the risk of MM associated with family history of cancer, differences by race and among cases, defining clinical features. Risk estimates were calculated using odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression adjusted for confounders. Overall, MM risk in cases with relatives affected with any hematologic malignancy was significantly elevated compared to controls (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.25-2.86). Myeloma risk associated with a family history of MM was higher than the risk associated with any hematologic malignancy (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.75-8.05), and the effect was greater for Blacks (OR 20.9, 95% CI 2.59-168) than Whites (OR 2.04, 95% 0.83-5.04), among cases with early onset (≤60 years; OR 4.58, 95% CI 1.21-17.3) and with increasing numbers of affected relatives (p trend = 0.001). Overall, frequencies of end organ damage differed in cases with relatives affected with any hematologic malignancy and significantly more cases exhibited κ light chain restriction (OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.13-9.26). The excess risk of MM observed in Blacks and the variation in clinical features observed in MM patients according to family history of hematologic malignancy may be attributed to a shared germline and environmental susceptibility.

  8. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for the treatment of hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Büchler, Tomas; Michalek, Jaroslav; Kovarova, Lucie; Musilova, Romana; Hajek, Roman

    2003-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells and are frequently used in current immunotherapy protocols. The administration of DCs loaded with tumor-associated proteins or peptides results in the induction of immune responses against different types of malignant cells. Methods for large-scale generation of DCs in a sufficient quality and quantity have permitted their use in clinical experiments. DC-based vaccines have already shown promise in follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and to some extent, in other hematological malignancies. Several strategies have been developed to boost their potency as a new and relatively non-toxic treatment modality. Our review focuses on clinical trials using DCs in the treatment of hematologic malignancies and on recent studies of the immunophenotype, development, and maturation of DCs may have an important impact on designing DC-based antitumor vaccines.

  9. Parental Age at Birth and Risk of Hematological Malignancies in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Gaudet, Mia M; Blase, Jennifer L; Gapstur, Susan M

    2015-07-01

    The proportion of parents aged ≥35 years at the birth of their child continues to increase, but long-term health consequences for these children are not fully understood. A recent prospective study of 110,999 adult women showed an association between paternal-but not maternal-age at birth and sporadic hematological cancer risk. To further investigate this topic, we examined these associations in women and men in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Among 138,003 Cancer Prevention Study-II participants, 2,532 incident hematological cancers were identified between 1992 and 2009. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed by using Cox proportional hazards regression. There was no clear linear trend in the risk of hematological malignancies by either paternal or maternal age. However, there was a strong, positive association with paternal age among participants without siblings. In that group, the hazard ratio for fathers aged ≥35 years compared with <25 years at birth was 1.63 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.23), and a linear dose-response association was suggested (Pspline = 0.002).There were no differences by subtype of hematological cancer. Results of this study support the need for further research to better understand the association between paternal age at birth and hematological malignancies.

  10. Parental Age at Birth and Risk of Hematological Malignancies in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Teras, Lauren R.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Blase, Jennifer L.; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of parents aged ≥35 years at the birth of their child continues to increase, but long-term health consequences for these children are not fully understood. A recent prospective study of 110,999 adult women showed an association between paternal—but not maternal—age at birth and sporadic hematological cancer risk. To further investigate this topic, we examined these associations in women and men in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Among 138,003 Cancer Prevention Study-II participants, 2,532 incident hematological cancers were identified between 1992 and 2009. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed by using Cox proportional hazards regression. There was no clear linear trend in the risk of hematological malignancies by either paternal or maternal age. However, there was a strong, positive association with paternal age among participants without siblings. In that group, the hazard ratio for fathers aged ≥35 years compared with <25 years at birth was 1.63 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.23), and a linear dose-response association was suggested (Pspline = 0.002).There were no differences by subtype of hematological cancer. Results of this study support the need for further research to better understand the association between paternal age at birth and hematological malignancies. PMID:25964260

  11. Programmed death-1 immune checkpoint blockade in the treatment of hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Panagiotis; Savani, Bipin N; Nagler, Arnon

    2016-09-01

    The use of tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has revolutionize the field of cancer immunotherapy. Although treatment of malignant diseases with MAbs is promising, many patients fail to respond or relapse after an initial response. Both solid tumors and hematological malignancies develop mechanisms that enable them to evade the host immune system by usurping immune checkpoint pathways such as PD-1, PD-2, PDL-1, or PDL-2 (programmed cell death protein-1 or 2 and PD-Ligand 1 or 2), which are expressed on activated T cells and on T-regulatory, B cells, natural killers, monocytes, and dendritic cells. One of the most exciting anticancer development in recent years has been the immune checkpoint blockade therapy by using MAbs against immune checkpoint receptor and/or ligands. Anti-PD1 antibodies have been tested in clinical studies that included patients with hematological malignancies and showed remarkable efficacy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In our review, we will focus on the effect of PD-1 activation on hematological malignancies and its role as a therapeutic target. Key messages The programmed death 1 (PD1) immune checkpoint is an important homeostatic mechanism of the immune system that helps in preventing autoimmunity and uncontrolled inflammation in cases of chronic infections. However, PD1 pathway is also operated by a wide variety of malignancies and represents one of the most important mechanisms by which tumor cells escape from the surveillance of the immune system. Blocking of immune checkpoints by the use of monoclonal antibodies opened a new era in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Results from clinical trials are promising, and currently, this approach has been proven effective and safe in patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies.

  12. The Therapeutic Outcomes of Mechanical Ventilation in Hematological Malignancy Patients with Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Marumo, Atsushi; Omori, Ikuko; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Yui, Shunsuke; Fukunaga, Keiko; Ryotokuji, Takeshi; Hirakawa, Tsuneaki; Okabe, Masahiro; Wakita, Satoshi; Tamai, Hayato; Okamoto, Muneo; Nakayama, Kazutaka; Takeda, Shinhiro; Inokuchi, Koiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective In hematological malignancy patients, the complication of acute respiratory failure often reaches a degree of severity that necessitates mechanical ventilation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic outcomes of mechanical ventilation in hematological malignancy patients with respiratory failure and to analyze the factors that are associated with successful treatment in order to identify the issues that should be addressed in the future. Methods The present study was a retrospective analysis of 71 hematological malignancy patients with non-cardiogenic acute respiratory failure who were treated with mechanical ventilation at Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2003 and 2014. Results Twenty-six patients (36.6%) were treated with mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) was applied in 29 cases (40.8%). The rate of successful mechanical ventilation treatment with NPPV alone was 13.8%. The rate of endotracheal extubation was 17.7%. A univariate analysis revealed that the following factors were associated with the successful extubation of patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation: respiratory management in an ICU (p=0.012); remission of the hematological disease (p=0.011); female gender (p=0.048); low levels of accompanying non-respiratory organ failure (p=0.041); and the non-use of extracorporeal circulation (p=0.005). A subsequent multivariate analysis revealed that respiratory management in an ICU was the only variable associated with successful extubation (p=0.030). Conclusion The outcomes of hematological malignancy patients who receive mechanical ventilation treatment for respiratory failure are very poor. Respiratory management in an ICU environment may be useful in improving the therapeutic outcomes of such patients.

  13. Methotrexate pharmacogenetics in Uruguayan adults with hematological malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Giletti, Andrea; Vital, Marcelo; Lorenzo, Mariana; Cardozo, Patricia; Borelli, Gabriel; Gabus, Raúl; Martínez, Lem; Díaz, Lilian; Assar, Rodrigo; Rodriguez, María Noel; Esperón, Patricia

    2017-09-05

    Individual variability is among the causes of toxicity and interruption of treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and severe non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients under protocols including Methotrexate (MTX): 2,4-diamino-N10-methyl propyl-glutamic acid. 41 Uruguayan patients were recruited. Gene polymorphisms involved in MTX pathway were analyzed and their association with treatment toxicities and outcome was evaluated. Genotype distribution and allele frequency were determined for SLC19A1 G80A, MTHFR C677T and A1298C, TYMS 28bp copy number variation, SLCO1B1 T521C, DHFR C-1610G/T, DHFR C-680A, DHFR A-317G and DHFR 19bp indel. Multivariate analysis showed that DHFR-1610G/T (OR=0.107, p=0.018) and MTHFR677T alleles (OR=0.12, p=0.026) had a strong protective effect against hematologic toxicity, while DHFR-1610CC genotype increased this toxicity (OR=9, p=0.045). No more associations were found. The associations found between gene polymorphisms and toxicities in this small cohort are encouraging for a more extensive research to gain a better dose individualization in adult ALL and NHL patients. Besides, genotype distribution showed to be different from other populations, reinforcing the idea that genotype data from other populations should not be extrapolated to ours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unmet Needs for Psychosocial Care in Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

    PubMed

    Barata, Anna; Wood, William A; Choi, Sung Won; Jim, Heather S L

    2016-08-01

    Individuals diagnosed with hematologic malignancies experience significant unmet psychological, physical, informational, financial, and spiritual needs. The goal of the current review is to summarize and highlight recent research focused on these issues in the diagnosis and treatment periods and beyond. The review also describes the needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) and pediatric patients. While a large body of research has reported on unmet needs among adult hematologic cancer patients, there is far less data regarding the challenges confronted by AYA and pediatric populations. Available data suggests that among all age groups, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a risk factor for greater unmet needs. Recommendations for screening and evidence-based interventions to prevent or ameliorate unmet needs are provided. Future research is needed to develop additional evidence-based psychosocial interventions with a focus on hematologic cancer.

  15. Emerging concepts of epigenetic dysregulation in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Aifantis, Iannis

    2016-01-01

    The past decade brought a revolution in understanding of the structure, topology and disease-inducing lesions of RNA and DNA, fueled by unprecedented progress in next-generation sequencing. This technological revolution has also affected understanding of the epigenome and has provided unique opportunities for the analysis of DNA and histone modifications, as well as the first map of the non–protein-coding genome and three-dimensional (3D) chromosomal interactions. Overall, these advances have facilitated studies that combine genetic, transcriptomics and epigenomics data to address a wide range of issues ranging from understanding the role of the epigenome in development to targeting the transcription of noncoding genes in human cancer. Here we describe recent insights into epigenetic dysregulation characteristic of the malignant differentiation of blood stem cells based on studies of alterations that affect epigenetic complexes, enhancers, chromatin, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), RNA splicing, nuclear topology and the 3D conformation of chromatin. PMID:27478938

  16. Colchicine mouth washings to improve oral mucositis in patients with hematological malignancies: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Garavito, Andrés Avila; Cardona, Andrés Felipe; Reveiz, Ludovic; Ospina, Edgar; Yepes, Andrés; Ospina, Vannesa

    2008-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a frequently encountered problem as a complication of cancer treatment. We investigated whether daily washings with colchicine solution improved mucositis in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. This study was a one-arm, nonrandomized clinical trial that used a historical control group. Patients were included in the study from the first day of mucositis and followed up until discharge. Patients received 2 mg colchicine mouthwashes daily for 5 days or saline solution. OM was assessed once daily until symptom resolution, using the WHO grading scale of 0-4 and a visual analogue scale. We determined that at least 40 patients in the colchicine group would be needed to detect a 20% difference in the duration of OM between Groups A and B, with a 95% confidence level and a power of 80%. 82 patients were included in the final analysis, 40 in the colchicine group and 42 in the control group. Median duration of OM was significantly different among groups; 9 days (range 1-17 days) for the control group versus 6 days (range 3-13 days) for those exposed to colchicine mouthwash (p = .028). The median days of regression of mucosal lesions were significantly different (p = .047) among the control group (7 days [range 3-20]) compared to the colchicine group (4 days [range 2-14]). Although our findings suggest that colchicine mouthwash is helpful in reducing the severity and duration of chemotherapy-induced OM, randomized trials are needed to confirm these results.

  17. CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapeutics for hematologic malignancies: interpreting clinical outcomes to date.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae H; Geyer, Mark B; Brentjens, Renier J

    2016-06-30

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 has produced impressive results in treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Although these CAR-modified T cells target the same antigen, the designs of CARs vary as well as several key aspects of the clinical trials in which these CARs have been studied. It is unclear whether these differences have any impact on clinical outcome and treatment-related toxicities. Herein, we review clinical results reflecting the investigational use of CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapeutics in patients with B-cell hematologic malignancies, in light of differences in CAR design and production, and outline the limitations inherent in comparing outcomes between studies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of hematologic malignancies: current indications and challenges.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, F R

    1997-05-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a potentially curative treatment for hematologic malignancies. Research efforts are expanding the acceptable donor pool to increase patient access to this form of therapy. Potential sources besides HLA matched siblings include partially mismatched family members, unrelated volunteers, and cord blood stem cells. Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (ASC) transplantation may cure hematologic malignancies, relapse remains a problem. To prevent relapse after transplant, research efforts are focused on optimizing the delivery of systemic chemoradiotherapy, including strategies for targeting therapy to sites of disease, and augmenting the antileukemic effect of the allogeneic graft. It is a challenge to maintain clinical research in the current environment of limited resources, so new paradigms for support of this work may need consideration.

  19. The Promise of Chimeric Antigen Receptor Engineered T cells in the Treatment of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Sarah J.; Garfall, Alfred L.; Stadtmauer, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Relapsed and refractory hematologic malignancies have a very poor prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are emerging as a powerful therapy in this setting. Early clinical trials of genetically modified T cells for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have shown high complete response rates in patients with few therapeutic options. Exploration is ongoing for other hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma (MM), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). At the same time, the design and production of CAR T cells is being advanced so that this therapy can be more widely utilized. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity are common, but they are treatable and fully reversible. This review will review currently available data as well as future developments and challenges in the field. PMID:26841014

  20. Clinical trials of dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Pyzer, Athalia R; Avigan, David E; Rosenblatt, Jacalyn

    2015-01-01

    The potential for the immune system to target hematological malignancies is demonstrated in the allogeneic transplant setting, where durable responses can be achieved. However, allogeneic transplantation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to graft versus host disease. Cancer immunotherapy has the capacity to direct a specific cytotoxic immune response against cancer cells, particularly residual cancer cells, in order to reduce the likelihood of disease relapse in a more targeted and tolerated manner. Ex vivo dendritic cells can be primed in various ways to present tumor associated antigen to the immune system, in the context of co-stimulatory molecules, eliciting a tumor specific cytotoxic response in patients. Several approaches to prime dendritic cells and overcome the immunosuppressive microenvironment have been evaluated in pre-clinical and early clinical trials with promising results. In this review, we summarize the clinical data evaluating dendritic cell based vaccines for the treatment of hematological malignancies. PMID:25625926

  1. Recent advances in the development of Aurora kinases inhibitors in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Choudary, Iqra; Barr, Paul M.; Friedberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, since the discovery of Drosophila mutants in 1995, much effort has been made to understand Aurora kinase biology. Three mammalian subtypes have been identified thus far which include the Aurora A, B and C kinases. These regulatory proteins specifically work at the cytoskeleton and chromosomal structures between the kinetochores and have vital functions in the early phases of the mitotic cell cycle. Today, there are multiple phase I and phase II clinical trials as well as numerous preclinical studies taking place looking at Aurora kinase inhibitors in both hematologic and solid malignancies. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of Aurora kinase inhibitors in hematological malignancy and discusses their therapeutic potential. PMID:26622997

  2. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  3. Recent advances in the development of Aurora kinases inhibitors in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Choudary, Iqra; Barr, Paul M; Friedberg, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Over the last two decades, since the discovery of Drosophila mutants in 1995, much effort has been made to understand Aurora kinase biology. Three mammalian subtypes have been identified thus far which include the Aurora A, B and C kinases. These regulatory proteins specifically work at the cytoskeleton and chromosomal structures between the kinetochores and have vital functions in the early phases of the mitotic cell cycle. Today, there are multiple phase I and phase II clinical trials as well as numerous preclinical studies taking place looking at Aurora kinase inhibitors in both hematologic and solid malignancies. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of Aurora kinase inhibitors in hematological malignancy and discusses their therapeutic potential.

  4. [Clinical significance of determination of serum B7-H4 in patients with malignant hematologic diseases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Mei; Hu, Guo-Yan; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Shu-Hua; Lv, Jing; Wang, Hong-Mei; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2010-09-01

    To study the clinical significance of determination of serum B7-H4 in patients with malignant hematologic diseases. Serum B7-H4 levels were determined in 65 patients with leucemia, 34 patients with lymphoma, 12 patients with multiple myeloma as well as in 50 healthy controls. The serum B7-H4 levels in patients with lymphoma [(38.81+/-10.34) kappag/L] were significantly higher than healthy controls [(31.62+/-9.850) kappag/L] (P<0.01). But there are no significant difference of B7-H4 levels in serum among patients with leucemia, patients with multiple myeloma and healthy controls. These results suggest that the B7-H4 may correlated with lymphoma, but uncorrelated with leucemia and multiple myeloma. Measurement of serum B7-H4 level provide useful information for distinctive diagnosis of different kinds of malignant hematologic diseases.

  5. The emerging role of Twist proteins in hematopoietic cells and hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Merindol, N; Riquet, A; Szablewski, V; Eliaou, J-F; Puisieux, A; Bonnefoy, N

    2014-01-01

    Twist1 and Twist2 (Twist1–2) are two transcription factors, members of the basic helix-loop-helix family, that have been well established as master transcriptional regulators of embryogenesis and developmental programs of mesenchymal cell lineages. Their role in oncogenesis in epithelium-derived cancer and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition has also been thoroughly characterized. Recently, emerging evidence also suggests a key role for Twist1–2 in the function and development of hematopoietic cells, as well as in survival and development of numerous hematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize the latest data that depict the role of Twist1–2 in monocytes, T cells and B lymphocyte activation, and in associated hematological malignancies. PMID:24769647

  6. Association of time to antibiotics and clinical outcomes in adult hematologic malignancy patients with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Butts, Allison R; Bachmeier, Christina Carracedo; Dressler, Emily V; Liu, Meng; Cowden, Ann; Talbert, Jeff; Adams, Val R

    2017-06-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the clinical impact of time to antibiotic administration in adult inpatients who have hematologic malignancies and develop febrile neutropenia. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted to screen for all febrile neutropenia events amongst adult hematologic malignancy patients between 1 January 2010 and 1 September 2014. All included patients were admitted to the hospital at the time of fever onset, having been admitted for a diagnosis other than febrile neutropenia. Descriptive statistics and logistic generalized estimated equations were used to analyze the data. Results Two hundred forty-four neutropenic fever events met inclusion criteria. Thirty-five events (14.34%) led to negative clinical outcomes (in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit transfer, or vasopressor requirement), with an in-house mortality rate of 7.4%. The time to antibiotics ranged from 10 min to 1495 min. The median time to antibiotics in the events that led to negative outcomes was 120 min compared to 102 min in the events that did not lead to the negative outcome ( p = 0.93). Conditional order sets were used to order empiric antibiotics in 176 events (72.1%) and significantly reduced time to antibiotics from 287 min to 143 min ( p = 0.0019). Conclusion Prolonged time to antibiotic administration in hematologic malignancy patients who develop neutropenic fever was not shown to be associated with negative clinical outcomes.

  7. Survival From Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Denmark: Is Survival Related to Family Characteristics?

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Zeeb, Hajo; Simony, Sofie Bay; Deltour, Isabelle; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Schüz, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Due to diverse findings as to the role of family factors for childhood cancer survival even within Europe, we explored a nationwide, register-based cohort of Danish children with hematological malignancies. All children born between 1973 and 2006 and diagnosed with a hematological malignancy before the age of 20 years (N = 1,819) were followed until 10 years from diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models estimating hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the impact of family characteristics on overall survival in children with hematological malignancies. Having siblings and increasing birth order were associated with reduced survival from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Associations with AML were strongest and statistically significant. HRs of 1.62 (CI 0.85; 3.09) and 5.76 (CI 2.01; 16.51) were observed for the fourth or later born children with ALL (N = 41) and AML (N = 9), respectively. Children with older parents showed a tendency toward inferior ALL survival, while for AML young maternal age was related to poorer survival. Based on small numbers, a trend toward poorer survival from non-Hodgkin lymphoma was observed for children having siblings and for children of younger parents. Further research is warranted to gain further knowledge on the impact of family factors on childhood cancer survival in other populations and to elaborate potential underlying mechanisms and pathways of those survival inequalities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Optimizing T-cell receptor gene therapy for hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Emma C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic engineering have enabled the delivery of clinical trials using patient T cells redirected to recognize tumor-associated antigens. The most dramatic results have been seen with T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for CD19, a differentiation antigen expressed in B cells and B lineage malignancies. We propose that antigen expression in nonmalignant cells may contribute to the efficacy of T-cell therapy by maintaining effector function and promoting memory. Although CAR recognition is limited to cell surface structures, T-cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize intracellular proteins. This not only expands the range of tumor-associated self-antigens that are amenable for T-cell therapy, but also allows TCR targeting of the cancer mutagenome. We will highlight biological bottlenecks that potentially limit mutation-specific T-cell therapy and may require high-avidity TCRs that are capable of activating effector function when the concentrations of mutant peptides are low. Unexpectedly, modified TCRs with artificially high affinities function poorly in response to low concentration of cognate peptide but pose an increased safety risk as they may respond optimally to cross-reactive peptides. Recent gene-editing tools, such as transcription activator–like effector nucleases and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, provide a platform to delete endogenous TCR and HLA genes, which removes alloreactivity and decreases immunogenicity of third-party T cells. This represents an important step toward generic off-the-shelf T-cell products that may be used in the future for the treatment of large numbers of patients. PMID:27207802

  9. Obinutuzumab in hematologic malignancies: lessons learned to date.

    PubMed

    Illidge, Tim; Klein, Christian; Sehn, Laurie H; Davies, Andrew; Salles, Gilles; Cartron, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    The routine use of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has improved patient outcomes in CD20-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Despite the clinical success achieved with rituximab, relapses are still common with further improvements in anti-CD20 mAb efficacy required. Many novel anti-CD20 antibodies are in development, but obinutuzumab is currently the only type II glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAb in clinical testing. Obinutuzumab has increased antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, reduced complement-dependent cytotoxicity and enhanced direct non-apoptotic cell death. In preclinical models, obinutuzumab induced superior tumor remission compared with rituximab at the equivalent dose levels, and was active in rituximab-refractory tumors. Obinutuzumab exhibits encouraging efficacy as monotherapy in NHL, and combined with chemotherapy in relapsed/refractory NHL and treatment-naïve symptomatic CLL. In a recent randomized, phase III trial in patients with untreated comorbid CLL, overall response rate was significantly greater (78% vs. 65%, P<0.0001) and median progression-free survival was significantly prolonged (26.7 vs. 15.2months, P<0.0001) for obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil vs. rituximab plus chlorambucil. Obinutuzumab is a type II anti-CD20 antibody that utilizes distinct mechanisms of action relative to type I antibodies like rituximab and has led to significant clinical improvement over rituximab in a phase III trial in CLL. Further trials are ongoing to determine whether such improvements in outcome will be seen in CD20-positive B-cell malignancies.

  10. Molecularly targeted drug combinations demonstrate selective effectiveness for myeloid- and lymphoid-derived hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Stephen E; Eide, Christopher A; Kaempf, Andy; Khanna, Vishesh; Savage, Samantha L; Rofelty, Angela; English, Isabel; Ho, Hibery; Pandya, Ravi; Bolosky, William J; Poon, Hoifung; Deininger, Michael W; Collins, Robert; Swords, Ronan T; Watts, Justin; Pollyea, Daniel A; Medeiros, Bruno C; Traer, Elie; Tognon, Cristina E; Mori, Motomi; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

    2017-09-05

    Translating the genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity underlying human cancers into therapeutic strategies is an ongoing challenge. Large-scale sequencing efforts have uncovered a spectrum of mutations in many hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that combinations of agents will be required to treat these diseases effectively. Combinatorial approaches will also be critical for combating the emergence of genetically heterogeneous subclones, rescue signals in the microenvironment, and tumor-intrinsic feedback pathways that all contribute to disease relapse. To identify novel and effective drug combinations, we performed ex vivo sensitivity profiling of 122 primary patient samples from a variety of hematologic malignancies against a panel of 48 drug combinations. The combinations were designed as drug pairs that target nonoverlapping biological pathways and comprise drugs from different classes, preferably with Food and Drug Administration approval. A combination ratio (CR) was derived for each drug pair, and CRs were evaluated with respect to diagnostic categories as well as against genetic, cytogenetic, and cellular phenotypes of specimens from the two largest disease categories: AML and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Nearly all tested combinations involving a BCL2 inhibitor showed additional benefit in patients with myeloid malignancies, whereas select combinations involving PI3K, CSF1R, or bromodomain inhibitors showed preferential benefit in lymphoid malignancies. Expanded analyses of patients with AML and CLL revealed specific patterns of ex vivo drug combination efficacy that were associated with select genetic, cytogenetic, and phenotypic disease subsets, warranting further evaluation. These findings highlight the heuristic value of an integrated functional genomic approach to the identification of novel treatment strategies for hematologic malignancies.

  11. Detection and Identification of Hematologic Malignancies and Solid Tumors by an Electrochemical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wang, Xuemei; Cheng, Jian; Chen, Baoan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Develop and evaluate an electrochemical method to identify healthy individuals, malignant hematopathic patients and solid tumor patients by detecting the leukocytes in whole-blood. Methods A total of 114 individual blood samples obtained from our affiliated hospital in China (June 2015- August 2015) were divided into three groups: healthy individuals (n = 35), hematologic malignancies (n = 41) and solid tumors (n = 38). An electrochemical workstation system was used to measure differential pulse voltammetry due to the different electrochemical behaviors of leukocytes in blood samples. Then, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the scanning curves and to compare the peak potential and peak current. Results The scanning curve demonstrated the specific electrochemical behaviors of the blank potassium ferricyanide solution and that mixed with blood samples in different groups. Significant differences in mean peak potentials of mixture and shifts (ΔEp (mV)) were observed of the three groups (P< = 0.001). 106.00±9.00 and 3.14±7.48 for Group healthy individuals, 120.90±11.18 and 18.10±8.81 for Group hematologic malignancies, 136.84±11.53 and 32.89±10.50 for Group solid tumors, respectively. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the peak currents and shifts. Conclusions The newly developed method to apply the electrochemical workstation system to identify hematologic malignancies and solid tumors with good sensitivity and specificity might be effective, suggesting a potential utility in clinical application. PMID:27115355

  12. Value of innovation in hematologic malignancies: a systematic review of published cost-effectiveness analyses.

    PubMed

    Saret, Cayla J; Winn, Aaron N; Shah, Gunjan; Parsons, Susan K; Lin, Pei-Jung; Cohen, Joshua T; Neumann, Peter J

    2015-03-19

    We analyzed cost-effectiveness studies related to hematologic malignancies from the Tufts Medical Center Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry (www.cearegistry.org), focusing on studies of innovative therapies. Studies that met inclusion criteria were categorized by 4 cancer types (chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma) and 9 treatment agents (interferon-α, alemtuzumab, bendamustine, bortezomib, dasatinib, imatinib, lenalidomide, rituximab alone or in combination, and thalidomide). We examined study characteristics and stratified cost-effectiveness ratios by type of cancer, treatment, funder, and year of study publication. Twenty-nine studies published in the years 1996-2012 (including 44 cost-effectiveness ratios) met inclusion criteria, 22 (76%) of which were industry funded. Most ratios fell below $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) (73%) and $100,000/QALY (86%). Industry-funded studies (n = 22) reported a lower median ratio ($26,000/QALY) than others (n = 7; $33,000/QALY), although the difference was not statistically significant. Published data suggest that innovative treatments for hematologic malignancies may provide reasonable value for money. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Risk stratification for invasive fungal infections in patients with hematological malignancies: SEIFEM recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Livio; Busca, Alessandro; Candoni, Anna; Cattaneo, Chiara; Cesaro, Simone; Fanci, Rosa; Nadali, Gianpaolo; Potenza, Leonardo; Russo, Domenico; Tumbarello, Mario; Nosari, Annamaria; Aversa, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Patients with hematological malignancies undergoing conventional chemotherapy, autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are considered at high risk, and Aspergillus spp. represents the most frequently isolated micro-organisms. In the last years, attention has also been focused on other rare molds (e.g., Zygomycetes, Fusarium spp.) responsible for devastating clinical manifestations. The extensive use of antifungal prophylaxis has reduced the infections from yeasts (e.g., candidemia) even though they are still associated with high mortality rates. This paper analyzes concurrent multiple predisposing factors that could favor the onset of fungal infections. Although neutropenia is common to almost all hematologic patients, other factors play a key role in specific patients, in particular in patients with AML or allogeneic HSCT recipients. Defining those patients at higher risk of IFIs may help to design the most appropriate diagnostic work-up and antifungal strategy.

  14. Targeting SAMHD1 with the Vpx protein to improve cytarabine therapy for hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Herold, Nikolas; Rudd, Sean G; Ljungblad, Linda; Sanjiv, Kumar; Myrberg, Ida Hed; Paulin, Cynthia B J; Heshmati, Yaser; Hagenkort, Anna; Kutzner, Juliane; Page, Brent D G; Calderón-Montaño, José M; Loseva, Olga; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Bulli, Lorenzo; Axelsson, Hanna; Tesi, Bianca; Valerie, Nicholas C K; Höglund, Andreas; Bladh, Julia; Wiita, Elisée; Sundin, Mikael; Uhlin, Michael; Rassidakis, Georgios; Heyman, Mats; Tamm, Katja Pokrovskaja; Warpman-Berglund, Ulrika; Walfridsson, Julian; Lehmann, Sören; Grandér, Dan; Lundbäck, Thomas; Kogner, Per; Henter, Jan-Inge; Helleday, Thomas; Schaller, Torsten

    2017-02-01

    The cytostatic deoxycytidine analog cytarabine (ara-C) is the most active agent available against acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Together with anthracyclines, ara-C forms the backbone of AML treatment for children and adults. In AML, both the cytotoxicity of ara-C in vitro and the clinical response to ara-C therapy are correlated with the ability of AML blasts to accumulate the active metabolite ara-C triphosphate (ara-CTP), which causes DNA damage through perturbation of DNA synthesis. Differences in expression levels of known transporters or metabolic enzymes relevant to ara-C only partially account for patient-specific differential ara-CTP accumulation in AML blasts and response to ara-C treatment. Here we demonstrate that the deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) triphosphohydrolase SAM domain and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1) promotes the detoxification of intracellular ara-CTP pools. Recombinant SAMHD1 exhibited ara-CTPase activity in vitro, and cells in which SAMHD1 expression was transiently reduced by treatment with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) protein Vpx were dramatically more sensitive to ara-C-induced cytotoxicity. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated disruption of the gene encoding SAMHD1 sensitized cells to ara-C, and this sensitivity could be abrogated by ectopic expression of wild-type (WT), but not dNTPase-deficient, SAMHD1. Mouse models of AML lacking SAMHD1 were hypersensitive to ara-C, and treatment ex vivo with Vpx sensitized primary patient-derived AML blasts to ara-C. Finally, we identified SAMHD1 as a risk factor in cohorts of both pediatric and adult patients with de novo AML who received ara-C treatment. Thus, SAMHD1 expression levels dictate patient sensitivity to ara-C, providing proof-of-concept that the targeting of SAMHD1 by Vpx could be an attractive therapeutic strategy for potentiating ara-C efficacy in hematological malignancies.

  15. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination in Hematological Malignancies: a Systematic Review of Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Safety

    PubMed Central

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; D’Egidio, Valeria; Sestili, Cristina; Spadea, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of getting influenza and pneumococcal disease is higher in cancer patients, and serum antibody levels tend to be lower in patients with hematological malignancy. Objective To assess flu and pneumococcal vaccinations efficacy, effectiveness, and safety in onco-hematological patients. Methods Two systematic reviews and possible meta-analysis were conducted to summarize the results of all primary study in the scientific literature about the flu and pneumococcal vaccine in onco-hematological patients. Literature searches were performed using Pub-Med and Scopus databases. StatsDirect 2.8.0 was used for the analysis. Results 22 and 26 studies were collected respectively for flu and pneumococcal vaccinations. Protection rate of booster dose was 30% (95% CI=6–62%) for H1N1. Pooled prevalence protection rate of H3N2 and B was available for meta-analysis only for first dose, 42.6% (95% CI=23.2 – 63.3 %) and 39.6 % (95% CI=26%–54.1%) for H3N2 and B, respectively. Response rate of booster dose resulted 35% (95% CI=19.7–51.2%) for H1N1, 23% (95% CI=16.6–31.5%) for H3N2, 29% (95% CI=21.3–37%) for B. Conclusion Despite the low rate of response, flu, and pneumococcal vaccines are worthwhile for patients with hematological malignancies. Patients undergoing chemotherapy in particular rituximab, splenectomy, transplant recipient had lower and impaired response. No serious adverse events were reported for both vaccines. PMID:27648207

  16. Genetically Modified T-Cell-Based Adoptive Immunotherapy in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Baixin; Gao, Qingping; Wang, Qiongyu; Zeng, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    A significant proportion of hematological malignancies remain limited in treatment options. Immune system modulation serves as a promising therapeutic approach to eliminate malignant cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a central role in antitumor immunity; unfortunately, nonspecific approaches for targeted recognition of tumor cells by CTLs to mediate tumor immune evasion in hematological malignancies imply multiple mechanisms, which may or may not be clinically relevant. Recently, genetically modified T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy approaches, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and engineered T-cell receptor (TCR) T-cell therapy, promise to overcome immune evasion by redirecting the specificity of CTLs to tumor cells. In clinic trials, CAR-T-cell- and TCR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy have produced encouraging clinical outcomes, thereby demonstrating their therapeutic potential in mitigating tumor development. The purpose of the present review is to (1) provide a detailed overview of the multiple mechanisms for immune evasion related with T-cell-based therapies; (2) provide a current summary of the applications of CAR-T-cell- as well as neoantigen-specific TCR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy and routes taken to overcome immune evasion; and (3) evaluate alternative approaches targeting immune evasion via optimization of CAR-T and TCR-T-cell immunotherapies. PMID:28116322

  17. Bloodstream infections in patients with hematological malignancies: which is more fatal – cancer or resistant pathogens?

    PubMed Central

    Gedik, Habip; Şimşek, Funda; Kantürk, Arzu; Yildirmak, Taner; Arica, Deniz; Aydin, Demet; Demirel, Naciye; Yokuş, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to report the incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and clinically or microbiologically proven bacterial or fungal BSIs during neutropenic episodes in patients with hematological malignancies. Methods In this retrospective observational study, all patients in the hematology department older than 14 years who developed febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy for hematological cancers were evaluated. Patients were included if they had experienced at least one neutropenic episode between November 2010 and November 2012 due to chemotherapy in the hematology ward. Results During 282 febrile episodes in 126 patients, 66 (23%) episodes of bacteremia and 24 (8%) episodes of fungemia were recorded in 48 (38%) and 18 (14%) patients, respectively. Gram-negative bacteria caused 74% (n=49) of all bacteremic episodes. Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (n=6) caused 12% and 9% of Gram-negative bacteremia episodes and all bacteremia episodes, respectively. Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria included Acinetobacter baumannii (n=4), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1), and Serratia marcescens (n=1). Culture-proven invasive fungal infection occurred in 24 episodes in 18 cases during the study period, with 15 episodes in ten cases occurring in the first study year and nine episodes in eight cases in the second study year. In 13 of 18 cases (72%) with bloodstream yeast infections, previous azole exposure was recorded. Candida parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. albicans isolates were resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole. Conclusion BSIs that occur during febrile neutropenic episodes in hematology patients due to Gram-negative bacteria should be treated initially with non-carbapenem-based antipseudomonal therapy taking into consideration antimicrobial stewardship. Non-azole antifungal drugs, including caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B, should be preferred as empirical antifungal therapy in the events of possible

  18. Hematological Toxicity After Robotic Stereotactic Body Radiosurgery for Treatment of Metastatic Gynecologic Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Kunos, Charles A.; Debernardo, Robert; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Fabien, Jeffrey; Dobbins, Donald C.; Zhang Yuxia; Brindle, James

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate hematological toxicity after robotic stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) for treatment of women with metastatic abdominopelvic gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: A total of 61 women with stage IV gynecologic malignancies treated with abdominopelvic SBRT were analyzed after ablative radiation (2400 cGy/3 divided consecutive daily doses) delivered by a robotic-armed Cyberknife SBRT system. Abdominopelvic bone marrow was identified using computed tomography-guided contouring. Fatigue and hematologic toxicities were graded by retrospective assignment of common toxicity criteria for adverse events (version 4.0). Bone marrow volume receiving 1000 cGy (V10) was tested for association with post-therapy (median 32 days [25%-75% quartile, 28-45 days]) white- or red-cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and platelet counts as marrow toxicity surrogates. Results: In all, 61 women undergoing abdominopelvic SBRT had a median bone marrow V10 of 2% (25%-75% quartile: 0%-8%). Fifty-seven (93%) of 61 women had received at least 1 pre-SBRT marrow-taxing chemotherapy regimen for metastatic disease. Bone marrow V10 did not associate with hematological adverse events. In all, 15 grade 2 (25%) and 2 grade 3 (3%) fatigue symptoms were self-reported among the 61 women within the first 10 days post-therapy, with fatigue resolved spontaneously in all 17 women by 30 days post-therapy. Neutropenia was not observed. Three (5%) women had a grade 1 drop in hemoglobin level to <10.0 g/dL. Single grade 1, 2, and 3 thrombocytopenias were documented in 3 women. Conclusions: Abdominopelvic SBRT provided ablative radiation dose to cancer targets without increased bone marrow toxicity. Abdominopelvic SBRT for metastatic gynecologic malignancies warrants further study.

  19. Preemptive Antifungal Therapy for Febrile Neutropenic Hematological Malignancy Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wei; Ren, Jinhai; Guo, Xiaonan; Guo, Xiaoling; Cai, Shengxin

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency, adverse effects, and pharmacoeconomic impact of empirical and preemptive antifungal therapy for febrile neutropenic hematological malignancy patients in China. Material/Methods Patients with febrile neutropenia during hematological malignancy were randomly divided into an empirical group and a preemptive group. The preemptive antifungal treatment was initiated if patient status was confirmed by clinical manifestation, imaging diagnosis, 1-3-β-D glucan(G) testing, and galactomannan (GM) test. The treatment was ended 2 weeks later if the patient was recovered from neutropenia. Voriconazole was used as the first-line medicine. All patients received intravenous administration of voriconazole every 12 h, with an initiating dose of 400 mg, then the dose was reduced to 200 mg. Results The overall survival rate was 97.1% and 94.6% in the empirical group and preemptive group, respectively, with no significant difference observed (χ2=1.051, P=0.305). However, the occurrence rate of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in the preemptive group was 9.2% vs. 2.2% in the empirical group. Moreover, the mortality rate due to IFD was 0.7% and 2.3% for the empirical group and preemptive group, respectively. The average duration and cost of preemptive antifungal therapy were 13.8±4.7 days and 8379.00±2253.00 RMB, respectively, which were lower than for empirical therapy. However, no significant differences were observed for incidence of adverse effects and hospital stay between the 2 groups. Conclusions Preemptive antifungal therapy for patients with febrile neutropenic hematological malignancy demonstrated a similar survival rate as with empirical therapy but is economically favorable in a Chinese population. PMID:27819257

  20. Prediction of Clinical Deterioration in Hospitalized Adult Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Using a Neural Network Model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Scott B; Wong, Deborah J L; Correa, Aditi; Li, Ning; Deng, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    Clinical deterioration (ICU transfer and cardiac arrest) occurs during approximately 5-10% of hospital admissions. Existing prediction models have a high false positive rate, leading to multiple false alarms and alarm fatigue. We used routine vital signs and laboratory values obtained from the electronic medical record (EMR) along with a machine learning algorithm called a neural network to develop a prediction model that would increase the predictive accuracy and decrease false alarm rates. Retrospective cohort study. The hematologic malignancy unit in an academic medical center in the United States. Adult patients admitted to the hematologic malignancy unit from 2009 to 2010. None. Vital signs and laboratory values were obtained from the electronic medical record system and then used as predictors (features). A neural network was used to build a model to predict clinical deterioration events (ICU transfer and cardiac arrest). The performance of the neural network model was compared to the VitalPac Early Warning Score (ViEWS). Five hundred sixty five consecutive total admissions were available with 43 admissions resulting in clinical deterioration. Using simulation, the neural network outperformed the ViEWS model with a positive predictive value of 82% compared to 24%, respectively. We developed and tested a neural network-based prediction model for clinical deterioration in patients hospitalized in the hematologic malignancy unit. Our neural network model outperformed an existing model, substantially increasing the positive predictive value, allowing the clinician to be confident in the alarm raised. This system can be readily implemented in a real-time fashion in existing EMR systems.

  1. Prediction of Clinical Deterioration in Hospitalized Adult Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Using a Neural Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Scott B.; Wong, Deborah J. L.; Correa, Aditi; Li, Ning; Deng, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clinical deterioration (ICU transfer and cardiac arrest) occurs during approximately 5–10% of hospital admissions. Existing prediction models have a high false positive rate, leading to multiple false alarms and alarm fatigue. We used routine vital signs and laboratory values obtained from the electronic medical record (EMR) along with a machine learning algorithm called a neural network to develop a prediction model that would increase the predictive accuracy and decrease false alarm rates. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting The hematologic malignancy unit in an academic medical center in the United States. Patient Population Adult patients admitted to the hematologic malignancy unit from 2009 to 2010. Intervention None. Measurements and Main Results Vital signs and laboratory values were obtained from the electronic medical record system and then used as predictors (features). A neural network was used to build a model to predict clinical deterioration events (ICU transfer and cardiac arrest). The performance of the neural network model was compared to the VitalPac Early Warning Score (ViEWS). Five hundred sixty five consecutive total admissions were available with 43 admissions resulting in clinical deterioration. Using simulation, the neural network outperformed the ViEWS model with a positive predictive value of 82% compared to 24%, respectively. Conclusion We developed and tested a neural network-based prediction model for clinical deterioration in patients hospitalized in the hematologic malignancy unit. Our neural network model outperformed an existing model, substantially increasing the positive predictive value, allowing the clinician to be confident in the alarm raised. This system can be readily implemented in a real-time fashion in existing EMR systems. PMID:27532679

  2. Irradiated Donor Cells Following Stem Cell Transplant in Controlling Cancer in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipient; JAK2 Gene Mutation; Loss of Chromosome 17p; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Minimal Residual Disease; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Plasma Cell Myeloma; RAS Family Gene Mutation; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Hematologic Malignancy; Recurrent Mature T- and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome; TP53 Gene Mutation

  3. Fighting against hematological malignancy in China: from unique system to global impact.

    PubMed

    Lv, Meng; Huang, XiaoJun

    2015-12-01

    During recent decades, substantial progress has been made in clinical strategies for treating hematological malignancies. Not only did China benefit from the global progression in the management of acute promyelocytic leukemia, risk-stratification-directed strategies for acute or chronic leukemia and haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the unique system developed by Chinese doctors has also become inspiration for refining global clinical practice. The multicenter trials and collaborations adhering to international standards might further strengthen the global impact and lead the way in specific fields of research worldwide.

  4. A Nosocomial Cluster of Candida inconspicua Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    D’Antonio, Domenico; Violante, Beatrice; Mazzoni, Aldo; Bonfini, Tiziana; Capuani, M. Assunta; D’Aloia, Francesco; Iacone, Antonio; Schioppa, Francesco; Romano, Ferdinando

    1998-01-01

    Candida inconspicua was recovered from three patients with hematological malignancies. Two patients had intravenous-catheter-associated fungemia, whereas the third had fungal hepatitis. The three cases of infection occurred over a period of 1 month in patients staying in adjacent single rooms. In vitro susceptibility testing of fungal strains showed all isolates to be resistant to fluconazole, with MICs greater than 32 μg/ml. All of the strains had identical DNA restriction profiles and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints. These data suggest a nosocomially acquired infection emanating from a common source within the hospital environment. PMID:9508314

  5. CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapeutics for hematologic malignancies: interpreting clinical outcomes to date

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae H.; Geyer, Mark B.

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 has produced impressive results in treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Although these CAR-modified T cells target the same antigen, the designs of CARs vary as well as several key aspects of the clinical trials in which these CARs have been studied. It is unclear whether these differences have any impact on clinical outcome and treatment-related toxicities. Herein, we review clinical results reflecting the investigational use of CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapeutics in patients with B-cell hematologic malignancies, in light of differences in CAR design and production, and outline the limitations inherent in comparing outcomes between studies. PMID:27207800

  6. Emerging therapeutic paradigms to target the dysregulated JAK/STAT pathways in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Mughal, Tariq I.; Girnius, Saulius; Rosen, Steven T.; Kumar, Shaji; Wiestner, Adrian; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Van Etten, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increasing biochemical evidence that the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is aberrantly activated in malignant cells from patients with a wide spectrum of cancers of the blood and immune systems. The emerging availability of small molecule inhibitors of JAK kinases and other signaling molecules in the JAK-STAT pathway has allowed preclinical studies validating an important role of this pathway in the pathogenesis of many hematologic malignancies, and provided motivation for new strategies for treatment of these diseases. Here, a roundtable panel of experts reviews the current preclinical and clinical landscape of the JAK-STAT pathway in acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemias, lymphomas and myeloma, and chronic myeloid neoplasms. PMID:24206094

  7. Value of innovation in hematologic malignancies: a systematic review of published cost-effectiveness analyses

    PubMed Central

    Saret, Cayla J.; Winn, Aaron N.; Shah, Gunjan; Parsons, Susan K.; Lin, Pei-Jung; Cohen, Joshua T.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed cost-effectiveness studies related to hematologic malignancies from the Tufts Medical Center Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry (www.cearegistry.org), focusing on studies of innovative therapies. Studies that met inclusion criteria were categorized by 4 cancer types (chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma) and 9 treatment agents (interferon-α, alemtuzumab, bendamustine, bortezomib, dasatinib, imatinib, lenalidomide, rituximab alone or in combination, and thalidomide). We examined study characteristics and stratified cost-effectiveness ratios by type of cancer, treatment, funder, and year of study publication. Twenty-nine studies published in the years 1996-2012 (including 44 cost-effectiveness ratios) met inclusion criteria, 22 (76%) of which were industry funded. Most ratios fell below $50 000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) (73%) and $100 000/QALY (86%). Industry-funded studies (n = 22) reported a lower median ratio ($26 000/QALY) than others (n = 7; $33 000/QALY), although the difference was not statistically significant. Published data suggest that innovative treatments for hematologic malignancies may provide reasonable value for money. PMID:25655601

  8. High rate of TTV infection in multitransfused patients with pediatric malignancy and hematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Hamada, H; Tsuda, A; Kaneko, K; Fukunaga, Y

    2000-09-01

    The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) infection has not been known in patients suffering from pediatric malignancies and hematological disorders who receive blood transfusion and/or blood products during treatment. Blood samples were taken from 75 patients. TTV infection was identified when TTV DNA was detected in serum by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA were also assayed by PCR. TTV DNA was detected in 38 of 75 patients (51%). In 4 of 38 patients, the amount of blood transfused was less than 3 units. By time since last transfusion, TTV DNA was detected in 12 of 35 patients after more than 4 years, 12 of 21 between 1 and 4 years, and 14 of 19 within 1 year. Six patients had mixed infection of TTV and HCV, and 12 patients had mixed infection of TTV and HGV. Three different kinds of virus were found simultaneously in serum from 3 patients. Eight out of 75 patients showed abnormal levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (>40 IU/liter), and 3 of them had TTV DNA. All patients who had TTV DNA and elevated ALT levels also were positive for HCV RNA and HGV RNA. The prevalence of TTV infection is high in patients with pediatric malignancies and hematological disorders after episodes of blood transfusion. Transfusion is one of the most important risk factors for TTV infection regardless of the amount of blood transfused.

  9. The quality of life of hematological malignancy patients with major depressive disorder or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Omid; Sharifian, Ramezan-Ali; Soleimani, Mehdi; Jahanian, Amirabbas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the quality of life of hematological malignancy patients with major depressive disorder or subsyndromal depression. Sample consisted of 93 hematological malignancy patients recruited from oncology ward of Valieasr hospital for Imam Khomeini complex hospital at Tehran through purposeful sampling. Participants were divided into three groups through diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and the Beck Depression Inventory-2 (BDI-II): Major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 41; 44.1%); subsyndromal depression (SSD) (n = 23; 24.7%), and without depression (WD) (n = 29; 31.2%). Participants completed the short-form health survey (SF-36) as a measure of the quality of life. We carried out an analysis of covariance to examine the collected data. Findings showed that there was not a significant difference between patients with MDD and SSD based on measure of quality of life. But patients with MDD and SSD showed significantly worse quality of life than patients with WD. This finding highlights the clinical importance of subsyndromal depressive symptoms and casts doubt on the clinical utility of separation between MDD and subsyndromal depression in terms of important clinical outcomes.

  10. Copper Chelator ATN-224 Induces Peroxynitrite-Dependent Cell Death in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kristy; Briehl, Margaret M.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Reboucas, Julio S.; Glinsmann-Gibson, Betty; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Tome, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemoresistance, due to oxidative stress resistance or upregulation of Bcl-2, contributes to poor outcome in the treatment of hematological malignancies. In this study, we utilize the copper chelator drug, ATN-224 (choline tetrathiomolybdate), to induce cell death in oxidative stress resistant cells and cells overexpressing Bcl-2 by modulating the cellular redox environment and causing mitochondrial dysfunction. ATN-224 treatment decreases superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) activity, increases intracellular oxidants and induces peroxynitrite-dependent cell death. ATN-224 also targets the mitochondria, decreasing both cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The concentration of ATN-224 required to induce cell death is proportional to SOD1 levels, but independent of Bcl-2 status. In combination with doxorubicin, ATN-224 enhances cell death. In primary B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patient samples, ATN-224 decreases the viable cell number. Our findings suggest that ATN-224’s dual targeting of SOD1 and CcOX is a promising approach for treatment of hematological malignancies either as an adjuvant or as a single agent. PMID:23416365

  11. Usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage and flow cytometry in patients with hematological malignancies and respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Ferrà, Christelle; Xicoy, Blanca; Castillo, Nerea; Morgades, Mireia; Juncà, Jordi; Andreo, Felipe; Millá, Fuensanta; Feliu, Evarist; Ribera, Josep-María

    2017-04-07

    Strategies to improve the efficiency of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) are needed. We conducted a study to establish the diagnostic value of BAL in patients with hematological malignancies and pulmonary infiltrates. The correlation of cytologic and flow cytometric study of BAL with the microbiological findings and the clinical evolution was determined. Seventy BAL were performed and flow cytometric study was analyzed in 23 of them. Fifty-three patients did not present any adverse event attributable to BAL. Anti-infectious therapy was modified in 64 (91%) patients. T lymphocyte count >0.3×10(9)/l in peripheral blood was associated with longer OS at 3 years (53 vs. 22%, p=.009). Higher CD4 (>20/μL) and CD8 (>35/μL) lymphocyte counts in the BAL were associated with a longer OS at 3 years: 82 vs. 21% (p=.030) and 80 vs. 23% (p=.059). Our study confirms the clinical value of BAL for treatment decision making in patients with hematological malignancies and acute respiratory failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Chimeric antigen receptors for the adoptive T cell therapy of hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Davila, Marco L; Bouhassira, Diana C G; Park, Jae H; Curran, Kevin J; Smith, Eric L; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier

    2014-04-01

    The genetic modification of autologous T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) represents a breakthrough for gene engineering as a cancer therapy for hematologic malignancies. By targeting the CD19 antigen, we have demonstrated robust and rapid anti-leukemia activity in patients with heavily pre-treated and chemotherapy-refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). We demonstrated rapid induction of deep molecular remissions in adults, which has been recently confirmed in a case report involving a child with B-ALL. In contrast to the results when treating B-ALL, outcomes have been more modest in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or other non-hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We review the clinical trial experience targeting B-ALL and CLL and speculate on the possible reasons for the different outcomes and propose potential optimization to CAR T cell therapy when targeting CLL or other indolent NHL. Lastly, we discuss the pre-clinical development and potential for clinical translation for using CAR T cells against multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukemia. We highlight the potential risks and benefits by targeting these poor outcome hematologic malignancies.

  13. Next generation XPO1 inhibitor shows improved efficacy and in vivo tolerability in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hing, Zachary A.; Fung, Ho Yee Joyce; Ranganathan, Parvathi; Mitchell, Shaneice; El-Gamal, Dalia; Woyach, Jennifer A.; Williams, Katie; Goettl, Virginia M.; Smith, Jordan; Yu, Xueyan; Meng, Xiaomei; Sun, Qingxiang; Cagatay, Tolga; Lehman, Amy M.; Lucas, David M.; Baloglu, Erkan; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael G.; Byrd, John C.; Chook, Yuh Min; Garzon, Ramiro; Lapalombella, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear export receptor, Exportin 1 (XPO1), mediates transport of growth-regulatory proteins including tumor suppressors and is overactive in many cancers, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and aggressive lymphomas. Oral Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds that block XPO1 function were recently identified and hold promise as a new therapeutic paradigm in many neoplasms. One of these compounds, KPT-330 (selinexor), has made progress in Phase I/II clinical trials, but systemic toxicities limit its administration to twice-per-week and requiring supportive care. We designed a new generation SINE compound, KPT-8602, with a similar mechanism of XPO1 inhibition and potency but considerably improved tolerability. Efficacy of KPT-8602 was evaluated in preclinical animal models of hematologic malignancies including CLL and AML. KPT-8602 shows similar in vitro potency compared to KPT-330 but lower central nervous system penetration which resulted in enhanced tolerability, even when dosed daily, and improved survival in CLL and AML murine models compared to KPT-330. KPT-8602 is a promising compound for further development in hematologic malignancies and other cancers in which upregulation of XPO1 is seen. The wider therapeutic window of KPT-8602 may also allow increased on-target efficacy leading to even more efficacious combinations with other targeted anticancer therapies. PMID:27323910

  14. Mold colonization of fiberglass insulation of the air distribution system: effects on patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Takuma, Takahiro; Okada, Kaoru; Yamagata, Akihiro; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Niki, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    We investigated mold colonization of air handling units (AHUs) of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and its effects, including invasive pulmonary mycoses and febrile neutropenia, in patients with hematological malignancies. Sample collection with transparent adhesive tape and culture swabs revealed that AHUs were heavily colonized with molds, including thermotolerant, variously distributed Penicillium spp. Cases of nosocomial invasive pulmonary mycosis were not clustered in specific patient rooms but did occur frequently when the HVAC systems were not in use, prior to intervention (i.e., sealing and disuse of AHUs in private room), and during construction of a new hospital building. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of initial episodes of febrile neutropenia showed that the rate of febrile neutropenia was significantly associated with the duration of neutropenia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.27) and with sex (OR: 0.469; CI: 0.239-0.902). An evaluation of private rooms showed that female patients also had a lower rate of fever after intervention (OR: 0.0016; 95% CI: 0.000-0.209). The reduced rate of febrile neutropenia after intervention suggests that mold colonization of AHUs had adverse effects on patients with hematological malignancies.

  15. From the Biology of PP2A to the PADs for Therapy of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Maria; Calin, George A.; Perrotti, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, an emerging role of phosphatases in the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors has been established. The tumor-suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) belongs to the serine–threonine phosphatases family and accounts for the majority of serine–threonine phosphatase activity in eukaryotic cells. Numerous studies have shown that inhibition of PP2A expression and/or function may contribute to leukemogenesis in several hematological malignancies. Likewise, overexpression or aberrant expression of physiologic PP2A inhibitory molecules (e.g., SET and its associated SETBP1 and CIP2A) may turn off PP2A function and participate to leukemic progression. The discovery of PP2A as tumor suppressor has prompted the evaluation of the safety and the efficacy of new compounds, which can restore PP2A activity in leukemic cells. Although further studies are needed to better understand how PP2A acts in the intricate phosphatases/kinases cancer network, the results reviewed herein strongly support the development on new PP2A-activating drugs and the immediate introduction of those available into clinical protocols for leukemia patients refractory or resistant to current available therapies. PMID:25763353

  16. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies in Older Adults: Geriatric Principles in the Transplant Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Wildes, Tanya M.; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Medeiros, Bruno; Hurria, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) provides a life-prolonging or potentially curative treatment option for patients with hematologic malignancies. Given the high transplant-related morbidity, these treatment strategies were initially restricted to younger patients, but are increasingly being used in older adults. The incidence of most hematologic malignancies increases with age; with the aging of the population, the number of potential older candidates for HCT increases. Autologous HCT (auto-HCT) in older patients may confer a slightly increased risk of specific toxicities (such as cardiac toxicities and mucositis) and have modestly lower effectiveness (in the case of lymphoma). However, auto-HCT remains a feasible, safe, and effective therapy for selected older adults with multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Similarly, allogeneic transplant (allo-HCT) is a potential therapeutic option for selected older adults, although fewer data exist on allo-HCT in older patients. Based on currently available data, age alone is not the best predictor of toxicity and outcomes; rather, the comorbidities and functional status of the older patient are likely better predictors of toxicity than chronologic age in both the autologous and allogeneic setting. A comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in older adults being considered for either an auto-HCT or allo-HCT may identify additional problems or geriatric syndromes, which may not be detected during the standard pretransplant evaluation. Further research is needed to establish the utility of CGA in predicting toxicity and to evaluate the quality of survival in older adults undergoing HCT. PMID:24453296

  17. Recombinant immunotoxins containing truncated bacterial toxins for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Immunotoxins are molecules that contain a protein toxin and a ligand that is either an antibody or a growth factor. The ligand binds to a target cell antigen, and the target cell internalizes the immunotoxin, allowing the toxin to migrate to the cytoplasm where it can kill the cell. In the case of recombinant immunotoxins, the ligand and toxin are encoded in DNA that is then expressed in bacteria, and the purified immunotoxin contains the ligand and toxin fused together. Among the most active recombinant immunotoxins clinically tested are those that are targeted to hematologic malignancies. One agent, containing human interleukin-2 and truncated diphtheria toxin (denileukin diftitox), has been approved for use in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and has shown activity in other hematologic malignancies, including leukemias and lymphomas. Diphtheria toxin has also been targeted by other ligands, including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3, to target myelogenous leukemia cells. Single-chain antibodies containing variable heavy and light antibody domains have been fused to truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin to target lymphomas and lymphocytic leukemias. Recombinant immunotoxins anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2), targeting CD25, and RFB4(dsFv)-PE38 (BL22, CAT-3888), targeting CD22, have each been tested in patients. Major responses have been observed after failure of standard chemotherapy. The most successful application of recombinant immunotoxins today is in hairy cell leukemia, where BL22 has induced complete remissions in most patients who were previously treated with optimal chemotherapy.

  18. Virus infection facilitates the development of severe pneumonia in transplant patients with hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Duorong; Wu, Jim; Pan, Yujia; Yan, JinSong; Liu, Min; Liu, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an effective therapy for patients with hematologic malignancies. Severe pneumonia is associated with high mortality rate in HSCT recipients. Viral co-infection indicates a poor prognosis of HSCT recipients. In this study, a total of 68 allogeneic HSCT recipients were included. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was assessed by testing peripheral blood and oropharynx swabs, respectively, collected in the first 180 days after transplantation. We analysed the correlation of CMV and RSV co-infection with severe pneumonia and mortality. The incidence of CMV and RSV co-infection was 26.5% (18/68). Severe pneumonia was diagnosed in 61% (11/18) cases with co-infection compared to only 10% (5/50) cases with mono-infection or no infection. The analysis of potential risk factors for severe pneumonia showed that CMV and RSV co-infection was significantly associated with severe pneumonia (p < 0.001). The 5 patients who died of severe pneumonia were all co-infected with CMV and RSV. In conclusion, CMV and RSV co-infection appears to be an important factor and facilitates the development of severe pneumonia in allogeneic HSCT patients with hematologic malignancies. PMID:27340772

  19. Type of hematological malignancy is crucial for the return to work prognosis: a register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Horsboel, Trine Allerslev; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Nielsen, Bendt; Jensen, Chris; Andersen, Niels Trolle; de Thurah, Annette

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the proportion of return to work (RTW) among sick-listed patients diagnosed with one of eight subtypes of hematological malignancies; to evaluate the influence of type of hematological malignancy, comorbidity, use of anxiolytics and antidepressants, socioeconomic and demographic factors on RTW; and to investigate if these associations differ between genders. We combined data from national registers on all Danish patients diagnosed with hematological malignancies between 2000 and 2007. A total of 1,741 patients on long-term sick leave were followed until RTW, emigration, permanent withdrawal from the labor market, death, or February 2012, whichever came first. A total of 1,140 (65 %) patients returned to work. A strong association was found between type of diagnosis and RTW (p < 0.001), and the proportion of RTW was lowest for patients with multiple myeloma or acute leukemia compared to patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, chronic myeloid leukemia, and chronic lymphoid leukemia. Use of antidepressants or anxiolytics after diagnosis, gender, age, and educational level were also associated with RTW. Surprisingly, comorbidity was not associated with RTW (p = 0.94); gender only modified the association between age and RTW. Two thirds of patients with hematological malignancies on sick leave RTW. A number of factors seem to lead to a poor prognosis, the hematological diagnosis being the most important, and these should be taken into account when performing studies on work outcome for patients with hematological malignancies. Knowledge in this area should assist in identification of hematological cancer patients at risk of not returning to work so that early targeted rehabilitation interventions can be initiated.

  20. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Press, O.W.

    1996-08-15

    Experiments were performed to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells. An attempt was made to examine in vivo the effects of lysosomotropic amines and thioamides on the retention of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies by tumor cells. Experiments also examined the impact of newer radioiodination techniques on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies, and on the radioimmunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy of neoplasms. The endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with I-131, In-111, and Y-90 were compared. The utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer was investigated.

  1. SDF1-3′A polymorphism is associated with increased risk of hematological malignancy: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Fan, Yang; Li, Zhijie

    2017-01-01

    CXCL12 (also named SDF1), a member of the chemokine family, has been demonstrated to play an important role in the progression of multiple types of hematological malignancy. Several recent studies have shown that SDF1-3′A polymorphism (rs1801157) is associated with susceptibility to hematological malignancy, but published studies’ results are disputed. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between SDF1-3′A polymorphism and the risk of hematological malignancy based on the existing literature. We carried out a comprehensive literature search using the Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Chinese Wan Fang, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. And the raw data were extracted and calculated in standard steps of meta-analysis. Overall, nine qualified studies containing 1,576 cases and 1,674 controls were included in the ultimate meta-analysis. The pooled results displayed that AA genotype significantly increased the risk of hematological malignancy. The result of subgroup analysis further indicated that SDF1-3′A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of chronic myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma, but was not associated with increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In addition, SDF1-3′A polymorphism was associated with increased risk of hematological malignancy in Africans and Asians, but not in Caucasians. In conclusion, our meta-analysis firstly demonstrated that SDF1-3′A polymorphism may be associated with increased risk of hematological malignancy, especially for chronic myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma and the non-Caucasian population. Nevertheless, these conclusions should be reconfirmed by more evidence from large sample sized studies. PMID:28352190

  2. Fulminant sepsis caused by Bacillus cereus in patients with hematologic malignancies: analysis of its prognosis and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daichi; Nagai, Yuya; Mori, Minako; Nagano, Seiji; Takiuchi, Yoko; Arima, Hiroshi; Kimura, Takaharu; Shimoji, Sonoko; Togami, Katsuhiro; Tabata, Sumie; Yanagita, Soshi; Matsushita, Akiko; Nagai, Kenichi; Imai, Yukihiro; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2010-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a growing concern as a cause of life-threatening infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, the risk factors for patients with unfavorable outcomes have not been fully elucidated. At our institution, we observed the growth of B. cereus in blood culture in 68 patients with (23) or without (45) hematologic malignancies treated from September 2002 to November 2009. We defined a case as having sepsis when more than two blood culture sets were positive for B. cereus or only a single set was positive in the absence of other microorganisms in patients who had definite infectious lesions. We determined 12 of 23 patients with hematologic malignancies as having sepsis, as well as 10 of 45 patients without hematologic malignancies (p = 0.012). Of the 12 patients with hematologic malignancies, four patients with acute leukemia died of B. cereus sepsis within a few days. In our cohort, risk factor analysis demonstrated that a neutrophil count of 0/mm(3), central venous (CV) catheter insertion, and the presence of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms were significantly associated with a fatal prognosis (p = 0.010, 0.010, and 0.010, respectively). Analysis of data from our cohort in conjunction with those from 46 previously reported patients with B. cereus sepsis identified similar risk factors, that is, acute leukemia, extremely low neutrophil count, and CNS symptoms (p = 0.044, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively). These results indicate that appropriate prophylaxis and early therapeutic intervention against possible B. cereus sepsis are crucially important in the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  3. Utility of bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosing respiratory tract infections in patients with hematological malignancies: are invasive diagnostics still needed?

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Tobias; Lundström, Kristina Lamberg; Höglund, Martin; Cherif, Honar

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients treated for hematological malignancies have an increased risk of serious infections. Diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-established investigation for identifying the cause of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic yield of BAL in patients treated for hematological malignancies and how often it contributed to a modification of the anti-infectious therapy. Methods We reviewed records from 151 consecutive BAL procedures in 133 adult patients with hematological malignancies, treated at a tertiary hematology unit from 2004 to 2013. Extensive microbiological work-ups on BAL samples had been performed according to a standardized protocol. Results A microbiological finding causing the infectious episode could be identified in 59 (39%) cases. In 44 (29%) of the cases, results from BAL had an impact on clinical management either by contributing to a specific diagnosis (25%) or by leading to cessation of ongoing microbiological therapy. The most common diagnoses were invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). Diagnoses of IPA and PJP were based on results from BAL in 65% and 93% of cases, respectively. Several microbiological tests on BAL samples rendered no positive results. Complications were few and mainly mild. Conclusion BAL is still important for either verifying or excluding some of the most important respiratory tract pathogens in patients with hematological malignancies, particularly IPA and PJP. Standardized procedures for BAL sampling should be continually revised to exclude unnecessary microbiological tests. PMID:27739337

  4. Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma and Its Ligands in the Treatment of Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Bates, Tatiana M.; Lehmann, Geniece M.; Simpson-Haidaris, Patricia J.; Bernstein, Steven H.; Sime, Patricia J.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a multifunctional transcription factor with important regulatory roles in inflammation, cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. PPARγ is expressed in a variety of immune cells as well as in numerous leukemias and lymphomas. Here, we review recent studies that provide new insights into the mechanisms by which PPARγ ligands influence hematological malignant cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Understanding the diverse properties of PPARγ ligands is crucial for the development of new therapeutic approaches for hematological malignancies. PMID:18528522

  5. Expression of p16INK4A and p14ARF in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, T; Chikatsu, N; Takahashi, S; Fujita, A; Uchimaru, K; Asano, S; Fujita, T; Motokura, T

    1999-11-01

    The INK4A/ARF locus yields two tumor suppressors, p16INK4A and p14ARF, and is frequently deleted in human tumors. We studied their mRNA expressions in 41 hematopoietic cell lines and in 137 patients with hematological malignancies; we used a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay. Normal peripheral bloods, bone marrow and lymph nodes expressed little or undetectable p16INK4A and p14ARF mRNAs, which were readily detected in 12 and 17 of 41 cell lines, respectively. Patients with hematological malignancies frequently lacked p16INK4A expression (60/137) and lost p14ARF expression less frequently (19/137, 13.9%). Almost all patients without p14ARF expression lacked p16INK4A expression, which may correspond to deletions of the INK4A/ARF locus. Undetectable p16INK4A expression with p14ARF expression in 41 patients may correspond to p16INK4A promoter methylation or to normal expression status of the p16INK4A gene. All patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), myeloma or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) expressed p14ARF while nine of 23 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) lost p14ARF expression. Patients with ALL, AML or blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia expressed abundant p16INK4A mRNAs more frequently than patients with other diseases (12/33 vs 6/104, P < 0.01). Patients with FL and high p14ARF expression had a significantly shorter survival time while survival for patients with DLBCL and increased p14ARF expression tended to be longer. These observations indicate that p16INK4A and p14ARF expression is differentially affected among hemato- logical malignancies and that not only inactivation but also increased expression may have clinical significance.

  6. Ethical and Clinical Aspects of Intensive Care Unit Admission in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Guidelines of the Ethics Commission of the French Society of Hematology

    PubMed Central

    Malak, Sandra; Sotto, Jean-Jacques; Ceccaldi, Joël; Colombat, Philippe; Casassus, Philippe; Jaulmes, Dominique; Rochant, Henri; Cheminant, Morgane; Beaussant, Yvan; Zittoun, Robert; Bordessoule, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Admission of patients with hematological malignancies to intensive care unit (ICU) raises recurrent ethical issues for both hematological and intensivist teams. The decision of transfer to ICU has major consequences for end of life care for patients and their relatives. It also impacts organizational human and economic aspects for the ICU and global health policy. In light of the recent advances in hematology and critical care medicine, a wide multidisciplinary debate has been conducted resulting in guidelines approved by consensus by both disciplines. The main aspects developed were (i) clarification of the clinical situations that could lead to a transfer to ICU taking into account the severity criteria of both hematological malignancy and clinical distress, (ii) understanding the process of decision-making in a context of regular interdisciplinary concertation involving the patient and his relatives, (iii) organization of a collegial concertation at the time of the initial decision of transfer to ICU and throughout and beyond the stay in ICU. The aim of this work is to propose suggestions to strengthen the collaboration between the different teams involved, to facilitate the daily decision-making process, and to allow improvement of clinical practice. PMID:25349612

  7. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples and the subsequent risk of hematological malignancies and death.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Lindegaard, Hanne; Vestergaard, Hanne; Felding, Peter; de Fine Olivarius, Niels; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2013-10-01

    Eosinophilia may represent an early paraclinical sign of hematological malignant disease, but no reports exist on its predictive value for hematological malignancies. From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356,196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007. From these, one DIFF was randomly chosen and categorized according to no (<0.5 × 10(9) /L), mild (≥ 0.5-1.0 × 10(9) /L) or severe (≥ 1.0 × 10(9) /L) eosinophilia. From the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Civil Registration System, we ascertained hematological malignancies and death within 3 years following the DIFF. Using multivariable logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and adjusted for previous eosinophilia in a DIFF, sex, age, year, month, C-reactive protein, previous cancer, and comorbidity. ORs for developing Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) was significantly increased in individuals exhibiting severe eosinophilia, OR = 9.09 (C.I. 2.77-29.84), P = 0.0003. The association with classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (cMPNs) showed an increasing risk with OR = 1.65 (1.04-2.61) P = 0.0322 and OR = 3.87 (1.67-8.96) P = 0.0016 for mild and severe eosinophilia. Eosinophilia was in a similar fashion associated with chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL), OR = 2.57 (1.50-4.43), P = 0.0006 and OR = 5.00 (1.57-15.94), P = 0.0065, and all-cause death, OR of 1.16 (1.09-1.24), P < 0.0001 and 1.60 (1.35-1.91), P < 0.0001. We confirm associations between eosinophilia and HL and cMPNs, and in addition for the first time demonstrate a dose-dependent association between eosinophilia and CLL as well as death. Unexplained eosinophilia should prompt clinicians to consider conditions where early diagnosis may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Challenges in the Role of Gammaglobulin Replacement Therapy and Vaccination Strategies for Hematological Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Dhalla, Fatima; Chapel, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are prone to present with antibody production deficits associated with recurrent or severe bacterial infections that might benefit from human immunoglobulin (Ig) (IVIg/SCIg) replacement therapy. However, the original IVIg trial data were done before modern therapies were available, and the current indications do not take into account the shift in the immune situation of current treatment combinations and changes in the spectrum of infections. Besides, patients affected by other B cell malignancies present with similar immunodeficiency and manifestations while they are not covered by the current IVIg indications. A potential beneficial strategy could be to vaccinate patients at monoclonal B lymphocytosis and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance stages (for CLL and MM, respectively) or at B-cell malignancy diagnosis, when better antibody responses are attained. We have to re-emphasize the need for assessing and monitoring specific antibody responses; these are warranted to select adequately those patients for whom early intervention with prophylactic anti-infective therapy and/or IVIg is preferred. This review provides an overview of the current scenario, with a focus on prevention of infection in patients with hematological malignancies and the role of Ig replacement therapy. PMID:27597852

  9. Incidence of hematologic malignancies in Europe by morphologic subtype: results of the HAEMACARE project.

    PubMed

    Sant, Milena; Allemani, Claudia; Tereanu, Carmen; De Angelis, Roberta; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Visser, Otto; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Maynadié, Marc; Simonetti, Arianna; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Berrino, Franco

    2010-11-11

    Changing definitions and classifications of hematologic malignancies (HMs) complicate incidence comparisons. HAEMACARE classified HMs into groupings consistent with the latest World Health Organization classification and useful for epidemiologic and public health purposes. We present crude, age-specific and age-standardized incidence rates for European HMs according to these groupings, estimated from 66,371 lymphoid malignancies (LMs) and 21,796 myeloid malignancies (MMs) registered in 2000-2002 by 44 European cancer registries, grouped into 5 regions. Age-standardized incidence rates were 24.5 (per 100,000) for LMs and 7.55 for MMs. The commonest LMs were plasma cell neoplasms (4.62), small B-cell lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphatic leukemia (3.79), diffuse B-cell lymphoma (3.13), and Hodgkin lymphoma (2.41). The commonest MMs were acute myeloid leukemia (2.96), other myeloproliferative neoplasms (1.76), and myelodysplastic syndrome (1.24). Unknown morphology LMs were commonest in Northern Europe (7.53); unknown morphology MMs were commonest in Southern Europe (0.73). Overall incidence was lowest in Eastern Europe and lower in women than in men. For most LMs, incidence was highest in Southern Europe; for MMs incidence was highest in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Differences in diagnostic and registration criteria are an important cause of incidence variation; however, different distribution of HM risk factors also contributes. The quality of population-based HM data needs further improvement.

  10. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies IRF4-Associated Molecular Signatures in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Yao, Zhi Q.; Moorman, Jonathan P.; Xu, Yanji; Ning, Shunbin

    2014-01-01

    The lymphocyte-specific transcription factor Interferon (IFN) Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is implicated in certain types of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its interactions with these malignancies are largely unknown. In this study, we have first profiled molecular signatures associated with IRF4 expression in associated cancers, by analyzing existing gene expression profiling datasets. Our results show that IRF4 is overexpressed in melanoma, in addition to previously reported contexts including leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma, and that IRF4 is associated with a unique gene expression pattern in each context. A pool of important genes involved in B-cell development, oncogenesis, cell cycle regulation, and cell death including BATF, LIMD1, CFLAR, PIM2, and CCND2 are common signatures associated with IRF4 in non-Hodgkin B cell lymphomas. We confirmed the correlation of IRF4 with LIMD1 and CFLAR in a panel of cell lines derived from lymphomas. Moreover, we profiled the IRF4 transcriptome in the context of EBV latent infection, and confirmed several genes including IFI27, IFI44, GBP1, and ARHGAP18, as well as CFLAR as novel targets for IRF4. These results provide valuable information for understanding the IRF4 regulatory network, and improve our knowledge of the unique roles of IRF4 in different hematological malignancies. PMID:25207815

  11. Three cases of nephrotic syndrome associated with hematological malignancies characterized by glomerular endocapillary proliferation and massive inflammatory cel infiltration.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Ken; Shirai, Sayuri; Ito, Takafumi; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2014-04-01

    Nephrotic syndrome often emerges with malignancy. Membranous nephropathy is generally associated with solid tumors, and minimal change disease is associated with Hodgkin's disease. However, the complication of malignancy cannot be predicted by simply using renal histological findings. We report here three cases of nephrotic syndrome associated with hematological malignancy. On histology, Cases 1 and 2 were membranous nephropathy, and Case 3 was minimal change disease. Cases 1 and 2 were found to have B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, while Case 3 had Hodgkin's lymphoma. In Cases 1 and 2, proteinuria diminished as chemotherapy was started. All three cases were characterized by glomerular endocapillary proliferation and massive glomerular infiltration of inflammatory cells. These three cases are reported because their histologically atypical findings might be a feature of hematological malignancy- associated nephrotic syndrome and of any help for diagnosis.

  12. Targeting protein-protein interactions in hematologic malignancies: still a challenge or a great opportunity for future therapies?

    PubMed Central

    Cierpicki, Tomasz; Grembecka, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over the past several years, there has been an increasing research effort focused on inhibition of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) to develop novel therapeutic approaches for cancer, including hematologic malignancies. These efforts have led to development of small molecule inhibitors of PPIs, some of which already advanced to the stage of clinical trials while others are at different stages of pre-clinical optimization, emphasizing PPIs as an emerging and attractive class of drug targets. Here, we review several examples of recently developed inhibitors of protein-protein interactions highly relevant to hematologic cancers. We address the existing skepticism about feasibility of targeting PPIs and emphasize potential therapeutic benefit from blocking PPIs in hematologic malignancies. We then use these examples to discuss the approaches for successful identification of PPI inhibitors and provide analysis of the protein-protein interfaces, with the goal to address ‘druggability’ of new PPIs relevant to hematology. We discuss lessons learned to improve the success of targeting new protein-protein interactions and evaluate prospects and limits of the research in this field. We conclude that not all PPIs are equally tractable for blocking by small molecules, and detailed analysis of PPI interfaces is critical for selection of those with the highest chance of success. Together, our analysis uncovers patterns that should help to advance drug discovery in hematologic malignancies by successful targeting of new protein-protein interactions. PMID:25510283

  13. An exploratory study of the relation of population density and agricultural activity to hematologic malignancies in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Patricia L; Watkins, John M

    2013-02-01

    Established risk factors for hematologic cancers include exposure to ionizing radiation, organic solvents, and genetic mutation; however, the potential roles of environmental and sociological factors are not well explored. As North Dakota engages in significant agricultural activity, the present investigation seeks to determine whether an association exists between the incidence of hematologic cancers and either population density or agricultural occupation for residents of south central North Dakota. The present study is a retrospective analysis. Cases of hematologic malignancies and associated pre-malignant conditions were collected from the regional Central North Dakota Cancer Registry, and analysis of study-specific demographic factors was performed. Significantly higher incidence of hematologic cancers and pre-malignant disorders was associated with residence in an "urban" county and rural city/town. Within the latter designation, there was a higher rate of self-reported agricultural occupation (40% vs 10%, P < 0.0001). The increased incidence of hematologic cancer in low population density areas of south central North Dakota supports the need for more detailed prospective research centered on agricultural exposures.

  14. Predictors of noninvasive ventilation failure in patients with hematologic malignancy and acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Adda, Mélanie; Coquet, Isaline; Darmon, Michaël; Thiery, Guillaume; Schlemmer, Benoît; Azoulay, Elie

    2008-10-01

    The current trend to manage critically ill hematologic patients admitted with acute respiratory failure is to perform noninvasive ventilation to avoid endotracheal intubation. However, failure of noninvasive ventilation may lead to an increased mortality. Retrospective study to determine the frequency of noninvasive ventilation failure and identify its determinants. Medical intensive care unit in a University hospital. All consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit over a 10-yr period who received noninvasive ventilation. A total of 99 patients were studied. Simplified Acute Physiology Score II at admission was 49 (median, interquartile range, 39-57). Fifty-three patients (54%) failed noninvasive ventilation and required endotracheal intubation. Their PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly lower (175 [101-236] vs. 248 [134-337]) and their respiratory rate under noninvasive ventilation was significantly higher (32 breaths/min [30-36] vs. 28 [27-30]). Forty-seven patients (89%) who failed noninvasive ventilation required vasopressors. Hospital mortality was 79% in those who failed noninvasive ventilation, and 41% in those who succeeded. Patients who failed noninvasive ventilation had a significantly longer intensive care unit stay (13 days [8-23] vs. 5 [2-8]) and a significantly higher rate of intensive care unit-acquired infections (32% compared with 7%). Factors independently associated with noninvasive ventilation failure by multivariate analysis were respiratory rate under noninvasive ventilation, longer delay between admission and noninvasive ventilation first use, need for vasopressors or renal replacement therapy, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Failure of noninvasive ventilation occurs in half the critically ill hematologic patients and is associated with an increased mortality. Predictors of noninvasive ventilation failure might be used to guide decisions regarding intubation.

  15. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in patients with hematological malignancies: HRCT patterns of pulmonary involvement and disease course.

    PubMed

    Spira, Daniel; Wirths, Stefan; Skowronski, Felix; Pintoffl, Jan; Kaufmann, Sascha; Brodoefel, Harald; Horger, Marius

    2013-01-01

    To analyze high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) patterns of lung involvement and disease course in patients with hematological malignancies experiencing diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) after chemotherapy ± allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Sixteen patients experiencing DAH after chemotherapy ± allo-SCT were enrolled. A total of 74 computed tomography (CT) scans obtained before, during, and after onset of DAH were evaluated retrospectively. CT features of DAH are each, by oneself, nonspecific. However, conjoint bilateral, diffuse, and dependent ground glass opacity ± crazy paving, accompanied by airspace bronchograms, should suggest this complication. The HRCT course comprises a wide range of trends that are not predictive for patient's outcome, but progression of parenchymal consolidations at follow up was more often detrimental. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Vishwamitra, Deeksha; George, Suraj Konnath; Shi, Ping; Kaseb, Ahmed O.; Amin, Hesham M.

    2017-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system plays key roles in the establishment and progression of different types of cancer. In agreement with this idea, substantial evidence has shown that the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR) and its primary ligand IGF-I are important for maintaining the survival of malignant cells of hematopoietic origin. In this review, we discuss current understanding of the role of IGF-IR signaling in cancer with a focus on the hematological neoplasms. We also address the emergence of IGF-IR as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of different types of cancer including plasma cell myeloma, leukemia, and lymphoma. PMID:27661006

  17. CD 123 is a membrane biomarker and a therapeutic target in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that abnormalities of the alpha-chain of the interleukin-3 receptor (IL-3RA or CD123) are frequently observed in some leukemic disorders and may contribute to the proliferative advantage of leukemic cells. This review analyzes the studies indicating that CD123 is overexpressed in various hematologic malignancies, including a part of acute myeloid and B-lymphoid leukemias, blastic plasmocytoid dendritic neoplasms (BPDCN) and hairy cell leukemia. Given the low/absent CD123 expression on normal hematopoietic stem cells, attempts have been made at preclinical first, and then at clinical level to target this receptor. Since the IL-3R is a membrane receptor there are two relatively simple means to target this molecule, either using its natural ligand or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Recent reports using a fusion molecule composed by human IL-3 coupled to a truncated diphteria toxin have shown promising antitumor activity in BPDCN and AML patients. PMID:24513123

  18. The prognostic factors for patients with hematological malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Yishu; Yang, Qing; Wang, Erhua; Liu, Jing; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the nature of acute illness and adverse effects derived from intensive chemotherapy, patients with hematological malignancies (HM) who are admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often present with poor prognosis. However, with advances in life-sustaining therapies and close collaborations between hematologists and intensive care specialists, the prognosis for these patients has improved substantially. Many studies from different countries have examined the prognostic factors of these critically ill HM patients. However, there has not been an up-to-date review on this subject, and very few studies have focused on the prognosis of patients with HM admitted to the ICU in Asian countries. Herein, we aim to explore the current situation and prognostic factors in patients with HM admitted to ICU, mainly focusing on studies published in the last 10 years.

  19. All in the family: Clueing into the link between metabolic syndrome and hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Reem; Dalovisio, Andrew; Borgia, Jeffrey A; Venugopal, Parameswaran; Kim, Brian W; Grant-Szymanski, Kelly; Hari, Parameswaran; Lazarus, Hillard

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome constitutes a constellation of findings including central obesity, insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and hypertension. Metabolic syndrome affects 1 in 4 adults in the United States and is rapidly rising in prevalence, largely driven by the dramatic rise in obesity and insulin resistance/DM. Being central to the development of metabolic syndrome and its other related diseases, much focus has been placed on identifying the mitogenic effects of obesity and insulin resistance/DM as mechanistic clues of the link between metabolic syndrome and cancer. Pertinent mechanisms identified include altered lipid signaling, adipokine and inflammatory cytokine effects, and activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and RAS/RAF/MAPK/ERK pathways via dysregulated insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Through variable activation of these multiple pathways, obesity and insulin resistance/DM pre-dispose to hematologic malignancies, imposing the aggressive and chemo-resistant phenotypes typically seen in cancer patients with underlying metabolic syndrome. Growing understanding of these pathways has identified druggable cancer targets, rationalizing the development and testing of agents like PI3K inhibitor idelalisib, mTOR inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus, and IGF-1 receptor inhibitor linsitinib. It has also led to exploration of obesity and diabetes-directed therapies including statins and oral hypoglycemic for the management of metabolic syndrome-related hematologic neoplasms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel antibody-drug conjugate targeting SAIL for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Theunissen, J-W; Balibalos, J; Liao-Chan, S; Babcock, M C; Wong, T; Cairns, B; Gonzalez, D; van der Horst, E H; Perez, M; Levashova, Z; Chinn, L; D'Alessio, J A; Flory, M; Bermudez, A; Jackson, D Y; Ha, E; Monteon, J; Bruhns, M F; Chen, G; Migone, T-S

    2015-05-29

    Although several new therapeutic approaches have improved outcomes in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, unmet need persists in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Here we describe the proteomic identification of a novel cancer target, SAIL (Surface Antigen In Leukemia), whose expression is observed in AML, MM, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). While SAIL is widely expressed in CLL, AML, MM, DLBCL and FL patient samples, expression in cancer cell lines is mostly limited to cells of AML origin. We evaluated the antitumor activity of anti-SAIL monoclonal antibodies, 7-1C and 67-7A, conjugated to monomethyl auristatin F. Following internalization, anti-SAIL antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) exhibited subnanomolar IC50 values against AML cell lines in vitro. In pharmacology studies employing AML cell line xenografts, anti-SAIL ADCs resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition. The restricted expression profile of this target in normal tissues, the high prevalence in different types of hematologic cancers and the observed preclinical activity support the clinical development of SAIL-targeted ADCs.

  1. Depletion of nerve growth factor in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy associated with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Youk, Jeonghwan; Kim, Young-Sook; Lim, Jung-Ah; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Koh, Youngil; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Inho

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the depletion of nerve growth factor (NGF) is associated with the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in patients with hematologic malignancy. We prospectively enrolled hematologic cancer patients who had a plan to receive bortezomib, thalidomide, or vincristine. Baseline NGF levels were measured within one week before the start date of chemotherapy. Follow-up NGF levels were measured after four months from the start date of chemotherapy or the date when CIPN was initially diagnosed. Baseline and follow-up NGF pairs were measured in 45 patients (male/female = 27/18, median age = 63 years old). CIPN has developed in 28 patients. In the CIPN group, the level of NGF was significantly decreased after chemotherapy compared to the baseline (△NGF = -3.52 ±5.72; p-value = 0.003), while the NGF level of the no-CIPN group was not changed after chemotherapy. The differences in △NGF levels between the CIPN and no-CIPN group were more profound when analyzed in the subgroup of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients (△NGF = -4.14 ± 4.87 pg/ml for the CIPN group and +2.52 ± 8.39 pg/ml for the no-CIPN group; p-value = 0.043). This study shows that the depletion of NGF occurs during the development of CIPN, suggesting pathogenesis based on the role of NGF and therapeutic implications.

  2. A novel antibody–drug conjugate targeting SAIL for the treatment of hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S Y; Theunissen, J-W; Balibalos, J; Liao-Chan, S; Babcock, M C; Wong, T; Cairns, B; Gonzalez, D; van der Horst, E H; Perez, M; Levashova, Z; Chinn, L; D‘Alessio, J A; Flory, M; Bermudez, A; Jackson, D Y; Ha, E; Monteon, J; Bruhns, M F; Chen, G; Migone, T-S

    2015-01-01

    Although several new therapeutic approaches have improved outcomes in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, unmet need persists in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Here we describe the proteomic identification of a novel cancer target, SAIL (Surface Antigen In Leukemia), whose expression is observed in AML, MM, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). While SAIL is widely expressed in CLL, AML, MM, DLBCL and FL patient samples, expression in cancer cell lines is mostly limited to cells of AML origin. We evaluated the antitumor activity of anti-SAIL monoclonal antibodies, 7-1C and 67-7A, conjugated to monomethyl auristatin F. Following internalization, anti-SAIL antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) exhibited subnanomolar IC50 values against AML cell lines in vitro. In pharmacology studies employing AML cell line xenografts, anti-SAIL ADCs resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition. The restricted expression profile of this target in normal tissues, the high prevalence in different types of hematologic cancers and the observed preclinical activity support the clinical development of SAIL-targeted ADCs. PMID:26024286

  3. AZD5153: A Novel Bivalent BET Bromodomain Inhibitor Highly Active against Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rhyasen, Garrett W; Hattersley, Maureen M; Yao, Yi; Dulak, Austin; Wang, Wenxian; Petteruti, Philip; Dale, Ian L; Boiko, Scott; Cheung, Tony; Zhang, Jingwen; Wen, Shenghua; Castriotta, Lillian; Lawson, Deborah; Collins, Michael; Bao, Larry; Ahdesmaki, Miika J; Walker, Graeme; O'Connor, Greg; Yeh, Tammie C; Rabow, Alfred A; Dry, Jonathan R; Reimer, Corinne; Lyne, Paul; Mills, Gordon B; Fawell, Stephen E; Waring, Michael J; Zinda, Michael; Clark, Edwin; Chen, Huawei

    2016-11-01

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein BRD4 regulates gene expression via recruitment of transcriptional regulatory complexes to acetylated chromatin. Pharmacological targeting of BRD4 bromodomains by small molecule inhibitors has proven to be an effective means to disrupt aberrant transcriptional programs critical for tumor growth and/or survival. Herein, we report AZD5153, a potent, selective, and orally available BET/BRD4 bromodomain inhibitor possessing a bivalent binding mode. Unlike previously described monovalent inhibitors, AZD5153 ligates two bromodomains in BRD4 simultaneously. The enhanced avidity afforded through bivalent binding translates into increased cellular and antitumor activity in preclinical hematologic tumor models. In vivo administration of AZD5153 led to tumor stasis or regression in multiple xenograft models of acute myeloid leukemia, multiple myeloma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The relationship between AZD5153 exposure and efficacy suggests that prolonged BRD4 target coverage is a primary efficacy driver. AZD5153 treatment markedly affects transcriptional programs of MYC, E2F, and mTOR. Of note, mTOR pathway modulation is associated with cell line sensitivity to AZD5153. Transcriptional modulation of MYC and HEXIM1 was confirmed in AZD5153-treated human whole blood, thus supporting their use as clinical pharmacodynamic biomarkers. This study establishes AZD5153 as a highly potent, orally available BET/BRD4 inhibitor and provides a rationale for clinical development in hematologic malignancies. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(11); 2563-74. ©2016 AACR.

  4. Integrated genomic DNA/RNA profiling of hematologic malignancies in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Nahas, Michelle K; Wang, Kai; Rampal, Raajit K; Intlekofer, Andrew M; Patel, Jay; Krivstov, Andrei; Frampton, Garrett M; Young, Lauren E; Zhong, Shan; Bailey, Mark; White, Jared R; Roels, Steven; Deffenbaugh, Jason; Fichtenholtz, Alex; Brennan, Timothy; Rosenzweig, Mark; Pelak, Kimberly; Knapp, Kristina M; Brennan, Kristina W; Donahue, Amy L; Young, Geneva; Garcia, Lazaro; Beckstrom, Selmira T; Zhao, Mandy; White, Emily; Banning, Vera; Buell, Jamie; Iwanik, Kiel; Ross, Jeffrey S; Morosini, Deborah; Younes, Anas; Hanash, Alan M; Paietta, Elisabeth; Roberts, Kathryn; Mullighan, Charles; Dogan, Ahmet; Armstrong, Scott A; Mughal, Tariq; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Labrecque, Elaine; Erlich, Rachel; Vietz, Christine; Yelensky, Roman; Stephens, Philip J; Miller, Vincent A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Otto, Geoff A; Lipson, Doron; Levine, Ross L

    2016-06-16

    The spectrum of somatic alterations in hematologic malignancies includes substitutions, insertions/deletions (indels), copy number alterations (CNAs), and a wide range of gene fusions; no current clinically available single assay captures the different types of alterations. We developed a novel next-generation sequencing-based assay to identify all classes of genomic alterations using archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blood and bone marrow samples with high accuracy in a clinically relevant time frame, which is performed in our Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified College of American Pathologists-accredited laboratory. Targeted capture of DNA/RNA and next-generation sequencing reliably identifies substitutions, indels, CNAs, and gene fusions, with similar accuracy to lower-throughput assays that focus on specific genes and types of genomic alterations. Profiling of 3696 samples identified recurrent somatic alterations that impact diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy selection. This comprehensive genomic profiling approach has proved effective in detecting all types of genomic alterations, including fusion transcripts, which increases the ability to identify clinically relevant genomic alterations with therapeutic relevance. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. Plasma presepsin level is an early diagnostic marker of severe febrile neutropenia in hematologic malignancy patients.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Yusuke; Shimizu, Kaoru; Shigeta, Masayo; Okuno, Takafumi; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Kito, Katsuyuki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yamagishi, Yuka; Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2017-01-05

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common infectious complication in chemotherapy. The mortality of FN is higher in hematologic malignancy patients, and early diagnostic marker is needed. Presepsin is a prompt and specific marker for bacterial sepsis, but its efficacy in severe febrile neutropenia (FN) is not well confirmed. We tried to clarify whether it is a useful maker for early diagnosis of FN in patients during massive chemotherapy. We measured plasma presepsin levels every 2-3 day in FN cases and evaluated its change during the course of massive chemotherapy. The patients had hematologic malignancy or bone marrow failure, and in all cases, neutropenia was severe during the episode. The baseline levels, onset levels, increase rate at FN onset, and onset / baseline ratio were evaluated for their efficacy of early FN diagnosis. Eleven episodes of bacteremia (six gram negatives and five gram positives) in severe neutropenia were analyzed in detail. While plasma presepsin level was strongly associated to the CRP level (r = 0.61, p < 0.01), it was not associated with the absolute WBC count (r = -0.19, p = 0.19), absolute neutrophil count (r = -0.11, p = 0.41) or absolute monocyte count (r = -0.12, p = 0.40). The average of onset presepsin level was 638 ± 437 pg/mL and the cutoff value (314 pg/mL) has detected FN onset in 9 of 11 cases. The two cases undetected by presepsin were both Bacillus species bacteremia. Plasma presepsin level is a reliable marker of FN even in massive chemotherapy with very low white blood cell counts. Closer monitoring of this molecule could be a help for early diagnosis in FN. But bacteremia caused by Bacillus species was an exception in our study.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in cancer patients with hematological malignancies and febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) exhibit changes in extracellular fluid that may alter the plasma concentrations of beta-lactams and result in therapeutic failure or toxicity. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in patients with hematological malignancies and FN after receiving chemotherapy at a primary public cancer center. Methods This was an open, nonrandomized, observational, descriptive, and prospective study. Samples from 15 patients with hematological malignancies and FN were evaluated after the administration of chemotherapy. Five blood samples were taken from each patient when the antibiotic level was at steady-state 10, 60, 120, 180, and 350 min after each dose. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using gel diffusion with Bacillus subtilis. All study participants provided written informed consent. Results We investigated the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin in 14 patients between the ages of 18 years and 59 years and with a mean absolute neutrophil count of 208 cells per mm3 (standard deviation (SD) ± 603.2). The following pharmacokinetic measurements were obtained: maximum concentration, 94.1–1133 mg/L; minimum concentration, 0.47–37.65 mg/L; volume of distribution, 0.08–0.65 L/kg (mean, 0.34 L/kg); drug clearance (CL), 4.42–27.25 L/h (mean, 9.93 L/h); half-life (t1/2), 0.55–2.65 h (mean, 1.38 h); and area under the curve, 115.12–827.16 mg · h/L. Conclusion Patients with FN after receiving chemotherapy exhibited significant variations in the pharmacokinetic parameters of piperacillin compared with healthy individuals; specifically, FN patients demonstrated an increase in t1/2 and decreased CL. PMID:24286231

  7. Pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in cancer patients with hematological malignancies and febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, José C; Cuervo, Sonia I; Garzón, Javier R; Gómez, Julio C; Díaz, Jorge Augusto; Silva, Edelberto; Sánchez, Ricardo; Cortés, Jorge A

    2013-11-28

    Patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) exhibit changes in extracellular fluid that may alter the plasma concentrations of beta-lactams and result in therapeutic failure or toxicity. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in patients with hematological malignancies and FN after receiving chemotherapy at a primary public cancer center. This was an open, nonrandomized, observational, descriptive, and prospective study. Samples from 15 patients with hematological malignancies and FN were evaluated after the administration of chemotherapy. Five blood samples were taken from each patient when the antibiotic level was at steady-state 10, 60, 120, 180, and 350 min after each dose. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using gel diffusion with Bacillus subtilis. All study participants provided written informed consent. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin in 14 patients between the ages of 18 years and 59 years and with a mean absolute neutrophil count of 208 cells per mm³ (standard deviation (SD) ± 603.2). The following pharmacokinetic measurements were obtained: maximum concentration, 94.1-1133 mg/L; minimum concentration, 0.47-37.65 mg/L; volume of distribution, 0.08-0.65 L/kg (mean, 0.34 L/kg); drug clearance (CL), 4.42-27.25 L/h (mean, 9.93 L/h); half-life (t(1/2)), 0.55-2.65 h (mean, 1.38 h); and area under the curve, 115.12-827.16 mg · h/L. Patients with FN after receiving chemotherapy exhibited significant variations in the pharmacokinetic parameters of piperacillin compared with healthy individuals; specifically, FN patients demonstrated an increase in t1(/2) and decreased CL.

  8. Identification of novel fusion genes with 28S ribosomal DNA in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Taki, Tomohiko; Nagoshi, Hisao; Chinen, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Yuichi; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Kuroda, Junya; Horiike, Shigeo; Nishida, Kazuhiro; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2014-04-01

    Fusion genes are frequently observed in hematologic malignancies and soft tissue sarcomas, and are usually associated with chromosome abnormalities. Many of these fusion genes create in-frame fusion transcripts that result in the production of fusion proteins, and some of which aid tumorigenesis. These fusion proteins are often associated with disease phenotype and clinical outcome, and act as markers for minimal residual disease and indicators of therapeutic targets. Here, we identified the 28S ribosomal DNA (RN28S1) gene as a novel fusion partner of the B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 11B gene (BCL11B), the immunoglobulin κ variable 3-20 gene (IGKV3-20) and the component of oligomeric Golgi complex 1 gene (COG1) in hematologic malignancies. The RN28S1-BCL11B fusion transcript was identified in a case with mixed-lineage (T/myeloid) acute leukemia having t(6;14)(q25;q32) by cDNA bubble PCR using BCL11B primers; however, the gene fused to BCL11B on 14q32 was not on 6q25. IGKV3-20-RN28S1 and COG1-RN28S1 fusion transcripts were identified in the Burkitt lymphoma cell line HBL-5, and the multiple myeloma cell line KMS-18. RN28S1 would not translate, and the breakpoints in partner genes of RN28S1 were within the coding exons, suggesting that disruption of fusion partners by fusion to RN28S1 is the possible mechanism of tumorigenesis. Although further analysis is needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) through which these RN28S1-related fusions play roles in tumorigenesis, our findings provide important insights into the role of rDNA function in human genomic architecture and tumorigenesis.

  9. A ten-color tube with dried antibody reagents for the screening of hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Correia, R P; Rajab, A; Bento, L C; Alexandre, A M; Vaz, A C; Schimidell, D; Pedro, E C; Perin, F S; Nozawa, S T; Barroso, R S; Bacal, N S

    2017-10-04

    The workflow in clinical flow cytometry laboratories must constantly be reviewed to develop technical procedures that improve quality and productivity and reduce costs. Using the Beckman Coulter dry coating technology, we customized a ten-color tube with dried antibody reagents, designated the Duraclone screening tube (DST), for screening hematological malignancies. Here, we compared the applicability, clinical and numerical equivalence, and cost and time required for the technical procedures between the liquid reagents and the DST. The DST contains CD4 + Kappa-FITC, CD8 + Lambda-PE, CD3 + CD14-ECD, CD33-PE-Cy5.5, CD20 + CD56-PE-Cy7, CD34-APC, CD19-APC-AlexaFluor700, CD10-APC-AlexaFluor750, CD5-Pacific Blue, and CD45-Krome Orange. We evaluated 20 bone marrow samples, 13 peripheral blood samples, 6 lymph node biopsy samples, 5 fine-needle aspirate samples, 5 cerebrospinal fluid samples, and 1 pleural fluid sample. The DST was useful for more than 60% of our samples. It was able to enumerate the majority of the populations in all types of samples with a statistically acceptable correlation with the liquid reagents. The use of the DST translated into significant time and cost savings of 15.8% and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the use of the liquid reagent. The cost was reduced by $14.36 per sample. The DST is an efficient solution for screening hematological malignancies with improved quality, productivity, standardization, and sustainability. These improvements could benefit patients by providing faster diagnoses using a higher quality and lower cost reagent. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Diver, W Ryan; Turner, Michelle C; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148Bq/m(3)) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74Bq/m(3)) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23-2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HRcontinuous=1.38, 95% CI:1.15-1.65 per 100Bq/m(3); p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetics of engraftment in patients with hematologic malignancies given allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Baron, Frédéric; Baker, Jennifer E; Storb, Rainer; Gooley, Theodore A; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Maris, Michael B; Maloney, David G; Heimfeld, Shelly; Oparin, Dmitrij; Zellmer, Eustacia; Radich, Jerald P; Grumet, F Carl; Blume, Karl G; Chauncey, Thomas R; Little, Marie-Térèse

    2004-10-15

    We analyzed the kinetics of donor engraftment among various peripheral blood cell subpopulations and their relationship to outcomes among 120 patients with hematologic malignancies given hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after nonmyeloablative conditioning consisting of 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) with or without added fludarabine. While patients rapidly developed high degrees of donor engraftment, most remained mixed donor/host chimeras for up to 180 days after HCT. Patients given preceding chemotherapies and those given granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cell (G-PBMC) grafts had the highest degrees of donor chimerism. Low donor T-cell (P = .003) and natural killer (NK) cell (P = .004) chimerism levels on day 14 were associated with increased probabilities of graft rejection. High T-cell chimerism on day 28 was associated with an increased probability of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (P = .02). Of 93 patients with measurable malignant disease at transplantation, 41 achieved complete remissions a median of 199 days after HCT; 19 of the 41 were mixed T-cell chimeras when complete remissions were achieved. Earlier establishment of donor NK-cell chimerism was associated with improved progression-free survival (P = .02). Measuring the levels of peripheral blood cell subset donor chimerisms provided useful information on HCT outcomes and might allow early therapeutic interventions to prevent graft rejection or disease progression.

  12. Stem cell transplant as an immunomodulatory tool for children with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    LaBelle, James L; Cunningham, John M

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is the most common and effective form of immunotherapy used for treatment of pediatric leukemias. A combination of graft manipulation, donor selection, fine-tuning of conditioning regimens, and use of lower and novel forms of immunosuppression following transplant has maximized the tolerability of alloHSCT in children. This outcome has facilitated new advances in disease-specific transplant regimens that seek to amplify the antitumor effects of the allograft, while reducing transplant-related mortality. However, disease relapse remains the preeminent challenge to the success of transplantation as a modality for successful treatment of high-risk disease. Separating graft versus host disease (GVHD) from graft versus leukemia (GVL) remains the most significant obstacle to enhancing disease-free survival. However, with increased clarity and discrimination in the effector mechanisms responsible for GVHD and/or GVL in patients of all ages, a new wave of clinical trials has become feasible that harnesses GVL effects to treat patients with high-risk myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. Exciting progress is being made in the use of alloHSCT with donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) in almost all forms of pediatric hematologic malignancies. This advance sets the stage for the use of HSCT and/or DLI in conjunction with novel disease-specific post-transplant therapies using small molecule therapeutics, tumor vaccines, and novel antibody therapies.

  13. Hematology oncology practice in the Asia-Pacific APHCON survey results from the 6th international hematologic malignancies conference: bridging the gap 2015, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao Jun; Liu, Kaiyan; Ritchie, David; Andersson, Borje; Lu, Jin; Hou, Jian; Burguera, Adolfo de la Fuente; Wang, JianXiang; Yeoh, Allen; Yan, Chenhua; Zhou, Daobin; Tan, Daryl; Kim, Dong Wook; Wu, Depei; Shpall, Elizabeth; Kornblau, Stephen; Neelapu, Sattava; Hongeng, Suradej; Li, Jianyong; Hu, Jiong; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Wang, Michael; Malhotra, Pankaj; Jiang, Qian; Qin, Yazhen; Wong, Raymond; Champlin, Richard; Hagemeister, Frederick; Westin, Jason; Iyer, Swaminathan; Mathews, Vikram; Wang, Yu; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Zhijian; Shao, Zonghong; Orlowski, Robert Z; Chim, Chor Sang; Mulligan, Stephen; Sanz, Miguel; Ozawa, Keiya; Parmar, Simrit; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2017-06-20

    This report serves as a snapshot of the state-of-knowledge in the Asia Pacific (APAC) Hematology Oncology community, and establishes a baseline for longitudinal investigations to follow changes in best practices over time. The objective of this study was to understand the approach to hematologic diseases, common standards of care and best practices, issues that remain controversial or debated, and educational or resource gaps that warrant attention. We used mobile application to disseminate and distribute questionnaires to delegates during the 6th international hematologic malignancies conference hosted by the APAC Hematology Consortium at Beijing, China. User responses were collected in an anonymous fashion. We report survey results in two ways: the overall responses, and responses as stratified between Chinese physicians and "Other" represented nationalities. Overall geographical concordance in survey responses was positive and strong. Perhaps more interesting than instances of absolute agreement, these data provide a unique opportunity to identify topics in which physician knowledge or opinions diverge. We assigned questions from all modules to broad categories of: patient information; diagnosis; treatment preference; transplantation; and general knowledge/opinion. On average, we observed a geographic difference of 15% for any particular answer choice, and this was fairly constant across survey modules. These results reveal utility and need for widespread and ongoing initiatives to assess knowledge and provide evidence-based education in real time. The data will be made more valuable by longitudinal participation, such that we can monitor changes in the state of the art over time.

  14. Hematology oncology practice in the Asia-Pacific APHCON survey results from the 6th international hematologic malignancies conference: bridging the gap 2015, Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao Jun; Liu, Kaiyan; Ritchie, David; Andersson, Borje; Lu, Jin; Hou, Jian; Burguera, Adolfo de Fuente; Wang, JianXiang; Yeoh, Allen; Yan, Chenhua; Zhou, Daobin; Tan, Daryl; Kim, Dong Wook; Wu, Depei; Shpall, Elizabeth; Kornblau, Stephen; Neelapu, Sattava; Hongeng, Suradej; Li, Jianyong; Hu, Jiong; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Wang, Michael; Malhotra, Pankaj; Jiang, Qian; Qin, Yazhen; Wong, Raymond; Champlin, Richard; Hagemeister, Frederick; Westin, Jason; Iyer, Swaminathan; Mathews, Vikram; Wang, Yu; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Zhijian; Shao, Zonghong; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Chim, Chor Sang; Mulligan, Stephen; Sanz, Miguel; Ozawa, Keiya; Parmar, Simrit; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2017-01-01

    This report serves as a snapshot of the state-of-knowledge in the Asia Pacific (APAC) Hematology Oncology community, and establishes a baseline for longitudinal investigations to follow changes in best practices over time. The objective of this study was to understand the approach to hematologic diseases, common standards of care and best practices, issues that remain controversial or debated, and educational or resource gaps that warrant attention. We used mobile application to disseminate and distribute questionnaires to delegates during the 6th international hematologic malignancies conference hosted by the APAC Hematology Consortium at Beijing, China. User responses were collected in an anonymous fashion. We report survey results in two ways: the overall responses, and responses as stratified between Chinese physicians and “Other” represented nationalities. Overall geographical concordance in survey responses was positive and strong. Perhaps more interesting than instances of absolute agreement, these data provide a unique opportunity to identify topics in which physician knowledge or opinions diverge. We assigned questions from all modules to broad categories of: patient information; diagnosis; treatment preference; transplantation; and general knowledge/opinion. On average, we observed a geographic difference of 15% for any particular answer choice, and this was fairly constant across survey modules. These results reveal utility and need for widespread and ongoing initiatives to assess knowledge and provide evidence-based education in real time. The data will be made more valuable by longitudinal participation, such that we can monitor changes in the state of the art over time. PMID:28404929

  15. Biological therapy of hematologic malignancies: toward a chemotherapy-free era.

    PubMed

    Klener, Pavel; Etrych, Tomas; Klener, Pavel

    2017-10-06

    Less than 70 years ago, the vast majority of hematologic malignancies were untreatable diseases with fatal prognoses. The development of modern chemotherapy agents, which had begun after the Second World War, was markedly accelerated by the discovery of the structure of DNA and its role in cancer biology and tumor cell division. The path travelled from the first temporary remissions observed in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with single-agent antimetabolites until the first cures achieved by multi-agent chemotherapy regimens was incredibly short. Despite great successes, however, conventional genotoxic cytostatics suffered from an inherently narrow therapeutic index and extensive toxicity, which in many instances limited their clinical utilization. In the last decade of the 20th century, increasing knowledge on the biology of certain malignancies resulted in the conception and development of first molecularly targeted agents designed to inhibit specific druggable molecules involved in the survival of cancer cells. Advances in technology and genetic engineering enabled the production of structurally complex anticancer macromolecules called biologicals, including therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates and antibody fragments. The development of drug delivery systems (DDSs), in which conventional drugs were attached to various types of carriers including nanoparticles, liposomes or biodegradable polymers, represented an alternative approach to the development of new anticancer agents. Despite the fact that the antitumor activity of drugs attached to DDSs was not fundamentally different, the improved pharmacokinetic profiles, decreased toxic side effects and significantly increased therapeutic indexes resulted in their enhanced antitumor efficacy compared to conventional (unbound) drugs. Approval of the first immune checkpoint inhibitor for the treatment of cancer in 2011 initiated the era of cancer immunotherapy. Checkpoint

  16. The casein kinase 2 inhibitor, CX-4945, as an anti-cancer drug in treatment of human hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chon, Hae J; Bae, Kyoung J; Lee, Yura; Kim, Jiyeon

    2015-01-01

    The casein kinase 2 (CK2) protein kinase is a pro-survival kinase and therapeutic target in treatment of various human cancers. CK2 overexpression has been demonstrated in hematological malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and multiple myeloma. CX-4945, also known as Silmitasertib, is an orally administered, highly specific, ATP-competitive inhibitor of CK2. CX-4945 induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for treatment of many cancer types. In the past 2 years, the focus on the therapeutic potential of CX-4945 has shifted from solid tumors to hematological malignancies. CX-4945 exerts anti-proliferative effects in hematological tumors by downregulating CK2 expression and suppressing activation of CK2-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. Furthermore, combination of CX-4945 with other inhibitors yielded synergistic effects in cell death induction. These new findings demonstrate that CK2 overexpression contributes to blood cancer cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Combinatorial use of CX-4945 is a promising therapeutic tool for treatment of hematological malignancies.

  17. Noninvasive versus invasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure in patients with hematologic malignancies: a 5-year multicenter observational survey.

    PubMed

    Gristina, Giuseppe R; Antonelli, Massimo; Conti, Giorgio; Ciarlone, Alessia; Rogante, Silvia; Rossi, Carlotta; Bertolini, Guido

    2011-10-01

    Mortality is high among patients with hematologic malignancies admitted to intensive care units for acute respiratory failure. Early noninvasive mechanical ventilation seems to improve outcomes. To characterize noninvasive mechanical ventilation use in Italian intensive care units for acute respiratory failure patients with hematologic malignancies and its impact on outcomes vs. invasive mechanical ventilation. Retrospective analysis of observational data prospectively collected in 2002-2006 on 1,302 patients with hematologic malignancies admitted with acute respiratory failure to 158 Italian intensive care units. Mortality (intensive care unit and hospital) was assessed in patients treated initially with noninvasive mechanical ventilation vs. invasive mechanical ventilation and in those treated with invasive mechanical ventilation ab initio vs. after noninvasive mechanical ventilation failure. Findings were adjusted for propensity scores reflecting the probability of initial treatment with noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Few patients (21%) initially received noninvasive mechanical ventilation; 46% of these later required invasive mechanical ventilation. Better outcomes were associated with successful noninvasive mechanical ventilation (vs. invasive mechanical ventilation ab initio and vs. invasive mechanical ventilation after noninvasive mechanical ventilation failure), particularly in patients with acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome (mortality: 42% vs. 69% and 77%, respectively). Delayed vs. immediate invasive mechanical ventilation was associated with slightly but not significantly higher hospital mortality (65% vs. 58%, p=.12). After propensity-score adjustment, noninvasive mechanical ventilation was associated with significantly lower mortality than invasive mechanical ventilation. The population could not be stratified according to specific hematologic diagnoses. Furthermore, the study was observational, and treatment groups may have

  18. Diagnosis and classification of hematologic malignancies on the basis of genetics.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Justin; Xiao, Wenbin; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

    2017-07-27

    Genomic analysis has greatly influenced the diagnosis and clinical management of patients affected by diverse forms of hematologic malignancies. Here, we review how genetic alterations define subclasses of patients with acute leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. These include new subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia defined by mutations in RUNX1 or BCR-ABL1 translocations as well as a constellation of somatic structural DNA alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Among patients with MDS, detection of mutations in SF3B1 define a subgroup of patients with the ring sideroblast form of MDS and a favorable prognosis. For patients with MPNs, detection of the BCR-ABL1 fusion delineates chronic myeloid leukemia from classic BCR-ABL1(-) MPNs, which are largely defined by mutations in JAK2, CALR, or MPL In the B-cell lymphomas, detection of characteristic rearrangements involving MYC in Burkitt lymphoma, BCL2 in follicular lymphoma, and MYC/BCL2/BCL6 in high-grade B-cell lymphomas are essential for diagnosis. In T-cell lymphomas, anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is defined by mutually exclusive rearrangements of ALK, DUSP22/IRF4, and TP63 Genetic alterations affecting TP53 and the mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region are important in clinical management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Additionally, detection of BRAFV600E mutations is helpful in the diagnosis of classical hairy cell leukemia and a number of histiocytic neoplasms. Numerous additional examples provided here demonstrate how clinical evaluation of genomic alterations have refined classification of myeloid neoplasms and major forms of lymphomas arising from B, T, or natural killer cells. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Management of Pulmonary Mucormycosis Based on a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Diagnosis in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A Report of Four Cases.

    PubMed

    Ino, Kazuko; Nakase, Kazunori; Nakamura, Akiko; Nakamori, Yoshiki; Sugawara, Yumiko; Miyazaki, Kana; Monma, Fumihiko; Fujieda, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Yuka; Ohishi, Kohshi; Masuya, Masahiro; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) is a life-threatening fungal infection in patients with hematologic malignancies, and early and accurate diagnostic modalities are urgently needed. We conducted a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting these fungi in peripheral blood from four patients with hematologic malignancies who were strongly suspected of having PM. In these four patients, the Rhizopus species was identified in two patients, and the Cunninghamella and Absidia species in one each. Based on these molecular findings, all of the patients were successfully treated via targeted therapy with liposomal amphotericin B. In this report, a PCR analysis proved very useful for managing PM in patients with hematologic malignancies.

  20. Epoetin alfa corrects anemia and improves quality of life in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving non-platinum chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Timothy J; Nortier, Johan; Rapoport, Bernardo; Pawlicki, Marek; de Wasch, Gilbert; Vercammen, Els; Schuette, Wolfgang; Wils, Jacques; Freund, Mathias

    2003-12-01

    Anemia, a commonly occurring morbidity in patients with cancer, often leads to diminished quality of life (QOL). Numerous clinical trials have shown that epoetin alfa treatment improves hematologic and QOL variables in cancer patients. The clinical trial analysis reported here was performed to assess response to epoetin alfa in patients with hematologic malignancies. Cancer patients with anemia undergoing non-platinum-based chemotherapy who were enrolled in a multinational, randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial were prospectively stratified by tumor type (hematologic, solid). Efficacy endpoints included proportion of patients transfused after day 28; change in hemoglobin (Hb) level from baseline to last assessment; proportion of treatment responders (increase in Hb > or =2 g/dl unrelated to transfusion) and correctors (patients whose Hb levels reached > or =12 g/dl during the study); and QOL. The protocol was amended before unblinding to prospectively collect and assess survival data 12 months after the last patient completed the study, and survival for the full study cohort was estimated using Kaplan-Meier techniques. Efficacy analyses of hematologic and QOL variables, as well as Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, were performed post hoc for the hematologic tumor stratum. Among patients with hematologic malignancies, the mean increase in Hb levels was greater with epoetin alfa than with placebo treatment (2.2 vs. 0.3 g/dl). Transfusion requirements were lower in patients who received epoetin alfa versus placebo (25.2 vs. 43.1%), and the proportion of responders and correctors was higher with epoetin alfa than with placebo (75.2 vs. 16.7% and 72.6 vs. 14.8%, respectively). Patients who received epoetin alfa had improved QOL while patients who received placebo had decreased QOL. These results are similar to those seen in the full study cohort, where differences between epoetin alfa and placebo were significant (P<0.05) for all five primary cancer

  1. Osteopontin and their roles in hematological malignancies: Splice variants on the new avenues.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Ana Clara Santos Fonseca; Blunck, Caroline Barbieri; Emerenciano, Mariana; Gimba, Etel Rodrigues Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein expressed in several tissues, including bone marrow, in which it performs distinct roles, such as modulating hematopoietic stem cell niche and bone remodeling. Most data in hematological malignancies (HMs) refers to total OPN (tOPN), comprehending the sum of distinct OPN splicing isoforms (OPN-SI), while reports describing the expression and roles of each OPN-SI are scarce. This review aims to summarize tOPN roles in HMs and provide evidence that OPN-SIs can also modulate specific functions in HMs biology. We summarize that upregulated tOPN can modulate HMs (leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma) progression, inducing cell adhesion, invasion, angiogenesis, cell differentiation and extramedullary and/or central nervous system infiltration. Based on this expression pattern, tOPN has been pointed out as a biomarker in those HMs, thus providing potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Our group found that OPN-SIs are expressed in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cell lines (unpublished data), providing early evidence that OPN-SIs are also expressed in BCP-ALL. Further studies should investigate whether these OPN-SIs can differently modulate HMs biology and their putative application as auxiliary biomarkers for HMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary Graft Failure after Myeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Richard F.; Logan, Brent R.; Chaudhury, Sonali; Zhu, Xiaochun; Akpek, Görgün; Bolwell, Brian J.; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Gupta, Vikas; Ho, Vincent T.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Marks, David I.; Ringdén, Olle T.H.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.; Schriber, Jeffrey R.; Cooke, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical outcomes after primary graft failure (PGF) remain poor. Here we present a large retrospective analysis (n=23,272) which investigates means to prevent PGF and early detection of patients at high risk. In patients with hematologic malignancies, who underwent their first myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, PGF was reported in 1,278 (5.5%), and there was a marked difference in PGFs using peripheral blood stem cell compared to bone marrow grafts (2.5 vs. 7.3%; P<0.001). A 4-fold increase of PGF was observed in myeloproliferative disorders compared to acute leukemia (P<0.001). Other risk factors for PGF included recipient age below 30, HLA-mismatch, male recipients of female donor grafts, ABO-incompatibility, busulfan/cyclophosphamide conditioning, and cryopreservation. In bone marrow transplants, total nucleated cell doses ≤2.4 × 108/kg were associated with PGF (OR 1.39; P<0.001). The use of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were associated with decreased PGF risk. These data, allow clinicians to do more informed choices with respect to graft source, donor selection, conditioning and immunosuppressive regimens to reduce the risk of PGF. Moreover, a novel risk score determined on day 21 post-transplant may provide the rationale for an early request for additional hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:25772027

  3. Dysregulation of JAK-STAT pathway in hematological malignancies and JAK inhibitors for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Furqan, Muhammad; Mukhi, Nikhil; Lee, Byung; Liu, Delong

    2013-01-16

    JAK-STAT (Janus associated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway plays a critical role in transduction of extracellular signals from cytokines and growth factors involved in hematopoiesis, immune regulation, fertility, lactation, growth and embryogenesis. JAK family contains four cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, JAK1-3 and Tyk2. Seven STAT proteins have been identified in human cells, STAT1-6, including STAT5a and STAT5b. Negative regulators of JAK-STAT pathways include tyrosine phosphatases (SHP1 and 2, CD45), protein inhibitors of activated STATs (PIAS), suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS). Dysregulation of JAK-STAT pathway have been found to be key events in a variety of hematological malignancies. JAK inhibitors are among the first successful agents reaching clinical application. Ruxolitinib (Jakafi), a non-selective inhibitor of JAK1 & 2, has been approved by FDA for patients with intermediate to high risk primary or secondary myelofibrosis. This review will also summarize early data on selective JAK inhibitors, including SAR302503 (TG101348), lestaurtinib (CEP701), CYT387, SB1518 (pacritinib), LY2784544, XL019, BMS-911543, NS-018, and AZD1480.

  4. Diagnostic medical imaging radiation exposure and risk of development of solid and hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Fabricant, Peter D; Berkes, Marschall B; Dy, Christopher J; Bogner, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Limiting patients' exposure to ionizing radiation during diagnostic imaging is of concern to patients and clinicians. Large single-dose exposures and cumulative exposures to ionizing radiation have been associated with solid tumors and hematologic malignancy. Although these associations have been a driving force in minimizing patients' exposure, significant risks are found when diagnoses are missed and subsequent treatment is withheld. Therefore, based on epidemiologic data obtained after nuclear and occupational exposures, dose exposure limits have been estimated. A recent collaborative effort between the US Food and Drug Administration and the American College of Radiology has provided information and tools that patients and imaging professionals can use to avoid unnecessary ionizing radiation scans and ensure use of the lowest feasible radiation dose necessary for studies. Further collaboration, research, and development should focus on producing technological advances that minimize individual study exposures and duplicate studies. This article outlines the research used to govern safe radiation doses, defines recent initiatives in decreasing radiation exposure, and provides orthopedic surgeons with techniques that may help decrease radiation exposure in their daily practice.

  5. Cognitive function in the acute course of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Kindermann, F; Mehnert, A; Scherwath, A; Schirmer, L; Schleimer, B; Zander, A R; Koch, U

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess cognitive performance in patients with hematological malignancies before, and 3 months after, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). A consecutive sample of 39 patients was assessed before admission with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) questionnaires; 19 of these patients were retested around 100 days post HSCT. Test results were compared with normative data and revealed minimal differences at both time points in the level of group-means. One parameter - simple reaction time - was significantly worse (prolonged) at second measurement after HSCT. According to the definition of an impairment score (more than three impaired functions), 26% of patients were classified as impaired before as well as after HSCT. Neuropsychological test results did not vary systematically according to medical variables such as extent of pretreatment, graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) and kind of conditioning protocol. As a dimension of HRQoL, self-rated cognitive function was in the normal range before and after HSCT. Significant correlations between HRQoL and neuropsychological parameters were related to symptom scales. This study showed impairments of neuropsychological performance for a subgroup of patients before and after allogeneic HSCT. Systematic effects of conditioning, medical variables or self-rated HRQoL could not be observed.

  6. Management of Respiratory Viral Infections in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients and Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chemaly, Roy F.; Shah, Dimpy P.; Boeckh, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite preventive strategies and increased awareness, a high incidence of respiratory viral infections still occur in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs) and in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Progression of these viral infections to lower respiratory tract may prove fatal, especially in HCT recipients. Increasing evidence on the successful use of ribavirin (alone or in combination with immunomodulators) for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections in HM patients and HCT recipients is available from retrospective studies; however, prospective clinical trials are necessary to establish its efficacy with confidence. The impact on progression to pneumonitis and/or mortality of treating parainfluenza virus infections with available (ribavirin) or investigational (DAS181) antiviral agents still needs to be determined. Influenza infections have been successfully treated with neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir or zanamivir); however, the efficacy of these agents for influenza pneumonia has not been established, and immunocompromised patients are highly susceptible to emergence of antiviral drug resistance, most probably due to prolonged viral shedding. Infection control measures and an appreciation of the complications following respiratory viral infections in immunocompromised patients remain crucial for reducing transmission. Future studies should focus on strategies to identify patients at high risk for increased morbidity and mortality from these infections and to determine the efficacy of novel or available antiviral drugs. PMID:25352629

  7. [Clonal chromosome abnormalities in malignant hematological diseases using fluorescence in situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Soto-Quintana, M; Rojas-Atencio, A; Chirino, H; Alvarez-Nava, F; Pineda-Del Villar, L; Urdaneta, K; González-Ferrer, S; González, R

    1998-06-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for the identification of complete chromosomes, or segments of them, during metaphase or nuclear interphase. The present study shows the results of the analysis of 32 bone marrow aspirates from patients with malignant hematological diseases (11 AML, 7 ALL, 12 CML and 2 CLL), referred to the Medical Genetics Unit of the Faculty of Medicine, Zulia University, Maracaibo, Venezuela between 1994 and 1996. All samples were studied by conventional and molecular techniques (FISH), using probes of total chromosomes, alpha-satellites and locus specific. In patients with AML and ALL and FISH technique detected clonal chromosomal abnormalities, that were not found by the conventional cytogenetic technique. Furthermore, the PML-alpha RARA complex was identified in the promyelocytic acute leukemias. The presence of the molecular complex ABL-BCR was also demonstrated in CML. The present study demonstrates the usefulness of the FISH technique in the detection of clonal chromosomal abnormalities, which are important when considering the clinical care of patients with these pathologies.

  8. Integrated genomic DNA/RNA profiling of hematologic malignancies in the clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    He, Jie; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Nahas, Michelle K.; Wang, Kai; Rampal, Raajit K.; Intlekofer, Andrew M.; Patel, Jay; Krivstov, Andrei; Frampton, Garrett M.; Young, Lauren E.; Zhong, Shan; Bailey, Mark; White, Jared R.; Roels, Steven; Deffenbaugh, Jason; Fichtenholtz, Alex; Brennan, Timothy; Rosenzweig, Mark; Pelak, Kimberly; Knapp, Kristina M.; Brennan, Kristina W.; Donahue, Amy L.; Young, Geneva; Garcia, Lazaro; Beckstrom, Selmira T.; Zhao, Mandy; White, Emily; Banning, Vera; Buell, Jamie; Iwanik, Kiel; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Morosini, Deborah; Younes, Anas; Hanash, Alan M.; Paietta, Elisabeth; Roberts, Kathryn; Mullighan, Charles; Dogan, Ahmet; Armstrong, Scott A.; Mughal, Tariq; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Labrecque, Elaine; Erlich, Rachel; Vietz, Christine; Yelensky, Roman; Stephens, Philip J.; Miller, Vincent A.; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Otto, Geoff A.; Lipson, Doron

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of somatic alterations in hematologic malignancies includes substitutions, insertions/deletions (indels), copy number alterations (CNAs), and a wide range of gene fusions; no current clinically available single assay captures the different types of alterations. We developed a novel next-generation sequencing-based assay to identify all classes of genomic alterations using archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blood and bone marrow samples with high accuracy in a clinically relevant time frame, which is performed in our Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments–certified College of American Pathologists–accredited laboratory. Targeted capture of DNA/RNA and next-generation sequencing reliably identifies substitutions, indels, CNAs, and gene fusions, with similar accuracy to lower-throughput assays that focus on specific genes and types of genomic alterations. Profiling of 3696 samples identified recurrent somatic alterations that impact diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy selection. This comprehensive genomic profiling approach has proved effective in detecting all types of genomic alterations, including fusion transcripts, which increases the ability to identify clinically relevant genomic alterations with therapeutic relevance. PMID:26966091

  9. Randomized controlled trial comparing ciprofloxacin and cefepime in febrile neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Takahiko; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Terakura, Seitaro; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanada, Masamitsu; Nagai, Hirokazu; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Ozeki, Kazutaka; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Emi, Nobuhiko; Naoe, Tomoki

    2013-06-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CPFX) is a potential alternative in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) because of its activity against Gram-negative organisms. We conducted a non-inferiority, open-label, randomized controlled trial comparing intravenous CPFX and cefepime (CFPM) for FN patients with hematological malignancies. Patients aged from 15 to 79 years with an absolute neutrophil count of <0.500 × 10(9/)l were eligible, and were randomized to receive 300 mg of CPFX or 2g of CFPM every 12h. Initial treatment efficacy, overall response, and early toxicity were evaluated. Fifty-one episodes were included in this trial, and 49 episodes (CPFX vs. CFPM: 24 vs. 25) were evaluated. Treatment efficacy at day 7 was significantly higher in the CFPM group (successful clinical response: nine with CPFX and 19 with CFPM; p=0.007). The response was better in high-risk patients with neutrophil counts of ≤ 0.100 × 10(9/)l (p=0.003). The overall response during the study period was similar between the CPFX and CFPM groups (p=0.64). Adverse events were minimal, and all patients could continue the treatment. We could not prove the non-inferiority of CPFX in comparison with CFPM for the initial treatment of FN. CFPM remains the standard treatment of choice for FN. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of Common Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Children with Hematological Malignancies during Febrile Neutropenia: Single Center Egyptian Study.

    PubMed

    Hagag, Adel A; Hassan, Samir M; Elgamasy, Mohamed A; Afifi, Ibtesam K

    2016-01-01

    Infection 'is a common complication in children with hematological malignancies' during febrile neutropenia. ' The aim of this study was to' evaluate common bacterial and fungal pathogens in children with hematological malignancies during febrile neutropenia in single center Egyptian study. ' This study was carried out on 90' children with hematological malignancies during febrile neutropenia including 54 with ALL, 27 with AML and 9 with NHL with their ages ranging from 2.5- 13 years and mean age value of 5.5 ± 3.5. Complete blood count, BM aspiration, and blood and throat cultures were done for all patients. Positive bacterial growth was found in 54 cultures (30%) including 42 blood cultures and 12 throat cultures with significantly higher Gram negative bacterial growth. Staphylococcus aurous and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common Gram positive and negative organisms respectively. Cefepime was the most effective antibiotic against isolated bacterial growth where 80% of Gram negative bacterial growth was sensitive to it, 20% showed intermediate response and no Gram negative Cefepime resistance was recorded. On the other hand, 62.5% of Gram positive organisms was sensitive to it, 25% showed intermediate response and Gram positive Cefepime resistance was found in 12.5%. Ampicillin sulbactam 'was the most effective antibiotic against Gram positive' organisms with 100% sensitivity. Positive fungal growth was found in 36 cultures (20%) including 30 throat cultures and 6 blood cultures and all fungal isolates were candida. Amphotericin was active against 100% of fungal isolates, while resistance to Fluconazole and Voriconazole was found in 25% and 33.33% respectively. 'Gram negative is still more common than gram positive' infections and fungal infection is also a common cause of fever in patients with hematological malignancies during neutropenia and must be taken in consideration in every case of febrile neutropenia.

  11. Hematologic malignancies in South Africa 2000-2006: analysis of data reported to the National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Sara J; Erdmann, Friederike; Wiggill, Tracey; Singh, Elvira; Kellett, Patricia; Babb, Chantal; Schüz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the incidence patterns of hematologic malignancies in Sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. We estimated incidence rates of pathology-confirmed adult cases of leukemia, myeloma and related diseases (myeloma), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) reported to the National Cancer Registry of South Africa (NCR) between 2000 and 2006, by age, gender, and population group (Black, White, Coloured, Asian/Indian). Gender-specific age-standardized rates were calculated overall and by population group and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Between 2000 and 2006, there were 14662 cases of leukemia, myeloma, HL, and NHL reported to the registry. Incidence rates of reported hematologic malignancies were generally 20-50% higher among males than females. Our analyses suggested marked differences in the rates of reported hematologic malignancies by population group which were most pronounced when comparing the White versus Black population groups (IRRs ranging from 1.6 for myeloma to 3.8 for HL for males and females combined). Challenges related to diagnosis and reporting of cancers may play a role in the patterns observed by population group while the set-up of the NCR (pathology-based) could lead to some degree of under-ascertainment in all groups. This is the first country-wide report of the incidence of hematologic malignancies in South Africa. Despite challenges, it is important to analyze and report available national cancer incidence data to raise awareness of the cancer burden and to characterize patterns by demographic characteristics so as ultimately to improve the provision of cancer-related health care. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Characteristics of escape mutations from occult hepatitis B virus infected patients with hematological malignancies in South Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Elkady, Abeer; Iijima, Sayuki; Aboulfotuh, Sahar; Mostafa Ali, Elsayed; Sayed, Douaa; Abdel-Aziz, Nashwa M; Ali, Amany M; Murakami, Shuko; Isogawa, Masanori; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence and virological characteristics of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in patients with hematological malignancies in South Egypt. METHODS Serum samples were collected from 165 patients with hematological malignancies to monitor titers of HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and antibodies to HBV core (anti-HBc) and surface antigens. Serum samples negative for HBsAg and positive for anti-HBc were subjected to nucleic acid extraction and HBV DNA detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequences spanning the S region were analyzed in cases with occult HBV infection. In vitro comparative study of constructed 1.24-fold wild type and S protein mutant HBV genotype D clones was further performed. RESULTS HBV DNA was detected in 23 (42.6%) of 54 patients with hematological malignancies who were HBsAg negative, but anti-HBc positive, suggesting the presence of occult HBV infection. The complete HBV genome was retrieved from 6 occult HBV patients, and P120T and S143L were detected in 3 and 2 cases, respectively. Site directed mutagenesis was done to produce 1.24-fold genotype D clones with amino acid mutations T120 and L143. The in vitro analyses revealed that a lower level of extracellular HBsAg was detected by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) with the clone containing T120 mutation, compared with the wild type or the clone with S143L mutation despite the similar levels of extracellular and intracellular HBsAg detected by Western blot. Southern blot experiments showed that the levels of intracellular HBV DNA were not different between these clones. CONCLUSION Occult HBV infection is common in patients with hematological malignancies and associated with P120T and S143L mutations. 120T mutation impairs the detection of HBsAg by CLEIA.

  13. HLA-DR9 and DR14 are associated with the allopurinol-induced hypersensitivity in hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Kim, Ju-Young; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Park, Seon-Yang; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2014-06-01

    Allopurinol, a widely used urate-lowering agent, is a leading cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), especially in patients with HLA-B*58:01. Despite its routine use for the prevention of tumor lysis-related hyperuricemia prior to chemotherapy, the risk of allopurinol-induced hypersensitivity has not been investigated in patients with hematologic malignancies. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the incidence and risk factors of allopurinol-induced hypersensitivity in patients at least 18 years of age with hematologic malignancies. We reviewed 463 patients who had ever taken allopurinol for the prevention of hyperuricemia prior to chemotherapy and had undergone serologic HLA typing as a pre-transplant evaluation from January 2000 to May 2010. Thirteen (2.8%) patients experienced maculopapular eruptions (MPE) and none experienced SCARs. Among subtypes of underlying hematologic malignancies, percentage of chronic myeloid leukemia was significantly higher in the allopurinol hypersensitivity group compared with the tolerant group (23.1% (3/13) vs. 5.9% (26/440), P = 0.044). According to HLA subtypes, the incidence of allopurinol-induced MPE was 4.0% in HLA-B58 (+) patients (2/50) and 2.7% in HLA-B58 (-) patients (11/403) but this difference was statistically insignificant. In contrast to HLA-B58, the frequencies of DR9 and DR14 were significantly higher in the allopurinol-induced MPE group compared with the allopurinol tolerant group (38.5% (5/13) vs. 13.6% (53/443), P = 0.019, and 38.5% (5/13) vs. 15.6% (41/440), P = 0.038, respectively). In conclusion, HLA-DR9 and DR14, but not HLA-B58, are associated with hypersensitivity reaction by allopurinol when administered in patients with hematologic malignancy prior to chemotherapy.

  14. Prevalence and Positive Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Chinese Patients with Hematological Malignancies: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yi-Long; Wang, Zi-Yue; Wu, Hui; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological constructs have been given increasing attention in research on the coping resources of cancer-related distresses. However, little research is available on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hematological malignancies. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and to explore the associations of perceived social support (PSS), hope, optimism and resilience with PTSD symptoms among Chinese patients with hematological malignancies. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from July 2013 through April 2014. A total of 225 inpatients with hematological malignancies, which were eligible for the study, completed the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist-Civilian Version, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Adult Hope Scale, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and Resilience Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the correlates of PTSD symptoms. Overall, the prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 10.7%. Initially, PSS was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.248, P < 0.01). However, when positive psychological variables were added, optimism was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.452, P < 0.01), and gender had a significant effect on PTSD symptoms. Women were more vulnerable to these symptoms than men (β = 0.123, P < 0.05). When the analysis was performed separately by gender, only optimism showed a significantly negative association with PTSD symptoms in both men (β = -0.389, P < 0.01) and women (β = -0.493, P < 0.01). Some patients with hematological malignancies suffer from PTSD symptoms. The positive effects of PSS and optimism on PTSD symptoms suggest that an integrated approach to psychosocial intervention from both external and internal perspectives could have practical significance. Gender difference should be considered in developing potential interventions in reducing cancer-related PTSD symptoms.

  15. Potential Factors for Inadequate Voriconazole Plasma Concentrations in Intensive Care Unit Patients and Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Duettmann, Wiebke; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Seeber, Katharina; Troppan, Katharina; Fruhwald, Sonja; Prueller, Florian; Wagner, Jasmin; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Wölfler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Voriconazole plasma concentrations (VPCs) vary widely, and concentrations outside the therapeutic range are associated with either worse outcome in invasive aspergillosis (IA) or increased toxicity. The primary goal of this cohort study conducted in a real-life setting was to identify potential factors associated with inadequate VPCs in ICU patients and patients with hematological malignancies. Within a period of 12 months, trough VPCs were obtained and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography, and the adequate range was defined as 1.5 to 5.5 mg/liter. VPCs of <1.5 mg/liter were defined as low, whereas VPCs of >5.5 mg/liter were defined as potentially toxic. A total of 221 trough VPCs were obtained in 61 patients receiving voriconazole, and 124/221 VPCs (56%) were found to be low. Multivariate analysis revealed that low VPCs were significantly associated with clinical failure of voriconazole, prophylactic use, younger age, underlying hematological malignancy, concomitant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) (pantoprazole was used in 88% of the patients), and absence of side effects. Low VPCs remained an independent predictor of clinical failure of voriconazole. The defined adequate range was reached in 79/221 (36%) VPCs. In 18 samples (8%), potentially toxic levels were measured. Multivariate analysis revealed higher body mass index (BMI), absence of hematological malignancy, therapeutic application, and diarrhea as factors associated with potentially toxic VPCs. Neurotoxic adverse events occurred in six patients and were mostly associated with VPCs in the upper quartile of our defined adequate range. In conclusion, potential factors like younger age, prophylaxis, underlying hematological malignancy, BMI, and concomitant PPI should be considered within the algorithm of voriconazole treatment. PMID:23629724

  16. Distribution and features of hematological malignancies in Eastern Morocco: a retrospective multicenter study over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Boulouiz, Redouane; Ouarzane, Meryem; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-02-25

    Hematological malignancies (HM) are a public health problem. The pattern and distribution of diagnosed hematological cancers vary depending on age, sex, geography, and ethnicity suggesting the involvement of genetic and environmental factors for the development of these diseases. To our knowledge, there is no published report on HM in the case of Eastern Morocco. In this report we present for the first time the overall pattern of HM for this region. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with HM between January 2008 and December 2012 in three centres in Eastern Morocco providing cancer diagnosis, treatment or palliative care services. The FAB (French-American-British) classification system has been taken into account in the analysis of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms. In this study, a total of 660 cases of HM were registered between January 2008 and December 2012. Overall, 6075 cases of cancers all sites combined were registered during this study period, indicating that HM account for around 10.9 % (660/6075) of all cancers recorded. Among the 660 registered cases of HM, 53 % were males and 47 % were females, with a male to female ratio of 1.1. Thus, overall, men are slightly more affected with HM than women. By contrast, a female predominance was observed in the case of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). HM occur at a relatively young age, with an overall median age at diagnosis of 54 years. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was the most common HM accounting for 29.7 % of all HM, followed by HL, MPN, multiple myelomas (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), AML, MDS, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). The majority of HM cases have been observed among patients aged 60 years and over (40.4 % of HM). Among this age group, NHL was the most common HM. In adolescents, HL was the most frequent HM. This study provided for the

  17. Cytogenetics in the management of hematologic malignancies: an update by the Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH).

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Daudignon, Agnès; Eclache, Virginie; Lafage-Pochitaloff, Marina; Lefebvre, Christine; Luquet, Isabelle; Penther, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is still important in the management of many hematological malignancies, despite the new techniques available such as the high-throughput sequencing analysis, and the discovery of many acquired gene mutations in these diseases. The Groupe francophone de cytogénétique hématologique (GFCH) published in 2004 the recommendations for the cytogenetic management of hematological malignancies. It reports here the update of these recommendations, with a review of the literature for each disease.

  18. Flame figures associated with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy: is it possible to distinguish the condition from eosinophilic cellulitis in patients with hematoproliferative disease?

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jianjun; Sun, Chang-E; Zhu, Weifang; Zhu, Dingxian; Fang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a multifaceted dermatosis with a wide morphological spectrum, presenting as pruritic, erythematous, papular and occasionally vesicular, urticarial, nodular eruptions. Histopathologically eosinophil infiltration in the super and deep dermis was found. We reported a case of eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy presented as urticarial and vesicular lesions in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A skin biopsy revealed a prominent subepidermal blister and a diffuse infiltrate of eosinophils with flame figures in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Although flame figures associated with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is rarely reported, we believe that it would not seem unusual to find them in this skin disease. Eosinophilic cellulitis, which share clinical and histological features with eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy, has also been described as showing an association with hematoproliferative diseases. In order to clearly describe eosinophilic dermatosis in patients with hematologic malignancies, the terminology eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy, instead of eosinophilic cellulitis, would be a more suitable term in patients with eosinophilic dermatosis.

  19. (1, 3)-β-D-glucan assay for diagnosing invasive fungal infections in critically ill patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Azoulay, Elie; Guigue, Nicolas; Darmon, Michael; Mokart, Djamel; Lemiale, Virginie; Kouatchet, Achille; Mayaux, Julien; Vincent, François; Nyunga, Martine; Bruneel, Fabrice; Rabbat, Antoine; Bretagne, Stéphane; Lebert, Christine; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Benoit, Dominique; Pene, Frédéric

    2016-04-19

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are life-threatening complications of hematological malignancies that must be diagnosed early to allow effective treatment. Few data are available on the performance of serum (1-3)-β-D-glucan (BG) assays for diagnosing IFI in patients with hematological malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). In this study, 737 consecutive patients with hematological malignancies admitted to 17 ICUs routinely underwent a BG assay at ICU admission. IFIs were diagnosed using standard criteria applied by three independent specialists. Among the 737 patients, 439 (60%) required mechanical ventilation and 273 (37%) died before hospital discharge. Factors known to alter BG concentrations were identified in most patients. IFIs were documented in 78 (10.6%) patients (invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, n = 54; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, n = 13; candidemia, n = 13; and fusarium infections, n = 3). BG concentrations (pg/mL) were higher in patients with than without IFI (144 (77-510) vs. 50 (30-125), < 0.0001). With 80 pg/mL as the cutoff, sensitivity was 72%, specificity 65%, and area-under-the-curve 0.74 (0.68-0.79). Assuming a prevalence of 10%, the negative and positive predictive values were 94% and 21%. By multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with BG > 80 pg/mL were IFI, admission SOFA score, autologous bone-marrow or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, and microbiologically documented bacterial infection. In conclusion, in unselected critically ill hematology patients with factors known to affect serum BG, this biomarker showed only moderate diagnostic performance and rarely detected IFI. However, the negative predictive value was high. Studies are needed to assess whether a negative BG test indicates that antifungal de-escalation is safe.

  20. Revving up Natural Killer Cells and Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Against Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Pittari, Gianfranco; Filippini, Perla; Gentilcore, Giusy; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Rutella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells belong to innate immunity and exhibit cytolytic activity against infectious pathogens and tumor cells. NK-cell function is finely tuned by receptors that transduce inhibitory or activating signals, such as killer immunoglobulin-like receptors, NK Group 2 member D (NKG2D), NKG2A/CD94, NKp46, and others, and recognize both foreign and self-antigens expressed by NK-susceptible targets. Recent insights into NK-cell developmental intermediates have translated into a more accurate definition of culture conditions for the in vitro generation and propagation of human NK cells. In this respect, interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-21 are instrumental in driving NK-cell differentiation and maturation, and hold great promise for the design of optimal NK-cell culture protocols. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells possess phenotypic and functional hallmarks of both T cells and NK cells. Similar to T cells, they express CD3 and are expandable in culture, while not requiring functional priming for in vivo activity, like NK cells. CIK cells may offer some advantages over other cell therapy products, including ease of in vitro propagation and no need for exogenous administration of IL-2 for in vivo priming. NK cells and CIK cells can be expanded using a variety of clinical-grade approaches, before their infusion into patients with cancer. Herein, we discuss GMP-compliant strategies to isolate and expand human NK and CIK cells for immunotherapy purposes, focusing on clinical trials of adoptive transfer to patients with hematological malignancies. PMID:26029215

  1. Robust Vaccine Responses in Adult and Pediatric Cord Blood Transplantation Recipients Treated for Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gunjan L; Shune, Leyla; Purtill, Duncan; Devlin, Sean; Lauer, Emily; Lubin, Marissa; Bhatt, Valkal; McElrath, Courtney; Kernan, Nancy A; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Giralt, Sergio; Perales, Miguel A; Ponce, Doris M; Young, James W; Shah, Monica; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Barker, Juliet N

    2015-12-01

    Because cord blood (CB) lacks memory T and B cells and recent decreases in herd immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases in many developed countries have been documented, vaccine responses in CB transplantation (CBT) survivors are of great interest. We analyzed vaccine responses in double-unit CBT recipients transplanted for hematologic malignancies. In 103 vaccine-eligible patients, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) most commonly precluded vaccination. Sixty-five patients (63%; engrafting units median HLA-allele match 5/8; range, 2 to 7/8) received protein conjugated vaccines, and 63 patients (median age, 34 years; range, .9 to 64) were evaluated for responses. Median vaccination time was 17 months (range, 7 to 45) post-CBT. GVHD (n = 42) and prior rituximab (n = 13) delayed vaccination. Responses to Prevnar 7 and/or 13 vaccines (serotypes 14, 19F, 23F) were seen in children and adults (60% versus 49%, P = .555). Responses to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, and polio were observed in children (86% to 100%) and adults (53% to 89%) even if patients had prior GVHD or rituximab. CD4(+)CD45RA(+) and CD19(+) cell recovery significantly influenced tetanus and polio responses. In a smaller cohort responses were seen to measles (65%), mumps (50%), and rubella (100%) vaccines. No vaccine side effects were identified, and all vaccinated patients survived (median follow-up, 57 months). Although GVHD and rituximab can delay vaccination, CBT recipients (including adults and those with prior GVHD) have similar vaccine response rates to adult donor allograft recipients supporting vaccination in CBT recipients.

  2. Nivolumab in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hematologic Malignancy: Preliminary Results of a Phase Ib Study

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, Stephen M.; Armand, Philippe; Scott, Emma C.; Halwani, Ahmad; Gutierrez, Martin; Millenson, Michael M.; Cohen, Adam D.; Schuster, Stephen J.; Lebovic, Daniel; Dhodapkar, Madhav; Avigan, David; Chapuy, Bjoern; Ligon, Azra H.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Rodig, Scott J.; Cattry, Deepika; Zhu, Lili; Grosso, Joseph F.; Bradley Garelik, M. Brigid; Shipp, Margaret A.; Borrello, Ivan; Timmerman, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cancer cells can exploit the programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway to avoid immune surveillance by modulating T-lymphocyte activity. In part, this may occur through overexpression of PD-1 and PD-1 pathway ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) in the tumor microenvironment. PD-1 blockade has produced significant antitumor activity in solid tumors, and similar evidence has emerged in hematologic malignancies. Methods In this phase I, open-label, dose-escalation, cohort-expansion study, patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma, T-cell lymphoma, and multiple myeloma received the anti–PD-1 monoclonal antibody nivolumab at doses of 1 or 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nivolumab and to assess PD-L1/PD-L2 locus integrity and protein expression. Results Eighty-one patients were treated (follicular lymphoma, n = 10; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, n = 11; other B-cell lymphomas, n = 10; mycosis fungoides, n = 13; peripheral T-cell lymphoma, n = 5; other T-cell lymphomas, n = 5; multiple myeloma, n = 27). Patients had received a median of three (range, one to 12) prior systemic treatments. Drug-related adverse events occurred in 51 (63%) patients, and most were grade 1 or 2. Objective response rates were 40%, 36%, 15%, and 40% among patients with follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, respectively. Median time of follow-up observation was 66.6 weeks (range, 1.6 to 132.0+ weeks). Durations of response in individual patients ranged from 6.0 to 81.6+ weeks. Conclusion Nivolumab was well tolerated and exhibited antitumor activity in extensively pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory B- and T-cell lymphomas. Additional studies of nivolumab in these diseases are ongoing. PMID:27269947

  3. Nivolumab in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hematologic Malignancy: Preliminary Results of a Phase Ib Study.

    PubMed

    Lesokhin, Alexander M; Ansell, Stephen M; Armand, Philippe; Scott, Emma C; Halwani, Ahmad; Gutierrez, Martin; Millenson, Michael M; Cohen, Adam D; Schuster, Stephen J; Lebovic, Daniel; Dhodapkar, Madhav; Avigan, David; Chapuy, Bjoern; Ligon, Azra H; Freeman, Gordon J; Rodig, Scott J; Cattry, Deepika; Zhu, Lili; Grosso, Joseph F; Bradley Garelik, M Brigid; Shipp, Margaret A; Borrello, Ivan; Timmerman, John

    2016-08-10

    Cancer cells can exploit the programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway to avoid immune surveillance by modulating T-lymphocyte activity. In part, this may occur through overexpression of PD-1 and PD-1 pathway ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) in the tumor microenvironment. PD-1 blockade has produced significant antitumor activity in solid tumors, and similar evidence has emerged in hematologic malignancies. In this phase I, open-label, dose-escalation, cohort-expansion study, patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma, T-cell lymphoma, and multiple myeloma received the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody nivolumab at doses of 1 or 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nivolumab and to assess PD-L1/PD-L2 locus integrity and protein expression. Eighty-one patients were treated (follicular lymphoma, n = 10; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, n = 11; other B-cell lymphomas, n = 10; mycosis fungoides, n = 13; peripheral T-cell lymphoma, n = 5; other T-cell lymphomas, n = 5; multiple myeloma, n = 27). Patients had received a median of three (range, one to 12) prior systemic treatments. Drug-related adverse events occurred in 51 (63%) patients, and most were grade 1 or 2. Objective response rates were 40%, 36%, 15%, and 40% among patients with follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, respectively. Median time of follow-up observation was 66.6 weeks (range, 1.6 to 132.0+ weeks). Durations of response in individual patients ranged from 6.0 to 81.6+ weeks. Nivolumab was well tolerated and exhibited antitumor activity in extensively pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory B- and T-cell lymphomas. Additional studies of nivolumab in these diseases are ongoing. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. The effect of donor characteristics on survival after unrelated donor transplantation for hematologic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kollman, Craig; Spellman, Stephen R.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Hassebroek, Anna; Anasetti, Claudio; Antin, Joseph H.; Champlin, Richard E.; Confer, Dennis L.; DiPersio, John F.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Hartzman, Robert J.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Hurley, Carolyn K.; Karanes, Chatchada; Maiers, Martin; Mueller, Carlheinz R.; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Setterholm, Michelle; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Yu, Neng

    2016-01-01

    There are >24 million registered adult donors, and the numbers of unrelated donor transplantations are increasing. The optimal strategy for prioritizing among comparably HLA-matched potential donors has not been established. Therefore, the objective of the current analyses was to study the association between donor characteristics (age, sex, parity, cytomegalovirus serostatus, HLA match, and blood group ABO match) and survival after transplantation for hematologic malignancy. The association of donor characteristics with transplantation outcomes was examined using either logistic or Cox regression models, adjusting for patient disease and transplantation characteristics associated with outcomes in 2 independent datasets: 1988 to 2006 (N = 6349; training cohort) and 2007 to 2011 (N = 4690; validation cohort). All donor-recipient pairs had allele-level HLA typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1, which is the current standard for selecting donors. Adjusting for patient disease and transplantation characteristics, survival was better after transplantation of grafts from young donors (aged 18-32 years) who were HLA matched to recipients (P < .001). These findings were validated for transplantations that occurred between 2007 and 2011. For every 10-year increment in donor age, there is a 5.5% increase in the hazard ratio for overall mortality. Increasing HLA disparity was also associated with worsening survival. Donor age and donor-recipient HLA match are important when selecting adult unrelated donors. Other donor characteristics such as sex, parity, and cytomegalovirus serostatus were not associated with survival. The effect of ABO matching on survival is modest and must be studied further before definitive recommendations can be offered. PMID:26527675

  5. Associations between allergies and risk of hematologic malignancies: results from the VITamins and lifestyle cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shadman, Mazyar; White, Emily; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Walter, Roland B

    2013-12-01

    Immune dysregulations associated with allergies may affect cancer cell biology but studies on the relationship between allergies and risk of hematologic malignancies (HM) yielded inconsistent results. Herein, we used the vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort to examine this association. From 2000 to 2002, 66,212 participants, aged 50-76, completed a baseline questionnaire on cancer risk factors, medical conditions, allergies, and asthma. Through 2009, incident HMs (n = 681) were identified via linkage to the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results cancer registry. After adjustment for factors possibly associated with HMs, a history of airborne allergy was associated with increased risk of HMs (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19 [95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.41], P = 0.039) in Cox proportional hazards models. This association was limited to allergies to plants/grass/trees (HR = 1.26 [1.05-1.50], P = 0.011) and was strongest for some mature B-cell lymphomas (HR = 1.50 [1.14-2.00], P = 0.005). Gender-stratified analyses revealed that the associations between airborne allergies overall and those to plants, grass, and trees were only seen in women (HR = 1.47 [1.14-1.91], P = 0.004; and HR = 1.73 [1.32-2.25], P < 0.001) but not men (HR = 1.03 [0.82-1.29], P = 0.782; and HR = 0.99 [0.77-1.27], P = 0.960). Together, our study indicates a moderately increased risk of HMs in women but not men with a history of allergies to airborne allergens, especially to plant, grass, or trees.

  6. Diagnosis and classification of hematologic malignancies on the basis of genetics

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Genomic analysis has greatly influenced the diagnosis and clinical management of patients affected by diverse forms of hematologic malignancies. Here, we review how genetic alterations define subclasses of patients with acute leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. These include new subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia defined by mutations in RUNX1 or BCR-ABL1 translocations as well as a constellation of somatic structural DNA alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Among patients with MDS, detection of mutations in SF3B1 define a subgroup of patients with the ring sideroblast form of MDS and a favorable prognosis. For patients with MPNs, detection of the BCR-ABL1 fusion delineates chronic myeloid leukemia from classic BCR-ABL1− MPNs, which are largely defined by mutations in JAK2, CALR, or MPL. In the B-cell lymphomas, detection of characteristic rearrangements involving MYC in Burkitt lymphoma, BCL2 in follicular lymphoma, and MYC/BCL2/BCL6 in high-grade B-cell lymphomas are essential for diagnosis. In T-cell lymphomas, anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is defined by mutually exclusive rearrangements of ALK, DUSP22/IRF4, and TP63. Genetic alterations affecting TP53 and the mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region are important in clinical management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Additionally, detection of BRAFV600E mutations is helpful in the diagnosis of classical hairy cell leukemia and a number of histiocytic neoplasms. Numerous additional examples provided here demonstrate how clinical evaluation of genomic alterations have refined classification of myeloid neoplasms and major forms of lymphomas arising from B, T, or natural killer cells. PMID:28600336

  7. Antibiotic Rotation for Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Clinical Significance of Antibiotic Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yong; Shimoda, Shinji; Yakushiji, Hiroko; Ito, Yoshikiyo; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Kamimura, Tomohiko; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Akashi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Our unit adopted the single administration of cefepime as the initial treatment for febrile episodes in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. However, recently, cefepime-resistant gram-negative bacteremia, including those with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producers, was frequently observed in these patients. Therefore, we instituted a rotation of primary antibiotics for febrile neutropenic patients in an attempt to control antibiotic resistance. Methods This prospective trial was performed from August 2008 through March 2011 at our unit. After a pre-intervention period, in which cefepime was used as the initial agent for febrile neutropenia, 4 primary antibiotics, namely, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, and cefepime, were rotated at 1-month intervals over 20 months. Blood and surveillance cultures were conducted for febrile episodes, in order to assess the etiology, the resistance pattern (particularly to cefepime), and the prognosis. Results In this trial, 219 patients were registered. A 65.9% reduction in the use of cefepime occurred after the antibiotic rotation. In the surveillance stool cultures, the detection rate of cefepime-resistant gram-negative isolates, of which ESBL-producers were predominant, declined significantly after the intervention (8.5 vs 0.9 episodes per 1000 patient days before and after intervention respectively, P<0.01). Interestingly, ESBL-related bacteremia was not detected after the initiation of the trial (1.7 vs 0.0 episodes per 1000 patient days before and after intervention respectively, P<0.01). Infection-related mortality was comparable between the 2 periods. Conclusions We implemented a monthly rotation of primary antibiotics for febrile neutropenic patients. An antibiotic heterogeneity strategy, mainly performed as a cycling regimen, would be useful for controlling antimicrobial resistance among patients treated for febrile neutropenia. PMID:23372683

  8. Large-volume leukapheresis for peripheral blood stem cell collection in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Malachowski, M E; Comenzo, R L; Hillyer, C D; Tiegerman, K O; Berkman, E M

    1992-10-01

    Large-volume leukapheresis (LVL, 15-35 L) was performed in two groups of patients (n = 10) with hematologic malignancies to obtain peripheral blood stem cells for bone marrow rescue following high-dose chemotherapy. The target cell count was 7 x 10(8) mononuclear cells (MNCs = lymphocytes and monocytes) per kg of body weight. Group A patients (n = 4) were studied on Day 1 of LVL, and components were collected from them as four sequential samples. Total MNCs collected averaged 1.29 x 10(10), total colony-forming-units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) averaged 12.1 x 10(6), and a 1.8-fold mobilization of CFU-GM was observed (p < 0.05, Sample 1 vs. Sample 4). Group B patients (n = 6) were studied throughout the three consecutive planned days of 5-hour LVL. An average of three LVL procedures per patient was performed (range, 1.25-4), and an average of 27 L (range, 24-33) of blood per LVL was processed. The blood:ACD-A ratio was 24:1 with 3000 units of heparin per 500 mL of ACD-A; heparin was also added to the collection bags. The component had an average hematocrit (Hct) of 0.02 and MNC content of 93 percent. The patients' pre-LVL and post-LVL average Hct varied significantly (before Day 1, 0.36 +/- 0.08; after Day 3, 0.28 +/- 0.06; p < 0.05). Platelet counts also decreased, with post-Day 3 counts averaging 19 percent of the average pre-Day 1 counts (p < 0.05). A decrease in the average MNC count after LVL was significant on Day 1 only (p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Serum and urine galactomannan testing for screening in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Duettmann, Wiebke; Koidl, Christoph; Troppan, Katharina; Seeber, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Wölfler, Albert; Wagner, Jasmin; Krause, Robert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Testing for serum galactomannan (GM) has been established as an important method for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis (IA); however, limited data exist regarding the application of urine GM testing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of GM screening of urine specimens and to compare results with serum GM. The study was performed between July 2012 and March 2013 in adult patients with underlying hematological malignancies who were hospitalized at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Serum and urine screening samples were collected and tested twice weekly (always on the same day). In total, 242 serum samples and a similar number of urine samples were collected from 75 patients. A total of 21/242 (8.7%) serum samples from 13 patients were GM positive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value using a 0.1 optical density index cutoff for urine samples (compared with same-day serum results) were as follows: 47.6%, 86%, 24.4%, and 94.5%, respectively. In 8/10 patients with probable IA, at least one positive GM result was found with this cutoff. After calculating clinical performance of the urine GM test, we found that sensitivity increased to 71.4% and specificity to 88.2%. Spearman-Rho correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between serum and urine samples (P < 0.001; ρ = 0.252). In conclusion, GM detection in urine might be a promising method for IA screening. However, further studies are needed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Robust Vaccine Responses in Adult and Pediatric Cord Blood Transplantation Recipients Treated for Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gunjan L.; Shune, Leyla; Purtill, Duncan; Devlin, Sean; Lauer, Emily; Lubin, Marissa; Bhatt, Valkal; McElrath, Courtney; Kernan, Nancy A.; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Giralt, Sergio; Perales, Miguel A.; Ponce, Doris M.; Young, James W.; Shah, Monica; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Barker, Juliet N.

    2015-01-01

    As cord blood (CB) lacks memory T- and B-cells, and recent decreases in herd immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in many developed countries have been documented, vaccine responses in CB transplantation (CBT) survivors are of great interest. We analyzed vaccine responses in double-unit CBT recipients transplanted for hematologic malignancies. In 103 vaccine eligible patients, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) most commonly precluded vaccination. Sixty-five (63%) patients (engrafting units median HLA-allele match 5/8, range 2–7/8) received protein-conjugated vaccines, and 63 (median age 34 years, range 0.9–64) were evaluated for responses. Median vaccination time was 17 months (range 7–45) post-CBT. GVHD (n = 42) and prior rituximab (n = 13) delayed vaccination. Responses to Prevnar 7 and/or 13 vaccines (serotypes 14, 19f, 23f) were seen in children and adults (60% versus 49%, p = 0.555). Responses to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, H. influenzae, and polio were observed in children (86–100%) and adults (53–89%) even if patients had prior GVHD or rituximab. CD4+CD45RA+ and CD19+ cell recovery significantly influenced tetanus and polio responses. In a smaller cohort, responses were seen to measles (65%), mumps (50%), and rubella (100%) vaccines. No vaccine side-effects were identified and all vaccinated patients survive (median follow-up 57 months). While GVHD and rituximab can delay vaccination, CBT recipients (including adults and those with prior GVHD) have similar vaccine response rates to adult donor allograft recipients supporting vaccination in CBT recipients. PMID:26271191

  11. Revving up Natural Killer Cells and Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Against Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Pittari, Gianfranco; Filippini, Perla; Gentilcore, Giusy; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Rutella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells belong to innate immunity and exhibit cytolytic activity against infectious pathogens and tumor cells. NK-cell function is finely tuned by receptors that transduce inhibitory or activating signals, such as killer immunoglobulin-like receptors, NK Group 2 member D (NKG2D), NKG2A/CD94, NKp46, and others, and recognize both foreign and self-antigens expressed by NK-susceptible targets. Recent insights into NK-cell developmental intermediates have translated into a more accurate definition of culture conditions for the in vitro generation and propagation of human NK cells. In this respect, interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-21 are instrumental in driving NK-cell differentiation and maturation, and hold great promise for the design of optimal NK-cell culture protocols. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells possess phenotypic and functional hallmarks of both T cells and NK cells. Similar to T cells, they express CD3 and are expandable in culture, while not requiring functional priming for in vivo activity, like NK cells. CIK cells may offer some advantages over other cell therapy products, including ease of in vitro propagation and no need for exogenous administration of IL-2 for in vivo priming. NK cells and CIK cells can be expanded using a variety of clinical-grade approaches, before their infusion into patients with cancer. Herein, we discuss GMP-compliant strategies to isolate and expand human NK and CIK cells for immunotherapy purposes, focusing on clinical trials of adoptive transfer to patients with hematological malignancies.

  12. Predicting early post-chemotherapy adverse events in patients with hematological malignancies: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xiaoming; Lei, Fang; Zhang, Haifeng; Lu, Hua; Zhu, Yan; Tang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model that predicts the definite adverse events following chemotherapy in patients with hematological malignancies (HMs). This is a retrospective cohort study including 1157 cases with HMs. Firstly, we screened and verified the independent risk factors associated with post-chemotherapy adverse events by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis using 70 % of randomly selected cases (training set). Secondly, we proposed a mathematical model based on those selected factors. The calibration and discrimination of the model were assessed by Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) test and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, respectively. Lastly, the predicative power of this model was further tested in the remaining 30 % of cases (validation set). Our statistical analysis indicated that liver dysfunction (OR = 2.164), active infection (OR = 3.619), coagulation abnormalities (OR = 4.614), intensity of chemotherapy (OR = 10.001), acute leukemia (OR = 2.185), and obesity (OR = 1.604) were independent risk factors for post-chemotherapy adverse events in HM patients (all P < 0.05). Based on the verified risk factors, a predictive model was proposed. This model had good discrimination and calibration. When 0.648 was selected as the cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity of this predictive model in validation sets was 72.7 and 87.4 %, respectively. Furthermore, this proposed model's positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and consistency rate were 87.3, 73.0 and 80.0 %, respectively. Our study indicated that this six risk factor-based mathematical model is accurate and sufficient enough to predict definite post-chemotherapy adverse events in a HM patient and it may aid clinicians to optimize treatment for a HM patient.

  13. Tumor lysis syndrome in the era of novel and targeted agents in patients with hematologic malignancies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Howard, Scott C; Trifilio, Steven; Gregory, Tara K; Baxter, Nadine; McBride, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Effective new treatments are now available for patients with hematologic malignancies. However, their propensity to cause tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) has not been systematically examined. A literature search identified published Phase I-III clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies (otlertuzumab, brentuximab, obinutuzumab, ibritumomab, ofatumumab); tyrosine kinase inhibitors (alvocidib [flavopiridol], dinaciclib, ibrutinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, idelalisib, venetoclax [ABT-199]); proteasome inhibitors (oprozomib, carfilzomib); chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells; and the proapoptotic agent lenalidomide. Abstracts from major congresses were also reviewed. Idelalisib and ofatumumab had no reported TLS. TLS incidence was ≤5 % with brentuximab vedotin (for anaplastic large-cell lymphoma), carfilzomib and lenalidomide (for multiple myeloma), dasatinib (for acute lymphoblastic leukemia), and oprozomib (for various hematologic malignancies). TLS incidences were 8.3 and 8.9 % in two trials of venetoclax (for chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL]) and 10 % in trials of CAR T cells (for B-cell malignancies) and obinutuzumab (for non-Hodgkin lymphoma). TLS rates of 15 % with dinaciclib and 42 and 53 % with alvocidib (with sequential cytarabine and mitoxantrone) were seen in trials of acute leukemias. TLS mitigation was employed routinely in clinical trials of alvocidib and lenalidomide. However, TLS mitigation strategies were not mentioned or stated only in general terms for many studies of other agents. The risk of TLS persists in the current era of novel and targeted therapy for hematologic malignancies and was seen to some extent with most agents. Our findings underscore the importance of continued awareness, risk assessment, and prevention to reduce this serious potential complication of effective anticancer therapy.

  14. Alcohol Consumption Has a Protective Effect against Hematological Malignancies: a Population-Based Study in Sweden Including 420,489 Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders12345

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of a few solid cancers, although studies that examined the association with hematological malignancies have shown inconsistent results. In this study, we examined the risk of hematological malignancies among individuals who had alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in Sweden. METHODS: Individuals with AUDs were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register, the Crime Register, and the Prescription Drug Register, and they were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of hematological malignancies, using those Swedes without AUDs as a reference. In addition, we used a quasi-experimental sibling design to investigate the odds ratios among sibling pairs who were discordant with AUDs. RESULTS: A total of 420,489 individuals were identified with AUDs. After more than 15 million person-years of follow-up, a total of 1755 individuals developed hematological malignancies demonstrating a low risk, i.e., SIR = 0.60 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.63). People with AUDs had low risks for developing specific types of malignancies. The lowest risk (0.51) was for leukemia, followed by myeloma (0.52), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.65), and Hodgkin disease (0.71). The risk was lower among AUDs identified at an older age. The low risks of hematological malignancies were also noted using sibling analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that alcohol consumption has a protective effect against hematological malignancies. However, further studies are needed to identity the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of alcohol consumption against hematological malignancies. PMID:24783999

  15. The outcome of non-carbapenem-based empirical antibacterial therapy and VRE colonisation in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gedik, H; Yildirmak, T; Simsek, F; Kanturk, A; Aydýn, D; Anca, D; Yokus, O; Demirel, N

    2013-06-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is generally a complication of cancer chemotherapy. We retrospectively evaluated the febrile neutropenia episodes and their outcomes with respect to modification rates of non-carbapenem-based empirical antibacterial therapy and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) colonisation that caused to VRE bacteremia in patients with hematological malignancies. All consecutive patients, who were older than 14 years of age and developed febrile neutropenia episodes due to hematological malignancies from September 2010 to November 2011 at the hematology department were included into the study. In total, 86 consecutive neutropenic patients and their 151 febrile episodes were evaluated. The mean MASCC prognostic index score was 18,72 ± 9,43. Among 86 patients, 28 patients experienced a total of 30 bacteremia episodes of bacterial origin. Modification rates of both, empirical monotherapy and combination therapies, were found similar, statistically (P = 0,840). Our results suggest that initiating of non-carbapenem based therapy does not provide high response rates in the treatment of febrile neutropenia attacks. Furthermore, non-carbapenem-based empirical therapy provides benefit in regard to cost-effectiveness and antimicrobial stewardship when local antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria are considered. Patients who are colonized with VRE are more likely to develop bacteremia with VRE strains as a result of invasive procedures and severe damage of mucosal barriers observed in this group of patients.

  16. JAK kinase targeting in hematologic malignancies: a sinuous pathway from identification of genetic alterations towards clinical indications

    PubMed Central

    Springuel, Lorraine; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Knoops, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive JAK-STAT pathway activation occurs in most myeloproliferative neoplasms as well as in a significant proportion of other hematologic malignancies, and is frequently a marker of poor prognosis. The underlying molecular alterations are heterogeneous as they include activating mutations in distinct components (cytokine receptor, JAK, STAT), overexpression (cytokine receptor, JAK) or rare JAK2 fusion proteins. In some cases, concomitant loss of negative regulators contributes to pathogenesis by further boosting the activation of the cascade. Exploiting the signaling bottleneck provided by the limited number of JAK kinases is an attractive therapeutic strategy for hematologic neoplasms driven by constitutive JAK-STAT pathway activation. However, given the conserved nature of the kinase domain among family members and the interrelated roles of JAK kinases in many physiological processes, including hematopoiesis and immunity, broad usage of JAK inhibitors in hematology is challenged by their narrow therapeutic window. Novel therapies are, therefore, needed. The development of more selective inhibitors is a questionable strategy as such inhibitors might abrogate the beneficial contribution of alleviating the cancer-related pro-inflammatory microenvironment and raise selective pressure to a threshold that allows the emergence of malignant subclones harboring drug-resistant mutations. In contrast, synergistic combinations of JAK inhibitors with drugs targeting cascades that work in concert with JAK-STAT pathway appear to be promising therapeutic alternatives to JAK inhibitors as monotherapies. PMID:26432382

  17. Prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies treated with anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Law, Man Fai; Ho, Rita; Cheung, Carmen K M; Tam, Lydia H P; Ma, Karen; So, Kent C Y; Ip, Bonaventure; So, Jacqueline; Lai, Jennifer; Ng, Joyce; Tam, Tommy H C

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can be severe and potentially fatal, but is preventable. HBV reactivation is most commonly reported in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, especially rituximab-containing therapy for hematological malignancies and those receiving stem cell transplantation. All patients with hematological malignancies receiving anticancer therapy should be screened for active or resolved HBV infection by blood tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Patients found to be positive for HBsAg should be given prophylactic antiviral therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. For patients with resolved HBV infection, no standard strategy has yet been established to prevent HBV reactivation. There are usually two options. One is pre-emptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring, whereby antiviral therapy is given as soon as HBV DNA becomes detectable. However, there is little evidence regarding the optimal interval and period of monitoring. An alternative approach is prophylactic antiviral therapy, especially for patients receiving high-risk therapy such as rituximab, newer generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, obinutuzumab or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This strategy may effectively prevent HBV reactivation and avoid the inconvenience of repeated HBV DNA monitoring. Entecavir or tenofovir are preferred over lamivudine as prophylactic therapy. Although there is no well-defined guideline on the optimal duration of prophylactic therapy, there is growing evidence to recommend continuing prophylactic antiviral therapy for at least 12 mo after cessation of chemotherapy, and even longer for those who receive rituximab or who had high serum HBV DNA levels before the start of immunosuppressive therapy. Many novel agents have recently become available for the treatment of hematological malignancies, and these agents may be associated with HBV reactivation. Although

  18. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in non-allografted patients with hematologic malignancies: report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Scerra, S; Coignard-Biehler, H; Lanternier, F; Suarez, F; Charlier-Woerther, C; Bougnoux, M-E; Gilquin, J; Lecuit, M; Hermine, O; Lortholary, O

    2013-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis can be a severe opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and also among solid organ transplant and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. Patients with low-grade or chronic hematologic malignancies are treated with increasing immunosuppressive regimens and, therefore, represent an emerging population at risk for opportunistic diseases. We report here two cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis occurring in non-allografted hematologic patients with chronic lymphoproliferations. A review of 44 cases from the literature reveals that toxoplasmosis occurs increasingly in indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Aggressive lymphoproliferations, adenosine analogs, autologous HSCT, and the absence of chemoprophylaxis are the main risk factors for opportunistic toxoplasmosis. The central nervous system is the main organ involved. Fever is only present in half of all cases. Latent Toxoplasma cysts reactivation (LTCR) is the most common, but primary infection occurs in about 20% of cases. Global mortality is over 50%.

  19. Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure delivered by helmet in hematological malignancy patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Principi, Tiziana; Pantanetti, Simona; Catani, Francesca; Elisei, Daniele; Gabbanelli, Vincenzo; Pelaia, Paolo; Leoni, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of early administration of noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) delivered by the helmet vs. face mask to treat hematological malignancy patients with fever, pulmonary infiltrates, and hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. Prospective clinical study with historical matched controls in the hematology department of a university hospital. Seventeen hematological malignancy patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure defined as: moderate to severe dyspnea, tachypnea (>30-35 breaths/min), use of accessory muscles and paradoxical abdominal motion, and PaO2/FIO2 ratio less than 200. Each patient was treated with nCPAP by helmet outside the ICU in the hematological ward. Arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were monitored to identify early nCPAP failure. Seventeen historical-matched controls treated in the same department with face mask CPAP were selected as control population; matching criteria were age, sex, diagnosis, and PaO2/FIO2 ratio. Primary end-points were improvement in gas exchanges and the need for endotracheal intubation. Oxygenation improved in all patients after nCPAP. No patient failed helmet nCPAP because of intolerance while eigh patients in the mask group did so. nCPAP could be applied continuously for a longer period of time in the helmet group (28.44+/-0.20 vs. 7.5+/-0.45 h). Early nCPAP with helmet improves oxygenation in selected immunosuppressed patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. Tolerance of helmet nCPAP seems better than that of nCPAP delivered by mask.

  20. Microarray Gene Expression Analysis to Evaluate Cell Type Specific Expression of Targets Relevant for Immunotherapy of Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Pont, M J; Honders, M W; Kremer, A N; van Kooten, C; Out, C; Hiemstra, P S; de Boer, H C; Jager, M J; Schmelzer, E; Vries, R G; Al Hinai, A S; Kroes, W G; Monajemi, R; Goeman, J J; Böhringer, S; Marijt, W A F; Falkenburg, J H F; Griffioen, M

    2016-01-01

    Cellular immunotherapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of hematological cancers by donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and more recently by targeted therapy with chimeric antigen or T-cell receptor-engineered T cells. However, dependent on the tissue distribution of the antigens that are targeted, anti-tumor responses can be accompanied by undesired side effects. Therefore, detailed tissue distribution analysis is essential to estimate potential efficacy and toxicity of candidate targets for immunotherapy of hematological malignancies. We performed microarray gene expression analysis of hematological malignancies of different origins, healthy hematopoietic cells and various non-hematopoietic cell types from organs that are often targeted in detrimental immune responses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation leading to graft-versus-host disease. Non-hematopoietic cells were also cultured in the presence of IFN-γ to analyze gene expression under inflammatory circumstances. Gene expression was investigated by Illumina HT12.0 microarrays and quality control analysis was performed to confirm the cell-type origin and exclude contamination of non-hematopoietic cell samples with peripheral blood cells. Microarray data were validated by quantitative RT-PCR showing strong correlations between both platforms. Detailed gene expression profiles were generated for various minor histocompatibility antigens and B-cell surface antigens to illustrate the value of the microarray dataset to estimate efficacy and toxicity of candidate targets for immunotherapy. In conclusion, our microarray database provides a relevant platform to analyze and select candidate antigens with hematopoietic (lineage)-restricted expression as potential targets for immunotherapy of hematological cancers.

  1. Clinical characteristics and outcome associated with pandemic (2009) H1N1 influenza infection in patients with hematologic malignancies: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Minnema, Brian J; Husain, Shahid; Mazzulli, Tony; Hosseini-Mogaddam, Seyed Mohammedmehdi; Patel, Mehul; Brandwein, Joseph; Reece, Donna; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Rotstein, Coleman

    2013-06-01

    Pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza has been associated with a worldwide outbreak of febrile respiratory illness. Although impaired immunity, such as that caused by hematologic malignancy, has been identified as a risk factor for severe infection with this virus, the course of this infection has not been adequately characterized in patients with underlying hematologic malignancy in comparison with immune competent controls. We report our experience with severe pH1N1 infection in patients with hematologic cancers and compare this group to non-immunosuppressed patients. Data were retrospectively collected on all patients admitted to our institution with confirmed pH1N1 infection. Clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes were compared between patients with hematologic malignancies and non-immunocompromised controls. Fifteen patients with hematologic malignancy and 49 controls were identified. The control group had higher baseline rates of asthma (p = 0.01) and smoking (p = 0.05) at baseline. Clinical features of infection in the two groups were similar, except for a higher prevalence of abnormalities on chest imaging in the group with malignancy (p = 0.05). No statistically significant difference in mortality was observed between the groups. Mean duration of hospitalization (22.1 days vs. 9.2 days, p = 0.04) and duration of antiviral treatment (9.9 days vs. 6.7 days, p < 0.05) were greater in the hematologic malignancy group. Hospitalized patients with hematologic malignancies with pH1N1 infection had greater durations of hospitalization and treatment than non-immunocompromised controls, possibly reflecting decreased clearance of the virus as a consequence of impaired immunity.

  2. New CD20 alternative splice variants: molecular identification and differential expression within hematological B cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gamonet, Clémentine; Bole-Richard, Elodie; Delherme, Aurélia; Aubin, François; Toussirot, Eric; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Godet, Yann; Ysebaert, Loïc; Tournilhac, Olivier; Caroline, Dartigeas; Larosa, Fabrice; Deconinck, Eric; Saas, Philippe; Borg, Christophe; Deschamps, Marina; Ferrand, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    CD20 is a B cell lineage-specific marker expressed by normal and leukemic B cells and targeted by several antibody immunotherapies. We have previously shown that the protein from a CD20 mRNA splice variant (D393-CD20) is expressed at various levels in leukemic B cells or lymphoma B cells but not in resting, sorted B cells from the peripheral blood of healthy donors. Western blot (WB) analysis of B malignancy primary samples showed additional CD20 signals. Deep molecular PCR analysis revealed four new sequences corresponding to in-frame CD20 splice variants (D657-CD20, D618-CD20, D480-CD20, and D177-CD20) matching the length of WB signals. We demonstrated that the cell spliceosome machinery can process ex vivo D480-, D657-, and D618-CD20 transcript variants by involving canonical sites associated with cryptic splice sites. Results of specific and quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that these CD20 splice variants are differentially expressed in B malignancies. Moreover, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformation modified the CD20 splicing profile and mainly increased the D393-CD20 variant transcripts. Finally, investigation of three cohorts of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients showed that the total CD20 splice variant expression was higher in a stage B and C sample collection compared to routinely collected CLL samples or relapsed refractory stage A, B, or C CLL. The involvement of these newly discovered alternative CD20 transcript variants in EBV transformation makes them interesting molecular indicators, as does their association with oncogenesis rather than non-oncogenic B cell diseases, differential expression in B cell malignancies, and correlation with CLL stage and some predictive CLL markers. This potential should be investigated in further studies.

  3. Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children with hematologic malignancies from HLA-matched siblings.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Kajiume, T; Abe, T; Kawano, Y; Iwai, A; Iwai, T; Takaue, Y; Kuroda, Y

    2000-03-01

    Despite the ethical problem of using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in normal children, allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) might have advantages over allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Eleven HLA-matched sibling donors aged 2-16 years received 10 microg/kg/day G-CSF for 5 days and underwent apheresis to harvest peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). PBSC were then cryopreserved until infusion. The 11 corresponding patients aged 8 months to 14 years with high-risk hematological malignancies received busulfan (16 mg/kg or 600 mg/m(2)) and melphalan (210 mg/m(2)) as a preparative regimen. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and methylprednisolone. All of the donors tolerated G-CSF administration and apheresis procedures. The patients received a median of 5.8 (range 1. 4-11.5) x 10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells, 17.2 (3.8-36.0) x 10(5)/kg colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), and 3.5 (1.4-7.1) x 10(8)/kg CD3(+) cells. All of the patients showed prompt engraftment, with a median time to reach an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) above 0.5 x 10(9)/liter of 10 (9-13) days. Grade I acute GVHD occurred in seven patients (64%), whereas grade II-IV acute GVHD was not seen. Chronic GVHD occurred in four patients (40%) among 10 patients evaluable for chronic GVHD. Three patients showed extensive chronic GVHD. Currently, eight patients (73%) are alive and disease-free for a median follow-up of 775 (103-1,069) days. Allogeneic PBSCT is feasible in the pediatric population, and PBSC harvest is an alternative to BM harvest in donors who are not eligible for BM harvest. Furthermore, PBSC were successfully collected in pediatric donors with peripheral access. The choice of a stem cell source should be based on the risk/benefit assessment for both patients and donors. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Haploidentical, unmanipulated, G-CSF-primed bone marrow transplantation for patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Santarone, Stella; De Angelis, Gottardo; Picardi, Alessandra; Cudillo, Laura; Cerretti, Raffaella; Adorno, Gaspare; Angelini, Stefano; Andreani, Marco; De Felice, Lidia; Rapanotti, Maria Cristina; Sarmati, Loredana; Bavaro, Pasqua; Papalinetti, Gabriele; Di Nicola, Marta; Papola, Franco; Montanari, Mauro; Nagler, Arnon; Arcese, William

    2013-01-31

    Eighty patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies underwent unmanipulated, G-CSF–primed BM transplantation from an haploidentical family donor. Patients were transplanted in first or second complete remission (CR, standard-risk: n =45) or in > second CR or active disease (high-risk: n =35). The same regimen for GVHD prophylaxis was used in all cases. The cumulative incidence (CI) of neutrophil engraftment was 93% 0.1%. The 100-day CIs for II-IV and III-IV grade of acute GVHD were 24% 0.2% and 5% 0.6%, respectively. The 2-year CI of extensive chronic GVHD was 6% 0.1%. The 1-year CI of treatment-related mortality was 36% 0.3%. After a median follow-up of 18 months, 36 of 80 (45%) patients are alive in CR. The 3-year probability of overall and disease-free survival for standard-risk and high-risk patients was 54% 8% and 33% 9% and 44% 8% and 30% 9%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, disease-free survival was significantly better for patients who had standard-risk disease and received transplantations after 2007. We conclude that unmanipulated, G-CSF–primed BM transplantation from haploidentical family donor provides very encouraging results in terms of engraftment rate, incidence of GVHD and survival and represents a feasible, valid alternative for patients with high-risk malignant hematologic diseases, lacking an HLA identical sibling and in need to be urgently transplanted. Haploidentical, unmanipulated, G-CSF-primed bone marrow transplantation. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies.

  5. Molecular Analysis and Risk Factors for Escherichia coli Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Bloodstream Infection in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia; Pérez-Jiménez, Carolina; Silva-Sánchez, Jesús; Velázquez-Acosta, Consuelo; González-Lara, Fernanda; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Volkow-Fernández, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Patients with hematologic malignancies have greater risk-factors for primary bloodstream infections (BSI). Methods From 2004–2009, we analyzed bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) (n = 100) and we compared with bacteremia caused by cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli (n = 100) in patients with hematologic malignancies. Objective To assess the clinical features, risk factors, and outcome of ESBL-EC BSI in patients with hematologic malignancies, and to study the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-EC isolates. Results The main diagnosis was acute leukemia in 115 patients (57.5%). Death-related E. coli infection was significantly increased with ESBL-EC (34% vs. control group, 19%; p = 0.03). Treatment for BSI was considered appropriate in 64 patients with ESBL-EC (mean survival, 245±345 days), and in 45 control patients this was 443±613 (p = 0.03). In patients not receiving appropriate antimicrobial treatment, survival was significantly decreased in cases compared with controls (26±122 vs. 276±442; p = 0.001). Fifty six of the ESBL-EC isolates were characterized by molecular analysis: 47 (84%) expressed CTX-M-15, two (3.6%) SHV, and seven (12.5%) did not correspond to either of these two ESBL enzymes. No TLA-1 enzyme was detected. Conclusions Patients who had been previously hospitalized and who received cephalosporins during the previous month, have an increased risk of ESBL-EC bacteremia. Mortality was significantly increased in patients with ESBL-EC BSI. A polyclonal trend was detected, which reflects non-cross transmission of multiresistant E.coli isolates. PMID:22540004

  6. The more, the less: age and chemotherapy load are predictive of poor stem cell mobilization in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shen-miao; Chen, Huan; Chen, Yu-hong; Zhu, Hong-hu; Zhao, Ting; Liu, Kai-yan

    2012-02-01

    Intensive treatment such as autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation is an important therapeutic strategy in many hematologic malignancies. A number of factors have been reported to impact PBSC mobilization, but the predictive factors varied from one study to another. This retrospective study assessed our current mobilization and collection protocols, and explored the factors predictive of PBSC mobilization in patients with hematologic malignancies. Data of 64 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies (multiple myeloma, n = 22; acute leukemia, n = 27; lymphoma, n = 15) who underwent PBSC mobilization for over 1 year were analyzed. Four patients with response to treatment of near complete remission or better were administered granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize PBSCs. Sixty patients received G-CSF followed by chemotherapy mobilizing regimens. Poor mobilization (PM) was defined as when ≤ 2.0'10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg body weight were collected within three leukapheresis procedures. The incidence of PM at the first mobilization attempt was 19% (12/64). The PM group was older than the non-PM group (median age, 51 vs. 40 years; P = 0.013). In univariate analysis, there were no significant differences in gender, diagnosis, and body weight between the PM and non-PM groups. A combination of chemotherapy and G-CSF was more effective than G-CSF alone as a mobilizing regimen (P = 0.019). Grade III or IV hematopoietic toxicity of chemotherapy had no significant effect on the mobilization efficacy. Supportive care and the incidence of febrile neutropenia were not significantly different between the two groups. In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio (OR), 9.536; P = 0.002) and number of previous chemotherapy courses (OR 3.132; P = 0.024) were two independent negative predictive factors for CD34(+) cell yield. PM patients could be managed well by remobilization. Older age and a heavy load of previous chemotherapy are the

  7. Integration of microarray analysis into the clinical diagnosis of hematological malignancies: How much can we improve cytogenetic testing?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jess F; Aggarwal, Nidhi; Smith, Clayton A; Gollin, Susanne M; Surti, Urvashi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Swerdlow, Steven H; Yatsenko, Svetlana A

    2015-08-07

    To evaluate the clinical utility, diagnostic yield and rationale of integrating microarray analysis in the clinical diagnosis of hematological malignancies in comparison with classical chromosome karyotyping/fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). G-banded chromosome analysis, FISH and microarray studies using customized CGH and CGH+SNP designs were performed on 27 samples from patients with hematological malignancies. A comprehensive comparison of the results obtained by three methods was conducted to evaluate benefits and limitations of these techniques for clinical diagnosis. Overall, 89.7% of chromosomal abnormalities identified by karyotyping/FISH studies were also detectable by microarray. Among 183 acquired copy number alterations (CNAs) identified by microarray, 94 were additional findings revealed in 14 cases (52%), and at least 30% of CNAs were in genomic regions of diagnostic/prognostic significance. Approximately 30% of novel alterations detected by microarray were >20 Mb in size. Balanced abnormalities were not detected by microarray; however, of the 19 apparently "balanced" rearrangements, 55% (6/11) of recurrent and 13% (1/8) of non-recurrent translocations had alterations at the breakpoints discovered by microarray. Microarray technology enables accurate, cost-effective and time-efficient whole-genome analysis at a resolution significantly higher than that of conventional karyotyping and FISH. Array-CGH showed advantage in identification of cryptic imbalances and detection of clonal aberrations in population of non-dividing cancer cells and samples with poor chromosome morphology. The integration of microarray analysis into the cytogenetic diagnosis of hematologic malignancies has the potential to improve patient management by providing clinicians with additional disease specific and potentially clinically actionable genomic alterations.

  8. Integration of microarray analysis into the clinical diagnosis of hematological malignancies: How much can we improve cytogenetic testing?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jess F.; Aggarwal, Nidhi; Smith, Clayton A.; Gollin, Susanne M.; Surti, Urvashi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Swerdlow, Steven H.; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical utility, diagnostic yield and rationale of integrating microarray analysis in the clinical diagnosis of hematological malignancies in comparison with classical chromosome karyotyping/fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Methods G-banded chromosome analysis, FISH and microarray studies using customized CGH and CGH+SNP designs were performed on 27 samples from patients with hematological malignancies. A comprehensive comparison of the results obtained by three methods was conducted to evaluate benefits and limitations of these techniques for clinical diagnosis. Results Overall, 89.7% of chromosomal abnormalities identified by karyotyping/FISH studies were also detectable by microarray. Among 183 acquired copy number alterations (CNAs) identified by microarray, 94 were additional findings revealed in 14 cases (52%), and at least 30% of CNAs were in genomic regions of diagnostic/prognostic significance. Approximately 30% of novel alterations detected by microarray were >20 Mb in size. Balanced abnormalities were not detected by microarray; however, of the 19 apparently “balanced” rearrangements, 55% (6/11) of recurrent and 13% (1/8) of non-recurrent translocations had alterations at the breakpoints discovered by microarray. Conclusion Microarray technology enables accurate, cost-effective and time-efficient whole-genome analysis at a resolution significantly higher than that of conventional karyotyping and FISH. Array-CGH showed advantage in identification of cryptic imbalances and detection of clonal aberrations in population of non-dividing cancer cells and samples with poor chromosome morphology. The integration of microarray analysis into the cytogenetic diagnosis of hematologic malignancies has the potential to improve patient management by providing clinicians with additional disease specific and potentially clinically actionable genomic alterations. PMID:26299921

  9. Mothering and self-othering: the impact of uncertain reproductive capability in young women after hematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Lesley E; Boughton, Maureen A; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We explored the experiences of uncertain fertility, pregnancy, and motherhood in 12 young women treated for hematological malignancy during their reproductive years. It is demonstrated how, through interpretations of the women's own words, these women lived and coped with a sense of "otherness" in relation to their peers. The concept of otherness is described and discussed in relation to relevant existing literature and it is concluded that, regardless of their cancer history, young women's uncertainty in this context has a broad impact on their psychosocial health and requires sensitive and empathic information, discussion, and support.

  10. The Prevalence of fungal infections in children with hematologic malignancy in Ali-Asghar Children Hospital between 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sh; Shirzadi, E; Elahi, M

    2015-01-01

    A fungal infection represents a growing problem in children with hematologic malignancies, during chemotherapy induced neutropenia. Fungal colonization is considered a major risk factor for subsequent fungal infections. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate prevalence of fungal infection among children admitted to hospital between 2005 and 2010 in Tehran, Iran. 617 hematological patients in the age range of neoteric to 19 years old were enrolled and 87 cases with invasive fungal infections were extracted from patients' files and documented. Diagnosis of fungal infections was based on the local biopsy and pathology for mucormycosis, blood culture, urine culture and clinical examination for candidasis and galactomannan for aspergillus. the mean age of cancer diagnosis was 6.33 years old and the mean age of fungal infection was 7.95 years old. The majority of the infections was caused by candidia spp (74.7%), followed by aspergillus spp (17.2%) and zygomycetes (11.5%). Among candidiasis patients, oral infection had the highest manifestation (92.3%) whereas in 10 of 15 patients with aspergillus, the infectious site was the lung. There was a significant association between mortality and the type of fungal infection (p <0.0001). Our finding suggests that there is a high rate of fungal infections in children receiving remission therapy for onco-hematology. These results help improve the management of these patients, however Further studies are needed.

  11. The Prevalence of fungal infections in children with hematologic malignancy in Ali-Asghar Children Hospital between 2005 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Sh; Shirzadi, E; Elahi, M

    2015-01-01

    Background A fungal infection represents a growing problem in children with hematologic malignancies, during chemotherapy induced neutropenia. Fungal colonization is considered a major risk factor for subsequent fungal infections. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate prevalence of fungal infection among children admitted to hospital between 2005 and 2010 in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods 617 hematological patients in the age range of neoteric to 19 years old were enrolled and 87 cases with invasive fungal infections were extracted from patients' files and documented. Diagnosis of fungal infections was based on the local biopsy and pathology for mucormycosis, blood culture, urine culture and clinical examination for candidasis and galactomannan for aspergillus. Results the mean age of cancer diagnosis was 6.33 years old and the mean age of fungal infection was 7.95 years old. The majority of the infections was caused by candidia spp (74.7%), followed by aspergillus spp (17.2%) and zygomycetes (11.5%). Among candidiasis patients, oral infection had the highest manifestation (92.3%) whereas in 10 of 15 patients with aspergillus, the infectious site was the lung. There was a significant association between mortality and the type of fungal infection (p <0.0001). Conclusion Our finding suggests that there is a high rate of fungal infections in children receiving remission therapy for onco-hematology. These results help improve the management of these patients, however Further studies are needed. PMID:25914797

  12. Treatments for hematologic malignancies in contrast to those for solid cancers are associated with reduced red cell alloimmunization

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Dorothea; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Tijmensen, Janneke; Middelburg, Rutger A.; de Haas, Masja; de Vooght, Karen M.K.; van de Kerkhof, Daan; Visser, Otto; Péquériaux, Nathalie C.V.; Hudig, Francisca; van der Bom, Johanna G.

    2017-01-01

    Red cell alloimmunization may induce severe hemolytic side effects. Identification of risk-modifying conditions will help tailor preventative strategies. This study aims to quantify the associations of hematologic malignancies and solid cancers with red cell alloimmunization in patients receiving red cell transfusions. We performed a nested multicenter case-control study in a source population of 24,063 patients receiving their first and subsequent red cell transfusions during an 8-year follow-up period. Cases (n=505), defined as patients developing a first transfusion-induced red cell alloantibody, were each compared with 2 non-alloimmunized controls (n=1010) who received a similar number of red cell units. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we evaluated the association of various malignancies and treatment regimens with alloimmunization during a delineated 5-week risk period. The incidence of alloimmunization among patients with acute (myeloid or lymphoid) leukemia and mature (B- or T-cell) lymphoma was significantly reduced compared to patients without these malignancies: adjusted relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36 (range 0.19–0.68) and 0.30 (range 0.12–0.81). Associations were primarily explained by immunosuppressive treatments [RR for (any type of) chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy 0.27 (95%CI: 0.09–0.83)]. Alloimmunization risks were similarly diminished in allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplanted patients (RR 0.34, 95%CI: 0.16–0.74), at least during the six months post transplant. Alloimmunization risks of patients with other hematologic diseases or solid cancers, and their associated treatment regimens were similar to risks in the general transfused population. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to malignancies in general, hemato-oncological patients treated with dose-intensive regimens have strongly diminished risk of red cell alloimmunization. PMID:27634204

  13. Treatments for hematologic malignancies in contrast to those for solid cancers are associated with reduced red cell alloimmunization.

    PubMed

    Evers, Dorothea; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Tijmensen, Janneke; Middelburg, Rutger A; de Haas, Masja; de Vooght, Karen M K; van de Kerkhof, Daan; Visser, Otto; Péquériaux, Nathalie C V; Hudig, Francisca; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2017-01-01

    Red cell alloimmunization may induce severe hemolytic side effects. Identification of risk-modifying conditions will help tailor preventative strategies. This study aims to quantify the associations of hematologic malignancies and solid cancers with red cell alloimmunization in patients receiving red cell transfusions. We performed a nested multicenter case-control study in a source population of 24,063 patients receiving their first and subsequent red cell transfusions during an 8-year follow-up period. Cases (n=505), defined as patients developing a first transfusion-induced red cell alloantibody, were each compared with 2 non-alloimmunized controls (n=1010) who received a similar number of red cell units. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we evaluated the association of various malignancies and treatment regimens with alloimmunization during a delineated 5-week risk period. The incidence of alloimmunization among patients with acute (myeloid or lymphoid) leukemia and mature (B- or T-cell) lymphoma was significantly reduced compared to patients without these malignancies: adjusted relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36 (range 0.19-0.68) and 0.30 (range 0.12-0.81). Associations were primarily explained by immunosuppressive treatments [RR for (any type of) chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy 0.27 (95%CI: 0.09-0.83)]. Alloimmunization risks were similarly diminished in allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplanted patients (RR 0.34, 95%CI: 0.16-0.74), at least during the six months post transplant. Alloimmunization risks of patients with other hematologic diseases or solid cancers, and their associated treatment regimens were similar to risks in the general transfused population. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to malignancies in general, hemato-oncological patients treated with dose-intensive regimens have strongly diminished risk of red cell alloimmunization.

  14. How I manage pulmonary nodular lesions and nodular infiltrates in patients with hematologic malignancies or undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wingard, John R; Hiemenz, John W; Jantz, Michael A

    2012-08-30

    Pulmonary nodules and nodular infiltrates occur frequently during treatment of hematologic malignancies and after hematopoietic cell transplantation. In patients not receiving active immunosuppressive therapy, the most likely culprits are primary lung cancer, chronic infectious or inactive granulomata, or even the underlying hematologic disease itself (especially in patients with lymphoma). In patients receiving active therapy or who are otherwise highly immunosuppressed, there is a wider spectrum of etiologies with infection being most likely, especially by bacteria and fungi. Characterization of the pulmonary lesion by high-resolution CT imaging is a crucial first diagnostic step. Other noninvasive tests can often be useful, but invasive testing by bronchoscopic evaluation or acquisition of tissue by one of several biopsy techniques should be performed for those at risk for malignancy or invasive infection unless contraindicated. The choice of the optimal biopsy technique should be individualized, guided by location of the lesion, suspected etiology, skill and experience of the diagnostic team, procedural risk of complications, and patient status. Although presumptive therapy targeting the most likely etiology is justified in patients suspected of serious infection while evaluation proceeds, a structured evaluation to determine the specific etiology is recommended. Interdisciplinary teamwork is highly desirable to optimize diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Prognostic impact of WT1 expression prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with malignant hematological diseases.

    PubMed

    Woehlecke, Caroline; Wittig, Susan; Arndt, Clemens; Gruhn, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    Malignant hematological diseases represent the most common pediatric cancer. As they cannot always be cured by chemotherapy alone, leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are frequent medical indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, yet even this treatment is not capable of preventing relapse for certain. Therefore, molecular markers are used to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) to be enabled to react early to an impeding relapse. As specific markers are not always available, Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) has been suggested as a universal marker, but has not yet been established clinically. We determined the level of WT1 gene expression in 130 children, adolescents and young adults with malignant hematological diseases prior to transplantation and evaluated its impact on patients' outcome. A real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used for this purpose. The relationship between a high level of WT1 and the cumulative incidence of relapse, event-free survival and overall survival proved to be highly significant in univariate and multivariate analyses. Forty-eight percent of all patients with high WT1 levels suffered from a relapse, whereas only eight percent showing normal WT1 levels before transplantation relapsed. The most convincing result was found for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and MDS. We conclude that WT1 expression prior to transplantation qualifies as an independent prognostic factor and should be further evaluated for MRD monitoring. It might especially be useful for patients with AML or MDS missing specific markers.

  16. Risk of solid tumors and hematological malignancy in persons with Turner and Klinefelter syndromes: A national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianguang; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-08-15

    The risk of solid and hematological malignancy in patients with Turner syndrome, characterized by X chromosome monosomy in women, and Klinefelter syndrome, characterized with two and more X chromosomes in men, is not well established, but such evidence may have etiological implications on cancer development. We identified a total of 1,409 women with Turner syndrome and 1,085 men with Klinefelter syndrome from the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Outpatient Register. These individuals were further linked to the Swedish Cancer Register to examine the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer using the general population without Turner and Klinefelter syndromes as reference. The overall risk of cancer was 1.34 for women with Turner syndrome; it was increased only for solid tumors. For a specific type of tumor, the risk of melanoma and central nervous system tumor was significantly increased. For persons with Klinefelter syndrome, the risk of solid tumors was decreased (SIR = 0.66), whereas the risk of hematological malignancy was increased (SIR = 2.72). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia showed an increased SIR of 3.02 and 3.62, respectively. Our study supported the hypothesis that X chromosome plays an important role in the etiology of solid tumors. The underlying mechanisms for the increased incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia in persons with Klinefelter syndrome need to be investigated further.

  17. Rt-PCR method for diagnosis and follow-up of hematological malignancies: first approach in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Tanvira Afroze; Abdul Mottalib, Md; Islam, Sirazul; Khan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Choudhury, Subhagata

    2008-04-01

    Nested reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) was performed on 58 leukemia patients at BIRDEM Laboratory, as a pioneering work in Bangladesh. Thirty of themwere examined for the presence of BCR-ABL being clinically and morphologically diagnosed as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and 28 for PML-RARalpha fusion transcripts being clinically and morphologically diagnosed as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL/ AML M3). The cases were selected for targeted therapy with imatinib mesylate and all-Trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to treat CML and APL respectively. Samples were received either before commencement or during therapy. In the positive cases, amplified DNA products were visible after gel electrophoresis and were reported accordingly. In case of BCR-ABL, positive results were found for five out of six (83.33%) untreated cases and 11 out of 24 (45.83%) treated cases. Positive results for PML-RARalpha were found for 12 out of 14 (85.70%) untreated cases and 11 out of 16 (68.75%) treated cases. A strong positive correlation was found between duration of treatment and negativity of PCR results in both the cases. In present times, the detection of minimal residual disease in patients undergoing treatment for hematological malignancies has become an important goal, not only to monitor the effectiveness of therapy but also to detect an impending relapse. This is the first time in Bangladesh that rt-PCR method is being employed to detect or monitor the presence of abnormal fusion genes in hematological malignancies.

  18. Early Outcomes After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation In Pediatric Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Following Single Fraction Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Druley, Todd E.; Hayashi, Robert; Mansur, David B.; Zhang, Qin (Jean); Barnes, Yvonne; Trinkaus, Kim; Witty, Shannon; Thomas, Tia; Klein, Eric E.; DiPersio, John F.; Adkins, Douglas; Shenoy, Shalini

    2008-01-01

    Fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation results in donor engraftment and improves survival in children with high risk hematologic malignancies. However, acute toxicities (skin, lung, mucosa) are common after FTBI. Late complications include cataracts, endocrine dysfunction, sterility and impaired neurodevelopment. In lieu of FTBI, we used low-dose single fraction TBI (550 cGy) with cyclophosphamide as transplant conditioning for pediatric hematologic malignancies. Graft versus host disease prophylaxis included cyclosporine and short course methotrexate; methylprednisolone was added for unrelated donor transplants. Fifty-five children in first (40%) or second remission and beyond (60%) underwent transplantation from bone marrow (65%) or peripheral blood; 62% from unrelated donors; 22% were mismatched. Median follow-up was 18.5 months (1–68). Overall survival and disease-free survival at one year were 60% and 47% respectively. Acute toxicities included grade 3–4 mucositis (18%), invasive infections (11%), multiorgan failure/shock (11%), hemolytic anemia (7%), veno-occlusive disease (4%) and renal failure (4%). Treatment-related mortality was 11% at 100 days. Non-relapse mortality was 6% thereafter. Graft rejection occurred in 2%. Three patients (5%) died of GVHD. The regimen was well tolerated even in heavily pre-treated children and supported donor cell engraftment; long-term follow up is in progress. PMID:19011666

  19. Preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods for hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Maiko; Yamazaki, Rie; Ikeda, Hideyuki; Kawakami, Yutaka

    2003-03-01

    PRAME (Preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma), highly expressed in various solid tumor cells and normal testis, was first isolated as a human melanoma antigen recognized by cytotoxic T cells (CTL). This gene was also expressed in some of the hematological malignancies, including acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma. We and others have extensively evaluated the PRAME expression in various hematological malignancies and demonstrated high expression of the PRAME gene in subsets of AML, chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma. In addition, we have demonstrated that PRAME was a useful marker for detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with leukemia, particularly those leukemias in which tumor specific markers are currently unavailable. Since PRAME was first identified as a tumor antigen recognized by T cells, the possibility that PRAME is a leukemia antigen recognized by T cells was evaluated, and it was found that PRAME-positive leukemia cell lines and fresh leukemia cells were susceptible to lysis by the PRAME-specific CTL. Five CTL epitopes associated with either HLA-A*0201 or HLA-A*2402 have recently been identified. It is, therefore, an attractive strategy to apply PRAME specific immunotherapy on patients with PRAME positive leukemia in MRD condition.

  20. Individuals with hematological malignancies before undergoing chemotherapy present oxidative stress parameters and acute phase proteins correlated with nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Borges, Dayanne da Silva; de Oliveira, Paula Fernanda; Chagas, Thayz Rodrigues; Del Moral, Joanita Angela Gonzaga; Durigon, Giovanna Steffanello; Dias, Bruno Vieira; Vieira, André Guedes; Gaspareto, Patrick; Trindade, Erasmo Benício Santos de Moraes; Nunes, Everson Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Hematological malignancies present abnormal blood cells that may have altered functions. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional status, acute phase proteins, parameters of cell's functionality, and oxidative stress of patients with hematological malignancies, providing a representation of these variables at diagnosis, comparisons between leukemias and lymphomas and establishing correlations. Nutritional status, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, phagocytic capacity and superoxide anion production of mononuclear cells, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in plasma were evaluated in 16 untreated subjects. Main diagnosis was acute leukemia (n = 9) and median body mass index (BMI) indicated overweight (25.6 kg/m(2)). Median albumin was below (3.2 g/dL) and CRP above (37.45 mg/L) the reference values. Albumin was inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.53). Most patients were overweight before the beginning of treatment and had a high CRP/albumin ratio, which may indicate a nutrition inflammatory risk. BMI values correlated positively with lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. A strong correlation between catalase activity and lipid peroxidation was found (r = 0.75). Besides the elevated BMI, these patients also have elevated CRP values and unexpected relations between nutritional status and albumin, reinforcing the need for nutritional counseling during the course of chemotherapy, especially considering the correlations between oxidative stress parameters and nutritional status evidenced here.

  1. Double umbilical cord blood transplantation for hematological malignancies: a long-term analysis from the SFGM-TC registry.

    PubMed

    Wallet, Hélène Labussière; Sobh, Mohamad; Morisset, Stéphane; Robin, Marie; Fegueux, Nathalie; Fürst, Sabine; Mohty, Mohamad; Deconinck, Eric; Fouillard, Loïc; Bordigoni, Pierre; Rio, Bernard; Sirvent, Anne; Renaud, Marc; Dhedin, Nathalie; Tabrizi, Reza; Maury, Sébastien; Buzyn, Agnès; Michel, Gérard; Maillard, Natacha; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Huynh, Anne; Schmidt-Tanguy, Aline; Lamy, Thierry; Lioure, Bruno; Raus, Nicole; Marry, Evelyne; Garnier, Federico; Balère, Marie-Lorraine; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson; Socié, Gérard; Blaise, Didier; Milpied, Noël; Michallet, Mauricette

    2013-11-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is a curative treatment for many hematologic malignancies for which umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents an alternative source of HSCs. To overcome the low cellularity of one UCB unit, double UCB transplantation (dUCBT) has been developed in adults. We have analyzed the outcome of 136 patients who underwent dUCBT reported to the SFGM-TC registry between 2005 and 2007. Forty-six patients received myeloablative regimens, and 90 patients received reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. There were 84 cases of leukemia, 17 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 11 cases of myeloma, and 24 other hematologic malignancies. At transplantation, 40 (29%) patients were in complete remission. At day 60 after transplantation, the cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery was 91%. We observed one UCB unit domination in 88% of cases. The cumulative incidence of day 100 acute graft-versus-host disease, chronic graft-versus-host disease, transplant-related mortality, and relapse at 2 years were 36%, 23%, 27%, and 28% respectively. After a median follow-up of 49.5 months, the 3-year probabilities of overall and progression-free survival were 41% and 35%, respectively, with a significant overall survival advantage when male cord engrafted male recipients. We obtained a long-term plateau among patients in complete remission, which makes dUCBT a promising treatment strategy for these patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. miR-29s: a family of epi-miRNAs with therapeutic implications in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, Nicola; Rossi, Marco; Raimondi, Lavinia; Pitari, Maria Rita; Botta, Cirino; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has highlighted the biological complexity of hematologic malignancies and the role of dysregulated signal transduction pathways. Along with the crucial role of genetic abnormalities, epigenetic aberrations are nowadays emerging as relevant players in cancer development, and significant research efforts are currently focusing on mechanisms by which histone post-translational modifications, DNA methylation and noncoding RNAs contribute to the pathobiology of cancer. As a consequence, these studies have provided the rationale for the development of epigenetic drugs, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and demethylating compounds, some of which are currently in advanced phase of pre-clinical investigation or in clinical trials. In addition, a more recent body of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) might target effectors of the epigenetic machinery, which are aberrantly expressed or active in cancers, thus reverting those epigenetic abnormalities driving tumor initiation and progression. This review will focus on the broad epigenetic activity triggered by members of the miR-29 family, which underlines the potential of miR-29s as candidate epi-therapeutics for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. PMID:25968566

  3. Three hematologic malignancies in the same patient: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fattizzo, Bruno; Radice, Tommaso; Cattaneo, Daniele; Pomati, Mauro; Barcellini, Wilma; Iurlo, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The co-existence of both chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have been described in a few cases, either simultaneously or subsequently presenting. We report an unusual case of three he-matological malignancies in the same patient: CLL, CML, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). None of the three malignancies shared the same origin, since the marrow sample was negative for BCR-ABL1 transcript at the time of CLL diagnosis, CLL was in remission at CML diagnosis, and CML was in complete cytogenetic response at AML onset, indicating that this was not a blast crisis. Background: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are the most common proliferative disorders in Western countries, with an incidence of 4.2/100,000/year and 1-1.5/100,000/year, respectively. The co-existence of both CML and CLL is an extremely rare event, even if it has been described in a few cases, either simultaneously or subsequently presenting. Above all, the presence of more than two different hematologic neoplasms has not been described in literature so far. In the present study we report a particular case of a CLL patient, who first developed CML and then acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

  4. Informal Financial Assistance for Patients With a Hematological Malignancy: Implications for Oncology Social Work Practice.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam

    2015-01-01

    The article presents original research findings on informal financial assistance for hematological patients; that is, the gifts from family, friends, and communities that help patients cope with the financial hardship associated with cancer. The qualitative study involved interviews with 45 hematology patients that were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and then thematically analyzed. The findings examine the differing perspectives that individuals and families bring to the notion of informal financial aid, provide examples of individuals who require and receive informal financial assistance, and conclude with descriptions of those who require informal financial assistance but it is not available. The implications of the findings for oncology social work practice are explored.

  5. Inhibition of CXCR4 by LY2624587, a Fully Humanized Anti-CXCR4 Antibody Induces Apoptosis of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Sheng-Bin; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Paul, Donald; Kays, Lisa M.; Ye, Ming; Vaillancourt, Peter; Dowless, Michele; Stancato, Louis F.; Stewart, Julie; Uhlik, Mark T.; Long, Haiyan; Chu, Shaoyou; Obungu, Victor H.

    2016-01-01

    SDF-1 and CXCR4 are a chemokine and chemokine receptor pair playing critical roles in tumorigenesis. Overexpression of CXCR4 is a hallmark of many hematological malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and generally correlates with a poor prognosis. In this study, we developed a humanized anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody, LY2624587 as a potent CXCR4 antagonist that was advanced into clinical study for cancer. LY2624587 blocked SDF-1 binding to CXCR4 with an IC50 of 0.26 nM, and inhibited SDF-1-induced GTP binding with a Kb of 0.66 nM. In human lymphoma U937 and leukemia CCRF-CEM cells expressing endogenous CXCR4, LY2624587 inhibited SDF-1-induced cell migration with IC50 values of 3.7 and 0.26 nM, respectively. This antibody also inhibited CXCR4 and SDF-1 mediated cell signaling including activation of MAPK and AKT in tumor cells expressing CXCR4. Bifocal microscopic and flow cytometry analyses revealed that LY2624587 mediated receptor internalization and caused CXCR4 down-regulation on the cell surface. In human hematologic cancer cells, LY2624587 caused dose dependent apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In mouse xenograft models developed with human leukemia and lymphoma cells expressing high levels of CXCR4, LY2624587 exhibited dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition and provided significant survival benefit in a disseminated lymphoma model. Collectively, we have demonstrated that CXCR4 inhibition by LY2624587 has the potential for the treatment of human hematological malignancies. PMID:26954567

  6. Current epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance data for bacterial bloodstream infections in patients with hematologic malignancies: an Italian multicentre prospective survey.

    PubMed

    Trecarichi, E M; Pagano, L; Candoni, A; Pastore, D; Cattaneo, C; Fanci, R; Nosari, A; Caira, M; Spadea, A; Busca, A; Vianelli, N; Tumbarello, M

    2015-04-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted in nine hematology wards at tertiary care centres or at university hospitals located throughout Italy from January 2009 to December 2012. All of the cases of bacterial bloodstream infection (BBSI) occurring in adult patients with hematologic malignancies were included. A total of 668 bacterial isolates were recovered in 575 BBSI episodes. Overall, the susceptibility rates of Gram-negative bacteria were 59.1% to ceftazidime, 20.1% to ciprofloxacin, 79.1% to meropenem, 85.2% to amikacin, 69.2% to gentamicin and 69.8% to piperacillin/tazobactam. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was found in 98/265 (36.9%) of Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Among Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, 15/43 (34.9%) were resistant to carbapenems. Of 66 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 46 (69.7%) were multidrug resistant. Overall, the susceptibility rates of Gram-positive bacteria were 97.4% to vancomycin and 94.2% to teicoplanin. Among the monomicrobial cases of BBSI, the 21-day mortality rate was significantly higher for those caused by Gram-negative bacteria compared to those caused by Gram-positive bacteria (47/278, 16.9% vs. 12/212, 5.6%; p < 0.001). Among Gram-negative bacteria, the mortality rate was significantly higher for BBSI caused by K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Our results confirm the recently reported shift of prevalence from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria as causative agents of BBSIs among patients with hematologic malignancies and highlight a worrisome increasing frequency in antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacteria.

  7. STAT3 mutations identified in human hematologic neoplasms induce myeloid malignancies in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Couronné, Lucile; Scourzic, Laurianne; Pilati, Camilla; Valle, Véronique Della; Duffourd, Yannis; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Damm, Frederik; Stern, Marc-Henri; Gaulard, Philippe; Lamant, Laurence; Delabesse, Eric; Merle-Beral, Hélène; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Fontenay, Michaëla; Tilly, Hervé; Bastard, Christian; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bernard, Olivier A.; Mercher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    STAT3 protein phosphorylation is a frequent event in various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Acquired STAT3 mutations have been recently identified in 40% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, a rare T-cell disorder. In this study, we investigated the mutational status of STAT3 in a large series of patients with lymphoid and myeloid diseases. STAT3 mutations were identified in 1.6% (4 of 258) of patients with T-cell neoplasms, in 2.5% (2 of 79) of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma but in no other B-cell lymphoma patients (0 of 104) or patients with myeloid malignancies (0 of 96). Functional in vitro assays indicated that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to a constitutive phosphorylation of the protein. STA21, a STAT3 small molecule inhibitor, inhibited the proliferation of two distinct STAT3 mutated cell lines. Using a mouse bone marrow transplantation assay, we observed that STAT3Y640F expression leads to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms with expansion of either myeloid cells or megakaryocytes. Together, these data indicate that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to constitutive activation of STAT3, induces malignant hematopoiesis in vivo, and may represent a novel therapeutic target in some lymphoid malignancies. PMID:23872306

  8. Bioequivalence & Food Effect Study in Patients With Solid Tumor or Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-30

    Hematological Neoplasms; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neoplasms; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Osteosarcoma; Sarcoma; Thyroid Cancer; Genitourinary

  9. [Assessment of a brief fatigue inventory in patients with hematologic malignancies].

    PubMed

    Lorca, Luz Alejandra; Sacomori, Cinara; Puga, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing symptoms experienced by cancer patients. To validate the Brief Fatigue Inventory in people treated for hematological neoplasms. In a cross-sectional study, the Brief Fatigue Inventory was answered by 122 patients aged 40 ± 14 years (50% women) treated for hematological neoplasms at an intensive hematological unit of a public hospital between July 2010 and July 2013. Socio-demographic and clinical parameters were obtained from their clinical records. Fatigue was present in nearly all patients (99.2%) in minor (50%), moderate (36.9%) or severe (12.3%) levels. The average fatigue score was 4.5 ± 1.9). The Brief Fatigue Inventory had a good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.973) and proved to be one-dimensional (84.3% of the explained variance). Women reported that fatigue interfered more with enjoy-ment of life than men (p = 0.036). The Brief Fatigue Inventory is a reliable instrument that can be used in clinical practice. It allows a quick assessment of the level of fatigue. People treated for hematologic cancer have a high prevalence of fatigue.

  10. T-Cell Depleted Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-07

    Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Lymphoid Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Malignant Lymphoma; Hodgkin's Disease; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Myeloproliferative Disorder; Anemia, Aplastic; Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  11. Therapeutic Challenges of Hepatic Mucormycosis in Hematologic Malignancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Raffaele M.; Gurung, Ananta; Jain, Dhanpat; Malinis, Maricar F.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 58 Final Diagnosis: Hepatic mucormycosis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • fever Medication: Amphotericin • posaconazole Clinical Procedure: IR-guided aspiration Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: The clinical presentation of mucormycosis can vary widely based on various host factors. Among malignancy-and bone marrow transplant-associated infections, the lungs are the most common site of infection. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is less frequently encountered. The clinical presentation is often nonspecific, and cultures typically yield no growth, making the diagnosis challenging. Case Report: We present a case of isolated hepatic mucormycosis in the setting of neutropenic fever and abdominal pain following induction chemotherapy for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient was treated with combination antifungal therapy with amphotericin and posaconazole without surgical resection, given the presence of multiple liver lesions. After a prolonged course of dual antifungal therapy, the size of her liver lesions improved. Unfortunately, her lymphoproliferative disorder proved fatal, following approximately 13 months of antifungal therapy. Conclusions: Among patient with mucormycosis, mortality remains high, especially in the setting of gastrointestinal involvement. Although surgical resection along with dual antifungal therapy can improve outcomes, the high mortality rate necessitates further investigation into improved diagnostic and treatment strategies including optimal antifungal therapy. PMID:27406045

  12. The role of the JAK-STAT pathway and related signal cascades in telomerase activation during the development of hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Osamu; Kawauchi, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    Telomerase, comprising a reverse transcriptase protein (TERT) and an RNA template, plays a critical role during senescence and carcinogenesis; however, the mechanisms by which telomerase is regulated remain to be elucidated. Several signaling pathways are involved in the activation of TERT at multistep levels. The JAK-STAT pathway is indispensable for mediating signals through growth factor and cytokine receptors during the development of hematopoietic cells, and its activity is frequently upregulated in hematological malignancies. Here, we review the role of the JAK-STAT pathway and related signaling cascades in the regulation of telomerase in hematological malignancies. PMID:24416646

  13. Radiation Therapy and Late Mortality From Second Sarcoma, Carcinoma, and Hematological Malignancies After a Solid Cancer in Childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Guibout, Catherine; Hawkins, Mike; Quiniou, Eric; Mousannif, Abddedahir; Pacquement, Helene; Winter, David; Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Oberlin, Odile; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To compare patterns of long-term deaths due to secondary carcinomas, sarcomas, and hematological malignancies occurring after childhood cancer in a cohort of patients followed over a median of 28 years. Methods and Materials: The study included 4,230 patients treated at eight institutions, who were at least 5-year survivors of a first cancer, representing 105,670 person-years of observation. Complete clinical, chemotherapeutic, and radiotherapeutic data were recorded, and the integral radiation dose was estimated for 2,701 of the 2,948 patients who had received radiotherapy. The integral dose was estimated for the volume inside the beam edges. The causes of death obtained from death certificates were validated. Results: In total, 134 events were due to second malignant neoplasm(s) (SMN). We found that the standardized mortality ratio decreased with increasing follow-up for second carcinomas and sarcomas, whereas the absolute excess risk (AER) increased for a second carcinoma but decreased for second sarcomas. There was no clear variation in SMN and AER for hematological malignancies. We found a significant dose-response relationship between the radiation dose received and the mortality rate due to a second sarcoma and carcinoma. The risk of death due to carcinoma and sarcoma as SMN was 5.2-fold and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, in patients who had received a radiation dose exceeding 150 joules. Conclusions: Among patients who had received radiotherapy, only those having received the highest integral radiation dose actually had a higher risk of dying of a second carcinoma or sarcoma.

  14. A retrospective review of metronidazole and vancomycin in the management of Clostridium difficile infection in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Sapna R; Bhatt, Valkal; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Qiao; Schuster, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection has significantly increased over the past decade. Although the epidemiology and treatment of C. difficile infection is well elucidated in the non-oncology population, it is poorly understood among cancer patients. This illustrates great concern as the majority of these patients are immunosuppressed, which puts them at higher risk for developing severe disease. Furthermore, suboptimal treatment of C. difficile infection can compromise care of underlying malignancy. Due to limited amount of data, we conducted this study to better ascertain the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of C. difficile infection in a subset of oncology patients at our institution. The primary objective was to assess the incidence and severity of C. difficile infection in patients with hematologic malignancies, including those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant for a hematologic condition. The secondary objectives were to assess: (a) the outcome of C. difficile infection after therapy with metronidazole and/or vancomycin and (b) mortality following C. difficile infection. We performed a retrospective study to assess the incidence and severity of C. difficile infection and to evaluate outcomes of therapy with metronidazole and/or vancomycin among adult patients admitted to the Malignant Hematology/Blood and Marrow Transplantation service at our center from January 2009 to 2012. Of the 390 admitted patients during the 3-year study period, the overall incidence of C. difficile infection was 18.7% (n = 73). Forty-six patients (63.0%) were deemed to have mild-moderate C. difficile infection. With regards to outcome of therapy, less exposure to antimicrobial agents was significantly associated with a higher resolution rate (p = 0.0029). Response rates to metronidazole were 53.7%, vancomycin 50%, and combination therapy 38.5%, although no difference in achievement of resolution was found among the three treatment

  15. Aberrant overexpression of an epithelial marker, 14-3-3σ, in a subset of hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Motokura, Toru; Nakamura, Yukari; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Background 14-3-3σ is a p53-mediated cell-cycle inhibitor in epithelial cells. The expression of 14-3-3σ is frequently altered in cancers of epithelial origin associated with altered DNA methylation. Since its involvement in a non-epithelial tumor is unknown, we examined 14-3-3σ expression in patients with haematological malignancies. Methods We analyzed 41 hematopoietic cell lines and 129 patients with a variety of hematological malignancies for 14-3-3σ expression with real-time RT-PCR. We also examined protein levels by Western blot analysis and DNA methylation status of the 14-3-3σ gene by methylation-specific PCR analysis of bisulfite-treated DNA. In addition, mutations of p53 gene were identified by RT-PCR-SSCP analysis and the expression levels of 14-3-3σ were compared with those of other cell-cycle inhibitor genes, CDKN2A and ARF. Results The expression levels of 14-3-3σ mRNA in almost all cell lines were low and comparable to those in normal hematopoietic cells except for 2 B-cell lines. On the contrary, 14-3-3σ mRNA was aberrantly overexpressed frequently in mature lymphoid malignancies (30 of 93, 32.3%) and rarely in acute leukemia (3 of 35, 8.6%). 14-3-3σ protein was readily detectable and roughly reflected the mRNA level. In contrast to epithelial tumors, methylation status of the 14-3-3σ gene was not associated with expression in hematological malignancies. Mutations of p53 were identified in 12 patients and associated with lower expression of 14-3-3σ. The expression levels of 14-3-3σ, CDKN2A and ARF were not correlated with but rather reciprocal to one another, suggesting that simultaneous overexpression of any two of them is incompatible with tumor growth. Conclusion 14-3-3σ, an epithelial cell marker, was overexpressed significantly in a subset of mature lymphoid malignancies. This is the first report of aberrant 14-3-3σ expression in non-epithelial tumors in vivo. Since the significance of 14-3-3σ overexpression is unknown even in

  16. [Clinical and cytomorphological features of bone marrow metastasis of non-hematological malignant carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Cong, Yulong; Cai, Lili; Deng, Xinli; Guan, Jie

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the clinical manifestations and hematologic parameters and observe the cytomorphological features of metastatic tumors in the bone marrow originating from different primary sites. The clinical data of 77 patients with bone marrow metasta tumors admitted between 2009 and 2014 between 2009 and 2014 in General Hospital of PLA were studied retrospectively to analyze the indications of laboratory examinations (hematological laboratory tests, tumor markers, peripheral blood films, and bone marrow aspirates). Of the 77 patients analyzed, 64.9% were over 50 years of age. The most common clinical characteristics were bone pain (65%), anemia with thrombocytopenia (63.6%) and leukoerythroblastic reaction (61%). The hematological abnormalities included elevation of ESR, ALP, LDH, tumor markers, and hypoproteinemia. Cytological examination of bone marrow aspiration samples revealed different morphological characteristics of the metastatic cells from different primary sites; in most of the cases, scattered or clustered metastatic cells and degenerative tumor cells were found on the edge of the bone marrow smears. Detection of the primary tumor site is difficult by cytological examination of bone marrow aspiration samples, but the cytological findings can be of value in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma, small cell lung cancer and gastric cancer (signet ring cell carcinoma). A definite diagnosis of bone marrow metastatic tumor relies on a combined evaluation of the disease history, clinical symptoms and laboratory findings.

  17. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of varicella zoster virus infection in children with hematologic malignancies in the acyclovir era

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Min Chae; Han, Seung Beom; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae Chul; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Hack-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Background Although intravenous acyclovir therapy is recommended for varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in immunocompromised children, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of VZV infection in the acyclovir era have rarely been reported. Methods The medical records of children diagnosed with varicella or herpes zoster virus, who had underlying hematologic malignancies, were retrospectively reviewed, and the clinical characteristics and outcomes of VZV infection were evaluated. Results Seventy-six episodes of VZV infection (herpes zoster in 57 and varicella in 19) were identified in 73 children. The median age of children with VZV infection was 11 years (range, 1-17), and 35 (46.1%) episodes occurred in boys. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia was the most common underlying malignancy (57.9%), and 90.8% of the episodes occurred during complete remission of the underlying malignancy. Acyclovir was administered for a median of 10 days (range, 4-97). Severe VZV infection occurred in 16 (21.1%) episodes. Although the finding was not statistically significant, a previous history of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) appeared to be associated with the development of more severe episodes of herpes zoster (P=0.075). Conclusion Clinical characteristics of VZV infection in immunocompromised children were not significantly different from those without it, and clinical outcomes improved after the introduction of acyclovir therapy. However, risk factors for severe VZV infection require further investigation in a larger population and a prospective setting. PMID:28090487

  18. Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases in Hematological Malignancies: A Critical Review of Evidence and Turkish Expert Opinion (TEO-2)

    PubMed Central

    Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap; Azap, Alpay; Başaran Demirkazık, Figen; Ener, Beyza; Aşcıoğlu Hayran, Sibel; Özdemir Kumbasar, Özlem; Metan, Gökhan; Odabaşı, Zekaver; Uzun, Ömrüm; Akan, Hamdi

    2014-01-01

    One of the most problematic issues in hematological malignancies is the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases. Especially, the difficulty of mycological diagnosis and the necessity of immediate intervention in molds have led to the adoption of “surrogate markers” that do not verify but rather strongly suggest fungal infection. The markers commonly used are galactomannan (GM), beta-glucan, and imaging methods. Although there are numerous studies on these diagnostic approaches, none of these markers serve as a support for the clinician, as is the case in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. This paper has been prepared to explain the diagnostic tests. As molecular tests have not been standardized and are not used routinely in the clinics, they will not be mentioned here. PMID:25541650

  19. Diagnostic strategies for invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Norkin, Maxim; Wingard, John R

    2013-08-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) frequently occur and are associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Early diagnosis of IFI in these patients facilitates prompt institution of therapy and leads to improved clinical outcomes. This article reviews widely used methodologies for diagnosing IFIs in patients with HM and HSCT recipients. Advantages and limitations of radiologic studies; microbiologic and histopathologic techniques; fungal biomarker assays, including those for galactomannan antigen and β-(1-3)-D-glucan; and molecular assays that are available to establish an early diagnosis of clinically relevant invasive fungal infections are discussed. Recommendations are provided regarding effective use of these methodologies in clinical practice.

  20. hnRNP K is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that regulates proliferation and differentiation programs in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Miguel; Lee, Hun Ju; Zhang, Xiaorui; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Pageon, Laura R.; McArthur, Mark; Multani, Asha; Nazha, Aziz; Manshouri, Taghi; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Rapado, Inmaculada; Quintas-Cardama, Alfonso; Kornblau, Steven M.; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Post, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary hnRNP K regulates cellular programs and changes in its expression and mutational status have been implicated in neoplastic malignancies. To directly examine its role in tumorigenesis, we generated a mouse model harboring an Hnrnpk knock-out allele (Hnrnpk+/−). Hnrnpk haploinsufficiency resulted in reduced survival, increased tumor formation, genomic instability, and the development of transplantable hematopoietic neoplasms with myeloproliferation. Reduced hnRNP K expression attenuated p21 activation, downregulated C/EBP levels, and activated STAT3 signaling. Additionally, analysis of samples from primary acute myeloid leukemia patients harboring a partial deletion of chromosome 9 revealed a significant decrease in HNRNPK expression. Together, these data implicate hnRNP K in the development of hematological disorders and suggest hnRNP K acts as a tumor suppressor. PMID:26412324

  1. Six years' experience of total parenteral nutrition in children with hematological malignancies at a single center: management, efficacy, and complications.

    PubMed

    Barzaghi, A; Rovelli, A; Piroddi, A; Balduzzi, A; Pirovano, L; Colombini, A; Uderzo, C

    1996-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an important issue in supportive care of children with leukemia. We studied 131 consecutive children (87 male, 44 female) with hematological malignancies who received TPN at our center from July 1984 to July 1990 with the aim of evaluating the efficacy and complications of TPN. The use of TPN was associated with lack of any alteration of the anthropometric indexes used in this study. The complications were prevalently metabolic, generally mild, and easily controlled. Laboratory monitoring of nutritional status during TPN is probably of little value in this setting. The feasibility of in-ward preparation of TPN by nurses makes TPN possible at low cost provided that patients are selected carefully.

  2. Long-term outcome and risk factors for uncontrolled seizures after a first seizure in children with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raja B; Morris, E Brannon; Pui, Ching-Hon; Hudson, Melissa M; Zhou, Yinmei; Cheng, Cheng; Ledet, Davonna S; Howard, Scott C

    2014-06-01

    Long-term outcomes of seizures that develop during treatment of childhood hematological malignancies have not been described. We analyzed seizure outcome in 62 children with leukemia or lymphoma treated at our institution. There was a median follow-up of 6.5 years since first seizure. Seizure etiology included intrathecal or systemic methotrexate in 24, leucoencephalopathy in 11, brain hemorrhage or thrombosis in 11, meningitis in 4, and no identifiable cause in 12. Seizures remained uncontrolled in 18, and risk factors for poor control included female sex (P = .02), no seizure control with first antiseizure drug (P = .08), and longer interval between cancer diagnosis and seizure onset (P = .09). Poor seizure control after initial antiseizure drug also predicted recurrent seizure after drug withdrawal (P = .04). In conclusion, seizures are controlled with medications in a majority of patients with hematological cancer. After a period without seizures, antiseizure drug withdrawal in appropriately selected patient has a high success rate. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. High resolution computed tomography angiography improves the radiographic diagnosis of invasive mold disease in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Stanzani, Marta; Sassi, Claudia; Lewis, Russell E; Tolomelli, Giulia; Bazzocchi, Alberto; Cavo, Michele; Vianelli, Nicola; Battista, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) may improve the diagnostic capabilities of CT imaging for invasive mold disease, but its performance relative to other signs (ie, halo sign, hypodense sign, pleural effusion, reversed halo sign) is unknown. We prospectively compared the diagnostic performance of CTPA vs other CT imaging findings in 100 patients with hematological malignancies and possible invasive mold disease defined by EORTC/MSG criteria. After undergoing extensive diagnostic work-up, patients were upgraded to probable or proven mold disease based on galactomannan antigen, culture or histology; or remained as possible mold disease if an alternative diagnosis could not be established. In total, 46 /100 patients who underwent CTPA were upgraded to probable or proven mold disease. Excluding 8 CTPA cases that were nonevaluable by the radiologist, a positive occlusion sign identified by CTPA was 100% sensitive for the diagnosis of probable or proven mold disease (41/41). Among patients who could not be upgraded from the possible mold disease category (n = 51), 25 (49%) had evidence of vessel occlusion by CTPA with only one positive patient eventually reaching an alternative diagnosis (Staphylococcus aureus septic thrombosis). Intravenous and/or oral antifungal therapy was stopped earlier in patients with a negative vs positive CTPA results (P ≤ .001). Vessel occlusion detected by CTPA is a more sensitive and possibly more specific radiographic sign vs other common CT findings of invasive mold disease in patients with hematological malignancies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A Randomized Study Comparing the Efficacy of Three Hepatitis B Vaccine Induction Regimens in Adult Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Özkurt, Zübeyde Nur; Suyanı, Elif; Haznedar, Rauf; Yağcı, Münci

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Non-responsiveness to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines is not rare in hemato-oncological patients due to disease-associated or treatment-induced immune suppression. Although different strategies have been employed to improve the response rates, to date there is not an approved schedule for HBV immunization in patients with hematological malignancies. We designed a prospective randomized study to evaluate the efficacy of 3 different induction regimens for HBV vaccination. Materials and Methods: In the standard-dose (SD) group, total vaccine dose delivered was 40 µg and patients were vaccinated with 20 µg at weeks 0 and 4. In the high-dose dose-intensive (HDDI) group, total vaccine dose delivered was 80 µg and patients were vaccinated with 40 µg at weeks 0 and 4. In the high-dose time-intensive (HDTI) group, total vaccine dose delivered was 80 µg and patients were vaccinated with 20 µg at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Results: In a cohort of 114 patients, 38.6% responded to HBV vaccination. The response rate in the SD arm, HDDI arm, and HDTI arm was 26.2%, 29.7%, and 44.4%, respectively (p>0.05). Age was the only variable identified as having a negative impact on response. Conclusion: Short of achieving statistical significance, a higher response rate was observed in the HDTI arm. Therefore, this study supports a high-dose, time-intensive HBV vaccine induction regimen in patients with hematological malignancies who are not on chemotherapy. PMID:27094506

  5. Potent Activity of Ponatinib (AP24534) in Models of FLT3-Driven Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Gozgit, Joseph M.; Wong, Matthew J.; Wardwell, Scott; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Mohemmad, Qurish K.; Narasimhan, Narayana I.; Shakespeare, William C.; Wang, Frank; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim; Rivera, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    Ponatinib (AP24534) is a novel multitargeted kinase inhibitor that potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL at clinically achievable drug levels. Ponatinib also has in vitro inhibitory activity against a discrete set of kinases implicated in the pathogenesis of other hematologic malignancies, including FLT3, KIT, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα). Here, using leukemic cell lines containing activated forms of each of these receptors, we show that ponatinib potently inhibits receptor phosphorylation and cellular proliferation with IC50 values comparable to those required for inhibition of BCR-ABL (0.3 to 20 nmol/L). The activity of ponatinib against the FLT3-ITD mutant, found in up to 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, was particularly notable. In MV4-11 (FLT3-ITD+/+) but not RS4;11 (FLT3-ITD−/−) AML cells, ponatinib inhibited FLT3 signaling and induced apoptosis at concentrations of less than 10 nmol/L. In an MV4-11 mouse xenograft model, once daily oral dosing of ponatinib led to a dose-dependent inhibition of signaling and tumor regression. Ponatinib inhibited viability of primary leukemic blasts from a FLT3-ITD positive AML patient (IC50 4 nmol/L) but not those isolated from 3 patients with AML expressing native FLT3. Overall, these results support the investigation of ponatinib in patients with FLT3-ITD–driven AML and other hematologic malignancies driven by KIT, FGFR1, or PDGFRα. PMID:21482694

  6. Hope Herth Index (HHI): a validation study in Italian patients with solid and hematological malignancies on active cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida; Buonaccorso, Loredana; Maruelli, Alice; Bandieri, Elena; Boldini, Stefania; Pessi, Maria Adelaide; Chiesi, Francesca; Miccinesi, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Although hope is a widely used term, the experience of hope in patients with chronic or even life-threatening diseases is often disregarded due to the scarcity of carefully designed and validated assessment tools. The aim of this study was to validate the Hope Herth Index (HHI) questionnaire in the Italian population of patients with solid or hematological malignancies during active cancer treatment. After the translation procedures, the psychometric properties of the Italian version of HHI were evaluated in 266 patients with non-advanced cancer cared for in four different settings. Summative scores ranged from 12-48, with a higher score denoting greater hope. Confirmative factorial analysis was performed to assess dimensionality. The test-retest reliability was assessed by means of the Lin concordance coefficient (two weeks' interval, 80 patients). Concurrent validity was assessed through the following questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp), Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS), and System Belief Inventory (SBI-15R). A total of 266 patients were enrolled. Confirmative factor analysis did not confirm the original three-factor solution, whereas a one-factor solution did perform well. Cronbach's alpha was 0.84 and the test-retest reliability was 0.64 (95% CI 0.51; 0.76). Large convergence was found with spiritual well-being as measured by the FACIT-Sp (0.69) and with anxiety-depression as measured by the HADS (inverse correlation: -0.51). Physical symptoms and religiousness were only slightly correlated, as expected. The Italian version of HHI is a valid and reliable assessment tool - useful to initiate conversation with someone who is troubled but finds it difficult to talk - in patients with either solid or hematological malignancies on active cancer treatment during the non-advanced stages of the disease.

  7. Development of a modified surveillance definition of central line-associated bloodstream infections for patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Digiorgio, Megan J; Fatica, Cynthia; Oden, Mary; Bolwell, Brian; Sekeres, Mikkael; Kalaycio, Matt; Akins, Patti; Shane, Christina; Bako, Jacob; Gordon, Steven M; Fraser, Thomas G

    2012-09-01

    To develop a modified surveillance definition of central line-associated bloodstream infection (mCLABSI) specific for our population of patients with hematologic malignancies to better support ongoing improvement efforts at our hospital. Retrospective cohort study. Hematologic malignancies population in a 1,200-bed tertiary care hospital on a 22-bed bone marrow transplant (BMT) unit and a 22-bed leukemia unit. An mCLABSI definition was developed, and pathogens and rates were compared against those determined using the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition. By the NHSN definition the CLABSI rate on the BMT unit was 6.0 per 1,000 central line-days, and by the mCLABSI definition the rate was 2.0 per 1,000 line-days ([Formula: see text]). On the leukemia unit, the NHSN CLABSI rate was 14.4 per 1,000 line-days, and the mCLABSI rate was 8.2 per 1,000 line-days ([Formula: see text]). The top 3 CLABSI pathogens by the NHSN definition were Enterococcus species, Klebsiella species, and Escherichia coli. The top 3 CLABSI pathogens by the mCLABSI definition were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The difference in the incidence of CONS as a cause of CLABSI under the 2 definitions was statistically significant ([Formula: see text]). A modified surveillance definition of CLABSI was associated with an increase in the identification of staphylococci as the cause of CLABSIs, as opposed to enteric pathogens, and a decrease in CLABSI rates.

  8. Cognitive compensatory processes of older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Libert, Yves; Borghgraef, Cindy; Beguin, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Devos, Martine; Doyen, Chantal; Dubruille, Stéphanie; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Liénard, Aurore; Merckaert, Isabelle; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Straetmans, Nicole; Van Den Neste, Eric; Bron, Dominique; Razavi, Darius

    2017-03-18

    Despite the well-known negative impacts of cancer and anticancer therapies on cognitive performance, little is known about the cognitive compensatory processes of older patients with cancer. This study was designed to investigate the cognitive compensatory processes of older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. We assessed 89 consecutive patients (age ≥ 65 y) without severe cognitive impairment and 89 age-, sex-, and education level-matched healthy controls. Cognitive compensatory processes were investigated by (1) comparing cognitive performance of patients and healthy controls in novel (first exposure to cognitive tasks) and non-novel (second exposure to the same cognitive tasks) contexts, and (2) assessing psychological factors that may facilitate or inhibit cognitive performance, such as motivation, psychological distress, and perceived cognitive performance. We assessed cognitive performance with the Trail-Making, Digit Span and FCSR-IR tests, psychological distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and perceived cognitive performance with the FACT-Cog questionnaire. In novel and non-novel contexts, average cognitive performances of healthy controls were higher than those of patients and were associated with motivation. Cognitive performance of patients was not associated with investigated psychological factors in the novel context but was associated with motivation and psychological distress in the non-novel context. Older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy demonstrated lower cognitive compensatory processes compared to healthy controls. Reducing distress and increasing motivation may improve cognitive compensatory processes of patients in non-novel contexts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Body Mass and Composition in Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Hiroto; Yang, Jie; Kaste, Sue C.; Hartford, Christine M.; Motosue, Megan S.; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Triplett, Brandon M.; Shook, David R.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Leung, Wing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To measure longitudinal changes in body mass and composition in survivors of childhood hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients and Methods Body mass index (BMI) was analyzed in 179 survivors by category (underweight, healthy-weight, overweight, and obese) and by z score. Fat and lean body mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was analyzed as z scores. Results Over a median 6.6 years of follow-up, BMI z scores diminished significantly (0.32 pre-HSCT v −0.60 at 10 years post-HSCT; P < .001). Mean z scores for fat mass stayed within population norms, but those for lean mass remained below normal levels and diminished significantly over time (P = .018). Pre-HSCT BMI category and/or z score were strongly predictive of post-HSCT BMI (P < .001) and of fat and lean mass z scores (both P < .001). Survivors with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease were more likely than others to have low BMI (P = .004) and low lean mass (P < .001) post-HSCT. Older age at HSCT (P = .015) and T-cell–depleted graft (P = .018) were predictive of lower post-HSCT BMI. Female patients had higher body fat (P = .002) and lower lean mass (P = .013) z scores than male patients, and black patients had higher fat mass z scores than white patients (P = .026). Conclusion BMI declines significantly after allogeneic HSCT for childhood hematologic malignancies, reflecting primarily a substantial decrease in lean mass but not fat mass. Monitoring and preservation of BMI and lean mass are vital, especially in those with the identified risk factors. PMID:23032628

  10. ATF4 induction through an atypical integrated stress response to ONC201 triggers p53-independent apoptosis in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, Jo; Kojima, Kensuke; Chachad, Dhruv; Ruvolo, Peter; Ruvolo, Vivian; Jacamo, Rodrigo O.; Borthakur, Gautam; Mu, Hong; Zeng, Zhihong; Tabe, Yoko; Allen, Joshua E.; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Lee, Hans C.; Orlowski, Robert; Sarbassov, Dos D.; Lorenzi, Philip L.; Huang, Xuelin; Neelapu, Sattva S.; McDonnell, Timothy; Miranda, Roberto N.; Wang, Michael; Kantarjian, Hagop; Konopleva, Marina; Davis, R. Eric.; Andreeff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The clinical challenge posed by p53 abnormalities in hematological malignancies requires therapeutic strategies other than standard genotoxic chemotherapies. ONC201 is a first-in-class small molecule that activates p53-independent apoptosis, has a benign safety profile, and is in early clinical trials. We found that ONC201 caused p53-independent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cell lines and in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples from patients; these included samples from patients with genetic abnormalities associated with poor prognosis or cells that had developed resistance to the nongenotoxic agents ibrutinib and bortezomib. Moreover, ONC201 caused apoptosis in stem and progenitor AML cells and abrogated the engraftment of leukemic stem cells in mice while sparing normal bone marrow cells. ONC201 caused changes in gene expression similar to those caused by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and integrated stress responses (ISRs), which increase the translation of the transcription factor ATF4 through an increase in the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α. However, unlike the UPR and ISR, the increase in ATF4 abundance in ONC201-treated hematopoietic cells promoted apoptosis and did not depend on increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. ONC201 also inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, likely through ATF4-mediated induction of the mTORC1 inhibitor DDIT4. Overexpression of BCL-2 protected against ONC201-induced apoptosis, and the combination of ONC201 and the BCL-2 antagonist ABT-199 synergistically increased apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that by inducing an atypical ISR and p53-independent apoptosis, ONC201 has clinical potential in hematological malignancies. PMID:26884599

  11. Evaluation of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer for cell count and screening of malignant cells of serous cavity effusion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weiyi; Yu, Qian; Xie, Lixia; Chen, Baode; Zhang, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the years, with the advancement in hematology analyzer technology, the use of fluid analysis method has seen a drastic increase in clinical examinations. Cell counting and classification in independent body fluid analysis method are conducted by semiconductor laser flow cytometry and nucleic acid fluorescence staining techniques. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer in cell counting and to screen malignant cells with serous cavity effusion. Specimens (N = 206) with serous cavity effusion from our hospital were included in this study. Manual and instrumental methods for cell counting, nucleated cell classification, and high-fluorescent cells (HFC) were used in this study. The correlation between RBC, nucleated cell count (NUC), the percentages of polymorphonuclear cell (PMN%), and mononuclear cells (MN%) was statistically analyzed using manual and instrumental methods. The regression equations of RBC, NUC, PMN%, and MN% in the manual and instrumental methods were RBC y = 0.88x + 426.4; NUC y = 0.85x + 33.4; PMN% y = 0.91x + 4.2; and MN% y = 0.91x + 5.1. Correlation coefficient R2 was 0.99, 0.98, 0.90, and 0.90 (P < .001). ROC curve analysis showed that when the cut-off value of HFC% was 4.4% and HFC# was 24.5/μL, area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence interval were 0.707, 0.792, 0.558, 0.637–0.777; 0.708, 0.753, 0.550, 0.635–0.780, respectively. XN-1000 hematology analyzer body fluid method can accurately and rapidly count cell and nucleated cell classification with serous cavity effusion. HFC can indicate the possible existence of malignant cells; however, further investigations are required to validate its efficacy. PMID:28682907

  12. Development of farnesyltransferase inhibitors for clinical cancer therapy: focus on hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Karp, Judith E; Lancet, Jeffrey E

    2007-09-01

    Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) target and inhibit the peptide prenylating enzyme farnesyltransferase. This new class of signal transduction inhibitors is being tested clinically in diverse malignancies, with encouraging results in hematololgic malignancies and breast cancer in particuarl. Critical questions have yet to be answered, for example, optimal dose and schedule, disease subgroups most likely to respond, and appropriate combinations with standard cytotoxics and new biologics. Gene profiling studies of malignant target cells obtained during FTI clinical trials will help to identify patients who are likely to respond to FTIs and to develop mechanisms for overcoming FTI resistance. Clinical trials and correlative laboratory studies in progress and under development will define the optimal roles of FTIs in cancer patients.

  13. Pattern of trisomy 1q in hematological malignancies: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Djordjević, Vesna; Dencić-Fekete, Marija; Jovanović, Jelica; Drakulić, Danijela; Stevanović, Milena; Janković, Gradimir; Gotić, Mirjana

    2008-10-01

    An extra copy of 1q usually originates from the translocated unbalanced derivative chromosome, isochromosome, or "jumping translocation." We report a pattern of partial trisomies and unbalanced whole-arm translocations of 1q in 10 patients: 5 with myelodysplastic syndrome, 3 with acute myeloid leukemia, and a single patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloproliferative syndrome. The trisomy of 1q was registered as the sole karyotype aberration in one patient, while it was accompanied by a limited number of additional chromosomal changes in nine patients. These patients are a subset of a larger group of 92 adults carrying a wide variety of chromosome 1 anomalies within a complex cytogenetic context observed over a period between 1994 and 2006 in a panel of 3,786 hematologic patients at the Institute of Hematology in Belgrade. Conventional cytogenetics was supplemented by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe specific for the paracentric region of 1q. Whole-arm 1q translocations involved chromosomes Y, 7, 14, 15, 16, and 19. This study suggests that gain of 1q as the sole cytogenetic abnormality may be sufficiently mutagenic to favor leukemogenesis and hematopoietic tissue degeneration (trilineage myelodysplasia).

  14. Adoptive immunotherapy for hematological malignancies using T cells gene-modified to express tumor antigen-specific receptors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    2014-12-15

    Accumulating clinical evidence suggests that adoptive T-cell immunotherapy could be a promising option for control of cancer; evident examples include the graft-vs-leukemia effect mediated by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and therapeutic infusion of ex vivo-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) for melanoma. Currently, along with advances in synthetic immunology, gene-modified T cells retargeted to defined tumor antigens have been introduced as "cellular drugs". As the functional properties of the adoptive immune response mediated by T lymphocytes are decisively regulated by their T-cell receptors (TCRs), transfer of genes encoding target antigen-specific receptors should enable polyclonal T cells to be uniformly redirected toward cancer cells. Clinically, anticancer adoptive immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells has an impressive track record. Notable examples include the dramatic benefit of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene-modified T cells redirected towards CD19 in patients with B-cell malignancy, and the encouraging results obtained with TCR gene-modified T cells redirected towards NY-ESO-1, a cancer-testis antigen, in patients with advanced melanoma and synovial cell sarcoma. This article overviews the current status of this treatment option, and discusses challenging issues that still restrain the full effectiveness of this strategy, especially in the context of hematological malignancy.

  15. Detection of Lymph Node Involvement in Hematologic Malignancies Using Micromagnetic Resonance Lymphangiography with a Gadolinum-Labeled Dendrimer Nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Kawamoto, Satomi; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Bernardo, Marcelino; Sato, Noriko; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Tagaya, Yutaka; Choyke, Peter L.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Animal models of lymphoma should reflect their counterparts in humans; however, it can be difficult to ascertain whether an induced disease is intralymphatic or extralymphatic based on direct visualization. Current imaging methods are insufficient for identifying lymphatic and intralymphatic involvement. To differentiate intralymphatic from extralymphatic involvement, we have developed a magnetic resonance imaging–based lymphangiography method and tested it on two animal models of lymphoma. A gadolinium (Gd)–labeled dendrimer nanoparticle (generation-6; ∼220 kDa/∼10 nm) was injected interstitially into mice bearing hematologic malignancies to perform dynamic micromagnetic resonance lymphangiography (micro-MRL). Both a standard T1-weighted 3D fast spoiled gradient echo and a T2/T1–weighted 3D fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA-C) were compared in an imaging study to differentiate intralymphatic from extralymphatic involvement of tumors. The lymphatics and lymph nodes were visualized with both methods in all cases. In addition, 3D-FIESTA-C depicted both the lymphatic system and the extralymphatic tumor. In an animal model, 3D-FIESTA-C demonstrated that the bulk of the tumor thought to be intralymphatic was actually extralymphatic. In conclusion, micro-MRL, using Gd-labeled dendrimer nanoparticles with the combined method, can define both the normal and abnormal lymphatics and can distinguish intralymphatic from extralymphatic diseases in mouse models of malignant lymphoma. PMID:16331884

  16. Hypogammaglobulinemia and Poor Performance Status are Predisposing Factors for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Colonization in Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ümit, Elif Gülsüm; Kuloğlu, Figen; Demir, Ahmet Muzaffer

    2017-03-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are common pathogens of hospital-acquired infection. Long hospitalization periods, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and immunosuppression are major risks for VRE colonization. We aimed to evaluate patients' characteristics and factors that may contribute to VRE colonization. Data of 66 patients with colonization and 112 patients without colonization who were hospitalized in the hematology clinic were collected. Hematological malignancies, preexisting gastrointestinal complaints, the presence of hypogammaglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis, complications like neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) and Karnofsky performance statuses were recorded. Ages of the patients ranged between 19 and 95 years (mean: 55.99). Karnofsky and ECOG scores were statistically related to VRE colonization (p<0.000 and p<0.000), though only the Karnofsky score was significant based on logistic regression analysis. Almost all patients with acute leukemia (45 patients) had been on antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, and meropenem), while no patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloma, or benign diseases and 2 patients with lymphoma and 1 with chronic myeloid leukemia were on antibiotics. Median time for colonization regardless of antibiotic use and diagnosis was 4.5 days (range: 3-11 days). In the VRE-colonized group, 40.9% of patients had NEC development, while in the non-colonized group, only 1.7% had NEC development. In the VRE-colonized group 46 patients (69.7%) and in the non-colonized group 27 patients (24.1%) had hypogammaglobulinemia at diagnosis; among these patients, 23 patients in the VRE-colonized group (50%) had a B-cell malignancy (lymphoma, myeloma, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia). Besides already anticipated diseases like leukemia, B-cell malignancies are also at high risk for colonization. This proclivity may be attributed to lack of gastrointestinal IgA due to

  17. Survival and Late Effects after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancy at Less than Three Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Vrooman, Lynda M; Millard, Heather R; Brazauskas, Ruta; Majhail, Navneet S; Battiwalla, Minoo; Flowers, Mary E; Savani, Bipin N; Akpek, Görgün; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Bajwa, Rajinder; Baker, K Scott; Beitinjaneh, Amer; Bitan, Menachem; Buchbinder, David; Chow, Eric; Dandoy, Christopher; Dietz, Andrew C; Diller, Lisa; Gale, Robert Peter; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Hayashi, Robert J; Hematti, Peiman; Kamble, Rammurti T; Kasow, Kimberly A; Kletzel, Morris; Lazarus, Hillard M; Malone, Adriana K; Marks, David I; O'Brien, Tracey A; Olsson, Richard F; Ringden, Olle; Seo, Sachiko; Steinberg, Amir; Yu, Lolie C; Warwick, Anne; Shaw, Bronwen; Duncan, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Very young children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are a unique and vulnerable population. We analyzed outcomes of 717 patients from 117 centers who survived relapse free for ≥1 year after allogeneic myeloablative HCT for hematologic malignancy at <3 years of age, between 1987 and 2012. The median follow-up was 8.3 years (range, 1.0 to 26.4 years); median age at follow-up was 9 years (range, 2 to 29 years). Ten-year overall and relapse-free survival were 87% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85% to 90%) and 84% (95% CI, 81% to 87%). Ten-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 11% (95% CI, 9% to 13%). Of 84 deaths, relapse was the leading cause (43%). Chronic graft-versus-host-disease 1 year after HCT was associated with increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.3; P = .0018). Thirty percent of patients experienced ≥1 organ toxicity/late effect >1 year after HCT. The most frequent late effects included growth hormone deficiency/growth disturbance (10-year cumulative incidence, 23%; 95% CI, 19% to 28%), cataracts (18%; 95% CI, 15% to 22%), hypothyroidism (13%; 95% CI, 10% to 16%), gonadal dysfunction/infertility requiring hormone replacement (3%; 95% CI, 2% to 5%), and stroke/seizure (3%; 95% CI, 2% to 5%). Subsequent malignancy was reported in 3.6%. In multivariable analysis, total body irradiation (TBI) was predictive of increased risk of cataracts (HR, 17.2; 95% CI, 7.4 to 39.8; P < .001), growth deficiency (HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 2.2 to 5.5; P < .001), and hypothyroidism (HR, 5.3; 95% CI, 3.0 to 9.4; P < .001). In summary, those who survived relapse free ≥1 year after HCT for hematologic malignancy at <3 years of age had favorable overall survival. Chronic graft-versus-host-disease and TBI were associated with adverse outcomes. Future efforts should focus on reducing the risk of relapse and late effects after HCT at early age. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

  18. Recommendations for accreditation of laboratories in molecular biology of hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale; Cornillet, Pascale; Hayette, Sandrine; Gachard, Nathalie; Tondeur, Sylvie; Mauté, Carole; Cayuela, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, the development of molecular biology techniques has improved the hematological diseases diagnostic and follow-up. Consequently, these techniques are largely used in the biological screening of these diseases; therefore the Hemato-oncology molecular diagnostics laboratories must be actively involved in the accreditation process according the ISO 15189 standard. The French group of molecular biologists (GBMHM) provides requirements for the implementation of quality assurance for the medical molecular laboratories. This guideline states the recommendations for the pre-analytical, analytical (methods validation procedures, quality controls, reagents), and post-analytical conditions. In addition, herein we state a strategy for the internal quality control management. These recommendations will be regularly updated.

  19. Planes, Trains, and Automobiles: Perspectives on CAR T Cells and Other Cellular Therapies for Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gill, Saar

    2016-08-01

    Hematologic oncologists now have at their disposal (or a referral away) a myriad of new options to get from point A (a patient with relapsed or poor-risk disease) to point B (potential tumor eradication and long-term disease-free survival). In this perspective piece, we discuss the putative mechanisms of action and the relative strengths and weaknesses of currently available cellular therapy approaches. Notably, while many of these approaches have been published in high impact journals, with the exception of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and of checkpoint inhibitors (PD1/PDL1 or CTLA4 blockade), the published clinical trials have mostly been early phase, uncontrolled studies. Therefore, many of the new cellular therapy approaches have yet to demonstrate incontrovertible evidence of enhanced overall survival compared with controls. Nonetheless, the science behind these is sure to advance our understanding of cancer immunology and ultimately to bring us closer to our goal of curing cancer.

  20. Short-Term Bisphosphonate Therapy Could Ameliorate Osteonecrosis: A Complication in Childhood Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Greggio, N. A.; Pillon, M.; Varotto, E.; Zanin, A.; Talenti, E.; Palozzo, A. C.; Calore, E.; Messina, C.

    2010-01-01

    Osteonecrosis (ON) is a critical complication in the treatment of childhood leukemia and lymphoma. It particularly affects survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma reflecting the cumulative exposure to glucocorticosteroid therapy. ON is often multiarticular and bilateral, specially affecting weight-bearing joints. A conventional approach suggests a surgical intervention even if pharmacological options have also recently been investigated. We reported two cases of long time steroid-treated patients who underwent Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) for hematological disease. Both patients developed femoral head osteonecrosis (ON) that was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the ON was also accompanied with pain and a limp. Despite of the conventional strategies of therapy, we successfully started a short-term treatment with bisphosphonates in order to decrease the pain and the risk of fracture. PMID:20589085

  1. Interpreting outcome data in hematological malignancies: a paradigm for clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jacob M

    2013-01-01

    Results of clinical studies are often contradictory in real time, and in other instances therapies may be adopted due to information from clinical studies where the data may be premature or resulting from small studies. Much of the data may have inherent selection biases, and their interpretation may be confusing and difficult. The hematological literature is full of such examples, and this review will describe some such instances in the hope of introducing both a cautionary note and encouraging more precise description of study conditions as well as an appreciation of the importance of allowing data from clinical studies to mature. Several examples will be drawn from clinical studies in lymphomas, leukemia, and bone marrow transplantation.

  2. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Advancing Therapeutic Strategies in Hematological and Solid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Leigh; Pili, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Advancement in the understanding of cancer development in recent years has identified epigenetic abnormalities as a common factor in both tumorigenesis and refractory disease. One such event is the dysregulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in both hematological and solid tumors, and has consequently resulted in the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACI) to overcome this. HDACI exhibit pleiotropic biological effects including inhibition of angiogenesis and the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. Although HDACI exhibit modest results as single agents in preclinical and clinical data, they often fall short, and therefore HDACI are most promising in combinational strategies with either standard treatments or with other experimental chemotherapies and targeted therapies. This review will discuss the induction of autophagy and apoptosis and the inhibition of angiogenesis by HDACI, and also pre-clinical and clinical combination strategies using these agents. PMID:21151768

  3. Interpreting Outcome Data in Hematological Malignancies: A Paradigm for Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Jacob M.

    2013-01-01

    Results of clinical studies are often contradictory in real time, and in other instances therapies may be adopted due to information from clinical studies where the data may be premature or resulting from small studies. Much of the data may have inherent selection biases, and their interpretation may be confusing and difficult. The hematological literature is full of such examples, and this review will describe some such instances in the hope of introducing both a cautionary note and encouraging more precise description of study conditions as well as an appreciation of the importance of allowing data from clinical studies to mature. Several examples will be drawn from clinical studies in lymphomas, leukemia, and bone marrow transplantation. PMID:23908854

  4. HLA-haploidentical bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies using nonmyeloablative conditioning and high-dose, posttransplantation cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Luznik, Leo; O'Donnell, Paul V; Symons, Heather J; Chen, Allen R; Leffell, M Susan; Zahurak, Marianna; Gooley, Ted A; Piantadosi, Steve; Kaup, Michele; Ambinder, Richard F; Huff, Carol Ann; Matsui, William; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Borrello, Ivan; Powell, Jonathan D; Harrington, Elizabeth; Warnock, Sandy; Flowers, Mary; Brodsky, Robert A; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Storb, Rainer F; Jones, Richard J; Fuchs, Ephraim J

    2008-06-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of high-dose, posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (Cy) to prevent graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after outpatient nonmyeloablative conditioning and T cell-replete bone marrow transplantation from partially HLA-mismatched (haploidentical) related donors. Patients with advanced hematologic malignancies (n = 67) or paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (n = 1) received Cy 50 mg/kg i.v. on day 3 (n = 28) or on days 3 and 4 (n = 40) after transplantation. The median times to neutrophil (>500/microL) and platelet recovery (>20,000/microL) were 15 and 24 days, respectively. Graft failure occurred in 9 of 66 (13%) evaluable patients, and was fatal in 1. The cumulative incidences of grades II-IV and grades III-IV acute (aGVHD) by day 200 were 34% and 6%, respectively. There was a trend toward a lower risk of extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) among recipients of 2 versus 1 dose of posttransplantation Cy (P = .05), the only difference between these groups. The cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse at 1 year were 15% and 51%, respectively. Actuarial overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 2 years after transplantation were 36% and 26%, respectively. Patients with lymphoid malignancies had an improved EFS compared to those with myelogenous malignancies (P = .02). Nonmyeloablative HLA-haploidentical BMT with posttransplantation Cy is associated with acceptable rates of fatal graft failure and severe aGVHD or cGVHD.

  5. Development and psychometric validation of a brief comprehensive health status assessment scale in older patients with hematological malignancies: The GAH Scale.

    PubMed

    Bonanad, S; De la Rubia, J; Gironella, M; Pérez Persona, E; González, B; Fernández Lago, C; Arnan, M; Zudaire, M; Hernández Rivas, J A; Soler, A; Marrero, C; Olivier, C; Altés, A; Valcárcel, D; Hernández, M T; Oiartzabal, I; Fernández Ordoño, R; Arnao, M; Esquerra, A; Sarrá, J; González-Barca, E; González, J; Calvo, X; Nomdedeu, M; García Guiñón, A; Ramírez Payer, A; Casado, A; López, S; Durán, M; Marcos, M; Cruz-Jentoft, A J

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new brief, comprehensive geriatric assessment scale for older patients diagnosed with different hematological malignancies, the Geriatric Assessment in Hematology (GAH scale), and to determine its psychometric properties. The 30-item GAH scale was designed through a multi-step process to cover 8 relevant dimensions. This is an observational study conducted in 363 patients aged≥65years, newly diagnosed with different hematological malignancies (myelodysplasic syndrome/acute myeloblastic leukemia, multiple myeloma, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia), and treatment-naïve. The scale psychometric validation process included the analyses of feasibility, floor and ceiling effect, validity and reliability criteria. Mean time taken to complete the GAH scale was 11.9±4.7min that improved through a learning-curve effect. Almost 90% of patients completed all items, and no floor or ceiling effects were identified. Criterion validity was supported by reasonable correlations between the GAH scale dimensions and three contrast variables (global health visual analogue scale, ECOG and Karnofsky), except for comorbidities. Factor analysis (supported by the scree plot) revealed nine factors that explained almost 60% of the total variance. Moderate internal consistency reliability was found (Cronbach's α: 0.610), and test-retest was excellent (ICC coefficients, 0.695-0.928). Our study suggests that the GAH scale is a valid, internally reliable and a consistent tool to assess health status in older patients with different hematological malignancies. Future large studies should confirm whether the GAH scale may be a tool to improve clinical decision-making in older patients with hematological malignancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depression and anxiety in patients with hematological malignancies, prevalence, and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Abuelgasim, Khadega A; Ahmed, Gasmelseed Y; Alqahtani, Jamilah A; Alayed, Aseel M; Alaskar, Ahmed S; Malik, Mansoor A

    2016-08-01

    To study the prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety in hematological cancers (HC) patients. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in all HC patients at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March 2014 and June 2015. We excluded patients with depression, or generalized anxiety disorder. We conducted a structured face to face interview using an internally developed and validated questionnaire (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 patient's questionnaire with all participants). Among 211 participants, depression was detected in 98 (46.5%) and anxiety was detected in 47 (22.3%). Thirty-eight (18.1%) had concurrent anxiety and depression. Multiple co-morbidities and tense home atmosphere were predictive for anxiety and depression. We found no association between gender, smoking, income, or being on active therapy and depression or anxiety. Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in HC patients in KAMC. Health care providers should screen HC cancers for depression and anxiety; as early intervention possibly improve their disease outcome and will likely enhance their psychological wellbeing.

  7. New Insight on Epidemiology and Management of Bacterial Bloodstream Infection in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Menzo, Sara Lo; la Martire, Giulia; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Venditti, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in onco-hematologic patients. The Gram-negative bacteria were the main responsible for the febrile neutropenia in the sixties; their impact declined due to the use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. This situation was followed by the gradual emergence of Gram-positive bacteria also following the increased use of intravascular devices and the introduction of new chemotherapeutic strategies. In the last decade, the Gram-negative etiology is raising again because of the emergence of resistant strains that make questionable the usefulness of current strategies for prophylaxis and empirical treatment. Gram-negative BSI attributable mortality is relevant, and the appropriate empirical treatment significantly improves the prognosis; on the other hand the adequate delayed treatment of Gram-positive BSI does not seem to have a high impact on survival. The clinician has to be aware of the epidemiology of his institution and colonizations of his patients to choose the most appropriate empiric therapy. In a setting of high endemicity of multidrug-resistant infections also the choice of targeted therapy can be a challenge, often requiring strategies based on off-label prescriptions and low grade evidence. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for the best targeted therapies for difficult to treat bacteria BSIs and future perspectives in this topic. We also provide a flow chart for a rational approach to the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia in a multidrug resistant, high prevalence setting. PMID:26185609

  8. Depression and anxiety in patients with hematological malignancies, prevalence, and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Abuelgasim, Khadega A.; Ahmed, Gasmelseed Y.; Alqahtani, Jamilah A.; Alayed, Aseel M.; Alaskar, Ahmed S.; Malik, Mansoor A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety in hematological cancers (HC) patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in all HC patients at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March 2014 and June 2015. We excluded patients with depression, or generalized anxiety disorder. We conducted a structured face to face interview using an internally developed and validated questionnaire (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 patient’s questionnaire with all participants). Results: Among 211 participants, depression was detected in 98 (46.5%) and anxiety was detected in 47 (22.3%). Thirty-eight (18.1%) had concurrent anxiety and depression. Multiple co-morbidities and tense home atmosphere were predictive for anxiety and depression. We found no association between gender, smoking, income, or being on active therapy and depression or anxiety. Conclusions: Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in HC patients in KAMC. Health care providers should screen HC cancers for depression and anxiety; as early intervention possibly improve their disease outcome and will likely enhance their psychological wellbeing. PMID:27464865

  9. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics with Extended Dosing of CC-486 in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Cogle, Christopher R.; Gore, Steven D.; Hetzer, Joel; Kumar, Keshava; Skikne, Barry; MacBeth, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    CC-486 (oral azacitidine) is an epigenetic modifier in development for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. In part 1 of this two-part study, a 7-day CC-486 dosing schedule showed clinical activity, was generally well tolerated, and reduced DNA methylation. Extending dosing of CC-486 beyond 7 days would increase duration of azacitidine exposure. We hypothesized that extended dosing would therefore provide more sustained epigenetic activity. Reported here are the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of CC-486 extended dosing schedules in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from part 2 of this study. PK and/or PD data were available for 59 patients who were sequentially assigned to 1 of 4 extended CC-486 dosing schedules: 300mg once-daily or 200mg twice-daily for 14 or 21 days per 28-day cycle. Both 300mg once-daily schedules and the 200mg twice-daily 21-day schedule significantly (all P < .05) reduced global DNA methylation in whole blood at all measured time points (days 15, 22, and 28 of the treatment cycle), with sustained hypomethylation at cycle end compared with baseline. CC-486 exposures and reduced DNA methylation were significantly correlated. Patients who had a hematologic response had significantly greater methylation reductions than non-responding patients. These data demonstrate that extended dosing of CC-486 sustains epigenetic effects through the treatment cycle. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00528983 PMID:26296092

  10. [Fungemia due to Trichosporon asahii in a patient with hematological malignancy].

    PubMed

    Odero, Valle; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Agudo, Lidia; García-Tapia, Ana M; Guerrero-Lozano, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel A

    2015-01-01

    Trichosporonosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the genus Trichosporon. The majority of cases of invasive trichosporonosis occurs in immunocompromised individuals. We describe a case of disseminated infection by Trichosporon asahii in a hematology patient. A 52-year-old man diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed a febrile episode during the third cycle of the induction chemotherapy. The blood cultures were positive after 24h incubation, showing elongated structures compatible with fungal elements in the Gram stain. The identification of the fungus as Trichosporon asahii was carried out by the assimilation of compounds of carbon and the amplification and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain and the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA. The fungus was also isolated from the pustular lesions that the patient had in the chest. After treatment with amphotericin B, the patient progressed satisfactorily. Trichosporon asahii is an emergent pathogen in immunosupressed patients and its presence should not be considered as colonization, as there is risk of invasive infection. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene expression profiling of hematologic malignant cell lines resistant to oncolytic virus treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Hee; Kim, Mikyung; Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Seong-Geun; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Hwang, Tae-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pexa-Vec (pexastimogene devacirpvec; JX-594) has emerged as an attractive tool in oncolytic virotherapy. Pexa-Vec demonstrates oncolytic and immunotherapeutic mechanisms of action. But the determinants of resistance to Pexa-Vec are mostly unknown. We treated hemoatologic malignant cells with Pexa-Vec and examined the gene-expression pattern of sensitive and resistant cells. Human myeloid malignant cell lines (RPMI-8226, IM-9, K562, THP-1) and lymphoid cancer cell lines (MOLT4, CCRF-CEM, Ramos, U937) were treated with Pexa-Vec. Pexa-Vec was cytotoxic on myeloid cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, and fluorescent imaging and qPCR revealed that Pexa-Vec expression was low in RAMOS than IM-9 after 24 hrs and 48 hrs of infection. Gene expression profiles between two groups were analyzed by microarray. Genes with at least 2-fold increase or decrease in their expression were identified. A total of 660 genes were up-regulated and 776 genes were down-regulated in lymphoid cancer cell lines. The up- and down-regulated genes were categorized into 319 functional gene clusters. We identified the top 10 up-regulated genes in lymphoid cells. Among them three human genes (LEF1, STAMBPL1, and SLFN11) strongly correlated with viral replication. Up-regulation of PVRIG, LPP, CECR1, Arhgef6, IRX3, IGFBP2, CD1d were related to resistant to Pexa-Vec. In conclusion, lymphoid malignant cells are resistant to Pexa-Vec and displayed up-regulated genes associated with resistance to oncolytic viral therapy. These data provide potential targets to overcome resistance, and suggest that molecular assays may be useful in selecting patients for further clinical trials with Pexa-Vec. PMID:27901484

  12. Antimicrobial agent prescription patterns for chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancies at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman.

    PubMed

    Al Balushi, K A; Balkhair, A; Ali, B H; Al Rawas, N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the antimicrobial prescription patterns of patients with hematological malignancies who developed febrile neutropenia (FN) at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Oman. This was a retrospective observational study covering a period of 3 years (January 2007-February 2010). FN episodes were studied in patients with hematological malignancies in three different wards at SQUH. A total of 176 FN episodes were analyzed. Overall, 64% of the 107 patients studied experienced at least 2 episodes during the analysis period. Approximately, 69% of the febrile neutropenia episodes had severe neutropenia. The duration of neutropenia was less than 1 week in the majority of the episodes (57%). The mean duration of treatment was approximately 7 days, with no significant difference between specialties or different types of malignancies. Only 34 (19%) episodes had positive cultures, and most of these were from blood samples (30 episodes, 88%). The majority of isolates were gram-negative organisms (63%). The initial empirical treatment included monotherapy (37%), dual therapy (60%) and triple therapy (3%). This study demonstrates that there is a large variation in the antimicrobial treatment of FN episodes in patients with hematological malignancies at SQUH. All chosen drugs were within international guideline recommendations. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Haploidentical, G-CSF-primed, unmanipulated bone marrow transplantation for patients with high-risk hematological malignancies: an update.

    PubMed

    Arcese, W; Picardi, A; Santarone, S; De Angelis, G; Cerretti, R; Cudillo, L; Pennese, E; Bavaro, P; Olioso, P; Dentamaro, T; Cupelli, L; Chierichini, A; Ferrari, A; Mengarelli, A; Tirindelli, M C; Testi, M; Di Piazza, F; Di Bartolomeo, P

    2015-06-01

    Ninety-seven patients affected by high-risk hematological malignancies underwent G-CSF primed, unmanipulated bone marrow (BM) transplantation from a related, haploidentical donor. All patients were prepared with an identical conditioning regimen including Thiotepa, Busilvex, Fludarabine (TBF) and antithymocyte globulin given at myeloablative (MAC = 68) or reduced (reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) = 29) dose intensity and received the same GvHD prophylaxis consisting of the combination of methotrexate, cyclosporine, mycofenolate-mofetil and basiliximab. Patients were transplanted in 1st or 2nd CR (early phase: n = 60) or in > 2nd CR or active disease (advanced phase: n = 37). With a median time of 21 days (range 12-38 days), the cumulative incidence (CI) of neutrophil engraftment was 94 ± 3%. The 100-day CI of III-IV grade acute GvHD and the 2-year CI of extensive chronic GvHD were 9 ± 3% and 12 ± 4%, respectively. Overall, at a median follow-up of 2.2 years (range 0.3-5.6), 44 out of 97 (45%) patients are alive in CR. The 5-year probability of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for patients in early and advanced phase was 53 ± 7 vs 24 ± 8% (P = 0.006) and 48 ± 7 vs 22 ± 8% (P = 0.01), respectively. By comparing MAC with RIC patient groups, the transplant-related mortality was equivalent (36 ± 6 vs 28 ± 9%) while the relapse risk was lower for the MAC patients (22 ± 6 vs 45 ± 11%), who showed higher OS (48 ± 7 vs 29 ± 10%) and DFS (43 ± 7 vs 26 ± 10%). However, all these differences did not reach a statistical significance. In multivariate analysis, diagnosis and recipient age were significant factors for OS and DFS. In conclusion, this analysis confirms, on a longer follow-up and higher number of patients, our previous encouraging results obtained by using MAC and RIC TBF regimen as conditioning for G-CSF primed, unmanipulated BM transplantation from related, haploidentical donor in patients with high-risk hematological

  14. Relationship of body mass index and arm anthropometry to outcomes after pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, Paul A; Storer, Barry E; Macris, Paula Charuhas; Carpenter, Paul A; Baker, K Scott

    2013-07-01

    Although nutritional status may adversely affect various health outcomes, the relationship between anthropometry and outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has not been fully studied in children. We analyzed the impact of pre-HCT body mass index (BMI), arm muscle area, and arm fat area on outcomes in 733 patients age 2-18 years who underwent allogeneic HCT for a hematologic malignancy between 1985 and 2009. We evaluated these 3 variables according to patient group based on age- and sex-adjusted percentiles for BMI, arm muscle area (<5th, 5th-24th, 25th-94th, and ≥95th), and arm fat area (<25th, 25th-94th, and ≥95th). Cox proportional hazards regression models for event-free survival (EFS), relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 3 years after HCT, as well as grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD, were performed using the 3 major variables and adjusted for covariates. BMI was <5th percentile in only 3% of patients and ≥95th percentile in 15% of patients, but outcomes for both groups were similar to those for the BMI 25th-94th percentile group. The BMI 5th-24th percentile group had lower EFS (P = .01) and higher relapse (P = .003) at day +100 post-HCT, but these associations did not hold at 3 years post-HCT. Arm muscle area was <5th percentile in 8% of patients, and arm fat area was <25th percentile in 10%. Analysis of arm muscle area showed that the <5th percentile group had lower EFS and higher NRM and relapse rate at day +100 (P = .002, .04, and .01, respectively) and 3 years (P = .0004, .008, and .01, respectively) post-HCT. Arm fat area <25th percentile was associated with lower EFS at day +100 (hazard ratio, 1.5; P = .05), but not at 3 years post-HCT. Anthropometry variables were not associated with acute or chronic GVHD. In conclusion, arm muscle area <5th percentile appears to be a stronger predictor than BMI of poor outcomes after HCT in children with hematologic malignancies.

  15. The kinetics of hematopoietic niche cytokines and their influence on mobilization efficacy and timing in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska-Kaplon, Anna; Krawczynska, Anna; Czemerska, Magdalena; Pluta, Agnieszka; Cebula-Obrzut, Barbara; Robak, Marta; Grzybowska-Izydorczyk, Olga; Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Robak, Tadeusz; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka

    2015-08-01

    The bone marrow niche functions are modulated by complicated cytokines network. The aim of our study was to evaluate the levels of VCAM-1, VEGF, MMP-9 and SDF during mobilization of CD34+ cells in patients with hematological malignancies. Thirty four patients were enrolled to the study (19F, 15 M) at median age of 57 years. The group consisted of patients with multiple myeloma (26) and lymphoma (8). The mobilization procedures comprised chemotherapy and then G-CSF. Blood samples were collected before chemotherapy (N = 34) and on the day of the first apheresis (N = 26). Cytokines were evaluated with ELISA assay. We observed significant increase in VCAM-1 levels during mobilization. On contrary, VEGF and SDF levels decreased during mobilization procedure. The levels of MMP-9 were stable during mobilization. We divided patients according to baseline cytokines levels below and above median into "low" and "high" expressors. The group of VEGF "low" expressors had longer median time of G-CSF treatment before first apheresis than 'high' expressors. Baseline VEGF levels correlated adversely with duration of G-CSF treatment before first apheresis. Patients were also divided according to median cytokines levels at apheresis into "low" and "high" expressors. "High" VCAM-1 expressors had higher CD34+in peripheral blood as well as higher CD34+numbers collected during first apheresis than "low" expressors. In conclusion, the levels of niche cytokines change significantly during mobilization in patients with hematopoietic malignancies. Baseline VEGF can influence timing of mobilization. Higher VCAM-1 corresponds with higher mobilization efficacy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Overlapping SETBP1 gain-of-function mutations in Schinzel-Giedion syndrome and hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Hidalgo, Rocio; Deriziotis, Pelagia; Steehouwer, Marloes; Gilissen, Christian; Graham, Sarah A; van Dam, Sipko; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Telegrafi, Aida B; Destree, Anne; Smigiel, Robert; Lambie, Lindsday A; Kayserili, Hülya; Altunoglu, Umut; Lapi, Elisabetta; Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Aracena, Mariana; Nur, Banu G; Mihci, Ercan; Moreira, Lilia M A; Borges Ferreira, Viviane; Horovitz, Dafne D G; da Rocha, Katia M; Jezela-Stanek, Aleksandra; Brooks, Alice S; Reutter, Heiko; Cohen, Julie S; Fatemi, Ali; Smitka, Martin; Grebe, Theresa A; Di Donato, Nataliya; Deshpande, Charu; Vandersteen, Anthony; Marques Lourenço, Charles; Dufke, Andreas; Rossier, Eva; Andre, Gwenaelle; Baumer, Alessandra; Spencer, Careni; McGaughran, Julie; Franke, Lude; Veltman, Joris A; De Vries, Bert B A; Schinzel, Albert; Fisher, Simon E; Hoischen, Alexander; van Bon, Bregje W

    2017-03-01

    Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by multiple malformations, severe neurological alterations and increased risk of malignancy. SGS is caused by de novo germline mutations clustering to a 12bp hotspot in exon 4 of SETBP1. Mutations in this hotspot disrupt a degron, a signal for the regulation of protein degradation, and lead to the accumulation of SETBP1 protein. Overlapping SETBP1 hotspot mutations have been observed recurrently as somatic events in leukemia. We collected clinical information of 47 SGS patients (including 26 novel cases) with germline SETBP1 mutations and of four individuals with a milder phenotype caused by de novo germline mutations adjacent to the SETBP1 hotspot. Different mutations within and around the SETBP1 hotspot have varying effects on SETBP1 stability and protein levels in vitro and in in silico modeling. Substitutions in SETBP1 residue I871 result in a weak increase in protein levels and mutations affecting this residue are significantly more frequent in SGS than in leukemia. On the other hand, substitutions in residue D868 lead to the largest increase in protein levels. Individuals with germline mutations affecting D868 have enhanced cell proliferation in vitro and higher incidence of cancer compared to patients with other germline SETBP1 mutations. Our findings substantiate that, despite their overlap, somatic SETBP1 mutations driving malignancy are more disruptive to the degron than germline SETBP1 mutations causing SGS. Additionally, this suggests that the functional threshold for the development of cancer driven by the disruption of the SETBP1 degron is higher than for the alteration in prenatal development in SGS. Drawing on previous studies of somatic SETBP1 mutations in leukemia, our results reveal a genotype-phenotype correlation in germline SETBP1 mutations spanning a molecular, cellular and clinical phenotype.

  17. A Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine Compound Reduces Cell Viability and Induces Apoptosis in Different Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Laurenzana, Ilaria; Caivano, Antonella; La Rocca, Francesco; Trino, Stefania; De Luca, Luciana; D’Alessio, Francesca; Schenone, Silvia; Falco, Geppino; Botta, Maurizio; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Musto, Pellegrino

    2016-01-01

    Molecular targeted therapies are based upon drugs acting on tumors by interfering with specific targets involved in growth and spread of cancer. Many targeted therapies were approved by Food and Drug Administration as standard treatment, others were introduced into preclinical or clinical studies on hematological malignancies (HMs). The development of drug-resistance in some HMs and the lack of effective treatments in other ones emphasized the need for searching new molecular targets and therapeutic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4c pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine compound, a Src inhibitor, on lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms. Here, we demonstrated its ability to reduce cell viability, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in lymphoid cell lines such as Jurkat, SKMM1, Derl-2/7, and myeloid cell lines, such as Jurl-MK1. Moreover, we reported a high expression of a Src kinase, Fyn, in these cell lines compared to healthy subjects. This study was a starting point to investigate 4c pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine compound as a drug for HMs and Src kinases as its potential molecular targets. PMID:27872592

  18. Upper and lower respiratory tract infections by human enterovirus and rhinovirus in adult patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Parody, R; Rabella, N; Martino, R; Otegui, M; del Cuerpo, M; Coll, P; Sierra, J

    2007-09-01

    The impact of human enterovirus (HEV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) respiratory tract infections in adult patients with hematological malignancies has been infrequently reported. We retrospectively studied 31 patients with an upper or lower respiratory tract infection (URTI/LRTI) by HEV (n = 18) or HRV (n = 15). At onset, a LRTI was present in 6 (33%) and 2 (13%) episodes of HEV and HRV infections, respectively, with or without an URTI. Progression to LRTI (pneumonia) from prior URTI was seen in 1 (6%) and 2 (13%) HEV and HRV infections, respectively. The presence of lymphocytopenia (<0.5 x 10(9)/l) was higher in LRTI by HEV: 4/5 (80%) versus 2/10 (20%) by HRV. Eight of 18 (44%) patients with immunosuppression versus 3/14 (21%) patients with no immunosuppression at the onset of respiratory infection developed a LRTI. Thirteen per cent of patients had associated respiratory infections from bacteria, aspergillus, or CMV. Pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed in 20% of HRV infections. Three of 11 patients (27%) with a LRTI died, but pulmonary copathogens were also involved in all cases. In conclusion, HEV and HRV can be associated with LRTI in immunocompromised patients, although their direct impact on mortality is uncertain. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  19. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients treated with auto- and allo-SCT for hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Braamse, A M J; Gerrits, M M J G; van Meijel, B; Visser, O; van Oppen, P; Boenink, A D; Cuijpers, P; Huijgens, P C; Beekman, A T F; Dekker, J

    2012-06-01

    Identifying factors that predict health-related quality of life (QOL) following hematopoietic SCT, is important in estimating patients' abilities to adjust to the consequences of their disease and treatment. As the studies that have been published on this subject are scattered, the present study aimed to systematically review prognostic factors for health-related QOL after auto- and allo-SCT in hematological malignancies. A systematic, computerized search in Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library was conducted from 2002 to June 2010. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using an adaptation of Hayden's criteria list. Qualitative data synthesis was performed to determine the strength of the scientific evidence. In all, 35 studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Strong-moderate evidence was found for GVHD, conditioning regimen, being female, younger age, receiving less social support and pre-transplant psychological distress as predictors of various aspects of health-related QOL following hematopoietic SCT. The results of this review may help transplant teams in selecting patients at risk for experiencing a diminished health-related QOL following hematopoietic SCT. Follow-up treatment can be provided in order to promote QOL.

  20. Identification of Novel HLA-A*24:02-Restricted Epitope Derived from a Homeobox Protein Expressed in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Maiko; Otsuka, Yohei; Tsutsumida, Naoya; Tanaka, Chiaki; Uchiumi, Akane; Ozawa, Koji; Suzuki, Takuma; Ichikawa, Daiju; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Hattori, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The homeobox protein, PEPP2 (RHOXF2), has been suggested as a cancer/testis (CT) antigen based on its expression pattern. However, the peptide epitope of PEPP2 that is recognized by cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) is unknown. In this study, we revealed that PEPP2 gene was highly expressed in myeloid leukemia cells and some other hematological malignancies. This gene was also expressed in leukemic stem-like cells. We next identified the first reported epitope peptide (PEPP2271-279). The CTLs induced by PEPP2271-279 recognized PEPP2-positive target cells in an HLA-A*24:02-restricted manner. We also found that a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine, could enhance PEPP2 expression in leukemia cells but not in blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. The cytotoxic activity of anti-PEPP2 CTL against leukemic cells treated with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine was higher than that directed against untreated cells. These results suggest a clinical rationale that combined treatment with this novel antigen-specific immunotherapy together with demethylating agents might be effective in therapy-resistant myeloid leukemia patients. PMID:26784514

  1. Recommendations for Risk Categorization and Prophylaxis of Invasive Fungal Diseases in Hematological Malignancies: A Critical Review of Evidence and Expert Opinion (TEO-4)

    PubMed Central

    Boğa, Can; Bolaman, Zahit; Çağırgan, Seçkin; Karadoğan, İhsan; Özcan, Mehmet Ali; Özkalemkaş, Fahir; Saba, Rabin; Sönmez, Mehmet; Şenol, Esin; Akan, Hamdi; Akova, Murat

    2015-01-01

    This is the last of a series of articles on invasive fungal infections prepared by opinion leaders in Turkey. The aim of these articles is to guide clinicians in managing invasive fungal diseases in hematological malignancies and stem cell transplantation based on the available best evidence in this field. The previous articles summarized the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal disease and this article aims to explain the risk categorization and guide the antifungal prophylaxis in invasive fungal disease. PMID:26316478

  2. Recommendations for Risk Categorization and Prophylaxis of Invasive Fungal Diseases in Hematological Malignancies: A Critical Review of Evidence and Expert Opinion (TEO-4).

    PubMed

    Boğa, Can; Bolaman, Zahit; Çağırgan, Seçkin; Karadoğan, İhsan; Özcan, Mehmet Ali; Özkalemkaş, Fahir; Saba, Rabin; Sönmez, Mehmet; Şenol, Esin; Akan, Hamdi; Akova, Murat

    2015-06-01

    This is the last of a series of articles on invasive fungal infections prepared by opinion leaders in Turkey. The aim of these articles is to guide clinicians in managing invasive fungal diseases in hematological malignancies and stem cell transplantation based on the available best evidence in this field. The previous articles summarized the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal disease and this article aims to explain the risk categorization and guide the antifungal prophylaxis in invasive fungal disease.

  3. Bcl-2-family proteins and hematologic malignancies: history and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Reed, John C

    2008-04-01

    BCL-2 was the first antideath gene discovered, a milestone that effectively launched a new era in cell death research. Since its discovery more than 2 decades ago, multiple members of the human Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-regulating proteins have been identified, including 6 antiapoptotic proteins, 3 structurally similar proapoptotic proteins, and several structurally diverse proapoptotic interacting proteins that operate as upstream agonists or antagonists. Bcl-2-family proteins regulate all major types of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. As such, they operate as nodal points at the convergence of multiple pathways with broad relevance to biology and medicine. Bcl-2 derives its name from its original discovery in the context of B-cell lymphomas, where chromosomal translocations commonly activate the BCL-2 protooncogene, endowing B cells with a selective survival advantage that promotes their neoplastic expansion. The concept that defective programmed cell death contributes to malignancy was established by studies of Bcl-2, representing a major step forward in current understanding of tumorigenesis. Experimental therapies targeting Bcl-2 family mRNAs or proteins are currently in clinical testing, raising hopes that a new class of anticancer drugs may be near.

  4. Evolved Cellular Mechanisms to Respond to Genotoxic Insults: Implications for Radiation-Induced Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Fleenor, Courtney J.; Higa, Kelly; Weil, Michael M.; DeGregori, James

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation is highly associated with adverse health effects, including reduced hematopoietic cell function and increased risk of carcinogenesis. The hematopoietic deficits manifest across blood cell types and persist for years after radiation exposure, suggesting a long-lived and multi-potent cellular reservoir for radiation-induced effects. As such, research has focused on identifying both the immediate and latent hematopoietic stem cell responses to radiation exposure. Radiation-associated effects on hematopoietic function and malignancy development have generally been attributed to the direct induction of mutations resulting from radiation-induced DNA damage. Other studies have illuminated the role of cellular programs that both limit and enhance radiation-induced tissue phenotypes and carcinogenesis. In this review, distinct but collaborative cellular responses to genotoxic insults are highlighted, with an emphasis on how these programmed responses impact hematopoietic cellular fitness and competition. These radiation-induced cellular programs include apoptosis, senescence and impaired self-renewal within the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool. In the context of sporadic DNA damage to a cell, these cellular responses act in concert to restore tissue function and prevent selection for adaptive oncogenic mutations. But in the contexts of whole-tissue exposure or whole-body exposure to genotoxins, such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy, we propose that these programs can contribute to long-lasting tissue impairment and increased carcinogenesis. PMID:26414506

  5. Therapeutic Challenges of Hepatic Mucormycosis in Hematologic Malignancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Raffaele M; Gurung, Ananta; Jain, Dhanpat; Malinis, Maricar F

    2016-07-13

    BACKGROUND The clinical presentation of mucormycosis can vary widely based on various host factors. Among malignancy- and bone marrow transplant-associated infections, the lungs are the most common site of infection. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is less frequently encountered. The clinical presentation is often nonspecific, and cultures typically yield no growth, making the diagnosis challenging. CASE REPORT We present a case of isolated hepatic mucormycosis in the setting of neutropenic fever and abdominal pain following induction chemotherapy for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient was treated with combination antifungal therapy with amphotericin and posaconazole without surgical resection, given the presence of multiple liver lesions. After a prolonged course of dual antifungal therapy, the size of her liver lesions improved. Unfortunately, her lymphoproliferative disorder proved fatal, following approximately 13 months of antifungal therapy. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with mucormycosis, mortality remains high, especially in the setting of gastrointestinal involvement. Although surgical resection along with dual antifungal therapy can improve outcomes, the high mortality rate necessitates further investigation into improved diagnostic and treatment strategies including optimal antifungal therapy.

  6. Increased adenosine triphosphate production by peripheral blood CD4+ cells in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with stem cell mobilization agents.

    PubMed

    Manga, Kiran; Serban, Geo; Schwartz, Joseph; Slotky, Ronit; Patel, Nita; Fan, Jianshe; Bai, Xiaolin; Chari, Ajai; Savage, David; Suciu-Foca, Nicole; Colovai, Adriana I

    2010-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is an important therapeutic option for patients with hematologic malignancies. To explore the immunomodulatory effects of HSC mobilization agents, we studied the function and phenotype of CD4(+) T cells from 16 adult patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing HSC mobilization treatment for autologous transplantation. Immune cell function was determined using the Immuknow (Cylex) assay by measuring the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) produced by CD4(+) cells from whole blood. ATP activity measured in G-CSF-treated patients was significantly higher than that measured in healthy individuals or "nonmobilized" patients. In patients treated with G-CSF, CD4(+) T cells were predominantly CD25(low)FOXP3(low), consistent with an activated phenotype. However, T-cell depletion did not abrogate ATP production in blood samples from G-CSF-treated patients, indicating that CD4(+) myeloid cells contributed to the increased ATP levels observed in these patients. There was a significant correlation between ATP activity and patient survival, suggesting that efficient activation of CD4(+) cells during mobilization treatment predicts a low risk of disease relapse. Monitoring immune cell reactivity using the Immuknow assay may assist in the clinical management of patients with hematologic malignancies and optimization of HSC mobilization protocols. Copyright 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of second-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Lee S; Jacobs, Peter; Matsouka, Panagiota; Azevedo, Wellington; Pinto, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    Compared with solid tumor patients, those with hematological malignancies are at particular risk of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) because of their young age, exposure to highly-emetogenic induction, consolidation and salvage regimens, the high-dose conditioning regimens used before stem cell transplantation (SCT), and the heavy psychological burden of such treatments. In the absence of prophylaxis, around 75% of patients undergoing SCT experience delayed CINV. With first-generation 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, only about 20% are completely protected from nausea and vomiting, and this frequent and debilitating adverse event has not been fully addressed. In contrast to solid tumors, there are no internationally agreed guidelines for the prevention and treatment of CINV in hematological malignancies. Work on a consensus is urgently required. The second-generation 5-HT(3) antagonist palonosetron is highly effective in preventing CINV in patients with solid tumors. The extended half-life of this agent and its mechanisms of action including allosteric binding, positive cooperativity and 5-HT(3) receptor internalization, may make it particularly effective in controlling delayed CINV. Although controlled comparisons against first-generation 5HT(3) agents have not yet been conducted in the setting of SCT, available evidence suggests that palonosetron may prove beneficial in preventing CINV in high risk patients with hematological malignancies. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Dendritic cell count in the graft predicts relapse in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing an HLA-matched related allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Reena; Lakshmi, Kavitha M; George, Biju; Viswabandya, Auro; Thirugnanam, Rajasekar; Abraham, Aby; Chandy, Mammen; Srivastava, Alok; Mathews, Vikram

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the impact of the number of infused and reconstituted immunocompetent cells including dendritic cells (DCs) on clinical outcome of patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing an allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Sixty-nine consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies were included in the analysis. The median age of the cohort was 32 years (range: 2-62 years) and there were 39 (57%) males. Twenty-one (30%) patients relapsed with a cumulative incidence of 44 % +/- 14% at a median follow up of 28 months. On a multivariate analysis, a high plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PC) content in the graft was associated with higher risk of relapse. The patients were further categorized based on the median PC counts in the graft as high (> or =2.3 x 10(6)/kg) and low (<2.3 x 10(6)/kg) groups. The baseline characteristics of these 2 groups were comparable. The group that had a high PC content in the graft had significantly higher risk of relapse and lower overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). Our data suggests that PC content in the graft predicts clinical outcomes such as relapse and survival in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing an allogeneic HLA matched related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. There is potential for pretransplant manipulation of this cellular subset in the graft.

  9. [Expression and Subcellular Distribution of Costimulatory Molecules B7-H1,B7-H3 and B7-H4 in Human Hematologic Malignancy Cell Lines].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan-Fang; Zhu, Ming-Xia; Wan, Wen-Li; Li, Hai-Shen; Wu, Fei-Fei; Yan, Xin-Xing; Ke, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the expression and subcellular distribution of costimulatory molecules B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 in human hematologic malignancy cell lines. The expression and subcellular distribution of B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 in 13 human hematologic malignancy cell lines were determined by RT-PCR, qPCR, Western blot and flow cytometry, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB MNC) of 12 volunteers were used as control. The mRNA of B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 was widely expressed in PB MNC and hematologic malignancy cell lines, with a lower level of B7-H4. The mRNA expression of 3 molecules was highest in Maver, Z138, and HL-60, respectively, while among them the B7-H3 and B7-H4 had no expression in CZ1. The nuclear and cytoplasmic protein of 3 costimulatory molecules abnormally overexpressed only in hematologic malignancy cell lines, with the highest level in U937, Z138, and Raji, respectively, while the B7-H3 and B7-H4 had no expression in CZ1. There were differences among mRNA expression, nuclear and cytoplasmic protein expression of 3 molecules in cell lines derived from the same type of tumor, but the differences of expression in mRNA and protein levels were not exactly the same. The B7-H3 expression abundance in membrane localization was higher in U937, Maver and Z138, while the membrane protein of B7-H1 and B7-H4 had no or low expression in 13 cell lines. The mRNA expression of costimulatory molecules B7-H1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 can be widely detected. The protein level of 3 costimulatory molecules abnormally overexpressed only in hematologic malignancy cell lines, moreover the subcellular localizations mostly was found in nucleus and cytoplasm, while the membrane protein expresses in low level or had no expression. There are differences among the expression of 3 molecules in cell lines derived from the same type of tumor.

  10. Primary prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. Recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Oncology.

    PubMed

    Cornely, Oliver A; Böhme, Angelika; Buchheidt, Dieter; Einsele, Hermann; Heinz, Werner J; Karthaus, Meinolf; Krause, Stefan W; Krüger, William; Maschmeyer, Georg; Penack, Olaf; Ritter, Jörg; Ruhnke, Markus; Sandherr, Michael; Sieniawski, Michal; Vehreschild, Jörg-Janne; Wolf, Hans-Heinrich; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    There is no widely accepted standard for antifungal prophylaxis in patients with hematologic malignancies. The Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Oncology assigned a committee of hematologists and infectious disease specialists to develop recommendations. Literature data bases were systematically searched for clinical trials on antifungal prophylaxis. The studies identified were shared within the committee. Data were extracted by two of the authors (OAC and MSi). The consensus process was conducted by email communication. Finally, a review committee discussed the proposed recommendations. After consensus was established the recommendations were finalized. A total of 86 trials were identified including 16,922 patients. Only a few trials yielded significant differences in efficacy. Fluconazole 400 mg/d improved the incidence rates of invasive fungal infections and attributable mortality in allogeneic stem cell recipients. Posaconazole 600 mg/d reduced the incidence of IFI and attributable mortality in allogeneic stem cell recipients with severe graft versus host disease, and in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome additionally reduced overall mortality. Aerosolized liposomal amphotericin B reduced the incidence rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Posaconazole 600 mg/d is recommended in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome or undergoing allogeneic stem cell recipients with graft versus host disease for the prevention of invasive fungal infections and attributable mortality (Level A I). Fluconazole 400 mg/d is recommended in allogeneic stem cell recipients until development of graft versus host disease only (Level A I). Aerosolized liposomal amphotericin B is recommended during prolonged neutropenia (Level B II).

  11. Phase I-II study of high-dose busulfan and cyclophosphamide followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies: toxicities and hematopoietic recovery.

    PubMed

    Ballester, O F; Agaliotis, D P; Hiemenz, J W; Janssen, W E; Fields, K K; Zorksy, P E; Goldstein, S C; Perkins, J B; Elfenbein, G J

    1996-07-01

    In a phase I-II study, we evaluated toxicities, tolerability, pace of engraftment, and tumor responses to high-dose bulsulfan and cyclophosphamide followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with hematological malignancies. We treated 51 patients with various hematological malignancies involving the bone marrow with busulfan (16 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) followed by reinfusion of autologous peripheral blood stem cells. Stem cells were previously collected during hematopoietic recovery after cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg) and etoposide (600 mg/m2) followed by G-CSF (5 micrograms/kg/day). Neutrophil recovery (>0.5 x 10(9)/I) was rapid in the majority of patients (median 10 days after transplant, range 7-91 days), resulting in a low number of days with severe neutropenia (median 7 days, range 5-85 days) and with fever (median 5 days, range 1-13 days). Platelet recovery, however, was delayed in 60% of patients. There was one acute transplant-related death (2%). Four patients died of late, presumed infections, pulmonary complications (interstitial pneumonia). Tumor responses were documented in a significant proportion of these patients with high-risk hematological malignancies. We conclude that peripheral blood stem cell transplantation results in rapid recovery of neutrophils but variable recovery of platelets after high-dose busulfan and cyclophosphamide, when stem cells are harvested following priming with cyclophosphamide/etoposide and G-CSF. The regimen is well-tolerated with limited non-hematological toxicities and transplant-related mortality. While significant tumor responses were documented in this trial, the ultimate efficacy of the regimen needs to be further defined.

  12. Polymorphism of CD44 influences the efficacy of CD34(+) cells mobilization in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska-Kaplon, Anna; Szemraj, Janusz; Hamara, Katarzyna; Robak, Marta; Wolska, Anna; Pluta, Agnieszka; Czemerska, Magdalena; Krawczynska, Anna; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Robak, Tadeusz; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka

    2014-07-01

    In the last decade, peripheral blood was the main source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous and allogeneic transplantation. The exact mechanisms of HSC mobilization are still not clear and the efficacy of the procedure is hardly predictable. Ligand-receptor interactions of adhesion molecules, such as SDF1/CXCR4, VLA4/VCAM-1, or CD44/osteopontin, play an important role in homing of HSC in the hematopoietic niche. There is some evidence that disruption of the ligand-receptor complex leads to the egress of HSCs to the peripheral blood. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of constitutive polymorphism of genes encoding cytokines and receptors present in the HSC niche and their impact on the efficacy of mobilization of HSCs in patients with hematological malignancies. We enrolled 110 patients (60 females and 50 males) in the study. The median age of the patients was 55 (range, 22 to 69) years. The group consisted of patients with multiple myeloma (n = 74), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 19), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 15), or acute myeloid leukemia (n = 2). The mobilization procedures comprised chemotherapy and subsequent granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a dose of 10 μg/kg daily. The poor mobilizers group was defined according to Italian National Bone Marrow Transplant Registry criteria: patients with peak CD34(+) in the peripheral blood < 20/μL or total yield < 2 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg body weight in maximum 3 aphereses. Genotyping was performed using standard PCR-based assays. The group of patients (N = 108) who achieved minimal threshold for collections (CD34(+) at least 10/μL) proceeded to apheresis. The median total yield of CD34(+) in this group was 5.6 × 10(6) cells/kg body weight, whereas the median number of cells collected during the first apheresis was 3.3 × 10(6) cells/kg body weight. Median number of days of G-CSF treatment before first apheresis was 10. Fifteen patients fulfilled the criteria for poor mobilizer. The

  13. [The significance of serum GM and BG antigens assay for invasive fungal infections in hematological malignancies patients].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shu-ying; Liu, Ting; Meng, Wen-tong; Chen, You-nan

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum galactomannan antigen (GM) and (1→3)-β-D-glucan antigen (BG) assay in invasive fungal infections (IFI) in the patients with hematologic malignancies and the role in monitoring therapeutic response. Fifty one patients with hematological malignancies met the criteria for inclusion: (1) body temperature above 38°C for 48 hours, (2) failure to respond to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, or (3) temperature rose again after the responded drop. Blood samples were collected twice at the first week, then once a week in at least four weeks. The double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and colorimetric assay were used for detecting GM and BG. The positive GM test is defined as two consecutive tests at different time GM value > 0.5 or > 0.8 and the positive G test is defined as BG value > 80 pg/ml. The patients were assigned into four groups as proven, probable, possible, and non-fungal infection respectively, and 21 normal volunteers were as controls. Two hundred and forty serum samples were collected from 51 patients including 2 of proven IFI, 26 probable IFI, 17 possible IFI and 6 non-fungal infection. The true-positive group including the proven and probable groups, and true negative group was the non-fungal infection group. GM tests were positive in 21 of 28 cases in true positive group, and only one of 6 cases in non-fungal infection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 75%, 83.3%, 95.5% and 41.7%, respectively. G tests were positive in all 28 cases of the true positive group, and 4 in 6 non-fungal infection cases. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 100%, 33.3%, 87.5% and 100%, respectively. G test is more sensitive than GM test (P = 0.015), but there was no significant difference in specificity of the two tests (P = 0.242). In 19 of 21 patients with GM test positive, anti

  14. Application of a standardized screening protocol for diagnosis of invasive mold infections in children with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Shannon M; Pokala, Hanumantha R; Siegel, Jane D; McClay, John E; Leonard, David; Kwon, Jeannie; Timmons, Charles F; Winick, Naomi J

    2016-12-01

    This study describes a standardized screening protocol for diagnosis of invasive mold infections in pediatric oncology patients with neutropenia and prolonged or recurrent fever. A retrospective chart review was performed of children receiving intensive chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies who developed invasive mold infections from 2004 to 2011. Characteristics and outcomes were compared before and after implementation of the screening protocol in November 2006. The screen includes direct nasal endoscopy performed at the bedside by an otorhinolaryngologist, noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the chest, and abdominal ultrasound in patients with neutropenia and prolonged or recurrent fever. Fifty patients had proven, probable, or possible invasive mold infections. Before routine use of direct nasal endoscopy, invasive nasosinal disease was detected in 5 of 19 patients (26 %) and all had a compatible clinical presentation. Thirteen of 31 patients (42 %) in the post-screen group had nasosinal disease, and fever was the only sign for 8 patients (62 %). Twenty-four patients with nasosinal disease had a sinus CT, and radiologic findings of bony erosion or peri-sinus invasion were never detected. Eight of 19 patients in the pre-screen group died from mold infection (42.1 %) versus 4 of 31 (12.9 %) in the post-screen group (p = 0.04). A screening protocol including direct nasal endoscopy, noncontrast chest CT, and abdominal ultrasound was effective in detecting invasive mold infections in at-risk patients. Nasosinal involvement often occurs before specific symptoms develop, and sinus CTs are insensitive and nonspecific. Bedside nasal endoscopy precludes radiation exposure associated with sinus CT and was associated with decrease in mold-related mortality, likely due to earlier diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy.

  15. Targeting STAT5 in Hematological Malignancies through Inhibition of the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal (BET) Bromodomain Protein BRD2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Suhu; Walker, Sarah R.; Nelson, Erik A.; Cerulli, Robert; Xiang, Michael; Toniolo, Patricia A.; Qi, Jun; Stone, Richard M.; Wadleigh, Martha; Bradner, James E.; Frank, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) is constitutively activated in a wide range of leukemias and lymphomas, and drives the expression of genes necessary for proliferation, survival, and self-renewal. Thus, targeting STAT5 is an appealing therapeutic strategy for hematological malignancies. Given the importance of bromodomain-containing proteins in transcriptional regulation, we considered the hypothesis that a pharmacological bromodomain inhibitor could inhibit STAT5-dependent gene expression. We found that the small molecule bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 decreases STAT5-dependent (but not STAT3-dependent) transcription of both heterologous reporter genes and endogenous STAT5 target genes. JQ1 reduces STAT5 function in leukemia and lymphoma cells with constitutive STAT5 activation, or inducibly activated by cytokine stimulation. Among the BET bromodomain sub-family of proteins, it appears that BRD2 is the critical mediator for STAT5 activity. In experimental models of acute T cell lymphoblastic leukemias, where activated STAT5 contributes to leukemia cell survival, Brd2 knock-down or JQ1 treatment shows strong synergy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in inducing leukemia cells apoptosis. By contrast, mononuclear cells isolated form umbilical cord blood, which is enriched in normal hematopoietic precursor cells, were unaffected by these combinations. These findings indicate a unique functional association between BRD2 and STAT5, and suggest that combinations of JQ1 and tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be an important rational strategy for treating leukemias and lymphomas driven by constitutive STAT5 activation. PMID:24435449

  16. Prospective Study of Single vs. Two Unit Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Following Reduced Intensity Conditioning in Adults with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L.; Hegerfeldt, Yael; Meyerson, Howard J.; Margevicius, Seunghee; Fu, Pingfu; van Heeckeren, Willem; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Cooper, Brenda W.; Gerson, Stanton L.; Barr, Paul; Tse, William W.; Curtis, Christine; Fanning, Laura R.; Creger, Richard J.; Carlson-Barko, Joanne M.; Laughlin, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    As the threshold nucleated cell dose for single unit umbilical cord blood (UCB) in adults has not to date been firmly established, we prospectively compared single vs. 2-unit UCB transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in adult patients with hematologic malignancies. Study design specified one UCB unit if the cryopreserved total nucleated cell (TNC) dose was ≥2.5×107/kg recipient weight, otherwise 2-units matched at minimum 4/6 HLA loci to the patient and 3/6 to each other were infused. Twenty-seven patients received 1 unit; 23 patients received 2 units. Median time to absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >500/μL was 24 days (95% CI 22–28 days), 25 days for 1-unit and 23 days for 2-units (p=0.99). At day 100, ANC >500/μL was 88.4% and 91.3% in the 1 and 2-unit groups (p=0.99), respectively. Three-year event free survival (EFS) was 28.6% and 39.1% in the 1 and 2-unit groups (p=0.71), respectively. Infusion of 2 units was associated with significantly lower relapse risk, 30.4% vs. 59.3% (p=0.045). Infused cell doses (TNC, CD3+, CD34+, CD56+CD3neg) did not impact engraftment, overall survival (OS), or EFS. Taken together, single unit UCB transplantation with threshold cell dose ≥2.5×107/kg recipient weight after RIC is a viable option for adults, although infusion of 2 units confers a lower relapse incidence. PMID:22002488

  17. Spatial variation in mortality risk for hematological malignancies near a petrochemical refinery: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, Francesca; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Vieira, Veronica; Baili, Paolo; Mariottini, Mauro; Baldini, Marco; Micheli, Andrea; Sant, Milena

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the geographic variation of mortality risk for hematological malignancies (HMs) in order to identify potential high-risk areas near an Italian petrochemical refinery. A population-based case-control study was conducted and residential histories for 171 cases and 338 sex- and age-matched controls were collected. Confounding factors were obtained from interviews with consenting relatives for 109 HM deaths and 267 controls. To produce risk mortality maps, two different approaches were applied and compared. We mapped (1) adaptive kernel density relative risk estimation for case-control studies which estimates a spatial relative risk function using the ratio between cases and controls' densities, and (2) estimated odds ratios for case-control study data using Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) to smooth the effect of location, a proxy for exposure, while adjusting for confounding variables. No high-risk areas for HM mortality were identified among all subjects (men and women combined), by applying both approaches. Using the adaptive KDE approach, we found a significant increase in death risk only among women in a large area 2-6 km southeast of the refinery and the application of GAMs also identified a similarly-located significant high-risk area among women only (global p-value<0.025). Potential confounding risk factors we considered in the GAM did not alter the results. Both approaches identified a high-risk area close to the refinery among women only. Those spatial methods are useful tools for public policy management to determine priority areas for intervention. Our findings suggest several directions for further research in order to identify other potential environmental exposures that may be assessed in forthcoming studies based on detailed exposure modeling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Linear Accelerator-Based Intensity-Modulated Total Marrow Irradiation Technique for Treatment of Hematologic Malignancies: A Dosimetric Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yeginer, Mete; Roeske, John C.; Radosevich, James A.; Aydogan, Bulent

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric feasibility of linear accelerator-based intensity-modulated total marrow irradiation (IM-TMI) in patients with hematologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: Linear accelerator-based IM-TMI treatment planning was performed for 9 patients using the Eclipse treatment planning system. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of all the bones in the body from the head to the mid-femur, except for the forearms and hands. Organs at risk (OAR) to be spared included the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, eyes, oral cavity, and bowel and were contoured by a physician on the axial computed tomography images. The three-isocenter technique previously developed by our group was used for treatment planning. We developed and used a common dose-volume objective method to reduce the planning time and planner subjectivity in the treatment planning process. Results: A 95% PTV coverage with the 99% of the prescribed dose of 12 Gy was achieved for all nine patients. The average dose reduction in OAR ranged from 19% for the lungs to 68% for the lenses. The common dose-volume objective method decreased the planning time by an average of 35% and reduced the inter- and intra- planner subjectivity. Conclusion: The results from the present study suggest that the linear accelerator-based IM-TMI technique is clinically feasible. We have demonstrated that linear accelerator-based IM-TMI plans with good PTV coverage and improved OAR sparing can be obtained within a clinically reasonable time using the common dose-volume objective method proposed in the present study.

  19. ADCT-301, a Pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) Dimer-Containing Antibody-Drug Conjugate (ADC) Targeting CD25-Expressing Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael J; Zammarchi, Francesca; Tyrer, Peter C; Akarca, Ayse U; Janghra, Narinder; Britten, Charles E; Havenith, Carin E G; Levy, Jean-Noel; Tiberghien, Arnaud; Masterson, Luke A; Barry, Conor; D'Hooge, Francois; Marafioti, Teresa; Parren, Paul W H I; Williams, David G; Howard, Philip W; van Berkel, Patrick H; Hartley, John A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the many advances in the treatment of hematologic malignancies over the past decade, outcomes in refractory lymphomas remain poor. One potential strategy in this patient population is the specific targeting of IL2R-α (CD25), which is overexpressed on many lymphoma and leukemic cells, using antibody-drug conjugates (ADC). ADCT-301 is an ADC composed of human IgG1 HuMax-TAC against CD25, stochastically conjugated through a dipeptide cleavable linker to a pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer warhead with a drug-antibody ratio (DAR) of 2.3. ADCT-301 binds human CD25 with picomolar affinity. ADCT-301 has highly potent and selective cytotoxicity against a panel of CD25-expressing human lymphoma cell lines. Once internalized, the released warhead binds in the DNA minor groove and exerts its potent cytotoxic action via the formation of DNA interstrand cross-links. A strong correlation between loss of viability and DNA cross-link formation is demonstrated. DNA damage persists, resulting in phosphorylation of histone H2AX, cell-cycle arrest in G2-M, and apoptosis. Bystander killing of CD25-negative cells by ADCT-301 is also observed. In vivo, a single dose of ADCT-301 results in dose-dependent and targeted antitumor activity against both subcutaneous and disseminated CD25-positive lymphoma models. In xenografts of Karpas 299, which expressed both CD25 and CD30, marked superiority over brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris) is observed. Dose-dependent increases in DNA cross-linking, γ-H2AX, and PBD payload staining were observed in tumors in vivo indicating a role as relevant pharmacodynamic assays. Together, these data support the clinical testing of this novel ADC in patients with CD25-expressing tumors. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(11); 2709-21. ©2016 AACR.

  20. Venetoclax does not prolong the QT interval in patients with hematological malignancies: an exposure-response analysis.

    PubMed

    Freise, Kevin J; Dunbar, Martin; Jones, Aksana K; Hoffman, David; Enschede, Sari L Heitner; Wong, Shekman; Salem, Ahmed Hamed

    2016-10-01

    Venetoclax (ABT-199/GDC-0199) is a selective first-in-class B cell lymphoma-2 inhibitor being developed for the treatment of hematological malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of venetoclax to prolong the corrected QT (QTc) interval and to evaluate the relationship between systemic venetoclax concentration and QTc interval. The study population included 176 male and female patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (n = 105) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 71) enrolled in a phase 1 safety, pharmacokinetic, and efficacy study. Electrocardiograms were collected in triplicate at time-matched points (2, 4, 6, and 8 h) prior to the first venetoclax administration and after repeated venetoclax administration to achieve steady state conditions. Venetoclax doses ranged from 100 to 1200 mg daily. Plasma venetoclax samples were collected after steady state electrocardiogram measurements. The mean and upper bound of the 2-sided 90 % confidence interval (CI) QTc change from baseline were <5 and <10 ms, respectively, at all time points and doses (<400, 400, and >400 mg). Three subjects had single QTc values >500 ms and/or ΔQTc > 60 ms. The effect of venetoclax concentration on both ΔQTc and QTc was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). At the mean maximum concentrations achieved with therapeutic (400 mg) and supra-therapeutic (1200 mg) venetoclax doses, the estimated drug effects on QTc were 0.137 (90 % CI [-1.01 to 1.28]) and 0.263 (90 % CI [-1.92 to 2.45]) ms, respectively. Venetoclax does not prolong QTc interval even at supra-therapeutic doses, and there is no relationship between venetoclax concentrations and QTc interval.

  1. Obesity and the Risk for a Hematological Malignancy: Leukemia, Lymphoma, or Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aggregate of epidemiological studies indicates a significantly elevated risk for cancer in people with a high body mass index (BMI); a “dose–response” effect exists with increasing risk as BMI increases from the normal to overweight to obese categories. Successful sustained weight loss decreases future risk. The relationship of being overweight to the risk for leukemia in the aggregate has been supported in several large cohort studies and two meta-analyses of cohort and case–control studies. One meta-analysis found an elevated risk for each of the four major subtypes of leukemia. A significant association between the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and elevated BMI was supported by a meta-analysis of 13 cohort and nine case–control studies. The risk for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma may be especially significant. A high BMI increases the risk for myeloma, as judged by a meta-analysis of 11 cohort and four case–control studies. The biological relationship of obesity to the risk for cancer (biological plausibility) is unresolved. The two major causal final pathways could be “inductive” or “selective.” The metabolic, endocrinologic, immunologic, and inflammatory-like changes resulting from obesity may increase the cell mutation rate, dysregulate gene function, disturb DNA repair, or induce epigenetic changes, favoring the induction of neoplastic transformation (inductive). Alternatively, obesity may create an environment in which pre-existing clones that are dormant are permitted (selected) to emerge. PMID:20930095

  2. Cytotoxic effect of a novel naphthylchalcone against multiple cancer cells focusing on hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Maioral, Mariana Franzoni; Bodack, Camila do Nascimento; Stefanes, Natália Marceli; Bigolin, Álisson; Mascarello, Alessandra; Chiaradia-Delatorre, Louise Domeneghini; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Nunes, Ricardo José; Santos-Silva, Maria Cláudia

    2017-09-01

    Chalcones are natural compounds described in the literature by its several properties including cytotoxic activity against several tumor types. Considering that the search for new chemotherapeutic agents is still necessary, the aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic mechanisms involved in cell death induced by a synthetic chalcone (A23) on different tumor cells. Chalcone A23 reduced the cell viability of twelve tumor cell lines in a concentration and time dependent manner and it was more cytotoxic against acute leukemia cells. Interestingly, the compound was non cytotoxic to normal cells and non-hemolytic to normal red blood cells. Chalcone A23 decreased the expression of cell proliferation marker KI-67 and blocked the G2/M phase in both K562 and Jurkat cell lines. Cells treated with A23 showed morphological features suggestive of apoptosis, the "latter pattern" in agarose gel, the externalization of phosphatidylserine and caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Chalcone A23 significantly reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and survivin and increased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, confirming the involvement of the intrinsic pathway. The increased mitochondrial permeability resulted in the release of AIF, cytochrome c and endonuclease G from the mitochondria to the cytosol. In addition, chalcone A23 increased the expression of FasR and induced Bid cleavage, showing the involvement of the extrinsic pathway. Finally, chalcone A23 seems to have a synergic effect with the chemotherapy drugs cytarabine and vincristine. These results suggest that A23 is an interesting compound with strong and selective anti-tumor activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. Discontinuation of Systematic Surveillance and Contact Precautions for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and Its Impact on the Incidence of VRE faecium Bacteremia in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Osawa, Ryosuke; Samonis, George; Wetzler, M; Wang, Eunice S; McCarthy, Philip L; Segal, Brahm H

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of discontinuation of systematic surveillance for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and contact isolation of colonized patients on the incidence of VRE bacteremia SETTING A hematology-oncology unit with high prevalence of VRE colonization characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology PARTICIPANTS Inpatients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation METHODS The incidence of VRE bacteremia was measured prospectively during 2 different 3-year time periods; the first during active VRE surveillance and contact precautions and the second after discontinuation of these policies. We assessed the collateral impact of this policy change on the incidence of bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile infection even though we maintained contact precautions for these organisms. Incidence of infectious events was measured as number of events per 1,000 patients days per month. Time series analysis was used to evaluate trends. RESULTS The incidence of VRE bacteremia remained stable after discontinuation of VRE surveillance and contact precautions. The incidence of MRSA bacteremia and Clostridium difficile infection for which we continued contact precautions also remained stable. Aggregated antibiotic utilization and nursing hours per patient days were similar between the 2 study periods. CONCLUSION Active surveillance and contact precautions for VRE colonization did not appear to prevent VRE bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with high prevalence of VRE characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology.

  4. Detection of malignant cells in serous body fluids by counting high-fluorescent cells on the Sysmex XN-2000 hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Labaere, D; Boeckx, N; Geerts, I; Moens, M; Van den Driessche, M

    2015-10-01

    The body fluid mode of the Sysmex XN-2000 hematology analyzer differentiates cells into mononuclear and polymorphonuclear white blood cells (WBC) and high-fluorescent cells (HFC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the HFC count for detecting malignant cells in serous body fluids. Two-hundred and thirty serous fluids were analyzed on the Sysmex XN body fluid mode. HFC were measured as relative count (HFC/100 WBC) and absolute count (HFC/μL). All samples were microscopically screened on cytospin slides for the presence of malignant cells. Malignant cells were found by microscopic examination in 49 of 230 samples (21.3%). Malignant samples contained significantly higher percentages (10.2 vs. 2.6/100 WBC) and absolute numbers (65 vs. 10/μL) of HFC than nonmalignant samples (P < 0.001). Areas under the ROC curve for relative and absolute HFC count were 0.69 and 0.77, respectively. A cutoff level of ≥17 HFC/μL showed the best performance to predict malignancy, with 88% sensitivity and 61% specificity. As serous body fluids will be more analyzed on automated analyzers in the future, HFC count can be a useful tool to select samples for microscopic review. Microscopic evaluation should be performed if HFC values are above a certain threshold (e.g. ≥17 HFC/μL) or in case of clinical suspicion of malignancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A phase I dose-escalation study of MSC1992371A, an oral inhibitor of aurora and other kinases, in advanced hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Graux, Carlos; Sonet, Anne; Maertens, Johan; Duyster, Justus; Greiner, Jochen; Chalandon, Yves; Martinelli, Giovanni; Hess, Dagmar; Heim, Dominik; Giles, Francis J; Kelly, Kevin R; Gianella-Borradori, Athos; Longerey, Blandine; Asatiani, Ekaterine; Rejeb, Narmyn; Ottmann, Oliver G

    2013-09-01

    A phase I dose-escalation study of MSC1992371A, an oral aurora kinase inhibitor, was carried out in patients with hematologic malignancies. Patients received escalating doses either on days 1-3 and 8-10 (n=36) or on days 1-6 (n=39) of a 21-day cycle. The maximum tolerated doses were 37 and 28 mg/m(2)/day, respectively. Dose-limiting toxicities included severe neutropenia with infection and sepsis, mucositis/stomatitis, and diarrhea. Complete responses occurred in 3 patients. Four disease-specific expansion cohorts then received the dose and schedule dictated by the escalation phase but the study was prematurely discontinued due to hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity at clinically effective doses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of HSV, VZV and EBV infections in patients with hematological malignancies and after SCT: guidelines from the Second European Conference on Infections in Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Styczynski, J; Reusser, P; Einsele, H; de la Camara, R; Cordonnier, C; Ward, K N; Ljungman, P; Engelhard, D

    2009-05-01

    These guidelines on the management of HSV, VZV and EBV infection in patients with hematological malignancies and after SCT were prepared by the European Conference on Infections in Leukemia following a predefined methodology. A PubMed search was conducted using the appropriate key words to identify studies pertinent to management of HSV, VZV and EBV infections. References of relevant articles and abstracts from recent hematology and SCT scientific meetings were also reviewed. Prospective and retrospective studies identified from the data sources were evaluated, and all data deemed relevant were included in this analysis. The clinical and scientific background was described and discussed, and the quality of evidence and level of recommendation were graded according to the Centers for Disease Control criteria.

  7. The impact of oral herpes simplex virus infection and candidiasis on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis among patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-K; Hou, H-A; Chow, J-M; Chen, Y-C; Hsueh, P-R; Tien, H-F

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of oral candidiasis and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections in chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (OM). The medical records of 424 consecutive patients with hematological malignancies who had received chemotherapy at a medical center in Taiwan from January 2006 to November 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The results of swab cultures of fungus and HSV-1 for OM were correlated with associated clinical features. Younger age, myeloid malignancies, and disease status other than complete remission before chemotherapy were significantly correlated with the development of OM. Risks of fever (p < 0.001) and bacteremia were higher in patients with OM. Among 467 episodes of OM with both swab cultures available, 221 were non-infection (47.3%) and 246 were related to either fungal infections, HSV-1 infections, or both (52.7%); of the 246 episodes, 102 were associated with fungal infections alone (21.8%), 98 with HSV-1 infections alone (21%), and 46 with both infections (9.9%). Patients who had received antifungal agents prior to OM occurrence tended to have HSV-1 infection (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that Candida albicans and HSV-1 play an important role in chemotherapy-induced OM in patients with hematological malignancies.

  8. Noninvasive early detection of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in patients with hematologic malignancies using the phased tracking method.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiko; Susukida, Ikuko; Uzuka, Yoshiro; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Anthracyclines are among the most effective and widely used anticancer drugs; however, their use is limited by serious cardiotoxicity. Early detection is necessary to prevent the high mortality rate associated with heart failure (HF). We evaluated cardiac function in 142 patients using conventional echocardiography and the phased tracking method (PTM), which was measured using the minute vibration and the rapid motion components, neither of which is recognized in standard M-mode nor in tissue Doppler imaging. For systolic function comparison, we compared left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in conventional echocardiography with the average velocity of ventricular septum myocytes (Vave ) in the PTM. The Vave of 12 healthy volunteers was 1.5 (m/s)/m or more. At baseline of 99 patients, there was a positive correlation between LVEF and Vave in all patients. There were no significant differences in baseline cardiac function between patients with and without HF. There was a negative correlation between the cumulative anthracycline dose and LVEF or Vave among all patients. We determined that Vave 1.5 (m/s)/m was equivalent to LVEF 60%, 1.25 (m/s)/m to 55%, and 1.0 (m/s)/m to 50%. During the follow-up period, there was a pathological decrease in LVEF (<55%) and Vave (<1.25 m/s/m) in patients with HF; decreases in Vave were detected significantly earlier than those in LVEF (P < 0.001). When Vave declined to 1.5 (m/s)/m or less, careful continuous observation and cardiac examination was required. When Vave further declined to 1.0 (m/s)/m or lower, chemotherapy was postponed or discontinued; thus, serious drug-induced cardiomyopathy was avoided in patients who did not relapse. The PTM was superior to echocardiography for early, noninvasive detection and intermediate-term monitoring of left ventricle systolic function associated with anthracycline chemotherapy, among patients with hematologic malignancies. The PTM was an effective laboratory procedure to avoid the

  9. c-Src activation through a TrkA and c-Src interaction is essential for cell proliferation and hematological malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Gyoung Mi; Choi, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Hye Joung; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Jin, Wook

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •TrkA was mainly present in other types of leukemia including AML. •TrkA enhances the survival of leukemia by activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. •TrkA induced significant hematological malignancies by inducing PLK-1 and Twist-1. •TrkA acted as a key regulator of leukemogenesis and survival through c-Src activation. -- Abstract: Although the kinase receptor TrkA may play an important role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), its involvement in other types of leukemia has not been reported. Furthermore, how it contributes to leukemogenesis is unknown. Here, we describe a molecular network that is important for TrkA function in leukemogenesis. We found that TrkA is frequently overexpressed in other types of leukemia such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) including AML. In addition, TrkA was overexpressed in patients with MDS or secondary AML evolving from MDS. TrkA induced significant hematological malignancies by inducing PLK-1 and Twist-1, and enhanced survival and proliferation of leukemia, which was correlated with activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway. Moreover, endogenous TrkA associated with c-Src complexes was detected in leukemia. Suppression of c-Src activation by TrkA resulted in markedly decreased expression of PLK-1 and Twist-1 via suppressed activation of Akt/mTOR cascades. These data suggest that TrkA plays a key role in leukemogenesis and reveal an unexpected physiological role for TrkA in the pathogenesis of leukemia. These data have important implications for understanding various hematological malignancies.

  10. Phase I Clinical, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Study of the Akt-Inhibitor Triciribine Phosphate Monohydrate in Patients with Advanced Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Deepa; Malik, Asifa; Plunkett, William; Nowak, Billie; Williams, Betsy; Burton, Michelle; Verstovsek, Srdan; Faderl, Stefan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; List, Alan F.; Sebti, Said; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Ravandi, Farhad; Lancet, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Akt, a serine/threonine protein kinase, is constitutively phosphorylated and hyperactivated in multiple cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia. High levels are linked to poor survival and inferior responses to chemotherapy, making Akt inhibition an attractive therapeutic target. In this phase I/II study of TCN-PM, a small-molecule Akt inhibitor, TCN-PM therapy was well tolerated in patients with advanced hematological malignancies, and reduced levels of phosphorylation of Akt and its substrate Bad were shown, consistent with inhibition of this survival pathway and induction of cell death. Further investigation of TCN-PM alone or in combination in patients with high Akt levels is warranted. PMID:23993427

  11. Population-Based Analysis of Hematologic Malignancy Referrals to a Comprehensive Cancer Center, Referrals for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and Participation in Clinical Trial, Survey, and Biospecimen Research by Race.

    PubMed

    Clay, Alyssa; Peoples, Brittany; Zhang, Yali; Moysich, Kirsten; Ross, Levi; McCarthy, Philip; Hahn, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been reported in clinical trial/research participation, utilization of autologous and allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT), and availability of allogeneic donors. We performed a population-based cohort study to investigate adult hematologic malignancy referrals to a US tertiary cancer center, utilization of BMT, and participation in clinical trial, survey, and biospecimen research by race. US Census Data and the New York State Public Access Cancer Epidemiology Database identified the racial distribution of the general population and new hematologic malignancy cases in the primary catchment area. From 2005 to 2011, 1106 patients aged 18 to 75 years were referred for BMT consultation; although the rate of BMT among hematologic malignancy referrals did not differ by race, the reasons for not receiving a BMT did. Participation in biospecimen research did not vary by race; however, African Americans and other minorities were significantly less likely to participate in survey research than European Americans. Although rates of hematologic malignancy referrals and use of BMT for minorities appear to be low (<10%), they closely reflect the race distribution of all hematologic malignancy cases and the western New York population. African Americans are equally likely as other races to participate in biospecimen banking, but further study is needed to understand reasons for lower participation in survey research. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CAR therapy for hematological cancers: can success seen in the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia be applied to other hematological malignancies?

    PubMed

    Pegram, Hollie J; Smith, Eric L; Rafiq, Sarwish; Brentjens, Renier J

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has recently come into the spotlight due to impressive results in patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. By targeting CD19, a marker expressed most B-cell tumors, as well as normal B cells, CAR T-cell therapy has been investigated as a treatment strategy for B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. This review will discuss the successes of this therapy for the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the challenges to this therapeutic strategy. We will also discuss application of CAR T-cell therapy to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies including a follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, as well as acute and plasma cell malignancies.

  13. CAR therapy for hematological cancers: can success seen in the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia be applied to other hematological malignancies?

    PubMed Central

    Pegram, Hollie J; Smith, Eric L; Rafq, Sarwish

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has recently come into the spotlight due to impressive results in patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. By targeting CD19, a marker expressed most B-cell tumors, as well as normal B cells, CAR T-cell therapy has been investigated as a treatment strategy for B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. This review will discuss the successes of this therapy for the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the challenges to this therapeutic strategy. We will also discuss application of CAR T-cell therapy to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies including a follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, as well as acute and plasma cell malignancies. PMID:26065479

  14. No effect of HLA-C mismatch after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unrelated donors and T-cell depletion in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Isabelle; Uhlin, Michael; Schaffer, Marie; Sundin, Mikael; Hauzenberger, Dan; Remberger, Mats; Mattsson, Jonas

    2017-08-01

    HLA-C mismatch in unrelated donor's hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been associated with poor patient outcome. However, the impact of HLA-C mismatch in the context of HSCT combined with in vivo T-cell depletion remains unclear. We therefore performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of the clinical outcome on patients with hematological malignancies treated with allo-HSCT, who underwent T-cell depletion. The majority of the patients (n=276) received a HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1-matched graft that were either also HLA-C matched (n=260), or patients with the permissive HLA-C*03:03/03:04 mismatch (n=16), while the remaining patients (n=95) received a HLA-C-mismatched graft (excluding HLA-C*03:03/03:04 mismatches). We did not observe any significant differences between the HLA-C-matched patients (including the permissive HLA-C*03:03/03:04 mismatch) and the HLA-C-mismatched patients regarding cumulative proportion surviving, graft failure, relapse-free survival, relapse, or acute graft-versus-host disease. Our data suggest that in the context of high dose T lymphocyte-depleting agents, HLA-C matching is not essential for patients with hematological malignancies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation from unrelated donors in patients with hematological malignancy using busulfan, thiotepa, fludarabine and ATG as myeloablative conditioning regimen.

    PubMed

    Sanz, J; Boluda, J C H; Martín, C; González, M; Ferrá, C; Serrano, D; de Heredia, C D; Barrenetxea, C; Martinez, A M; Solano, C; Sanz, M A; Sanz, G F

    2012-10-01

    Attempts to optimize outcomes in cord blood transplantation (CBT) by using new conditioning regimens and standardization of cord blood unit selection are warranted. In all, 88 patients (18 children and 70 adults) with hematological malignancy from nine Spanish institutions underwent a single-unit CBT after an i.v. BU-based myeloablative conditioning regimen. All evaluable patients except one engrafted. The overall cumulative incidence (CI) of myeloid engraftment was 94% at a median time of 19 days. In multivariate analysis, nonadvanced disease stage was the only factor with a favorable impact on myeloid engraftment. The CI of acute GVHD grades II-IV and chronic extensive GVHD were 24% each. The CI of nonrelapse mortality at 100 days, 180 days and 5 years was 14, 23 and 44%, respectively. The 5-year CI of relapse was 18%, whereas disease-free survival (DFS) was 46%, 39% and 11% for patients transplanted in early, intermediate and advanced stages of the disease, respectively. Our study shows high rates of engraftment with fast neutrophil recovery in patients undergoing single-unit CBT using a BU-based conditioning regimen. Long-term DFS can be achieved in a substantial number of patients with high-risk hematological malignancies, particularly when transplanted in an early stage of the disease.

  16. New drugs and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies: do they have a role in bridging, consolidating or conditioning transplantation treatment?

    PubMed

    Patriarca, Francesca; Giaccone, Luisa; Onida, Francesco; Castagna, Luca; Sarina, Barbara; Montefusco, Vittorio; Mussetti, Alberto; Mordini, Nicola; Maino, Elena; Greco, Raffaella; Peccatori, Jacopo; Festuccia, Moreno; Zaja, Francesco; Volpetti, Stefano; Risitano, Antonio; Bassan, Renato; Corradini, Paolo; Ciceri, Fabio; Fanin, Renato; Baccarani, Michele; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Bonifazi, Francesca; Bruno, Benedetto

    2017-07-01

    Novel targeted therapies and monoclonal antibodies can be combined with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) at different time-points: 1) before the transplant to reduce tumour burden, 2) as part of the conditioning in place of or in addition to conventional agents 3) after the transplant to allow long-term disease control. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current integration of new drugs with allo-SCT for the treatment of major hematological malignancies for which allo-SCT has been a widely-adopted therapy. Expert opinion: After having been used as single agent salvage treatments in relapsed patients after allo-SCT or in combination with donor lymphocyte infusions, many new drugs have also been safely employed before allo-SCT as a bridge to transplantation or after it as planned consolidation/maintenance. This era of new drugs has opened new important opportunities to 'smartly' combine 'targeted drugs and cell therapies' in new treatment paradigms that may lead to higher cure rates or longer disease control in patients with hematological malignancies.

  17. Evaluation of a PCR method to determine the clinical significance of blood cultures with Staphylococcus epidermidis in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrand, Erik; Bäckman, Anders; Persson, Lennart; Mölling, Paula; Tidefelt, Ulf; Söderquist, Bo

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the detection and quantification of Staphylococcus epidermidis DNA in blood could distinguish S. epidermidis blood stream infections (BSIs) from blood culture contaminations in patients with hematological malignancies. The hld gene was chosen to identify S. epidermidis DNA and DNA in blood samples was detected by real-time PCR. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously with blood cultures positive for S. epidermidis (n = 30), during blood culture-negative episodes (n = 10) and episodes of bacteremia with other bacteria than S. epidermidis (n = 4) and from healthy blood donors (n = 10). In addition, DNA from S. epidermidis and a selection of other bacterial species were analyzed. Three different sets of criteria were used to classify episodes with positive blood cultures with S. epidermidis as BSIs or contaminations. All DNA preparations from S. epidermidis (n = 48) were hld-positive, but other bacterial species (n = 13) were negative. Sixteen (53%) of 30 blood samples from patients with blood cultures positive for S. epidermidis were hld-positive, but none of the controls. There was no clear association between a positive hld PCR and episodes interpreted as BSIs. In conclusion, hld PCR failed to distinguish S. epidermidis BSIs from blood culture contaminations in patients with hematological malignancies.

  18. Risk of hematological malignancies associated with magnetic fields exposure from power lines: a case-control study in two municipalities of northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between electromagnetic field exposure induced by high voltage power lines and childhood leukemia, but null results have also been yielded and the possibility of bias due to unmeasured confounders has been suggested. Methods We studied this relation in the Modena and Reggio Emilia municipalities of northern Italy, identifying the corridors along high voltage power lines with calculated magnetic field intensity in the 0.1-<0.2, 0.2-<0.4, and ≥ 0.4 microTesla ranges. We identified 64 cases of newly-diagnosed hematological malignancies in children aged <14 within these municipalities from 1986 to 2007, and we sampled four matched controls for each case, collecting information on historical residence and parental socioeconomic status of these subjects. Results Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure ≥ 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies. Conclusions Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation. PMID:20353586

  19. Hypermethylation of the alternative AWT1 promoter in hematological malignancies is a highly specific marker for acute myeloid leukemias despite high expression levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) is over-expressed in numerous cancers with respect to normal cells, and has either a tumor suppressor or oncogenic role depending on cellular context. This gene is associated with numerous alternatively spliced transcripts, which initiate from two different unique first exons within the WT1 and the alternative (A)WT1 promoter intervals. Within the hematological system, WT1 expression is restricted to CD34+/CD38- cells and is undetectable after differentiation. Detectable expression of this gene is an excellent marker for minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the underlying epigenetic alterations are unknown. Methods To determine the changes in the underlying epigenetic landscape responsible for this expression, we characterized expression, DNA methylation and histone modification profiles in 28 hematological cancer cell lines and confirmed the methylation signature in 356 cytogenetically well-characterized primary hematological malignancies. Results Despite high expression of WT1 and AWT1 transcripts in AML-derived cell lines, we observe robust hypermethylation of the AWT1 promoter and an epigenetic switch from a permissive to repressive chromatin structure between normal cells and AML cell lines. Subsequent methylation analysis in our primary leukemia and lymphoma cohort revealed that the epigenetic signature identified in cell lines is specific to myeloid-lineage malignancies, irrespective of underlying mutational status or translocation. In addition to being a highly specific marker for AML diagnosis (positive predictive value 100%; sensitivity 86.1%; negative predictive value 89.4%), we show that AWT1 hypermethylation also discriminates patients that relapse from those achieving complete remission after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with similar efficiency to WT1 expression profiling. Conclusions We describe a methylation signature of the AWT1 promoter CpG island that is a promising marker for

  20. Exclusion of older patients from ongoing clinical trials for hematological malignancies: an evaluation of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Trial Registry.

    PubMed

    Hamaker, Marije E; Stauder, Reinhard; van Munster, Barbara C

    2014-10-01

    Cancer societies, research cooperatives, and countless publications have urged the development of clinical trials that facilitate the inclusion of older patients and those with comorbidities. We set out to determine the characteristics of currently recruiting clinical trials with hematological patients to assess their inclusion and exclusion of elderly patients. The NIH clinical trial registry was searched on July 1, 2013, for currently recruiting phase I, II or III clinical trials with hematological malignancies. Trial characteristics and study objectives were extracted from the registry website. Although 5% of 1,207 included trials focused exclusively on elderly or unfit patients, 69% explicitly or implicitly excluded older patients. Exclusion based on age was seen in 27% of trials, exclusion based on performance status was seen in 16%, and exclusion based on stringent organ function restrictions was noted in 51%. One-third of the studies that excluded older patients based on age allowed inclusion of younger patients with poor performance status; 8% did not place any restrictions on organ function. Over time, there was a shift from exclusion based on age (p value for trend <.001) toward exclusion based on organ function (p = .2). Industry-sponsored studies were least likely to exclude older patients (p < .001). Notably, 27% of currently recruiting clinical trials for hematological malignancies use age-based exclusion criteria. Although physiological reserves diminish with age, the heterogeneity of the elderly population does not legitimize exclusion based on chronological age alone. Investigators should critically review whether sufficient justification exists for every exclusion criterion before incorporating it in trial protocols. ©AlphaMed Press.

  1. Comparative evaluation of galactomannan test with bronchoalveolar lavage and serum for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankit; Capoor, Malini R; Shende, Trupti; Sharma, Bhawna; Mohindra, Ritin; Suri, Jagdish Chander; Gupta, Dipender Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. In recent years, testing for values of galactomannan (GM) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has been investigated as a diagnostic test for IPA for such patients, but global experience and consensus on optical density (OD) cutoffs, especially for BAL galactomannan remains lacking. We performed a prospective case-control study to determine an optimal BAL GM OD cutoff for IPA in at-risk patients. Cases were subjects with hematological diagnoses who met established revised definitions for proven or probable IPA established by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group (EORTC/MSG, 2008), without the use of BAL GM results. Exclusion criteria included the use of piperacillin/tazobactam and use of antifungals that were active against Aspergillus spp. before bronchoscopy. There were two control groups: patients with hematological diagnoses not meeting definitions for proven or probable IPA and patients with nonhematological diagnoses with no evidence of aspergillosis. Following bronchoscopy and BAL, GM testing was performed using the Platelia Aspergillus seroassay in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. There were 51 cases and 20 controls. Cases had higher BAL fluid GM OD indices (ODIs) (mean: 1.27 and range: 0.4-3.78) compared with controls (mean: 0.26 and range: 0.09-0.35). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an optimum ODI cutoff of 1.0, with high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (87.5%) for diagnosing IPA. Our results support BAL GM testing as a reasonably safe test with higher sensitivity compared to serum GM testing in at-risk patients with hematological diseases. A higher OD cutoff is necessary to avoid overdiagnosis of IPA.

  2. Palliative Care Office Hours for Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: An Innovative Model for Symptom Management and Education.

    PubMed

    Foxwell, Anessa M; Moyer, Mary E; Casarett, David J; O'Connor, Nina R

    2017-10-01

    Palliative care programs are experiencing rapid growth, with demand for consults surpassing staffing. Innovative models are needed to equip nonpalliative care providers to manage basic palliative care issues. To develop a novel program of palliative care office hours for hematologic oncology advanced practice providers, and to evaluate its impact on palliative care consult volume and composition. A palliative care nurse practitioner or pharmacist was available for weekday office hours to all inpatient hematologic oncology advanced practice providers at an academic medical center to offer advice on pain, nonpain symptoms, and psychosocial distress. A retrospective study looking at outcome measures after six months of office hour utilization and palliative care consults from the hematologic oncology services. Palliative care office hours had a mean duration of 16 minutes per day (range 5 to 55). A mean of 11 patients were discussed per week (range 4 to 20). Pain, nausea, and anxiety were the issues most frequently raised. Of 299 patients discussed during office hours, 44 (14.7%) subsequently required a full palliative care consult. Overall, palliative care consults from the hematologic oncology services decreased from 19.6% to 10.2% of admissions (87/445 vs. 61/594, p < 0.001) with an increase in consults for goals of care. Office hours are an efficient way to address palliative care needs when demand for palliative care consults exceeds capacity. Office hours may serve an educational function as well, enabling primary teams to manage basic palliative care issues with increasing independence over time.

  3. Pharmacoutilization of epoetins in naïve patients with hematological malignancies in an unselected Italian population under clinical practice setting: a comparative analysis between originator and biosimilars

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Valentina; Saragoni, Stefania; Buda, Stefano; Broccoli, Alessandro; Degli Esposti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the prescription of epoetins and consumption of health care resources (in terms of drug treatments) in naïve patients with hematological malignancies in a real-world setting; in particular, we compared the results between reference product and biosimilar products. Methods An observational retrospective study based on administrative and laboratory databases of three local health units was conducted. All adults diagnosed with hematological malignancies and who had received at least one epoetin (either reference product or biosimilars) prescription for the first time between 1 January 2010 and 30 April 2012 (enrollment period) were included. The date of the first prescription of epoetin within the enrollment period was defined as index date (ID). Patients were followed up for 4 weeks after ID (follow-up period) and were investigated for the 1-year period before the ID. The difference between the last hemoglobin (Hb) measurement after ID and the one prior to ID (ΔHb) was evaluated. The drug cost analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Italian National Health System. Results Overall, 69 patients were included in the study; 48 of them received reference epoetin product and 21 received biosimilars as first prescription. Among reference product users, the mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 62.5±14.7 years; this cohort of patients was slightly significantly younger than the biosimilar users (71.8±11.8 years). The mean ± SD overall Hb level prior to treatment was lower among patients who started with biosimilar products (9.6±1.1 g/dL) compared to those who started with a reference product (10.1±2.1 g/dL). No significant differences in ΔHb were observed between biosimilar and originator groups during the followup period. The mean ± SD cost per patient was €667.98±573.93 and €340.85±235.73 for the reference product and biosimilar users, respectively (p=0.065). Conclusion Our study showed that the use of

  4. T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL): New insights into the cellular origins and infiltration mechanisms common and unique among hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Eduardo; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa; Pelayo, Rosana; Schnoor, Michael

    2017-08-15

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) accounts for 15% and 25% of total childhood and adult ALL cases, respectively. During T-ALL, patients are at risk of organ infiltration by leukemic T-cells. Infiltration is a major consequence of disease relapse and correlates with poor prognosis. Transendothelial migration of leukemic cells is required to exit the blood stream into target organs. While mechanisms of normal T-cell transmigration are well known, the mechanisms of leukemic T-cell extravasation remain elusive; but involvement of chemokines, integrins and Notch signaling play critical roles. Here, we summarize current knowledge about molecular mechanisms of leukemic T-cell infiltration with special emphasis on the newly identified subtype early T-cell-progenitor (ETP)-ALL. Furthermore, we compare the extravasation potential of T-ALL cells with that of other hematologic malignancies such as B-ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis in patients with hematological malignancies: guidelines from the 3rd European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL 3).

    PubMed

    Skiada, Anna; Lanternier, Fanny; Groll, Andreas H; Pagano, Livio; Zimmerli, Stephan; Herbrecht, Raoul; Lortholary, Olivier; Petrikkos, George L

    2013-04-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, there are no recommendations to guide diagnosis and management. The European Conference on Infections in Leukemia assigned experts in hematology and infectious diseases to develop evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis. The guidelines were developed using the evidence criteria set forth by the American Infectious Diseases Society and the key recommendations are summarized here. In the absence of validated biomarkers, the diagnosis of mucormycosis relies on histology and/or detection of the organism by culture from involved sites with identification of the isolate at the species level (no grading). Antifungal chemotherapy, control of the underlying predisposing condition, and surgery are the cornerstones of management (level A II). Options for first-line chemotherapy of mucormycosis include liposomal amphotericin B and amphotericin B lipid complex (level B II). Posaconazole and combination therapy of liposomal amphotericin B or amphotericin B lipid complex with caspofungin are the options for second line-treatment (level B II). Surgery is recommended for rhinocerebral and skin and soft tissue disease (level A II). Reversal of underlying risk factors (diabetes control, reversal of neutropenia, discontinuation/taper of glucocorticosteroids, reduction of immunosuppressants, discontinuation of deferroxamine) is important in the treatment of mucormycosis (level A II). The duration of antifungal chemotherapy is not defined but guided by the resolution of all associated symptoms and findings (no grading). Maintenance therapy/secondary prophylaxis must be considered in persistently immunocompromised patients (no grading).

  6. Efficacy of Oral Cryotherapy on Oral Mucositis Prevention in Patients with Hematological Malignancies Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Ruiren; Zhao, Shasha; Luo, Lan; Li, Dandan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Wei, Huaping; Pang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Lili; Liu, Daihong; Wang, Quanshun; Gao, Chunji

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Controversy exists regarding whether oral cryotherapy can prevent oral mucositis (OM) in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cryotherapy for OM prevention in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing HSCT. Methods PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched through October 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of oral cryotherapy with no treatment or with other interventions for OM in patients undergoing HSCT were included. The primary outcomes were the incidence, severity, and duration of OM. The secondary outcomes included length of analgesic use, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, and length of hospital stay. Results Seven RCTs involving eight articles analyzing 458 patients were included. Oral cryotherapy significantly decreased the incidence of severe OM (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.99) and OM severity (SMD = -2.07, 95% CI = -3.90 to -0.25). In addition, the duration of TPN use and the length of hospitalization were markedly reduced (SMD = -0.56, 95% CI = -0.92 to -0.19; SMD = -0.44, 95% CI = -0.76 to -0.13; respectively). However, the pooled results were uncertain for the duration of OM and analgesic use (SMD = -0.13, 95% CI = -0.41 to 0.15; SMD = -1.15, 95% CI = -2.57 to 0.27; respectively). Conclusions Oral cryotherapy is a readily applicable and cost-effective prophylaxis for OM in patients undergoing HSCT. PMID:26024220

  7. Efficacy of oral cryotherapy on oral mucositis prevention in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Gu, Zhenyang; Zhai, Ruiren; Zhao, Shasha; Luo, Lan; Li, Dandan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Wei, Huaping; Pang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Lili; Liu, Daihong; Wang, Quanshun; Gao, Chunji

    2015-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether oral cryotherapy can prevent oral mucositis (OM) in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cryotherapy for OM prevention in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing HSCT. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched through October 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of oral cryotherapy with no treatment or with other interventions for OM in patients undergoing HSCT were included. The primary outcomes were the incidence, severity, and duration of OM. The secondary outcomes included length of analgesic use, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, and length of hospital stay. Seven RCTs involving eight articles analyzing 458 patients were included. Oral cryotherapy significantly decreased the incidence of severe OM (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.99) and OM severity (SMD = -2.07, 95% CI = -3.90 to -0.25). In addition, the duration of TPN use and the length of hospitalization were markedly reduced (SMD = -0.56, 95% CI = -0.92 to -0.19; SMD = -0.44, 95% CI = -0.76 to -0.13; respectively). However, the pooled results were uncertain for the duration of OM and analgesic use (SMD = -0.13, 95% CI = -0.41 to 0.15; SMD = -1.15, 95% CI = -2.57 to 0.27; respectively). Oral cryotherapy is a readily applicable and cost-effective prophylaxis for OM in patients undergoing HSCT.

  8. Low usage rate of banked sibling cord blood units in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for children with hematological malignancies: implications for directed cord blood banking policies.

    PubMed

    Goussetis, Evgenios; Peristeri, Ioulia; Kitra, Vasiliki; Papassavas, Andreas C; Theodosaki, Maria; Petrakou, Eftichia; Spiropoulos, Antonia; Paisiou, Anna; Soldatou, Alexandra; Stavropoulos-Giokas, Catherine; Graphakos, Stelios

    2011-02-15

    Directed sibling cord blood banking is indicated in women delivering healthy babies who already have a sibling with a disease that is potentially treatable with an allogeneic cord blood transplant. We evaluated the effectiveness of a national directed cord blood banking program in sibling HLA-identical stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies and the factors influencing the usage rate of the stored cord blood units. Fifty families were enrolled from which, 48 cord blood units were successfully collected and 2 collections failed due to damaged cord/placenta at delivery. Among enrolled families 4 children needed transplantation; however, only one was successfully transplanted using the collected cord blood unit containing 2×10(7) nucleated cells/kg in conjunction with a small volume of bone marrow from the same HLA-identical donor. Two children received grafts from matched unrelated donors because their sibling cord blood was HLA-haploidentical, while the fourth one received bone marrow from his HLA-identical brother, since cord blood could not be collected due to damaged cord/placenta at delivery. With a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-12) for the 9 remaining HLA-matched cord blood units, none from the prospective recipients needed transplantation. The low utilization rate of sibling cord blood in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric hematological malignant diseases necessitates the development of directed cord blood banking programs that limit long-term storage for banked cord blood units with low probability of usage such as non-HLA-identical or identical to patients who are in long-term complete remission.

  9. Clinical impact of absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 after unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation for pediatric patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Jun; Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Huo, Ming-Rui; Xu, Lan-Ping; Liu, Dai-Hong; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2011-02-01

    Currently, limited information is available regarding the effects of early lymphocyte recovery on transplant outcomes in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies after unmanipulated haploidentical transplantation. In this study, we evaluated the association of Day 30 absolute lymphocyte count (ALC-30) with transplant outcomes in 60 consecutive pediatric patients with hematological malignancies receiving T-cell-repleted transplantation from an haploidentical related donors. After median follow-up of 36 months (range, 1.4-75 months), higher relapse rate was observed in patients with an ALC-30 < 300 cells/μL compared to patients with an ALC-30 ≥ 300 cells/μL (35.5% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.049). More patients died of infections in those with an ALC-30 < 300 cells/μL compared with patients with an ALC-30 ≥ 300 cells/μL (25.8% vs. 3.4%, P = 0.015). The ALC-30 above the cutoff value 300 cells/μL was associated with improved overall-survival (HR 0.301, 95% CI 0.117-0.771; P = 0.012), leukemia free survival (HR 0.195, 95% CI 0.078-0.498; P=0.002), less relapse (HR 0.224 95% CI 0.070-0.717; P = 0.012), and less transplant- related mortality (HR=0.166; 95%CI 0.037-0.750; P = 0.020). Our results suggest that a higher ALC-30 ≥ 300 cells/μL) could be a useful and simple tool to predict pediatric patients with a superior outcome after unmanipulated haploidentical transplantation.

  10. PROPOFOL-FENTANYL VERSUS PROPOFOL ALONE FOR LUMBAR PUNCTURE SEDATION IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: PROPOFOL DOSING AND ADVERSE EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hollman, Gregory A.; Schultz, Meredith M; Eickhoff, Jens C; Christenson, Devon K

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine whether the combination of propofol and fentanyl results in lower propofol doses and fewer adverse cardiopulmonary events than propofol and placebo for lumbar puncture (LP) in children with acute hematologic malignancies. Design Randomized, controlled, double blind, crossover study. Setting Pediatric Sedation Program Patients Children with acute leukemia or lymphoma receiving sedation for LP. Interventions Each patient received two sedations in random order, one with propofol/placebo and one with propofol/fentanyl. The study investigator and patient/parent were blinded to placebo or fentanyl. Data collected included patient age and diagnosis, propofol dose and adverse events. Adverse events included oxygen saturation < 94%, airway obstruction, apnea, hypotension and bradycardia (< 5% mean for age). Logistic regression analysis was utilized to assess probability of adverse events and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank and McNemar’s tests were used for paired comparisons. Measurements and Main Results Twenty-two patients were enrolled. Fourteen patients were male and 8 were female. Each patient was studied twice for a total of 44 sedations. The median age was 5.0 years (range 2.2–17.2 years). All procedures were successfully completed. The median total dose of propofol was 5.05 mg/kg (range 2.4–10.2 mg/kg) for propofol/placebo versus 3.00 mg/kg (range 1.4–10.5 mg/kg) for propofol/fentanyl (p < 0.001). Twelve adverse events occurred in 11 of 22 patients (50.0%) propofol/placebo compared to 6 of 22 (18.2%) propofol/fentanyl (p= 0.02). The most common adverse event was hypotension. Conclusions The combination of propofol and fentanyl versus propofol alone for LP sedation in children with acute hematologic malignancies resulted in lower propofol doses and fewer adverse events. PMID:18838923

  11. Molecular epidemiology of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B identified in adults with hematological malignancy attending an Irish hospital between 2004 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Salter, Aisling; Laoi, Bairbre Ni; Crowley, Brendan

    2011-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of respiratory infection in patients with hematological malignancy, particularly hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. This study investigated the genetic variability of the attachment (G) protein gene among HRSV isolates collected from adult patients with hematological malignancy. Between December 2004 and March 2009, 60 samples collected from 58 adults attending an Irish hospital were positive for HRSV by direct immunofluorescence. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the G gene showed a slightly higher frequency of HRSV subgroup A (52%) than HRSV subgroup B (48%). Genetic variability was higher among subgroup A viruses (up to 13% at nucleotide level) than among subgroup B viruses (up to 4%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed two genotypes of HRSV subgroup A, GA2 and GA5, which cocirculated between 2004/2005 and 2007/2008, although GA2 alone was identified in season 2008/2009. Genotype BA was the only genotype of HRSV subgroup B identified. Genotype-specific amino acid substitutions were identified, with two and seven changes for GA2 and GA5, respectively. Furthermore, one to four potential N-glycosylation sites were found among HRSV subgroup A isolates while two to three were identified in HRSV B isolates. Predicted O-glycosylation sites included 25-34 and 40-43 in HRSV subgroups A and B, respectively. The average synonymous mutation-to-non-synonymous mutation ratios (dS/dN) implied neutral selection pressure on both HRSV subgroup isolates. This study provides data for the first time on the molecular epidemiology of HRSV isolates over five successive epidemic seasons among patients attending an Irish hospital.

  12. Investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) as an enteric-coated tablet formulation in non-hematologic malignancies: Phase 1 dose-escalation study

    PubMed Central

    Falchook, Gerald; Kurzrock, Razelle; Gouw, Launce; Hong, David; McGregor, Kimberly A.; Zhou, Xiaofei; Shi, Hongliang; Fingert, Howard; Sharma, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background This phase 1b study evaluated an enteric-coated tablet (ECT) formulation of the investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor, alisertib (MLN8237). Methods Patients with advanced, non-hematologic malignancies received oral alisertib ECT for 7 days BID followed by 14 days treatment-free (21-day cycles; 3+3 dose escalation schema). Objectives were to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity, and to define a recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of alisertib. Results 24 patients were treated. Median age was 57 years. Patients received a median of 2 cycles (range 1–12). The RP2D was determined as 50 mg BID for 7 days (21-day cycles). A cycle 1 dose-limiting toxicity of grade 4 febrile neutropenia was observed in 1 of 13 patients at RP2D. The most common drug-related adverse event (AE) was neutropenia (50%). At doses ≥40 mg BID, 7 patients had drug-related AEs that were serious but largely reversible/manageable by dose reduction and supportive care, including 3 with febrile neutropenia. Pharmacokinetic data were available in 24 patients. Following administration of alisertib ECT, the plasma peak concentration of alisertib was achieved at ~3 h; systemic exposure increased with increasing dose over 10–60 mg BID. Mean t½ was ~21 h following multiple dosing. Renal clearance was negligible. Nine patients achieved stable disease (3.98*, 5.59, 1.28*, 2.56, 5.45*, 3.48, 3.15, 8.31, and 6.93* months; *censored). Conclusions Alisertib ECT was generally well tolerated in adults with advanced, non-hematologic malignancies. The RP2D is 50 mg BID for 7 days and is being evaluated in ongoing phase 2 studies. PMID:24879333

  13. Post-marketing surveillance of thrombomodulin alfa, a novel treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation - safety and efficacy in 1,032 patients with hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hidesaku; Takahashi, Hoyu; Tsuji, Hajime; Matsushita, Tadashi; Ninomiya, Hideyuki; Honda, Goichi; Mimuro, Jun; Eguchi, Yutaka; Kitajima, Isao; Sakata, Yoichi

    2014-03-01

    Post-marketing surveillance of thrombomodulin alfa (TM-α) was performed to evaluate safety and efficacy in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with hematologic malignancy. All patients treated with TM-α from May 2008 to April 2010 in Japan were included. Information about baseline characteristics, safety, and efficacy were collected. The DIC resolution rate, survival rate on Day 28 after the last TM-α administration, and changes in DIC score and coagulation tests were evaluated. The underlying diseases associated with DIC were acute myeloid leukemia (except for acute promyelocytic leukemia, n=350), lymphoma (n=199), acute promyelocytic leukemia (n=172), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=156), myelodysplastic syndromes (n=61), and other (n=94). The incidence rates of bleeding-related adverse events and adverse drug reactions were 17.8% and 4.6%, respectively. In subjects with bleeding symptoms at baseline, 55.0% were assessed as disappeared or improved based on symptoms after TM-α treatment. The DIC resolution and survival rates were 55.9% and 70.7%, respectively. The DIC score and coagulation tests including thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) were significantly improved. Coagulation tests were significantly improved after TM-α treatment even in subjects whose clinical course of underlying disease was assessed as unchanged or exacerbated. This surveillance confirmed the safety and efficacy of TM-α in clinical practice, thus TM-α may be an ideal treatment for patients with DIC based upon hematologic malignancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of teicoplanin and those of vancomycin in initial empirical antibiotic regimen for febrile, neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. Gimema Infection Program.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, F; Martino, P; Bucaneve, G; Gentile, G; D'Antonio, D; Liso, V; Ricci, P; Nosari, A M; Buelli, M; Carotenuto, M

    1994-09-01

    The efficacy and toxicity of teicoplanin and vancomycin in the initial empirical antibiotic regimen in febrile, neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies were compared in a prospective, randomized, unblinded, multicenter trial in the setting of 29 hematologic units in tertiary-care or university hospitals. A total of 635 consecutive febrile patients with hematologic malignancies and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia were randomly assigned to receive intravenously amikacin plus ceftazidime plus either teicoplanin at 6 mg/kg of body weight once daily or vancomycin at 1 g twice daily. An efficacy analysis was done for 527 evaluable patients: 275 treated with teicoplanin and 252 treated with vancomycin. Overall, successful outcomes were recorded for 78% of patients who received teicoplanin and 75% of those who were randomized to vancomycin (difference, 3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -10 to 4%; P = 0.33). A total of 102 patients presented with primary, single-agent, gram-positive bacteremia. Coagulase-negative staphylococci accounted for 42%, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 27%, and streptococci accounted for 21% of all gram-positive blood isolates. The overall responses to therapy of gram-positive bacteremias were 92 and 87% for teicoplanin and vancomycin, respectively (difference, 5%; CI, -17 to 6%; P = 0.22). Side effects, mainly represented by skin rash, occurred in 3.2 and 8% of teicoplanin- and vancomycin-treated patients, respectively (difference, -4.8%; CI, 0.7 to 8%; P = 0.03); the rate of nephrotoxicity was 1.4 and 0.8% for the teicoplanin and vancomycin groups, respectively (difference, 0.6%; CI, -2 to 1%; P = 0.68). Further infections were caused by gram-positive organisms in two patients (0.7%) treated with teicoplanin and one patient (0.4%) who received vancomycin (difference, 0.3%; CI, -0.9 to 1.0%; P = 0.53). Overall mortalities were 8.5 and 11% for teicoplanin- and vancomycin-treated patients, respectively (difference, -2.5%; CI, - 2 to 7

  15. Evaluation of Bloodstream Infections During Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia in Patients with Malignant Hematological Diseases: Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Piukovics, Klára; Terhes, Gabriella; Lázár, Andrea; Tímár, Flóra; Borbényi, Zita; Urbán, Edit

    2015-01-01

    From year to year, it is important to get an overview of the occurrence of causative agents in febrile neutropenic patients to determine the empiric treatment. Thus our aims were to evaluate a four-year period regarding the prevalence of bloodstream infections and the most important causative agents. During this period, 1,361 patients were treated in our hematology ward because of various hematological disorders. 812 febrile episodes were recorded in 469 patients. At that time, 3,714 blood culture (BC) bottles were sent for microbiological investigations, 759 of them gave positive signal. From the majority of positive blood culture bottles (67.1%), Gram-positive bacteria, mainly coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), were grown. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 32.9% of the positive blood culture bottles, in these cases the leading pathogen was Escherichia coli. The high prevalence of CNS was attributed to mainly contamination, while lower positivity rate for Gram-negative bacteria was associated with the use of broad-spectrum empiric antibiotic treatment. PMID:26495130

  16. Detection of Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants and Hematological Malignancies Patients by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Nested PCR and Mycological Assays.

    PubMed

    Zarrinfar, Hossein; Mirhendi, Hossein; Fata, Abdolmajid; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kordbacheh, Parivash

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) is one of the most serious complications in immunocompromised patients, in particular among hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and patients with hematological malignancies. The current study aimed to evaluate the incidence of PA and utility of molecular methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, four methods including direct examination, culture, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in Tehran, Iran. During 16 months, 46 BAL specimens were obtained from individuals with allogeneic HSCT (n = 18) and patients with hematological malignancies (n = 28). Direct wet mounts with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture on mycological media were performed. The molecular detection of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus was done by amplifying the conserved sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal DNA by nested-PCR and the β-tubulin gene by TaqMan real-time PCR. Seven (15.2%) out of 46 specimens were positive in direct examination and showed branched septate hyphae; 11 (23.9%) had positive culture including eight (72.7%) A. flavus and three (27.3%) A. fumigatus; 22 (47.8%) had positive nested-PCR and eight (17.4%) had positive real-time PCR. The incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in these patients included proven IPA in 1 (2.2%), probable IPA in 10 (21.7%), possible IPA in 19 (41.3%) and not IPA in 16 cases (34.8%). The incidence of IPA in allogeneic HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies was relatively high and A. flavus was the most common cause of PA. As molecular methods had higher sensitivity, it may be useful as screening methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, or to determine when empirical antifungal therapy can be withheld.

  17. Reduced Intensity Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Aplastic Anemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ring Sideroblasts

  18. Thyroid Nodule Size at Ultrasound as a Predictor of Malignancy and Final Pathologic Size.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Allison; Johnson, Daniel N; White, Michael G; Siddiqui, Saaduddin; Antic, Tatjana; Mathew, Melvy; Grogan, Raymon H; Angelos, Peter; Kaplan, Edwin L; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid-related mortality has remained constant despite the increasing incidence of thyroid carcinoma. Most thyroid nodules are benign; therefore, ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA) are integral in cancer screening. We hypothesize that increased nodule size at ultrasound does not predict malignancy and correlation between nodule size at ultrasound and pathologic exam is good. Resected thyroids with preoperative ultrasounds were identified. Nodule size at ultrasound, FNA diagnosis by Bethesda category, size at pathologic examination, and final histologic diagnosis were recorded. Nodule characteristics at ultrasound and FNA diagnoses were correlated with gross characteristics and histologic diagnoses. Nodules for which correlation could not be established were excluded. Of 1003 nodules from 659 patients, 26% were malignant. Nodules <2 cm had the highest malignancy rate (∼30%). Risk was similar (∼20%) for nodules ≥2 cm. Of the 548 subject to FNA, 38% were malignant. Decreasing malignancy rates were observed with increasing size (57% for nodules <1 cm to 20% for nodules >6 cm). At ultrasound size cutoffs of 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm, smaller nodules had higher malignancy rates than larger nodules. Of the 455 not subject to FNA, 11% were malignant. Ultrasound size alone is a poor predictor of malignancy, but a relatively good predictor of final pathologic size (R(2) = 0.748), with less correlation at larger sizes. In nodules subject to FNA, false negative diagnoses were highest (6-8%) in nodules 3-6 cm, mostly due to encapsulated follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. Thyroid nodule size is inversely related to malignancy risk, as larger nodules have lower malignancy rates. However, the relationship of size to malignancy varies by FNA status. All nodules (regardless of FNA status) demonstrate a risk trough at ≥2 cm. Nodules subject to FNA show step-wise decline in malignancy rates by size, demonstrating that size alone should not be

  19. Phenotype diversity in type 1 Gaucher disease: discovering the genetic basis of Gaucher disease/hematologic malignancy phenotype by individual genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sarah M; Choi, Murim; Liu, Jun; Jain, Dhanpat; Boot, Rolf G; Kallemeijn, Wouter W; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Pashankar, Farzana; Kupfer, Gary M; Mane, Shrikant; Lifton, Richard P; Mistry, Pramod K

    2012-05-17

    Gaucher disease (GD), an inherited macrophage glycosphingolipidosis, manifests with an extraordinary variety of phenotypes that show imperfect correlation with mutations in the GBA gene. In addition to the classic manifestations, patients suffer from increased susceptibility to hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies. The mechanism(s) underlying malignancy in GD is not known, but is postulated to be secondary to macrophage dysfunction and immune dysregulation arising from lysosomal accumulation of glucocerebroside. However, there is weak correlation between GD/cancer phenotype and the systemic burden of glucocerebroside-laden macrophages. Therefore, we hypothesized that genetic modifier(s) may underlie the GD/cancer phenotype. In the present study, the genetic basis of GD/T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma in 2 affected siblings was deciphered through genomic analysis. GBA gene sequencing revealed homozygosity for a novel mutation, D137N. Whole-exome capture and massively parallel sequencing combined with homozygosity mapping identified a homozygous novel mutation in the MSH6 gene that leads to constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome and increased cancer risk. Enzyme studies demonstrated that the D137N mutation in GBA is a pathogenic mutation, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of the MSH6 protein. Therefore, precise phenotype annotation followed by individual genome analysis has the potential to identify genetic modifiers of GD, facilitate personalized management, and provide novel insights into disease pathophysiology.

  20. Reference method for detection of Pgp mediated multidrug resistance in human hematological malignancies: a method validated by the laboratories of the French Drug Resistance Network.

    PubMed

    Huet, S; Marie, J P; Gualde, N; Robert, J

    1998-12-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with overexpression of the MDR1 gene and of its product, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), plays an important role in limiting cancer treatment efficacy. Many studies have investigated Pgp expression in clinical samples of hematological malignancies but failed to give definitive conclusion on its usefulness. One convenient method for fluorescent detection of Pgp in malignant cells is flow cytometry which however gives variable results from a laboratory to another one, partly due to the lack of a reference method rigorously tested. The purpose of this technical note is to describe each step of a reference flow cytometric method. The guidelines for sample handling, staining and analysis have been established both for Pgp detection with monoclonal antibodies directed against extracellular epitopes (MRK16, UIC2 and 4E3), and for Pgp functional activity measurement with Rhodamine 123 as a fluorescent probe. Both methods have been validated on cultured cell lines and clinical samples by 12 laboratories of the French Drug Resistance Network. This cross-validated multicentric study points out crucial steps for the accuracy and reproducibility of the results, like cell viability, data analysis and expression.

  1. Epidemiology of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS): The experience from the specialized registry of hematologic malignancies of Basse-Normandie (France).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Quentin; Macro, Margaret; Hebert, Benedikte; Cornet, Edouard; Collignon, Albert; Troussard, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the third most common haematologic malignancy in European countries, and is usually preceded by Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS). Therefore epidemiologic studies of MGUS are very limited in a population-based status. Here we report all new cases of MGUS exhaustively recorded by the Basse-Normandie Regional Registry for Hematologic Malignancies (a French region registry) between January 1997 and December 2005, and analyze outcome of patients until 2009 in term of evolution in MM or death. All cases were analyzed by an expert file review, and MGUS diagnosis was retained for: evidence of a monoclonal component <30 g/l and no CRAB criteria (hyperCalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, bone lesions). We showed that the world standardized incidence rate (WSR) for MGUS was 3.76 ± 0.26 per 100,000 inhabitants, increasing regularly with age, and that the median overall survival (OS) was 115.9 months (CI 95%: 10.5-130.2 months) with 78.3% patients alive at 5 years (CI 95%: 74.1-81.9%). We also observed a rate of progression to multiple myeloma of 1.41% per year, concordant with previous reports in a reallife exhaustive registry.

  2. Ageing, exposure to pollution, and interactions between climate change and local seasons as oxidant conditions predicting incident hematologic malignancy at KINSHASA University clinics, Democratic Republic of CONGO (DRC).

    PubMed

    Nkanga, Mireille Solange Nganga; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ngwidiwo, Jacques Bikaula; Katawandja, Antoine Lufimbo; Kazadi, Paul Roger Beia; Nzonzila, Alain Nganga

    2017-08-23

    The global burden of hematologic malignancy (HM) is rapidly rising with aging, exposure to polluted environments, and global and local climate variability all being well-established conditions of oxidative stress. However, there is currently no information on the extent and predictors of HM at Kinshasa University Clinics (KUC), DR Congo (DRC). This study evaluated the impact of bio-clinical factors, exposure to polluted environments, and interactions between global climate changes (EL Nino and La Nina) and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) on the incidence of HM. This hospital-based prospective cohort study was conducted at Kinshasa University Clinics in DR Congo. A total of 105 black African adult patients with anaemia between 2009 and 2016 were included. HM was confirmed by morphological typing according to the French-American-British (FAB) Classification System. Gender, age, exposure to traffic pollution and garages/stations, global climate variability (El Nino and La Nina), and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) were potential independent variables to predict incident HM using Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier curves. Out of the total 105 patients, 63 experienced incident HM, with an incidence rate of 60%. After adjusting for gender, HIV/AIDS, and other bio-clinical factors, the most significant independent predictors of HM were age ≥ 55 years (HR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3; P = 0.003), exposure to pollution and garages or stations (HR = 4.9; 95% CI 2-12.1; P < 0.001), combined local dry season + La Nina (HR = 4.6; 95%CI 1.8-11.8; P < 0.001), and combined local dry season + El Nino (HR = 4; 95% CI 1.6-9.7; P = 0.004). HM types included acute myeloid leukaemia (28.6% n = 18), multiple myeloma (22.2% n = 14), myelodysplastic syndromes (15.9% n = 10), chronic myeloid leukaemia (15.9% n = 10), chronic lymphoid leukaemia (9.5% n = 6), and acute lymphoid leukaemia (7.9% n = 5). After adjusting for confounders using Cox

  3. Invasive fungal sinusitis in patients with hematological malignancy: 15 years experience in a single university hospital in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Risk factors and outcomes in hematological patients who acquire invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS) are infrequently reported in the modern medical era. Method A retrospective study of hospitalized patients with hematological disease was conducted at National Taiwan University Hospital between January 1995 and December 2009. Results Clinical characteristics and outcomes with their associated radiographic and microbiological findings were analyzed. Forty-six patients with IFS and 64 patients with chronic non-invasive sinusitis were enrolled as comparsion. IFS developed more commonly in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and with prolonged neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count less than 500/mm3 for more than 10 days) (p < 0.001). Aspergillus flavus was the most common pathogen isolated (44%). Serum Aspergillus galactomannan antigen was elevated in seven of eleven patients (64%) with IFS caused by aspergillosis but negative for all three patients with mucormycosis. Bony erosion and extra-sinus infiltration was found in 15 of 46 (33%) patients on imaging. Overall, 19 of 46 patients (41.3%) died within 6 weeks. Patients with disease subtype of AML (p = 0.044; Odds Ratio [OR], 5.84; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02-30.56) and refractory leukemia status (p = 0.05; OR, 4.27; 95% CI, 1.003-18.15) had worse prognosis. Multivariate analysis identified surgical debridement as an independent good prognostic factor (p = 0.047) in patients with IFS. Conclusions Patients of AML with prolonged neutropenia (> 10 days) had significantly higher risk of IFS. Early introduction of anti-fungal agent and aggressive surgical debridement potentially decrease morbidity and mortality in high risk patients with IFS. PMID:21939544

  4. Non-mass breast lesions on ultrasound: final outcomes and predictors of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Won; Ko, Kyung Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Jung, Hae Kyoung

    2017-09-01

    Background Breast cancer can present as non-mass lesions (NMLs) on ultrasound. However, knowledge of and understanding about NMLs are scarce. Purpose To retrospectively investigate the final outcomes of sonographic breast NMLs and determine the clinical and radiologic variables associated with malignancy Material and Methods In our radiologic database of breast ultrasound examinations between 2011 and 2014, we found 119 women with 121 NMLs with available histopathologic or sonographic follow-up (over 2 years) data. We collected the clinical variables (patient's age, symptoms, and mammographic density) and histopathologic data as well as radiologic variables (mammographic and ultrasound findings) after retrospective review by two radiologists, the authors of the current paper, in consensus. We classified the ultrasound findings according to distribution (focal, linear or segmental, and regional) and associated features (calcification, architectural distortion, and ductal changes) and analyzed the associations between variables and malignancy using the t test and χ(2) test. Results Of the 121 NMLs, 88 (72.7%) were benign and 33 (27.3%) were malignant. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (17/33, 51.5%) and invasive ductal cancer with or without DCIS (13/33, 39.4%) comprised the main malignancies, and malignancy was significantly associated with palpability ( P = 0.000). Mammographic findings and sonographic distribution and associated features were significantly different between benign and malignant lesions ( P = 0.000, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively). Malignant lesions showed more frequent calcifications combined with asymmetry ( P = 0.000) on mammography and linear-segmental distributions ( P = 0.001) and associated calcifications ( P = 0.019) or architectural distortions ( P = 0.015) on ultrasound. Conclusion Breast NMLs on ultrasound showed high risk of malignancy. Symptoms and mammographic and ultrasound findings can be

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis in patients with hematological malignancies: guidelines from the 3rd European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL 3)

    PubMed Central

    Skiada, Anna; Lanternier, Fanny; Groll, Andreas H.; Pagano, Livio; Zimmerli, Stephan; Herbrecht, Raoul; Lortholary, Olivier; Petrikkos, George L.

    2013-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, there are no recommendations to guide diagnosis and management. The European Conference on Infections in Leukemia assigned experts in hematology and infectious diseases to develop evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis. The guidelines were developed using the evidence criteria set forth by the American Infectious Diseases Society and the key recommendations are summarized here. In the absence of validated biomarkers, the diagnosis of mucormycosis relies on histology and/or detection of the organism by culture from involved sites with identification of the isolate at the species level (no grading). Antifungal chemotherapy, control of the underlying predisposing condition, and surgery are the cornerstones of management (level A II). Options for first-line chemotherapy of mucormycosis include liposomal amphotericin B and amphotericin B lipid complex (level B II). Posaconazole and combination therapy of liposomal amphotericin B or amphotericin B lipid complex with caspofungin are the options for second line-treatment (level B II). Surgery is recommended for rhinocerebral and skin and soft tissue disease (level A II). Reversal of underlying risk factors (diabetes control, reversal of neutropenia, discontinuation/taper of glucocorticosteroids, reduction of immunosuppressants, discontinuation of deferroxamine) is important in the treatment of mucormycosis (level A II). The duration of antifungal chemotherapy is not defined but guided by the resolution of all associated symptoms and findings (no grading). Maintenance therapy/secondary prophylaxis must be considered in persistently immunocompromised patients (no grading). PMID:22983580

  6. Detection of antibodies to Candida albicans germ tubes for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive candidiasis in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, J C; del Carmen Arilla, M; Regúlez, P; Quindós, G; Alvarez, A; Pontón, J

    1997-01-01

    We prospectively investigated the ability of detection of antibodies to Candida albicans germ tubes (CAGT) to diagnose invasive candidiasis in 95 consecutive admissions of 73 patients with hematologic disorders undergoing intensive chemotherapy. The episodes were divided into three groups according to clinical and microbiological diagnosis. Group 1 comprised eight admissions of eight patients with invasive candidiasis. Group 2 comprised 42 admissions of 34 patients without evidence of invasive candidiasis. Group 3 comprised the remaining 45 admissions of 37 patients with febrile episodes which were not diagnosed by microbiological culture. Antibodies to CAGT were detected in 87.5% of group 1 patients. Detection of antibodies to CAGT in patients with Candida fungemia was delayed somewhat relative to the time the blood culture was positive, but antibodies to CAGT were detected earlier than a diagnosis was made in patients with deep-tissue candidiasis. Sera from 2 admissions in group 2 and 12 admissions in group 3 revealed antibodies to CAGT. At a titer of > or = 1:20, detection of antibodies to CAGT had a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 95.2%, positive predictive value of 77.8%, and negative predictive value of 97.6%. Antibodies to CAGT were usually detected before beginning of empiric antifungal therapy. Titers of antibodies to CAGT were maintained in most patients who died but declined and eventually disappeared in the patients who survived. Since antibodies to CAGT were detected in all patients with tissue-proven invasive candidiasis but negative by blood culture, detection of antibodies to CAGT complemented blood cultures for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients with hematologic malignancies and invasive candidiasis. PMID:9399535

  7. Efficacy and safety of micafungin for febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies: a multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryoji; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Iizuka, Susumu; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sano, Hirozumi; Kudoh, Tooru

    2013-10-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of infectious mortality in neutropenic patients receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, little is known about the efficacy and safety of micafungin (MCFG), an echinocandin antifungal agent, in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). This study was conducted as a prospective multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MCFG for FN in pediatric patients with hematological diseases. Efficacy was assessed based on the response to the 5 composite endpoints established by Walsh and colleagues in addition to body temperature and C-reactive protein values. Thirty episodes of FN were enrolled in the study. The median dose and duration of MCFG treatment were 3.0 mg/kg/d and 13.5 days, respectively. Using the criteria of Walsh and colleagues, MCFG was effective in 56.7% of the patients. No breakthrough invasive fungal infection occurred during MCFG treatment. Body temperatures on the last day of neutropenia during administration of MCFG and on the last day of MCFG therapy and C-reactive protein values after administration of MCFG were significantly lower than on the day MCFG therapy was started. Adverse effects in the form of mild liver dysfunction were seen in only 2 patients. MCFG is a very effective and safe antifungal drug for FN in children. Physicians should administer MCFG early in febrile episode in patients in whom first-line antibiotics are not effective in treating FN.

  8. Circulating Levels of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor and D-Dimer in Patients With Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Jurado, Benjamín; Tello-González, Alejandra; Bustamante-Chávez, Lili; de la Peña, Aurora; Riebeling-Navarro, Carlos; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernan

    2015-10-01

    Patients with cancer exhibit changes in their hemostatic mechanisms. The D-dimer (D-D) is the most important subproduct of fibrinolysis, and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is related to invasiveness and metastases, and is overexpressed in neoplastic cells. The objective of this study was to identify in patients with hematological neoplasia, the serum levels of uPAR and D-D, and to determine their effects on outcome. A cross-sectional study was performed. Clinical and demographic data were obtained from the clinical chart. Determination of uPAR in serum (pg/L) was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and D-D (μg/dL) using nephelometry. We included 42 patients (35 with lymphomas). Statistically significant differences were found in D-D (P < .001) and uPAR (P < .01) between patients and control participants. Response was an accumulated clinical outcome. We observed statistical differences between groups (P < .001). D-D was positive in 70% of cases. We found differences in D-D serum levels and soluble uPAR between control participants and patients with lymphoma. These results indicate that D-D serum levels and soluble uPAR should be considered biomarkers of response and survival in patients with lymphoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single center experience with total body irradiation and melphalan (TBI-MEL) myeloablative conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with refractory hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Bhavana; Rapoport, Aaron P; Fang, Hong-Bin; Ilyas, Can; Marangoz, Deniz; Akbulut, Vinil; Ruehle, Kathleen; Badros, Ashraf; Yanovich, Saul; Akpek, Görgün

    2014-04-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (1,200 cGy) and melphalan (MEL) (100-110 mg/m(2)) myeloablative conditioning in 48 patients with nonremission AML (n = 14), ALL (n = 10), NHL (n = 18), and other refractory hematologic malignancies (n = 6) who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) between 2002 and 2011. Median age was 48 years (22 to 68); 14 out of 26 leukemia patients (54 %) had circulating blasts at transplant, 20 (50 %) evaluable patients had poor-risk cytogenetics, 12 (25 %) had prior SCT, and 10 (21 %) received stem cells from a mismatch donor. All patients received tacrolimus with or without methotrexate for GVHD prophylaxis. At the time of analysis, 13 patients (27 %) were alive and disease free. Engraftment was complete in all patients. The median time to ANC recovery (>500) was 12 days (range, 6-28). The most common grade III and IV toxicities were mucositis and infections. Eighteen patients (43 %) developed grade II-IV acute GVHD, and eight (26 %) had extensive chronic GVHD. Of 44 evaluable patients for response, 28 (64 %) achieved a complete remission (CR), and seven (15 %) had a partial remission after the transplant. With a median follow-up of 30 months (4 to 124 months) for surviving patients, the cumulative incidence of relapse was 45 % at 1 year, and the probability of overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 22.5 %. Multivariate analysis showed that platelet count (<80,000/mL) and lactic dehydrogenase (>500 IU/L) at SCT were associated with relapse. Age less than 53 years and CR after SCT were associated with better OS. Our data suggest that TBI-MEL can result in CR in two thirds, durable remission in one third, and 5-year survival in about one quarter of patients with nonremission hematologic malignancies. Further studies with TBI-MEL in standard risk transplant patients are warranted.

  10. Reduced-intensity conditioning followed by related allografts in hematologic malignancies: long-term outcomes most successful in indolent and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Warlick, Erica D; Tomblyn, Marcie; Cao, Qing; Defor, Todd; Blazar, Bruce R; Macmillan, Margaret; Verneris, Michael; Wagner, John; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Aurora, Mukta; Bachanova, Veronika; Brunstein, Claudio; Burns, Linda; Cooley, Sarah; Kaufman, Dan; Majhail, Navneet S; McClune, Brian; McGlave, Philip; Miller, Jeffrey; Oran, Betul; Slungaard, Arne; Vercellotti, Gregory; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2011-07-01

    Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) extends the curative potential of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to patients with hematologic malignancies unable to withstand myeloablative conditioning. We prospectively analyzed the outcomes of 123 patients (median age, 57 years; range, 23-70 years) with hematologic malignancies treated with a uniform RIC regimen of cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and total-body irradiation (200 cGy) with or without antithymocyte globulin followed by related donor allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota between 2002 and 2008. The cohort included 45 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 27 with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 8 with indolent NHL, 10 with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 10 with myeloma, and 23 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, other leukemias, or myeloproliferative disorders. The probability of 4-year overall survival was 73% for patients with indolent NHL, 58% for those with aggressive NHL, 67% for those with HL, 30% for those with AML/MDS, and only 10% for those with myeloma. Corresponding outcomes for relapse in these patients were 0%, 32%, 50%, 33%, and 38%, and those for progression-free survival were 73%, 45%, 27%, 27%, and 10%. The incidence of treatment-related mortality was 14% at day +100 and 22% at 1 year. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was 38% at day +100, and that of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 50% at 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed superior overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with both indolent and aggressive NHL compared with those with AML/MDS, HL, or myeloma. Worse 1-year treatment-related mortality was observed in patients with a Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index score ≥ 3 and in cytomegalovirus-seropositive recipients. These results suggest that (1) RIC conditioning was well tolerated by an older, heavily pretreated

  11. REDUCED INTENSITY CONDITIONING FOLLOWED BY RELATED ALLOGRAFTS IN HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: LONG TERM OUTCOMES MOST SUCCESSFUL IN INDOLENT AND AGGRESSIVE NON-HODGKINS LYMPHOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Warlick, Erica D; Tomblyn, Marcie; Cao, Qing; DeFor, Todd; Blazar, Bruce R; MacMillan, Margaret; Verneris, Michael; Wagner, John; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Aurora, Mukta; Bachanova, Veronika; Brunstein, Claudio; Burns, Linda; Cooley, Sarah; Kaufman, Dan; Majhail, Navneet S; McClune, Brian; McGlave, Philip; Miller, Jeffrey; Oran, Betul; Slungaard, Arne; Vercellotti, Gregory; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) extends the curative potential of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to patients with hematologic malignancies unable to withstand myeloablative conditioning. We prospectively analyzed the outcomes of 123 patients, median age of 57 (range 23-70), with hematologic malignancies treated with a uniform RIC regimen of cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and total body irradiation (200 cGy) with or without anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by related donor allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota from 2002-2008. Forty-five patients had acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 27 patients had aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 8 indolent NHL, 10 Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL), 10 myeloma and the remaining 23 had acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), other leukemias, or myeloproliferative disorders. Probability of four year overall survival (OS) was 73% for patients with indolent NHL, 58% for aggressive NHL, 67% for HL, 30% for AML/MDS, and only 10% for those with myeloma. Corresponding outcomes for relapse were 0%, 32%, 50%, 33%, and 38% and for progression free survival (PFS) were 73%, 45%, 27%, 27%, and 10%, respectively. The incidence of treatment related mortality (TRM) was 14% at day +100 and 22% at 1 year. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) at day +100 was 38% and chronic GVHD at 2 years was 50%. Multivariate analysis revealed superior OS and PFS in patients with both indolent and aggressive NHL compared with AML/MDS, HL, or myeloma. Worse 1 year TRM was observed with hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index (HCT-CI) score ≥ 3 and CMV seropositive recipients. These results suggest that: 1) RIC conditioning was well tolerated by an older, heavily pre-treated population; 2) indolent and aggressive NHLs respond well to RIC conditioning highlighting the importance of the graft versus lymphoma (GVL) effect; and 3

  12. Converting cell lines representing hematological malignancies from glucocorticoid-resistant to glucocorticoid-sensitive: signaling pathway interactions.

    PubMed

    Garza, Anna S; Miller, Aaron L; Johnson, Betty H; Thompson, E Brad

    2009-05-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), protein kinase A (PKA) and mTOR pathways modulate the apoptotic effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) in human lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cells. We now show that manipulation of these pathways converts several cell lines, representing other lymphoid malignancies, from GC-resistant to GC-sensitive. Basal levels of phosphorylated JNK and ERK were elevated in the GC-resistant cells. Treatments that directly or indirectly reduced phosphorylated JNK and ERK resulted in Dex sensitivity in five resistant lymphoid cell lines. Sensitivity to GC-driven apoptosis correlated with GC-dependent increases in phosphorylated and total glucocorticoid receptor, and in increased levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim.

  13. Comparison of DNA Microarray, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and Real-Time PCR with DNA Sequencing for Identification of Fusarium spp. Obtained from Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Marcela; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Sakai, Kanae; Muraosa, Yasunori; Lyra, Luzia; Busso-Lopes, Ariane Fidelis; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli; Mikami, Yuzuru; Gonoi, Tohoru; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Trabasso, Plínio

    2017-03-21

    The performance of three molecular biology techniques, i.e., DNA microarray, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and real-time PCR were compared with DNA sequencing for properly identification of 20 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from blood stream as etiologic agent of invasive infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR identified 16 (80%) out of 20 samples as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and four (20%) as Fusarium spp. The agreement among the techniques was 100%. LAMP exhibited 100% specificity, while DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR showed 100% sensitivity. The three techniques had 100% agreement with DNA sequencing. Sixteen isolates were identified as FSSC by sequencing, being five Fusarium keratoplasticum, nine Fusarium petroliphilum and two Fusarium solani. On the other hand, sequencing identified four isolates as Fusarium non-solani species complex (FNSSC), being three isolates as Fusarium napiforme and one isolate as Fusarium oxysporum. Finally, LAMP proved to be faster and more accessible than DNA microarray and real-time PCR, since it does not require a thermocycler. Therefore, LAMP signalizes as emerging and promising methodology to be used in routine identification of Fusarium spp. among cases of invasive fungal infections.

  14. Optimal Molecular Methods in Detecting p190BCR-ABL Fusion Variants in Hematologic Malignancies: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sonu, Rebecca J.; Jonas, Brian A.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Gregg, Jeffrey P.; Rashidi, Hooman H.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with BCR-ABL1 positive hematologic malignancies and Philadelphia-like B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) are potential candidates for targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Before TKIs, patients with B-ALL had a much worse prognosis and current treatments with targeted TKI therapy have improved outcomes. Thus, the detection of BCR-ABL1 is crucial and a false negative BCR-ABL1 result may adversely affect patient care. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a new diagnosis of B-ALL who was initially found to be BCR-ABL1 negative by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A concurrent qualitative PCR was performed which detected a positive BCR-ABL1 result that was confirmed by a next generation sequencing (NGS) based assay and identified as the rare fusion variant e1a3 of p190BCR-ABL. Based on this result, the patient was placed on dasatinib as a targeted therapy. In the era of molecular diagnostic medicine and targeted therapy, it is essential to have an understanding of the limitations of molecular assays and to follow a comprehensive diagnostic approach in order to detect common abnormalities and rare variants. Incorporating NGS methods in an algorithmic manner into the standard diagnostic PCR-based approach for BCR-ABL1 will aid in minimizing false negative results. PMID:25949834

  15. Association of mannose-binding lectin levels and invasive fungal disease in hematologic malignancy patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Riwes, M M; Leather, H; Neal, D; Bennett, C; Sugrue, M; Cline, C; Stokes, J; Hiemenz, J; Hsu, J; Wingard, J R

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have suggested an association of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency with infections. In this study, we investigated the association between MBL deficiency and invasive fungal disease (IFD) in hematologic malignancy patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. MBL levels were quantified at the start of treatment in 152 patients who were followed for 6 months and scored as developing IFD or not. Forty-five patients (29.6%) developed IFD, of which 21 (46.7% of IFD cases and 13.8% of patients) were proven or probable IFD. Fifty-nine (38.8%) had MBL levels <1000 ng/mL. The rates of all IFD in patients with MBL levels below and above 1000 ng/mL were 33.9% and 26.9%, respectively (P=0.356). The rates of proven or probable IFD in patients with MBL levels below and above 1000 ng/mL were 11.9% and 15.1%, respectively (P=0.579). MBL levels <1000 ng/mL were not predictors of death (P=0.233). As expected, IFD was associated with death (P<0.0001). Our findings indicate that MBL levels <1000 ng/mL were not associated with an increased risk of developing IFD or overall survival.

  16. Pathogenic molds (including Aspergillus species) in hospital water distribution systems: a 3-year prospective study and clinical implications for patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Anaissie, Elias J; Stratton, Shawna L; Dignani, M Cecilia; Lee, Choon-kee; Summerbell, Richard C; Rex, John H; Monson, Thomas P; Walsh, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    The incidence of mold infections in patients with hematologic malignancies continues to increase despite the widespread use of air filtration systems, suggesting the presence of other hospital sources for these molds. Water sources are known to harbor pathogenic molds. We examined samples from water, water surfaces, air, and other environment sources from a bone marrow transplantation unit with optimal air precautions. Molds (Aspergillus species, others) were recovered in 70% of 398 water samples, in 22% of 1311 swabs from plumbing structures and environmental surfaces, and in 83% of 274 indoor air samples. Microscopic examination of the water plumbing lines revealed hyphal forms compatible with molds. Four findings suggest that indoor airborne molds were aerosolized from the water: (1) higher mean airborne concentrations of molds in bathrooms (16.1 colony-forming units [CFU]/m(3)) than in patient rooms (7 CFU/m(3)) and hallways (8.6 CFU/m(3); P =.00005); (2) a strong type and rank correlation between molds isolated from hospital water and those recovered from indoor hospital; (3) lack of seasonal correlation between the airborne mold concentration in outdoor and indoor air; and (4) molecular relatedness between a clinical strain and a water-related strain (previously reported). Hospital water distribution systems may serve as a potential indoor reservoir of Aspergillus and other molds leading to aerosolization of fungal spores and potential exposure for patients.

  17. Success rate and risk factors for failure of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole in patients with hematological malignancies: a multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Cheong, June-Won; Min, Yoo Hong; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Je-Hwan; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Yang Soo; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Park, Jinny; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kim, Byung Soo; Ryoo, Hun-Mo; Jang, Jun Ho; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kang, Hye Jin; Cho, In Sung; Mun, Yeung Chul; Jo, Deog-Yeon; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Byeong-Bae; Kim, Jin Seok

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole and evaluated risk factors for predicting the failure of empirical antifungal therapy. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with hematological malignancies who had neutropenic fever and received empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole at 22 centers. A total of 391 patients who had abnormal findings on chest imaging tests (31.0%) or a positive result of enzyme immunoassay for serum galactomannan (17.6%) showed a 56.5% overall success rate. Positive galactomannan tests before the initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.026, hazard ratio [HR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.69) and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests before initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.022, HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.71) were significantly associated with poor outcomes for the empirical antifungal therapy. Eight patients (2.0%) had premature discontinuation of itraconazole therapy due to toxicity. It is suggested that positive galactomannan tests and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests at the time of initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy are risk factors for predicting the failure of the empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole. (Clinical Trial Registration on National Cancer Institute website, NCT01060462).

  18. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic studies in ten patients with hematological malignancies characterized by t(20;21)(q11;q11) resulted from del(20q).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Jun; Bai, Shuxiao; Yao, Jianxin; Qiu, Huiying; Xue, Yongquan; Chen, Suning; Wu, Yafang; Shen, Juan; Pan, Jinlan

    2016-10-01

    This study reports 10 patients with hematological malignances with t(20;21)(q11;q11) resulting from del(20q) (for example, der(20)del(20)(q11q13)t(20;21)(q11;q11) and der(21)t(20;21)(q11;q11)) and described their clinical features and the possible prognostic significance of this abnormality. The t(20;21)(q11;q11) was a rare but recurrent abnormality secondary to del(20q) besides i(20q-). The frequency of der(20)del(20)(q11q13)t(20;21)(q11;q11) among our patients with del(20q) was 2.4%. It was considered that the 20q deletion preceded translocation with chromosome 21. This abnormality is often cryptic, occurs predominantly in older men and is observed most often in myelodysplastic syndromes. Patients with this abnormality have an unfavorable prognosis, similar to patients with i(20q-). The molecular consequences of der(20)del(20)(q11q13)t(20;21)(q11;q11) may be different from patients with i(20q-). To the best of our knowledge this is the largest dataset published to date.

  19. Molecular and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 /bFGF) in malignancies of solid and hematological cancers for personalized therapies

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Mohamed R.; Nagpal, Poonam; Ayoub, Nehad M.; Tai, Betty; Prabhu, Sathyen A.; Capac, Catherine M.; Gliksman, Matthew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for normal and cancer biology. Mammalian FGF family members participate in multiple signaling pathways by binding to heparan sulfate and FGF receptors (FGFR) with varying affinities. FGF2 is the prototype member of the FGF family and interacts with its receptor to mediate receptor dimerization, phosphorylation, and activation of signaling pathways, such as Ras-MAPK and PI3K pathways. Excessive mitogenic signaling through the FGF/FGFR axis may induce carcinogenic effects by promoting cancer progression and increasing the angiogenic potential, which can lead to metastatic tumor phenotypes. Dysregulated FGF/FGFR signaling is associated with aggressive cancer phenotypes, enhanced chemotherapy resistance and poor clinical outcomes. In vitro experimental settings have indicated that extracellular FGF2 affects proliferation, drug sensitivity, and apoptosis of cancer cells. Therapeutically targeting FGF2 and FGFR has been extensively assessed in multiple preclinical studies and numerous drugs and treatment options have been tested in clinical trials. Diagnostic assays are used to quantify FGF2, FGFRs, and downstream signaling molecules to better select a target patient population for higher efficacy of cancer therapies. This review focuses on the prognostic significance of FGF2 in cancer with emphasis on therapeutic intervention strategies for solid and hematological malignancies. PMID:27007053

  20. Adoptive T-cell therapy for hematological malignancies using T cells gene-modified to express tumor antigen-specific receptors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    The functional properties of the adoptive immune response mediated by effector T lymphocytes are decisively regulated by their T-cell receptors (TCRs). Transfer of genes encoding target antigen-specific receptors enables polyclonal T cells to redirect toward cancer cells and virally infected cells expressing those defined antigens. Using this technology, a large population of redirected T cells displaying uniform therapeutic properties has been produced, powerfully advancing their clinical application as "cellular drugs" for adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. Clinically, anticancer adoptive immunotherapy using these genetically engineered T cells has an impressive and proven track record. Notable examples include the dramatic benefit of chimeric antigen receptor gene-modified T cells redirected towards B-cell lineage antigen CD19 in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and the impressive outcomes in the use of TCR gene-modified T cells redirected towards NY-ESO-1, a representative cancer-testis antigen, in patients with advanced melanoma and synovial cell sarcoma. In this review, we briefly overview the current status of this treatment option in the context of hematological malignancy, and discuss a number of challenges that still pose an obstacle to the full effectiveness of this strategy.

  1. Rapid Memory T-cell Reconstitution Recapitulating CD45RA-depleted Haploidentical Transplant Graft Content in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Brandon M; Shook, David R; Eldridge, Paul; Li, Ying; Kang, Guolian; Dallas, Mari; Hartford, Christine; Srinivasan, Ashok; Chan, Wing Keung; Suwannasaen, Duangchan; Inaba, Hiroto; Pui, Ching-Hon; Leung, Wing

    2015-01-01

    T-cell depletion of an HLA-haploidentical graft is often used to prevent graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD), but the procedure may lead to increased graft failure, relapse, and infections due to delayed immune recovery. We hypothesized that selective depletion of the CD45RA+ subset can effectively reduce GvHD through removal of naïve T cells, while providing improved donor immune reconstitution through adoptive transfer of CD45RA– memory T cells. Herein, we present results from the first 17 patients with poor-prognosis hematologic malignancy who received haploidentical donor transplantation with CD45RA-depleted progenitor cell grafts following a novel reduced intensity conditioning regimen without total body irradiation or serotherapy. Extensive depletion of CD45RA+ T cells and B cells, with preservation of abundant memory T cells, was consistently achieved in all 17 products. Neutrophil engraftment (median day +10) and full donor chimerism (median day +11) was rapidly achieved post-transplantation. Early T-cell reconstitution directly correlated with the CD45RA-depleted graft content. T-cell function recovered rapidly with broad TCR Vβ spectra. There was no infection-related mortality in this heavily pretreated population, and no patient developed acute GvHD despite infusion of a median of >100 million per kilogram haploidentical T cells. PMID:25665048

  2. Etiology, clinical course and outcome of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in patients with hematological malignancies: a retrospective study of 350 patients in a Finnish tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Åttman, Emilia; Aittoniemi, Janne; Sinisalo, Marjatta; Vuento, Risto; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Kärki, Tommi; Syrjänen, Jaana; Huttunen, Reetta

    2015-01-01

    This retrospectively collected laboratory-based surveillance data includes 575 healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) in 350 patients with hematological malignancy in Tampere University Hospital, Finland, during 1999-2001 and 2005-2010. The most common underlying diseases were acute myelogenous leukemia (n=283, 49%), followed by myeloma (n=87, 15%) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (n=76, 13%). The overall rate was 9.1 BSIs per 1000 patient-days. Gram-positive BSIs predominated and the most common pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (23%), viridans streptococci (11%), enterococci (9%) and Escherichia coli (9%). Fungi caused 2% of BSIs. The 7-day and 28-day case fatalities were 5% and 10% and were highest in BSIs caused by P. aeruginosa (19% and 34%, respectively). The median age of patients with BSI has increased; it was 55.0 years during 1999-2001, compared to 59.0 years in 2005-2007 and 59.0 years in 2008-2010 (p<0.0001). Gram-positive bacteria predominated in this material. Case fatalities were low as compared to previous reports although the median age of patients increased.

  3. Comparable long-term survival after bone marrow versus peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation from matched unrelated donors in children with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Roland; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Balzer, Stefan; Bernbeck, Benedikt; Kramm, Christof; Schönberger, Stefan; Sinha, Kumar; Tröger, Anja; Schmitz, Monika; Fischer, Johannes; Göbel, Ulrich; Enczmann, Jürgen; Dilloo, Dagmar

    2007-11-01

    Despite the increasing use of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) instead of bone marrow (BM) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo HSCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated donors in children, the relative benefits and risks of both stem cell sources in the pediatric setting remain largely unknown. Recently, the only larger study comparing the value of the 2 stem cell sources in a young patient group was confined to transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors in older children and adolescents with acute leukemia. Based on the paucity of data in pediatric HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation, we analyzed the outcome of 23 BM and 38 PBPC transplantations performed at our center. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment were achieved significantly faster in PBPC compared to BM recipients (18 versus 22 days and 26 versus 33 days; P < .001 and P = .03) whereas the risk for grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (62% versus 55%; P = .53) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD 65% versus 59%; P = .54) was comparable. As overall survival (OS; PBPC versus BM: 47.5% +/- 8.6% versus 51.8% +/- 10.5%; P = .88) and relapse-free survival (43.3% +/- 8.3% versus 51.8% +/- 10.5%; P = .60) are without detectable difference, PBPC and BM appear both as a valid stem cell source for HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation in children with hematologic malignancies.

  4. The NO-modified HIV protease inhibitor as a valuable drug for hematological malignancies: Role of p70S6K.

    PubMed

    Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Mojic, Marija; Bulatovic, Mirna; Radojkovic, Milica; Kuzmanovic, Milos; Ristic, Slobodan; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Miljkovic, Djordje; Cavalli, Eugenio; Libra, Massimo; Fagone, Paolo; McCubrey, James; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Mijatovic, Sanja

    2015-10-01

    Covalent attachment of NO to the first approved HIV protease inhibitor Saquinavir (Saq-NO) expands the therapeutic potential of the original drug. Apart from retained antiviral activity, the modified drug exerts strong antitumor effects and lower toxicity. In the present study, we have evaluated the sensitivity of different hematological malignancies to Saq-NO. Saq-NO efficiently diminished the viability of Jurkat, Raji, HL-60 and K562 cells. While Jurkat and Raji cells (established from pediatric patients) displayed abrogated proliferative potential, HL-60 and K652 cells (originated from adults) exposed to Saq-NO treatment underwent caspase dependent apoptosis. In addition, similar sensitivity to Saq-NO was observed in mononuclear blood cells obtained from pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Western blot analysis indicated p70S6 kinase as a possible intracellular target of Saq-NO action. Moreover, the addition of a NO moiety to Lopinavir resulted in improved antitumor potential as compared to the parental compound, suggesting that NO-derived HIV protease inhibitors are a potential new source of anticancer drugs with unique mode of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seroprevalence of Bartonella species, Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii among patients with hematological malignancies: A pilot study in Romania.

    PubMed

    Messinger, C J; Gurzau, E S; Breitschwerdt, E B; Tomuleasa, C I; Trufan, S J; Flonta, M M; Maggi, R G; Berindan-Neagoe, I; Rabinowitz, P M

    2017-09-01

    Patients receiving immunosuppressive cancer treatments in settings where there is a high degree of human-animal interaction may be at increased risk for opportunistic zoonotic infections or reactivation of latent infections. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of selected zoonotic pathogens among patients diagnosed with haematologic malignancies and undergoing chemotherapeutic treatments in Romania, where much of the general population lives and/or works in contact with livestock. A convenience sample of 51 patients with haematologic cancer undergoing chemotherapy at a referral clinic in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, was surveyed regarding animal exposures. Blood samples were obtained and tested for evidence of infection with Bartonella species, Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii, which are important opportunistic zoonotic agents in immunocompromised individuals. 58.8% of participants reported living or working on a farm, and living or working on a farm was associated with contact with livestock and other animals. 37.5% of participants were IgG seroreactive against one or more of five Bartonella antigens, and seroreactivity was statistically associated with living on farms. Farm dwellers were 3.6 times more likely to test IgG seroreactive to Bartonella antibodies than non-farm dwellers. 47.1% of the participants tested T. gondii IgG positive and 13.7% tested C. burnetii IgG positive, indicating past or latent infection. C. burnetii IgM antibodies were detected in four participants (7.8%), indicating possible recent infection. These results indicate that a large proportion of patients with haematologic cancer in Romania may be at risk for zoonotic infections or for reactivation of latent zoonotic infections, particularly with respect to Bartonella species. Special attention should be paid to cancer patients' exposure to livestock and companion animals in areas where much of the population lives in rural settings. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Encephalopathy is the dose-limiting toxicity of intravenous hepsulfam: results of a phase I trial in patients with advanced hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Larson, R A; Geller, R B; Janisch, L; Milton, J; Grochow, L B; Ratain, M J

    1995-01-01

    Hepsulfam is a bisulfamic ester which is similar in structure to busulfan and is believed to act as a bifunctional alkylator inducing both DNA-DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks. Prior studies in patients with refractory solid tumors have identified the dose-limiting toxicity of hepsulfam to be cumulative myelosuppression resulting in prolonged leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. This phase I trial was designed to determine the maximally tolerated dose of hepsulfam administered intravenously in patients with refractory leukemias and other advanced hematologic malignancies. Hepsulfam was administered as a 30-min or 2-h intravenous infusion to 21 patients with advanced leukemia or multiple myeloma. All patients had been extensively treated and had progressive disease. Cycles were repeated every 5 weeks. Cohorts of patients were treated at 360, 480, 640, and 800 mg/m2. The dose-limiting toxicity of intravenous hepsulfam was severe encephalopathy. The single patient treated at 800 mg/m2 became comatose within 48 h and required 3 weeks for his mental status to return to baseline. There were, however, no irreversible neurological sequelae. Several patients treated at 640 mg/m2 had clinical evidence of toxic deliriums and slowing of alpha rhythm waves on electroencephalograms indicative of a gray-matter encephalopathy. When hepsulfam was infused over 30 min, patients complained of uncomfortable parasthesias, but when the drug was administered over 2 h, these acute symptoms were less common. Myelosuppression was observed in most patients. Among those patients who had some suppression of their leukemia, peripheral blood counts recovered to pretreatment levels after 3-5 weeks. Apart from CNS toxicity, non-hematologic toxicity was minimal. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated rapid clearance of hepsulfam so that the drug was not reliably detected in the plasma after 24 h. The recommended phase II dose of hepsulfam as a single 2-h intravenous infusion is 480 mg/m2, but this dose

  7. Discussing and managing hematologic germ line variants.

    PubMed

    Kohlmann, Wendy; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2016-12-02

    With the introduction of genomic technologies, more hereditary cancer syndromes with hematologic malignancies are being described. Up to 10% of hematologic malignancies in children and adults may be the result of an underlying inherited genetic risk. Managing these patients with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including familial leukemia, remains a clinical challenge because there is little information about these relatively rare disorders. This article covers some of the issues related to the diagnosis and interpretation of variants associated with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including the importance of an accurate family history in interpreting genetic variants associated with disease. The challenges of screening other family members and offering the most appropriate early malignancy detection is also discussed. We now have a good opportunity to better define hereditary cancer syndromes with associated hematologic malignancies and contribute to clinically effective guidelines.

  8. Discussing and managing hematologic germ line variants.

    PubMed

    Kohlmann, Wendy; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2016-11-24

    With the introduction of genomic technologies, more hereditary cancer syndromes with hematologic malignancies are being described. Up to 10% of hematologic malignancies in children and adults may be the result of an underlying inherited genetic risk. Managing these patients with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including familial leukemia, remains a clinical challenge because there is little information about these relatively rare disorders. This article covers some of the issues related to the diagnosis and interpretation of variants associated with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including the importance of an accurate family history in interpreting genetic variants associated with disease. The challenges of screening other family members and offering the most appropriate early malignancy detection is also discussed. We now have a good opportunity to better define hereditary cancer syndromes with associated hematologic malignancies and contribute to clinically effective guidelines.

  9. Outcomes of critically ill patients with hematologic malignancies: prospective multicenter data from France and Belgium--a groupe de recherche respiratoire en réanimation onco-hématologique study.

    PubMed

    Azoulay, Elie; Mokart, Djamel; Pène, Frédéric; Lambert, Jérôme; Kouatchet, Achille; Mayaux, Julien; Vincent, François; Nyunga, Martine; Bruneel, Fabrice; Laisne, Louise-Marie; Rabbat, Antoine; Lebert, Christine; Perez, Pierre; Chaize, Marine; Renault, Anne; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Benoit, Dominique; Hamidfar, Rebecca; Jourdain, Mercé; Darmon, Michael; Schlemmer, Benoit; Chevret, Sylvie; Lemiale, Virginie

    2013-08-01

    PURPOSE Patients with hematologic malignancies are increasingly admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) when life-threatening events occur. We sought to report outcomes and prognostic factors in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS Ours was a prospective, multicenter cohort study of critically ill patients with hematologic malignancies. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and disease status were collected after 3 to 6 months. Results Of the 1,011 patients, 38.2% had newly diagnosed malignancies, 23.1% were in remission, and 24.9% had received hematopoietic stem-cell transplantations (HSCT, including 145 allogeneic). ICU admission was mostly required for acute respiratory failure (62.5%) and/or shock (42.3%). On day1, 733 patients (72.5%) received life-supporting interventions. Hospital, day-90, and 1-year survival rates were 60.7%, 52.5%, and 43.3%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, cancer remission and time to ICU admission less than 24 hours were associated with better hospital survival. Poor performance status, Charlson comorbidity index, allogeneic HSCT, organ dysfunction score, cardiac arrest, acute respiratory failure, malignant organ infiltration, and invasive aspergillosis were associated with higher hospital mortality. Mechanical ventilation (47.9% of patients), vasoactive drugs (51.2%), and dialysis (25.9%) were associated with mortality rates of 60.5%, 57.5%, and 59.2%, respectively. On day 90, 80% of survivors had no HRQOL alterations (physical and mental health similar to that of the overall cancer population). After 6 months, 80% of survivors had no change in treatment intensity compared with similar patients not admitted to the ICU, and 80% were in remission. CONCLUSION Critically ill patients with hematologic malignancies have good survival, disease control, and post-ICU HRQOL. Earlier ICU admission is associated with better survival.

  10. Hematology Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share ... Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Hematology Glossary Jump To: A acute: refers to a ...

  11. Exposure-Response of Veliparib to Inform Phase II Trial Design in Refractory or Relapsed Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shailly; Gopalakrishnan, Mathangi; Gobburu, Jogarao; Ji, Jiuping Jay; Greer, Jacqueline M; Piekarz, Richard L; Karp, Judith; Pratz, Keith W; Rudek, Michelle A

    2017-07-27

    Purpose: A phase I trial of veliparib in combination with topotecan plus carboplatin (T+C) demonstrated 33% objective response rate in patients with hematological malignancies. The objective is to perform exposure-response analysis to inform the phase II trial design.

    Experimental Design: Pharmacokinetic, efficacy and safety data from 95 patients, who were administered 10 to 100 mg BID doses of veliparib for either 8, 14 or 21 days with T+C, were utilized for exposure-efficacy (objective response and overall survival) and exposure-safety (≥Grade 3  mucositis) analysis. Multivariate cox proportional hazards and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The covariates evaluated were disease status, duration of treatment and number of prior therapies.

    Results: The odds of having objective response were 1.08-fold with 1000 ng.hr/mL increase in AUC, 1.8-fold with >8 days treatment, 2.8-fold in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and 0.5-fold with ≥2 prior therapies. Based on analysis of overall survival, hazard of death decreased by 1.5% for 1000 ng.hr/mL increase in AUC, 39% with >8 days treatment, 44% in patients with MPN, while increased by 19% with ≥2 prior therapies. The odds of having ≥Grade 3 mucositis increased by 29% with 1000 ng.hr/mL increase in AUC.

    Conclusions: Despite shallow exposure-efficacy relationship, doses lower than 80 mg do not exceed veliparib single agent preclinical IC50 Shallow exposure-mucositis relationship also supports the 80 mg dose. Based on benefit/risk assessment, veliparib at a dose of 80 mg BID for at least 14 days in combination with T+C is recommended to be studied in MPN patients. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Anti-Müllerian hormone and antral follicle count reveal a late impairment of ovarian reserve in patients undergoing low-gonadotoxic regimens for hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rossana; Costantini, Claudio; Tecchio, Cristina; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montemezzi, Rachele; Perandini, Alessio; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Franchi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The impact of cancer therapy on the reproductive potential of patients is increasingly recognized because survival rates of patients have clearly improved in recent years. Different fertility preservation methods, either generally accepted or still experimental, are currently available, and counseling of patients requires a delicate balance between the efficacy and side effects of the proposed method and the characteristics of both the tumor and the therapy. Deeper knowledge of the effects of cancer therapy on the reproductive potential of patients over time is required to identify the most appropriate fertility preservation method. In this paper, we report a case-control study in which female patients who were diagnosed with hematological malignancies and treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy were compared with age-matched controls in terms of ovarian reserve, as measured by ultrasound examination and hormonal status. By stratifying patients for gonadotoxicity of the therapy received and time elapsed from the end of the therapy, we report that patients treated with low gonadotoxic therapies, while being similar to age-matched controls in their ovarian reserve when evaluated within a few years from the end of the therapy, show a clear impairment over longer times. We also report that anti-Müllerian hormone is the most sensitive hormonal parameter in detecting changes in ovarian reserve when compared with follicle-stimulating hormone or inhibin-B. This study stresses the importance of accurate counseling at the time of diagnosis of cancer and emphasizes the risks of infertility with low gonadotoxic therapies that may reduce the reproductive window of survivors.

  13. Development and evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of blastocystis parasites in human stool samples: prospective study of patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Philippe; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Albert, Aurélie; El Alaoui, Hicham; Delbac, Frédéric; Livrelli, Valérie

    2011-03-01

    Blastocystis anaerobic parasites are widespread worldwide in the digestive tract of many animal species, including humans. Epidemiological Blastocystis studies are often limited by the poor sensitivity of standard parasitological assays for its detection. This report presents a highly sensitive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay developed to detect Blastocystis parasites in stool samples. The assay targets a partial sequence of the Blastocystis small ribosomal subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, allowing subtyping (ST) of Blastocystis isolates by direct sequencing of qPCR products. This qPCR method was assessed in a prospective study of 186 patients belonging to two cohorts--a group of 94 immunocompromised patients presenting hematological malignancies and a control group of 92 nonimmunocompromised patients. Direct-light microscopy and xenic in vitro stool culture analysis showed only 29% and 52% sensitivity, respectively, compared to our qPCR assay. Of the 27 (14.5%) Blastocystis-positive patients, 8 (4%) experienced digestive symptoms. No correlation was found between symptomatic patients and immune status, parasite load, or parasite subtypes, although subtyping of all isolates revealed a high (63.0%) prevalence of ST4. Two unexpected avian subtypes were found, i.e., ST6 and ST7, which are frequently isolated in Asia but rarely present in Western countries. In conclusion, this qPCR proved by far the most sensitive of the tested methods and allowed subtype determination by direct sequencing of qPCR products. New diagnostic tools such as the qPCR are essential for evaluating the clinical relevance of Blastocystis subtypes and their role in acute or chronic digestive disorders.

  14. A Phase I Study of the First-in-Class Anti-Mitochondrial Metabolism Agent, CPI-613, in Patients with Advanced Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Timothy S.; Lee, King; Luddy, John; Maturo, Claudia; Rodriguez, Robert; Isom, Scott; Miller, Lance D.; Stadelman, Kristin M.; Levitan, Denise; Hurd, David; Ellis, Leslie R.; Harrelson, Robin; Manuel, Megan; Dralle, Sarah; Lyerly, Susan; Powell, Bayard L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The lipoate derivative CPI-613 is a first-in-class agent that targets mitochondrial metabolism. This study determined the effects of CPI-613 on mitochondrial function and defined the maximally tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PKs), and safety in patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies. Experimental Design Human leukemia cell lines were exposed to CPI-613 and mitochondrial function was assayed. A phase I trial was conducted in which CPI-613 was given as a 2-hour infusion on days 1 and 4 for 3 weeks every 28 days. Results CPI-613 inhibited mitochondrial respiration of human leukemia cells consistent with the proposed mechanism of action. In the phase I trial, 26 patients were enrolled. CPI-613 was well tolerated with no marrow suppression observed. When the infusion time was shortened to 1 hour renal failure occurred in 2 patients. At 3780 mg/m2, there were 2 dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). At a dose of 2940 mg/m2 over 2 hours, no DLTs were observed, establishing this as the MTD. Renal failure occurred in a total of 4 patients and resolved in all but 1, who chose hospice care. CPI-613 has a triphasic elimination with an alpha half-life of ~1.34 hours. Of 21 evaluable, heavily pretreated, patients, 4 achieved an objective response and 2 achieved prolonged stabilization of disease for a clinical benefit rate of 29%. Following drug exposure, gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from responders demonstrated immune activation. Conclusion CPI-613 inhibits mitochondrial function and demonstrates activity in a heavily pretreated cohort of patients. PMID:25165100

  15. Immunotherapy in high-risk chemotherapy-resistant patients with metastatic solid tumors and hematological malignancies using intentionally mismatched donor lymphocytes activated with rIL-2: a phase I study.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Shimon; Ackerstein, Aliza; Or, Reuven; Shapira, Michael Y; Gesundheit, Benjamin; Askenasy, Nadir; Morecki, Shoshana

    2010-10-01

    The feasibility and safety of immunotherapy mediated by intentionally mismatched rIL-2 activated killer lymphocytes (IMAK) with no prior stem cell engraftment was investigated in patients with advanced chemotherapy-resistant hematological malignancies and metastatic solid tumors. Our goals were to maximize anti-cancer activity by using intentionally mismatched donor lymphocytes; amplify killing of target cancer cells by rIL-2 activation of killer cells in vitro and in vivo, and avoid the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by anticipated rejection of alloreactive donor lymphocytes. Conditioning consisted of 5 days of fludarabine 25 mg/m(2) or a single dose of cyclophosphamide 1,000 mg/m(2), 2 subcutaneous injections of alpha interferon (IFN) 3 x 10(6) and COX2 inhibitors, followed by administration of IMAK (65 +/- 5 CD3(+)CD56(-); 17 +/- 5 CD3(-)CD56(+)) in conjunction with low dose subcutaneous rIL-2 (6 x 10(6) IU/m(2)/day) for 5 days for continuous activation of alloreactive donor lymphocytes prior to their anticipated rejection. Here, we present our phase 1 clinical study data in a cohort of 40 high-risk patients with metastatic solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Treatment was accompanied by some malaise and occasional self-limited fever but otherwise well tolerated on an outpatient basis. Transient engraftment of donor cells was documented in two patients and only one developed self-limited grade 1 GVHD. Among patients with chemotherapy-resistant disease, long-term progression-free survival was recorded in 5 of 21 evaluable patients with metastatic solid tumors and in four of five patients with hematological malignancies. We conclude that the proposed procedure is feasible, safe, and potentially effective, with some otherwise resistant cancer patients long-term disease-free, thus justifying larger Phase II studies in patients with hematological malignancies and metastatic solid tumors, preferably at a stage of minimal residual disease with the

  16. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Press, O.W.

    1989-05-12

    In the seven months which have elapsed since initial funding of this project, considerable progress has been made towards achieving the objectives of this research. These objectives include: to study the relative rates of metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor associated antigens; to examine the effects of lysomotropic amines (ammonium chloride, chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin), and thionamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled mAbs by tumor cells; to identify the subcellular site of radioimmunoconjugate degradation, and to quantify the sizes of the fragments generated by intracellular metabolism of radiolabeled mAbs; to examine the effects of lysomotropic agents on the quality of external gamma camera imaging and radiation dosimetry generated in tumor-bearing mice injected with radiolabeled mAbs; to examine the effects of lysomotropic agents on the radiotherapeutic efficacy of radiolabeled mAbs in murine tumors and human tumors xenografted to nude mice; and to compare the effects of lysomotropic agents on the degradation of radioimmunoconjugates made with different radionuclides and different conjugation methods.

  17. A Prospective Study of {sup 18}FDG-PET With CT Coregistration for Radiation Treatment Planning of Lymphomas and Other Hematologic Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Schöder, Heiko; Kowalski, Alexander; McCann, Patrick; Lim, Remy; Turlakov, Alla; Gonen, Mithat; Barker, Chris; Goenka, Anuj; Lovie, Shona; Yahalom, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This prospective single-institution study examined the impact of positron emission tomography (PET) with the use of 2-[{sup 18}F] fluoro-2-deoxyglucose and computed tomography (CT) scan radiation treatment planning (TP) on target volume definition in lymphoma. Methods and Materials: 118 patients underwent PET/CT TP during June 2007 to May 2009. Gross tumor volume (GTV) was contoured on CT-only and PET/CT studies by radiation oncologists (ROs) and nuclear medicine physicians (NMPs) for 95 patients with positive PET scans. Treatment plans and dose-volume histograms were generated for CT-only and PET/CT for 95 evaluable sites. Paired t test statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for analysis. Results: 70 (74%) patients had non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 10 (11%) had Hodgkin lymphoma, 12 (10%) had plasma-cell neoplasm, and 3 (3%) had other hematologic malignancies. Forty-three (45%) presented with relapsed/refractory disease. Forty-five (47%) received no prior chemotherapy. The addition of PET increased GTV as defined by ROs in 38 patients (median, 27%; range, 5%-70%) and decreased GTV in 41 (median, 39.5%; range, 5%-80%). The addition of PET increased GTV as defined by NMPs in 27 patients (median, 26.5%; range, 5%-95%) and decreased GTV in 52 (median, 70%; range, 5%-99%). The intraobserver correlation between CT-GTV and PET-GTV was higher for ROs than for NMPs (0.94, P<.01 vs 0.89, P<.01). On the basis of Bland-Altman plots, the PET-GTVs defined by ROs were larger than those defined by NMPs. On evaluation of clinical TPs, only 4 (4%) patients had inadequate target coverage (D95 <95%) of the PET-GTV defined by NMPs. Conclusions: Significant differences between the RO and NMP volumes were identified when PET was coregistered to CT for radiation planning. Despite this, the PET-GTV defined by ROs and NMPs received acceptable prescription dose in nearly all patients. However, given the potential for a marginal miss, consultation with an experienced PET

  18. Febuxostat for management of tumor lysis syndrome including its effects on levels of purine metabolites in patients with hematological malignancies - a single institution's, pharmacokinetic and pilot prospective study.

    PubMed

    Takai, Mihoko; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Ookura, Miyuki; Matsuda, Yasufumi; Tai, Katsunori; Kishi, Shinji; Yoshida, Akira; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Toru; Ueda, Takanori

    2014-12-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening oncological emergency, and control of serum uric acid level (S-UA) is most important. In this single-institution, short-term and pilot prospective study, the efficacy of a new xanthine oxidase inhibitor, febuxostat, as an alternative to conventional allopurinol, including its effects on hypoxanthine and xanthine, was evaluated in 10 consecutive patients with hematological malignancies at intermediate risk for TLS. Febuxostat at 40 mg (n=7) or 60 mg (n=3) daily was administered according to renal function, and induction chemotherapy was started within 24 h. The primary end-point was the reduction of S-UA to ≤ 7.5 mg/dl by day 5. The median S-UA at base-line was 8.0 mg/dl (range=3.2-10.6 mg/dl). The median S-UA on day 5 after chemotherapy was 3.3 mg/dl (range=1.1-5.8 mg/dl) (p<0.0001, by paired t-test), indicating successful control of S-UA during chemotherapy. All patients achieved S-UA ≤ 7.5 mg/dl. A simultaneous decrease in serum creatinine and increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate were seen. Serum hypoxanthine and xanthine levels (as the consequence of inhibition of xanthine oxidase) were elevated along with the decrease in S-UA. Xanthine level was elevated higher compared to hypoxanthine level and reached the level reported to cause xanthine nephropathy, but no advance of renal impairment was observed. Serum febuxostat concentrations at 2 h after administration were 891.8 ± 285.0 ng/ml (mean ± SE) for the 40-mg dose and 770.6 ± 242.7 ng/ml for the 60-mg dose (p=0.80, unpaired t-test), showing no accumulation in patients with renal impairment. No febuxostat-related adverse reactions were noted. No patients experienced progressive TLS. Febuxostat is promising for the management of TLS of an intermediate-risk patient and further observation and reevaluation regarding xanthine nephropathy should be performed. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios

  19. Reduced-intensity conditioning regimen using low-dose total body irradiation before allogeneic transplant for hematologic malignancies: Experience from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, Yazid . E-mail: y-belkacemi@o-lambret.fr; Labopin, Myriam; Hennequin, Christophe; Hoffstetter, Sylvette; Mungai, Raffaello; Wygoda, Marc; Lundell, Marie; Finke, Jurgen; Aktinson, Chris; Lorchel, Frederic; Durdux, Catherine; Basara, Nadezda

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: The high rate of toxicity is the limitation of myelobalative regimens before allogeneic transplantation. A reduced intensity regimen can allow engraftment of stem cells and subsequent transfer of immune cells for the induction of a graft-vs.-tumor reaction. Methods and Materials: The data from 130 patients (80 males and 50 females) treated between 1998 and 2003 for various hematologic malignancies were analyzed. The median patient age was 50 years (range, 3-72 years). Allogeneic transplantation using peripheral blood or bone marrow, or both, was performed in 104 (82%), 22 (17%), and 4 (3%) patients, respectively, from HLA identical sibling donors (n = 93, 72%), matched unrelated donors (n = 23, 18%), mismatched related donors (4%), or mismatched unrelated donors (6%). Total body irradiation (TBI) at a dose of 2 Gy delivered in one fraction was given to 101 patients (78%), and a total dose of 4-6 Gy was given in 29 (22%) patients. The median dose rate was 14.3 cGy/min (range, 6-16.4). Results: After a median follow-up period of 20 months (range, 1-62 months), engraftment was obtained in 122 patients (94%). Acute graft-vs.-host disease of Grade 2 or worse was observed in 37% of patients. Multivariate analysis showed three favorable independent factors for event-free survival: HLA identical sibling donor (p < 0.0001; relative risk [RR], 0.15), complete remission (p < 0.0001; RR, 3.08), and female donor to male patient (p = 0.006; RR 2.43). For relapse, the two favorable prognostic factors were complete remission (p < 0.0001, RR 0.11) and HLA identical sibling donor (p = 0.0007; RR 3.59). Conclusions: In this multicenter study, we confirmed high rates of engraftment and chimerism after the reduced intensity regimen. Our results are comparable to those previously reported. Radiation parameters seem to have no impact on outcome. However, the lack of a statistically significant difference in terms of dose rate may have been due, in part, to the small population

  20. [From JSLH (The Japanese Society for Laboratory Hematology): An Active Team Approach to Medicine as Laboratory Technologists, through Showing Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Samples Directly to Patients with Hematological Malignancy].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Sanae; Kojima, Yukari; Saito, Kyoko; Wada, Hisako; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morinaga, Koji; Kawai, Yasukazu; Haba, Toshihiro

    2014-11-01

    The clinical path for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients has been in practice in our hospital since 2003. In the clinical path, laboratory technologists take on the role of explaining the microscopic findings in bone marrow and peripheral blood samples to patients (with or without their families) using the view-sharing microscope in our laboratory. From July 2003 to October 2014, 56 patients were enrolled in the AML clinical path and given an explanation of their bone marrow and peripheral blood samples. The patients' median age was 62, and the median time spent for explanation was 40 minutes. We conducted a questionnaire feedback survey involving those who enrolled, and the results showed significant improvement in the recognition of the disease pathophysiology, treatment efficacy, and the importance of precautions against infectious diseases. Based on the feedback, we have made marked efforts to provide patients with an improved environment during the explanatory session. This includes installing a special display for the patients, drawing a schematic illustration that shows how the blood cells differentiate, and putting them into operation in a hematology ward to promote patient privacy and precautions against infectious diseases. Hematological laboratory technologists have played an important role in patient care in our hospital. To perform their role as effectively as possible, hematological laboratory technologists participate in the conferences of the Department of Hematology and Oncology regularly, in which medical staff members can discuss the conditions and clinical courses of patients. We aim to contribute to patient satisfaction by sophisticating specialized knowledge as hematological laboratory technologists and cooperate with other medical staff members.

  1. Decreased complement mediated binding of antibody//sup 3/-dsDNA immune complexes to the red blood cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.P.; Horgan, C.; Buschbacher, R.; Brunner, C.M.; Hess, C.E.; O'Brien, W.M.; Wanebo, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    The complement mediated binding of prepared antibody//sup 3/H-dsDNA immune complexes to the red blood cells obtained from a number of patient populations has been investigated. Patients with solid tumors have binding activity similar to that seen in a normal group of individuals. However, a significant fraction of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and hematologic malignancies have lowered binding activity compared with normal subjects. Quantitative studies indicate the lowered activity probably arises due to a decrease in complement receptors on the respective red blood cells. The potential importance and implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  2. Neonatal hematology.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Miron, Jose; Miller, Jacob; Vogel, Adam M

    2013-11-01

    Neonatal hematology is a complex and dynamic process in the pediatric population. Surgeons frequently encounter hematologic issues regarding hemostasis, inflammation, and wound healing. This publication provides a surgeon-directed review of hematopoiesis in the newborn, as well as an overview of the current understanding of their hemostatic profile under normal and pathologic conditions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A pilot study of cytoreductive chemotherapy combined with infusion of additional peripheral blood stem cells reserved at time of harvest for transplantation in case of relapsed hematologic malignancies after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Kim, J G; Sohn, S K; Kim, D H; Lee, N Y; Suh, J S; Lee, K S; Lee, K B

    2004-01-01

    Reharvesting leukocytes from donors for a donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) is inconvenient and occasionally impossible in case of unrelated donors. It is well known that the effect of a growth factor-primed DLI is comparable to that of a nonprimed DLI. In total, 42 patients with hematologic malignancies and a high risk of relapse were allocated, on an intent-to-treat basis, a peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from HLA-matched sibling donors, and then at the time of harvest, additional peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were also reserved for a therapeutic primed DLI in case of relapse. In all, 12 patients who relapsed after allogeneic PBSCT were treated with mainly cytarabine-based chemotherapy followed by a cryopreserved PBSC infusion. The median dose of CD3+ and CD34+ cells for the primed DLIs was 1.43 x 10(8)/kg and 4.75 x 10(6)/kg, respectively. Six of the 12 relapsed patients exhibited a complete response after the primed DLI, plus their 1-year survival rate was 33%. The new development or progression of graft-versus-host disease after a primed DLI was observed in 50% of the patients. Overall, the survival at 1 year was 16.7%. Accordingly, the induction of a graft-versus-leukemia effect through a primed DLI, using additional PBSCs reserved at the original time of harvest, would appear to be feasible for patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, this approach is also more convenient for donors.

  4. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Cancer.gov

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  5. Palonosetron versus other 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with emetogenic chemotherapy in a hospital outpatient setting in the United States.

    PubMed

    Craver, Chris; Gayle, Julie; Balu, Sanjeev; Buchner, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after initiating antiemetic prophylaxis with palonosetron versus other 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists (RAs) in patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies (lymphoma and leukemia) and receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) in a hospital outpatient setting. Patients aged ≥ 18 years and diagnosed with hematologic malignancies initiating HEC or MEC and antiemetic prophylaxis with palonosetron (Group 1) and other 5-HT₃ RAs (Group 2) for the first time in a hospital outpatient setting between 4/1/2007 and 3/31/2009 were identified from the Premier Perspective Database. Within each cycle, CINV events were identified (in the hospital outpatient, inpatient, and emergency room settings) through ICD-9 codes for nausea, vomiting, and/or volume depletion (from each CT administration day 1 until the end of the CT cycle), or use of rescue medications (day 2 until the end of the CT cycle). Negative binomial distribution generalized linear multivariate regression model estimating the CINV event rate on CT, specific CT cycles, and cancer diagnosis (leukemia/lymphoma)-matched groups in the follow-up period (first of 8 cycles or 6 months) was developed. Of 971 identified patients, 211 initiated palonosetron (Group 1). Group 1 patients comprised of more females [50.2 vs. 41.4%; p = 0.0226], Whites [74.4 vs. 70.4%, and Hispanics [7.6 vs. 6.3%; all races p = 0.0105], received more HEC treatments [89.6 vs. 84.2%; all CT types p = 0.0129], and had more lymphoma diagnosed patients [89.6 vs. 76.3%; all cancer types p = 0.0033] at baseline. After controlling for differences in several demographic and clinical variables, the regression model predicted a 20.4% decrease in CINV event rate per CT cycle for Group 1 versus Group 2 patients. Study limitations include potential lack of generalizability, absence of data on certain

  6. Anti-CD123 chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CART): an evolving treatment strategy for hematological malignancies, and a potential ace-in-the-hole against antigen-negative relapse.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Katherine D; Gill, Saar

    2017-09-13

    Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cells (CART) are a potent and targeted immunotherapy which have induced remissions in some patients with chemotherapy refractory or relapsed (RR) hematologic malignancies. Hundreds of patients have now been treated worldwide with anti-CD19 CART cells, with complete response rates of up to 90%. CART therapy has a unique toxicity profile, and unfortunately not all responses are durable. Treatment failure occurs via two main routes - by loss of the CART cell population, or relapse with antigen loss. Emerging data indicate that targeting an alternative antigen instead of, or as well as CD19, could improve CART cell efficacy and reduce antigen-negative relapse. Other strategies include the addition of other immune-based therapies. This review explores the rationale, pre-clinical data and currently investigative strategies underway for CART therapy targeting the myeloid and lymphoid stem/progenitor antigen CD123.

  7. Single-Agent Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide as Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis after Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Related Bone Marrow Transplantation for Pediatric and Young Adult Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Elad; Chen, Allen; Loeb, David M; Gamper, Christopher J; Zambidis, Elias; Llosa, Nicolas J; Huo, Jeffrey; Cooke, Kenneth R; Jones, Rick; Fuchs, Ephraim; Luznik, Leo; Symons, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    High-dose cyclophosphamide given after HLA-matched related and unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for patients with hematologic malignancies is effective single-agent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in adults. Data describing outcomes for pediatric and young adult patients have not been reported. Between the years 2007 and 2013, 29 pediatric and young adult patients ages ≤21 years of age treated at our institution for high-risk hematologic malignancies underwent myeloablative HLA-matched related T cell-replete BMT. Eleven patients received post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as single-agent GVHD prophylaxis and were followed prospectively. Eighteen patients received calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based standard GVHD prophylaxis and were studied retrospectively as a control group. No acute GVHD (aGVHD) developed in patients receiving PTCy, whereas patients receiving CNI-based GVHD prophylaxis had cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and grades III and IV aGVHD of 27% and 5%, respectively. No patients receiving PTCy developed chronic GHVD, compared to 1 in the control group. Two-year overall survival was similar between the 2 groups (54% PTCy versus 58% CNI-based prophylaxis), as was event-free survival (42% PTCy versus 47% CNI-based). The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 58% for PTCy and 42% for CNI-based GVHD prophylaxis (P = .45). These results suggest that PTCy is a safe and efficacious method of GVHD prophylaxis after an HLA-matched related BMT in the pediatric and young adult population that affords patients to be off all post-transplantation immunosuppression on day +5. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized prospective study evaluating tenofovir disoproxil fumarate prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus reactivation in anti-HBc-positive patients with rituximab-based regimens to treat hematologic malignancies: The Preblin study

    PubMed Central

    Buti, María; Manzano, María L.; Morillas, Rosa M.; García-Retortillo, Montserrat; Martín, Leticia; Prieto, Martín; Gutiérrez, María L.; Suárez, Emilio; Gómez Rubio, Mariano; López, Javier; Castillo, Pilar; Rodríguez, Manuel; Zozaya, José M.; Simón, Miguel A.; Morano, Luis E.; Calleja, José L.; Esteban, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients with resolved HBV infection (HBsAg negative, antiHBc positive) is uncommon, but potentially fatal. The role of HBV prophylaxis in this setting is uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) prophylaxis versus close monitoring in antiHBc-positive, HBsAg-negative patients under treatment with rituximab (RTX)-based regimens for hematologic malignancy. Methods PREBLIN is a phase IV, randomized, prospective, open-label, multicenter, parallel-group trial conducted in 17 hospitals throughout Spain. Anti-HBc-positive, HBsAg-negative patients with undetectable HBV DNA were randomized to receive TDF 300 mg once daily (Group I) or observation (Group II). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients showing HBV reactivation during 18 months following initiation of RTX treatment. Patients with detectable HBV DNA (Group III) received the same dose of TDF and were analyzed together with Group I to investigate TDF safety. Results Sixty-one patients were enrolled in the study, 33 in the TDF treatment group and 28 in the observation group. By ITT analysis, HBV reactivation was 0% (0/33) in the study group and 10.7% (3/28) in the observation group (p = 0.091). None of the patients in either group showed significant differences in liver function parameters between baseline and the last follow-up sample. TDF was generally well tolerated and there were no severe treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion In patients with hematological malignancy and resolved hepatitis B infection receiving RTX-based regimens, HBV reactivation did not occur in patients given TDF prophylaxis. PMID:28898281

  9. Reptile hematology.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Klaphake, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The basic principles of hematology used in mammalian medicine can be applied to reptiles. The appearances of the blood cells are significantly different from those seen in most mammals, and vary with taxa and staining method used. Many causes for abnormalities of the reptilian hemogram are similar to those for mammals, although additional factors such as venipuncture site, season, hibernation status, captivity status, and environmental factors can also affect values, making interpretation of hematologic results challenging. Values in an individual should be compared with reference ranges specific to that species, gender, and environmental conditions when available.

  10. Reptile Hematology.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Klaphake, Eric

    2015-09-01

    The basic principles of hematology used in mammalian medicine can be applied to reptiles. The appearances of the blood cells are significantly different from those seen in most mammals, and vary with taxa and staining method used. Many causes for abnormalities of the reptilian hemogram are similar to those for mammals, although additional factors such as venipuncture site, season, hibernation status, captivity status, and environmental factors can also affect values, making interpretation of hematologic results challenging. Values in an individual should be compared with reference ranges specific to that species, gender, and environmental conditions when available.

  11. Primary prophylaxis of bacterial infections and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors : guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO).

    PubMed

    Neumann, S; Krause, S W; Maschmeyer, G; Schiel, X; von Lilienfeld-Toal, M

    2013-04-01

    Bacterial infections are the most common cause for treatment-related mortality in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy. Here, we discuss the use of antibacterial prophylaxis against bacteria and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in neutropenic cancer patients and offer guidance towards the choice of drug. A literature search was performed to screen all articles published between September 2000 and January 2012 on antibiotic prophylaxis in neutropenic cancer patients. The authors assembled original reports and meta-analysis from the literature and drew conclusions, which were discussed and approved in a consensus conference of the Infectious Disease Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (AGIHO). Antibacterial prophylaxis has led to a reduction of febrile events and infections. A significant reduction of overall mortality could only be shown in a meta-analysis. Fluoroquinolones are preferred for antibacterial and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for PCP prophylaxis. Due to serious concerns about an increase of resistant pathogens, only patients at high risk of severe infections should be considered for antibiotic prophylaxis. Risk factors of individual patients and local resistance patterns must be taken into account. Risk factors, choice of drug for antibacterial and PCP prophylaxis and concerns regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotics are discussed in the review.

  12. NCI First International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention and Treatment of Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Report from the Committee on Prevention of Relapse Following Allogeneic Cell Transplantation for Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Alyea, Edwin P.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Moldrem, Jeffrey; Pagel, John M.; Przepiorka, Donna; Riddell, Stan; Sadelin, Michel; Young, James W.; Giralt, Sergio; Bishop, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Prevention of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the most likely approach to improve survival of patients treated for hematologic malignancies. Herein we review the limits of currently available transplant therapies and the innovative strategies being developed to overcome resistance to therapy or to fill therapeutic modalities not currently available. These novel strategies include nonimmunologic therapies, such as targeted preparative regimens and posttransplant drug therapy, as well as immunologic interventions, including graft engineering, donor lymphocyte infusions, T cell engineering, vaccination and dendritic cell-based approaches. Several aspects of the biology of the malignant cells as well as the host have been identified that obviate success of even these newer strategies. To maximize the potential for success, we recommend pursuing research to develop additional targeted therapies to be used in the preparative regimen or as maintenance post-transplant, better characterize the T-cell and dendritic cells subsets involved in graft-versus-host disease and the graft-versus-leukemia/tumor effect, identify strategies for timing immunologic or nonimmunologic therapies to eliminate the noncycling cancer stem cell, identify more targets for immunotherapies, develop new vaccines that will not be limited by HLA, and develop methods to identify population at very high risk for relapse in order to accelerate clinical development and avoid toxicity in patients not at risk for relapse. PMID:20580849

  13. Comparison of the effects of Ficoll-Hypaque separation and whole blood lysis on results of immunophenotypic analysis of blood and bone marrow samples from patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Tamul, K R; Schmitz, J L; Kane, K; Folds, J D

    1995-01-01

    We compared flow cytometric immunophenotyping results obtained by using the lysed whole blood method of sample preparation with those obtained by using Ficoll-Hypaque-separated cells on 44 consecutive specimens from patients with various hematologic malignancies. When the samples were analyzed as a group, seven antigens (CD2, CD3, CD5, CD11c, CD20, CD22, and CD34) demonstrated significantly different percentages of positively staining cells. When the samples were grouped by disease, results for patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia were discordant for CD22 and HLA-DR and results for patients with hairy cell leukemia were discordant for CD34. Most of the differences, however, were not with antigens critical to the evaluation of the malignancy. Additionally, the most frequent reason for differences in the percentage of positive cells was due to isotype control-based placement of the quadrant markers and not an actual discrepancy in staining. However, analysis of the CD34 antigen yielded eight instances in which staining of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated cells was essentially negative, but a clearly positive population was evident with the lysed preparation. This finding has important implications because of the prognostic significance of this antigen. Further studies are needed to determine the cause of this phenomenon. PMID:7545079

  14. Ex vivo T-cell-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies: The search for an optimum transplant T-cell dose and T-cell add-back strategy.

    PubMed

    Anandi, Prathima; Tian, Xin; Ito, Sawa; Muranski, Pawel; Chokshi, Puja D; Watters, Noelle; Chawla, Upneet; Hensel, Nancy; Stroncek, David F; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, A John

    2017-06-01

    T-cell depletion (TCD) of allogeneic stem cell transplants (SCT) can reduce graft-versus-host disease but may negatively affect transplant outcome by delaying immune recovery. To optimize TCD in HLA-matched siblings with hematologic malignancies, we explored varying the transplant CD3+ T-cell dose between 2 and 50 × 10(4)/kg (corresponding to 3-4 log depletion) and studied the impact of 0-6 × 10(7)/kg CD3+ donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) "add-back" on immune recovery post-SCT. Two hundred seventeen consecutive patients (age range, 10-75 years) with