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Sample records for hemiptera triatominae desde

  1. Karyotype of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Ravazi, A; Mendonça, V J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2015-01-16

    The Triatominae subfamily comprises 6 tribes. The tribe Rhodniini comprises 2 genera and 22 nominal species. Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae) was recently described as evolutionarily related to R. robustus. Therefore, in order to contribute to karyosystematic study of the tribe Rhodniini, this report describes the number of chromosomes and compares the karyotype of R. montenegrensis to that of all other species in the tribe, in order to determine the karyotypic evolution of the tribe Rhodniini. The seminiferous tubules of adult males, after being removed and fixated on a cover slip, were processed with lacto-aceto-orcein for cytogenetic analysis. R. montenegrensis, as well as all other species of the tribe Rhodniini showed 22 chromosomes (20 autosomes + XY). Thus, we hereby describe the karyotype of the species R. montenegrensis and mainly highlight that the tribe Rhodniini displays karyotypic homogeneity, demonstrating itself as a derived group to a lesser extent when compared to the number of chromosomes of the common ancestors of the subfamily Triatominae.

  2. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs.

  3. Diploid chromosome set of kissing bug Triatoma baratai (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Reis, Y V; Borgueti, A O; Mendonça, V J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2015-02-06

    Triatomines are insects that are taxonomically included in the Hemiptera order and Triatominae subfamily. Based on phenotypic similarity, capacity hybridization, and genetic and ecological aspects, the triatomine species can be grouped into specific complexes and subcomplexes. However, these groupings have not been confirmed. Cytogenetic analyses are important cytotaxonomic tools for improving the taxonomic knowledge of triatomines. Thus, we examined the karyotype of Triatoma baratai and compared the results with those of other species in the Matogrossensis subcomplex in order increase the understanding of vector potential. We also examined the cytotaxonomic classification of this insect. Triatoma baratai, similarly to other species that currently compose the Matogrossensis subcomplex, contains 22 chromosomes (20A + XY). Here, we describe the diploid chromosome set of T. baratai. We confirmed their current classification in the Matogrossensis subcomplex and demonstrated that the species in this subcomplex present karyotype homogeneity.

  4. Spermatogenesis in Triatoma melanocephala (Hemiptera: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Mendonça, P P; Pereira, N P; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2013-10-24

    Triatoma melanocephala is a rare species of Hemiptera. It belonged to the Brasiliensis subcomplex and presents morphological characteristics very close to those of Triatoma vitticeps. We investigated spermatogenesis of T. melanocephala and compared it with that of T. vitticeps in order to determine whether these organisms have similar cytogenetic characteristics. Lacto-acetic orcein staining was used to observe all stages of meiosis. These two species were found to have the same karyotype (2n = 20A + X1X2X3Y), heteropycnotic corpuscles in the polyploid spermatogonial cells, interfasic and profasic nucleus, and chromocenter with four sex chromosomes during prophase. Thus, we conclude that besides the morphologic similarity of T. melanocephala with T. vitticeps, they also have similar spermatogenesis and cytogenetics.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Triatomini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Triatomini and Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) tribes include the most diverse Chagas disease vectors; however, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribes remain obscure. This study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of Triatomini reported to date. Methods The relationships between all of the Triatomini genera and representatives of the three Rhodniini species groups were examined in a novel molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the following six molecular markers: the mitochondrial 16S; Cytochrome Oxidase I and II (COI and COII) and Cytochrome B (Cyt B); and the nuclear 18S and 28S. Results Our results show that the Rhodnius prolixus and R. pictipes groups are more closely related to each other than to the R. pallescens group. For Triatomini, we demonstrate that the large complexes within the paraphyletic Triatoma genus are closely associated with their geographical distribution. Additionally, we observe that the divergence within the spinolai and flavida complex clades are higher than in the other Triatoma complexes. Conclusions We propose that the spinolai and flavida complexes should be ranked under the genera Mepraia and Nesotriatoma. Finally, we conclude that a thorough morphological investigation of the paraphyletic genera Triatoma and Panstrongylus is required to accurately assign queries to natural genera. PMID:24685273

  6. Karyotype and spermatogenesis in Triatoma lenti (Hemiptera: Triatominae), a potential Chagas vector.

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Mendonça, P P; Succi, M; Pereira, N P; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2012-12-17

    All species of Triatominae are susceptible to infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and consequently, potential insect vectors of Chagas disease. Currently, there are 140 known species of triatomine bugs, which can be grouped into specific species complexes. The species Triatoma lenti (Hemiptera: Triatominae) is found only in Brazil and is considered a potential vector of Chagas disease. We karyotyped male T. lenti and examined its spermatogenesis in detail. The karyotype was found to be 2n = 20A + XY, demonstrating that this organism has the modal chromosome set found in triatomines. This new information concerning males of this species contributed to biological data that will be useful for understanding this potentially important Chagas disease vector.

  7. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Justi, Silvia A.; Galvão, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae. Methodology/Principal Findings We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species) and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae) calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly. Conclusions/Significance We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region. PMID:27058599

  8. Nucleolar persistence during spermatogenesis of the genus Rhodnius (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; da Costa Castro, Nayara Fernanda; Lima, Anna Claudia Campaner; Ravazi, Amanda; Morielle-Souza, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Jader; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2014-08-01

    The Triatominae subfamily is comprised of 18 genera and six tribes. The tribe Rhodniini is comprised of two genera (Rhodnius and Psammolestes). Nucleolar persistence is defined by the presence of the nucleolus or nucleolar corpuscles during the meiotic metaphase. To date, this phenomenon has been described for 13 species of triatomine that are included in the genera Triatoma, Rhodnius, and Panstrongylus. Thus, because the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence has been described in only two species of the genus Rhodnius, we have analyzed the nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis of eight species of the genus Rhodnius (R. colombiensis, R. montenegrensis, R. nasutus, R. neglectus, R. neivai, R. pictipes, R. prolixus, and R. robustus), with a focus on nucleolar persistence. By means of cytogenetic analysis with silver ions, nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis is described in the eight species of Rhodnius analyzed. In all of them nucleolar behavior was similar and the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was often observed. Therefore, we confirm nucleolar persistence as a peculiarity of the genus Rhodnius. However, it is emphasized that new cytogenetic analysis should be performed in the Triatominae subfamily, more specifically among the 15 genera that do not exhibit the nucleolar behavior described, in order to assess whether this phenomenon is truly a synapomorphy of these hematophagous insects. PMID:24797865

  9. Nucleolar persistence during spermatogenesis of the genus Rhodnius (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; da Costa Castro, Nayara Fernanda; Lima, Anna Claudia Campaner; Ravazi, Amanda; Morielle-Souza, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Jader; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2014-08-01

    The Triatominae subfamily is comprised of 18 genera and six tribes. The tribe Rhodniini is comprised of two genera (Rhodnius and Psammolestes). Nucleolar persistence is defined by the presence of the nucleolus or nucleolar corpuscles during the meiotic metaphase. To date, this phenomenon has been described for 13 species of triatomine that are included in the genera Triatoma, Rhodnius, and Panstrongylus. Thus, because the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence has been described in only two species of the genus Rhodnius, we have analyzed the nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis of eight species of the genus Rhodnius (R. colombiensis, R. montenegrensis, R. nasutus, R. neglectus, R. neivai, R. pictipes, R. prolixus, and R. robustus), with a focus on nucleolar persistence. By means of cytogenetic analysis with silver ions, nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis is described in the eight species of Rhodnius analyzed. In all of them nucleolar behavior was similar and the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was often observed. Therefore, we confirm nucleolar persistence as a peculiarity of the genus Rhodnius. However, it is emphasized that new cytogenetic analysis should be performed in the Triatominae subfamily, more specifically among the 15 genera that do not exhibit the nucleolar behavior described, in order to assess whether this phenomenon is truly a synapomorphy of these hematophagous insects.

  10. Study of the external female genitalia of 14 Rhodnius species (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) using scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Among the vectors of Chagas disease (Hemiptera: Reduviidae:Triatominae), there are eighteen Rhodnius species described and some are difficult to identify. The aim of this article is to contribute to the specific identification of fourteen Rhodnius spp. through morphological characters of the external female genitalia. Methods Female abdomens were cut transversely. The specimens were then prepared for examination by using scanning electron microscopy. Results The careful examination of the dorsal, posterior and ventral sides revealed characteristics that allowed the identification of each of the fourteen species. Conclusion The use of external female genitalia as characteristics are proposed as a tool for specifically identifying Rhodnius species, and an identification key for these species is presented. PMID:24405517

  11. Community-based sampling methods for surveillance of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Weeks, E N I; Davies, C; Rosales, C Cordón; Yeo, M; Gezan, S A; Parra-Henao, G; Cameron, M M

    2014-09-01

    In Guatemala, the most widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). T. dimidiata is native to Guatemala and is present in both domestic and sylvatic habitats. Consequently, control of T. dimidiata is difficult because after successful elimination from homes, individual insects can recolonize homes from the surrounding environment. Therefore, intensive long-term surveillance of this species is essential to ensure adequate control is achieved. Manual inspection for signs of infestation, the current method used to monitor Triatominae throughout Central and South America, is labor and time-consuming, so cost-effective alternatives are needed. The current study compared the effectiveness of the current method of surveillance of T. dimidiata with community-based techniques of G6mez-Nuñez sensor boxes, collection and observation of bugs by householders, and presence of triatomine-like feces on walls. Although manual inspection was the most sensitive method when used alone, collection by householders also was sensitive and specific and involved less effort. Sensor boxes were not sensitive indicators of T. dimidiata infestation when used alone. Two recorded variables, visual inspection for feces and the sighting of bugs by householders, were sensitive and specific indicators of infestation, and in combination with collection by householders and sensor boxes these methods were significantly more likely to detect infestations than manual inspection alone. A surveillance program that combines multiple community-based techniques should have low cost and involve minimal effort from the government and at the same time promote sustainable community involvement in disease prevention.

  12. Description of the male genitalia of Belminus rugulosus Stål and Belminus corredori Galvão & Angulo, and comments on the holotype of Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: Bolboderini).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Galvão, Cleber

    2013-12-13

    The male genitalia of Belminus rugulosus Stål and Belminus corredori Galvão & Angulo are described and illustrated for the first time. Comments on the holotype of Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky are presented (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: Bolboderini). A discussion on previous data in the literature on male genitalia of species of Belminus Stål is provided.

  13. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios. PMID:25356550

  14. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  15. Phylogeny and Niche Conservatism in North and Central American Triatomine Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), Vectors of Chagas' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios. PMID:25356550

  16. Comparative bionomics of four populations of Meccus longipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Licón-Trillo, Ángel; Villagrán-Herrera, María Elena; de Diego-Cabrera, José Antonio; Montañez-Valdez, Oziel Dante; Rocha-Chávez, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    The values of biological parameters related to the life cycles of four populations of Meccus longipennis (Reduviidae: Triatominae) were evaluated. Cohorts of each of the four studied populations from different geographical areas of Mexico were maintained under similar laboratory conditions and then compared. The population from El Saucito de Araujo was different from the other three studied populations, which could help explain the secondary importance of M. longipennis in the state of Chihuahua. This paper also supports the proposition that biological traits are important criteria for determining relationships between populations. PMID:23579806

  17. Comparative bionomics of four populations of Meccus longipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Licón-Trillo, Ángel; Villagrán-Herrera, María Elena; de Diego-Cabrera, José Antonio; Montañez-Valdez, Oziel Dante; Rocha-Chávez, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    The values of biological parameters related to the life cycles of four populations of Meccus longipennis (Reduviidae: Triatominae) were evaluated. Cohorts of each of the four studied populations from different geographical areas of Mexico were maintained under similar laboratory conditions and then compared. The population from El Saucito de Araujo was different from the other three studied populations, which could help explain the secondary importance of M. longipennis in the state of Chihuahua. This paper also supports the proposition that biological traits are important criteria for determining relationships between populations.

  18. Nucleolar-persistence phenomenon during spermatogenesis in genus Meccus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Madeira, F F; Lima, A A C; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Alevi, K C C

    2016-03-28

    The Triatominae subfamily consists of 150 species in 18 genera, grouped into six tribes. In cytogenetics, triatomines are important biological models because they have holocentric chromosomes and nucleolar persistence in meiosis. The phenomenon of nucleolar persistence has been described for 23 species of triatomine in three genera: Triatoma, Rhodnius, and Panstrongylus. However, new species and genera should be analyzed to assess whether nucleolar persistence is a peculiarity of Triatominae. Thus, this study aimed to analyze nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis of Meccus pallidipennis and M. longipennis, focusing on the nucleolar-persistence phenomenon. Through the analysis of spermatogenesis, more specifically of meiotic metaphase, we observed the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence in M. pallidipennis and M. longipennis, represented by remnants of nucleolar material in metaphase. Thus, although nucleologenesis of new species, and, especially, new genera, should be analyzed, this study confirms for the first time the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence in the genus Meccus. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of new studies in this area in order to assess whether this phenomenon is truly a synapomorphy of these hematophagous insects.

  19. Atlas of Mexican Triatominae (Reduviidae: Hemiptera) and vector transmission of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Janine M; Peterson, A Townsend; Carmona-Castro, Oscar; Moo-Llanes, David A; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Butrick, Morgan; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; la Cruz-Félix, Keynes de; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most important yet neglected parasitic diseases in Mexico and is transmitted by Triatominae. Nineteen of the 31 Mexican triatomine species have been consistently found to invade human houses and all have been found to be naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The present paper aims to produce a state-of-knowledge atlas of Mexican triatomines and analyse their geographic associations with T. cruzi, human demographics and landscape modification. Ecological niche models (ENMs) were constructed for the 19 species with more than 10 records in North America, as well as for T. cruzi. The 2010 Mexican national census and the 2007 National Forestry Inventory were used to analyse overlap patterns with ENMs. Niche breadth was greatest in species from the semiarid Nearctic Region, whereas species richness was associated with topographic heterogeneity in the Neotropical Region, particularly along the Pacific Coast. Three species, Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma mexicana and Triatoma barberi, overlapped with the greatest numbers of human communities, but these communities had the lowest rural/urban population ratios. Triatomine vectors have urbanised in most regions, demonstrating a high tolerance to human-modified habitats and broadened historical ranges, exposing more than 88% of the Mexican population and leaving few areas in Mexico without the potential for T. cruzi transmission. PMID:25993505

  20. Demographic fitness of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Triatominae) on three different hosts under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Claudia Magaly; Medone, Paula; Nieves, Elsa Evelia; Jaimes, Diego Alexander; Ortiz, Nelcy; Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Triatominae are widely recognised for their role as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. One of the main biological characteristics of this subfamily is their obligate haematophagous condition. However, previous studies on Belminus herreri and Belminus ferroae suggested that cockroaches are their principal hosts in domiciles. Due to this peculiar behaviour, the aim of this study was to analyse several demographic and reproductive parameters of B. ferroae fed on three different hosts (mice, cockroaches and Rhodnius prolixus) and relate B. ferroae fitness to these alternative hosts. The cohorts were reared under constant conditions. The egg hatching rate was similar for cohorts fed on cockroaches (69.4%) and R. prolixus (63.8%), but was much lower for the cohort fed on mice (16%). The development time from the nymph to adult stage and the average age of first reproduction (α) presented lower values in the cohort fed on cockroaches, which is consistent with the higher population growth rate associated with this host. Demographic parameters [intrinsic rate of natural increase, finite rate of population growth, net reproductive rate and damping ratio] showed statistically significant differences between the cohorts. Analysis of the life history of B. ferroae revealed a higher fitness related to the cockroach. The implications of these results for the origin of the subfamily are discussed. PMID:24141961

  1. Atlas of Mexican Triatominae (Reduviidae: Hemiptera) and vector transmission of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Janine M; Peterson, A Townsend; Carmona-Castro, Oscar; Moo-Llanes, David A; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Butrick, Morgan; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; la Cruz-Félix, Keynes de; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most important yet neglected parasitic diseases in Mexico and is transmitted by Triatominae. Nineteen of the 31 Mexican triatomine species have been consistently found to invade human houses and all have been found to be naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The present paper aims to produce a state-of-knowledge atlas of Mexican triatomines and analyse their geographic associations with T. cruzi, human demographics and landscape modification. Ecological niche models (ENMs) were constructed for the 19 species with more than 10 records in North America, as well as for T. cruzi. The 2010 Mexican national census and the 2007 National Forestry Inventory were used to analyse overlap patterns with ENMs. Niche breadth was greatest in species from the semiarid Nearctic Region, whereas species richness was associated with topographic heterogeneity in the Neotropical Region, particularly along the Pacific Coast. Three species, Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma mexicana and Triatoma barberi, overlapped with the greatest numbers of human communities, but these communities had the lowest rural/urban population ratios. Triatomine vectors have urbanised in most regions, demonstrating a high tolerance to human-modified habitats and broadened historical ranges, exposing more than 88% of the Mexican population and leaving few areas in Mexico without the potential for T. cruzi transmission.

  2. Karyosystematics of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Borsatto, Kelly Cristine; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Jurberg, José; De Azeredo-Oliveir, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2015-08-03

    Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer) is the first species of triatomine described, and little is known on its vector biology. Studies are restricted to starvation resistance, interspecific morphometric variability, morphometry of testis follicles, coloration of the testicular peritoneal sheath, ultrastructure of the male accessory glands, phylogeny and cytogenetics. Thus, this study aims to address the karyosystematics of T. rubrofasciata and the possible events related to karyotype evolution of this species. Four adult males were analyzed cytogenetically. The analysis of meiotic metaphases of T. rubrofasciata allowed to confirm the karyotype of species, out more, 2n = 25 (22A + X1X2Y). This number is very important for taxonomic and evolutionary inferences on the species, because of the 88 triatomine species with described karyotype, only T. rubrofasciata exhibits 25 chromosomes. Based on the hypothesis of the karyotype 2n = 22 (20A + XY) as ancestral for triatomines, we propose three evolutionary hypotheses for the emergence of the karyotype of T rubrofasciata, all supported by agmatoploidy events (fission). Basically the hypotheses are 1) fission for a pair of autosomes, resulting in 22 autosomes and later fission of sex chromosome X; 2) fission of pair of autosomes and the sex chromosome X concomitantly; 3) fission of sex chromosome X and subsequently fission of pair of autosomes. Thus, this study highlights for the first time the importance of the number of chromosomes of T. rubrofasciata as characteristic diagnosis in Triatominae subfamily and describes three evolutionary hypotheses that possibly led the emergence of karyotype of this insect of global importance.

  3. Demographic fitness of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Triatominae) on three different hosts under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Claudia Magaly; Medone, Paula; Nieves, Elsa Evelia; Jaimes, Diego Alexander; Ortiz, Nelcy; Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    Triatominae are widely recognised for their role as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. One of the main biological characteristics of this subfamily is their obligate haematophagous condition. However, previous studies on Belminus herreri and Belminus ferroae suggested that cockroaches are their principal hosts in domiciles. Due to this peculiar behaviour, the aim of this study was to analyse several demographic and reproductive parameters of B. ferroae fed on three different hosts (mice, cockroaches and Rhodnius prolixus) and relate B. ferroae fitness to these alternative hosts. The cohorts were reared under constant conditions. The egg hatching rate was similar for cohorts fed on cockroaches (69.4%) and R. prolixus (63.8%), but was much lower for the cohort fed on mice (16%). The development time from the nymph to adult stage and the average age of first reproduction (α) presented lower values in the cohort fed on cockroaches, which is consistent with the higher population growth rate associated with this host. Demographic parameters [intrinsic rate of natural increase, finite rate of population growth, net reproductive rate and damping ratio] showed statistically significant differences between the cohorts. Analysis of the life history of B. ferroae revealed a higher fitness related to the cockroach. The implications of these results for the origin of the subfamily are discussed.

  4. Atlas of Mexican Triatominae (Reduviidae: Hemiptera) and vector transmission of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Janine M; Peterson, A Townsend; Carmona-Castro, Oscar; Moo-Llanes, David A; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Butrick, Morgan; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; de la Cruz-Félix, Keynes; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most important yet neglected parasitic diseases in Mexico and is transmitted by Triatominae. Nineteen of the 31 Mexican triatomine species have been consistently found to invade human houses and all have been found to be naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The present paper aims to produce a state-of-knowledge atlas of Mexican triatomines and analyse their geographic associations with T. cruzi, human demographics and landscape modification. Ecological niche models (ENMs) were constructed for the 19 species with more than 10 records in North America, as well as for T. cruzi. The 2010 Mexican national census and the 2007 National Forestry Inventory were used to analyse overlap patterns with ENMs. Niche breadth was greatest in species from the semiarid Nearctic Region, whereas species richness was associated with topographic heterogeneity in the Neotropical Region, particularly along the Pacific Coast. Three species, Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma mexicana and Triatoma barberi, overlapped with the greatest numbers of human communities, but these communities had the lowest rural/urban population ratios. Triatomine vectors have urbanised in most regions, demonstrating a high tolerance to human-modified habitats and broadened historical ranges, exposing more than 88% of the Mexican population and leaving few areas in Mexico without the potential for T. cruzi transmission. PMID:25993505

  5. The nuclear elongation factor-1α gene: a promising marker for phylogenetic studies of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Sebastián; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    Molecular systematics is a remarkable approach for understanding the taxonomic traits and allows the exploration of the inter-population dynamics of several species in the Triatominae subfamily that are involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Compared to other relevant species that transmit vector-borne diseases, such as some species of the Diptera, there are relatively few nuclear genetic markers available for systematic studies in the Triatominae subfamily. Molecular systematic studies performed on Triatominae are based on mitochondrial gene fragments and, less frequently, on nuclear ribosomal genes or spacers. Due to the fact that these markers can occasionally present problems such as nuclear mitochondrial genes (NUMTs) or intra-genomic variation for high gene copy numbers, it is necessary to use additional nuclear markers to more reliably address the molecular evolution of Triatominae. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene in individuals from 12 species belonging to the Triatomini and Rhodniini tribes. Genetic diversities and phylogenetic topologies were compared with those obtained for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and Cytochrome b (cyt b) genes, as well as for the D2 variable region of the ribosomal 28S rRNA gene. These results indicate that the EF-1α marker exhibits an intermediate level of diversity compared to mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes, and that phylogenetic analysis based on EF-1α is highly informative for resolving deep phylogenetic relationships in Triatominae, such as tribe or genera.

  6. The nuclear elongation factor-1α gene: a promising marker for phylogenetic studies of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Sebastián; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    Molecular systematics is a remarkable approach for understanding the taxonomic traits and allows the exploration of the inter-population dynamics of several species in the Triatominae subfamily that are involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Compared to other relevant species that transmit vector-borne diseases, such as some species of the Diptera, there are relatively few nuclear genetic markers available for systematic studies in the Triatominae subfamily. Molecular systematic studies performed on Triatominae are based on mitochondrial gene fragments and, less frequently, on nuclear ribosomal genes or spacers. Due to the fact that these markers can occasionally present problems such as nuclear mitochondrial genes (NUMTs) or intra-genomic variation for high gene copy numbers, it is necessary to use additional nuclear markers to more reliably address the molecular evolution of Triatominae. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene in individuals from 12 species belonging to the Triatomini and Rhodniini tribes. Genetic diversities and phylogenetic topologies were compared with those obtained for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and Cytochrome b (cyt b) genes, as well as for the D2 variable region of the ribosomal 28S rRNA gene. These results indicate that the EF-1α marker exhibits an intermediate level of diversity compared to mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes, and that phylogenetic analysis based on EF-1α is highly informative for resolving deep phylogenetic relationships in Triatominae, such as tribe or genera. PMID:27268149

  7. Biological aspects of crosses between Triatoma recurva (Stål), 1868 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) and other members of the Phyllosoma complex.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Licón-Trillo, Ángel; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Vences-Blanco, Mauro Omar

    2015-06-01

    The degree of reproductive isolation between Triatoma recurva (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) and the six species of the genus Meccus plus T. mexicana (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was examined. Fertility and the segregation of morphological characteristics were examined in two generations of hybrids from crosses between these species. The percentage of couples with offspring (fertile) was low in the vast majority of sets of crosses, with the exception of that between T. recurva female and M. phyllosomus male. In all studied sets of crosses, no first- (F1) or second- (F2) generation individuals were morphologically similar to T. recurva but instead shared the morphology of the other parental species. A similar phenomenon was observed in the three successful sets of backcrosses. These results indicated that different recorded levels of reproductive fitness among T. recurva and the species of Meccus involved in this study, plus T. mexicana, are present and that they were apparently influenced by differing mechanisms of isolation. The presence of some degree of reproductive compatibility between studied triatomines of distinct genera (Meccus spp. and Triatoma spp.) reinforces the need for generic revision of the tribe Triatomini.

  8. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  9. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy. PMID:27203082

  10. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  11. Distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in genomes of Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) inferred from genomic in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Francisco; Sánchez, Antonio; Panzera, Yanina; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae, vectors of Chagas disease, comprises 140 species characterized by a highly homogeneous chromosome number. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in Triatominae genomes by Genomic in situ Hybridization using Triatoma delpontei and Triatoma infestans genomic DNAs as probes. Hybridizations were performed on their own chromosomes and on nine species included in six genera from the two main tribes: Triatomini and Rhodniini. Genomic probes clearly generate two different hybridization patterns, dispersed or accumulated in specific regions or chromosomes. The three used probes generate the same hybridization pattern in each species. However, these patterns are species-specific. In closely related species, the probes strongly hybridized in the autosomal heterochromatic regions, resembling C-banding and DAPI patterns. However, in more distant species these co-localizations are not observed. The heterochromatic Y chromosome is constituted by highly repeated sequences, which is conserved among 10 species of Triatomini tribe suggesting be an ancestral character for this group. However, the Y chromosome in Rhodniini tribe is markedly different, supporting the early evolutionary dichotomy between both tribes. In some species, sex chromosomes and autosomes shared repeated sequences, suggesting meiotic chromatin exchanges among these heterologous chromosomes. Our GISH analyses enabled us to acquire not only reliable information about autosomal repeated sequences distribution but also an insight into sex chromosome evolution in Triatominae. Furthermore, the differentiation obtained by GISH might be a valuable marker to establish phylogenetic relationships and to test the controversial origin of the Triatominae subfamily.

  12. Distribution and Evolution of Repeated Sequences in Genomes of Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) Inferred from Genomic In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Francisco; Sánchez, Antonio; Panzera, Yanina; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae, vectors of Chagas disease, comprises 140 species characterized by a highly homogeneous chromosome number. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in Triatominae genomes by Genomic in situ Hybridization using Triatoma delpontei and Triatoma infestans genomic DNAs as probes. Hybridizations were performed on their own chromosomes and on nine species included in six genera from the two main tribes: Triatomini and Rhodniini. Genomic probes clearly generate two different hybridization patterns, dispersed or accumulated in specific regions or chromosomes. The three used probes generate the same hybridization pattern in each species. However, these patterns are species-specific. In closely related species, the probes strongly hybridized in the autosomal heterochromatic regions, resembling C-banding and DAPI patterns. However, in more distant species these co-localizations are not observed. The heterochromatic Y chromosome is constituted by highly repeated sequences, which is conserved among 10 species of Triatomini tribe suggesting be an ancestral character for this group. However, the Y chromosome in Rhodniini tribe is markedly different, supporting the early evolutionary dichotomy between both tribes. In some species, sex chromosomes and autosomes shared repeated sequences, suggesting meiotic chromatin exchanges among these heterologous chromosomes. Our GISH analyses enabled us to acquire not only reliable information about autosomal repeated sequences distribution but also an insight into sex chromosome evolution in Triatominae. Furthermore, the differentiation obtained by GISH might be a valuable marker to establish phylogenetic relationships and to test the controversial origin of the Triatominae subfamily. PMID:25478792

  13. Anatomy of the Spermatophore in Triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) and Its Applications to the Study of Chagas Disease Vector Biology

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Lourenço, Ariane S.; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R.; Freitas, Simone P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on spermatophore structure, transfer, and subsequent destination inside bloodfeeding females of the species Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius neglectus. The morphology of the spermatophore differed between the species studied, such that in T. infestans, the shape was ovaloid, whereas in R. neglectus, the shape resembled a rod. Structures' spine-like cuticulars distributed across the inner surface of the vagina of both species were observed; however, the role of these cuticulars is unknown in Triatominae. In both species, there was an opening in the spermatophore exactly where the common oviduct is connected, thereby making it possible to confirm that the process of spermatozoid migration takes place through this opening. The results obtained show that the spermatophores of T. infestans and R. neglectus differ in size, shape, and structure. Therefore, they can be used as taxonomic markers and may provide information regarding physiology and evolution. PMID:23958911

  14. Anatomy of the spermatophore in triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) and its applications to the study of Chagas disease vector biology.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Lourenço, Ariane S; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R; Freitas, Simone P C

    2013-10-01

    The present study focused on spermatophore structure, transfer, and subsequent destination inside bloodfeeding females of the species Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius neglectus. The morphology of the spermatophore differed between the species studied, such that in T. infestans, the shape was ovaloid, whereas in R. neglectus, the shape resembled a rod. Structures' spine-like cuticulars distributed across the inner surface of the vagina of both species were observed; however, the role of these cuticulars is unknown in Triatominae. In both species, there was an opening in the spermatophore exactly where the common oviduct is connected, thereby making it possible to confirm that the process of spermatozoid migration takes place through this opening. The results obtained show that the spermatophores of T. infestans and R. neglectus differ in size, shape, and structure. Therefore, they can be used as taxonomic markers and may provide information regarding physiology and evolution.

  15. New arrangements on several species subcomplexes of Triatoma genus based on the chromosomal position of ribosomal genes (Hemiptera - Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Pita, Sebastián; Lorite, Pedro; Nattero, Julieta; Galvão, Cleber; Alevi, Kaio C C; Teves, Simone C; Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria T V; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    The hemipteran subfamily Triatominae includes 150 blood-sucking species, vectors of Chagas disease. By far the most specious genus is Triatoma, assembled in groups, complexes and subcomplexes based on morphological similarities, geographic distribution and genetic data. However, many molecular studies questioned the species integration of several subcomplexes as monophyletic units. In triatomines, chromosomal position of major ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci is extremely variable but seems to be species-specific and an evolutionary conserved genetic trait, so that closely related species tend to have ribosomal clusters in the same chromosomal location. Considering that the autosomal position as the ancestral character for all heteropteran species, including triatomines, we suggest that the movement of rDNA loci from autosomes to sex chromosomes rapidly established reproductive barriers between divergent lineages. We proposed that the rDNA translocation from the autosomes to the sex chromosomes restrict reproductive compatibility and eventually promote speciation processes. We analyzed the chromosomal position of 45S rDNA clusters in almost all species of the matogrossensis, rubrovaria, maculata and sordida subcomplexes. The fluorescent in situ hybridization results are discussed considering the available genetic data and we proposed new arrangements in the species that constitute each one of these subcomplexes.

  16. The biology of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta and Triatoma rubida.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Paredes-González, Edgar; Licón-Trillo, Ángel; Montañez-Valdez, Oziel Dante; Rocha-Chávez, Gonzalo; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2012-08-01

    The values of biological parameters related to hatching, lifespan, the number of blood meals between moults, mortality, time lapse before the beginning of feeding, feeding time and defecation delay for each instar of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae, Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta (former subspecies protracta) and Triatoma rubida (former subspecies uhleri), were evaluated and compared. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were recorded among the three species with respect to the average time required to hatch. This time was approximately 19 days. The average egg-to-adult development time was significantly (p < 0.05) shorter for T. rubida. The number of blood meals at each nymphal instar varied from one-five for each species. The mortality rates were higher for the first-instar nymphs of the three species studied. The mean time lapse before the beginning of feeding was between 0.3-3 min for most nymphs of all instars of each species studied. The mean feeding time was the longest for T. recurva, followed by T. protracta. The defecation delay was less than 10 min for T. recurva and T. rubida. Given these results, only T. rubida should be considered an important potential vector of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans in areas of Mexico where these species exist, whereas T. recurva and T. protracta would be of secondary importance.

  17. Description of the cave organ in three species of the genus Belminus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Claudia Magaly; Nieves, Elsa; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Aldana, Elis

    2011-09-01

    The cave organ is a sensory receptor in the antenna pedicel of some Reduviidae. This paper describes this organ for the first time in three species of the genus Belminus, Belminus corredori, Belminus ferroae and Belminus herreri, by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The structures presented a general pattern similar to one reported for other species of Triatominae.

  18. Spermiotaxonomy of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Ravazi, A; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Alevi, K C C

    2016-03-24

    The tribe Rhodniini is a monophyletic group composed of 22 species, with 19 in the Rhodnius genus and three in the Psammolestes genus. These insects are morphologically very similar (cryptic species), and new tools are important for investigating the taxonomy of these vectors. Spermiotaxonomy is an important tool in differentiating between related species, and this study analyzed the spermatids of Rhodniini species to elucidate their spermiotaxonomy. All of the Rhodniini species contained two heteropyknotic filaments in the extremities of their cells. Although spermiotaxonomy has been an important tool in differentiating between species of the Triatoma genus, all of the species in the Rhodnius genus exhibited the same characteristics in their male gametes. However, spermatid analysis made it possible to confirm the monophyly of the Rhodniini tribe, because Psammolestes tertius had the same pattern as that described for Rhodnius. The results of this study demonstrate that spermiotaxonomy, in addition to being an important tool for differentiating between related species of Triatoma, can be used as an optimization tool in phylogenetic analyses.

  19. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina: Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae), their inquiline birds and mammals, new hosts for Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-06-03

    The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.

  20. History of insecticide resistance of Triatominae vectors.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas Dávila; Vinãs, Pedro Albajar; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, different types of Triatominae resistance to different insecticides have been reported; thus, resistance may be more widespread than known, requiring better characterization and delimitation, which was the aim of this review. This review was structured on a literature search of all articles from 1970 to 2015 in the PubMed database that contained the keywords Insecticide resistance and Triatominae . Out of 295 articles screened by title, 33 texts were selected for detailed analysis. Insecticide resistance of Triatomines is a complex phenomenon that has been primarily reported in Argentina and Bolivia, and is caused by different factors (associated or isolated). Insecticide resistance of Triatominae is a characteristic inherited in an autosomal and semi-dominant manner, and is polygenic, being present in both domestic and sylvatic populations. The toxicological profile observed in eggs cannot be transposed to different stages of evolution. Different toxicological profiles exist at macro- and microgeographical levels. The insecticide phenotype has both reproductive and developmental costs. Different physiological mechanisms are involved in resistance. Studies of Triatomine resistance to insecticides highlight three deficiencies in interpreting the obtained results: I) the vast diversity of methodologies, despite the existence of a single guiding protocol; II) the lack of information on the actual impact of resistance ratios in the field; and III) the concept of the susceptibility reference lineage. Research on the biological and behavioral characteristics of each Triatominae species that has evolved resistance is required in relation to the environmental conditions of each region.

  1. First cytogenetic study of Cavernicola pilosa Barber, 1937 (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Souza, E S; Alevi, K C C; Ribeiro, A R; Furtado, M B; Atzingen, N C B V; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Rosa, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cavernicola pilosa is a triatomine species that lives in caves and feeds on bat blood. This vector has a wide geographical distribution, and is found in Brazil, Colombia, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. Little is known about the reproductive biology of this species, because most previous studies have only characterized its morphology, morphometry, ecology, and epidemiology. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain preliminary data related to spermatogenesis in C. pilosa by conducting cytogenetic analysis. Analysis of the heterochromatic pattern of C. pilosa during the initial prophases revealed that heterochromatic blocks are only present in the sex chromosomes. Based on the analyses of the meiotic metaphase and prophases, we found that the sex determination system of C. pilosa is XY and the chromosomes are holocentric. C. pilosa spermatids are filamentous and have long flagella. It was not possible to detect corpuscle or filament heteropycnosis in spermatids of this species. The initial cytogenetic data presented in this study are important in characterizing the spermatogenesis and heterochromatic patterns of C. pilosa. Our results suggest that adaptation to troglodytism did not result in differences in spermatogenesis in this vector. PMID:26535704

  2. Distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in Triatoma melanocephala (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2014-09-29

    In principle, Triatoma melanocephala was included in the Brasiliensis subcomplex on the basis of morphological parameters and geographical layout, since there were no other relevant data available in the literature. On the basis of karyotype, it has been proposed to exclude T. melanocephala, as well as of T. vitticeps and T. tibiamaculata, from the subcomplex, which shows fragmentation of the X sex chromosomes, thereby approaching the species of North America. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the pattern of constitutive heterochromatin of T. melanocephala to provide new data on the cytotaxonomy of this vector of Chagas disease and especially to try to relate this species to some group, complex or subcomplex of triatomine species, aiding in their classification. This species showed no constitutive heterochromatin in the autosomes or X sex chromosome, but only the Y sex chromosome. The number of chromosomes and heterochromatin pattern of T. melanocephala proved to be identical to that described for Panstrongylus lutzi. Thus, the present study demonstrated a tentative relationship between T. melanocephala and P. lutzi. However, we emphasize that other comparative studies should be conducted between these species, such as experimental crosses and molecular, enzymatic, morphological, and morphometric analyses to determine whether these species are actually evolutionarily related or if the number of chromosomes and the heterochromatin pattern emerged as homoplasies in T. melanocephala and P. lutzi.

  3. Chromosomal evolution in the pallescens group (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Ravazi, A; Franco-Bernardes, M F; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2015-10-19

    Rhodnius colombiensis, in conjunction with R. pallescens and R. ecuadoriensis, forms the monophyletic pallescens group. Cytogenetic analyses of these closely related species would further our understanding of the taxonomy and evolution of this group. In this study, R. colombiensis was cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with cytogenetic data from other species of the pallescens group, particularly their chromosomal evolution. We found that this triatomine has heteropycnotic blocks in five autosomal bivalents at both metaphase I and II. The derivation of R. colombiensis from R. pallescens led to significant loss of heteropycnotic and heterochromatic regions (approximately 50%). R. ecuadoriensis is the most differentiated of the group because it has lost all heterochromatin and heteropyknotic blocks in the autosomes. Based on the heteropyknotic and heterochromatic pattern of R. colombiensis and the chromosomal evolution analysis of the pallescens group, we suggest that the karyotype of R. colombiensis and R. ecuadoriensis lost its heteropycnotic and heterochromatic blocks during speciation. Furthermore, this loss could be related to adaptation to different environments.

  4. First cytogenetic study of Cavernicola pilosa Barber, 1937 (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Souza, E S; Alevi, K C C; Ribeiro, A R; Furtado, M B; Atzingen, N C B V; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Rosa, J A

    2015-10-30

    Cavernicola pilosa is a triatomine species that lives in caves and feeds on bat blood. This vector has a wide geographical distribution, and is found in Brazil, Colombia, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. Little is known about the reproductive biology of this species, because most previous studies have only characterized its morphology, morphometry, ecology, and epidemiology. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain preliminary data related to spermatogenesis in C. pilosa by conducting cytogenetic analysis. Analysis of the heterochromatic pattern of C. pilosa during the initial prophases revealed that heterochromatic blocks are only present in the sex chromosomes. Based on the analyses of the meiotic metaphase and prophases, we found that the sex determination system of C. pilosa is XY and the chromosomes are holocentric. C. pilosa spermatids are filamentous and have long flagella. It was not possible to detect corpuscle or filament heteropycnosis in spermatids of this species. The initial cytogenetic data presented in this study are important in characterizing the spermatogenesis and heterochromatic patterns of C. pilosa. Our results suggest that adaptation to troglodytism did not result in differences in spermatogenesis in this vector.

  5. Importance of species of Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Grant-Guillén, Y; Morales-Corona, Z Y; Haro-Rodríguez, S; Ventura-Rodríguez, L V; Nogueda-Torres, B; Bustos-Saldaña, R

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiological risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas in human populations of western Mexico is still under study. Although most vectors in this region and their vector capability are already known, new studies estimating the risk and the importance of individual Triatominae species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) for T. cruzi transmission are necessary. For 1 yr, every month, > 400 human dwellings and their surroundings in eight communities of two western Mexico states were searched for triatomines. More than 1,000 specimens representing four species were collected and checked for T. cruzi infection. Based on the usual entomological indices, only the inhabitants of Gavilán El Progreso-La Villita are at serious risk of vectorial infection by T. cruzi. A population of Meccus longipennis (Usinger) was found living in peridomestic rock pile boundary walls after an insecticide spraying. It was confirmed the major role of peridomestic habitats as shelter areas for triatomines, particularly in rock pile boundary walls and chicken roosts. Triatominae presence also was verified in certain sylvatic habitats, including primarily heaps of stones. The important role of M. longipennis in the potential transmission of T. cruzi in the region and the secondary role of M. picturatus (Usinger) and Triatoma barberi Usinger also were confirmed. Null colonization of houses by T. barberi, which was collected primarily in peridomestic habitats, differs from its common intradomiciliary collection in other studies. Meccus pallidipennis (Stål) most probably does not exist in Nayarit. Meccus mazzottii (Usinger) and Meccus phyllosomus (Burmeister) are no longer found in Nayarit and Jalisco. Additional studies are necessary to determine the current epidemiological situation in other areas of western Mexico.

  6. [Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Tratominae) in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul].

    PubMed

    Salvatella Agrelo, R; Basmadjian, Y; Rosa, R; Puime, A

    1993-01-01

    Triatoma delpontei (Romaña & Abalos, 1947) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) is an ornithophilic sylvatic with a particular association to the psittacid Myiopsitta monachus (Boaddert, 1783). It is found in the continental biogeographical province of the Chaco, where it inhabits the nests or M. monachus, in subtropical xerophytic forests. The authors report the first finding of T. delpontei in Brasil, in the "campanha" region of the State or Rio Grande do Sul (Barra do Quarai, Uruguaiana), on the right bank of the River Cuareim, not far from de Uruguayan border.

  7. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bardella, Vanessa Bellini; Pita, Sebastián; Vanzela, André Luis Laforga; Galvão, Cleber; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae. PMID:27759763

  8. Biological, morphological and morphometric studies of Triatoma melanocephala Neiva & Pinto, 1923 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Jader; Mendonça, Vagner J; De Araújo, Renato Freitas; Nascimento, Eliane Góes; Da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2015-09-04

    Triatoma melanocephala Neiva & Pinto is found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, and Sergipe. In addition to the species' specific description, eight other articles on this insect were found in the literature. In this study, data was obtained on the morphology, morphometry, and life cycle of T. melanocephala, since this vector is of epidemiological and taxonomic importance. The specimens studied were obtained from a colony that has been kept at the Triatomine Insectarium of the College of Pharmaceutical Sciences of São Paulo State University's in Brazil. The morphological studies were performed using scanning electron microscopy. These studies characterized the eggs, the external adult female genitalia, and the ninth ventral abdominal segments of male and female nymphs. The morphometric studies characterized the five nymphal instars and the adult stage by measuring the head, thorax, abdomen, antennae, and mouthparts parameters. The life cycle of T. melanocephala was developed starting by 15 couples in the fifth instar. They were fed on Swiss mice every two weeks and observed daily. During daily observation, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and relative humidity of the laboratory were measured. The results of the biological, morphometric, and morphological studies have increased the knowledge available on T. melanocephala.

  9. Differentiation between Triatoma arthurneivai and Triatoma wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) using cytotaxonomy.

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Imperador, C H L; Moreira, F F F; Jurberg, J; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Using classic morphometric techniques to examine the head and thorax of Triatoma specimens, researchers identified a possible taxonomic problem involving T. arthurneivai (Lent & Martins) and T. wygodzinskyi (Lent). A recent geometric morphometric study indicated that the insects captured outside the Serra do Cipó region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were T. wygodzinskyi. The misidentification of T. arthurneivai as T. wygodzinskyi could result in several problems associated with entoepidemiological lifting, the biological characterization of the species, and phylogenetic reconstruction. For the first time, we describe the use of cytogenetic analysis as a tool for differentiation between T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi. The results indicated that both species had the same number of chromosomes 2n = 22 (20A + XY). However, analyses of spermatocytes during early prophase indicated that it was possible to differentiate T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, because only T. arthurneivai exhibited heteropycnotic blocks distributed in the chromatin. Therefore, we highlight the analysis of spermatocytes as a taxonomic tool for the characterization of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, and suggest that the technique can be used for entoepidemiological lifting in vector control programs. Thus, the results presented here, in conjunction with morphometric analyses, are of utmost taxonomic and epidemiological importance for the identification of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi specimens. PMID:27420940

  10. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  11. Vital Statistics of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Under Laboratory Conditions: IV. Panstrongylus geniculatus.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo; Feliciangeli, M Dora

    2015-09-01

    A cohort of 100 eggs of Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille) was reared in the laboratory under constant conditions (temperature 26 ± 1°C, 60 ± 10% RH), with mortality and fecundity data recorded weekly. We calculated stage-specific development times, age-specific mortality and fecundity (18.4 eggs/♀/wk), and stage-specific and total preadult mortality (31.6%), and the weekly intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(o) = 0.096), the finite population growth rate (λ = 1.109), the net reproductive rate (R(0) = 60.45), and the generation time (T = 46.34 wk). Elasticity analysis showed that the dominant life-history trait determining λ was survival (particularly the adult female's survival). Adult females dominated the stage-specific reproductive value, and the egg stage dominated the stable stage distribution (SSD). The damping ratio (ρ = 1.096) suggests a relatively rapid period of recovery to a disturbed SSD. Results were compared with one previous study and conform relatively well, considering that environmental conditions were not the same. We estimated the colonizing ability of P. geniculatus, using as a criterion the ro/b index, and obtained the value of 0.74, an indicator of a good colonizer, and similar to well-known invasive species such as Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans. The life history traits and demographic parameters here presented for P. geniculatus are discussed in terms of their usefulness for evolutionary studies and vector control activities. PMID:26336251

  12. Phenotypic plasticity in response to food source in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Nattero, Julieta; Malerba, Romina; Rodríguez, Claudia S; Crocco, Liliana

    2013-10-01

    In the Gran Chaco region of Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay, vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is still a severe problem because, among other causes, houses are reinfested with Triatoma infestans, the main vector of T. cruzi in southern South America. A better understanding of adaptation and evolution of T. infestans populations may contribute to the selection of appropriate vector control strategies in this region. Phenotypic plasticity is essential to understand development and maintenance of morphological variation. An experimental phenotypic plasticity study was conducted to assess if blood meal source induced head shape and size variation during development in T. infestans. Eighteen full-sib families were assigned to one of two food sources (pigeon and guinea pig) to examine the effect of food source on head shape and size in all nymph instars and adults. Data were analyzed using geometric morphometric tools and phenotypic plasticity analyses. Significant differences in head shape and size were observed between adults fed on different food sources. Allometric effects at the adult stage were observed. Head size showed significant food source × family interaction for fifth-instar nymphs and adults. For head size, significant differences between food sources were observed at stages and in ontogenetic trajectory. Phenotypic plasticity expression was found for head shape and size in adults; indeed, bugs fed on guinea pigs exhibited greater changes in head shape and larger heads than those fed on pigeon. Full-sib families exhibited different patterns of phenotypic expression in response to food source. Food source × family interaction may indicate that the observed variation in phenotypic plasticity may contribute to changes in head morphometry. These results may contribute to the selection of an appropriate control strategy for T. infestans in the Gran Chaco region, since they provide evidences of morphological plasticity in this species.

  13. Biological parameters of interbreeding subspecies of Meccus phyllosomus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Nogueda-Torres, B; Cárdenas-De la Cruz, M Á; Villagrán, M E; de Diego-Cabrera, J A; Bustos-Saldaña, R

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the biological parameters of some triatomine subspecies of Meccus phyllosomus (Burmeister) is a crucial first step in estimating the epidemiological importance of this group. Biological parameters related to egg eclosion, egg-to-adult development time, number of blood meals to moult, percentage of females at the end of the cycle, number of laid eggs, and the accumulative mortality for each instar of three M. phyllosomus subspecies [Meccus phyllosomus pallidipennis (Stål), Meccus phyllosomus longipennis (Usinger), and Meccus phyllosomus picturatus (Usinger)] as well as their laboratory hybrids were evaluated and compared. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were recorded among the experimental hybrids (M. p. longipennis × M. p. pallidipennis, M. p. longipennis × M. p. picturatus, M. p. pallidipennis × M. p. picturatus) and reciprocal cohorts. In five of the six studied parameters (egg eclosion, egg-to-adult development time, number of blood meals to moult, number of laid eggs and accumulative mortality), with the exception of the non-significant percentage of females obtained among all the studied cohorts, at least one of the parental cohorts in each set of crosses exhibited better fitness results than by those of their hybrid descendants. The lack of hybrid fitness in our study indicates the maintenance of reproductive isolation of parental genotypes. Moreover, the results lead us to propose that an incipient speciation process by distance is currently developing among the three studied subspecies, increasing the differences between them that modify the transmission efficiency of Trypanosoma cruzi to human beings in Mexico.

  14. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo; Kitron, Uriel Dan; Obed, Yamila; Yoshioka, Miho; Gottdenker, Nicole; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2011-06-01

    Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.

  15. Differentiation between Triatoma arthurneivai and Triatoma wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) using cytotaxonomy.

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Imperador, C H L; Moreira, F F F; Jurberg, J; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-06-20

    Using classic morphometric techniques to examine the head and thorax of Triatoma specimens, researchers identified a possible taxonomic problem involving T. arthurneivai (Lent & Martins) and T. wygodzinskyi (Lent). A recent geometric morphometric study indicated that the insects captured outside the Serra do Cipó region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were T. wygodzinskyi. The misidentification of T. arthurneivai as T. wygodzinskyi could result in several problems associated with entoepidemiological lifting, the biological characterization of the species, and phylogenetic reconstruction. For the first time, we describe the use of cytogenetic analysis as a tool for differentiation between T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi. The results indicated that both species had the same number of chromosomes 2n = 22 (20A + XY). However, analyses of spermatocytes during early prophase indicated that it was possible to differentiate T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, because only T. arthurneivai exhibited heteropycnotic blocks distributed in the chromatin. Therefore, we highlight the analysis of spermatocytes as a taxonomic tool for the characterization of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, and suggest that the technique can be used for entoepidemiological lifting in vector control programs. Thus, the results presented here, in conjunction with morphometric analyses, are of utmost taxonomic and epidemiological importance for the identification of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi specimens.

  16. Spermatogenesis and nucleolar behavior in Triatoma vandae and Triatoma williami (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, N P; Alevi, K C C; Mendonça, P P; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2015-10-09

    This study describes spermatogenesis in Triatoma vandae and the nucleolar behavior of T. vandae and Triatoma williami, with a cytotaxonomic focus. Analysis of mitotic and meiotic metaphases of T.vandae confirms the species karyotype. T. vandae presents some characteristics during meiosis that differentiate it from T. williami, including the presence of a chromocenter with two sex chromosomes individualized during early prophase, and the presence of a bi- or tripartite corpuscle inpolyploid nuclei. It was possible to observe the compaction of chromatin during prophase resulting in holocentric chromosomes. During metaphase,the autosomes presented a ring shape and the sex chromosomes were in the center of the ring. These chromosomes were separated in anaphase. Although it is common, we did not observe the phenomenon of late migration of the sex chromosomes. By means of silver ion impregnation it was possible to describe nucleologenesis in T. vandae and T. williami. In both species we observed persistence of the nucleolar material duringmeiosis. In addition to the cells in meiotic division, we also observed the presence of polyploid nuclei in the seminiferous tubule walls that nourish the cells during cell division. The nucleolar markings reflect their capacity for synthetic activity. T. vandae and T. williami presented only one nucleolar corpuscle, which reflects low synthetic activity. This study confirms the karyotype of T. vandae, describes characteristics that differentiate T. vandae and T. williami during meiosis, and describes the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence in both species.

  17. Population genetic structure of Meccus longipennis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae), vector of Chagas disease in West Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Waleckx, Etienne; Magallón-Gastélum, Ezequiel; Bosseno, Marie-France; Hardy, Xavier; Ndo, Cyrille; Lozano-Kasten, Felipe; Barnabé, Christian; Kengne, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    The originally wild species of the Meccus complex are important vectors of Chagas disease in Mexico. In West Mexico, Meccus longipennis plays an important epidemiological role. To understand the genetic structure of the domestic and wild populations of this species, a preliminary study with five polymorphic microsatellite loci was conducted. The population genetics analysis showed high structuring between peridomestic biotopes, with breeding subunits detected in a single peridomestic structure. In the wild environment, two genetic patterns were observed according to the biotope, possible breeding subunits in large rocky formations and a larger panmictic unit in agropastoral areas, suggesting considerable dispersal of bugs in this biotope. Moreover, the discovery of two foci of wild populations at the edge of Guadalajara city raises the question of new urban areas where the phenomenon of bug incursions into households could constitute a risk of transmission of Chagas disease.

  18. Repellency of DEET, picaridin, and three essential oils to Triatoma rubida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Terriquez, J A; Klotz, S A; Meister, E A; Klotz, J H; Schmidt, J O

    2013-05-01

    The kissing bug, Triatoma rubida (Uhler) is a common hematophagous bug in Tucson, AZ, and is responsible for causing severe allergic reactions in some bitten individuals. DEET, picaridin, tea tree oil, peppermint oil, and citronella oil were tested for repellency to T. rubida and its ability to probe and feed on a small restrained rat. No long range repellency was observed with any of the test materials. The lowest repellent concentrations observed were: 10% DEET, 7% picaridin; 30% tea tree oil, 3.3% peppermint oil, and 0.165% citronella oil. Only citronella oil was able to stop all probing and feeding by T. rubida. Citronella oil appears to be a promising potential repellent to prevent sleeping people from being bitten by kissing bugs.

  19. Biological and genetic aspects of crosses between species of the genus Meccus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Grant-Guillén, Yunuen; Ventura-Rodríguez, Luz Verónica; Osorio-Pelayo, Paola Denisse; Macías-Amezcua, Michael Dassaejv; Meillón-Isáis, Karla; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Bataz, Elvia; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2011-05-01

    The degree of reproductive isolation between Meccus phyllosomus and the remaining five species of the genus Meccus, as well as between Meccus bassolsae and Meccus pallidipennis, Meccus longipennis and Meccus picturatus, was examined. Fertility and the segregation of morphological characteristics were examined in two generations of hybrids from crosses between these species. The percentage of couples with offspring (fertile) was high in the vast majority of sets of crosses, with the exception of that between ♀M. phyllosomus and ♂Meccus mazzottii. In sets of crosses involving M. bassolsae specimens, no first-generation (F1) individuals were morphologically similar to M. bassolsae, but instead shared the morphology of the other parental species. A similar phenomenon was observed in most sets of crosses involving M. phyllosomus. These results indicated that different degrees of reproductive isolation exist among the species of Meccus involved in this study. The biological evidence obtained in this study does not support the proposal that M. bassolsae is a full species. It could indicate that, on the contrary, it should be considered a subspecies of a single polytypic species. The biological evidence does support the proposal that M. phyllosomus is a full species.

  20. Cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex and the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio C C; Rosa, João A; Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília V

    2014-07-22

    We analyzed the classical cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex (Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, T. juazeirensis Costa & Felix, T. melanica Costa, Argolo & Felix, T. melanocephala Neiva & Pinto, T. petrochiae Pinto & Barreto, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, T. sherlocki Papa, Jurberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira & Barata, T. tibiamaculata Pinto and T. vitticeps Stal) and the T. brasiliensis complex (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma Neiva & Lent, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). The five members of the T. brasiliensis complex share the same cytogenetic characteristics. Merely T. sherlocki show differences in spermatids, which confirms the status of more differentiated member of the complex. T. lenti also presented the same cytogenetic characteristics described for the species of the T. brasiliensis complex, which supports possible grouping of the species as sixth member of the complex, although further analysis as molecular and experimental crosses are needed to corroborate this hypothesis. T. petrochiae, T. vitticeps, T. tibiamaculata and T. melanocephala presented one or more characteristics that allow questioning grouping in the proposed Brasiliensis subcomplex. Thus, we suggested that Brasiliensis subcomplex and T. brasiliensis complex should be constituted by the same triatomines (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). However, we draw attention to T. lenti and suggest that although new analyzes should be performed, possibly this species is the sixth member of the T. brasiliensis complex. 

  1. Morphology and morphometry of the scutellum of six species in the genus Meccus (Hemiptera: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Rivas, Nancy; Sánchez Espíndola, Ma Esther; Camacho, Alejandro D; Ramírez Moreno, Ernesto; Rocha-Gómez, Ma Alejandra; Alejandre Aguilar, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    We studied the morphology and morphometry of scutella from six species of the hemipteran genus Meccus to identify new tools to help solve taxonomic problems in closely related insect species of epidemiological relevance. Scutellum samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy and were subjected to morphometric analysis. The results mainly show differences in central depression shape, posterior process, and vestiture. We found significant dimensional differences in scutellum morphometry and a clear sexual dimorphism among species. A combination of morphology and morphometry can be used to differentiate among species of the genus Meccus.

  2. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. Description of the diploid chromosome set of Triatoma pintodiasi (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Moreira, F F F; Jurberg, J; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-04-25

    Triatoma pintodiasi has been described and recently grouped in the Rubrovaria subcomplex. T. pintodiasi was initially compared to T. carcavalloi by staining and subsequently identified as T. circummaculata. However, after thorough examination, it was observed to be a cryptic species of T. circummaculata, and was described based on morphological features, morphometric data, and biochemical patterns of hemolymph. Thus, this paper aims to describe the karyotype of, and spermatogenesis in, T. pintodiasi, in order to elucidate the reproductive biology and taxonomy of the species. Sex chromosomes of T. pintodiasi formed a heteropyknotic chromocenter, and compaction of chromatin was observed during prophase. However, in contrast to observations in T. carcavalloi and T. circummaculata, in T. pintodiasi it was observed individualization of the sex chromosomes. The diploid chromosome set of the species 2n = 22 (20A + XY) is described through analysis of metaphases I and II. Initial cytogenetic characteristics of T. pintodiasi are described and the observed differences in the chromocenter are suggested as a possible cytotaxonomic tool. To gain a better understanding of the specific status of this cryptic species, however, we emphasize the need for further cytogenetic, molecular, biological, and biogeographical analysis, in addition to experimental hybrid crosses with other species of the Rubrovaria subcomplex.

  4. Alkaline phosphatase activity in salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus and R. prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, A P M; Alevi, K C C; Anhê, A C B; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-07-29

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in salivary gland cells of the Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, and R. prolixus Stal, 1859, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (etiological agent of Chagas disease) and T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 (pathogenic to insect). The Gomori technique was used to demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity. Alkaline phosphatase activity was observed throughout the entire gland, with an increased activity in the posterior region of the principal gland. In particular, phosphatase activity was found in the nucleolar corpuscles, suggesting a relationship with the rRNA transcription and ribosomal biogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase was also detected in the nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix, suggesting an association with the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins and the mechanisms of cell cycle and DNA replication, respectively. This study highlights the importance of alkaline phosphatase in the salivary gland of R. prolixus and R. neglectus and emphasizes its importance in secretory activity. Secretory activity is directly involved in hematophagy and, consequently, in development during metamorphosis. The observed presence of alkaline phosphatase suggests its involvement in the production of saliva allowing feeding of these insects that are important vectors of Chagas disease.

  5. Description of the nymphs of Triatoma pintodiasi Jurberg, Cunha & Rocha, 2013 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Da Motta, Flávia Souza; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo

    2015-04-14

    Triatoma pintodiasi Jurberg, Cunha & Rocha, 2013 has been recently described based on material collected on Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Nymphs of this species were unknown and their description might contribute for studies concerning the taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolution of the genus Triatoma. Such description is herein presented, along with comparison with other species of the rubrovaria subcomplex of species.

  6. Reproductive Biology of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae) During the Imaginal Molt.

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Imperador, Carlos Henrique Lima; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2016-03-01

    The triatomines are vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. These insects are sexually active after the imaginal molt. Some aspects have been studied in Triatoma brasiliensis during the imaginal molt, such as autogeny in virgin females and the relationship between blood ingestion by fifth instar nymph and the realization of the imaginal molt. Thus, to aid in the understanding of reproductive biology and developmental physiology of these vectors, this article analyzes the spermatogenesis of T. brasiliensis during the imaginal molt. The analysis of the seminiferous tubules from males in the fifth instar during imaginal molt has demonstrated that T. brasiliensis has only a few spermatids and a plentiful quantity of sperm. Thus, we suggest that during imaginal molt the cell division is disrupted aiming to reduce energy costs and the differentiation into sperm is stimulated to ensure the paternity of the adult male.

  7. Vital Statistics of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Under Laboratory Conditions: IV. Panstrongylus geniculatus.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo; Feliciangeli, M Dora

    2015-09-01

    A cohort of 100 eggs of Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille) was reared in the laboratory under constant conditions (temperature 26 ± 1°C, 60 ± 10% RH), with mortality and fecundity data recorded weekly. We calculated stage-specific development times, age-specific mortality and fecundity (18.4 eggs/♀/wk), and stage-specific and total preadult mortality (31.6%), and the weekly intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(o) = 0.096), the finite population growth rate (λ = 1.109), the net reproductive rate (R(0) = 60.45), and the generation time (T = 46.34 wk). Elasticity analysis showed that the dominant life-history trait determining λ was survival (particularly the adult female's survival). Adult females dominated the stage-specific reproductive value, and the egg stage dominated the stable stage distribution (SSD). The damping ratio (ρ = 1.096) suggests a relatively rapid period of recovery to a disturbed SSD. Results were compared with one previous study and conform relatively well, considering that environmental conditions were not the same. We estimated the colonizing ability of P. geniculatus, using as a criterion the ro/b index, and obtained the value of 0.74, an indicator of a good colonizer, and similar to well-known invasive species such as Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans. The life history traits and demographic parameters here presented for P. geniculatus are discussed in terms of their usefulness for evolutionary studies and vector control activities.

  8. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti, a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l., but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the "robustus lineage", i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l., including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  9. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic. PMID:24473808

  10. Sylvatic triatominae of the phyllosoma complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) around the community of Carrillo Puerto, Nayarit, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Magallón-Gastélum, E; Lozano-Kasten, F; Flores-Pérez, A; Bosseno, M F; Brenière, S F

    2001-09-01

    Research on domestic and sylvatic triatomines within the community of Carrillo Puerto and neighboring areas of Nayarit, Mexico, documented that Triatoma longipennis (Usinger) and Triatoma picturata (Usinger) were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (L.) in both habitats. T. picturata was the predominant species in both habitats. Mouse baited-traps increased the effectiveness of collecting sylvatic triatomines, which were difficult to sample by inspecting habitats such as burrows, caves, and cliffs. The colonization of sylvatic and peridomestic habitats by Triatoma, the occurrence of high rates of infection with T. cruzi and the possibility that bugs move between habitats may require modification of current control strategies in Mexico.

  11. Alkaline phosphatase activity in salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus and R. prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, A P M; Alevi, K C C; Anhê, A C B; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in salivary gland cells of the Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, and R. prolixus Stal, 1859, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (etiological agent of Chagas disease) and T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 (pathogenic to insect). The Gomori technique was used to demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity. Alkaline phosphatase activity was observed throughout the entire gland, with an increased activity in the posterior region of the principal gland. In particular, phosphatase activity was found in the nucleolar corpuscles, suggesting a relationship with the rRNA transcription and ribosomal biogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase was also detected in the nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix, suggesting an association with the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins and the mechanisms of cell cycle and DNA replication, respectively. This study highlights the importance of alkaline phosphatase in the salivary gland of R. prolixus and R. neglectus and emphasizes its importance in secretory activity. Secretory activity is directly involved in hematophagy and, consequently, in development during metamorphosis. The observed presence of alkaline phosphatase suggests its involvement in the production of saliva allowing feeding of these insects that are important vectors of Chagas disease. PMID:27525888

  12. Reproductive Biology of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae) During the Imaginal Molt.

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Imperador, Carlos Henrique Lima; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2016-03-01

    The triatomines are vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. These insects are sexually active after the imaginal molt. Some aspects have been studied in Triatoma brasiliensis during the imaginal molt, such as autogeny in virgin females and the relationship between blood ingestion by fifth instar nymph and the realization of the imaginal molt. Thus, to aid in the understanding of reproductive biology and developmental physiology of these vectors, this article analyzes the spermatogenesis of T. brasiliensis during the imaginal molt. The analysis of the seminiferous tubules from males in the fifth instar during imaginal molt has demonstrated that T. brasiliensis has only a few spermatids and a plentiful quantity of sperm. Thus, we suggest that during imaginal molt the cell division is disrupted aiming to reduce energy costs and the differentiation into sperm is stimulated to ensure the paternity of the adult male. PMID:26787143

  13. Triatominae Survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the South-Central Region of the State of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C. R. Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, JoãoAristeu

    2015-01-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population. PMID:25802433

  14. Triatominae survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C R Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2015-05-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population.

  15. Large-scale patterns in morphological diversity and species assemblages in Neotropical Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana; Ceccarelli, Soledad; Menu, Frédéric; Rabinovich, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the spatial variation in morphological diversity (MDiv) and species richness (SR) for 91 species of Neotropical Triatominae to determine the ecological relationships between SR and MDiv and to explore the roles that climate, productivity, environmental heterogeneity and the presence of biomes and rivers may play in the structuring of species assemblages. For each 110 km x 110 km-cell on a grid map of America, we determined the number of species (SR) and estimated the mean Gower index (MDiv) based on 12 morphological attributes. We performed bootstrapping analyses of species assemblages to identify whether those assemblages were more similar or dissimilar in their morphology than expected by chance. We applied a multi-model selection procedure and spatial explicit analyses to account for the association of diversity-environment relationships. MDiv and SR both showed a latitudinal gradient, although each peaked at different locations and were thus not strictly spatially congruent. SR decreased with temperature variability and MDiv increased with mean temperature, suggesting a predominant role for ambient energy in determining Triatominae diversity. Species that were more similar than expected by chance co-occurred near the limits of the Triatominae distribution in association with changes in environmental variables. Environmental filtering may underlie the structuring of species assemblages near their distributional limits. PMID:24402152

  16. Large-scale patterns in morphological diversity and species assemblages in Neotropical Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana; Ceccarelli, Soledad; Menu, Frédéric; Rabinovich, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the spatial variation in morphological diversity (MDiv) and species richness (SR) for 91 species of Neotropical Triatominae to determine the ecological relationships between SR and MDiv and to explore the roles that climate, productivity, environmental heterogeneity and the presence of biomes and rivers may play in the structuring of species assemblages. For each 110 km x 110 km-cell on a grid map of America, we determined the number of species (SR) and estimated the mean Gower index (MDiv) based on 12 morphological attributes. We performed bootstrapping analyses of species assemblages to identify whether those assemblages were more similar or dissimilar in their morphology than expected by chance. We applied a multi-model selection procedure and spatial explicit analyses to account for the association of diversity-environment relationships. MDiv and SR both showed a latitudinal gradient, although each peaked at different locations and were thus not strictly spatially congruent. SR decreased with temperature variability and MDiv increased with mean temperature, suggesting a predominant role for ambient energy in determining Triatominae diversity. Species that were more similar than expected by chance co-occurred near the limits of the Triatominae distribution in association with changes in environmental variables. Environmental filtering may underlie the structuring of species assemblages near their distributional limits.

  17. Large-scale patterns in morphological diversity and species assemblages in Neotropical Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana; Ceccarelli, Soledad; Menu, Frédéric; Rabinovich, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the spatial variation in morphological diversity (MDiv) and species richness (SR) for 91 species of Neotropical Triatominae to determine the ecological relationships between SR and MDiv and to explore the roles that climate, productivity, environmental heterogeneity and the presence of biomes and rivers may play in the structuring of species assemblages. For each 110 km x 110 km-cell on a grid map of America, we determined the number of species (SR) and estimated the mean Gower index (MDiv) based on 12 morphological attributes. We performed bootstrapping analyses of species assemblages to identify whether those assemblages were more similar or dissimilar in their morphology than expected by chance. We applied a multi-model selection procedure and spatial explicit analyses to account for the association of diversity-environment relationships. MDiv and SR both showed a latitudinal gradient, although each peaked at different locations and were thus not strictly spatially congruent. SR decreased with temperature variability and MDiv increased with mean temperature, suggesting a predominant role for ambient energy in determining Triatominae diversity. Species that were more similar than expected by chance co-occurred near the limits of the Triatominae distribution in association with changes in environmental variables. Environmental filtering may underlie the structuring of species assemblages near their distributional limits. PMID:24402152

  18. Triatominae in furnariid nests of the Argentine Gran Chaco.

    PubMed

    Marti, G A; Echeverria, M G; Waleckx, E; Susevich, M L; Balsalobre, A; Gorla, D E

    2014-06-01

    Triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) are bloodsucking insects involved in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, an important public health problem in Latin America. The triatomine species found in sylvatic habitats generally play a limited epidemiological role compared to domestic species, but they may act as a reinfestation source of dwellings after insecticide spraying and have to be carefully considered in control strategies of Chagas disease transmission. The objectives of this work were to carry out a survey of the sylvatic triatomine species colonizing Furnariidae nests in a typical area of the Chaco region of Argentina during the winter and to study the parasites and natural enemies associated with the collected triatomines. Sixty-three triatomine specimens were collected from Furnariidae nests (Coryphistera alaudina and Phacellodomus sibilatrix) randomly selected within the study area. Fifty-four were identified as Psammolestes coreodes, seven as Triatoma platensis, and two as Triatoma infestans. Specimens of T. infestans and T. platensis were found in one nest. The first finding of instar nymphs of T. infestans x T. platensis in a sylvatic habitat is reported. For the first time, sylvatic collected specimens of T. platensis were found infected by T. cruzi. Triatoma virus was found in one Ps. coreodes specimen.

  19. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information…

  20. High dynamics of rDNA cluster location in kissing bug holocentric chromosomes (Triatominae, Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Panzera, Y; Pita, S; Ferreiro, M J; Ferrandis, I; Lages, C; Pérez, R; Silva, A E; Guerra, M; Panzera, F

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we determine by fluorescent in situ hybridization the variability in the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 38 species belonging to 7 genera of the Triatominae subfamily, using a triatomine-specific 18S rDNA probe. Our results show a striking variability at the inter- and intraspecific level, never reported so far in holocentric chromosomes, revealing the extraordinary genomic dynamics that occurred during the evolution in this group of insects. Our results also demonstrate that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters is an important marker to disclose chromosomal differentiation in species karyotypically homogenous in their chromosome number.

  1. Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) and their role as vectors of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Hiwat, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname), the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands) is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811). The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed.

  2. Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) and their role as vectors of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Hiwat, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname), the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands) is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811). The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed. PMID:25004146

  3. Repellency of the Components of the Essential Oil, Citronella, to Triatoma rubida, Triatoma protracta, and Triatoma recurva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Zamora, D; Klotz, S A; Meister, E A; Schmidt, J O

    2015-07-01

    The kissing bugs--Triatoma rubida (Uhler), Triatoma protracta (Uhler), and Triatoma recurva (Stal)--are common hematophagous bugs in southeastern Arizona and responsible for severe allergic reactions in some individuals who are bitten. They also possess the potential to transmit the blood parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. We previously found the essential oil, citronella, to be an excellent deterrent of feeding of T. rubida on a restrained mouse. In this work, we tested major components--alcohols, aldehydes, and monoterpenes--of citronella oil for repellency against the three common triatome species endemic in southern Arizona. The following citronella oil components--geraniol, citronellol, limonene, and citronellal--in different concentrations and combinations were tested. All components of citronella oil demonstrated some inhibition of feeding, ranging from very weak inhibition (limonene) to significant inhibition (geraniol and citronellol). A mixture of geraniol and citronellol was found to be repellant at concentrations of .165 and .165 vol%, respectively, for all three triatome species. Citronellal and limonene had no significant repellent activity. The repellent activity of citronella oil appears to be acting through direct contact with the bugs rather than diffusion of vapors. PMID:26335480

  4. Niche invasion, competition and coexistence amongst wild and domestic Bolivian populations of Chagas vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Lardeux, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    The model developed for human parasites by Bottomley et al. (2007) has been adapted to the dynamics of triatomines to better understand the processes of niche invasion, competition among species and coexistence. In Bolivia, both wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans exist. Their ecological niches are normally separated and the two populations do not interbreed, behaving as two distinct species. However, it has been suggested that the two populations may compete, highlighting therefore the potential risk of wild populations invading human dwellings. The model revealed the importance of the basic reproduction rates R0 of triatomine colonies for the risk of invasion. This depends not only on life traits such as survival and fecundity, but also on (1) the density-dependence phenomenon that limits triatomine establishment, (2) on house exposure to infection and (3) on the correlation between house susceptibility to domestic T. infestans and house susceptibility to wild T. infestans. Competition and coexistence amongst the two groups of T. infestans may occur under particular conditions, but are very unlikely.

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa and Espínola, 1964 (Hemiptera, Triatominae) from different Brazilian states.

    PubMed

    Imperador, C H L; Alevi, K C C; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-03-31

    Triatoma maculata and T. pseudomaculata are allopatric; however, it is believed that T. maculata was introduced into the Brazilian northeast by passive transportation of the nymphs between the feathers of migratory birds, followed by the speciation of T. pseudomaculata. T. pseudomaculata is the second most epidemiologically important species in the northeast of Brazil after T. brasiliensis. Therefore, given the broad range of T. pseudomaculata, the objective of the present study was to cytogenetically analyze different populations of T. pseudomaculata from different Brazilian states in order to investigate possible intraspecific chromosomal variation between them. Three adult T. pseudomaculata males from each population (Pernambuco, Ceará, Paraíba, Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte, and Piauí) were analyzed by lacto-acetic orcein and C-banding. All of the specimens analyzed exhibited the same cytogenetic characteristics, i.e., 22 chromosomes (20 autosomes and XY), a chromocenter formed by the X and Y sex chromosomes and one pair of autosomes, and heterochromatin blocks in three or four pairs of autosomes. These data confirm that all of the populations analyzed were T. pseudomaculata, and although they may be subject to different selection pressures they have maintained the genetic integrity that characterizes the species.

  6. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analysis of the chromatoid body during spermatogenesis of Triatoma platensis and T. rubrovaria (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Borgueti, Adauto de Oliveira; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Silistino-Souza, Rosana; Rosa, João Aristeu da; Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela de

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to analyze spermatogenesis in two species of triatomines (Triatoma rubrovaria and T. platensis) by focusing on the chromatoid body (CB) during three stages of spermatogenesis (spermatocytogenesis, meiosis, and spermiogenesis). The cytochemistry technique known as silver impregnation revealed nucleolar persistence. We suggest that this phenomenon is fundamental to the formation of the CB during spermatogenesis, as it allows for the nucleolus or nucleolar fragments to maintain their transcriptional activity during the entire meiosis phase and to apply all transcribed RNA to CB formation. The ultrastructural analysis of T. platensis and T. rubrovaria spermatids revealed the presence of the nucleolus within the spermatid nucleus, as well as the CB near the nuclear membrane. Immunofluorescence for fibrillarin revealed the presence of protein in both the nucleolus and the cytoplasm of spermatogonia. Based on these findings, we suggest that the formation of the CB begins during the first phase of spermatogenesis, or spermatocytogenesis. Furthermore, we also observed the presence of fibrillarin protein in the CB near the elongating spermatids. Unlike the spermatogonia, spermatids showed no fibrillarin markings in the nucleolar region, a finding which is consistent with the lack of post-meiotic transcriptional activity during triatomine spermiogenesis. Thus, this study suggests that the formation of the CB begins during spermatocytogenesis and is intensified by transcriptional activity when nucleolar persistence occurs in meiosis. Moreover, the findings are consistent with the absence of transcriptional activity in the nucleolus during spermiogenesis, and they demonstrate that all transcriptional activity during spermatid differentiation is supported by the CB.

  7. New record and cytogenetic analysis of Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J; Alevi, K C C; Fonseca, E O L; Souza, O M F; Santos, C G S; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; da Rosa, J A

    2016-06-20

    This paper reports on the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius in the Chapada Diamantina region, located in the city of Seabra, Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil. Following an active search, 24 P. tertius specimens were collected from Phacellodomus rufifrons (rufous-fronted thornbird) nests. The insects did not present any symptoms of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. P. tertius males were cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with those of other specimens from the Brazilian State of Ceará. Triatomines from both locations presented the same cytogenetic characteristics: 22 chromosomes, little variation in the size of the autosomes, Y chromosomes that were larger than the X chromosomes, a chromocenter formed only by the sex chromosomes during prophase, and autosomes lacking constitutive heterochromatin. However, it is important to note that this species shows intraspecific chromosomal variation. In light of the results obtained, it is recommended that more studies be performed to characterize P. tertius. These studies will be particularly helpful in understanding this species in ecological, biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic terms.

  8. New record and cytogenetic analysis of Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J; Alevi, K C C; Fonseca, E O L; Souza, O M F; Santos, C G S; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; da Rosa, J A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius in the Chapada Diamantina region, located in the city of Seabra, Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil. Following an active search, 24 P. tertius specimens were collected from Phacellodomus rufifrons (rufous-fronted thornbird) nests. The insects did not present any symptoms of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. P. tertius males were cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with those of other specimens from the Brazilian State of Ceará. Triatomines from both locations presented the same cytogenetic characteristics: 22 chromosomes, little variation in the size of the autosomes, Y chromosomes that were larger than the X chromosomes, a chromocenter formed only by the sex chromosomes during prophase, and autosomes lacking constitutive heterochromatin. However, it is important to note that this species shows intraspecific chromosomal variation. In light of the results obtained, it is recommended that more studies be performed to characterize P. tertius. These studies will be particularly helpful in understanding this species in ecological, biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic terms. PMID:27420943

  9. Nuclear rDNA ITS-2 sequences reveal polyphyly of Panstrongylus species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Marcilla, A; Bargues, M D; Abad-Franch, F; Panzera, F; Carcavallo, R U; Noireau, F; Galvão, C; Jurberg, J; Miles, M A; Dujardin, J P; Mas-Coma, S

    2002-05-01

    Panstrongylus species are widely distributed throughout the Americas, where they act as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, agent of Chagas disease. Their intraspecific relationships, taxonomic position and phylogeny in relation to other Triatomini were explored using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) sequence polymorphisms and maximum parsimony, distance and maximum likelihood analyses of 10 populations representing six species of the genus (P. megistus, P. geniculatus, P. rufotuberculatus, P. lignarius, P. herreri and P. chinai). At the subspecific level, P. megistus appeared more homogeneous than P. rufotuberculatus and P. geniculatus (both with broader distribution). Several dinucleotide microsatellites were detected in the sequences of given species. Many of these microsatellites (GC, TA, GT and AT) showed different number of repeats in different populations and thus, may be very useful for population differentiation and dynamics analyses in future studies. The sequences of P. lignarius (considered sylvatic) and P. herreri (a major disease vector in Peru) were identical, suggesting that these species should be synonymised. Intrageneric analysis showed a clear separation of P. rufotuberculatus, with closest relationships between P. geniculatus and P. chinai, and P. megistus occupying a separate branch. Genetic distances between Panstrongylus species (0.11585-0.22131) were higher than those between Panstrongylus and other Triatomini (16 species from central and North America and South America) (0.08617-0.11039). The distance between P. megistus and P. lignarius/herreri (0.22131) was the largest so far recorded in the tribe. The pronounced differences in length and nucleotide composition suggest a relatively old divergence of Panstrongylus species. P. rufotuberculatus was closer to Mesoamerican Triatoma, Meccus and Dipetalogaster species than to other Panstrongylus. All Panstrongylus clustered with the Mesoamerican clade; P. rufotuberculatus clustered with the phyllosoma complex and T. dimidiata, with D. maxima and T. barberi in a basal position. The rest of Panstrongylus appeared paraphyletically in the tree. This is evidence suggesting polyphyly within the genus Panstrongylus, whose species may be related to the ancestors giving rise to central and North American Triatomini.

  10. Repellency of the Components of the Essential Oil, Citronella, to Triatoma rubida, Triatoma protracta, and Triatoma recurva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Zamora, D; Klotz, S A; Meister, E A; Schmidt, J O

    2015-07-01

    The kissing bugs--Triatoma rubida (Uhler), Triatoma protracta (Uhler), and Triatoma recurva (Stal)--are common hematophagous bugs in southeastern Arizona and responsible for severe allergic reactions in some individuals who are bitten. They also possess the potential to transmit the blood parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. We previously found the essential oil, citronella, to be an excellent deterrent of feeding of T. rubida on a restrained mouse. In this work, we tested major components--alcohols, aldehydes, and monoterpenes--of citronella oil for repellency against the three common triatome species endemic in southern Arizona. The following citronella oil components--geraniol, citronellol, limonene, and citronellal--in different concentrations and combinations were tested. All components of citronella oil demonstrated some inhibition of feeding, ranging from very weak inhibition (limonene) to significant inhibition (geraniol and citronellol). A mixture of geraniol and citronellol was found to be repellant at concentrations of .165 and .165 vol%, respectively, for all three triatome species. Citronellal and limonene had no significant repellent activity. The repellent activity of citronella oil appears to be acting through direct contact with the bugs rather than diffusion of vapors.

  11. Molecular Evidence of Demographic Expansion of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Triana, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Background Triatoma dimidiata is one of the most significant vectors of Chagas disease in Central America and Colombia, and, as in most species, its pattern of genetic variation within and among populations is strongly affected by its phylogeographic history. A putative origin from Central America has been proposed for Colombian populations, and high genetic differentiation among three biographically different population groups has recently been evidenced. Analyses based on putatively neutral markers provide data from which past events, such as population expansions and colonization, can be inferred. We analyzed the genealogies of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 4 (ND4) and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1-mitochondrial genes, as well as partial nuclear ITS-2 DNA sequences obtained across most of the eco-geographical range in Colombia, to assess the population structure and demographic factors that may explain the geographical distribution of T. dimidiata in this country. Results The population structure results support a significant association between genetic divergence and the eco-geographical location of population groups, suggesting that clear signals of demographic expansion can explain the geographical distribution of haplotypes of population groups. Additionally, empirical date estimation of the event suggests that the population's expansion can be placed after the emergence of the Panama Isthmus, and that it was possibly followed by a population fragmentation process, perhaps resulting from local adaptation accomplished by orographic factors such as geographical isolation. Conclusion Inferences about the historical population processes in Colombian T. dimidiata populations are generally in accordance with population expansions that may have been accomplished by two important biotic and orographic events such as the Great American Interchange and the uplift of the eastern range of the Andes mountains in central Colombia. PMID:24625572

  12. Susceptibility and resistance to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Bolivia: new discoveries.

    PubMed

    Depickère, Stéphanie; Buitrago, Rosio; Siñani, Edda; Baune, Marianne; Monje, Marcelo; Lopez, Ronald; Waleckx, Etienne; Chavez, Tamara; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2012-12-01

    Bolivia is a high-endemic country for Chagas disease, for which the principal vector is Triatoma infestans (Triatominae). This is a mainly domestic species that is also found in the wild environment. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown the importance of Triatominae resistance to insecticides, especially in Bolivia. Data regarding the susceptibility/resistance of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin are presented. For the first time, domestic populations of the department of Santa Cruz were tested, showing low resistance. Although most of the wild populations were found to be susceptible to deltamethrin, three populations from three departments showed a mortality rate of less than 100%. This result is emphasised here.

  13. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  14. Triatominae biochemistry goes to school: evaluation of a novel tool for teaching basic biochemical concepts of Chagas disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; Cudischevitch, Cecília de Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by seven distinguished contemporary Brazilian researchers working with Triatominaes. Students (22) in the seventh grade of a public elementary school received the comic book. The study was then followed up by the use of Concept Maps elaborated by the students. Six Concept Maps elaborated by the students before the introduction of the comic book received an average score of 7. Scores rose to an average of 45 after the introduction of the comic book. This result suggests that a more attractive content can greatly improve the knowledge and conceptual understanding among students not previously exposed to insect biochemistry. In conclusion, this study illustrates an alternative to current strategies of teaching about the transmission of neglected diseases. It also promotes the diffusion of the scientific knowledge produced by Brazilian researchers that may stimulate students to choose a scientific career.

  15. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  16. Ecology of Rhodnius robustus Larrousse, 1927 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Attalea palm trees of the Tapajós River Region (Pará State, Brazilian Amazon)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising number of acute cases of Chagas disease in the State of Pará, reported in the past two decades, has been associated, in part, with the ingestion of juice of local palm tree fruits, mainly açaí berry and bacaba. Near the study area, in Santarém, Pará State, an outbreak of Chagas disease has been notified and investigations suggest the consumption of bacaba juice as the main source of infection with T. cruzi. The purpose of this study is to assess the aspects associated to the ecology of Rhodnius robustus in palm trees of three communities of the Tapajós region, in the State of Pará, Brazil. Methods Palm trees were cut down and dissected to search for triatomines. DNA from triatomines was extracted to investigate natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli. For statistical analyzes, data from infestation of palm trees, as well as the rates of natural infection by T. cruzi and T. rangeli were compared by Chi-square test. Triatomine density values were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test and then comparisons between each pair of variables were made by the Mann–Whitney test assuming a confidence interval of 95%. Results We dissected 136 palm trees, 60 at the end of the rainy period and 76 at the end of the dry period. Seventy-three of them (53.7%) were infested with triatomines and three species were found, namely: Rhodnius robustus, Rhodnius pictipes and Panstrongylus lignarius. We collected 743 triatomines, and R. robustus was predominant (n = 739). The identification of natural infection of the insects by trypanosomatids revealed that 125 triatomines were infected by T. cruzi, 69 by T. rangeli and 14 presented both parasites, indicating the presence of mixed infection in the same vector. Conclusion The results suggest that São Tomé is the community with greater density of triatomines and infestation of palm trees; also, it demonstrates the existence of an intense sylvatic cycle in the region, which demands intensive surveillance to prevent human transmission. PMID:24690302

  17. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202

  18. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-09-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission.

  19. Insights into a hotspot in the Brasiliensis subcomplex (Hemiptera, Triatominae) by analysis of D2 domain of the nuclear gene 28S.

    PubMed

    Guerra, A L; Alevi, K C C; Banho, C A; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-03-24

    The Brasiliensis subcomplex is a monophyletic group formed by the species Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica, and T. sherlocki. However, using cytogenetic data and experimental hybrid crosses, T. lenti and T. petrochiae were also grouped into this subcomplex. This study aims to analyze the properties of hotspot in the D2 domain of the nuclear gene 28S in all species of the Brasiliensis subcomplex as well as T. lenti and T. petrochiae. These species show two transversions at position 385 (G↔C and T↔G). We suggest that this mutation in haplotype 4 may be an initial molecular tool that supports the relationship of these species with the subcomplex. In addition to the transversion at haplotype 4, these species, aside from T. melanica, also possess a transversion at position 385 (G↔T) in haplotype 1. Thus, we describe the hotspot mutations of the D2 domain of the nuclear gene 28S for species in Brasiliensis subcomplex as follows: three transversions are present at position 385 of haplotypes 1 and 4, which are shared by members of the subcomplex as well as T. lenti and T. petrochiae. These transversions may be considered a synapomorphy between these species. However, we emphasize that new phylogenetic studies should be conducted to evaluate whether T. lenti and T. petrochiae are truly members of the Brasiliensis subcomplex.

  20. Genetic variability and geographical diversity of the main Chagas' disease vector Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Triatominae) in Brazil based on ribosomal DNA intergenic sequences.

    PubMed

    Cavassin, Francelisse Bridi; Kuehn, Christian Collins; Kopp, Rogério Luiz; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanette; Da Rosa, João Aristeu; Luz, Ennio; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Studies were made on the ribosomal DNA intergenic region, comprising complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 sequences, of populations of the triatomine Panstrongylus megistus, the most important vector of Chagas' disease in Brazil since Triatoma infestans eradication. Specimens were from 26 localities of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia, and Sergipe states. In total, 21 ITS-1 and 12 ITS-2 haplotypes were found. Nucleotide differences were higher in ITS-1 (3.00%) than in ITS-2 (1.33%). The intergenic region was 1,513-1,522-bp-long (mean 1,516.9 bp), providing 26 combined haplotypes. The combination of microsatellites found in both ITSs may be of applied usefulness, to assess interpopulation specimen exchange and potential recolonizations after vector elimination by control implementation. Network results suggest that São Paulo may be considered one of the spreading centers of this species. Molecular clock datation suggests that P. megistus populations are diversifying at least since 4.54 million years ago, with diversification still ongoing today by geographical isolation of populations. Evidence is provided about the relationship of genetic diversity with geographical spread that characterizes a major vector and explains its ability to colonize distant areas and different ecotopes, including human habitats, and consequently its importance in Chagas' disease epidemiology.

  1. Entoepidemiology of Chagas disease in the Western region of the State of São Paulo from 2004 to 2008, and cytogenetic analysis in Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Rodas, L A C; Tartarotti, E; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Guirado, M M

    2015-05-29

    To complement the epidemiological data and assist in the prophylaxis of Chagas disease in the State of São Paulo, we examined entomological lifting conducted in 40 municipalities of the Western region of the state from 2004 to 2008, highlighted the main vector species in this region, and reanalyzed the cytogenetic characteristics of Rhodnius neglectus from 3 different Brazilian states (Formoso/GO, Frutal/MG, Guaíra/SP, and Pitangueiras/SP). The municipalities of Castilho and Santo Antônio do Acaranguá registered the highest relative amounts of notifications. The main species notified in Western São Paulo were Triatoma sordida and R. neglectus. We collected a large number of T. sordida in 2005 and noted the absence of notification of infected insects in 2008. We observed no variation in chromosomal characteristics of R. neglectus of different states. These data are complementary to the survey presented from 1990 to 1999, as the vector species were the same (T. sordida and R. neglectus), with emphasis on T. sordida. We corroborate the future colonization domiciliary initially proposed for T. sordida in the region and underscore the importance of vector control programs in the prophylaxis of Chagas disease. Furthermore, we observed that the populations of R. neglectus in Brazil showed no intraspecific variation and we corroborated the chromosomal patterns originally described. These data are important for understanding the evolution of these hematophagous insects, which are vectors of Chagas disease.

  2. Morphological study of the eggs and nymphs of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811) observed by light and scanning electron microscopy (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Mello, F; Jurberg, J; Grazia, J

    2009-12-01

    Eggs and nymphs of Triatoma dimidiata were described using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The egg body and operculum have an exochorion formed by irregular juxtaposed polygonal cells; these cells are without sculpture and the majority of them are hexagonal in shape. The five instars of T. dimidiatacan be distinguished from each other by characteristics of the pre, meso and metanotum. The number of setiferous tubercles increases progressively among instars. The sulcus stridulatorium of 1st instar nymphs is amorphous, showing median parallel grooves; from the 2nd instar on the sulcus is, progressively, elongate, deep and posteriorly pointed with stretched parallel grooves. All instars have a trichobothrium on the apical 1/3 of segment II of the antenna. The opening of the Brindley's gland is on the mesopleura. Fifth instar nymphs have an apical ctenidium on the ventral surface of the fore tibia. Dorsal glabrous patches are found on the lateral 1/3 of abdomen. Bright oval patches are found on the ventral median line of the abdomen, from segment IV-VI; 1st instar nymphs lack these patches. Abdominal dorsal plates are present from the 1st-5th instars; the 1st instar also contains a rectangular plate in segment IX. From the 2nd instar on, variably-shaped plates are present on segments VII to IX. Morphometric data were also obtained and proved to be useful for distinguishing T. dimidiata instars.

  3. Inferring from the Cyt B gene the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) genetic structure and domiciliary infestation in the state of Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Pacheco, Raquel S; Haag, Karen; Dupas, Stéphane; Dotson, Ellen M; Costa, Jane

    2008-05-01

    The Triatoma brasiliensis genetic structure was analyzed using the Cyt B gene in different geographic locations and ecotopes after a short and long period after insecticide treatment. Four different localities (16-40 km apart) in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, were sampled. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that grouping populations according to the geographic location or ecotope resulted in a higher variance among populations within groups (Phi(SC) ranging from 0.15 to 0.17) than among groups (Phi(CT) ranging from 0.04 to 0.07). The percentage of variation was reduced among populations within groups and increased among groups (Phi(SC) = 0.08, Phi(CT) = 0.16) by grouping 1) the domiciliary populations from each village and 2) all wild populations. These data indicated that T. brasiliensis is genetically structured both ecologically and at a smaller geographic scale for domiciliary populations. Re-infestations after insecticide treatment were composed of distinct populations, pointing to variable population sources for domiciliary infestations.

  4. Role of two Triatoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) species in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) to man in the west coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Bárcenas-Ortega, N M; Nogueda-Torres, B; Alejandre-Aguilar, R; Lino Rodríguez, M; Magallón-Gastélum, E; López-Martínez, V; Romero-Nápoles, J

    2001-02-01

    From August 1997 to August 1998, 334 specimens of Triatoma longipennis and 62 of T. picturata were collected in four groups of localities placed in the zone from Guadalajara, Jalisco to Tepic, Nayarit, in the West Coast of Mexico. Most T. longipennis were collected outdoors (69.2%) while most T. picturata (58.1%) were collected indoors. All collected specimens were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which was detected on 98 (29.3%) T. longipennis and 17 (27.4%) T. picturata. This study confirms the role of T. longipennis and T. picturata as some of the main T. cruzi vectors to humans in Mexico. Habitation Infestation Rate with T. longipennis was of 0.09 and with T. picturata was of 0.03 and the predominating ecotopes were pile of blocks, chicken coops, pigsties, wall crawls and beds.

  5. Entoepidemiology of Chagas disease in northwest São Paulo and cytogenetic analysis of its main vector, Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Silistino-Souza, R; Alevi, K C C; Castro, N F C; Freitas, M N; Papa, M D; Scandar, S A S; Bestetti, R R; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2013-11-22

    One century after the discovery of Chagas disease, it is still considered as a major health problem, causing more deaths in the Americas than any other parasitic disease. The northwest region of São Paulo, a macro-region that includes cities with a high-quality of life, has particularly high rates of Chagas disease. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the number of patients with Chagas disease, and to identify the triatomine fauna in the northwest region of São Paulo State, and to cytogenetically analyze Triatoma sordida mutants, thus providing new knowledge to control these species and avoid possible infections by Chagas disease. A total of 700 Chagas patients of both genders and variable age, who were born in and residents of the northwest region of the State of São Paulo were recruited for this study. Regarding the entoepidemiological fauna, both T. sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were captured from 2004 to 2011 in the northwest region of the São Paulo; however, T. sordida was the predominant species. Some of these collected triatomines were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in several developmental stages. Furthermore, the lactoacetic orcein method was used for cytogenetic analysis. Several abnormalities were observed during meiosis of the T. sordida mutants, including condensed chromosomes with no chiasma, chromatin bridges between the autosomes, and some non-pairing homologous chromosomes. Thus, our study suggests that Chagas disease is currently not under control in Brazil. Furthermore, we suggest that cryptic speciation may be occurring in populations of T. sordida of Brazil. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms behind these phenomena.

  6. Metagenomics of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new insect-infecting viruses, three endosymbiotic bacteria, a fungus, and a bacterial phage were discovered using a metagenomics approach to identify unknown organisms that live in association with the sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The genetic composition of ...

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes.

    PubMed

    Weirauch, Christiane; Munro, James B

    2009-10-01

    The first comprehensive cladistic analysis of Reduviidae, the assassin bugs, based on molecular data is presented and discussed in the context of a recently-published morphological analysis. Assassin bugs are essential components of ecosystems, but also important in agriculture and medicine. Sampling included 94 taxa (89 Reduviidae, 5 outgroups) in 15 subfamilies and 24 tribes of Reduviidae and is based on approximately 3300 base pairs of mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear (18S, 28SD2, 28SD3-5) ribosomal DNA. Partitions of the dataset were aligned using different algorithms implemented in MAFFT and the combined dataset was analyzed using parsimony, partitioned maximum likelihood and partitioned Bayesian criteria. Clades recovered in all analyses, independent of alignment and analytical method, comprise: Cimicomorpha and Reduviidae; Hammacerinae; Harpactorinae; Apiomerini; Peiratinae; Phymatinae; Salyavatinae; Triatominae; Phymatinae+Holoptilinae; the higher Reduviidae (Reduviidae excluding Hammacerinae and the Phymatine Complex); Ectrichodiinae+Tribelocephalinae; (Triatominae+Zelurus)+Stenopodainae. Hammacerinae are rejected as sister group to all remaining Reduviidae in all analyses, as is the monophyly of Reduviinae, Emesinae and Harpactorini. High support values for Triatominae imply that blood-feeding has evolved only once within Reduviidae. Stenopodainae and part of Reduviinae are discussed as close relatives to Triatominae. PMID:19531379

  8. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  9. Beneficios de cuidados paliativos desde el principio

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y Relatos del NCI acerca de un estudio clínico que muestra que los pacientes con cáncer avanzado que recibieron cuidados paliativos desde el principio tuvieron mejor calidad de vida y estado de ánimo.

  10. Highlights on DESD Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief report, delivered after the completion of the 1st year of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) (2005-2014), highlights the recent developments regarding the Decade (2005). It reports on the documents prepared, the regional and national launches of the Decade held so far and presents relevant…

  11. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton across the southeastern U.S., however, little is known concerning its spatial distribution in corn fields of this region. It is likely that the proximity of other adjacent row crops, i.e., cotton an...

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  13. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): immature stages and biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) are described, keyed and illustrated. The descritpion of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are body size, color, number...

  14. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  15. Associated bacteria of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae: Diaphorina citri)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a genetics approach two new bacterial species were identified from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Psyllids are economically important in the U.S. as vectors of the pathogen associated with citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Huanglongbing is on...

  16. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  17. Redescription of Dardjilingia Yang (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Salini, S

    2016-01-01

    The genus Dardjilingia Yang, 1936 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Lestonocorini), comprising a single species, Dardjilingia nigriventris Yang, 1936, is redescribed and illustrated, including the descriptions of male and female genitalia for the first time. The genus Dardjilingia is removed from the present tribe Lestonocorini. PMID:27470843

  18. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  19. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  20. The biology of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    PubMed

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C; Zimmermann, H G

    2009-12-01

    Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) is a cochineal insect whose host range is restricted to Cylindropuntia species (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae). This insect has been utilized successfully for biological control of Cylindropuntia imbricata (Haw.) F.M. Knuth in Australia and South Africa. Despite this, its biology has not been studied previously, probably due to the widely held belief that the biology of all Dactylopius species is similar. This study investigated the life cycle and the morphological and reproductive characteristics of D. tomentosus. Results revealed some unique characteristics of D. tomentosus: (i) eggs undergo a much longer incubation period, an average of 17 days compared to <1 day in its congeners; (ii) eggs are laid singly but are retained as an egg mass secured in a mesh of waxy threads attached to the female; (iii) the developmental times of males and females are longer compared to other Dactylopius spp. due to a longer egg incubation period; (iv) D. tomentosus does not undergo parthenogenesis; (v) D. tomentosus is smaller in size than its congeners; and (vi) male mating capacity and reproductive potential were both high and variable between males. There was a significant, strong, positive relationship (r = 0.93) between female mass and fecundity, whereas the relationship between the number of females mated per male that became gravid and their fecundity was negative (r = -0.68). Besides contributing to our knowledge of this economically important species, the finding of unique characteristics of D. tomentosus biology underlines the need to study each species in this genus. PMID:19203403

  1. Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the aim, contents and significance of the education for sustainability (ESD) , together with the background of the Japanese proposal at WSSD. In 2002, a worldwide activity for the education for sustainable development was proposed by the Japanese Government in the occasion of World Summit of Sustainable Development (WSSD) which was held at Johannesburg. The proposal was formally adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 2005 and then the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) was inaugurated by UNESCO which was designated its lead agency. Prior to the Japanese proposal, there have been discussions about the necessity of the education of sustainable development, because it requests people to think nature and society in considerably different manner from the traditional way. The characters of the traditional education such as disciplinary structure of knowledge, the basic aspects of science that are directed to analysis and separation of natural sciences and social sciences ; reveal the insufficiency of educating people who would act and confront the difficult challenges of sustainability. The Japanese proposal has given a timely trigger for the world to start cooperative actions for the ESD. We are now on the half way of DESD and must step into the phase of integrating our achievements cooperatively, not only within Japan but also internationally.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Poratrioza sinica (Insecta: Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Poratrioza sinica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) has been sequenced and annotated in this study. This mitogenome is 14,863 bp in length with an A + T content of 72.0%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the putative ancestral insect mitogenome. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons except for nad5, which uses TTG as the initial codon. All the transfer RNA genes have the typical cloverleaf structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The control region is 700 bp in length with 82.4% A + T content. This is the second completely sequenced mitogenome from the family Psyllidae of Hemiptera.

  3. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    PubMed Central

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P.; Miller, Gary L.; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid. PMID:26668546

  4. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae).

    PubMed

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P; Miller, Gary L; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid.

  5. Ultrastructure and morphometry of eggs of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843), Triatoma carcavalloi Juberg, Rocha & Lent, 1998 and Triatoma circummaculata (Stål, 1859) (Hemiptera-Reduviidae-Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Cardozo-de-Almeida, Margareth; Castro-de-Souza, Simone; De Oliveira, Maria Luiza Ribeiro; De Almeida, Sérgio Antônio Silva; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis

    2013-12-20

    This study analyzed the body and the operculum of eggs of Triatoma rubrovaria, T. carcavalloi and T. circummaculata, considered sylvatic species that live in sympatry.Triatoma rubrovaria is currently considered the most important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the rural areas of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, followed by T.circummaculata. Significant differences other than morphometry have been observed in the egg structures of the three species using traditional microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Triatoma circummaculata eggs are smaller than those of T.rubrovaria and T. carcavalloi. The average number of perforations in corionic cells in the egg body is higher for the T. rubrovaria. The average number of perforations in the operculum cell is higher in T. circummaculata. This is the first morpho-structural description of T. carcavalloi eggs. These results widen the concept of these three species and create new subsidies for the entomological monitoring in areas in which these vectors may infest human living quarters.

  6. Educational Ethics and the DESD: Considering Trade-Offs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The United Nation's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) aims to prepare students for pressing economic and environmental problems. In this article, I argue that an exclusive emphasis on an ambiguous goal, sustainable development, raises important questions for educational ethics. Specifically, I argue that DESD mission…

  7. Evolutionary History of Assassin Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Insights from Divergence Dating and Ancestral State Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11–14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears

  8. Evolutionary history of assassin bugs (insecta: hemiptera: Reduviidae): insights from divergence dating and ancestral state reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11-14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears

  9. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) foliage can result in leaf senescence and abscission. The plant growth regulators chlorforfenuron (CPPU), gibberellic acid (GA3) and aminoet...

  10. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  11. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  12. Susceptibility of immature stages of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to selected insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of immatures of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), to 10 insecticides that included chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, endosulfan, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam was evaluated...

  13. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  14. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  15. New Midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.

  16. Wing shape differentiation of Mepraia species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Ricardo; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Coronado, Ximena; Jaramillo, Nicolás; Panzera, Francisco; Solari, Aldo

    2011-03-01

    Mepraia is an endemic genus found in the semiarid and arid regions of north-central Chile. Until 1998, Mepraia spinolai was the only species of the genus, distributed in coastal and interior valleys from Chile between 18° and 34°S. However, on the basis of karyotype and morphological characters, coastal desert populations between 18° and 26°S were ranked as a new species, Mepraia gajardoi. Recently, genetic studies using nuclear and mitochondrial markers on Mepraia populations suggest that the geographical criterion to separate the two species should be reviewed. Mepraia species show conspicuous alary polymorphism, unique in the Triatominae subfamily. Females of both species are invariably micropterous, while males of M. spinolai can be micropterous, brachypterous or macropterous, and only brachypterous in M. gajardoi. In this study, we use geometric morphometrics analyses to compare male wings of M. spinolai and M. gajardoi from natural populations, in order to examine if these two species have diverged in alary shape. As expected, we found that brachypterous wings of both species are smaller than macropterous wings of M. spinolai. Additionally, we detected clear differences in shape on wings of M. gajardoi and M. spinolai, not attributable to allometric effects. For last, a new alary phenotype, insects with vestigial wings, was described here for the first time. In conclusion, our analyses on wings of Mepraia species separate two distinct groups consistent with the two described species. However, our findings of vestigial wings in some coastal areas of the north part of Chile cannot rule out the existence of a hybrid zone. PMID:21111066

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hemiodoecus leai (Hemiptera: Coleorrhyncha: Peloridiidae).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Liang, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Hemiodoecus leai (Hemiptera: Coleorrhyncha: Peloridiidae) was determined and annotated. The entire genome was 15,949 bp in length, containing 37 genes of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. The genome has a gene arrangement identical to the inferred ancestral insects. Twelve of the 13 PCGs initiate with the standard start codons ATN, whereas CO1 starts with CGA. The tRNAs have be folded into typical cloverleaf secondary structures, except that the stem of the DHU arm was absent in tRNA(Ser(GCT)). The non-coding AT-rich region is 1414 bp long and is located between the rrnS and tRNA(lle) genes. The complete mitogenome sequence of H. leai could provide fundamental data for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Peloriidae as well as the Coleorrhyncha and Hemiptera.

  18. Intervention thresholds for Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Citrus clementina.

    PubMed

    Hermoso de Mendoza, A; Arouni, R; Belliure, B; Carbonell, E A; Pérez-Panadés, J

    2006-08-01

    The production of clementine fruit was affected by varying densities of Aphis spiraecola Patch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) maintained on four groups of clementine, Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., trees individually isolated in mesh cages. A formula relating the number of aphids per square meter of canopy per group of trees to yield loss in that group of trees was obtained, permitting us to calculate the economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs) for treatment against A. spiraecola, i.e., EIL, ET, environmental economic injury level (EEIL), and environmental economic threshold (EET). In an example case with current values, EIL = 370, ET = 322, EEIL = 614, and EET = 533 aphids per m2 of canopy. Formulae designed for easier use in the field were obtained to express each of these thresholds. The formulae are compared with those obtained for Aphis gossypii Glover in a previous study; the intervention thresholds for A. spiraecola are slightly higher than those found for A. gossypii.

  19. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  20. Effects of irradiation on Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ravuiwasa, Kaliova Tavou; Lu, Kuang-Hui; Shen, Tse-Chi; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation has been recognized and endorsed as a potential phytosanitary measure that could be an alternative to current quarantine treatments. Dosages of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy were used to irradiate three different life stages (eggs, immatures, and adults) of Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), focusing on females due to its parthenogenesis ability, with an aim to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose to control P. minor. Cobalt 60 was the source of irradiation used. Irradiation of 150-250 Gy has a significant effect on all life stages of P. minor, decreasing its survival rate, percentage of adult reproduction, oviposition, and fertility rate. The adult was the most tolerant life stage in both mortality and fertility rate. All the different irradiated target life stage groups oviposited eggs, but none of the F2 eggs hatched at the most optimal dosage of 150-250 Gy.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bemisia afer (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Ling; Xiao, Na; Yang, Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Colvin, John; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The length of the Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is 14,968 bp and consists of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 control region. Apart from one serine transfer RNA gene (tRNA-Ser) which is absent, the synteny is consistent with the mitogenomes of other whitefly species. The overall base composition of the heavy strand for A, G, T and C is 28.96, 18.97, 36.7 and 15.37%, respectively, with a slight AT bias. Two rare codons (GTG and TTG) are employed as start codons by some PCGs. B. afer is a group of cryptic species. This first mitogenome cloned from African cassava B. afer, therefore, both enrich the whitefly molecular resource and will aid the sequencing of the other species' mitogenomes. It will contribute significantly to resolving the systematics of the B. afer complex.

  2. Pan trapping soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using attractants.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Nicholas S; Zhu, Junwei; Coats, Joel R

    2012-06-01

    Since its introduction into the United States in the past 10 yr, soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been a damaging pest to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. During 2008 and 2009, fields in central and north central Iowa experienced pockets of high soybean aphid populations. Electroantennograms have shown that soybean aphid alatae are capable of detecting host plant volatiles and sex pheromones. Here, we evaluated baited pan traps as a potential soybean aphid attractant. Yellow pan traps were placed in soybean fields after planting along with lures that contained plant volatiles and sex pheromones in 2008 or sex pheromones only in 2009. Pan trap contents were collected weekly, and plant counts also were conducted. Aphids were identified, and soybean aphids were counted to determine whether one chemical lure was more attractive to spring migrants than other lures. In both years, soybean aphids collected in pan traps with lures were not significantly different from the other products tested. PMID:22812127

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunfei; Dai, Renhuai; Zhan, Hongping; Qu, Ling

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was sequenced. It is 15 309 bp in length with 75.62% (A + T) content and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding region (GenBank accession no. KR349344). Gene order is identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome. All PCGs start with an ATN codon and terminate with TAA except ND4, which has an incomplete stop codon (T). The anticodons are identical to those of Drosophila yakuba. The phylogenetic tree confirms D. nuchalis and two Cicadellidae species are clustered into a clade, and Cicadellidae is a monophyletic group and provides support for the sister relationship of leafhopper and treehopper.

  4. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host. PMID:26957084

  5. Three new Asiatic species of Hyadaphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Nafría, Juan M Nieto; Hidalgo, Nicolas Pérez; Brown, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Hyadaphis Kirkaldy, 1904 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are established: Hyadaphis levantina sp. n. from specimens caught on Lonicera nummulariifolia from Lebanon and Israel, and Hyadaphis anethi sp. n. plus Hyadaphis parva sp. n. from specimens respectively caught on Anethum sp. and Andrachne (?) cordifolia from Pakistan. Apterous viviparous females of all three species, alate viviparae of the first two and males of H. anethi are described. Known and new species of Hyadaphis are grouped for two relevant characters: (1) size and shape of siphunculi, and (2) host plant and life cycle; and the discriminant features of apterous viviparous females of the new species are compared with the already described species of the same group and a key for the Hyadaphis species is provided. PMID:27394868

  6. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  7. A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2009-01-01

    This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

  8. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  9. Effect of plant barriers and citrus leaf age on dispersal of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Studies designed to measure dispersal capacity of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) are needed to provide epidemiological knowledge necessary to improve management of citrus Huanglongbing. In the present study, a mark-release-recapture technique was used to investigate whet...

  10. Preparation of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for genetic characterization and morphological examination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. Due to their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide...

  11. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  12. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  13. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  14. Viable progeny from crosses between geographically isolated populations of Podisus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) indicate a single species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discrepancies in reports on the presence of Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the western region of USA, and morphological variations of the species brought into question whether the species existed west of the Rocky Mountains. In this study, morphological variations in color ...

  15. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  16. Variation in susceptibility to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae),among Solanum verrucosum germplasm accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato and the vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. Development of potato cultivars with genetic resistance to potato psyllid would enable cost-effecti...

  17. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  18. Wolbachia infection differs among divergent mitochondrial haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four mitochondrial (cytrochrome oxidase I) haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (S'ulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), have been identified in North America: western, central, northwestern,and southwestern. A recent study found that females of the northwestern haplotype mated by males o...

  19. Midgut gene expression in Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a gene expression dataset from the midgut tissues of the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The AsCP is the primary vector of the bacterium associated with a devastating citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). The occurrence and spread of the AsCP ...

  20. First record of Sesbania punicea (Fabales: Fabaceae) as a host plant for Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Numerous known non-crop hosts of C. hilaris that exist in field edges bordering cotton are sources of this stink bug in this crop. Sesbania punicea plants in a field border su...

  1. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal bacteria were isolated and cultured from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the insect which transmits the plant-infecting bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter, known to infect and kill citrus trees, known as citrus greening disease. The bacteria from Di...

  2. Transfer of the assassin bug Nitornus fuliginosus to the genus Apronius
    (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Stenopodainae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Webb, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Based on examination of its lectotype (here designated), the assassin bug Nitornus fuliginosus Distant, 1902 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Stenopodainae) is transferred to the genus Apronius Stål, 1865, with the resulting new combination: Apronius fuliginosus (Distant, 1902), comb. nov. PMID:27395164

  3. A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera:Dictyopharide) from South America associated with Water Hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is described. All the stages were collected on the aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) at several localities on the Paraguay River in Argentina, and the upper Amazon River in Perú. Taosa impictifrons Remes Leni...

  4. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  5. Stridulation by Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae): Production mechanism and associated behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hemiptera displays a notable diversity of vibratory communication signals across its various families. Here we describe the substrate and airborne vibrations (sounds), the mechanism of production, and associated behaviors of Jadera haematoloma Herrich-Schaeffer, a member of the family, Rhopalida...

  6. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  7. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  8. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed. PMID:24855439

  9. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.

    PubMed

    Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  10. Use of pheromones for monitoring phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous native stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula (L.), Chinavia hilaris (Say), Plautia stali Scott, Chlorochroa spp., and Thyanta spp., are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and cost of control in most fruit, vegetable, gr...

  11. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.

    PubMed

    Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed. PMID:24855439

  12. Interceptions of Anthocoridae, Lasiochilidae, and Lyctocoridae at the Miami Plant Inspection Station (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specimens of pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)) intercepted at Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services inspection stations and housed at the Miami Inspection Station were examined and identified to species or genus. The 127 specimens were distributed among 14 genera and 26 identified species...

  13. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  14. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  15. Time course study of feeding damage to pin head cotton squares by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an economically important pest affecting cotton crops in California. Lygus feeding causes abscission of cotton squares, with damage severity dependent on size of the square and life stage of the insect. Fifth instar nymphs are the most damaging stage; however, ...

  16. Rhizoecus colombiensis Ramos & Caballero, a new species of hypogeal mealybug (Hemiptera: Coccomor.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Caballero, Alejandro

    2016-03-14

    A new species belonging to Rhizoecus Künckel d'Herculais (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Rhizoecidae) is described, with hosts and distribution data in the New World. A dichotomous and illustrated key for the twelve species of Rhizoecus recorded from Colombia is presented.

  17. Neostusakia, a new name for preoccupied Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Berytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of homonymy in the heteropteran family Berytidae is addressed. The genus Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera) is preoccupied by Stusakia Frýda, 1998 (Mollusca: Gastropoda). As a consequence, the replacement name Neostusakia, new name, is proposed. In addition, the only two included s...

  18. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  19. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  20. Host plant effects on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphal development and survivorship

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a highly polyphagous invasive species and an important pest of orchard crops in the US. In the Mid-Atlantic region, wild hosts of H. halys are common in woodlands that often border orchards, and H. halys movement from them into orchards poses ongo...

  1. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  2. The assassin bug genera Nagustoides and Stenolemus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) newly recorded from Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tadashi; Naka, Takeru

    2016-01-01

    Two assassin bug genera, Nagustoides Miller, 1954 of Harpactorinae and Stenolemus Signoret, 1858 of Emesinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), are recorded from Japan for the first time, with the presence of the representative species N. lii Zhao, Cai & Ren, 2006 and S. alikakay Rédei & Tsai, 2010. Distribution ranges of the two species are revised by the present finding. PMID:27615956

  3. Epidaus wangi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), a new assassin bug from Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Jianyun; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Epidaus wangi Chen, Zhu, Wang & Cai, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) from Tibet, China, is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens. The new species is morphologically similar to E. tuberosus Yang, 1940. The new species represents the first record of Epidaus species from Tibet. PMID:27615827

  4. Pseudowuiessa, a new genus of brachypterous Mezirinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kai; Bai, Xiaoshuan; Wu, Zhiyi; Heiss, Ernst; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    A new brachypterous flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) genus and species, Pseudowuiessa producta Bai, Heiss & Cai, gen. nov. & sp. nov., is described from Yunnan, China. A key to related genera is given and the diagnostic characters of the new taxon are illustrated. PMID:27615877

  5. Two new planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) collected in pitfall traps in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chmurova, Lucia; Webb, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of planthoppers in the family Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) are described from Zambia, i.e., Afronaso spinosa sp. n. and Calampocus zambiaensis sp. n. All specimens are flightless males and nearly all were collected from baited pitfall traps (except for one specimen collected from a yellow pan trap), suggesting that they live near to or on the ground. PMID:27615842

  6. A remarkable fossil leptosaldine bug from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodomorpha: Leptopodidae).

    PubMed

    Popov, Yuri A; Heiss, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of leptosaldine bugs, Leptosaldinea cobbeni gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodidae) is described and illustrated from Burmese Middle Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) amber found in Kachin State, northern Myanmar. This is the third record of a leptosaldine bug from Burmese amber. A brief analysis of the characters and systematic relationships of Leptosaldinae is provided. PMID:27470718

  7. A new genus of the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from Hainan Island.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Qin, Daozheng; Wang, Yinglun

    2015-05-12

    A new issid genus in the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) is erected for Fortunia jianfenglingensis Chen, Zhang et Chang, 2014 (China: Hainan). Male of the species is described and illustrated for the first time. A key for the 15 genera of Parahiraciini is provided. Morphological peculiarity and phylogenetic position of the new genus and the distribution of the tribe Parahiraciini are briefly discussed.

  8. The cicada genus Karenia Distant, 1888 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Constant, Jerome

    2014-08-19

    The cicadas of the genus Karenia are reviewed, and Karenia tibetensis sp.nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is described from Tibet, China. Pictures of the male adult and illustrations of the male genitalia are provided. A key to the species of Karenia is presented and the distribution of the Karenia species is discussed.

  9. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults. PMID:26463200

  10. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  11. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Virla, Eduardo G.; Melo, Cecilia M.; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults. PMID:26463200

  12. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  13. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. PMID:26334801

  14. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-01-01

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed. PMID:25283672

  15. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Ted E.; Tillman, P. Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn–cotton farmscapes, four of six corn–peanut farmscapes, and in both corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton–sorghum at the peanut–cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  16. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  17. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  18. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    PubMed Central

    Auad, A. M.; Resende, T. T.; Hott, M. C.; Borges, C.A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum (Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32°C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4°C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24°C but equal at 28°C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28°C than at 20°C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28°C than at 20°C, whereas adult longevity at 24°C did not differ from that at 20 and 28°C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios. PMID:27012869

  19. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tavvs M; Macrae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays.

  20. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Tavvs M.; Macrae, Ian V.; Koch, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  1. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    PubMed

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios.

  2. Spatiotemporal distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in corn farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn-cotton farmscapes, four of six corn-peanut farmscapes, and in both corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton-sorghum at the peanut-cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed.

  3. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-09-25

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed.

  4. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

    PubMed

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  5. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates—filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates. PMID:23904586

  6. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Zhang, Aijun; Liu, Chaofeng

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control, and their bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has an urgent need for materials and methods to reduce bed bug introduction and bites during work, travel, or sleep. A repellent product will help achieve these goals by discouraging and preventing bed bugs from moving to a protected area. We evaluated the repellency of three commercially available insect repellent or control materials and five nonregistered materials with the goal of identifying safe and effective bed bug repellents. The two commercial repellent products that contained 7% picaridin or 0.5% permethrin had little repellency against bed bugs. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the most commonly used insect repellent, provided a high level of repellency against bed bugs. When a host cue (carbon dioxide) was present, the minimum DEET concentration to repel > or = 94% of the bed bugs for a9-h period was 10%. The longevity of repellency of DEET was concentration dependent. At 25% concentration, DEET-treated fabric surface remained highly repellent to bed bugs for a 14-d period. However, DEET has a strong smell and dissolves certain plastic materials. Therefore, we evaluated several odorless, noncorrosive, and potentially effective repellents. Isolongifolenone and isolongifolanone, two natural products and recently reported insect repellents, exhibited strong repellent property against bed bugs but at significantly lower levels than DEET. Three novel potential repellent compounds discovered by Bedoukian Research Inc. (Danbury, CT) exhibited similar level of repellency and longevity as DEET for repelling bed bugs. These nonirritant and odorless compounds are promising candidates as alternatives to DEET for reducing the spread of bed bugs and bed bug bites. PMID:24498754

  7. Identity of Two Sympatric Species of Orius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P.; Shirk, Paul D.; Kelley, Karen; Lewis, Tamera M.; Horton, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The minute pirate bugs, Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), are closely related species known to be sympatric in north Florida. Here, male and female genitalia, DNA sequences, and the effects of within- and between-species pairings on egg production and egg development were examined to develop a better understanding of the relationship between these two species. Interspecific matings between the two species did not result in viable progeny. Although there were gross similarities in the morphology of the male parameres (external genitalia) between the two species, the cone in O. pumilio was much broader with a greater spiral twist and the flagellum was longer than in O. insidiosus. Correspondingly, there were differences in the morphology of the copulatory tubes of the females of the two species. In O. insidiosus, the organ was somewhat longer than in O. pumilio and oriented parallel to the abdominal midline, while the copulatory tube in O. pumilio tilted slightly towards the midline. Additionally, the copulatory tube for O. pumilio included a sclerotized basal mound that was not present in O. insidiosus. These morphological differences suggest that successful copulation between these species could be difficult. In contrast to conspecific matings, interspecific matings resulted in few or no eggs laid over a period of two weeks and no viable progeny. Comparison of the 18S ribosomal gene ITS-1 sequences between the two species demonstrated only 91% homology. When yolk protein contents were examined to determine whether reproductive physiology had shifted to full egg production, interspecifically mated females contained amounts of yolk protein comparable to that in fed, but unmated females; this was less than 10% of the yolk protein previously found in fed and conspecifically mated females. These findings together confirm that O. insidiosus and O. pumilio are indeed two separate species. PMID:21265614

  8. Spatial Distribution of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A two-year study was conducted in South Carolina wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae)) fields to describe spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which were sampled weekly with sweep nets. In 2010, the main phytophagous stink bugs caught in a grid sampling plan across two fields were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the red shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator (F.), for both adults and nymphs. In 2011, the main phytophagous stink bugs were E. servus, O. pugnax, N. viridula, and T. custator across two fields. Adult stink bug counts adjacent to fallow fields were 2.1-fold greater for all species combined compared with counts adjacent to woods. Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated significant aggregation for 35% of analyses for adults and nymph stink bugs at each sampling date. As a measure of spatial and temporal stability, positive SADIE association indices among sampling dates recorded 11, 36, 43, and 16% of analyses for adult E. servus and 7, 50, 50, and 14% for adult O. pugnax in fields A, B, C, and D, respectively. Adult and nymph stink bugs were spatially associated within wheat fields based on SADIE association indices. Seasonal counts of stink bugs were spatially associated with spike counts at least once for each species across the four fields. Future work may investigate practices to reduce stink bug buildup on wheat in the spring and movement to susceptible crops such as corn, Zea mays L. PMID:25205358

  9. Jumping mechanisms in jumping plant lice (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M

    2012-10-15

    Jumping mechanisms and performance were analysed in three species of psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha) that ranged from 2 to 4 mm in body length and from 0.7 to 2.8 mg in mass. Jumping was propelled by rapid movements of the short hind legs, which were only 10-20% longer than the other legs and 61-77% of body length. Power was provided by large thoracic muscles that depressed the trochantera so that the two hind legs moved in parallel planes on either side of the body. These movements accelerated the body to take-off in 0.9 ms in the smallest psyllid and 1.7 ms in the largest, but in all species imparted a rapid forward rotation so that at take-off the head pointed downwards, subtending angles of approximately -60 deg relative to the ground. The front legs thus supported the body just before take-off and either lost contact with the ground at the same time as, or even after, the hind legs. In the best jumps from the horizontal, take-off velocity reached 2.7 m s(-1) and the trajectory was steep at 62-80 deg. Once airborne, the body spun rapidly at rates of up to 336 Hz in the pitch plane. In many jumps, the wings did not open to provide stabilisation, but some jumps led directly to sustained flight. In their best jumps, the smallest species experienced a force of 637 g. The largest species had an energy requirement of 13 μJ, a power output of 13 mW and exerted a force of nearly 10 mN. In a rare jumping strategy seen in only two of 211 jumps analysed, the femoro-tibial joints extended further and resulted in the head pointing upwards at take-off and the spin rate being greatly reduced.

  10. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Zhang, Aijun; Liu, Chaofeng

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control, and their bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has an urgent need for materials and methods to reduce bed bug introduction and bites during work, travel, or sleep. A repellent product will help achieve these goals by discouraging and preventing bed bugs from moving to a protected area. We evaluated the repellency of three commercially available insect repellent or control materials and five nonregistered materials with the goal of identifying safe and effective bed bug repellents. The two commercial repellent products that contained 7% picaridin or 0.5% permethrin had little repellency against bed bugs. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the most commonly used insect repellent, provided a high level of repellency against bed bugs. When a host cue (carbon dioxide) was present, the minimum DEET concentration to repel > or = 94% of the bed bugs for a9-h period was 10%. The longevity of repellency of DEET was concentration dependent. At 25% concentration, DEET-treated fabric surface remained highly repellent to bed bugs for a 14-d period. However, DEET has a strong smell and dissolves certain plastic materials. Therefore, we evaluated several odorless, noncorrosive, and potentially effective repellents. Isolongifolenone and isolongifolanone, two natural products and recently reported insect repellents, exhibited strong repellent property against bed bugs but at significantly lower levels than DEET. Three novel potential repellent compounds discovered by Bedoukian Research Inc. (Danbury, CT) exhibited similar level of repellency and longevity as DEET for repelling bed bugs. These nonirritant and odorless compounds are promising candidates as alternatives to DEET for reducing the spread of bed bugs and bed bug bites.

  11. Application of RNA-seq for mitogenome reconstruction, and reconsideration of long-branch artifacts in Hemiptera phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Song, Nan; An, Shiheng; Yin, Xinming; Cai, Wanzhi; Li, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Hemiptera make up the largest nonholometabolan insect assemblage. Despite previous efforts to elucidate phylogeny within this group, relationships among the major sub-lineages remain uncertain. In particular, mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data are still sparse for many important hemipteran insect groups. Recent mitogenomic analyses of Hemiptera have usually included no more than 50 species, with conflicting hypotheses presented. Here, we determined the nearly complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for the aphid species of Rhopalosiphum padi using RNA-seq plus gap filling. The 15,205 bp mitogenome included all mitochondrial genes except for trnF. The mitogenome organization and size for R. padi are similar to previously reported aphid species. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships for Hemiptera were examined using a mitogenomic dataset which included sequences from 103 ingroup species and 19 outgroup species. Our results showed that the seven species representing the Aleyrodidae exhibit extremely long branches, and always cluster with long-branched outgroups. This lead to the failure of recovering a monophyletic Hemiptera in most analyses. The data treatment of Degen-coding for protein-coding genes and the site-heterogeneous CAT model show improved suppression of the long-branch effect. Under these conditions, the Sternorrhyncha was often recovered as the most basal clade in Hemiptera. PMID:27633117

  12. Application of RNA-seq for mitogenome reconstruction, and reconsideration of long-branch artifacts in Hemiptera phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; An, Shiheng; Yin, Xinming; Cai, Wanzhi; Li, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Hemiptera make up the largest nonholometabolan insect assemblage. Despite previous efforts to elucidate phylogeny within this group, relationships among the major sub-lineages remain uncertain. In particular, mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data are still sparse for many important hemipteran insect groups. Recent mitogenomic analyses of Hemiptera have usually included no more than 50 species, with conflicting hypotheses presented. Here, we determined the nearly complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for the aphid species of Rhopalosiphum padi using RNA-seq plus gap filling. The 15,205 bp mitogenome included all mitochondrial genes except for trnF. The mitogenome organization and size for R. padi are similar to previously reported aphid species. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships for Hemiptera were examined using a mitogenomic dataset which included sequences from 103 ingroup species and 19 outgroup species. Our results showed that the seven species representing the Aleyrodidae exhibit extremely long branches, and always cluster with long-branched outgroups. This lead to the failure of recovering a monophyletic Hemiptera in most analyses. The data treatment of Degen-coding for protein-coding genes and the site-heterogeneous CAT model show improved suppression of the long-branch effect. Under these conditions, the Sternorrhyncha was often recovered as the most basal clade in Hemiptera. PMID:27633117

  13. Scale insect genus-group names and their families (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea).

    PubMed

    Williams, Douglas J; Denno, Barbara D

    2014-06-05

    Genus names of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are listed with their current families. The list includes all generic names that are currently valid with synonyms, unjustified emendations, homonyms, nomia nuda and misspellings. The list has been compiled from many sources as discussed in the introduction. This is the first list to be prepared in recent years of all generic names and it is in alphabetical order.

  14. Ooencyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, M Reza

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given. PMID:27395169

  15. First report of Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851) in Europe (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae).

    PubMed

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Fabrizio; Gargani, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Italo; Roversi, Pio Federico; Cianferoni, Fabio

    2014-09-15

    Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae) is reported for the first time in Europe. Both nymphs and adults were observed from 2009 in several municipalities of Liguria (Italy). Since the species is extremely polyphagous and is a real pest for several crops in tropical and subtropical areas, the presence of this alien insect is noteworthy, representing a new possible threat for native species and human activities. 

  16. The identity and distribution of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae), with a new synonym.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gillian W; Williams, Douglas J; Miller, Douglass R

    2015-11-25

    The morphologies of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae) and F. coronata Williams & Watson are reviewed, and the name F. coronata is placed as a junior synonym of the name F. phantasma syn. n. The known geographical distribution and host range of F. phantasma is documented and discussed. An identification key to 12 of the 16 species of Fiorinia known from the Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical Regions is provided.

  17. Influence of insecticide treatments on ant-hemiptera associations in tropical plantations.

    PubMed

    Kenne, M; Djiéto-Lordon, C; Orivel, J; Mony, R; Fabre, A; Dejean, A

    2003-04-01

    In this survey conducted in southern Cameroon, we compared ant-Hemiptera associations on plantations treated with insecticides, on plantations 2 years after insecticide treatments ceased, and on control lots that never received insecticide treatments. By eliminating arboreal-nesting ants, insecticides favored the presence of "ecologically dominant" ground-nesting, arboreal-foraging species that occupied the tree crowns. The reinstallation of arboreal ants was slow as 2 yr after insecticide treatment ceased differences with the control lots were significant. This intermediary period also illustrated that arboreal ants can found and develop colonies on trees occupied by ground-nesting species. Certain arboreal species were more frequent during this intermediary period than on the control lots, showing that the period of installation in the trees was followed by competition between arboreal ants. We confirm that ground-nesting ants tend a wide range of hemipteran families, including well known agricultural pests, whereas arboreal ants, particularly dominant species, were mostly associated with Coccidae and Stictococcidae that do not pose problems to the supporting trees. A tree effect was also noted for both ant and hemipteran distribution. We concluded that because of insecticide use, ground-nesting ants pose problems through their associated Hemiptera. On the contrary, dominant arboreal ants, strong predators, benefit their supporting trees by excluding ground-nesting species and tending mostly nonpest Hemiptera. Nevertheless, certain of them, carpenter species or species likely to tend Pseudococcidae, have to be eliminated through integrated management.

  18. Influence of insecticide treatments on ant-hemiptera associations in tropical plantations.

    PubMed

    Kenne, M; Djiéto-Lordon, C; Orivel, J; Mony, R; Fabre, A; Dejean, A

    2003-04-01

    In this survey conducted in southern Cameroon, we compared ant-Hemiptera associations on plantations treated with insecticides, on plantations 2 years after insecticide treatments ceased, and on control lots that never received insecticide treatments. By eliminating arboreal-nesting ants, insecticides favored the presence of "ecologically dominant" ground-nesting, arboreal-foraging species that occupied the tree crowns. The reinstallation of arboreal ants was slow as 2 yr after insecticide treatment ceased differences with the control lots were significant. This intermediary period also illustrated that arboreal ants can found and develop colonies on trees occupied by ground-nesting species. Certain arboreal species were more frequent during this intermediary period than on the control lots, showing that the period of installation in the trees was followed by competition between arboreal ants. We confirm that ground-nesting ants tend a wide range of hemipteran families, including well known agricultural pests, whereas arboreal ants, particularly dominant species, were mostly associated with Coccidae and Stictococcidae that do not pose problems to the supporting trees. A tree effect was also noted for both ant and hemipteran distribution. We concluded that because of insecticide use, ground-nesting ants pose problems through their associated Hemiptera. On the contrary, dominant arboreal ants, strong predators, benefit their supporting trees by excluding ground-nesting species and tending mostly nonpest Hemiptera. Nevertheless, certain of them, carpenter species or species likely to tend Pseudococcidae, have to be eliminated through integrated management. PMID:14994787

  19. Identification and impact of natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2012-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and peppers (Capsicum spp.). The purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on B. cockerelli population dynamics. Through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens Stål (Hemiptera:Geocoridae), and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as key natural enemies of B. cockerelli in southern California potatoes, tomatoes, and bell peppers. In natural enemy exclusion cage experiments in the potato crop and in American nightshade, Solanum americanum Miller, the number of B. cockerelli surviving was significantly greater in the closed cage treatments, thus confirming the affect natural enemies can have on B. cockerelli. We discuss how this information can be used in an integrated pest management program for B. cockerelli.

  20. The architecture and complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of an assassin bug Agriosphodrus dohrni (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Gao, Jianyu; Liu, Haiyu; Liu, Hui; Liang, Aiping; Zhou, Xuguo; Cai, Wanzhi

    2011-01-01

    The 16, 470 bp nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of an assassin bug from the reduviid subfamily Harpactorinae, Agriosphodrus dohrni, has been revealed. The entire genome encodes for two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and a control region. The nucleotide composition is biased toward adenine and thymine (A+T = 72.2%). Comparative analysis with two other reduviid species Triatoma dimidiata and Valentia hoffmanni, exhibited highly conserved genome architectures including genome contents, gene order, nucleotide composition, codon usage, amino acid composition, as well as genome asymmetry. All protein-coding genes use standard mitochondrial initiation codons (methionine and isoleucine), except that nad1 starts with GTG. All tRNAs have the classic clover-leaf structure, except that the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNA(Ser(AGN)) forms a simple loop. Secondary structure comparisons of the two mitochondrial ribosomal subunits among sequenced assassin bugs show that the sequence and structure of rrnL is more conservative than that of rrnS. The presence of structural elements in the control region is also discussed, with emphasis on their implications in the regulation of replication and/or transcription of the reduviid mitogenome. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that within Reduviidae, Harpactorinae is a sister group to the Salyavatinae + Triatominae clade. PMID:21750648

  1. Assessing the mitochondrial DNA diversity of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D‘Ávila; de Sousa, Tais Nóbrega; Sonoda, Ivan Vieira; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma sordida is a species that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi to humans. In Brazil, T. sordida currently deserves special attention because of its wide distribution, tendency to invade domestic environments and vectorial competence. For the planning and execution of control protocols to be effective against Triatominae, they must consider its population structure. In this context, this study aimed to characterise the genetic variability of T. sordida populations collected in areas with persistent infestations from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Levels of genetic variation and population structure were determined in peridomestic T. sordida by sequencing a polymorphic region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Low nucleotide and haplotype diversity were observed for all 14 sampled areas; π values ranged from 0.002-0.006. Most obtained haplotypes occurred at low frequencies, and some were exclusive to only one of the studied populations. Interpopulation genetic diversity analysis revealed strong genetic structuring. Furthermore, the genetic variability of Brazilian populations is small compared to that of Argentinean and Bolivian specimens. The possible factors related to the reduced genetic variability and strong genetic structuring obtained for studied populations are discussed in this paper. PMID:27143491

  2. Jumping mechanisms of treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M

    2013-03-01

    The kinematics and jumping performance of treehoppers (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae) were analysed from high speed images. The eight species analysed had an 11-fold range of body mass (3.8-41 mg) and a 2-fold range of body length (4.1-8.4 mm). Body shape was dominated by a prothoracic helmet that projected dorsally and posteriorly over the body, and in some species forwards to form a protruding horn. Jumping was propelled by rapid depression of the trochantera of the hindlegs. The hindlegs were only 30-60% longer than the front and middle legs, and 47-94% the length of the body in different species. They were slung beneath the body and moved together in the same plane. In preparation for a jump, the hindlegs were initially levated and rotated forwards so that the femora were pressed into indentations of the coxae. The tibiae were flexed about the femora and the tarsi were placed on the ground directly beneath the lateral edges of the abdomen. Movements of the front and middle legs adjusted the angle of the body relative to the ground, but for most treehoppers this angle was small, so that the body was almost parallel to the ground. The rapid depression of the hindlegs accelerated the body to take-off in 1.2 ms in the lighter treehoppers and 3.7 ms in the heavier ones. Take-off velocities of 2.1-2.7 m s(-1) were achieved and were not correlated with body mass. In the best jumps, these performances involved accelerations of 560-2450 m s(-2) (g forces of 47-250), an energy expenditure of 13.5-101 μJ, a power output of 12-32 mW and exerted a force of 9.5-29 mN. The power output per mass of muscle far exceeds the maximum active contractile limit of normal muscle. Such requirements indicate that treehoppers must be using a power amplification mechanism in a catapult-like action. Some jumps were preceded by flapping movements of the wings, but the propulsive movements of the hindlegs were crucial in achieving take-off.

  3. Checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): an update based on the 2004 to 2013 literature.

    PubMed

    Larivière, Marie-Claude; Larochelle, André

    2014-01-23

    An updated checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) is provided as a supplement to the "Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue" of Larivière and Larochelle (2004: Fauna of New Zealand 50). A total of 142 genera and 319 species belonging to 28 families are recorded for New Zealand. Changes to the 2004 catalogue are documented. The synonymy and primary type information of taxa described between 2004 and July 2013 are also given. The presence of the anthocorid Macrotrachelia nigronitens in New Zealand is confirmed.

  4. Genetic Variation of North American Triatomines (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Initial Divergence between Species and Populations of Chagas Disease Vector

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Bertha; Martínez-Ibarra, Jose Alejandro; Villalobos, Guiehdani; De La Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi are principal factors in acquiring Chagas disease. For this reason, increased knowledge of domestic transmission of T. cruzi and control of its insect vectors is necessary. To contribute to genetic knowledge of North America Triatominae species, we studied genetic variations and conducted phylogenetic analysis of different triatomines species of epidemiologic importance. Our analysis showed high genetic variations between different geographic populations of Triatoma mexicana, Meccus longipennis, M. mazzottii, M. picturatus, and T. dimidiata species, suggested initial divergence, hybridation, or classifications problems. In contrast, T. gerstaeckeri, T. bolivari, and M. pallidipennis populations showed few genetics variations. Analysis using cytochrome B and internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences indicated that T. bolivari is closely related to the Rubrofasciata complex and not to T. dimidiata. Triatoma brailovskyi and T. gerstaeckeri showed a close relationship with Dimidiata and Phyllosoma complexes. PMID:23249692

  5. Tracking Our Progress: A Global Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the UN DESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilbury, Daniella

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability agenda is a concern of several UN agencies that appreciate how well-being, social justice, human development and the health of our planet are inextricably linked. This remit underpinned the launch of the UN Decade in Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) in 2005. As the DESD reaches its mid-point, mechanisms for assessing…

  6. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

  7. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  8. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  9. Diramus, a new genus of the leafhopper subfamily Evacanthinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), with description of three new species from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    Diramus, gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae), and three new species, Diramus khaokus sp. nov., Diramus nigromaculatus sp. nov. and Diramus uncatus sp. nov., are described from Thailand. The differences between the new genus and the closely related genus Bundera Distant is discussed.

  10. Lauriana Ren & Qin, a new genus of the tribe Tropidocephalini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Delphacidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Feng-Juan; Zheng, Li-Fang; Huang, Yi-Xin; Qin, Dao-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    A new delphacid genus and species, Lauriana senticosa Ren & Qin, gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Tropidocephalini) is described from Sichuan, China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of the new species are given, and the differences between the new genus and its closely related genera are discussed.

  11. A revision of the Australian genus Trachylestes with the description of two new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae).

    PubMed

    Malipatil, M B; Kwak, M L; Gunawardene, N

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Trachylestes barrowensis sp. nov. from Barrow Island, Western Australia and T. queenslandensis sp. nov. from southeastern Queensland are described, and a key for their separation from other known species of the Australian endemic genus Trachylestes Stål, 1868 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) is given. PMID:27394766

  12. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  13. Antifeedant activity and high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae) induced by biostable insect kinin analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect kinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable insect kinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet t...

  14. Effects of atmospheric pressure trends on calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects and other animals sometimes modify behavior in response to changes in atmospheric pressure, an environmental cue that can provide warning of potentially injurious windy and rainy weather. To determine if Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis behaviors w...

  15. Predation of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by a complex of predators and adjoining soybean habitats in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular gut-content analysis was used to examine predation on stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by arthropod predators in habitats of soybean with and without buckwheat and adjoining cotton. Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), Chinavia hilaris (Say), and Euschistus quadrator Rolston,...

  16. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  17. Eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and roots of conifer and willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apterous adult morphs of eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and/or roots of conifer or willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest including Alaska are described, illustrated, and keyed. In total, seven species (Clydesmithia canadensis Danielsson, Melaphis ...

  18. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  19. 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' titer over time in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) after acquisition from infected potato and tomato plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious pest of potato and other solanaceous crops. Recently, B. cockerelli has been associated with the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso), the causal agent of zebra chip, a new and economically import...

  20. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  1. Review of the grassland leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) from the Chinese mainland.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yani; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mainland species of the leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) (Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler), Nephotettix malayanus Ishihara & Kawase, Nephotettix nigropictus (Stål), Nephotettix parvus Ishihara & Kawase rec. n., and Nephotettix virescens (Distant)) are reviewed. This genus is redescribed. Variation is described and illustrated. Keys for their separation are provided together with a worldwide checklist.

  2. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  3. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...

  4. Changes in behavioral responses of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) from various applied signal voltages during EPG recordings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3rd-generation AC-DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitor was used to study feeding behaviors of pre-reproductive adult Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) on pinhead (<3mm) cotton squares, applying different signal voltages at several input impedances. The AC-DC monitor allows a user to s...

  5. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  6. Mestus cruciatus, a new delphacid species from southwest China with some remarks on the genus (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Feng-juan; Xie, Qi; Qin, Dao-zheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new delphacid (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae) species, Mestus cruciatus sp. n. is described based on specimens from Yunnan Province, China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia are provided. The Mestus species and phylogenetic arrangement of this genus is discussed. A key to the species of Mestus is also provided. PMID:26798294

  7. A chemical lure for stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is used as a kairomone by Astata occidentalis (Hymenoptera: sphecidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The digger wasp Astata occidentalis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is a predator of pentatomid stink bugs (Hemiptera). In the states of Washington and Georgia, adult females were consistently captured in the field in traps baited with lures that included methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, a comp...

  8. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  9. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  10. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  11. Two new bamboo-feeding species of the genus Neocarpia Tsaur & Hsu (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Cixiidae: Eucarpiini) from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Chen, Xiang-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Two new bamboo-feeding species of the cixiid planthopper genus Neocarpia Tsaur & Hsu, 2003 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Cixiidae: Eucarpiini), N. bidentata sp. nov. (Guizhou: Xishui) and N. hamata sp. nov. (Guizhou, Yanhe), from southwest China, are described and illustrated. The generic characteristics are redefined. A key and a checklist to the known species of this genus in the world are provided.

  12. A review of Chinese tribe Achilini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae), with descriptions of Paracatonidia webbeda gen. & sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Long, Jian-Kun; Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-12-02

    Planthoppers of the tribe Achilini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae) from China, are reviewed. A key to the three genera of Chinese Achilini is given. A new genus and species of the tribe from southwestern China: Paracatonidia webbeda gen. & sp. nov., is described. A new genus and species record for China, Cixidia kasparyani Anufriev, is also given.

  13. Review of the genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-12-11

    Two new species of the issid genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae): Neotetricodes longispinus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) and Neotetricodes xiphoideus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) are described and illustrated. The generic characteristic is redefined. A checklist and key to the species of the genus are provided. The female genitalia of the genus are firstly described.

  14. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Virla, Eduardo G.; Logarzo, Guillermo A.; Paradell, Susana L.

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28° 48′ to 39° 17′ S and 64° 06′ to 70° 04′ W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions. PMID:20578887

  15. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material. PMID:25083170

  16. An annotated checklist of the planthoppers of Iran (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha) with distribution data

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Wilson, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A list of Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha (planthoppers) of Iran is provided, based primarily on literature records from 1902 to the present. In total 15 families and 235 species are recorded, with taxonomic details. Distribution data in Iran are given. Iranissus ephedrinus Dlabola, 1980 is transferred from Issidae to Nogodinidae. To resolve nomenclatural difficulty the following new combinations in Issidae are given: Iranodus dumetorus (Dlabola, 1981), Iranodus khatunus (Dlabola, 1981) and Iranodus repandus (Dlabola, 1981). Due to published generic synonomy the following are new combinations: Duilius seticulosus (Lethierry, 1874), Duilius tamaricis (Puton & Lethierry, 1887), Duilius tamaricicola (Dubovsky, 1966) and Duilius v-atrum (Dlabola, 1985). PMID:22287883

  17. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  18. The genus Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera, Ortheziidae) with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Szita, Éva; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Fetykó, Kinga; Kozár, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes a new species of Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Ortheziidae) from the Palaearctic region. The specimens were extracted from forest litter in the collections of Muséum d’histoire Naturelle de Genève, Switzerland, using Berlese funnels. Three further species, Arctorthezia cataphracta (Olafsen), Arctorthezia occidentalis (Douglas) and Arctorthezia pseudoccidentalis Morrison, are redescribed and re-illustrated. The genus Arctorthezia now contains five species. An identification key, diagnostic illustrations, photographs of unmounted females and new locality records of the Arctorthezia species currently known are provided. PMID:25632249

  19. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil. PMID:27143143

  20. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  1. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  2. Records of Natural Enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, L C; Lourenção, A L; Costa, V A; Souza, B; Costa, M B; Tanque, R L

    2014-04-01

    Collections of natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were made in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the greenhouse, 6,495 predators and 16,628 parasitoids belonging to three families were collected. In the field, 267 predators and 344 parasitoids belonging to five families were found. For the first time in Brazil, five species of predators associated with this whitefly were reported. Because of the diversity of natural enemies of B. tabaci biotype B recorded, this study points out the importance of these data for studies on integrated pest management.

  3. Cicadidae types (Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection (Argentina).

    PubMed

    De Remes Lenicov, Ana M Marino; Maciá, Arnaldo; Pianzola, Bruno

    2015-06-23

    A catalog of the 161 type specimens of species of Hemiptera Cicadidae housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo de La Plata is presented. This collection represents 52 species grouped in 19 genera. For each species the original and current names, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector's name, and hosts) are given. Information about the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and photographs of each type species are also provided.

  4. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  5. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    PubMed

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material.

  6. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, W. Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Horton, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect’s diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0–3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations. PMID:26056318

  7. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F; Horton, David R

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect's diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0-3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations.

  8. Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

    La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ≈ TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

  9. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    PubMed

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  10. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures.

  11. Two more new species of Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae), and a note on variation in Aphidura bozhkoae Narzikulov

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan M.; Blackman, Roger L.; Martin, Jon H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Aphidura Hille Ris Lambers, 1956 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are described; Aphidura libanensis sp. n. from Prunus prostrata in Lebanon, and Aphidura corsicensis sp. n. from Cerastium soleirolii in Corsica (France). Studies of Aphidura bozhkoae specimens from different localities have revealed that this species varies in its pattern of dorsal sclerotisation and other morphological characters, within and between populations. An updated key for identifying the world’s species of Aphidura is presented. PMID:25147453

  12. Studies on idiocerine leafhoppers with descriptions of Chinaocerus gen. nov. and three new species from China (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Dang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    A new leafhopper genus of the tribe Idiocerini (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae), Chinaocerus, is described from the southwest China together with three new species, C. kangdingensis Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province), C. bispinatus Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Yunnan Province) and C. shii Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province). Descriptions and illustrations of these three new species are provided, and a key for their separation is also given.

  13. The identity of the Brachyplatys species recently introduced to Panama, with a review of bionomics (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae).

    PubMed

    Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    A recent report of a population of Brachyplatys vahlii (Fabricius, 1787) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) introduced to Panama is considered as misidentification, the species in concern is recognized as B. subaeneus (Westwood, 1837). Syntypes of B. subaeneus and diagnostic characters of the species are illustrated, published information on its distribution, bionomics and economic importance is reviewed. Syntypes of B. vahlii are illustrated, taxonomic problems in connection with the species are highlighted. PMID:27395708

  14. Revision of the Afrotropical genus Fernandea Melichar, 1912 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Dictyopharidae), with description of a new species from Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Shun; Malenovský, Igor; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The Afrotropical planthopper genus Fernandea Melichar, 1912 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Dictyopharidae: Dictyopharinae: Orthopagini) is revised to include two species: F. conradti Melichar, 1912 (the type species), with material studied from Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko island) and Togo, and F. latifemorata sp. nov., described as new from mainland Equatorial Guinea. A lectotype is designated and a redescription is provided for F. conradti together with habitus photographs and detailed illustrations of the male and female terminalia which are published for the first time. PMID:27470788

  15. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-06-19

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  16. Planthopper (Hemiptera: Flatidae) parasitized by larval erythraeid mite (Trombidiformes: Erythraeidae)-a description of two new species from western Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Mąkol, Joanna; Moniuszko, Hanna; Swierczewski, Dariusz; Stroiński, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of Dambullaeus adonis Mąkol et Moniuszko SP NOV: (Trombidiformes: Erythraeidae, Callidosomatinae) and Latois nigrolineata Świerczewski et Stroiński SP NOV: (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha, Flatidae) from Madagascar are provided. The first host record for ectoparasitic larvae of Dambullaeus Haitlinger, 2001 and the first evidence on host-parasite association between flatid adult and erythraeid larvae are given. Genus Dambullaeus, known exclusively from larvae and now comprising two species of Gondwanan distribution, is critically reappraised.

  17. Genetic Variability of the Invasive Species Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae) in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Gyu; Min, Sujeong; Lee, Gwan-Seok; Kim, Sora; Lee, Yerim; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Ki-Jeong; Wilson, Stephen W; Akimoto, Shin-Ichi; Lee, Wonhoon

    2016-08-01

    Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae) has caused substantial agricultural damage since its recent introduction to the Republic of Korea; however, the source of this introduction is still unclear. To examine the genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships among several populations of M. pruinosa from Korea and foreign countries, 251 COI sequences from 251 samples collected from Korea, France, Italy, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States were newly analyzed, together with seven published COI sequences from Canada. In total, 19 haplotypes were detected from the 258 COI sequences, and three haplotypes, H1, H3, and H9, were detected from samples in Korea. The MJ network and Bayesian inference revealed that the three haplotypes of Korea were closely connected with samples of Italy, Spain, Slovenia, France, and the United States. Our study revealed the possibility of multiple invasions of M. pruinosa from Europe and/or North America into Korea. PMID:27247301

  18. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-01-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté. PMID:26249973

  19. Survival and fecundity of two strains of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature. PMID:25276919

  20. Madagascar Flatidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha): state-of-the-art and research challenges

    PubMed Central

    Świerczewski, Dariusz; Stroiński, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The paper provides a historical review of the research on Flatidae in Madagascar and indicates future prospects. While the first two species of Madagascar Flatidae were described by Guérin-Méneville (1844), it was Signoret (1860) who made the first real attempt to enhance our knowledge of the Hemiptera fauna of Madagascar by describing several additional species. Over the following century and a half, several investigators have turned their attention to this group of insects, with the final number of species recorded for the island reaching 79. Despite this long history of research, it is evident that much still remains to be done. Detailed taxonomic research will allow the natural history of Madagascar and changes in the biological diversity of its endemic ecosystems to be better understood. This paper should be considered as an introduction to a complex study on the systematics and phylogeny of worldwide Flatidae planthoppers. PMID:24039526

  1. Wolbachia infection density in populations of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Pelz-Stelinski, K S

    2014-10-01

    The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts.

  2. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).

  3. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles .

    PubMed

    Malumphy, Chris

    2014-07-31

    An annotated list of 83 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Sterorrhyncha: Coccoidea) recorded from Saint Lucia is presented, based on data gathered from UK quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the North West of the Island in 2013, and published records. Thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including Dysmicoccus joannesiae (Costa Lima), a South American mealybug, and Poliaspoides formosana (Takahashi), an Asian armoured scale insect pest of bamboo, which are new for the Caribbean region. The economic, environmental and social impacts caused by introduced exotic species of scale insect are discussed. Two predatory midges Diadiplosis ?coccidivora (Felt) and Diadiplosis multifila (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are recorded for the first time from Saint Lucia. The latter species was observed causing 90% mortality of a large infestation of passion vine mealybug Planococcus minor (Maskell) on soursop fruit. 

  4. Interaction between Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Sganzerla, Vânia Maria Ambrosi; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a soil scale that is considered the main pest of vineyards in Brazil. The ant Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is frequently found associated with this species of scale in infested areas. The effect of the presence of L. micans on the infestation and dispersal capacity of E. brasiliensis on vine roots was measured in a greenhouse, using Paulsen 1103 rootstock seedlings planted in simple and double "Gallotti Cages." Treatments measured were: infestation of roots with E. brasiliensis or L. micans, and infestation with both species together. In the experiment using simple Gallotti Cages, with E. brasiliensis associated with L. micans, higher mean numbers of cysts and ants per plant were recorded, a result significantly different from that found for infestation with scale only. When double Gallotti Cages were used, first-instar nymphs were transported between the cages. The results showed that L. micans transports and aids in the attachment of E. brasiliensis to vine plants.

  5. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidae sensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna. PMID:23794928

  6. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  7. Description of the Immature Stages of the Planthopper Lacertinella australis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Batiz, M. F. Rossi; Lenicov, A. M. Marino de Remes

    2014-01-01

    The five immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Saccharosydnini) are described and illustrated. The main characters that allowed us to distinguish the various stages were body size, number of tarsomeres and metatibial spines, and number of teeth on the spur. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observations showed that L. australis can carry out its biological cycle successfully on the graminaceous pampas grass (Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). In addition, the efficient rearing in captivity, the high survivorship registered, and overwintering only on this host plant suggests that L. australis is a potential biocontrol agent of this invasive graminaceous weed. This study provides information about the immature stages, including a key for their identification, based on laboratory reared specimens and field observations. PMID:25199992

  8. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid.

    PubMed

    Kolora, Lakshmi D; Powell, Christopher M; Hunter, W; Bextine, B; Lauzon, C R

    2015-05-01

    The Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive insect pest that transmits Candidatus Liberibacter spp. This insect/pathogen system was first identified in North America in the early 2000's and has become the top threat to the citrus industry. Limited options for management of this problem exist; therefore, innovative pest management strategies are being developed. In this study, we describe the first step toward a paratransgenic approach (also referred to symbiotic control) for control of the insect vector or the pathogen. Culturable bacteria from the gut of Asian Citrus Psyllids were identified using standard culture techniques followed by sequencing of the cultured microorganisms. Further, 454 pyrosequencing of the gut was performed to audit bacterial presence in order to begin to identify any relationship between psyllid symbionts and C. Liberibacter spp.

  9. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?

    PubMed

    Chatzidimitriou, Evangelia; Simonato, Mauro; Watson, Gillian W; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Zhao, Jing; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Among the Nearctic species of Phenacoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris are morphologically similar and it can be difficult to separate them on the basis of microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the COI and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n. PMID:27394512

  10. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fu, Xiaohong; Liu, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers-the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane-and four sub-layers of the procuticle-the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  11. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?

    PubMed

    Chatzidimitriou, Evangelia; Simonato, Mauro; Watson, Gillian W; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Zhao, Jing; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-03-24

    Among the Nearctic species of Phenacoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris are morphologically similar and it can be difficult to separate them on the basis of microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the COI and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n.

  12. Chirality and bioactivity of the sex pheromone of Madeira mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Ko, Chi-Hung; Cheng, Chao-Chih; Su, Yu-Ting; Pola, Someshwar

    2011-06-01

    Two compounds (trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate and R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate) identified from aeration extracts of virgin female Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were synthesized and tested in field bioassays in northern Taiwan over a 1-mo period. In total, 1,492 male P. madeirensis were captured in sticky traps. Our results showed that 1 microg of synthetic trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate released from a plastic tube dispenser was attractive to the mealybugs. Different stereoisomers of chrysanthemyl 2-methylbutanoate also were tested. The insect-produced stereoisomer was the most attractive of all the isomers tested, and the stereochemistry of the acid moiety proved to be more critical than that of the alcohol moiety. The minor component found in extracts, R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate, alone was not attractive to male Madeira mealybugs nor did it act synergistically or additively with the main component.

  13. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea).

    PubMed

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidaesensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  14. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" the flavobacterial endosymbiont of Llaveia axin axin (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae).

    PubMed

    Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Mora, Jaime; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-03-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) constitute a very diverse group of sap-feeding insects with a large diversity of symbiotic associations with bacteria. Here, we present the complete genome sequence, metabolic reconstruction, and comparative genomics of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of the giant scale insect Llaveia axin axin. The gene repertoire of its 309,299 bp genome was similar to that of other flavobacterial insect endosymbionts though not syntenic. According to its genetic content, essential amino acid biosynthesis is likely to be the flavobacterial endosymbiont's principal contribution to the symbiotic association with its insect host. We also report the presence of a γ-proteobacterial symbiont that may be involved in waste nitrogen recycling and also has amino acid biosynthetic capabilities that may provide metabolic precursors to the flavobacterial endosymbiont. We propose "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" as the name of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of insects from the Monophlebidae family.

  15. Wolbachia infection density in populations of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Pelz-Stelinski, K S

    2014-10-01

    The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts. PMID:25259690

  16. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid.

    PubMed

    Kolora, Lakshmi D; Powell, Christopher M; Hunter, W; Bextine, B; Lauzon, C R

    2015-05-01

    The Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive insect pest that transmits Candidatus Liberibacter spp. This insect/pathogen system was first identified in North America in the early 2000's and has become the top threat to the citrus industry. Limited options for management of this problem exist; therefore, innovative pest management strategies are being developed. In this study, we describe the first step toward a paratransgenic approach (also referred to symbiotic control) for control of the insect vector or the pathogen. Culturable bacteria from the gut of Asian Citrus Psyllids were identified using standard culture techniques followed by sequencing of the cultured microorganisms. Further, 454 pyrosequencing of the gut was performed to audit bacterial presence in order to begin to identify any relationship between psyllid symbionts and C. Liberibacter spp. PMID:25645736

  17. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335

  18. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)). PMID:24883360

  19. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335

  20. Repellence produced by monoterpenes on Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) decreases after continuous exposure to these compounds.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Alejandra; Sfara, Valeria; Alzogaray, Raúl Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Botanical monoterpenes are secondary metabolites present in essential oils produced by plants. Some of them are insect repellents. The bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus Ståhl (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is one of the main vectors of Chagas disease in the north of South America and some countries in Central America. In this study, we studied the repellence produced by two monoterpenes, menthyl acetate and geraniol, on fifth instar nymphs of R. prolixus. In the absence of other stimuli, both menthyl acetate and geraniol produced a repellent effect from 740 μg/cm(2) and 74 μg/cm(2), respectively. Pre-exposure to each monoterpene reduced the repellent activity produced by the same substance. Additionally, pre-exposure to one monoterpene decreased the behavioral response of the nymphs to the other one. The repellent effect of both monoterpenes also decreased when nymphs' antennae were previously treated with the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-cysteine.

  1. Corroborating molecular species discovery: Four new pine-feeding species of Chionaspis (Hemiptera, Diaspididae)

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle M.; Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Normark, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Chionaspis (Hemiptera, Diaspididae) includes two North American species of armored scale insects feeding on Pinaceae: Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley, and Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch). Despite the economic impact of conifer-feeding Chionaspis on horticulture, the species diversity in this group has only recently been systematically investigated using samples from across the group’s geographic and host range. This paper provides morphological recognition characters for four new species that were recently hypothesized to exist on the basis of molecular evidence. The new species, here described, are Chionaspis brachycephalon Vea sp. n., Chionaspis caudata Vea sp. n., Chionaspis sonorae Vea sp. n. and Chionaspis torreyanae Vea sp. n.  One of the new species, Chionaspis caudata Vea, has a gland spine at the apex of the pygidium, between the median lobes, unlike any other species of Chionaspis. An identification key to the species of Chionaspis feeding on pine in North America is provided. PMID:23717184

  2. On Dorsal Prothoracic Appendages in Treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) and the Nature of Morphological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mikó, István; Friedrich, Frank; Yoder, Matthew J.; Hines, Heather M.; Deitz, Lewis L.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Seltmann, Katja C.; Wallace, Matthew S.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    A spectacular hypothesis was published recently, which suggested that the “helmet” (a dorsal thoracic sclerite that obscures most of the body) of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae) is connected to the 1st thoracic segment (T1; prothorax) via a jointed articulation and therefore was a true appendage. Furthermore, the “helmet” was interpreted to share multiple characteristics with wings, which in extant pterygote insects are present only on the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) thoracic segments. In this context, the “helmet” could be considered an evolutionary novelty. Although multiple lines of morphological evidence putatively supported the “helmet”-wing homology, the relationship of the “helmet” to other thoracic sclerites and muscles remained unclear. Our observations of exemplar thoraces of 10 hemipteran families reveal multiple misinterpretations relevant to the “helmet”-wing homology hypothesis as originally conceived: 1) the “helmet” actually represents T1 (excluding the fore legs); 2) the “T1 tergum” is actually the anterior dorsal area of T2; 3) the putative articulation between the “helmet” and T1 is actually the articulation between T1 and T2. We conclude that there is no dorsal, articulated appendage on the membracid T1. Although the posterior, flattened, cuticular evagination (PFE) of the membracid T1 does share structural and genetic attributes with wings, the PFE is actually widely distributed across Hemiptera. Hence, the presence of this structure in Membracidae is not an evolutionary novelty for this clade. We discuss this new interpretation of the membracid T1 and the challenges of interpreting and representing morphological data more broadly. We acknowledge that the lack of data standards for morphology is a contributing factor to misinterpreted results and offer an example for how one can reduce ambiguity in morphology by referencing anatomical concepts in published ontologies. PMID:22272287

  3. Morphology of the mouthparts of the spittlebug Philagra albinotata Uhler (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Aphrophoridae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Pan, Liuxing; Zhang, Yalin; Dai, Wu

    2015-03-01

    Mouthparts associated with feeding behavior and feeding habits are important sensory and feeding structures in insects. To obtain a better understanding of feeding in Cercopoidea, the morphology of mouthparts of the spittlebug, Philagra albinotata Uhler was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The mouthparts of P. albinotata are of the typical piercing-sucking type found in Hemiptera, comprising a cone-shaped labrum, a tube-like, three-segmented labium with a deep groove on the anterior side, and a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets. The mandibles consist of a dorsal smooth region and a ventral serrate region near the apical half of the external convex region, and bear five nodules or teeth on the dorsal external convex region on the distal extremity; these are regarded as unique features that distinguish spittlebugs from other groups of Hemiptera. The externally smooth maxillary stylets, interlocked to form a larger food canal and a smaller salivary canal, are asymmetrical only in the internal position of longitudinal carinae and grooves. One dendritic canal is found in each maxilla and one in each mandible. Two types of sensilla trichodea, three types of sensilla basiconica and groups of multi-peg structures occur in different locations on the labium, specifically the labial tip with two lateral lobes divided into anterior sensory fields with ten small peg sensilla arranged in a 5+4+1 pattern and one big peg sensillum, and posterior sensory fields with four sensilla trichodea. Compared with those of previously studied Auchenorrhyncha, the mouthparts of P. albinotata may be distinguished by the shape of the mandibles, the multi-peg structures and a tooth between the salivary canal and the food canal on the extreme end of the stylets. The mouthpart morphology is illustrated using scanning electron micrographs, and the taxonomic and putative functional significance of the different structures is briefly discussed.

  4. First Report of Colonies of Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Paraguayan Chaco, Using a Trained Dog

    PubMed Central

    Rolón, Miriam; Vega, María Celeste; Román, Fabiola; Gómez, Ana; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta

    2011-01-01

    In the Gran Chaco region, control of Triatoma infestans has been limited by persistent domestic infestations despite the efforts of the Vector Control Services. In Paraguay, this region is the highest endemic area in the country, showing high levels of indoor and outdoor infestation. Although sylvatic T. infestans have been found in the Bolivian and Argentine Chaco, similar searches for sylvatic populations of this species in Paraguay had been unsuccessful over the last 20 years. Here we present a new approach to detecting sylvatic Triatominae, using a trained dog, which has successfully confirmed sylvatic populations of T. infestans and other triatomine species in Paraguay. A total of 22 specimens corresponding to dark morph forms of T. infestans were collected, and 14 were confirmed as T. infestans by the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene analysis. Through this analysis, one of which were previously reported and a second that was a new haplotype. Triatomines were captured from amongst vegetation such as dry branches and hollows trees of different species such Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Bulnesia sarmientoi and Stetsonia coryne. The colonies found have been small and without apparent infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. During the study, Triatoma sordida and Triatoma guasayana have also been found in ecotopes close to those of T. infestans. PMID:21572522

  5. Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): Achievements, Open Questions and Strategies for the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of…

  6. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands and bacteria-like structures in the gut and other organs of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of huanglongbing disease bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera, Liviidae) is the principal vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Liberibacter asiaticus is transmitted i...

  7. Potential of the bean alpha-amylase inhibitor alpha-AI-1 to inhibit alpha-amylase activity in true bugs(Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    True bugs (Hemiptera) are an important pest complex not controlled by Bt crops. An alternative source of resistance includes inhibitors of digestive enzymes. aAI-1, an a-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, has been shown to inhibit a-amylases of bruchid pests of grain legumes. Here we quantify t...

  8. Characterization of a recombinant Cathepsin B-Like cysteine peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A putative target control of citrus huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Among the control strategies for H...

  9. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  10. Biostable multi-Aib analogs of tachykinin-related peptides demonstrate potent oral aphicidal activity in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). Two novel biostable TRP analogs containing multiple, sterically-hindered Aib residues were synthesized and found to exhi...

  11. Biostable and PEG polymer-conjugated insect pyrokinin analogs demonstrate antifeedant activity and induce high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyrokinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable pyrokinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet to the ...

  12. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  13. Characterization of twelve novel microsatellite markers of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) identified from next generation sequence data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major pest of rice and has long-range migratory behavior in Asia. Microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) have been widely used to determine the origins and genetic diversity of insect pests. ...

  14. Deep characterization of the microbiomes of Calophya spp. (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) gall-inducing psyllids reveals the absence of plant pathogenic bacteria and three dominant endosymbionts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria associated with sap-feeding insect herbivores include not only symbionts that may increase their hosts’ fitness, but also harmful plant pathogens. Calophya spp., gall-inducing psyllids (Hemiptera: Calophyidae), are being investigated for their potential as biological control agents of the n...

  15. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  16. Injury to apples and peaches at harvest from feeding by Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs early and late in the season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive species that has become an important orchard pest in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Adults and nymphs feed on tree fruit. Feeding injury from adults has been characterized but the injury from nymphs has not been examined system...

  17. Comparative Biology and Life Tables of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter Solanacearum’-Infected and -Free Bactericera Cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Potato and Silverleaf Nightshade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), vectors the pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Several cultivated and wild plants are reported to serve as alternate hosts for B. cockerelli and Lso, including silverl...

  18. A study of the scale insect genera Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Putoidae) and Ceroputo Šulc (Pseudococcidae) with a comparison to Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For almost a century, the scale insect genus Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) was considered to belong to the family Pseudococcidae (the mealybugs), but recent consensus accords Puto its own family, the Putoidae. This paper reviews the taxonomic history of Puto and family Putoida...

  19. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean; and to d...

  20. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  1. Characterization of EPG waveforms for the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on tea plants and their correlation with stylet activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stylet probing activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were studied using the DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Seven different EPG waveforms (i.e., Np, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) were identified and characterized on susceptible tea leav...

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of the Obligate Symbionts "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" from the Pestiferous Leafhopper Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gordon M; Abbà, Simona; Kube, Michael; Marzachì, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial symbionts of the European pest leafhopper, Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were fully sequenced. "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" represent two of the smallest known bacterial genomes at 190 kb and 112 kb, respectively. Genome sequences are nearly identical to strains reported from the closely related host species, M. quadrilineatus.

  3. First record of the leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini) from China, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    The erythroneurine leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) is reported for the first time from China, with descriptions and illustrations of two new species, Zyginopsis paraverticalis and Zyginopsis gracilis spp. nov., and one newly recorded species from China, Zyginopsis verticalis Ahmed n. rec. A key for identification of Chinese species (adult males) is provided.

  4. Bionomics of Oncometopia tucumana (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae), a sharpshooter from Argentina, with notes on its distribution, host plants and egg parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bionomics of the proconiine sharpshooter Oncometopia tucumana Schroder (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae) from northern Argentina is reported. Leafhoppers were monitored during the entire season in a citrus orchard in Horco Molle, Tucuman Province, and also sampled in Jujuy and Salta provinces. The sharpshoot...

  5. First record of the leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini) from China, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    The erythroneurine leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) is reported for the first time from China, with descriptions and illustrations of two new species, Zyginopsis paraverticalis and Zyginopsis gracilis spp. nov., and one newly recorded species from China, Zyginopsis verticalis Ahmed n. rec. A key for identification of Chinese species (adult males) is provided. PMID:27515621

  6. Within-plant distribution of the Foxglove Aphid (Aulacorthum Solani Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various greenhouse plants with implications for control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani Kaltenbach; Hemiptera: Aphididae) has recently undergone a status change from an occasional pest to a serious pest of greenhouse crops in North America and the UK. Consequently, little non-anecdotal information exists on the ecology of this insect in greenhouse cro...

  7. A new species in the indigenous New Zealand soft scale insect genus Kalasiris Henderson & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) on Gahnia setifolia (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Chris J; Gunawardana, D N; Richmond, J E

    2016-01-01

    The genus Kalasiris Henderson & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) is currently only known from New Zealand. The adult female and pupa of a new species, K. martini Hodgson & Richmond are described and illustrated below and the possible taxonomic relationships of the genus to other New Zealand genera are discussed. PMID:27394370

  8. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  9. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  10. Bites caused by giant water bugs belonging to Belostomatidae family (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) in humans: a report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Schwartz, Elisabeth F; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Carvalho, Lucélia Nobre

    2010-06-01

    We report 7 cases of patients bitten by giant water bugs, large predatory insects belonging to the Belostomatidae family (Hemiptera, Heteroptera). These insects have toxic saliva capable of provoking intense pain and paralysis in vertebrates. Victims experienced intense, excruciating pain and 1 manifested hypoesthesia in the forearm. Bites by Belostomatidae are often reported by clinicians working in areas where these insects live, but there are no detailed case reports in the medical literature. There are no specific treatment modalities known to be effective, making prevention an important strategy.

  11. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger), Diaspidiotus wuenni (Lindinger), Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, Eriococcus pamiricus (Bazarov), Eriococcus reynei Schmutterer, Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux and Eriococcus saxidesertus (Borchsenius) and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko.

  12. Description of a new soft scale insect of the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kondo, Takumasa

    2015-01-01

    A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) species, Pulvinariacaballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficussoatensis Dugand (Moraceae) in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles Pulvinariadrymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimyswinteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae), but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., Pulvinariacaballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas Pulvinariadrymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided.

  13. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015). PMID:27395151

  14. First report of a mermithid nematode infecting the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stubbins, F L; Agudelo, P; Reay-Jones, F P F; Greene, J K

    2015-05-01

    Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) has become a pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.), in the United States. While several natural enemies of M. cribraria have been reported, our study is the first to report nematodes beneath the pleural membranes in the abdominal cavities of adults. Morphological and molecular analyses suggest this nematode belongs to the family Mermithidae. This first report of a nematode infection in M. cribraria adds to the current inventory of enemies attacking this insect. Our observations provide a basis for future research to examine the impact of nematodes on M. cribraria mortality and to investigate their capacity to reduce populations. PMID:25731127

  15. Bites caused by giant water bugs belonging to Belostomatidae family (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) in humans: a report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Schwartz, Elisabeth F; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Carvalho, Lucélia Nobre

    2010-06-01

    We report 7 cases of patients bitten by giant water bugs, large predatory insects belonging to the Belostomatidae family (Hemiptera, Heteroptera). These insects have toxic saliva capable of provoking intense pain and paralysis in vertebrates. Victims experienced intense, excruciating pain and 1 manifested hypoesthesia in the forearm. Bites by Belostomatidae are often reported by clinicians working in areas where these insects live, but there are no detailed case reports in the medical literature. There are no specific treatment modalities known to be effective, making prevention an important strategy. PMID:20591375

  16. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  17. A new genus and species of tettigarctid cicada from the early Miocene of New Zealand: Paratettigarcta zealandica (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Tettigarctidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kaulfuss, Uwe; Moulds, Max

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of primitive cicada (Hemiptera: Tettigarctidae) is described from the early Miocene of southern New Zealand. Paratettigarcta zealandica gen. et sp. n. is the first cicada (Cicadoidea) fossil from New Zealand and exhibits wing venation patterns typical for the subfamily Tettigarctinae. It differs from other fossil taxa and the extant genus Tettigarcta in the early divergence of CuA2 from the nodal line in the forewing, its parallel-sided subcostal cell, the early bifurcation of vein M and long apical cells of the hindwing, and in wing pigmentation patterns. PMID:25829843

  18. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellieu, Louis; Sarrazin, Michaël; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  19. New Guinean Issidae: description of new taxa in a poorly known island fauna (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea).

    PubMed

    Gnezdilov, V M; Le Cesne, M; Soulier-Perkins, A; Bourgoin, T

    2015-01-05

    In the framework of the recent expedition results of "Our Planet Reviewed Papua-New-Guinea 2012-2013" we provide here the first Issidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea) fauna review of New Guinea with the description of three new taxa: one new genus Papunega Gnezdilov et Bourgoin gen. nov. with two new species: Papunega magnifacies Gnezdilov et Le Cesne, sp. nov. (type species), Papunega armocula Gnezdilov et Soulier-Perkins, sp. nov. Tetrica fasciatifrons Melichar, 1906 is transferred to the genus Papugena gen. nov. to become Papugena fasciatifrons (Melichar, 1906) comb. nov. New Guinean Issidae fauna now includes 7 genera and 16 species. 

  20. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Dellieu, Louis Sarrazin, Michaël Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-14

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  1. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger), Diaspidiotus wuenni (Lindinger), Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, Eriococcus pamiricus (Bazarov), Eriococcus reynei Schmutterer, Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux and Eriococcus saxidesertus (Borchsenius) and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko. PMID:24163586

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the mitochondrial genome of Sirtheneaflavipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) and comparison with other assassin bugs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianyu; Li, Hu; Truong, Xuan Lam; Dai, Xun; Chang, Jian; Cai, Wanzhi

    2013-01-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the assassin bug, Sirtheneaflavipes (Stål), was determined. The circular genome is 15, 961 bp long and contains a standard gene complement, i.e., the large and small ribosomal RNA (rRNA) subunits, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and the 1, 295 bp control region. The nucleotide composition of S. flavipes mt genome is 71.8% AT-rich, reflected in the predominance of AT-rich codons in PCGs. Compared with the other three reduviid species available in complete mt genomes, the genome architecture as well as the nucleotide composition, codon usage, and amino acid composition reflected high similarity. All PCGs use standard initiation codons (ATN); however, ND4L and ND1 started with GTG. Canonical TAA and TAG termination codons are found in nine PCGs, the remaining four (COIII, ND3, ND5, and ND]) have incomplete termination codons. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, except the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNASer(AGN) forms a simple loop as seen in many other metazoans. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of S. flavipes are presented and are similar to those proposed for other insects. The structure of rrnL is more conservative than that of rrnS among sequenced assassin bugs. The monophyly of Reduviidae is highly supported by Bayesian inferences, and the Peiratinae presents a sister position to the Triatominae+ (Salyavatinae + Harpactorinae). PMID:26312315

  3. Biology and life table parameters of Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cauliflower cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Fatemeh; Abbasipour, Habib; Askarianzadeh, Alireza; Hassanshahi, Golamhossein; Saeedizadeh, Ayatallah

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the biology and fertility life table parameters of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were studied on cauliflower leaves, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), of the cultivars Smilla, Snow mystique, White cloud, Buris, Galiblanka, Snow crown, SG, and Tokita. This study was conducted under controlled conditions: 25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiods. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. Further, the maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Galiblanka and Buris cultivars, respectively. The shortest nymphal instar growth period was observed on the Smilla cultivar (6.70 d), and the longest lifespan was seen on the White cloud (8.10 d). The Smilla cultivar (39%), in an adult emergence stage, and the SG (88%) revealed the lowest and highest rates of survival, respectively. Aphids reared on the Smilla cultivar were found to have increased due to the high intrinsic (r(m)) and finite (λ) rate of increase and the low doubling time (DT). The results indicated that the application of cultivars affecting adult reproductive parameters could be a good solution to cabbage aphid control management. PMID:25527591

  4. Assessment of the insecticidal potential of Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil against Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, S P; Favero, S

    2013-08-01

    The resistance of triatomines to pyrethroids has been reported in several Latin American countries, including Brazil, indicating the need for the development of new approaches for the control of vectors of the Chagas disease. In here, we evaluated the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Eucalyptus urograndis (Myrtaceae) against unsexed third and fourth instars of Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in topical application, fumigation, surface contact, and repellency . The insecticidal activity of the essential oil tested was detected by topical application (LD50 = 0.1731 μL/insect and LD99 = 0.2948 μL/insect for 24 h), fumigation (LC50 = 0.021 mL/mL air and LC99 = 0.1525 mL/mL air for 24 h) and surface contact (LC50 = 0.7073 μL/cm(2) and LC99 = 4.59 μL/cm(2) for 24 h). Mortality observed after 48-72-h exposure was very high and did not allow for any adjustment of the mortality curve. In the repellency assay, an effect was observed on 80% of tested nymphs. However, no repellency was observed after 24 h of exposure. Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil has a high insecticidal and repellent potential for R. neglectus nymphs, whether serving as a molecular model for new substances or as an alternative for the control of these insects.

  5. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent. PMID:27694345

  6. Extensive Mitochondrial Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of a Resurging Human Pest, the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Robison, G A; Balvin, O; Schal, C; Vargo, E L; Booth, W

    2015-07-01

    Homoplasmy, the occurrence of a single mitochondrial DNA haplotype within an individual, has been the accepted condition across most organisms in the animal kingdom. In recent years, a number of exceptions to this rule have been reported, largely due to the ease with which single nucleotide polymorphisms can be detected. Evidence of heteroplasmy-two or more mitochondrial variants within a single individual-has now been documented in a number of invertebrates; however, when present, heteroplasmy usually occurs at low frequencies both within individuals and within populations. The implications of heteroplasmy may be far reaching, both to the individual in relation to its health and fitness, and when considering the evolutionary dynamics of populations. We present novel evidence for frequent mtDNA heteroplasmy in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Our findings show that heteroplasmy is common, with 5 of 29 (17%) populations screened exhibiting two mitochondrial variants in a ∼1:2 ratio within each individual. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying heteroplasmy in bed bugs is paternal leakage because some haplotypes were shared among unrelated populations and no evidence for nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences was detected. PMID:26335484

  7. Extensive Mitochondrial Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of a Resurging Human Pest, the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Robison, G. A.; Balvin, O.; Schal, C.; Vargo, E. L.; Booth, W.

    2015-01-01

    Homoplasmy, the occurrence of a single mitochondrial DNA haplotype within an individual, has been the accepted condition across most organisms in the animal kingdom. In recent years, a number of exceptions to this rule have been reported, largely due to the ease with which single nucleotide polymorphisms can be detected. Evidence of heteroplasmy—two or more mitochondrial variants within a single individual—has now been documented in a number of invertebrates; however, when present, heteroplasmy usually occurs at low frequencies both within individuals and within populations. The implications of heteroplasmy may be far reaching, both to the individual in relation to its health and fitness, and when considering the evolutionary dynamics of populations. We present novel evidence for frequent mtDNA heteroplasmy in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Our findings show that heteroplasmy is common, with 5 of 29 (17%) populations screened exhibiting two mitochondrial variants in a ∼1:2 ratio within each individual. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying heteroplasmy in bed bugs is paternal leakage because some haplotypes were shared among unrelated populations and no evidence for nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences was detected. PMID:26335484

  8. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors' experience.

  9. [Biotypes and phylogenetic analysis of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Cai, Li; Shen, Wei-Jiang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is considered taxonomically as a species complex and could cause serious damages to crops by directly feeding on phloem and/or indirectly transmission of plant viruses. In this study, biotypes and phylogenetic relationships of 33 geographic populations of B. tabaci collected from nine provinces of China in 2010 and 2011 were studied based on the mitochondrial COI gene. The results showed there were a total of six biotypes of B. tabaci (B, Q, ZHJ-1, ZHJ-3, An and Nauru) recovered in China and the geographical distribution of these six biotypes was uneven. Phylogenetic analysis showed that biotype An B. tabaci from Taiwan clustered together with Hainan biotype An populations, indicating these two geographic populations might originate from a same ancestor. In addition, biotype B B. tabaci in China had a 99% genetical similarity compared to that from France and Uganda. However, relationships of biotype Q on the phylogenetic tree were divided into two different clusters. One was occupied with the population from China and Western Mediterranean Sea countries (France and Morocco) and the other contained biotype Q populations from Eastern Mediterranean Sea countries (Israel and Turkey). Overall, the results suggested that biotype Q B. tabaci in China was genetically similar to that from Western Mediterranean Sea countries and it could be highly possible that Chinese biotype Q B. tabaci originated from Western Mediterranean Sea areas. PMID:25011310

  10. The Effects of Kernel Feeding by Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Commercial Hazelnuts.

    PubMed

    Hedstrom, C S; Shearer, P W; Miller, J C; Walton, V M

    2014-10-01

    Halyomorpha halys Stål, the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive pest with established populations in Oregon. The generalist feeding habits of H. halys suggest it has the potential to be a pest of many specialty crops grown in Oregon, including hazelnuts, Corylus avellana L. The objectives of this study were to: 1) characterize the damage to developing hazelnut kernels resulting from feeding by H. halys adults, 2) determine how the timing of feeding during kernel development influences damage to kernels, and 3) determine if hazelnut shell thickness has an effect on feeding frequency on kernels. Adult brown marmorated stink bugs were allowed to feed on developing nuts for 1-wk periods from initial kernel development (spring) until harvest (fall). Developing nuts not exposed to feeding by H. halys served as a control treatment. The degree of damage and diagnostic symptoms corresponded with the hazelnut kernels' physiological development. Our results demonstrated that when H. halys fed on hazelnuts before kernel expansion, development of the kernels could cease, resulting in empty shells. When stink bugs fed during kernel expansion, kernels appeared malformed. When stink bugs fed on mature nuts the kernels exhibited corky, necrotic areas. Although significant differences in shell thickness were observed among the cultivars, no significant differences occurred in the proportions of damaged kernels based on field tests and laboratory choice tests. The results of these studies demonstrated that commercial hazelnuts are susceptible to damage caused by the feeding of H. halys throughout the entire period of kernel development.

  11. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  12. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715

  13. Evaluation of digital photography for quantifying Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) density on American beech trees.

    PubMed

    Wieferich, D J; Hayes, D B; McCullough, D G

    2013-06-01

    Beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) is an invasive forest insect established in the eastern United States and Canada. It predisposes American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart) trees to infection by Neonectria spp. Fungi causing beech bark disease. White wax secreted by the diminutive scales obscures individual insects, making it difficult to accurately quantify beech scale density. Our goals were to 1) evaluate the relationship between the area of wax and number of beech scales on bark samples, 2) determine whether digital photos of bark could accurately quantify beech scale density, and 3) compare efficiency and utility of a qualitative visual estimate and using the quantitative digital photo technique to assess beech scale populations. We visually estimated beech scale abundance and photographed designated areas on the trunk of 427 trees in 40 sites across Michigan. Photos were analyzed using a binary threshold technique to quantify the area of beech scale wax on each photo. We also photographed and then collected 104 bark samples from 45 additional beech trees in ten sites. We removed the wax, counted individual scales on each sample using a microscope, and assessed the linear relationship between wax area and scale counts. Area of wax explained approximately 80% of the variability in scale density. We could typically quantify beech scale density on 15 photographs per hour. Qualitative visual assessments of beech scale in the field corresponded with estimates derived from photos of bark samples for 79% of trees.

  14. [Characterization of the behavioral and vibrational signals in Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) during courtship and copulation].

    PubMed

    Briceño, R Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a neotropical species belonging to the family Pentatomidae with over 4 000 species described, and is distributed from Florida to Brazil. This study describes the sexual behavior and reported for the first time the production of substrate vibrations by males and females during copulatory behavior and mating. Courtship and copulatory behavior, as well as the diverse signals, were recorded with a phonographic cartridge connected to a video camera. Female vibrations were reproduced in the absence of females and the responses by males were recorded. At least three types of substrate vibrations were distinguished in males and one in females, and these signals were characterized by their low frequency, varying from 127 to 180Hz. The sounds of E. floridianus males were significantly different in frequency, duration and number of pulses, both in courtship and in copulation, for the purring and drumming sounds. The production of sounds in this species is associated principally with mechanical, stimulatory behavior during courtship and copulation. Patterns of behavior and their relation to substrate vibrations suggest that these signals are important for the males in the context of mate location and sexual selection. PMID:24912346

  15. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    PubMed

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. PMID:26453721

  16. Density and Egg Parasitism of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Elderberry and Dispersal Into Crops

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, P. Glynn; Cottrell, Ted E.

    2016-01-01

    Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), Euschistus tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning their dispersal from noncrop hosts in woodlands into crops. This 2-yr study was conducted to investigate whether elderberry [Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli] in woodlands serves as a source of stink bugs dispersing into adjacent crops and to examine parasitism of C. hilaris and E. servus eggs on this plant. Elderberry was a reproductive host for each of the four stink bug species; females oviposited on plants with subsequent nymphs feeding on elderberry and developing into adults. Anastatus mirabilis (Walsh & Riley) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), Anastatus reduvii (Howard), and Trissolcus edessae Fouts (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) were prevalent egg parasitoids of C. hilaris but A. reduvii was the prevalent parasitoid of E. servus. Newly developed stink bug adults were first detected on elderberry around mid-July. Then in late July and early August, as elderberry fruit senesced and cotton bolls became available, stink bugs began dispersing from elderberry into cotton based on recapture of stink bugs on cotton that had previously been marked on elderberry. In addition, in 2015, density of C. hilaris, E. servus, and E. tristigmus was higher in cotton with elderberry than in cotton without it. Over the study, economic threshold was reached for four of seven cotton fields. Elimination of elderberry in woodlands adjacent to cotton may be a viable management tactic for control of stink bugs in cotton. PMID:27773875

  17. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Agustín C.; da Rocha, Aline C. P.

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2°C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn’t). The 68% viability for the egg–adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration. PMID:27126964

  18. Anagrus turpanicus sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from China, an egg parasitoid of Arboridia kakogowana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2016-01-01

    A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. turpanicus Triapitsyn & Hu sp. n., is described and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Arboridia kakogowana (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Fig. 10) on cultivated table grapes from Turpan, which had been previously misidentified there as Erythroneura apicalis (Nawa) (e.g., Wang et al. 2004, 2011; Luan et al. 2006). This leafhopper has been an important economic pest in Turpan area since 1998, causing serious damage to the cultivated grapevines (Wang et al. 2004; Luan et al. 2006). Wang et al. (2011) reported that the mite Leptus sp. (Erythraeidae) and several unidentified spider species were the main natural enemies of Erythroneura apicalis in and around Turpan. This is the first record of A. kakogowana from China; it was not included in the key to the Chinese species of the genus Arboridia Zachvatkin by Song & Li (2015). Arboridia kakogowana is native to the eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, and Far East of Russia), and has been recently recorded as an invasive pest of cultivated grapes in southern Russia (Gnezdilov et al. 2008). PMID:27615953

  19. New records of bat ectoparasites (Diptera, Hemiptera and Siphonaptera) from northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Autino, Analía G; Claps, Guillermo L; Sánchez, Mariano S; Barquez, Rubén M

    2009-01-01

    New species of bat-ectoparasite insects are added to the fauna of Argentina and distributional limits are extended for others, based on information obtained from 21 species of bats collected. New data is reported for the distribution of 23 species of bat ectoparasites, of which 17 belong to the Order Diptera [14 Streblidae: Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, Anatrichobius scorzai Wenzel, Aspidoptera phyllostomatis (Perty), Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Sèguy), Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, Noctiliostrebla aitkeni Wenzel, N. dubia (Rudow), Paradyschiria fusca Speiser, Paradyschiria sp., Strebla chrotopteri Wenzel, Strebla diaemi Wenzel, Trichobius parasiticus Gervais y Xenotrichobius noctilionis Wenzel, and three Nycteribiidae: Basilia carteri Scott, B. plaumanni Scott y B.neamericana Schuurmans Stekhoven (Jr)], three belong to the Order Siphonaptera [one Ischnopsyllidae: Myodopsylla isidori (Weyenbergh), one Tungidae: Rhynchopsyllus pulex Haller, and one Stephanocircidae: Craneopsylla m. minerva (Rothschild)] and three belong to Order Hemiptera [two Polyctenidae: Hesperoctenes fumarius (Westwood) and H. vicinus Jordan, and one Cimicidae: Latrocimex spectans Lent]. Some records are new for Argentina, while others are new for the provinces of Corrientes, Chaco, Entre Ríos, Jujuy, Misiones and Salta. Also new host-parasite relationships are reported. PMID:19488504

  20. Characterization of resistance to adult spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Brachiaria spp.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Lina M; Cardona, César; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Nymphs and adults of several spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species are key pests of forage brachiariagrasses (Brachiaria spp.) in tropical America. To support current breeding programs, a series of experiments aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of resistance to adult feeding damage were carried out. Five genotypes were used: two susceptible checks (CIAT 0606 and CIAT 0654) and three nymph-resistant genotypes (CIAT 36087, CIAT 6294, and SX01NO/0102). Test insects were Aeneolamia varia (F.), A. reducta (Lallemand), and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand). The nymph-resistant genotypes showed tolerance to all spittlebug species tested. Tolerance in these genotypes can be classified as only moderate given the extent of losses (60-80%) caused by both female and male adults. None of the nymph-resistant genotypes had antibiotic effects on adults feeding on foliage. The results also indicated that antixenosis for feeding is not a plausible explanation for lower damage scores and less biomass losses in resistant genotypes. The fact that adult longevity (usually 8 d) was not affected when the adults were forced to feed on roots of a genotype with strong antibiotic resistance to nymphs is regarded as additional evidence that resistances to nymphs and to adults in Brachiaria are largely independent.

  1. Gut Content Analysis of a Phloem-Feeding Insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Unruh, Thomas R; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-08-01

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the psyllid regularly occurs on numerous uncultivated annual and perennial species within the Solanaceae. A better understanding of landscape-level ecology of B. cockerelli would substantially improve our ability to predict which potato fields are most likely to be colonized by infected psyllids. We developed three PCR-based methods of gut content analysis to identify what plant species B. cockerelli had previously fed upon. These methods included-1) sequencing PCR amplicons of regions of plant-derived internal transcribed spacer (ITS) or the chloroplast trnL gene from psyllids, 2) high-resolution melting analysis of ITS or trnL real-time PCR products, and 3) restriction enzyme digestion of trnL PCR product. Each method was used to test whether we could identify psyllids that had been reared continuously on potato versus psyllids reared continuously on the perennial nightshade, Solanum dulcamara. All three methods of gut content analysis correctly identified psyllids from potato and psyllids from S. dulcamara Our study is the first to demonstrate that plant DNA can be detected in a phloem-feeding insect. Gut content analysis, in combination with other landscape ecology approaches, could help elucidate patterns in landscape-level movements and host plant associations of B. cockerelli. PMID:27271944

  2. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200–700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165–172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m−1. By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103–129° and SFEs above 20 mN m−1. Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates. PMID:23235705

  3. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. PMID:26470241

  4. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Sriyanka

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward. PMID:27812397

  5. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines.

  6. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, T.D.; Kidd, K.A.; Cunjak, R.A.; Arp, P.A.

    2009-07-15

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (similar to 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species.

  7. Insecticide Toxicity to Adelphocoris lineolatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) and its Nymphal Parasitoid Peristenus spretus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Bing; Ali, Abid; Luo, Shu-Ping; Lu, Yan-Hui; Liang, Ge-Mei

    2015-08-01

    In China, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important pest of alfalfa, cotton, and other crops, while Peristenus spretus (Chen & van Achterberg) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is the dominant nymphal parasitoid of this mirid bug. In the present study, the toxicity of 17 common insecticides to A. lineolatus was evaluated, and the susceptibility of P. spretus to the insecticides with high toxicity to A. lineolatus was tested under laboratory conditions. Of the 17 insecticides tested, 12 (beta cypermethrin, deltamethrin, carbosulfan, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, phoxim, chlorpyrifos, acephate, profenophos, hexaflumuron, and abamectin) had a highly toxic effect on second-instar nymphs of A. lineolatus, with LC(50) values ranging from 0.58 to 14.85 mg a.i. (active ingredient) liter(-1). Adults of P. spretus were most sensitive to chlorpyrifos, with LC(50) values of 0.03 mg a.i. liter(-1), followed by phoxim, acetamiprid, profenophos, carbosulfan, acephate, deltamethrin, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, beta-cypermethrin, and abamectin, with LC(50) values ranging from 0.06 to 3.09, whereas hexaflumuron exhibited the least toxicity to the parasitoid, with LC(50) values >500 mg a.i. liter(-1). A risk quotient analysis indicated that beta-cypermethrin, emamectin benzoate, abamectin, and hexaflumuron when applied against A. lineolatus were the least toxic to P. spretus. PMID:26470319

  8. Species Composition and Abundance of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota Field Corn.

    PubMed

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2015-04-01

    In response to concerns of increasing significance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in northern states, a survey was conducted over 2 yr in Minnesota to characterize the Pentatomidae associated with field corn, Zea mays L. Halyomorpha halys (Stål), an exotic species, was not detected in this survey, despite continued detection of this species as an invader of human-made structures in Minnesota. Five species of Pentatomidae (four herbivorous; one predatory) were collected from corn. Across years, Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) and Euschistus servus euschistoides (Vollenhoven) had the greatest relative abundances and frequencies of detection. In 2012, the abundance of herbivorous species exceeded 25 nymphs and adults per 100 plants (i.e., an economic threshold) in 0.48% of fields. However, the abundance of herbivorous species did not reach economic levels in any fields sampled in 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults was highest during reproductive growth stages of corn. The predator species, Podisus maculiventris (Say), was detected in 0 to 0.32% of fields. These results provide baseline information on the species composition and abundance of Pentatomidae in Minnesota field corn, which will be necessary for documentation of changes to this fauna as a result of the invasion of H. halys and to determine if some native species continue to increase in abundance in field crops.

  9. Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding patterns in macadamia nut in Hawaii: nut maturity and cultivar effects.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Wright, Mark G; Golden, Mary

    2009-08-01

    Nezara viridula L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious pest of macadamia nuts, Macadamia integrifolia, in Hawaii. Using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes, feeding activity was determined for nuts of various maturity levels harvested from the tree and off the ground throughout the growing season in five commercial cultivars. Damage occurred in the tree and on the ground during all nut growth stages. Damage on the ground was often higher than in the tree. Cultivar 246 was more susceptible to attack than cultivars 333 and 800. It was previously thought that cultivar susceptibility was related to husk and shell thickness, but cultivar 246 showed higher damage than other cultivars even during early nut development when the nuts are small and before the shell has formed. This suggests that shell and husk thickness may play a secondary role in susceptibility to feeding by N. viridula. Monitoring N. viridula feeding activity during early nut development may help alert growers to potential problems later in the season, but early-season probing activity in immature nuts was not a good predictor of damage levels in mature nuts later in the season in our study.

  10. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNAser), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups—Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. PMID:26798143

  11. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H.O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience. PMID:25977817

  12. Species Composition and Abundance of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota Field Corn.

    PubMed

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2015-04-01

    In response to concerns of increasing significance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in northern states, a survey was conducted over 2 yr in Minnesota to characterize the Pentatomidae associated with field corn, Zea mays L. Halyomorpha halys (Stål), an exotic species, was not detected in this survey, despite continued detection of this species as an invader of human-made structures in Minnesota. Five species of Pentatomidae (four herbivorous; one predatory) were collected from corn. Across years, Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) and Euschistus servus euschistoides (Vollenhoven) had the greatest relative abundances and frequencies of detection. In 2012, the abundance of herbivorous species exceeded 25 nymphs and adults per 100 plants (i.e., an economic threshold) in 0.48% of fields. However, the abundance of herbivorous species did not reach economic levels in any fields sampled in 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults was highest during reproductive growth stages of corn. The predator species, Podisus maculiventris (Say), was detected in 0 to 0.32% of fields. These results provide baseline information on the species composition and abundance of Pentatomidae in Minnesota field corn, which will be necessary for documentation of changes to this fauna as a result of the invasion of H. halys and to determine if some native species continue to increase in abundance in field crops. PMID:26313176

  13. Host Preference of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) on Selected Edible Beans and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Sparks, A N

    2015-06-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) is an Old World pest of legumes in Asia. Since its 2009 discovery in Georgia, it has become an economic pest of soybeans in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to determine the host preference of M. cribraria on edible legumes that might incur economic damage from injury of this pest. From 2012 to 2013 choice, no-choice, and field trials were conducted to evaluate the host suitability of several beans of commercial interest including pinto bean, lima bean, winter pea, and black-eyed pea. Choice and no-choice studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions. Plants in greenhouse trials were infested with adults and egg masses collected from kudzu and soybean and monitored for ∼2 wk. Field trials were allowed to be infested by naturally occurring M. cribraria populations. Sweep and whole plant counts of adults, egg masses, and nymphs were used to quantify field infestations. The legume crops found to be suitable developmental hosts are soybean, edamame, and pigeon pea. Low levels of development were seen on fava bean and none on the remaining entries. PMID:26470234

  14. Vineyard Colonization by Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) Induced by Stinging Nettle Cut Along Surrounding Ditches.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Pozzebon, A; Duso, C; Reggiani, N; Pavan, F

    2016-02-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is the most important host plant for both phytoplasma associated with Bois noir disease of the grapevine and its vector Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Vector abundance in vineyards is favored by stinging nettle growing in surrounding areas. Nettle control by herbicides or cutting can reduce vector population in vineyards. However, chemical weeding can cause environmental problems. Many authors suggest that stinging nettle control applied during H. obsoletus flight could force adults to migrate into vineyards. We evaluate if cutting of nettle growing along ditches during adult flight favors vineyard colonization by H. obsoletus. Three different weed management regimes ("no cuts," "one cut" just before the beginning of adult flight, and "frequent cuts" over the whole vegetative season) were applied to the herbaceous vegetation in ditches bordering two vineyards. The flight dynamics of H. obsoletus were recorded by placing yellow sticky traps on the vegetation along the ditches and at different positions in the vineyards. Frequent stinging nettle cuts (compared with a single cut) in surrounding areas favored the dispersion of vectors inside the vineyards. Stinging nettle control should be based on an integration of a single herbicide application before H. obsoletus emergence followed by frequent cuts to minimize negative side effects of chemical weeding. In organic viticulture, a frequent-cuts strategy should avoid cuts during H. obsoletus flight period, at least in the first year of adoption. PMID:26352752

  15. Practical solutions for treating laundry infested with Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Naylor, R A; Boase, C J

    2010-02-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is known to become associated, from time to time, with clothing or linen. In such locations, it may escape insecticide treatment, and may be carried to new locations. We test the suggestion that laundering is sufficient to kill all life stages and thus help prevent reinfestation and dispersion. We establish minimum temperatures for washing and minimum temperatures and times for tumble-drying, as well as testing cold soaking, dry cleaning, and freezing as alternative strategies for delicate items. Data loggers were used to confirm temperature settings and monitor temperature changes during the treatments. Adult bed bugs, nymphs, and eggs were sealed into small, permeable cotton pouches, which were then placed into garments of clothing. Washing at 60 degrees C was found to be effective against all life stages, as was tumble drying on a hot cycle (>40 degrees C) for at least 30 min, dry cleaning with perchloroethylene, and freezing at -17 degrees C for at least 2 h. Using data loggers it was also shown that 2.5 kg of loosely packed, dry laundry takes approximately 8 h to reach -17 degrees C. Soaking for 24 h in detergent-free water was found to be effective against active stages but had no effect on eggs.

  16. Biology and systematics of gall-inducing triozids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) associated with Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, René G S; Burckhardt, Daniel; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-01-01

    Psidium myrtoides (Myrtaceae) shelters the gall inducer Nothotrioza myrtoidis gen. et sp. n. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) which is described and illustrated here. Nothotrioza belongs to the family Triozidae and is probably most closely related to Neolithus, a monotypic Neotropical genus associated with Sapiun (Euphorbiaceae). Three species are recognized within Nothotrioza: the type species N. myrtoidis sp. n. associated with Psidium myrtoides, N. cattleiani sp. n. (misidentified by Butignol & Pedrosa-Macedo as Neotrioza tavaresi) with Psidium cattleianum, and N. tavaresi (Crawford) comb. n. (from Neotrioza) with an unidentified species of Malpighiaceae, respectively. A lectotype is designated here for Neotrioza tavaresi. Also, the diversity of insect galls associated with P. myrtoides and the biology of N. myrtoidis were examined. N. myrtoidis presents five instars and an annual life cycle synchronised with the phenology of P. myrtoides. Gall size was proportional to the insect developmental stages, and rates of parasitism and mortality were 15.7 % and 29.8 %, respectively. The red colour is an important macroscopic diagnostic feature of the gall that could be associated with parasite-free condition of the galling insect. The biological features presented by the system Psidium myrtoides--Nothotrioza myrtoidis are in accordance with other systems involving sucking galling insects, however, it is exceptional by its univoltine life cycle associated with a perennial plant in the Neotropics. The galls induced by the three known Nothotrioza spp. are morphologically similar, i.e. closed, globoid and unilocular, as well as the opening mechanism for releasing the adults. PMID:26120700

  17. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis.

  18. Biology and life table parameters of Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cauliflower cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Fatemeh; Abbasipour, Habib; Askarianzadeh, Alireza; Hassanshahi, Golamhossein; Saeedizadeh, Ayatallah

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the biology and fertility life table parameters of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were studied on cauliflower leaves, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), of the cultivars Smilla, Snow mystique, White cloud, Buris, Galiblanka, Snow crown, SG, and Tokita. This study was conducted under controlled conditions: 25 ± 2°C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiods. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. Further, the maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Galiblanka and Buris cultivars, respectively. The shortest nymphal instar growth period was observed on the Smilla cultivar (6.70 d), and the longest lifespan was seen on the White cloud (8.10 d). The Smilla cultivar (39%), in an adult emergence stage, and the SG (88%) revealed the lowest and highest rates of survival, respectively. Aphids reared on the Smilla cultivar were found to have increased due to the high intrinsic (r(m)) and finite (λ) rate of increase and the low doubling time (DT). The results indicated that the application of cultivars affecting adult reproductive parameters could be a good solution to cabbage aphid control management.

  19. Population genetic structure of Myzus persicae nicotianae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in China by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Yang, X M; Tang, S H; Xu, P J; Bian, W J; Wang, X F; Wang, X W; Ren, G W

    2015-12-17

    The tobacco aphid, Myzus persicae nicotianae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important agricultural pest that feeds on host plants and transmits plant viruses in China. To effectively control this pest, we investigated the genetic variation and genetic structure of 54 populations of tobacco aphids collected in China, using five microsatellite loci. An average of 7 alleles with effective number ranging from 1.5 to 6.6 was detected using these five loci, and the average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.652, suggesting that the five selected microsatellite loci were polymorphic and suitable for the study of population genetics. The expected heterozygosities in the populations studied ranged from 0.128 and 0.653, with an average value of 0.464. However, the observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.250 and 0.942 (average = 0.735), revealing a high genetic variability and heterozygosity excess in the Chinese tobacco aphid populations. The global fixation index (F(ST)) and mean gene flow (N(m)) were 0.34 (P < 0.0001) and 0.50, respectively, suggesting the high genetic differentiation among Chinese populations. The 54 populations of tobacco aphids were classified into two groups. The populations did not cluster geographically, as populations from the same provinces were usually present in different clusters. This was also confirmed by the Mantel test, which showed no significant correlation between the genetic distance and geographical distance or altitude. Long distance migration might be responsible for the lack of distance-related isolation.

  20. The Damage Capacity of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Adults on Brachiaria ruziziensis Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Tiago Teixeira; Auad, Alexander Machado; Fonseca, Marcy das Graças; Souza Sobrinho, Fausto; Ribeiro dos Santos, Dayane; da Silva, Sandra Elisa Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the damage caused by adult Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) on Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Evard) under field conditions. A total of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 M. spectabilis adults per plot were maintained for 6 days. Thereafter, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: chlorophyll content, damage score, dry as well as fresh weights, percentage of shoots' dry matter, and the forage's ability to regrow. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced; the damage score and percentage of dry matter in plants increased depending on the increased insect infestation density after 6 days of exposure. In contrast, no change was observed on the B. ruziziensis fresh and dry weights as well as the regrowth capacity depending on the M. spectabilis infestation densities. Attacks by 8 adult M. spectabilis per clump of B. ruziziensis with an average of 80 tillers for 6 days were sufficient to reduce the chlorophyll content and the functional plant loss index. This density can be a reference for spittlebug integrated management in Brachiaria. PMID:24453825

  1. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  2. Harmonic radar tagging for tracking movement of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-10-01

    Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0.05) reducing walking or flying mobility in the laboratory. Recovery of tagged stink bugs in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fallow fields ranged from 10 to 75% after 24 h, whereas marked stink bugs were recovered at rates of 0-35% by using sweep net or drop cloth sampling. The distance dispersed in the field was not impacted (P > 0.05) by crop, tagged status, or gender of the insect. Future research should examine possible improvements to the harmonic radar transceiver and the wire antenna to decrease encumbrance.

  3. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    PubMed

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant. PMID:21510203

  4. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines. PMID:27329621

  5. Effective use of neonicotinoids for protection of citrus seedlings from invasion by Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Katsuya; Bang, Doan V; Tuan, Do H; Dien, Le Q

    2010-02-01

    The application of insecticides to control Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a principal component of the current management for citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing. It is recommended that growers apply systemic insecticides such as imidacloprid and thiamethoxam every 2 mo after seedling planting, but this practice renders the seedlings insecticide-free and vulnerable to psyllid infestation in the first 2 mo. We evaluated the risk of vector invasion during this period from field studies of the psyllid in five new king mandarin, Citrus nobilis Loureiro, orchards in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. The first psyllids were found after the first 2 wk, and 2 to 60% of the trees were finally infested by psyllids during the 2 mo. The risk of psyllid invasion could be significantly reduced if the insecticide were applied to seedlings before planting. Three systemics, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin, were examined in both a net house and in the field to assess how quickly they could be effective after application and how long their efficacy could continue. High psyllid mortality >80% was attained in 10 d after application, and this level was maintained for 90 d in the net house and for 60 d in the field. Based on these results, we propose the effective use of neonicotinoids for protection of citrus seedlings against invasive psyllids during the first 2 mo after planting.

  6. Species clarification of Isaria isolates used as biocontrol agents against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gallou, Adrien; Serna-Domínguez, María G; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Mellín-Rosas, Marco A; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C

    2016-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. Currently, the Mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of Isaria isolates against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Previous research identified three promising Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as Isaria fumosorosea) from Mexico. The goal of this work was to obtain a complete morphological and molecular characterization of these isolates. Comparative analysis of morphology established that the isolates showed similar characteristics to Isaria javanica. Multi-gene analysis confirmed the morphological identification by including the three isolates within the I. javanica clade. Additionally, this work demonstrated the misidentifications of three other Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 310 and 324: I. javanica, formerly I. fumosorosea; CHE-CNRCB 393: I. fumosorosea, formerly Isaria farinosa), underlying the need for a full and correct characterization of an isolate before developing a biological control program. Finally, the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genotyping method revealed that the CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307 isolates belong to three different genotypes. This result indicates that ISSR markers could be used as a tool to monitor their presence in field conditions.

  7. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran-Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida-Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan-Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks' lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations.

  8. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent.

  9. Performance of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Weeds.

    PubMed

    Sottoriva, L D M; Lourenção, A L; Colombo, C A

    2014-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is regarded as a pest with a large number of hosts, including crops and weeds. The performance of this whitefly on seven weeds was evaluated in order to identify the most suitable host. The following weeds that are very common in intense agricultural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were selected for this study: spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla), beggarticks (Bidens pilosa), red tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia), small-flower galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora), pigweed (Amaranthus viridis), black nightshade (Solanum americanum), and morning glory (Ipomoea sp.). In free-choice tests, adult preference and oviposition were greatest on spurge. In contrast, morning glory was the least attractive and least oviposited plant. In assays carried out for egg-adult development, egg viability was greater than 87% over all weeds, whereas nymph viability ranged from 74 to 97%. The developmental period from egg to adult ranged from 26.7 to 49.1 days among the hosts under study. The lowest nymph density rate was observed for beggarticks and morning glory. Cluster analysis resulted in a single group formed by spurge, indicating its superiority as a host for B. tabaci biotype B. Even though the parameters evaluated indicate that spurge is the most suitable host among the weeds, all the others allow the reproduction of B. tabaci biotype B. For this reason, they should be observed during cropping and the intercrop period in areas infested by this whitefly.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246

  11. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  12. Asymmetric Spread of SRBSDV between Rice and Corn Plants by the Vector Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei; Li, Fei; Han, Yongqiang; Yang, Lang; Liao, Xiaolan; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses are mostly transmitted by sucking insects via their piercing behaviors, which may differ due to host plant species and their developmental stages. We characterized the transmission of a fijivirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), by the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), between rice and corn plants of varying developmental stages. SRBSDV was transmitted from infected rice to uninfected corn plants as efficiently as its transmission between rice plants, while was acquired by S. furcifera nymphs at a much lower rate from infected corn plants than from infected rice plants. We also recorded a high mortality of S. furcifera nymphs on corn plants. It is evident that young stages of both the virus donor and recipient plants added to the transmission efficiency of SRBSDV from rice to corn plants. Feeding behaviors of the vector recorded by electrical penetration graph showed that phloem sap ingestion, the behavioral event that is linked with plant virus acquisition, was impaired on corn plants, which accounts for the high mortality of and low virus acquisition by S. furcifera nymphs on corn plants. Our results reveal an asymmetric spread of SRBSDV between its two host plants and the underlying behavioral mechanism, which is of significance for assessing SRBSDV transmission risks and field epidemiology, and for developing integrated management approaches for SRBSDV disease. PMID:27760223

  13. Dropping Behavior in the Pea Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): How Does Environmental Context Affect Antipredator Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Katharine V.; Preisser, Evan L.

    2016-01-01

    The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisumHarris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a phloem-feeding insect whose antipredator defenses include kicking, walking away, and dropping from the plant. Aphid dropping, a risky and energetically costly antipredator behavior, can be increased by the release of aphid alarm pheromone; there is also evidence that insect density and plant health can affect the likelihood of aphids engaging in this behavior. We investigated whether interactions between alarm cues, insect density, and plant health can alter the dropping behavior of aphids in response to an artificial disturbance. The presence of the alarm pheromone E-β-farnesene resulted in a nearly 15-fold increase in aphid dropping behavior; the other two factors, however, did not affect dropping and none of the two- or three-way interactions were significant. This was surprising because aphids affected plant health: production of new plant biomass after 5 d of exposure to high aphid densities was 50% lower than in the control treatment. This research adds to our understanding of the factors affecting aphid antipredator behavior; the fact that neither aphid density nor feeding period impacted dropping may reflect the high energetic costs of this activity and an unwillingness to use it in any but the riskiest situations. PMID:27638950

  14. Interaction between Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Sganzerla, Vânia Maria Ambrosi; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a soil scale that is considered the main pest of vineyards in Brazil. The ant Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is frequently found associated with this species of scale in infested areas. The effect of the presence of L. micans on the infestation and dispersal capacity of E. brasiliensis on vine roots was measured in a greenhouse, using Paulsen 1103 rootstock seedlings planted in simple and double "Gallotti Cages." Treatments measured were: infestation of roots with E. brasiliensis or L. micans, and infestation with both species together. In the experiment using simple Gallotti Cages, with E. brasiliensis associated with L. micans, higher mean numbers of cysts and ants per plant were recorded, a result significantly different from that found for infestation with scale only. When double Gallotti Cages were used, first-instar nymphs were transported between the cages. The results showed that L. micans transports and aids in the attachment of E. brasiliensis to vine plants. PMID:23726055

  15. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness.

  16. Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.

    PubMed

    Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

    2010-06-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard.

  17. A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

    2008-02-01

    Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed.

  18. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  19. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Bettiga, Larry J; Daane, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcusflcus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25 degrees C and 4-d ULO treatment at 150C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees C and 4 d at 15 degrees C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  1. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  2. Vineyard Colonization by Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) Induced by Stinging Nettle Cut Along Surrounding Ditches.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Pozzebon, A; Duso, C; Reggiani, N; Pavan, F

    2016-02-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is the most important host plant for both phytoplasma associated with Bois noir disease of the grapevine and its vector Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Vector abundance in vineyards is favored by stinging nettle growing in surrounding areas. Nettle control by herbicides or cutting can reduce vector population in vineyards. However, chemical weeding can cause environmental problems. Many authors suggest that stinging nettle control applied during H. obsoletus flight could force adults to migrate into vineyards. We evaluate if cutting of nettle growing along ditches during adult flight favors vineyard colonization by H. obsoletus. Three different weed management regimes ("no cuts," "one cut" just before the beginning of adult flight, and "frequent cuts" over the whole vegetative season) were applied to the herbaceous vegetation in ditches bordering two vineyards. The flight dynamics of H. obsoletus were recorded by placing yellow sticky traps on the vegetation along the ditches and at different positions in the vineyards. Frequent stinging nettle cuts (compared with a single cut) in surrounding areas favored the dispersion of vectors inside the vineyards. Stinging nettle control should be based on an integration of a single herbicide application before H. obsoletus emergence followed by frequent cuts to minimize negative side effects of chemical weeding. In organic viticulture, a frequent-cuts strategy should avoid cuts during H. obsoletus flight period, at least in the first year of adoption.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions. PMID:27313962

  4. Limited endosymbiont variation in Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes from the United States and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanevelder, Z H; Surridge, A K J; Venter, E; Botha, A M

    2010-06-01

    Symbiosis allows an insect access to imbalanced food sources on which other organisms cannot survive. A bacterial endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, gives aphids the ability to feed on phloem depleted of certain essential amino acids by producing those required. Pseudogenes and lower plasmid copy numbers of essential amino acid genes in B. aphidicola, endosymbiont of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), suggest that this symbiotic relationship is degenerating. The complete endosymbiont assemblages, copy numbers of plasmids (important in essential amino acid production), and sequence variation in B. aphidicola, from 10 Russian wheat aphid biotypes, were investigated. B. aphidicola was found to be monosymbiotic in the Russian wheat aphid biotypes and other Diuraphis species examined. An insert, occurring in an inverted repeat region on the leucine plasmid, was the only variation found in the approximately 10-kb B. aphidicola sequence analyzed from each Russian wheat aphid biotype. This inverted repeat was shown previously to be conserved within the family Aphididae. The insert occurred in B. aphidicola sequences isolated from four Russian wheat aphid biotypes. Copy numbers of the leucine plasmid differ between the South African and U.S. biotypes and were similar to previously reported values for biotypes from the same geographic regions. These results suggest that B. aphidicola may still contribute to Russian wheat aphid fitness when the aphid feeds on a variety of hosts. PMID:20568636

  5. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis. PMID:26951150

  6. Host Preference of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) on Selected Edible Beans and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Sparks, A N

    2015-06-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) is an Old World pest of legumes in Asia. Since its 2009 discovery in Georgia, it has become an economic pest of soybeans in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to determine the host preference of M. cribraria on edible legumes that might incur economic damage from injury of this pest. From 2012 to 2013 choice, no-choice, and field trials were conducted to evaluate the host suitability of several beans of commercial interest including pinto bean, lima bean, winter pea, and black-eyed pea. Choice and no-choice studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions. Plants in greenhouse trials were infested with adults and egg masses collected from kudzu and soybean and monitored for ∼2 wk. Field trials were allowed to be infested by naturally occurring M. cribraria populations. Sweep and whole plant counts of adults, egg masses, and nymphs were used to quantify field infestations. The legume crops found to be suitable developmental hosts are soybean, edamame, and pigeon pea. Low levels of development were seen on fava bean and none on the remaining entries.

  7. The cephalic morphology of the Gondwanan key taxon Hackeriella (Coleorrhyncha, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Rico; Wipfler, Benjamin; Friedemann, Katrin; Pohl, Hans; Weirauch, Christiane; Hartung, Viktor; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-07-01

    External and internal head structures of Coleorrhyncha, a key-taxon within the Hemiptera, are described in detail and documented using modern techniques. The main focus is on Hackeriella veitchi, but two additional representatives of the Gondwanan relict group were also examined, and also head structures of Enicocephalidae, a member of a potentially basal heteropteran lineage. Features were compared to those documented in literature for the Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, and Heteroptera. Coleorrhyncha are characterized by highly modified head structures and correspondingly an entire series of autapomorphies, such as for instance a strongly flattened head capsule with fenestrations. However, they also display features that are likely plesiomorphic compared to members of other hemipteran groups. These include the almost complete tentorium and the lack of the gula. The sistergroup relationship between Coleorrhyncha and Heteroptera is well supported by cephalic features. Potential synapomorphies are the presence of a distinct mandibular sulcus, the reduced number of antennomeres, the absence of clasping organs in the labial groove, coiled accessory salivary ducts, the presence of a small cervical muscle M1a (M. pronotopostoccipitalis medialis), the presence of a second mandibular promotor M14 (M. zygomaticus mandibulae), the presence of M28 (M. verticopharyngalis), and M30 (M. frontobuccalis posterior). PMID:23583344

  8. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness. PMID:27247354

  9. Species clarification of Isaria isolates used as biocontrol agents against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gallou, Adrien; Serna-Domínguez, María G; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Mellín-Rosas, Marco A; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C

    2016-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. Currently, the Mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of Isaria isolates against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Previous research identified three promising Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as Isaria fumosorosea) from Mexico. The goal of this work was to obtain a complete morphological and molecular characterization of these isolates. Comparative analysis of morphology established that the isolates showed similar characteristics to Isaria javanica. Multi-gene analysis confirmed the morphological identification by including the three isolates within the I. javanica clade. Additionally, this work demonstrated the misidentifications of three other Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 310 and 324: I. javanica, formerly I. fumosorosea; CHE-CNRCB 393: I. fumosorosea, formerly Isaria farinosa), underlying the need for a full and correct characterization of an isolate before developing a biological control program. Finally, the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genotyping method revealed that the CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307 isolates belong to three different genotypes. This result indicates that ISSR markers could be used as a tool to monitor their presence in field conditions. PMID:26895870

  10. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran-Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida-Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan-Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks' lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715

  11. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNA(ser)), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups--Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. PMID:26798143

  12. Spatial Distribution of Adults of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Guava Plants.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, M C S; Barbosa, J C

    2016-04-01

    The psyllid Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest in guava, feeding primarily on new shoots. Despite its importance, there are no studies on the spatial distribution of T. limbata on guava. Such studies are needed to establish sequential sampling plans for decision making in pest control. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a 9-year-old commercial guava orchard divided into 100 sampling units or plots. Double-sided yellow sticky traps were placed on one plant per plot (sample unit) to capture and monitor T. limbata adults from April 2011 to May 2012. To determine the insect distribution in the area, we calculated the variance-to-mean ratio index (I), the Morisita index (I δ ), Green's coefficient (Cx), and the k exponent of the negative binomial distribution. Most of the samples showed that the adults had a moderate to highly aggregated distribution. Statistical models were also used to study the pest spatial distribution by fitting the number of adults captured to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution model best fitted the data of the number of adult psyllids captured by the traps, which is consistent with an aggregated distribution. PMID:26597967

  13. Life Table Parameters of Three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) Species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under Contrasted Relative Humidity Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests. PMID:25541705

  14. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  15. Location of the mechanism of resistance to Amphorophora agathonica (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in red raspberry.

    PubMed

    Lightle, D M; Dossett, M; Backus, E A; Lee, J C

    2012-08-01

    The aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important virus vector in red (Rubus idaeus L.) and black (Rubus occidentalis L.) raspberries in North America. Raspberry resistance to A. agathonica in the form of a single dominant gene named Ag1 has been relied upon to help control aphid-transmitted plant viruses; however, the mechanism of resistance to the insect is poorly understood. Aphid feeding was monitored using an electrical penetration graph on the resistant red raspberry 'Tulameen' and compared with a susceptible control, 'Vintage'. There were no differences in pathway feeding behaviors of aphids as they moved toward the phloem. Once in the phloem, however, aphids feeding on resistant plants spent significantly more time salivating than on susceptible plants, and ingested significantly less phloem sap. This suggests that a mechanism for resistance to A. agathonica is located in the phloem. Reduced ingestion of phloem may result in inefficient acquisition of viruses and is a likely explanation for the lack of aphid-transmitted viruses in plantings of resistant cultivars.

  16. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    PubMed

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management.

  17. Dropping Behavior in the Pea Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): How Does Environmental Context Affect Antipredator Responses?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Katharine V; Preisser, Evan L

    2016-01-01

    The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum : Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a phloem-feeding insect whose antipredator defenses include kicking, walking away, and dropping from the plant. Aphid dropping, a risky and energetically costly antipredator behavior, can be increased by the release of aphid alarm pheromone; there is also evidence that insect density and plant health can affect the likelihood of aphids engaging in this behavior. We investigated whether interactions between alarm cues, insect density, and plant health can alter the dropping behavior of aphids in response to an artificial disturbance. The presence of the alarm pheromone E-β-farnesene resulted in a nearly 15-fold increase in aphid dropping behavior; the other two factors, however, did not affect dropping and none of the two- or three-way interactions were significant. This was surprising because aphids affected plant health: production of new plant biomass after 5 d of exposure to high aphid densities was 50% lower than in the control treatment. This research adds to our understanding of the factors affecting aphid antipredator behavior; the fact that neither aphid density nor feeding period impacted dropping may reflect the high energetic costs of this activity and an unwillingness to use it in any but the riskiest situations. PMID:27638950

  18. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors. PMID:22679860

  19. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses.

  20. Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-04-01

    Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid.

  1. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines. PMID:21882698

  2. Susceptibility of Five Sugar Beet Cultivars to the Black Bean Aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Golizadeh, A; Abedi, Z; Borzoui, E; Golikhajeh, N; Jafary, M

    2016-08-01

    The black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the important pests of sugar beet. The relative impact of resistance, including antibiosis and antixenosis of five sugar beet cultivars (Doroti, Perimer, Pershia, Rozier and 006) on A. fabae was studied under laboratory conditions using clip cages. The antibiosis test was based on life table parameters. Significant differences on developmental time, mean number of nymphs/aphid/day, fecundity, and adult longevity of A. fabae were found across tested sugar beet cultivars. In addition, there were significant differences among the sugar beet cultivars for population growth parameters such as the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), net reproductive rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (λ), doubling time (DT), and mean generation time (T) of A. fabae. The highest and lowest (r m ) values were observed on Pershia (0.449 nymphs/female/day) and Perimer (0.358 nymphs/female/day), respectively. No significant differences were found for the preference of the black bean aphid, and antixenosis had no effect on resistance against this aphid. As a result, our findings showed that the Pershia cultivar was a relatively susceptible host plant. Two cultivars (Perimer and Rozier) were relatively resistant to A. fabae, which could prove useful in the development of IPM programs for this aphid in sugar beet fields. PMID:26927334

  3. [Faunistic analysis of leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) species in vineyards of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Rudiney; Lopes, João R S; Botton, Marcos; Azevedo-Filho, Wilson S De; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2010-01-01

    In some American countries, grapevines are affected by Pierce's disease (PD), which is caused by a particular strain of Xylella fastidiosa not yet reported in Brazil. In order to investigate the potential for PD spread in Brazil in case of pathogen introduction, we conducted a faunistic analysis of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated to vineyards in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with emphasis in the subfamily Cicadellinae (sharpshooters), which includes the main potential vectors of X. fastidiosa. Leafhopper samplings were carried out fortnightly during two years (9/2004-9/2006) in four Vitis vinifera vineyards in the municipalities of Bento Gonçalves and Farroupilha (RS). Thirtyfour leafhopper and six spittlebug species were collected, but most (98.4%) of the 3,893 specimens trapped were leafhoppers, distributed in the subfamilies Cicadellinae (60.2%), Gyponinae (34.1%), Deltocephalinae (3.8%) and Coelidinae (0.3%). The sharpshooter specimens were divided in the tribes Cicadellini (68.5%; 12 species) and Proconiini (31.5%; 11 species). Based on the faunistic indices, five species of Cicadellini, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg), Dilobopterus dispar (Germar), Macugonalia cavifrons Stal, Sibovia sagata (Signoret) and Spinagonalia rubrovittata Cavichioli, and three of Proconiini, Molomea consolida (Schöder), Oncometopia facialis (Signoret) and Oncometopia fusca Melichar were prevalent in the vineyards. The high diversity of native sharpshooters in Rio Grande do Sul indicates the existence of a high risk of PD spread if the pathogen is introduced in grapevines.

  4. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions. PMID:27313962

  6. Taxonomic corrections to species of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg.

    PubMed

    Kondorosy, Előd; Rédei, Dávid; Mejlon, Hans

    2014-07-22

    Types of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) species described by Carl Peter Thunberg, deposited in the Museum of Evolution (formerly Zoologiska Institut), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, were reexamined and the taxonomic and nomenclatural problems that existed among those species discussed and resolved as required. Lectotypes are designated for Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1784, Lygaeus ater Thunberg, 1822, Lygaeus biguttatus Thunberg, 1822, and Pendulinus guttatus Thunberg, 1825. The lectotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) guttatus is designated as neotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) uniguttatus Thunberg, 1822; as a result the former name becomes junior objective synonym of the latter. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Lethaeus ater (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus); Migdilybs biguttatus (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus) = Migdilybs furcifer Hesse, 1925, new subjective synonym; Metochus uniguttatus (Thunberg, 1822) = Metochus bengalensis (Dallas, 1852), confirmed subjective synonym = Metochus yeh (Dohrn, 1860), confirmed subjective synonym; Raglius alboacuminatus (Goeze, 1778) = Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1874, confirmed subjective synonym. Lethaeus barberi Slater, 1964 does not belong to Lethaeus Dallas, 1852 but currently it cannot be placed with confidence in any existing genus. 

  7. Anagrus turpanicus sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from China, an egg parasitoid of Arboridia kakogowana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2016-01-01

    A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. turpanicus Triapitsyn & Hu sp. n., is described and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Arboridia kakogowana (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Fig. 10) on cultivated table grapes from Turpan, which had been previously misidentified there as Erythroneura apicalis (Nawa) (e.g., Wang et al. 2004, 2011; Luan et al. 2006). This leafhopper has been an important economic pest in Turpan area since 1998, causing serious damage to the cultivated grapevines (Wang et al. 2004; Luan et al. 2006). Wang et al. (2011) reported that the mite Leptus sp. (Erythraeidae) and several unidentified spider species were the main natural enemies of Erythroneura apicalis in and around Turpan. This is the first record of A. kakogowana from China; it was not included in the key to the Chinese species of the genus Arboridia Zachvatkin by Song & Li (2015). Arboridia kakogowana is native to the eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, and Far East of Russia), and has been recently recorded as an invasive pest of cultivated grapes in southern Russia (Gnezdilov et al. 2008).

  8. Infectivity and transmission of Xylellua fastidiosa by Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) in Apulia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Cornara, Daniele; Yokomi, Raymond K; De Stradis, Angelo; Boscia, Donato; Bosco, Domenico; Martelli, Giovanni P; Krugner, Rodrigo; Porcelli, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Discovery of Xylella fastidiosa from olive trees with "Olive quick decline syndrome" in October 2013 on the west coast of the Salento Peninsula prompted an immediate search for insect vectors of the bacterium. The dominant xylem-fluid feeding hemipteran collected in olive orchards during a 3-mo survey was the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae). Adult P. spumarius, collected in November 2013 from ground vegetation in X. fastidiosa-infected olive orchards, were 67% (40 out of 60) positive for X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Euscelis lineolatus Brullé were also collected but tested negative for the pathogen. Transmission tests with P. spumarius collected from the Salento area were, therefore, conducted. After a 96-h inoculation access period with 8 to 10 insects per plant and a 30-d incubation period, PCR results showed P. spumarius transmitted X. fastidiosa to two of five periwinkle plants but not to the seven olive plants. Sequences of PCR products from infected periwinkle were identical with those from X. fastidiosa-infected field trees. These data showed P. spumarius as a vector of X. fastidiosa strain infecting olives trees in the Salento Peninsula, Italy. PMID:25195417

  9. Respiratory morphology of the Abedus herberti Hidalgo egg chorion (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Goforth, Christine L; Smith, Robert L

    2011-07-01

    Although giant water bugs (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) are large, aquatic insects known for their obligate paternal egg brooding behaviors, little research has focused on the structure of their eggs. The respiratory requirements of developing embryos likely created selection for brooding, so a thorough understanding of the respiratory morphology of belostomatid eggs could help explain how brooding behaviors facilitate embryonic gas exchange. This study used scanning electron microscopy to document the respiratory microstructure of the eggs of Abedus herberti, a back brooding giant water bug. The exochorion is similar to that of other belostomatids in texture and organization except that the respiratory region is confined to the uppermost quarter of the egg. This is the area exposed to the atmosphere by encumbered males. A plastron network made up of densely packed vertical projections demarcates the boundary between the respiratory and nonrespiratory regions of the chorion. The internal chorion is composed of alternate air-filled and denser layers that likely facilitate the movement of oxygen from the aeropyles at the top of the eggs to the developing embryonic tissues. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21472766

  10. Practical solutions for treating laundry infested with Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Naylor, R A; Boase, C J

    2010-02-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is known to become associated, from time to time, with clothing or linen. In such locations, it may escape insecticide treatment, and may be carried to new locations. We test the suggestion that laundering is sufficient to kill all life stages and thus help prevent reinfestation and dispersion. We establish minimum temperatures for washing and minimum temperatures and times for tumble-drying, as well as testing cold soaking, dry cleaning, and freezing as alternative strategies for delicate items. Data loggers were used to confirm temperature settings and monitor temperature changes during the treatments. Adult bed bugs, nymphs, and eggs were sealed into small, permeable cotton pouches, which were then placed into garments of clothing. Washing at 60 degrees C was found to be effective against all life stages, as was tumble drying on a hot cycle (>40 degrees C) for at least 30 min, dry cleaning with perchloroethylene, and freezing at -17 degrees C for at least 2 h. Using data loggers it was also shown that 2.5 kg of loosely packed, dry laundry takes approximately 8 h to reach -17 degrees C. Soaking for 24 h in detergent-free water was found to be effective against active stages but had no effect on eggs. PMID:20214378

  11. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary. PMID:26694371

  12. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-12-17

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary.

  13. The Hemiptera (Insecta) of Canada: Constructing a Reference Library of DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, H. Eric L.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided. PMID:25923328

  14. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    PubMed

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant.

  15. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Watson, Gillian W; Sun, Yang; Tan, Yongan; Xiao, Liubin; Bai, Lixin

    2014-05-23

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that seriously damages cotton and other important crops. In previous studies in China, the presence of two submedian longitudinal lines of pigmented spots on the dorsum of adult females frequently has been used to identify this species. However, the present study records the occasional absence of pigmented spots in a sample from Guangxi province, China. Specimens without pigmented spots showed all the molecular and morphological characters that separate P. solenopsis from the similar species P. solani Ferris, especially the distribution of multilocular disc pores. In different geographic populations of P. solenopsis in China, mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28SrDNA genes are very similar (99.8-100%), indicating that they are conspecific. For COI, the genetic distance between P. solenopsis and P. solani is more than 3%. A map of the distribution of P. solenopsis in China is given. To help identify both pigmented and non-pigmented P. solenopsis accurately, an identification key to the 16 species of Phenacoccus found in China is provided. The key also identifies five potentially invasive Phenacoccus species not yet established in China, in case they get introduced there.

  16. Rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Mexican 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Morse, Joseph G; Stouthamer, Richard

    2009-10-01

    'Hass' avocado, Persea americana Mill., fruit imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), constituting several species. The paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. Here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armored scales on Mexican avocados, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer two of ribosomal DNA, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This region seems to show a high level of intraspecific conformity among scale specimens originating from different localities. A suite of species-specific reverse PCR primers are combined in a single reaction, with a universal forward primer, and produce a PCR product of a unique size, that after standard gel electrophoresis, allows the direct diagnosis of six diaspidid species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller; Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); Hemiberlesia sp. near latania; Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell); and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). Two additional species, Diaspis miranda (Cockerell) and Diaspis sp. near miranda, also are separated from the others by using this method and are subsequently diagnosed by secondary digestion of the PCR product with the restriction endonuclease smaI.

  17. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. PMID:26503344

  18. Bioactivity of neem, Azadirachta indica, against spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) on sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Garcia, José Francisco; Grisoto, Eliane; Vendramim, José Djair; Botelho, Paulo Sérgio Machado

    2006-12-01

    The effect of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, on some biological parameters of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stil) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) was studied in the laboratory by using NeemAzal-T/S, Nimkol-LS, and an aqueous neem seed extract. Initially, the LC,, was estimated for nymphs. Later, nymphs fed on sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., roots were sprayed with the respective LC,, for each product. The adults were maintained in cages on sugarcane plants sprayed at the base with the maximum rate recommended commercially for the crop (3 liter/ha). Moistened cotton discs surrounding the base of the plant were used as oviposition substrates. The LCso values estimated for NeemAzal, Nimkol, and aqueous extract were 0.014, 0.225, and 0.611%, respectively. There was a reduction in spittlebug longevity, regardless of sex, in relation to the control. Males exposed to the neem products, and aqueous extract showed longevity reductions of approximately 50%, whereas for females the reductions were 55-60%. The neem products and extract reduced fecundity by 75-85%. Morphological and physiological changes were observed in 9% of the eggs from individuals submitted to NeemAzal. Neem-based products, especially NeemAzal, have potential for the control of M. fimbriolata. PMID:17195667

  19. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  20. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines.

  1. Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on banana.

    PubMed

    Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2006-12-01

    The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests banana (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Banana bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting banana in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial banana farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on banana plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for banana production.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Adults of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Guava Plants.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, M C S; Barbosa, J C

    2016-04-01

    The psyllid Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest in guava, feeding primarily on new shoots. Despite its importance, there are no studies on the spatial distribution of T. limbata on guava. Such studies are needed to establish sequential sampling plans for decision making in pest control. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a 9-year-old commercial guava orchard divided into 100 sampling units or plots. Double-sided yellow sticky traps were placed on one plant per plot (sample unit) to capture and monitor T. limbata adults from April 2011 to May 2012. To determine the insect distribution in the area, we calculated the variance-to-mean ratio index (I), the Morisita index (I δ ), Green's coefficient (Cx), and the k exponent of the negative binomial distribution. Most of the samples showed that the adults had a moderate to highly aggregated distribution. Statistical models were also used to study the pest spatial distribution by fitting the number of adults captured to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution model best fitted the data of the number of adult psyllids captured by the traps, which is consistent with an aggregated distribution.

  3. A binomial sequential sampling plan for Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Solanum lycopersicum (Solanales: Solanacea).

    PubMed

    Prager, Sean M; Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2014-04-01

    The tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of many solanaceous plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In tomato, feeding by nymphs is associated with "psyllid yellows." B. cockerelli also vectors "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous," an infectious bacterium that causes "vein greening" disease. Decisions about management action are much more effective when guided by robust sampling. However, there are few previous studies of potato psyllid spatial distribution in tomato fields, and no published sequential sampling plans for the pest in tomato. We studied B. cockerelli in various tomato fields in California and used these data to generate a sequential sampling plan. We found that juvenile B. cockerelli in tomato fields exhibit an edge effect, an aggregated distribution, and individuals are primarily located on the bottom of leaves. Psyllids were concentrated in the upper segments of plants, but this changed over time. Finally, we present three binominal sequential sampling plans for managing tomato psyllids in tomato fields. These plans differed from both those for bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and potato, indicating that B. cockerelli needs to be sampled using crop-specific sampling plans. PMID:24772568

  4. Chitin deacetylase family genes in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Xi, Y; Pan, P-L; Ye, Y-X; Yu, B; Zhang, C-X

    2014-12-01

    Chitin deacetylases (CDAs) are enzymes required for one of the pathways of chitin degradation, in which chitosan is produced by the deacetylation of chitin. Bioinformatic investigations with genomic and transcriptomic databases identified four genes encoding CDAs in Nilaparvata lugens (NlCDAs). Phylogenetic analysis showed that insect CDAs were clustered into five major groups. Group I, III and IV CDAs are found in all insect species, whereas the pupa-specific group II and gut-specific group V CDAs are not found in the plant-sap/blood-sucking hemimetabolous species from Hemiptera and Anoplura. The developmental and tissue-specific expression patterns of four NlCDAs revealed that NlCDA3 was a gut-specific CDA, with high expression at all developmental stages; NlCDA1, NlCDA2 and NlCDA4 were highly expressed in the integument and peaked periodically during every moulting, which suggests their roles in chitin turnover of the insect old cuticle. Lethal phenotypes of cuticle shedding failure and high mortality after the injection of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) for NlCDA1, NlCDA2 and NlCDA4 provide further evidence for their functions associated with moulting. No observable morphological and internal structural abnormality was obtained in insects treated with dsRNA for gut-specific NlCDA3.

  5. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Agustín C; da Rocha, Aline C P; Parra, José R P

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn't). The 68% viability for the egg-adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration.

  6. Biology and systematics of gall-inducing triozids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) associated with Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, René G S; Burckhardt, Daniel; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-01-01

    Psidium myrtoides (Myrtaceae) shelters the gall inducer Nothotrioza myrtoidis gen. et sp. n. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) which is described and illustrated here. Nothotrioza belongs to the family Triozidae and is probably most closely related to Neolithus, a monotypic Neotropical genus associated with Sapiun (Euphorbiaceae). Three species are recognized within Nothotrioza: the type species N. myrtoidis sp. n. associated with Psidium myrtoides, N. cattleiani sp. n. (misidentified by Butignol & Pedrosa-Macedo as Neotrioza tavaresi) with Psidium cattleianum, and N. tavaresi (Crawford) comb. n. (from Neotrioza) with an unidentified species of Malpighiaceae, respectively. A lectotype is designated here for Neotrioza tavaresi. Also, the diversity of insect galls associated with P. myrtoides and the biology of N. myrtoidis were examined. N. myrtoidis presents five instars and an annual life cycle synchronised with the phenology of P. myrtoides. Gall size was proportional to the insect developmental stages, and rates of parasitism and mortality were 15.7 % and 29.8 %, respectively. The red colour is an important macroscopic diagnostic feature of the gall that could be associated with parasite-free condition of the galling insect. The biological features presented by the system Psidium myrtoides--Nothotrioza myrtoidis are in accordance with other systems involving sucking galling insects, however, it is exceptional by its univoltine life cycle associated with a perennial plant in the Neotropics. The galls induced by the three known Nothotrioza spp. are morphologically similar, i.e. closed, globoid and unilocular, as well as the opening mechanism for releasing the adults.

  7. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  8. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNA(ser)), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups--Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars

  10. Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding patterns in macadamia nut in Hawaii: nut maturity and cultivar effects.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Wright, Mark G; Golden, Mary

    2009-08-01

    Nezara viridula L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious pest of macadamia nuts, Macadamia integrifolia, in Hawaii. Using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes, feeding activity was determined for nuts of various maturity levels harvested from the tree and off the ground throughout the growing season in five commercial cultivars. Damage occurred in the tree and on the ground during all nut growth stages. Damage on the ground was often higher than in the tree. Cultivar 246 was more susceptible to attack than cultivars 333 and 800. It was previously thought that cultivar susceptibility was related to husk and shell thickness, but cultivar 246 showed higher damage than other cultivars even during early nut development when the nuts are small and before the shell has formed. This suggests that shell and husk thickness may play a secondary role in susceptibility to feeding by N. viridula. Monitoring N. viridula feeding activity during early nut development may help alert growers to potential problems later in the season, but early-season probing activity in immature nuts was not a good predictor of damage levels in mature nuts later in the season in our study. PMID:19689896

  11. Diversity of bacterial endosymbionts and bacteria-host co-evolution in Gondwanan relict moss bugs (Hemiptera: Coleorrhyncha: Peloridiidae).

    PubMed

    Kuechler, Stefan Martin; Gibbs, George; Burckhardt, Daniel; Dettner, Konrad; Hartung, Viktor

    2013-07-01

    Many hemipterans are associated with symbiotic bacteria, which are usually found intracellularly in specific bacteriomes. In this study, we provide the first molecular identification of the bacteriome-associated, obligate endosymbiont in a Gondwanan relict insect taxon, the moss bugs (Hemiptera: Coleorrhyncha: Peloridiidae), which represents one of the oldest lineages within the Hemiptera. Endosymbiotic associations of fifteen species of the family were analysed, covering representatives from South America, Australia/Tasmania and New Zealand. Phylogenetic analysis based on four kilobases of 16S-23S rRNA gene fragments showed that the obligate endosymbiont of Peloridiidae constitute a so far unknown group of Gammaproteobacteria which is named here 'Candidatus Evansia muelleri'. They are related to the sternorrhynchous endosymbionts Candidatus Portiera and Candidatus Carsonella. Comparison of the primary-endosymbiont and host (COI + 28S rRNA) trees showed overall congruence indicating co-speciation the hosts and their symbionts. The distribution of the endosymbiont within the insect body and its transmission was studied using FISH. The endosymbionts were detected endocellularly in a pair of bacteriomes as well as in the 'symbiont ball' of the posterior pole of each developing oocyte. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of the Malpighian tubules revealed that most host nuclei are infected by an endosymbiotic, intranuclear bacterium that was determined as an Alphaproteobacterium of the genus Rickettsia.

  12. The biology and thermal requirements of the fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Malaquias, José B; Ramalho, Francisco S; Lira, Aline C S; Oliveira, Flávia Q; Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Zanuncio, José C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae)) crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h) produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C) to 19 (15°C) days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0%) was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest.

  13. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

    PubMed

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%).

  14. Horizontal transmission of the symbiotic bacterium Asaia sp. in the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the genus Asaia have been recently recognized as secondary symbionts of different sugar-feeding insects, including the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, vector of Flavescence dorée phytoplasmas. Asaia has been shown to be localized in S. titanus gut, salivary glands and gonoducts and to be maternally transmitted to the progeny by an egg smearing mechanism. It is currently not known whether Asaia in S. titanus is transmitted by additional routes. We performed a study to evaluate if Asaia infection is capable of horizontal transmission via co-feeding and venereal routes. Results A Gfp-tagged strain of Asaia was provided to S. titanus individuals to trace the transmission pathways of the symbiotic bacterium. Co-feeding trials showed a regular transfer of bacterial cells from donors to recipients, with a peak of frequency after 72 hours of exposure, and with concentrations of the administrated strain growing over time. Venereal transmission experiments were first carried out using infected males paired with uninfected females. In this case, female individuals acquired Gfp-labelled Asaia, with highest infection rates 72-96 hours after mating and with increasing abundance of the tagged symbiont over time. When crosses between infected females and uninfected males were conducted, the occurrence of “female to male” transmission was observed, even though the transfer occurred unevenly. Conclusions The data presented demonstrate that the acetic acid bacterial symbiont Asaia is horizontally transmitted among S. titanus individuals both by co-feeding and venereal transmission, providing one of the few direct demonstrations of such a symbiotic transfer in Hemiptera. This study contributes to the understanding of the bacterial ecology in the insect host, and indicates that Asaia evolved multiple pathways for the colonization of S. titanus body. PMID:22376056

  15. The Effect of Temperature Increases on an Ant-Hemiptera-Plant Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sagata, Katayo; Gibb, Heloise

    2016-01-01

    Global temperature increases are significantly altering species distributions and the structure of ecological communities. However, the impact of temperature increases on multi- species interactions is poorly understood. We used an ant-Hemiptera-plant interaction to examine the potential outcomes of predicted temperature increases for each partner and for the availability of honeydew, a keystone resource in many forest ecosystems. We re-created this interaction in growth cabinets using predicted mean summer temperatures for Melbourne, Australia, for the years 2011 (23°C), 2050 (25°C) and 2100 (29°C), respectively, under an unmitigated greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plant growth and ant foraging activities increased, while scale insect growth, abundance and size, honeydew standing crop per tree and harvesting by ants decreased at 29°C, relative to lower temperatures (23 and 25°C). This led to decreased scale insect infestations of plants and reduced honeydew standing crop per tree at the highest temperature. At all temperatures, honeydew standing crop was lower when ants harvested the honeydew from scale insects, but the impact of ant harvesting was particularly significant at 29°C, where combined effects of temperature and ants reduced honeydew standing crop to below detectable levels. Although temperature increases in the next 35 years will have limited effects on this system, by the end of this century, warmer temperatures may cause the availability of honeydew to decline. Decline of honeydew may have far-reaching trophic effects on honeydew and ant-mediated interactions. However, field-based studies that consider the full complexity of ecosystems may be required to elucidate these impacts. PMID:27434232

  16. Life History Traits and Demographic Parameters of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Fed on Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Medone, Paula; Balsalobre, Agustin; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Marti, Gerardo A; Menu, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the main vector of Chagas disease in South America, feeds primarily on humans, but ethical reasons preclude carrying out demographical studies using people. Thus, most laboratory studies of T. infestans are conducted using bird or mammal live hosts that may result in different demographic parameters from those obtained on human blood. Therefore, it is of interest to determine whether the use of an artificial feeder with human blood would be operational to rear triatomines and estimate population growth rates. We estimated life history traits and demographic parameters using an artificial feeder with human blood and compared them with those obtained on live hens. Both groups of T. infestans were kept under constant conditions [28 ± 1°C, 40 ± 5% relative humidity, a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h] and fed weekly. On the basis of age-specific survival and age-specific fecundity, we calculated the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r), the finite rate of population growth (λ), the net reproductive rate (Ro), and the mean generation time (Tg). Our results show differences in life history traits between blood sources, resulting in smaller population growth rates on human blood than on live hens. Although demographic growth rate was smaller on human blood than on hens, it still remains positive, so the benefit/cost ratio of this feeding method seems relatively attractive. We discuss possibility of using the artificial feeder with human blood for both ecological and behavioral studies. PMID:26373893

  17. Baseline susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations from California and Arizona to spirotetramat.

    PubMed

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Castle, Steven; Perring, Thomas M

    2014-04-01

    Baseline toxicity levels to foliarly applied spirotetramat were established for 19 field populations of whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype (=Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Arizona and California in 2008 and 2009. The susceptibility data were determined against the second instar of B. tabaci field collections before the registration and widespread use of spirotetramat in California. Three strains of whitefly, resistant to either bifenthrin, imidacloprid, or pyriproxyfen, were also tested to determine the potential for cross-resistance to spirotetramat. No significant geographic variation in susceptibility to spirotetramat was observed among regions within Arizona. The LC50 values for the Arizona populations spanned a 14-fold range between populations during the 2 yr sampling tests including a low LC50 of 0.91 (micrg [AI] ml(-1)) and a high LC50 of 13.47 (microg [AI] ml(-1)), while the LC90 values showed a seven-fold range. The field populations from California exhibited limited variation in susceptibility to spirotetramat in general (1.02-7.02 microg [AI] ml(-1)) with one exception (27.98 microg [AI] ml(-1)). Variation in susceptibility among the resistant strains was about eight-fold at the LC50 level with the PYR-strain, showing the highest susceptibility to spirotetramat at 3.79 (microg [AI] ml(-1)). In addition, comparisons of relative susceptibilities among three older immature instars of two field populations showed no significant differences. These results establish a regional baseline that can serve as a reference for future monitoring and management of B. tabaci resistance to spirotetramat.

  18. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Raman; Mamidala, Praveen; Mian, M A Rouf; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Michel, Andy P

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a common and robust tool for accurate quantification of mRNA transcripts. To normalize results, a housekeeping gene ([HKG], reference gene or endogenous control gene) is mandatory. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a significant soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., pest, yet gene expression and functional genomics studies are hindered by a lack of stable HKGs. We evaluated seven potential HKGs (SDFS, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit; EF1a, elongation factor-la; HEL, helicase; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; TBP, TATA-box binding protein; and UBQ, ubiquitin-conjugating protein) to determine the most efficient HKGs that have stable expression among tissues, developmental stages, and aphids fed on susceptible and host plant-resistant soybean. HKG stability was determined using GeNorm and NormFinder. Results from three different experimental conditions revealed high stability of TBP compared with the other HKGs profiled across the samples assayed. RPS9 showed stable expression among aphids on susceptible and resistant plants, whereas EF1a showed stable expression in tissues and developmental stages. Therefore, we recommend the TBP as a suitable HKG for efficient normalization among treatments, tissues, and developmental stages of A. glycines. In addition, RPS9 may be used for host-plant resistance experiments and EF1a could be considered for testing differential expression across tissues or developmental stages. These results will enable a more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in A. glycines. PMID:22928326

  19. The Biology and Thermal Requirements of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Malaquias, José B.; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Lira, Aline C. S.; Oliveira, Flávia Q.; Fernandes, Francisco S.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Zanuncio, José C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae)) crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h) produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C) to 19 (15°C) days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0%) was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest. PMID:25003593

  20. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Vincent P.; Nielsen, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys. PMID:27190711

  1. Assessment of the insecticidal potential of Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil against Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, S P; Favero, S

    2013-08-01

    The resistance of triatomines to pyrethroids has been reported in several Latin American countries, including Brazil, indicating the need for the development of new approaches for the control of vectors of the Chagas disease. In here, we evaluated the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Eucalyptus urograndis (Myrtaceae) against unsexed third and fourth instars of Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in topical application, fumigation, surface contact, and repellency . The insecticidal activity of the essential oil tested was detected by topical application (LD50 = 0.1731 μL/insect and LD99 = 0.2948 μL/insect for 24 h), fumigation (LC50 = 0.021 mL/mL air and LC99 = 0.1525 mL/mL air for 24 h) and surface contact (LC50 = 0.7073 μL/cm(2) and LC99 = 4.59 μL/cm(2) for 24 h). Mortality observed after 48-72-h exposure was very high and did not allow for any adjustment of the mortality curve. In the repellency assay, an effect was observed on 80% of tested nymphs. However, no repellency was observed after 24 h of exposure. Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil has a high insecticidal and repellent potential for R. neglectus nymphs, whether serving as a molecular model for new substances or as an alternative for the control of these insects. PMID:23949865

  2. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Timothy D; Kidd, Karen A; Cunjak, Richard A; Arp, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (approximately 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species. They also suggest that striders may be more appropriate as a terrestrial rather than an aquatic Hg sentinel, underscoring the importance of understanding the origin of food for organisms used in contaminant studies. PMID:19215185

  3. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Brett R; Jones, Vincent P; Nielsen, Anne L

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow's milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were "marked" with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys. PMID:27190711

  4. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A O; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  5. Sequencing and Characterization of the Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Cheng; Fu, Ningning; Xu, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries. These unigenes were annotated and classified by Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), Pfam (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Ortholog database). After all pairwise comparisons between these three different samples, a large number of differentially expressed genes were revealed. The dramatic differences in global gene expression profiles were found between distinct life stages (nymphs and AF, nymphs and AM) and sex difference (AF and AM), with some of the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) being related to metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex difference. The different express of unigenes were validated through quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for 16 randomly selected unigenes. In addition, 17,462 potential simple sequence repeat molecular markers were identified in these transcriptome resources. These comprehensive C. ciliata transcriptomic information can be utilized to promote the development of environmentally friendly methodologies to disrupt the processes of metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex differences. PMID:27494615

  6. Sampling strategies for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott; Villanueva, Raul T

    2012-06-01

    Sampling methods for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., were compared with the intent to assess if one approach was viable for two species occurring from early-season squaring to late bloom in 25 fields located along the coastal cotton growing region of south Texas. Cotton fleaphopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), damages squares early-season and dominated collections using five sampling methods (approximately 99% of insects collected). A major species composition shift occurred beginning at peak bloom in coastal fields, when verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, represented 55-65% of collections. Significantly more cotton fleahoppers were captured by experienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than with the other methods (30-100% more). There were more than twice as many verde plant bugs captured by experienced and inexperienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than captured with the KISS and visual methods. Using a beat bucket or sweep net reduced sampling time compared with the visual method for the experienced samplers. For both species, comparing regressions of beat bucket-based counts to counts from the traditional visual method across nine cultivar and water regime combinations resulted in only one combination differing from the rest, suggesting broad applicability and ability to translate established visual-based economic thresholds to beat bucket-based thresholds. In a first look at sample size considerations, 40 plants (four 10-plant samples) per field site was no more variable than variation associated with larger sample sizes. Overall, the beat bucket is much more effective in sampling for cotton fleahopper and verde plant bug than the traditional visual method, it is more suited to cotton fleahopper sampling early-season when plants are small, it transitions well to sample for verde plant bug during bloom, and it performs well under a variety of soil

  7. Economic Threshold for Cotton Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Cotton in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Kerns, D L; Yates, J A; Baugh, B A

    2015-08-01

    Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a common pest of cotton throughout much of the world. In the United States, insecticide applications targeting cotton aphid in cotton are common in the Mid-South, Texas, and California. Cotton aphid population dynamics data were collected from eight insecticide efficacy trials conducted in Lubbock, TX, over a 4-yr period. Among the field populations in the nontreated plots, the instantaneous rate of population growth averaged 0.56 ± 0.608, and the mean population doubling time was 3.97 ± 2.16 d. For calculating economic injury levels (EIL) and thresholds, control costs were set at US$30.50/ha, market prices were evaluated at US$0.88, US$1.33, US$1.77, and US$2.21 kg-lint, and cotton yield potentials were evaluated at 672, 896, and 1,120 kg-lint/ha. The EIL we calculated ranged from 66 to 272 aphids per leaf, and averaged 137 aphids per leaf. Economic thresholds (ET) were calculated based on lead times of 1, 3, 5, and 7 d before EIL occurs. The mean ET across control cost, market price, and yield potential were 110 ± 48, 70 ± 31, 45 ± 19, and 29 ± 13 aphids per leaf at lead times of 1, 3, 5, and 7 d, respectively. Most curative pest management tactics in cotton are implemented within 3 d of determining need, and the ET at 3 d that we calculated (70 ± 31 aphids per leaf) overlaps the current recommended action threshold in Texas and California of 50 aphids per leaf. PMID:26470321

  8. Species composition, abundance, and seasonal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota soybean fields.

    PubMed

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2014-08-01

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) have historically not been pests of soybean in Minnesota. In response to the invasion of Halyomorpha halys (Stål) and reports of increasing abundance of species native to North America, a state-wide survey of soybean was conducted over 3 yr in Minnesota to determine species composition, abundance, and seasonal dynamics of Pentatomidae associated with soybean. Fourteen species of Pentatomidae (12 herbivorous and two predatory) were collected from soybean. H. halys was not detected in this survey. Among the herbivorous species found, adults of Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) had the greatest relative abundance (60.51%) and frequency of detection (18.44%), followed by Euschistus servus euschistoides (Say) (19.37 and 3.04%, respectively) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (5.50 and 1.69%, respectively). Abundance of herbivorous nymphs and adults exceeded an economic threshold (20 nymphs and adults per 100 sweeps) in 0.82% of fields in 2012 but not in 2011 or 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults increased with increasing reproductive growth stage of soybean. In two of three years, herbivorous adults were more abundant in the edge compared with interior of fields. Two predatory Pentatomidae, Podisus maculiventris (Say) and Podisus placidus Uhler, comprised 5.95 and 1.62% of the pentatomid adults. Though the species composition of Pentatomidae in Minnesota soybean differs from that in eastern and southern states, the spatial (i.e., greater abundance near field edge) and seasonal dynamics (i.e., increasing abundance and reproduction with increasing reproductive maturity of soybean) in soybean appear similar.

  9. Early-Season Host Switching in Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) of Differing Host Breadth

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The mirid bugs Adelphocoris suturalis (Jakovlev), Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) and Adelphocoris fasciaticollis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common pests of several agricultural crops. These three species have vastly different geographical distributions, phenologies and abundances, all of which are linked to their reliance on local plants. Previous work has shown notable differences in Adelphocoris spp. host use for overwintering. In this study, we assessed the extent to which each of the Adelphocoris spp. relies on some of its major overwinter hosts for spring development. Over the course of four consecutive years (2009–2012), we conducted population surveys on 77 different plant species from 39 families. During the spring, A. fasciaticollis used the broadest range of hosts, as it was found on 35 plant species, followed by A. suturalis (15 species) and A. lineolatus (7 species). Abundances of the species greatly differed between host plants, with A. fasciaticollis reaching the highest abundance on Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), whereas both A. suturalis and A. lineolatus preferred alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The host breadths of the three Adelphocoris spp. differed greatly between subsequent spring and winter seasons. The generalist species exhibited the least host fidelity, with A. suturalis and A. lineolatus using 8 of 22 and 4 of 12 overwinter host species for spring development, respectively. By contrast, the comparative specialist A. fasciaticollis relied on 9 of its 11 overwinter plants as early-season hosts. We highlight important seasonal changes in host breadth and interspecific differences in the extent of host switching behavior between the winter and spring seasons. These findings benefit our understanding of the evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants and can be used to guide early-season population management. PMID:23527069

  10. Life History Traits and Demographic Parameters of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Fed on Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Medone, Paula; Balsalobre, Agustin; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Marti, Gerardo A; Menu, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the main vector of Chagas disease in South America, feeds primarily on humans, but ethical reasons preclude carrying out demographical studies using people. Thus, most laboratory studies of T. infestans are conducted using bird or mammal live hosts that may result in different demographic parameters from those obtained on human blood. Therefore, it is of interest to determine whether the use of an artificial feeder with human blood would be operational to rear triatomines and estimate population growth rates. We estimated life history traits and demographic parameters using an artificial feeder with human blood and compared them with those obtained on live hens. Both groups of T. infestans were kept under constant conditions [28 ± 1°C, 40 ± 5% relative humidity, a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h] and fed weekly. On the basis of age-specific survival and age-specific fecundity, we calculated the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r), the finite rate of population growth (λ), the net reproductive rate (Ro), and the mean generation time (Tg). Our results show differences in life history traits between blood sources, resulting in smaller population growth rates on human blood than on live hens. Although demographic growth rate was smaller on human blood than on hens, it still remains positive, so the benefit/cost ratio of this feeding method seems relatively attractive. We discuss possibility of using the artificial feeder with human blood for both ecological and behavioral studies.

  11. Resistance of Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), to Conventional and Novel Chemistry Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Saif; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2016-02-01

    The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), is polyphagous in nature and has become one of the severe sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. O. hyalinipennis has the potential to develop resistance to a number of insecticides, and as a result, O. hyalinipennis outbreaks occur. There is no previous study from Pakistan regarding O. hyalinipennis resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the resistance of different field populations of O. hyalinipennis to conventional (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos, triazophos) and novel chemistry (emamectin benzoate, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram) insecticides. Five populations of O. hyalinipennis, collected from Multan, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran, and Bahawalpur, were tested for resistance to selected insecticides by the leaf dip method. For three pyrethroids, the resistance ratios were in the range of 14- to 30-fold for bifenthrin, 2.14- to 8.41-fold for deltamethrin, and 9.12- to 16-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin, compared with the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-PK). For two organophosphates, the range of resistance ratios was 12- to 14-fold for profenofos and 9.04- to 15-fold for triazophos. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 4.68- to 9.83-fold for emamectin benzoate, 6.38- to 17-fold for spinosad, 16- to 46-fold for chlorfenapyr, 11- to 22-fold for imidacloprid, and 1.32- to 11-fold for nitenpyram. Regular assessment of resistance to insecticides and integrated management plans like judicious use of insecticides and rotation of insecticides along with different modes of action are required to delay resistance development in O. hyalinipennis.

  12. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  13. Biology of the Huanglongbing vector Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on different host plants.

    PubMed

    Alves, G R; Diniz, A J F; Parra, J R P

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the development and reproductive potential of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in different host species, few have evaluated these parameters on different varieties of the same host species. This study evaluated the influence of five commercial varieties of citrus (Citrus spp. L.)--Hamlin, Natal, Pêra, Ponkan, and Valencia-and orange jasmine [Murraya exotica (L.) Jack] on the development of D. citri. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on orange jasmine (85.7%) and on Valencia (83.3%). The lowest viability of the nymphal stage was also observed on Hamlin, averaging 57.4%. Values for total viability ranged from 65.9 to 32.6%, and were highest on Valencia. The longest egg-adult development time was on Natal, with a mean of 18.4 d; the shortest total development time was on orange jasmine, with a mean of 17.3 d. Based on the fertility life table, the net reproductive rate (Ro) of D. citri was 2.5 times higher when reared on Valencia than on Hamlin. The other parameters (duration of each generation [T], finite rate of increase [lambda], and innate capacity to increase in number [r(m)]) also demonstrated that Valencia is best suited to this insect. The results obtained for the biological parameters and the fertility life table indicate that Valencia and orange jasmine were the most suitable hosts, whereas Hamlin was least suitable for the development of D. citri. These results provide information for the installation of new citrus groves, especially in the choice of varieties to be planted and the location of different varieties within the groves, with a view toward the management of Huanglongbing or HLB.

  14. Dispersion patterns and sampling plans for Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus.

    PubMed

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Flores, Daniel; French, J Victor; Hall, David G

    2008-08-01

    The abundance and spatial dispersion of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) were studied in 34 grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) and six sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] orchards from March to August 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern Texas. Although flush shoot infestation levels did not vary with host plant species, densities of D. citri eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than on grapefruit. D. citri immatures also were found in significantly higher numbers in the southeastern quadrant of trees than other parts of the canopy. The spatial distribution of D. citri nymphs and adults was analyzed using Iowa's patchiness regression and Taylor's power law. Taylor's power law fitted the data better than Iowa's model. Based on both regression models, the field dispersion patterns of D. citri nymphs and adults were aggregated among flush shoots in individual trees as indicated by the regression slopes that were significantly >1. For the average density of each life stage obtained during our surveys, the minimum number of flush shoots per tree needed to estimate D. citri densities varied from eight for eggs to four flush shoots for adults. Projections indicated that a sampling plan consisting of 10 trees and eight flush shoots per tree would provide density estimates of the three developmental stages of D. citri acceptable enough for population studies and management decisions. A presence-absence sampling plan with a fixed precision level was developed and can be used to provide a quick estimation of D. citri populations in citrus orchards.

  15. Influence of posttreatment temperature on the toxicity of insecticides against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Salyani, Masoud; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2009-04-01

    The psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is one of the most important pests of citrus worldwide because it efficiently vectors three bacteria in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter that cause the devastating citrus greening disease (huanglongbing). Current management practices for this insect pest rely on multiple sprays of foliar insecticides and one or two applications of soil systemic insecticides per season. Effective psyllid and disease management in Florida requires insecticide applications throughout the entire season over wide ranging temperature and environmental conditions. Using a petri dish bioassay technique, the effect of posttreatment temperature (range, 17-37 degrees C) on the toxicity of selected organophosphate (chlorpyrifos and dimethoate), carbamate (carbaryl), avermectin (abamectin), pyrethroid (bifenthrin, zeta-cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin), and neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) insecticides was evaluated against adult D. citri. The toxicity of both organophosphates showed a positive temperature correlation within the 17-37 degrees C range. Similarly, carbaryl (carbamate) and abamectin (avermectin) exhibited increased toxicity with increasing temperature from 17 to 37 degrees C, with abamectin showing higher overall temperature-dependent toxicity against D. citri adults than carbaryl. With the exception of bifenthrin, which showed a positive temperature-dependent toxicity correlation between 27 and 37 degrees C, all other pyrethroids tested exhibited a negative correlation over the temperature range examined. The toxicity of fenpropathrin and lambda-cyhalothrin dramatically decreased with increasing temperature from 17 to 37 degrees C. The neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiamethoxam exhibited a mixed response to increasing temperature, whereas acetamiprid showed a positive temperature correlation. However, all three neonicotinoids showed positive temperature-dependent toxicity

  16. Sequencing and Characterization of the Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengqi; Wang, Ran; Qu, Cheng; Fu, Ningning; Luo, Chen; Xu, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries. These unigenes were annotated and classified by Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), Pfam (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Ortholog database). After all pairwise comparisons between these three different samples, a large number of differentially expressed genes were revealed. The dramatic differences in global gene expression profiles were found between distinct life stages (nymphs and AF, nymphs and AM) and sex difference (AF and AM), with some of the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) being related to metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex difference. The different express of unigenes were validated through quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for 16 randomly selected unigenes. In addition, 17,462 potential simple sequence repeat molecular markers were identified in these transcriptome resources. These comprehensive C. ciliata transcriptomic information can be utilized to promote the development of environmentally friendly methodologies to disrupt the processes of metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex differences. PMID:27494615

  17. Comparative Mitogenomics of Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Identifying the AGG Codon Reassignments between Serine and Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24988409

  18. The assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Vietnam: an annotated checklist of species.

    PubMed

    Lam, Truong Xuan; Cai, Wanzhi; Tomokuni, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of all known Vietnamese species of the assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is presented with distributional and taxonomic notes. Sixty-five species in 35 genera of the subfamily are recognized in Vietnam. Eleven genera and 32 species are reported herein for the first time from this country. Newly recorded genera are Henricohahnia Breddin, 1900, Kalonotocoris Miller, 1941, Lingnania China, 1940, Lopodytes Stål, 1853, Macracanthopsis Reuter, 1881, Sclomina Stål, 1861, Serendiba Distant, 1906, Serendus Hsiao, 1979, Vesbius Stål, 1866, Villanovanus Distant, 1904, and Yolinus Amyot & Serville, 1843. New record species are Biasticus confusus Hsiao, 1979, B. flavinotus (Matsumura, 1913), Cosmolestes annulipes Distant, 1879, C. pulcher Hsiao, 1979, Cydnocoris fasciatus Reuter, 1881, C. gilvus (Burmeister, 1838), Endochus nigricornis Stål, 1859, Henricohahnia vittata Miller, 1954, Isyndus heros (Fabricius, 1803), I. pilosipes Reuter, 1881, Kalonotocoris curvipes Miller, 1941, Lingnania braconiformis China, 1940, Lopodytes spectabilis Miller, 1941, Macracanthopsis nodipes Reuter, 1881, Sclomina erinacea Stål, 1861, Serendiba nigrospina Hsiao, 1979, S. staliana (Horváth, 1879), Serendus geniculatus Hsiao, 1979, Sphedanolestes annulipes Distant, 1903, S. gularis Hsiao, 1979, S. impressicollis (Stål, 1861), S. pubinotus Reuter, 1881, S. trichrous Stål, 1874, S. xiongi Cai & Cai, 2004, Sycanus croceus Hsiao, 1979, Velinus annulatus Distant, 1879, V. malayus (Stål, 1863), V. rufiventris Hsiao, 1979, Vesbius purpureus (Thunberg, 1784), V. sanguinosus Stål, 1874, Villanovanus nigrorufus Hsiao, 1979, and Yolinus albopustulatus China, 1940. All the species are examined with Vietnamese materials except for Agriosphodrus dohrni (Signoret, 1862), Cydnocoris russatus Stål, 1867, and Sycanus atrocoeruleus Signoret, 1862. PMID:25781817

  19. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species) is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae), an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp). The control regions (CRs) among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp), making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp) within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68%) of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%), and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea)))). PMID:26042898

  20. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest. PMID:26314066

  1. Seasonality and Distribution Pattern of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Virginia Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Basnet, S; Kuhar, T P; Laub, C A; Pfeiffer, D G

    2015-08-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous invasive insect pest from eastern Asia that feeds on numerous fruit, vegetable, and field crops. Four commercial vineyards in Virginia were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to study the basic biology, seasonality, and distribution pattern of H. halys in vineyards. At each vineyard, two blocks were selected. Weekly 3-min timed count visual samplings were performed in border and interior sections from late May until mid-September. Overwintering adult bugs were first detected in vineyards in May; however, the timing of first detection differed among vineyards. Egg masses were found primarily in June and July, and were usually found on the lower surface of grape leaves, although they were occasionally on the upper leaf surface, on the berry, or on the rachis. All developmental stages of H. halys were found in vineyards, suggesting that grape can serve as a reproductive host for H. halys. Substantial variation in H. halys densities was found among vineyards and throughout the growing season. The first instars were found on egg masses and after molting, dispersed throughout the grape vines. The date on which the first egg mass was collected was considered as a biofix. Based on a degree-day model, there were sufficient degree-days for completion of a generation in Virginia vineyards. Significantly higher numbers of H. halys were collected in border sections compared with interior sections. These results are discussed in relation to the potential pest status of H. halys in vineyards and implications for possible control strategies. PMID:26470333

  2. Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Chong, Juang-Horng; Epsky, Nancy D; Mannion, Catharine M

    2008-12-01

    Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was investigated in the laboratory. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 +/- 1 degrees C. At 15, 34, and 35 degrees C, the eggs hatched after 27.5, 5.9, and 5.5 d of incubation, respectively, but further development of the first-instar nymphs was arrested. No eggs hatched at 37 degrees C. The developmental time for egg to adult was the longest at 18 degrees C for both males and females. Approximately 80-90% of the eggs survived between 20 and 30 degrees C. The highest fecundity was at 25 degrees C with each female producing an average of 300 eggs. Adult longevity, and preoviposition and oviposition periods increased with decreasing temperature up to 25 degrees C. The proportion of females was approximately 42% at 25 degrees C and was between 70 and 80% at 18, 20, and 30 degrees C. Adult males and females required 303.0 and 294.1 degree-days (DD), respectively, to complete their development. The estimated minimum temperature thresholds for the adult males and females were 14.5 and 13.9 degrees C, respectively. For adult males, the estimated optimum and maximum temperature thresholds were 28.7 and 31.9 degrees C; and for adult females, they were 28.4 and 32.1 degrees C, respectively. The ability of P. marginatus to develop, survive, and reproduce successfully between 18 and 30 degrees C suggests that it has the capability to develop and establish in areas within this temperature range.

  3. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded Florida in 2002 and has recently been reported from several locations in Louisiana. Although identification of its sex pheromone in 2004 improved monitoring capabilities tremendously, the effectiveness and efficiency of different pheromone trap designs for capturing males has not been evaluated. We deployed green Delta, Pherocon IlB, Pherocon V, Jackson, and Storgard Thinline traps in Homestead, FL, and compared the number of male M. hirsutus captured per trap, the number captured per unit of trapping surface area, the amount of extraneous material captured, and the time taken to count trapped mealybugs. Pheromone-baited traps with larger trapping surfaces (green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V) captured more males per trap than those with smaller surfaces (Jackson and Storgard Thinline), and fewest males were captured by Storgard Thinline traps. However, Jackson traps captured as many or more males per square centimeter of trapping surface as those with larger surfaces, and the time required to count males in Jackson traps was significantly less than in green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V traps. Although all trap designs accumulated some debris and nontarget insects, it was rated as light to moderate for all designs. Based on our measures of effectiveness and efficiency, the Jackson trap is most suitable for monitoring M. hirsutus populations. Additionally, unlike the other traps evaluated, which must be replaced entirely or inspected in the field and then redeployed, only the sticky liners of Jackson traps require replacement, enhancing the efficiency of trap servicing.

  4. Pheromone-based mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.

    PubMed

    Walton, Vaughn M; Daane, Kent M; Bentley, Walter J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Larsen, Thomas E; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha

    2006-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a mating disruption program for the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. The sprayable, microencapsulated formulation of the racemic sex pheromone lavandulyl senecioate was applied with an air-blast sprayer, using three and four applications in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Mating disruption was combined with an application of buprofezin (2004) in June. Compared with a no-pheromone control, there were significantly lower season-long trap catches of adult males, season-long mealybug densities (2003 only), and crop damage in mating disruption plots. The amount of mealybug reduction and mechanisms that resulted in lower crop damage in mating disruption plots is discussed. In samples taken during the growing season (April to September), mealybug density was only 12.0 +/- 15.6 and 31.1 +/- 11.6% lower in the mating disruption plots than in control plots in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the mating disruption treatment, mealybug egg production was significantly lower (2003 only), as were the proportion of ovisacs and crawlers produced. There was no treatment impact on percentage of parasitism. Mealybug density influenced treatment impact. In 2004, vines were categorized as having low, medium, or high mealybug densities during a preapplication survey. After treatment application, mealybug density was reduced by 86.3 +/- 6.3% on vines in the low mealybug density category, but it was unchanged on vines in the high density category. Another factor that reduced treatment impact was the relatively short effective lifetime of the sprayable formulation.

  5. DNA barcoding of common soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-B; Deng, J; Zhang, J-T; Zhou, Q-S; Zhang, Y-Z; Wu, S-A

    2015-10-01

    The soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) are a group of sap-sucking plant parasites, many of which are notorious agricultural pests. The quarantine and economic importance of soft scales necessitates rapid and reliable identification of these taxa. Nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (barcoding region) and 28S rDNA were generated from 340 individuals of 36 common soft scales in China. Distance-based [(best match, Automated Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD)], tree-based (neighbor-joining, Bayesian inference), Klee diagrams, and general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) models were used to evaluate barcoding success rates in the data set. Best match showed that COI and 28S sequences could provide 100 and 95.52% correct identification, respectively. The average interspecific divergences were 19.81% for COI data and 20.38% for 28S data, and mean intraspecific divergences were 0.56 and 0.07%, respectively. For COI data, multiple methods (ABGD, Klee, and tree-based methods) resulted in general congruence with morphological identifications. However, GMYC analysis tended to provide more molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Twelve MOTUs derived from five morphospecies (Rhodococcus sariuoni, Pulvinaria vitis, Pulvinaria aurantii, Parasaissetia nigra, and Ceroplastes rubens) were observed using the GMYC approach. In addition, tree-based methods showed that 28S sequences could be used for species-level identification (except for Ceroplastes ceriferus - Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus), even with low genetic variation (<1%). This report demonstrates the robustness of DNA barcoding for species discrimination of soft scales with two molecular markers (COI and 28S) and provides a reliable barcode library and rapid diagnostic tool for common soft scales in China.

  6. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

  7. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest.

  8. Biology of the Huanglongbing vector Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on different host plants.

    PubMed

    Alves, G R; Diniz, A J F; Parra, J R P

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the development and reproductive potential of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in different host species, few have evaluated these parameters on different varieties of the same host species. This study evaluated the influence of five commercial varieties of citrus (Citrus spp. L.)--Hamlin, Natal, Pêra, Ponkan, and Valencia-and orange jasmine [Murraya exotica (L.) Jack] on the development of D. citri. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on orange jasmine (85.7%) and on Valencia (83.3%). The lowest viability of the nymphal stage was also observed on Hamlin, averaging 57.4%. Values for total viability ranged from 65.9 to 32.6%, and were highest on Valencia. The longest egg-adult development time was on Natal, with a mean of 18.4 d; the shortest total development time was on orange jasmine, with a mean of 17.3 d. Based on the fertility life table, the net reproductive rate (Ro) of D. citri was 2.5 times higher when reared on Valencia than on Hamlin. The other parameters (duration of each generation [T], finite rate of increase [lambda], and innate capacity to increase in number [r(m)]) also demonstrated that Valencia is best suited to this insect. The results obtained for the biological parameters and the fertility life table indicate that Valencia and orange jasmine were the most suitable hosts, whereas Hamlin was least suitable for the development of D. citri. These results provide information for the installation of new citrus groves, especially in the choice of varieties to be planted and the location of different varieties within the groves, with a view toward the management of Huanglongbing or HLB. PMID:24772551

  9. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species) is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae), an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp). The control regions (CRs) among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp), making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp) within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68%) of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%), and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea)))). PMID:26042898

  10. DNA barcoding of common soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-B; Deng, J; Zhang, J-T; Zhou, Q-S; Zhang, Y-Z; Wu, S-A

    2015-10-01

    The soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) are a group of sap-sucking plant parasites, many of which are notorious agricultural pests. The quarantine and economic importance of soft scales necessitates rapid and reliable identification of these taxa. Nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (barcoding region) and 28S rDNA were generated from 340 individuals of 36 common soft scales in China. Distance-based [(best match, Automated Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD)], tree-based (neighbor-joining, Bayesian inference), Klee diagrams, and general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) models were used to evaluate barcoding success rates in the data set. Best match showed that COI and 28S sequences could provide 100 and 95.52% correct identification, respectively. The average interspecific divergences were 19.81% for COI data and 20.38% for 28S data, and mean intraspecific divergences were 0.56 and 0.07%, respectively. For COI data, multiple methods (ABGD, Klee, and tree-based methods) resulted in general congruence with morphological identifications. However, GMYC analysis tended to provide more molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Twelve MOTUs derived from five morphospecies (Rhodococcus sariuoni, Pulvinaria vitis, Pulvinaria aurantii, Parasaissetia nigra, and Ceroplastes rubens) were observed using the GMYC approach. In addition, tree-based methods showed that 28S sequences could be used for species-level identification (except for Ceroplastes ceriferus - Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus), even with low genetic variation (<1%). This report demonstrates the robustness of DNA barcoding for species discrimination of soft scales with two molecular markers (COI and 28S) and provides a reliable barcode library and rapid diagnostic tool for common soft scales in China. PMID:25989705

  11. Morphology and volatile compounds of metathoracic scent gland in Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Gao, J; Wang, Y; Jiang, J; Li, R

    2012-08-01

    Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae) is a serious insect pest of litchi and longan in South China. When disturbed, this insect could release large quantities of disagreeable odorous volatiles from its scent gland. Knowledge on the scent gland and its secretion is crucial for developing the semiochemical methods to manage this pest. Morphology and ultrastructure of the metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) were studied under stereo and scanning electron microscopy, and the volatile compounds of MTGs from both male and female T. papillosa were analyzed with coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The MTG complex is located between the metathorax and the first abdominal segment at the ventral surface of the insect, which has a well-developed single double valve cystic-shaped orange median reservoir, paired colorless lateral glands in both sides, and a long and wavy tubular accessory gland that inlays tightly into the ventral edge around the median reservoir. The MTG opens to the body surface through paired ostioles located between the meso- and metacoxae of the evaporatorium with mushroom bodies. The GC-MS analyses showed that female and male adults have nine major volatile components in common. Tridecane is the most abundant in both females and males, reaching up to 47.1% and 51.8% of relative amount, respectively. The minor component is benzophenone with only 0.28% and 0.14%. Furthermore, undecane, tetradecane, 3-methyl-tridecane, and cyclopentadecane were found only in males. The possible function of volatile compounds of MTG contents in T. papillosa is addressed. PMID:23950062

  12. Bacteriocyte-associated gammaproteobacterial symbionts of the Adelges nordmannianae/piceae complex (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    PubMed

    Toenshoff, Elena R; Penz, Thomas; Narzt, Thomas; Collingro, Astrid; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Pfeiffer, Stefan; Klepal, Waltraud; Wagner, Michael; Weinmaier, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Horn, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Adelgids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Adelgidae) are known as severe pests of various conifers in North America, Canada, Europe and Asia. Here, we present the first molecular identification of bacteriocyte-associated symbionts in these plant sap-sucking insects. Three geographically distant populations of members of the Adelges nordmannianae/piceae complex, identified based on coI and ef1alpha gene sequences, were investigated. Electron and light microscopy revealed two morphologically different endosymbionts, coccoid or polymorphic, which are located in distinct bacteriocytes. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences assigned both symbionts to novel lineages within the Gammaproteobacteria sharing <92% 16S rRNA sequence similarity with each other and showing no close relationship with known symbionts of insects. Their identity and intracellular location were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the names 'Candidatus Steffania adelgidicola' and 'Candidatus Ecksteinia adelgidicola' are proposed for tentative classification. Both symbionts were present in all individuals of all investigated populations and in different adelgid life stages including eggs, suggesting vertical transmission from mother to offspring. An 85 kb genome fragment of 'Candidatus S. adelgidicola' was reconstructed based on a metagenomic library created from purified symbionts. Genomic features including the frequency of pseudogenes, the average length of intergenic regions and the presence of several genes which are absent in other long-term obligate symbionts, suggested that 'Candidatus S. adelgidicola' is an evolutionarily young bacteriocyte-associated symbiont, which has been acquired after diversification of adelgids from their aphid sister group. PMID:21833037

  13. Relationship of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to soybean plant nutrients, landscape structure, and natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Noma, Takuji; Gratton, Claudio; Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Brewer, Michael J; Mueller, Emily E; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Heimpel, George E; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2010-02-01

    In the north central United States, populations of the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are highly variable across space, complicating effective aphid management. In this study we examined relationships of plant nutrients, landscape structure, and natural enemies with soybean aphid abundance across Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, representing the range of conditions where soybean aphid outbreaks have occurred since its introduction. We sampled soybean aphid and its natural enemies, quantified vegetation land cover and measured soybean nutrients (potassium [K] and nitrogen [N]) in 26 soybean sites in 2005 and 2006. Multiple regression models found that aphid abundance was negatively associated with leaf K content in 2005, whereas it was negatively associated with habitat diversity (Simpson's index) and positively associated with leaf N content in 2006. These variables accounted for 25 and 27% of aphid variability in 2005 and 2006, respectively, suggesting that other sources of variability are also important. In addition, K content of soybean plants decreased with increasing prevalence of corn-soybean cropland in 2005, suggesting that landscapes that have a high intensification of agriculture (as indexed by increasing corn and soybean) are more likely to have higher aphid numbers. Soybean aphid natural enemies, 26 species of predators and parasitoids, was positively related to aphid abundance; however, enemy-to-aphid abundance ratios were inversely related to aphid density, suggesting that soybean aphids are able to escape control by resident natural enemies. Overall, soybean aphid abundance was most associated with soybean leaf chemistry and landscape heterogeneity. Agronomic options that can ameliorate K deficiency and maintaining heterogeneity in the landscape may reduce aphid risk.

  14. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  15. Bacteriocyte-associated gammaproteobacterial symbionts of the Adelges nordmannianae/piceae complex (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    PubMed Central

    Toenshoff, Elena R; Penz, Thomas; Narzt, Thomas; Collingro, Astrid; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Pfeiffer, Stefan; Klepal, Waltraud; Wagner, Michael; Weinmaier, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Horn, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Adelgids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Adelgidae) are known as severe pests of various conifers in North America, Canada, Europe and Asia. Here, we present the first molecular identification of bacteriocyte-associated symbionts in these plant sap-sucking insects. Three geographically distant populations of members of the Adelges nordmannianae/piceae complex, identified based on coI and ef1alpha gene sequences, were investigated. Electron and light microscopy revealed two morphologically different endosymbionts, coccoid or polymorphic, which are located in distinct bacteriocytes. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences assigned both symbionts to novel lineages within the Gammaproteobacteria sharing <92% 16S rRNA sequence similarity with each other and showing no close relationship with known symbionts of insects. Their identity and intracellular location were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the names ‘Candidatus Steffania adelgidicola' and ‘Candidatus Ecksteinia adelgidicola' are proposed for tentative classification. Both symbionts were present in all individuals of all investigated populations and in different adelgid life stages including eggs, suggesting vertical transmission from mother to offspring. An 85 kb genome fragment of ‘Candidatus S. adelgidicola' was reconstructed based on a metagenomic library created from purified symbionts. Genomic features including the frequency of pseudogenes, the average length of intergenic regions and the presence of several genes which are absent in other long-term obligate symbionts, suggested that ‘Candidatus S. adelgidicola' is an evolutionarily young bacteriocyte-associated symbiont, which has been acquired after diversification of adelgids from their aphid sister group. PMID:21833037

  16. Sequencing and Characterization of the Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengqi; Wang, Ran; Qu, Cheng; Fu, Ningning; Luo, Chen; Xu, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries. These unigenes were annotated and classified by Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), Pfam (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Ortholog database). After all pairwise comparisons between these three different samples, a large number of differentially expressed genes were revealed. The dramatic differences in global gene expression profiles were found between distinct life stages (nymphs and AF, nymphs and AM) and sex difference (AF and AM), with some of the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) being related to metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex difference. The different express of unigenes were validated through quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for 16 randomly selected unigenes. In addition, 17,462 potential simple sequence repeat molecular markers were identified in these transcriptome resources. These comprehensive C. ciliata transcriptomic information can be utilized to promote the development of environmentally friendly methodologies to disrupt the processes of metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex differences.

  17. Categorizing sugarcane cultivar resistance to the sugarcane aphid and yellow sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Akbar, W; Showler, A T; Reagan, T E; White, W H

    2010-08-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a casual agent of yellow leaf disease whose absence has been added to certification standards for micropropagated sugarcane in Louisiana. Greenhouse studies were conducted to categorize dominant commercial sugarcane cultivars for their ability to tolerate aphid injury and to express antixenotic or antibiotic effects on both aphid species. Antixenosis tests showed no preference among cultivars by either aphid species. Loss of chlorophyll content in tolerance tests also did not show differences among cultivars for both aphid species. However, antibiosis tests revealed that life history parameters such as the duration of the reproductive period and fecundity of both aphid species were negatively affected on 'HoCP 91-555' compared with 'L 97-128'. Estimation of demographic statistics indicated that both aphid species exhibited a significantly lower intrinsic rate of increase (1.8-2.8-fold) and longer doubling time (1.7-3.1-fold) on HoCP 91-555 relative to L 97-128. From these tests, cultivars in the current study can be ranked from most to the least susceptible as L 97-128 > 'LCP 85-384' > 'HoCP 96-540' > 'Ho 95-988' > HoCP 91-555 for M. sacchari and L 97-128 > LCP 85-384 > HoCP 91-555 for S. flava. Therefore, antibiosis is an important category of resistance in sugarcane to both aphid species, and HoCP 91-555 might provide useful germplasm for developing aphid resistant cultivars. PMID:20857758

  18. Regulated deficit irrigation and density of Erythroneura spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on grape.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    This study looked at regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on leafhoppers in the genus Erythroneura (Erythroneura elegantula Osborn, or western grape leafhopper, and Erythroneura variabilis Beamer) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which are serious pests of cultivated grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in California. RDI is an irrigation strategy that reduces irrigation during a critical point in the phenology of a cultivated perennial crop, to improve vegetative balance and crop quality. Erythroneura spp. are known to respond negatively to vine water stress, and the second generation ofleafhoppers begins during a potential RDI initiation period, between berry set and veraison (beginning of fruit maturation). In experiments at commercial wine grape vineyards, I imposed deficits of between 25 and 50% of crop full evapotranspiration (ET(c)) between berry set and veraison, with control treatments based on the growers' standard irrigations (typically between 0.8 and 1.0 ET(c)), and then we counted leafhopper nymphs weekly, and leafhopper eggs after the second generation. Results show a consistent reduction of second generation nymphal density with this type of RDI, with average density approximately 50% lower under deficit treatments in all three studies. Deficit irrigation reduced second generation egg density by 54% at one site and by 29.9% at another. These results confirm previous studies regarding the sensitivity of Erythroneura spp. to grapevine water stress, and, in addition, they show that a season-wide irrigation deficit is not necessary for reduction in leafhopper density. Results suggest that lower oviposition at least partly explains the lower nymphal density in the deficit treatments. PMID:18767738

  19. Temperature thresholds and thermal requirements for development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Diaz, Beatriz Maria; Muñiz, Mariano; Barrios, Laura; Fereres, Alberto

    2007-08-01

    Early detection of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce is of primary importance for its effective control. Temperature thresholds for development of this pest were estimated using developmental rates [r(T)] at different constant temperatures (8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 26, and 28 degrees C). Observed developmental rates data and temperature were fitted to two linear (Campbell and Muñiz and Gil) and a nonlinear (Lactin) models. Lower temperature threshold estimated by the Campbell model was 3.6 degrees C for apterous, 4.1 degrees C for alates, and 3.1 degrees C for both aphid adult morphs together. Similar values of the lower temperature threshold were obtained with the Muñiz and Gil model, for apterous (4.0 degrees C), alates (4.2 degrees C), and both adult morphs together (3.7 degrees C) of N. ribisnigri. Thermal requirements of N. ribisnigri to complete development were estimated by Campbell and Muñiz and Gil models for apterous in 125 and 129 DD and for both adult morphs together in 143 and 139 DD, respectively. For complete development from birth to adulthood, the alate morph needed 15-18 DD more than the apterous morph. The lower temperature threshold determined by the Lactin model was 5.3 degrees C for alates, 2.3 degrees C for apterous, and 1.9 degrees C for both adult morphs together. The optimal and upper temperature thresholds were 25.2 and 33.6 degrees C, respectively, for the alate morph, 27 and 35.9 degrees C, respectively, for the apterous morph, and 26.1 and 35.3 degrees C, respectively, for the two adult morphs together. The Campbell model provided the best fit to the observed developmental rates data of N. ribisnigri. This information could be incorporated in forecasting models of this pest. PMID:17716458

  20. Sampling strategies for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott; Villanueva, Raul T

    2012-06-01

    Sampling methods for square and boll-feeding plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) occurring on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., were compared with the intent to assess if one approach was viable for two species occurring from early-season squaring to late bloom in 25 fields located along the coastal cotton growing region of south Texas. Cotton fleaphopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), damages squares early-season and dominated collections using five sampling methods (approximately 99% of insects collected). A major species composition shift occurred beginning at peak bloom in coastal fields, when verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, represented 55-65% of collections. Significantly more cotton fleahoppers were captured by experienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than with the other methods (30-100% more). There were more than twice as many verde plant bugs captured by experienced and inexperienced samplers with the beat bucket and sweep net than captured with the KISS and visual methods. Using a beat bucket or sweep net reduced sampling time compared with the visual method for the experienced samplers. For both species, comparing regressions of beat bucket-based counts to counts from the traditional visual method across nine cultivar and water regime combinations resulted in only one combination differing from the rest, suggesting broad applicability and ability to translate established visual-based economic thresholds to beat bucket-based thresholds. In a first look at sample size considerations, 40 plants (four 10-plant samples) per field site was no more variable than variation associated with larger sample sizes. Overall, the beat bucket is much more effective in sampling for cotton fleahopper and verde plant bug than the traditional visual method, it is more suited to cotton fleahopper sampling early-season when plants are small, it transitions well to sample for verde plant bug during bloom, and it performs well under a variety of soil