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Sample records for hemostatic marker levels

  1. Hemostatic markers and platelet aggregation factors as predictive markers for type of stroke and neurological disability following cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Tombul, Temel; Atbas, Cigdem; Anlar, Omer

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the plasma levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, beta-thromboglobulin (BTG) and platelet factor-4 (PF-4), indices of the occurrence of platelet activation in vivo, to find out their role in pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and whether or not such a role has any effect on the disability and the prognosis of stroke patients. A total of 76 patients with AIS aged from 26 to 85 (32 men, 44 women) and 30 cases as controls with similar age (18 men, 12 women) were included in the study. The plasma levels of D-dimer, BTG and PF-4 were measured by ELISA method using a special commercial kit. The cases were allocated into two groups as non-embolic (NEI) and cardioembolic stroke (CEI). The D-dimer levels in 76% of 42 patients in NEI group (p<0.05) and 85.2% of 34 patients in CEI group (p<0.05) were outside the confidence interval (CI) defined for the control group. The levels of BTG were elevated in 81% of 42 cases with NEI (p<0.05) and in 76% of 34 cases with CEI, with reference to CI of control group. The levels of PF-4 were significantly increased in 86% of cases with NEI (p<0.05) and in 88% of cases with CEI than controls (p<0.05). It was observed that the cases with high Rankin scores had higher levels of D-dimer (p<0.005), BTG (p<0.01) and PF-4 (p<0.01) than those with lower scores. There was a correlation between hemostatic markers, platelet activation and functional disability. D-dimer levels were an important marker that determined to degree of the activation of hemostatic system, especially in CEI subtype. The platelet aggregation had an important role in pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and this condition is significant in NEI subgroup and subjects with large infarcts and high disability scores.

  2. Ovariectomy differential influence on some hemostatic markers of mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    Lemini, Cristina; Jaimez, Ruth; Figueroa, Alejandra; Martinez-Mota, Lucía; Avila, María Estela; Medina, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Rodent ovariectomy is an experimental method to eliminate the main source of sexual steroids. This work explored for the first time the ovariectomy temporal changes induced in the hemostatic coagulation markers: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen concentration (FIB) along with uterine weight on adult female CD1 mice and Wistar rats. Uterine weight (Uw) was assessed before ovariectomy (control), and 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 16, and 21 days after surgery. PT, aPTT, TT and FIB were estimated the same days, using reported standard techniques. Ovariectomy decreased Uw, since day 1; and from day 10 to 21 reached the lowest values for both species. After day 1, mice hemostatic parameters changed (PT +10%, P<0.05; aPTT +53%, P<0.05; TT −24%, P<0.05; FIB +67%, P<0.05). Rats showed significant changes only in TT and FIB (TT −13%, P<0.001; FIB +65%, P<0.001). Neither mice PT, aPTT and TT, recovered control values after 21 days. In the rats from day 5 to 16 aPTT diminished (18–23%, P<0.05) recovering to control values on day 21, TT after 9 days and PT on day 16. In both species, FIB returned to its control values after 9 days. Ovariectomy differentially altered the PT hemostatic parameter of mice and rats indicating a non-equivalence among both species behaviour for experimental studies of blood coagulation. PMID:25312504

  3. Multiple Levels of Degradation Diminish Hemostatic Potential of Thawed Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Matijevic, Nena; Kostousov, Vadim; Wang, Yao-Wei W.; Wade, Charles E.; Wang, Weiwei; Letourneau, Phillip; Hartwell, Elizabeth; Kozar, Rosemary; Ko, Tien; Holcomb, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe bleeding after injury requires transfusion of blood products, including fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Many centers are keeping thawed plasma (TP) ready for massively transfused patients. According to the American Association of Blood Banks Standards, TP is approved for transfusion up to 5 days after thawing, when stored at 1°C to 6°C. However, there are no clinical data analyzing the effects of the approved 5-day storage on plasma. We hypothesize that the hemostatic potential (HP) of freshly thawed (FFP-0) was superior to plasma stored for 5 days (FFP-5). Methods FFP from 30 single donors were thawed at 37°C and kept at 1°C to 6°C for 5 days. HP was evaluated at day 0 and 5 by measuring kinetics of thrombin generation (TG), kinetics of clot formation by thromboelastography, clotting factors and inhibitors, and cell-derived microparticles (MPs) by flow cytometry. Results When comparing FFP-5 to FFP-0, FFP-5 exhibited only 40% of the potential of FFP-0 for TG (6.2 nM/min vs. 14.3 nM/min, p < 0.0001), a slower clotting response via thromboelastography (reaction time: 4.3 minutes vs. 3.2 minutes, p < 0.0001) and a longer delay in reaching maximum thrombus generation (5.7 minutes vs. 4.6 minutes, p < 0.01). Diminished HP was accompanied by a significant decline in multiple coagulation proteins, including FV, VII, VIII, von Willebrand factor, and free Protein S, by up to 30%, and a decrease of 50% in MP counts. Conclusion The HP and clot forming ability of TP significantly declined with storage. Hence, freshly TP may have a greater ability to restore hemostasis and correct coagulopathy compared with FFP-5. The clinical consequences for transfused patients deserve further exploration. PMID:21217484

  4. Long- and Short-Term Exposure To Air Pollution and Inflammatory/Hemostatic Markers in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Green, Rochelle; Broadwin, Rachel; Malig, Brian; Basu, Rupa; Gold, Ellen B.; Qi, Lihong; Sternfeld, Barbara; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Greendale, Gail A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Tomey, Kristin; Matthews, Karen; Derby, Carol; Jackson, Elizabeth A.; Green, Robin; Ostro, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have reported associations between long-term air pollution exposures and cardiovascular mortality. The biological mechanisms connecting them remain uncertain. Methods We examined associations of fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone with serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk in a cohort of midlife women. We obtained information from women enrolled at six sites in the multi-ethnic, longitudinal Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, including repeated measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen (tPA-ag), plasminogen activator inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1), and Factor VIIc (Factor VII coagulant activity). We obtained residence-proximate PM2.5 and ozone monitoring data for a maximum five annual visits, calculating prior year, six-month, one-month, and one-day exposures and their relations to serum markers using longitudinal mixed models. Results For the 2,086 women studied from 1999 through 2004, PM2.5 exposures were associated with all blood markers except Factor VIIc after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, site, body mass index, smoking, and recent alcohol use. Adjusted associations were of the strongest for prior year exposures for hs-CRP (21% increase per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5, 95% CI: 6.6, 37), tPA-ag (8.6%, 95% CI: 1.8, 16), and PAI-1 (35%, 95% CI: 19, 53). An association was also observed between year prior ozone exposure and Factor VIIc (5.7% increase per 10 ppb ozone, 95% CI: 2.9, 8.5). Conclusions Our findings suggest that prior year exposures to PM2.5 and ozone are associated with adverse effects on inflammatory and hemostatic pathways for cardiovascular outcomes in midlife women. PMID:26600256

  5. Alteration of Hemostatic Parameters in Patients with Different Levels of Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Effect of L-thyroxine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Wang, Guangya; Xu, Jinxiu

    2017-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of L-thyroxine (L-T4) treatment and to evaluate changes in the hemostatic abnormalities of patients with varying severities of SH. We measured tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), D-dimer (DDI), fibrinogen (FIB), platelet counts (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT) in 149 female subjects. The prospective study included 54 patients in the control group, 53 patients with 4.2 μIU/mLlevels. There were significant differences in the triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and serum uric acid (UA) levels, and in the MPV, PDW, APTT, FIB, PAI-1, t-PA, and DDI (P<0.05) measurements among three groups. These data were further tested using the least significant difference method for multiple comparisons. Patients in the severe SH group showed higher FIB, PAI-1 and t-PA levels, lower DDI levels and shorter APTT compared with the control group, whereas the hemostatic parameters in the mild SH patients were not different compared with those of the control group. After 6 months of L-T4 treatment, a significant decrease in FIB, PAI-1 and t-PA levels and an increase in APTT and DDI were observed in the severe SH group. In conclusion, SH patients displayed a distinct pattern of alteration of hemostatic parameters that was dependent on the severity of the disease. Patients with TSH levels ≥10 μIU/mL displayed hypercoagulability, which was reversed by 6 months of L-T4 treatment.

  6. Statin Therapy and Levels of Hemostatic Factors in a Healthy Population: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Nathan B.; Lutsey, Pamela L; Folsom, Aaron R; Herrington, David H; Sibley, Christopher T; Zakai, Neil A; Ades, Steven; Burke, Gregory L; Cushman, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) reduce risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in healthy people. Statins reduce levels of inflammation biomarkers, however the mechanism for reduction in VTE risk is unknown. In a large cohort of healthy people, we studied associations of statin use with plasma hemostatic factors related to VTE risk. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort study of 6814 healthy men and women age 45–84, free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline; 1001 were using statins at baseline. Twenty-three warfarin users were excluded. Age, race, and sex-adjusted mean hemostatic factor levels were compared between statin users and nonusers, and multivariable linear regression models were used to assess associations of statin use with hemostasis factors, adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, hormone replacement therapy (in women), and major cardiovascular risk factors. Results Participants using statins had lower adjusted levels of D-dimer (−9%), C-reactive protein (−21%) and factor VIII (−3%) than non-users (p<0.05). Homocysteine and von Willebrand factor were non-significantly lower with statin use. Higher fibrinogen (2%) and PAI-1 (22%) levels were observed among statin users than nonusers (p<0.05). Further adjustment for LDL and triglyceride levels did not attenuate the observed differences in these factors by statin use. Conclusions Findings of lower D-dimer, factor VIII and C-reactive protein levels with statin use suggest hypotheses for mechanisms whereby statins might lower VTE risk. A prospective study or clinical trial linking these biochemical differences to VTE outcomes in statin users and nonusers is warranted. PMID:23565981

  7. Ultrastructural analyses of the novel chimeric hemostatic agent generated via nanotechnology, ABS nanohemostat, at the renal tissue level.

    PubMed

    Huri, Emre; Dogantekin, Engin; Hayran, Murvet; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Ergun, Mine; Firat, Aysegul; Beyazit, Yavuz; Ustun, Huseyin; Kekilli, Murat; Dadali, Mumtaz; Astarci, Muzeyyen; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C

    2016-01-01

    Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), a hemostatic agent of plant origin, has been registered for the prevention of clinical hemorrhages. Currently there is no data regarding the ultrastructural analysis of ABS at the tissue level. The aim of this study is to assess renal tissue effects via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses for the ABS and ABS nanohemostat (formed by the combination of self-assembling peptide amphiphile molecules and ABS). SEM experiments were performed with FEI Nova NanoSEM 230, using the ETD detector at low vacuum mode with 30 keV beam energy. SEM analyses revealed that significant erythroid aggregation are present inside the capillary bed of the renal tissue. However, neither the signs of necrosis nor any other sign of tissue damage are evident in the surrounding renal tissue supplied by the microcapillary vasculature. Our study is important for several reasons. Firstly, in our study we used ABS nanohemostat which was recently developed. This study adds valuable information to the literature regarding ABS nanohemostat. Secondly, this study is the first ultrastructural analysis of ABS that was performed at the tissue level. Thirdly, we disclosed that ABS nanohemostat could induce vital erythroid aggregation at the renal tissue level as detected by SEM. Lastly, we detected that ABS nanohemostat causes no harm to the tissues including necrosis and any other detrimental effects.

  8. Absorbable Antimicrobial Battlefield Hemostat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    hemostatic products are a critical and invaluable tool that will result in saved lives. However, the major drawback of the current hemostatic products is...roll dip coating process, developed for 5 Nanosys non -resorbable nanofiber hemostat, to be effective for the resorbable constructs. Because of its...density of 0.5mg nanofibers per square centimeter of dressing. This is based upon prior work carried out using our product (ATD no defined) that

  9. Hemostatic issues in pregnancy-induced liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lisman, Ton; Bernal, William

    2017-03-01

    Liver diseases may be accompanied by profound changes in the hemostatic system including thrombocytopenia, decreased plasma levels of pro- and anticoagulants, and alterations in plasma levels of fibrinolysis. The net effect of the hemostatic changes in chronic and acute liver diseases is a hemostatic system that is in relative balance due to the simultaneous decline in pro- and antihemostatic drivers. A unique category of liver diseases are those induced by pregnancy. In acute fatty liver of pregnancy, profound hemostatic changes occur, which may be caused by a combination of liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hemostatic changes in preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome are dominated by thrombocytopenia, although alterations in plasmatic coagulation may also occur. Post-partum bleeds, bleeding from cesarean section wounds, and hepatobiliary bleeds may occur in both patient groups. Patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy do not show clinically relevant hemostatic alterations, despite biochemical evidence of liver injury.

  10. Topical hemostatic agents in surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Emilia, Masci; Luca, Santoleri; Francesca, Belloni; Luca, Bottero; Paolo, Stefanini; Giuseppe, Faillace; Gianbattista, Bertani; Carmela, Montinaro; Luigi, Mancini; Mauro, Longoni

    2011-12-01

    Hemostasis is of critical importance in achieving a positive outcome in any surgical intervention. Different hemostatic methods can be employed and topical hemostatic agents are used in a wide variety of surgical settings. Procoagulation agents have different hemostatic properties and the choice of a specific one is determined by the type of surgical procedure and bleeding. Hemostatic treatments include fibrin sealants, microfibrillar collagen, gelatin hemostatic agents, oxidized regenerated cellulose and cyanoacrylates adhesives. Surgeons should be familiar with topical hemostatics to ensure an appropriate use. Our purpose is to illustrate the currently available agents, their mechanism of action and their effective applications, in order to ensure an optimal use in operating room.

  11. Topical hemostatic agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Palm, Melanie D; Altman, Jeffrey S

    2008-04-01

    Topical hemostatic agents play an important role in both common and specialized dermatologic procedures. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and include physical or mechanical agents, caustic agents, biologic physical agents, and physiologic agents. Some agents induce protein coagulation and precipitation resulting in occlusion of small cutaneous vessels, while others take advantage of latter stages in the coagulation cascade, activating biologic responses to bleeding. Traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents are discussed in this review, and the benefits and costs of each agent will be provided.

  12. Hemostatic Parameters according to Renal Function and Time after Transplantation in Brazilian Renal Transplanted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Ana Paula Lucas; Alpoim, Patrícia Nessralla; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Braga Gomes, Karina; Dusse, Luci Maria SantAna

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the key for patients with end-stage renal disease, improving quality of life and longer survival. However, kidney transplant triggers an intense inflammatory response and alters the hemostatic system, but the pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are not completely understood. The aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to investigate hemostatic biomarkers in Brazilian renal transplanted patients according to renal function and time after transplantation. A total of 159 renal transplanted patients were enrolled and D-Dimer (D-Di), Thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand Factor (VWF), and ADAMTS13 plasma levels were assessed by ELISA. An increase of D-Di was observed in patients with higher levels of creatinine. ADAMTS13 levels were associated with creatinine plasma levels and D-Di levels with Glomerular Filtration Rate. These results suggested that D-Di and ADAMTS13 can be promising markers to estimate renal function. ADAMTS13 should be investigated throughout the posttransplant time to clarify the participation of this enzyme in glomerular filtration and acceptance or rejection of the graft in Brazilian transplanted patients. PMID:26229221

  13. Silica Nanofiber Combat Hemostat (SINCH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-13

    materials tested include the following: cotton gauze, various SiNCH formats, zeolite (QuikClot), forms of oxidized cellulose (Surgicel...SiNCH1 but are fully absorbable. 2. Development alternate form factors for the delivery of SiNCH. These could be in the form of a powder like ...SiNCH1 or a more conformable solid scaffold that would allow application to various battlefield injuries. 3. Further demonstration the hemostatic

  14. Topical hemostatic agents for dermatologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Larson, P O

    1988-06-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are very helpful in attaining capillary and small vessel hemostasis in dermatologic surgery. The commonly used topical hemostatic agents, including oxidized cellulose, absorbable gelatin, and thrombin are reviewed, along with newer agents such as microfibrillar collagen, fibrin sealants, and acrylates. Agents best suited for certain situations are recommended.

  15. Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy using hemostatic gelatin matrix.

    PubMed

    Borin, James F; Sala, Leandro G; Eichel, Louis; McDougall, Elspeth M; Clayman, Ralph V

    2005-01-01

    We describe using hemostatic gelatin matrix (FloSeal; Baxter Inc., Irvine, CA) to provide hemostasis of the tract after percutaneous nephrolithotomy, thereby obviating a nephrostomy tube. For patients who are rendered stone free, a 7F, 11.5-mm occlusion balloon catheter, passed retrograde, is used to occlude the collecting system at the level of entry of the 30F Amplatz sheath. FloSeal is then injected through the partially retracted Amplatz sheath while withdrawing the applicator and the sheath in tandem. The guidewire is withdrawn per urethra until its tip resides in the renal pelvis. A 36-cm, 7F tail stent is passed retrograde, and the skin is closed with cyanoacrylate adhesive (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). A Foley catheter is placed, to be removed the next morning; the patient can be discharged on postoperative day 1. The ureteral stent is removed in 5 to 7 days as an outpatient procedure.

  16. Topical hemostatic agents in otolaryngologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Acar, Baran; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Karabulut, Hayriye

    2010-01-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are largely used to reduce blood loss during otolaryngologic surgery. These agents play an important role in both keeping the patient's hemodynamic equilibrium and allowing for a better view of the surgical field. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, and include physical or mechanical agents. Most complications of topical hemostatic agents are sustained because of the antigenic reaction of those products. This paper reviews traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents with regard to their chemical properties, their mechanisms of action, and the benefits and complications of topical agents.

  17. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D.

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  18. Topical hemostatic agents in gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Duenas-Garcia, Omar Felipe; Goldberg, Jeffrey M

    2008-06-01

    Biosurgical compounds and pharmacologic agents can serve as surgical adjuncts to prevent or curtail intraoperative bleeding. Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane electronic data bases were used to search the English literature from 1966 to March 2007 using the terms topical, hemostatic agents, and gynecologic surgery. Several effective topical hemostatic agents are available to reduce intraoperative blood loss. Data on their application in gynecologic surgery are limited, and guidelines for selecting one over another for specific indications are lacking.

  19. Biosurgical Hemostatic Agents in Neurosurgical Intracranial Procedures.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Callovini, Giorgio; Alfieri, Alex

    2017-02-07

    Intraoperative hemostasis during neurosurgical procedures is one of the most important aspects of intracranial surgery. Hemostasis is mandatory to keep a clean operative field and to prevent blood loss and postoperative hemorrhage. In neurosurgical practice, biosurgical hemostatic agents have proved to be extremely useful to complete the more classic use of electrocoagulation. During recent years, many biosurgical topical hemostatic agents were created. Although routinely used during neurosurgical procedures, there is still a great deal of confusion concerning optimal use of these products, because of the wide range of products, as absorbable topical agents, antifibrinolytics agents, fibrin sealants and hemostatic matrix, which perform their hemostatic action in different ways. The choice of the hemostatic agent and the strategy for local hemostasis are correlated with the neurosurgical approach, the source of bleeding, and the neurosurgeon's practice. In this study, the authors review all the different sources of bleeding during intracranial surgical approaches and analyze how to best choose the right topical hemostatic agent to stop bleeding, from the beginning of the surgical approach to the end of the extradural hemostasis after dural closure, along all the steps of the neurosurgical procedure.

  20. Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  1. Synthetic Strategies for Engineering Intravenous Hemostats

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Leslie W.-G.; White, Nathan J.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2015-01-01

    While there are currently many well-established topical hemostatic agents for field administration, there are still limited tools to staunch bleeding at less accessible injury sites. Current clinical methods of restoring hemostasis after large volume blood loss include platelet and clotting factor transfusion, which have respective drawbacks of short shelf-life and risk of viral transmission. Therefore, synthetic hemostatic agents that can be delivered intravenously and encourage stable clot formation after localizing to sites of vascular injury are particularly appealing. In the past three decades, platelet substitutes have been prepared using drug delivery vehicles such as liposomes and PLGA nanoparticles that have been modified to mimic platelet properties. Additionally, structural considerations such as particle size, shape, and flexibility have been addressed in a number of reports. Since platelets are the first responders after vascular injury, platelet substitutes represent an important class of intravenous hemostats under development. More recently, materials affecting fibrin formation have been introduced to induce faster or more stable blood clot formation through fibrin crosslinking. Fibrin represents a major structural component in the final blood clot, and a fibrin-based hemostatic mechanism acting downstream of initial platelet plug formation may be a safer alternative to platelets to avoid undesired thrombotic activity. This review explores intravenous hemostats under development and strategies to optimize their clotting activity. PMID:25803791

  2. Synthetic Strategies for Engineering Intravenous Hemostats.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leslie W; White, Nathan J; Pun, Suzie H

    2015-07-15

    While there are currently many well-established topical hemostatic agents for field administration, there are still limited tools to staunch bleeding at less accessible injury sites. Current clinical methods to restore hemostasis after large volume blood loss include platelet and clotting factor transfusion, which have respective drawbacks of short shelf life and risk of viral transmission. Therefore, synthetic hemostatic agents that can be delivered intravenously and encourage stable clot formation after localizing to sites of vascular injury are particularly appealing. In the past three decades, platelet substitutes have been prepared using drug delivery vehicles such as liposomes and PLGA nanoparticles that have been modified to mimic platelet properties. Additionally, structural considerations such as particle size, shape, and flexibility have been addressed in a number of reports. Since platelets are the first responders after vascular injury, platelet substitutes represent an important class of intravenous hemostats under development. More recently, materials affecting fibrin formation have been introduced to induce faster or more stable blood clot formation through fibrin cross-linking. Fibrin represents a major structural component in the final blood clot, and a fibrin-based hemostatic mechanism acting downstream of initial platelet plug formation may be a safer alternative to platelets to avoid undesired thrombotic activity. This Review explores intravenous hemostats under development and strategies to optimize their clotting activity.

  3. Marker-trait association analysis of functional gene markers for provitamin A levels across diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofortification of staple crops is a cost effective and sustainable approach that can help combat vitamin A and other micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. PCR -based DNA markers distinguishing alleles of three key genes of maize endosperm carotenoid biosynthesis (PSY1, lcyE and crtRB1) have been developed to facilitate maize provitamin A biofortification via marker assisted selection. Previous studies of these functional DNA markers revealed inconsistent effects. The germplasm previously employed for discovering and validating these functional markers was mainly of temperate origin containing low frequencies of the favourable allele of the most significant polymorphism, crtRB1-5′TE. Here, we investigate the vitamin A biofortification potential of these DNA markers in a germplasm panel of diverse tropical yellow maize inbred lines, with mixed genetic backgrounds of temperate and tropical germplasm to identify the most effective diagnostic markers for vitamin A biofortification. Results The functional DNA markers crtRB1-5′TE and crtRB1-3′TE were consistently and strongly associated with provitamin A content across the tropical maize inbred lines tested. The alleles detected by these two functional markers were in high linkage disequilibrium (R2 = 0.75) and occurred in relatively high frequency (18%). Genotypes combining the favourable alleles at the two loci (N = 20) displayed a 3.22 fold average increase in β-carotene content compared to those genotypes lacking the favourable alleles (N = 106). The PSY1 markers were monomorphic across all of the inbred lines. The functional DNA markers for lcyE were associated with lutein, and with the ratio of carotenoids in the alpha and beta branches, but not with provitamin A levels. However, the combined effects of the two genes were stronger than their individual effects on all carotenoids. Conclusions Tropical maize inbred lines harbouring the favourable alleles of the crtRB1-5

  4. Changes in plasma C-reactive protein and hemostatic factors prior to and after a first myocardial infarction with a median follow-up time of 8 years.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen, Anna M; Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Weinehall, Lars; Boman, Kurt; Eliasson, Mats; Hallmans, Göran; Jansson, Jan-Håkan

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a first myocardial infarction leads to increased plasma levels of hemostatic factors and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and whether the association between theses biomarkers and myocardial infarction was greater at follow-up compared with baseline. Of more than 36,000 persons screened in northern Sweden, 78 developed a first myocardial infarction (on average 18 months after sampling) in a population-based, prospective, nested patient-referent study. Fifty of these had participated in a follow-up health survey (on average 8 and a half years between surveys) and were sex-matched and age-matched with 56 referents. The mean increases in hs-CRP, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mass, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mass, and tPA/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex concentration and von Willebrand factor among patients and referents were comparable during follow-up. Conditional logistic regression indicated that hs-CRP was not significantly associated with first myocardial infarction in a univariate analysis, whereas high plasma levels of tPA and creatinine were significantly associated with outcome at baseline and follow-up. tPA/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex was not superior to tPA as a risk marker in this study. A first myocardial infarction did not in this study induce significantly different changes in plasma levels of hs-CRP and hemostatic factors among patients compared with referents during follow-up.

  5. Arterial ammonia levels: Prognostic marker in traumatic hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Anurag; Kaur, Satinder; Kaur, Navjot; Gill, CS

    2016-01-01

    Background: In blunt trauma, extent of hemorrhage cannot be determined by physical examination, and vital signs may also not give clear picture in all the patients, especially young healthy ones. Hemorrhagic shock has been reported to increase blood ammonia levels. Arterial ammonia was analyzed in blunt trauma abdomen patients and correlated with shock index (SI). Its predictive value was determined for timely decision of intervention. Materials and Methods: Hundred blunt trauma abdomen patients presented in the emergency ward of tertiary care hospital were included in the study. Group I comprised 62 patients requiring either blood transfusion ≥2 units and/or intervention to control bleeding within 24 h following admission. Group II had 38 patients: Not requiring transfusion/intervention during hospital stay. Arterial blood sample was taken immediately after admission; ammonia was analyzed within 20 min of sampling on Cobas 6000 (Roche). SI was calculated. Predictive value of ammonia was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Ammonia levels and SI were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in Group I compared to Group II patients (68.55 ± 14.36 umol/L vs. 37.55 ± 7.41 umol/L and 1.28 ± 0.5 vs. 0.74 ± 0.12, respectively). Significantly higher number of patients in Group I (88.7% vs. 13%) had SI > 0.9. Ammonia levels were significantly higher in patients with complications and in those expired. Conclusions: Ammonia levels were significantly higher in patients requiring blood transfusion/intervention in 24 h of admission. The best cutoff value to maximize sensitivity and specificity was ammonia >58.85 μmol/L. Ammonia estimation at admission can be clinically significant indicator of traumatic hemorrhage needing intervention. PMID:27857892

  6. Serum ALT levels as a surrogate marker for serum HBV DNA levels in HBeAg-negative pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sangfelt, Per; Von Sydow, Madeleine; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Weiland, Ola; Lindh, Gudrun; Fischler, Björn; Lindgren, Susanne; Reichard, Olle

    2004-01-01

    In Stockholm, Sweden, the majority of pregnant women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) negative. Newborns to HBeAg positive mothers receive vaccination and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg). Newborns to HBeAg negative mothers receive vaccine and HBIg only if the mothers have elevated ALT levels. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate ALT levels as a surrogate marker for HBV DNA levels in HBeAg negative carrier mothers. Altogether 8947 pregnant women were screened for HBV markers from 1999 to 2001 at the Virology Department, Karolinska Hospital. Among mothers screened 192 tested positive for HBsAg (2.2%). 13 of these samples could not be retrieved. Of the remaining 179 sera, 8 (4%) tested positive for HBeAg and 171 (95.5%) were HBeAg negative. Among the HBeAg negative mothers, 9 had HBV DNA levels > 10(5) copies/ml, and of these 7 had normal ALT levels indicating low sensitivity of an elevated ALT level as a surrogate marker for high HBV DNA level. Furthermore, no correlation was found between ALT and HBV DNA levels. Hence, it is concluded that the use of ALT as a surrogate marker for high viral replication in HBeAg negative mothers could be questioned.

  7. Topical hemostatic agents in surgery: a surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Samudrala, Srinath

    2008-09-01

    Good hemostasis in surgery can provide multiple advantages to the patient, surgical team, and health care facility. Active and passive hemostatic agents have been widely used for many years and have extensive history supporting effective and safe use in a wide variety of surgical procedures. The type of surgical procedure, type of bleeding, hemostatic agent availability, and patient characteristics will influence the choice of topical hemostatic agent that is used by the surgeon. By actively participating in the coagulation cascade, active topical hemostatic agents are more able to meet the criteria of an ideal hemostatic agent in cases of oozing blood and minor bleeding during surgical procedures. Active agents can be used alone or in combination with passive agents. Familiarity with the products used to achieve hemostasis and their preparation can facilitate optimal use by surgical teams.

  8. Using absorbable chitosan hemostatic sponges as a promising surgical dressing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofei; Sun, Yongfu; Nie, Jingyi; Lu, Wentao; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yin, Hongping; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2015-04-01

    As absorbable hemostatic dressings, chitosan with a deacetylation degree of 40% (CS-40) and 73% (CS-73) have been fabricated into sponges via a modified method. The hemostatic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties were evaluated through in vivo assays. In a hepatic hemorrhage model, the chitosan sponges, with excellent blood compatibility, achieved less blood loss than the gelation sponge (GS). In addition, CS-40 showed better hemostatic capability and biodegradability than CS-73. After implantation, a histological analysis indicated that CS-40 exhibited the best biodegradability, tissue regeneration and least tissue adhesion. By contrasting CS-40 and CS-73, the deacetylation degree is confirmed to be a key factor for the hemostatic effect, biodegradability, biocompatibility and tissue regeneration. Our overall results demonstrated the potential application of CS-40 for use in absorbable hemostatic dressings.

  9. Orthostatic Challenge Shifts the Hemostatic System of Patients Recovered from Stroke toward Hypercoagulability

    PubMed Central

    Cvirn, Gerhard; Kneihsl, Markus; Rossmann, Christine; Paar, Margret; Gattringer, Thomas; Schlagenhauf, Axel; Leschnik, Bettina; Koestenberger, Martin; Tafeit, Erwin; Reibnegger, Gilbert; Trozic, Irhad; Rössler, Andreas; Fazekas, Franz; Goswami, Nandu

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The objective of our study was to assess the effects of orthostatic challenge on the coagulation system in patients with a history of thromboembolic events and to assess how they compared with age-matched healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-two patients with histories of ischemic stroke and 22 healthy age-matched controls performed a sit-to-stand test. Blood was collected prior to- and at the end of- standing in the upright position for 6 min. Hemostatic profiling was performed by determining thrombelastometry and calibrated automated thrombogram values, indices of thrombin generation, standard coagulation times, markers of endothelial activation, plasma levels of coagulation factors and copeptin, and hematocrit. Results: Orthostatic challenge caused a significant endothelial and coagulation activation in patients (Group 1) and healthy controls (Group 2): Plasma levels of prothrombin fragment F1+2 were increased by approximately 35% and thrombin/antithrombin-complex (TAT) increased 5-fold. Several coagulation variables were significantly altered in Group 1 but not in Group 2: Coagulation times (CTs) were significantly shortened and alpha angles, peak rate of thrombin generation (VELINDEX), tissue factor (TF) and copeptin plasma levels were significantly increased (comparison between standing and baseline). Moreover, the shortening of CTs and the rise of copeptin plasma levels were significantly higher in Group 1 vs. Group 2 (comparison between groups). Conclusion: The coagulation system of patients with a history of ischemic stroke can be more easily shifted toward a hypercoagulable state than that of healthy controls. Attentive and long-term anticoagulant treatment is essential to keep patients from recurrence of vascular events. PMID:28223937

  10. Hemostatic efficacy evaluation of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan and chitosan with varying degrees of substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl derivatives of kappa-carrageenan and chitosan, with varying degrees of substitution, were synthesized by multi-step reaction technique and evaluated for hemostatic efficacy through in vitro assays. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl group while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated degrees of substitution ranging from 1.15-1.58 and 0.45-0.51 for carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan and carboxymethylchitosan, respectively. Derivatives formed into paste consistency (30% w/v) were successfully crosslinked by gamma irradiation at 30 kGy. The data obtained from whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays showed a significant increase in hemostatic capability of κ-carrageenan and chitosan as a consequence of carboxymethylation and crosslinking modifications. In addition, the level of efficacy was comparable to that of a chitosan-based commercial product. These results suggest the potential of κ-carrageenan and chitosan derivatives for development into hemostatic agents.

  11. An empirical review: Characteristics of plant microsatellite markers that confer higher levels of genetic variation1

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Benjamin J.; Culley, Theresa M.; Avanesyan, Alina; Stokes, Richard; Brzyski, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    During microsatellite marker development, researchers must choose from a pool of possible primer pairs to further test in their species of interest. In many cases, the goal is maximizing detectable levels of genetic variation. To guide researchers and determine which markers are associated with higher levels of genetic variation, we conducted a literature review based on 6782 genomic microsatellite markers published from 1997–2012. We examined relationships between heterozygosity (He or Ho) or allele number (A) with the following marker characteristics: repeat type, motif length, motif region, repeat frequency, and microsatellite size. Variation across taxonomic groups was also analyzed. There were significant differences between imperfect and perfect repeat types in A and He. Dinucleotide motifs exhibited significantly higher A, He, and Ho than most other motifs. Repeat frequency and motif region were positively correlated with A, He, and Ho, but correlations with microsatellite size were minimal. Higher taxonomic groups were disproportionately represented in the literature and showed little consistency. In conclusion, researchers should carefully consider marker characteristics so they can be tailored to the desired application. If researchers aim to target high genetic variation, dinucleotide motif lengths with large repeat frequencies may be best. PMID:26312192

  12. Hair shaft miRNA-221 levels as a new tumor marker of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Inada, Taisuke; Fukushima, Satoshi; Murai, Masayuki; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Miyashita, Azusa; Nakahara, Satoshi; Yamashita, Junji; Aoi, Jun; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2015-02-01

    miRNA-221 (miR-221) is known to be abnormally expressed in many human cancers. The serum levels of miR-221 have been reported as a tumor marker for malignant melanoma (MM). We hypothesized that the hair shaft miR-221 levels may be increased in patients with MM. We therefore assessed the possibility that hair shaft miR-221 levels could be a marker for MM. The hair shaft miR-221 levels were significantly higher in patients with MM than controls. The rates of increased hair shaft miR-221 levels above the cut-off value were comparable to those of serum 5-S-CD, which is a tumor marker commonly used for MM. Measurements of the hair shaft miR-221 levels could have potential clinical value in the detection of MM. This is the first report investigating the hair shaft levels of an miRNA in patients with MM. Our investigations offer new insight into the relationship between miR-221 and MM, and may provide a new, non-invasive way to screen for melanoma.

  13. Targeted Thromboelastographic (TEG) Blood Component and Pharmacologic Hemostatic Therapy in Traumatic and Acquired Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Mark; Fritz, Stephanie; Hake, Daniel; Son, Michael; Greve, Sarah; Jbara, Manar; Chitta, Swetha; Fritz, Braxton; Miller, Adam; Bader, Mary K; McCollester, Jonathon; Binz, Sophia; Liew-Spilger, Alyson; Thomas, Scott; Crepinsek, Anton; Shariff, Faisal; Ploplis, Victoria; Castellino, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a recently described condition which traditionally has been diagnosed by the common coagulation tests (CCTs) such as prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), platelet count, and fibrinogen levels. The varying sensitivity and specificity of these CCTs have led trauma coagulation researchers and clinicians to use Viscoelastic Tests (VET) such as Thromboelastography (TEG) to provide Targeted Thromboelastographic Hemostatic and Adjunctive Therapy (TTHAT) in a goal directed fashion to those trauma patients in need of hemostatic resuscitation. This review describes the utility of VETs, in particular, TEG, to provide TTHAT in trauma and acquired non-trauma-induced coagulopathy. PMID:26960340

  14. Mechanistic investigation of a hemostatic keratin biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmany, Maria Bahawdory

    Traumatic injury leads to more productive years lost than heart disease, cancer and stroke combined. Trauma is often accompanied and complicated by uncontrolled bleeding. Human hair keratin biomaterials have demonstrated efficacy in controlling hemorrhage in both small and large animal models; however little is known about the mechanism by which these proteins aid in blood clotting. Inspection of the amino acid sequence of known keratins shows the presence of several cellular binding motifs, suggesting a possible mechanism and potentially eliminating the need to functionalize the material's surface for cellular interaction. In addition to small animal studies, the hemostatic activity of keratin hydrogels was explored through porcine hemorrhage models representing both a high flow and low flow bleed. In both studies, keratin hydrogels appeared to lead to a significant reduction in blood loss. The promising results from these in vivo studies provided the motivation for this project. The objective of this dissertation work was to assess the mechanism of action of a hemostatic keratin biomaterial, and more broadly assess the biomaterial-cellular interaction(s). It is our hypothesis that keratin biomaterials have the capacity to specifically interact with cells and lead to propagation of intracellular signaling pathway, specifically contributing to hemostasis. Through application of biochemical and molecular tools, we demonstrate here that keratin biomaterials contribute to hemostasis through two probable mechanisms; integrin mediated platelet adhesion and increased fibrin polymerization. Platelets are the major cell type involved in coagulation both by acting as a catalytic surface for the clotting cascade and adhering to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins providing a soft platelet plug. Because keratin biomaterials have structural and biochemical characteristics similar to ECM proteins, we utilized several adhesion assays to investigate platelet adhesion to keratin

  15. Method of manufacturing fibrous hemostatic bandages

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Ruben; Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

    2012-09-04

    A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-hemostatic complications.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Deirdre A; Hockings, Lisen E; Andrews, Robert K; Aubron, Cecile; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Pellegrino, Vincent A; Davis, Amanda K

    2015-04-01

    The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for cardiac and respiratory failure has increased in recent years. Improvements in ECMO oxygenator and pump technologies have aided this increase in utilization. Additionally, reports of successful outcomes in supporting patients with respiratory failure during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and reports of ECMO during cardiopulmonary resuscitation have led to increased uptake of ECMO. Patients requiring ECMO are a heterogenous group of critically ill patients with cardiac and respiratory failure. Bleeding and thrombotic complications remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients on ECMO. In this review, we describe the mechanisms and management of hemostatic, thrombotic and hemolytic complications during ECMO support.

  17. Low Levels of Astroglial Markers in Parkinson's Disease: Relationship to α-Synuclein Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Junchao; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Williams, Belinda; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Fitzmaurice, Paul; Guttman, Mark; Boileau, Isabelle; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Kish, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Although gliosis is a normal response to brain injury, reports on the extent of astrogliosis in the degenerating substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD) are conflicting. It has also been recently suggested that accumulation of nigral α-synuclein in this disorder might suppress astrocyte activation which in turn could exacerbate the degenerative process. This study examined brain protein levels (intact protein, fragments, and aggregates, if any) of astroglial markers and their relationship to α-synuclein in PD and in the positive control parkinson-plus conditions multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Autopsied brain homogenates of patients with PD (n=10), MSA (n=11), PSP (n=11) and matched controls (n=10) were examined for the astroglial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and heat shock protein-27 (Hsp27) by quantitative immunoblotting. As expected, both MSA (putamen > substantia nigra > caudate > frontal cortex) and PSP (substantia nigra > caudate > putamen, frontal cortex) showed widespread but regionally specific pattern of increased immunoreactivity of the markers, in particular for the partially proteolyzed fragments (all three) and aggregates (GFAP). In contrast, immunoreactivity of the three markers was largely normal in PD in brain regions examined with the exception of trends for variably increased levels of cleaved vimentin in substantia nigra and frontal cortex. In patients with PD, GFAP levels in the substantia nigra correlated inversely with α-synuclein accumulation whereas the opposite was true for MSA. Our biochemical findings of generally normal protein levels of astroglial markers in substantia nigra of PD, and negative correlation with α-synuclein concentration, are consistent with some recent neuropathology reports of mild astroglial response and with the speculation that astrogliosis might be suppressed in this disorder by excessive α-synuclein accumulation. Should astrogliosis

  18. Cytokine levels in pleural fluid as markers of acute rejection after lung transplantation*

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Priscila Cilene León Bueno; Afonso, José Eduardo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliarelli; Antonangelo, Leila; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as the total and differential cell counts, in the pleural fluid of lung transplant recipients, correlating those levels with the occurrence and severity of rejection. We analyzed pleural fluid samples collected from 18 patients at various time points (up to postoperative day 4). The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF tended to elevate in parallel with increases in the severity of rejection. Our results suggest that these levels are markers of acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients. PMID:25210966

  19. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Glick, Jaimie B; Kaur, Ravneet R; Siegel, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined.

  20. Hemostatic Powders in Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan N

    2015-07-01

    Topical hemostatic agents and powders are an emerging modality in the endoscopic management of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. This systematic review demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of these agents with special emphasis on TC-325 and Ankaferd Blood Stopper. The unique noncontact/nontraumatic application, ability to cover large areas of bleed, and ease of use make these hemostatic agents an attractive option in certain clinical situations, such as massive bleeding with poor visualization, salvage therapy, and diffuse bleeding from luminal malignancies.

  1. Comparative in vitro analysis of topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, W R; Pachence, J M; Ristich, J; Johnson, P C

    1996-12-01

    Hemostatic agents are broadly utilized across the surgical specialties. While specific characteristics desirable for individual applications may vary, these agents generally are expected to aid the patient's coagulation system in the rapid development of an occlusive clot. Six commonly utilized hemostatic agents were quantitatively compared in terms of their ability to mediate platelet aggregation, deposition and activation, and initiate gross clot formation in a series of in vitro tests. Three types of collagen sponges (Actifoam, Helistat, Instat), microfibrillar collagen (Avitene), a gelatin sponge (Gelfoam), and oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel) were studied. Platelet aggregation: Citrated platelet rich plasma (PRP) was contacted with hemostatic agents both with and without thrombin in a stirred cuvette and the platelet count was measured over 5 min. Platelet deposition: To approximate arterial wounds, PRP was perfused in a controlled manner through hemostatic agents, and the effluent platelet count was measured over time. Platelet activation: ATP secretion from PRP contacted with hemostatic agents in a stirred cuvette was measured at 1 and 5 min. Clot formation: The clotting time of nonanticoagulated whole blood contacted with the hemostatic agents was measured. Materials which depleted platelets most rapidly and effectively in the perfusion system (Avitene, Helistat, and Actifoam) were also the most effective inducers of platelet aggregation and secretion. Clot formation (likely to be platelet dependent) was also more rapid in this group. An overall activity ranking combined the relative performance of each hemostatic agent on the various tests: Actifoam approximately Avitene > Helistat > Gelfoam > Instat > Surgicel. The activity ranking generally reflects the materials used in these agents (collagen > gelatin > oxidized regenerated cellulose), as well as their processing (chemical crosslinking in collagen sponges may lower activity). Such in vitro

  2. Ankaferd hemostat in the management of gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Beyazit, Yavuz; Kekilli, Murat; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C; Kayacetin, Ertugrul; Basaranoglu, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding refers to any hemorrhage ascribed to the pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, extending from the mouth to the anal canal. Despite the recent improvements in the endoscopic, hemostatic and adjuvant pharmacologic techniques, the reported mortality is still around 5%-10% for peptic ulcer bleeding and about 15%-20% for variceal hemorrhages. Although endoscopic management reduces the rates of re-bleeding, surgery, and mortality in active bleeding; early recurrence ratios still occur in around 20% of the cases even with effective initial hemostatic measures. In this quest for an alternative pro-hemostatic agent for the management of GI bleedings, Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) offers a successful candidate, specifically for “difficult-to-manage” situations as evidenced by data presented in several studies. ABS is a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. It is effective in both bleeding individuals with normal hemostatic parameters and in patients with deficient primary and/or secondary hemostasis. ABS also modulates the cellular apoptotic responses to hemorrhagic stress, as well as hemostatic hemodynamic activity. Through its effects on the endothelium, blood cells, angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, vascular dynamics, and wound healing, ABS is now becoming an effective alternative hemostatic medicine for gastrointestinal bleedings that are resistant to conventional anti-hemorrhagic measurements. The aim of this review is to outline current literature experience suggesting the place of ABS in the management of GI bleeding, and potential future controlled trials in this complicated field. PMID:22046083

  3. Melatonin levels in follicular fluid as markers for IVF outcomes and predicting ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Sheng, Shile; Sun, Yun; Li, Huihui; Li, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Good-quality oocytes are critical for the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF), but, to date, there is no marker of ovarian reserve available that can accurately predict oocyte quality. Melatonin exerts its antioxidant actions as a strong radical scavenger that might affect oocyte quality directly as it is the most potent antioxidant in follicular fluid. To investigate the precise role of endogenous melatonin in IVF outcomes, we recruited 61 women undergoing treatment cycles of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedures and classified them into three groups according to their response to ovarian stimulation. Follicular fluid was collected to assess melatonin levels using a direct RIA method. We found good correlations between melatonin levels in follicular fluid with age, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and baseline follicle-stimulating hormone (bFSH), all of which have been used to predict ovarian reserve. Furthermore, as melatonin levels correlated to IVF outcomes, higher numbers of oocytes were collected from patients with higher melatonin levels and consequently the number of oocytes fertilized, zygotes cleaved, top quality embryos on D3, blastocysts obtained and embryos suitable for transplantation was higher. The blastocyst rate increased in concert with the melatonin levels across the gradient between the poor response group and the high response group. These results demonstrated that the melatonin levels in follicular fluid is associated with both the quantity and quality of oocytes and can predict IVF outcomes as well making them highly relevant biochemical markers of ovarian reserve.

  4. MAP17 and SGLT1 Protein Expression Levels as Prognostic Markers for Cervical Tumor Patient Survival

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Marco; Praena-Fernandez, Juan M.; Felipe-Abrio, Blanca; Lopez-Garcia, Maria A.; Lucena-Cacace, Antonio; Garcia, Angel; Lleonart, Matilde; Roncador, Guiovanna; Marin, Juan J.; Carnero, Amancio

    2013-01-01

    MAP17 is a membrane-associated protein that is overexpressed in human tumors. Because the expression of MAP17 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through SGLT1 in cancer cells, in the present work, we investigated whether MAP17 and/or SGLT1 might be markers for the activity of treatments involving oxidative stress, such as cisplatin or radiotherapy. First, we confirmed transcriptional alterations in genes involved in the oxidative stress induced by MAP17 expression in HeLa cervical tumor cells and found that Hela cells expressing MAP17 were more sensitive to therapies that induce ROS than were parental cells. Furthermore, MAP17 increased glucose uptake through SGLT receptors. We then analyzed MAP17 and SGLT1 expression levels in cervical tumors treated with cisplatin plus radiotherapy and correlated the expression levels with patient survival. MAP17 and SGLT1 were expressed in approximately 70% and 50% of cervical tumors of different types, respectively, but they were not expressed in adenoma tumors. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between MAP17 and SGLT1 expression levels. High levels of either MAP17 or SGLT1 correlated with improved patient survival after treatment. However, the patients with high levels of both MAP17 and SGLT1 survived through the end of this study. Therefore, the combination of high MAP17 and SGLT1 levels is a marker for good prognosis in patients with cervical tumors after cisplatin plus radiotherapy treatment. These results also suggest that the use of MAP17 and SGLT1 markers may identify patients who are likely to exhibit a better response to treatments that boost oxidative stress in other cancer types. PMID:23418532

  5. Intrinsic Vertebral Markers for Spinal Level Localization in Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Anil; Jain, Mukul; Arya, Arvind; Tripathi, Chandrabhushan; Kumari, Rima; Kushwaha, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective clinical study. Purpose To observe the usefulness of anterior cervical osteophytes as intrinsic markers for spinal level localization (SLL) during sub-axial cervical spinal surgery via the anterior approach. Overview of Literature Various landmarks, such as the mandibular angle, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, first cricoid ring, and C6 carotid tubercle, are used for gross cervical SLL; however, none are used during cervical spinal surgery via the anterior approach. We present our preliminary assessment of SLL over anterior vertebral surfaces (i.e., intrinsic markers) in 48 consecutive cases of anterior cervical spinal surgeries for the disc-osteophyte complex (DOC) in degenerative diseases and granulation or tumor tissue associated with infectious or neoplastic diseases, respectively, at an ill-equipped center. Methods This prospective study on patients undergoing anterior cervical surgery for various sub-axial cervical spinal pathologies aimed to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLL via intraoperative palpation of disease-related morphological changes on anterior vertebral surfaces visible on preoperative midline sagittal T1/2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results During a 3-year period, 48 patients (38 males,10 females; average age, 43.58 years) who underwent surgery via the anterior approach for various sub-axial cervical spinal pathologies, including degenerative disease (n= 42), tubercular infection (Pott's disease; n=3), traumatic prolapsed disc (n=2), and a metastatic lesion from thyroid carcinoma (n=1), comprised the study group. Intrinsic marker palpation yielded accurate SLL in 79% of patients (n=38). Among those with degenerative diseases (n=42), intrinsic marker palpation yielded accurate SLL in 76% of patients (n=32). Conclusions Intrinsic marker palpation is an attractive potential adjunct for SLL during cervical spinal surgeries via the anterior approach in well-selected patients at ill-equipped centers (e

  6. Elevated Levels of Microbial Translocation Markers and CCL2 Among Older HIV-1-Infected Men.

    PubMed

    Scully, Eileen; Lockhart, Ainsley; Huang, Lisa; Robles, Yvonne; Becerril, Carlos; Romero-Tejeda, Marisol; Albrecht, Mary A; Palmer, Christine D; Bosch, Ronald J; Altfeld, Marcus; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lin, Nina H

    2016-03-01

    The aging of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected population obligates a focus on the interaction between aging, comorbid conditions, and HIV-1. We recruited a cohort of HIV-1-infected men aged ≤ 35 years or ≥ 50 years who were receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed plasma markers of inflammation; T-cell activation, exhaustion, proliferation; and innate cellular subsets and functional capacity. Levels of lipopolysaccharide and the plasma marker of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 were significantly elevated in older HIV-infected men despite comparable cellular phenotypes. Compared with similarly age-stratified uninfected subjects, older HIV-1-infected adults were also more frequently in the upper quartile of soluble CD14 expression.

  7. Marker ReDistancing/Level Set Method for High-Fidelity Implicit Interface Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Nourgaliev; Samet Kadioglu; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

    2010-02-01

    A hybrid of the Front-Tracking (FT) and the Level-Set (LS) methods is introduced, combining advantages and removing drawbacks of both methods. The kinematics of the interface is treated in a Lagrangian (FT) manner, by tracking markers placed at the interface. The markers are not connected – instead, the interface topology is resolved in an Eulerian (LS) framework, by wrapping a signed distance function around Lagrangian markers each time the markers move. For accuracy and efficiency, we have developed a high-order “anchoring” algorithm and an implicit PDE-based re-distancing. We have demonstrated that the method is 3rd-order accurate in space, near the markers, and therefore 1st-order convergent in curvature; in contrast to traditional PDE-based re-initialization algorithms, which tend to slightly relocate the zero Level Set and can be shown to be non-convergent in curvature. The implicit pseudo-time discretization of the re-distancing equation is implemented within the Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) framework combined with ILU(k) preconditioning. We have demonstrated that the steady-state solutions in pseudo-time can be achieved very efficiently, with iterations (CFL ), in contrast to the explicit re-distancing which requires 100s of iterations with CFL . The most cost-effective algorithm is found to be a hybrid of explicit and implicit discretizations, in which we apply first 10-15 iterations with explicit discretization (to bring the initial guess to the ball of convergence for the Newton’s method) and then finishing with 2-3 implicit steps, bringing the re-distancing equation to a complete steady-state. The eigenscopy of the JFNK-ILU(k) demonstrates the efficiency of the ILU(k) preconditioner, which effectively cluster eigenvalues of the otherwise extremely ill-conditioned Jacobian matrices, thereby enabling the Krylov (GMRES) method to converge with iterations, with only a few levels of ILU fill-ins. Importantly, due to the Level Set localization

  8. Serum TNF alpha levels: a prognostic marker for assessment of severity of malaria.

    PubMed

    Kinra, P; Dutta, V

    2013-12-01

    Complicated Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with a 6.4% mortality rate in India, yet its prognostication is incompletely understood. The conventional prognostic markers of falciparum malaria include clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters. However these factors are non-specific. Hence there is a need of an accurate inexpensive objective marker for prognosticating falciparum malaria infection outcomes. Angiopoietins, angiogenic factors, eotaxins, adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines have been studied for prognostication of this common disease. Determination of the first four is technically difficult and requires a high level of expertise and equipment. Intermediary cytokines have the most promising role. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the serum level of TNF-α in patients with P. falciparum malaria and carry out statistical analysis of levels of serum TNF-α with parasite index, age, severity of anaemia, hypoglycaemia, hepatic and renal dysfunction. In our study the average TNF alpha level in 91healthy controls was 46.42 pg/ml whereas that in mild falciparum malaria was 100.45 pg/ml, in severe malaria - 278.63 pg/ml and in cerebral malaria it was 532.6 pg/ml. The mean TNF alpha level was significantly different in severe malaria and cerebral malaria compared to that in healthy controls (p < 0.02). The difference in levels of TNF alpha was significantly higher in falciparum malaria patients with anaemia, altered liver functions, hyperparasitemia, leucocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly and hypoglycaemia. The TNF levels did not correlate well with haemolysis markers and patients with altered renal function. Hence a raised TNF alpha can predict the likelihood of oncoming anaemia, hypoglycaemia, altered hepatic function and leucocytosis but not the grades of malaria. The duration of stay in hospital and change in parasite index between the 5(th) day and the 1(st) day of admission was used a clinical outcome marker in this

  9. Increased CRP levels may be a trait marker of suicidal attempt.

    PubMed

    Courtet, Ph; Jaussent, I; Genty, C; Dupuy, A M; Guillaume, S; Ducasse, D; Olié, E

    2015-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Identifying biomarkers will help enhance our understanding of suicidal pathophysiology and improve its prevention. Therefore, we investigated CRP levels in 600 depressed inpatients: 520 patients had a lifetime history of suicide attempts and 80 patients did not have any history of suicide attempts. For all patients, we assessed socio-demographic features, lifetime Axis I DSM-IV diagnoses, depression intensity, suicidal ideation, characteristics of suicidal history, and history of childhood trauma. The day following admission, fasting blood tests yielded samples collected for the measurement of high sensitivity hs-CRP. CRP levels were associated with a history of suicide attempts. The risk of suicide attempts increased with higher levels of CRP in a dose-response way before and after adjustments for age, gender, chronic diseases, addiction and anxiety comorbidities, antidepressants use, smoking status and sexual abuse. Noteworthy, the association between CRP levels and history of suicide attempts remained significant after having excluded patients with chronic diseases. There was no significant difference in CRP levels between patients who attempted suicide more or less than a week before plasma sampling, and no significant difference in CRP levels was evidenced between high vs low suicidal ideation. In conclusion, this is the first study suggesting that CRP may be a trait marker for suicidal vulnerability by associating CRP levels and a lifetime history of suicide attempts in depressed inpatients. Therefore, determining the inflammatory marker profile of individuals exhibiting suicidal behaviors could be relevant for anticipating behaviors and refining new therapeutic opportunities.

  10. Combined training, FNDC5/irisin levels and metabolic markers in obese men: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Ivan Luiz Padilha; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patrícia Traina; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Duft, Renata Garbellini; Lopes, Wendell Arhur; Bonganha, Valéria; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2017-06-01

    The effects of training on FNDC5/irisin and its association with fitness and metabolic marker improvements induced by training have been poorly investigated in humans. Thus, the present study assessed the effects of combined training (CT) on FNDC5/irisin levels, metabolic markers and fitness adaptations in obese men. Middle-age obese men (age 49.13 ± 5.75, body mass index (BMI) 30.86 ± 1.63) were randomly distributed in the CT group (n = 12) and control group (CG n = 10). The CT consisted of strength followed by aerobic training, 3 times/week, for 24 weeks. Body composition, physical fitness, plasma FNDC5/irisin, biochemical markers and metabolic scores/index were evaluated. CT maintained FNDC5/irisin levels (µg/mL) (pre: 4.15 ± 0.32, post: 4.21 ± 0.32; p = .96) and improved body composition, metabolic and physical fitness markers. In the CG, decreased FNDC5/irisin (µg/mL) (pre: 4.36 ± 0.23, post: 3.57 ± 0.94; p = .01) and reduced strength (supine exercise/kg) (pre: 71 ± 14.7, post: 60.1 ± 14.05; p < .01) were observed, along with a trend to increase HOMA-IR (pre: 2.63 ± 1.11, post: 3.14 ± 1.27; p = .07) and other indicators of metabolic deterioration. An inverse correlation was found between the change (Δ%) in levels of FNDC5/irisin and Δ% glucose, Δ% total cholesterol, Δ% triglycerides and Δ% waist circumference, in addition to a positive relation with Δ% muscle strength. In conclusion, CT maintained FNDC5/irisin levels and provided metabolic and fitness benefits. The correlation between FNDC5/irisin changes and metabolic parameters, as well as the FNDC5/irisin reduction associated with fitness and metabolic worsening in the CG, suggests a relationship between FNDC5/irisin and a healthy metabolic status in humans.

  11. Levels of seven PCBs used as markers of dioxin in commercial pork meat in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lopez y López-Leitón, T J; Alvarez Piñeiro, M E; Lage Yusty, M A; Cortizo Daviña, J L

    2001-01-01

    The levels of 7 PCBs used as markers of dioxin in 62 pork meat samples (head, loin, and dewlap) were determined by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Analytical limits of detection for the individual congeners ranged from 0.048 to 0.2 ng/g dry wt. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were detected in all samples. Among congeners in general, PCB 52, 101, and 153 were the most abundant. There was a linear relationship with a good correlation between PCB 101 and PCB 52.

  12. Bothrops jararaca envenomation: Pathogenesis of hemostatic disturbances and intravascular hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Senise, Luana V; Yamashita, Karine M

    2015-01-01

    To attain fully functional biological activity, vitamin-K dependent coagulation factors (VKDCF) are γ-carboxylated prior to secretion from liver. Warfarin impairs the γ-carboxylation, and consequently their physiological function. Bothrops jararaca snake venom (BjV) contains several activators of blood coagulation, especially procoagulant enzymes (prothrombin and factor X activators) and thrombin-like enzymes. In order to clarify the relative contribution of prothrombin and factor X activators to the hemostatic disturbances occurring during experimental B. jararaca envenomation, warfarin was used to deplete VKDCF, prior to BjV administration. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with saline (Sal) or warfarin (War) and inoculated subsequently with BjV or saline, thus forming four groups: Sal + Sal (negative control), Sal + BjV (positive control), War + Sal (warfarinization control), and War + BjV. Three hours after inoculation, prothrombin and factor X levels fell 40% and 50%, respectively; levels of both factors decreased more than 97% in the War + Sal and War + BjV groups. Platelet counts dropped 93% and 76% in Sal + BjV and War + BjV, respectively, and plasma fibrinogen levels decreased 86% exclusively in Sal + BjV. After 6 and 24 h, platelet counts and fibrinogen levels increased progressively. A dramatic augmentation in plasma hemoglobin levels and the presence of schizocytes and microcytes in the Sal + BjV group indicated the development of intravascular hemolysis, which was prevented by warfarin pretreatment. Our findings show that intravascular thrombin generation has the foremost role in the pathogenesis of coagulopathy and intravascular hemolysis, but not in the development of thrombocytopenia, in B. jararaca envenomation in rats; in addition, fibrinogenases (metalloproteinases) may contribute to coagulopathy more than thrombin-like enzymes. PMID:26080462

  13. Ventricular perforation by pacemaker lead repaired with two hemostatic devices

    PubMed Central

    Prestipino, Filippo; Nenna, Antonio; Casacalenda, Adele; Chello, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cardiac perforation is a rare, but potentially serious, complication of pacemaker implantation that may develop days or weeks after implantation. PRESENTATION OF CASE In the current case, 92-year-old man underwent permanent pacemaker implantation, but he presented 3 weeks later with severe symptoms. Computed tomography showed protrusion of the tip of the ventricular electrode through the right ventricle and into the chest wall. During an urgent surgical intervention, the lead was disconnected and extracted. A sealing hemostatic device and an hemostatic patch were applied to repair the ventricle; the procedure was uneventfull. DISCUSSION This case demonstrates how the correct diagnosis of ventricular perforation is crucial, and should be followed immediately by surgical planning. CONCLUSION The hemostatic patch is a valuable alternative to sutures in patients with thin and fragile ventricular wall, unable to undergo stitching. PMID:25460433

  14. Hemostatic powder spray: a new method for managing gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Papafragkakis, Haris; Ofori, Emmanuel; Ona, Mel A.; Krishnaiah, Mahesh; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The management of gastrointestinal bleeding is often challenging, depending on its location and severity. To date, widely accepted hemostatic treatment options include injection of epinephrine and tissue adhesives such as cyanoacrylate, ablative therapy with contact modalities such as thermal coagulation with heater probe and bipolar hemostatic forceps, noncontact modalities such as photodynamic therapy and argon plasma coagulation, and mechanical hemostasis with band ligation, endoscopic hemoclips, and over-the-scope clips. These approaches, albeit effective in achieving hemostasis, are associated with a 5–10% rebleeding risk. New simple, effective, universal, and safe methods are needed to address some of the challenges posed by the current endoscopic hemostatic techniques. The use of a novel hemostatic powder spray appears to be effective and safe in controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Although initial reports of hemostatic powder spray as an innovative approach to manage gastrointestinal bleeding are promising, further studies are needed to support and confirm its efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility, clinical efficacy, and safety of hemostatic powder spray (Hemospray, Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA) as a new method for managing gastrointestinal bleeding. In this review article, we performed an extensive literature search summarizing case reports and case series of Hemospray for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. Indications, features, technique, deployment, success rate, complications, and limitations are discussed. The combined technical and clinical success rate of Hemospray was 88.5% (207/234) among the human subjects and 81.8% (9/11) among the porcine models studied. Rebleeding occurred within 72 hours post-treatment in 38 patients (38/234; 16.2%) and in three porcine

  15. Serum endostatin levels are elevated in colorectal cancer and correlate with invasion and systemic inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, T; Väyrynen, J P; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karppinen, S M; Pihlajaniemi, T; Autio-Harmainen, H; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J; Tuomisto, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with anti-tumour functions. However, elevated circulating endostatin concentrations have been found in several human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum endostatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay from a series of 143 patients with CRC and from 84 controls, and correlated with detailed clinicopathological features of CRC, serum leukocyte differential count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Patients with CRC had higher serum endostatin levels than the controls (P=0.005), and high levels associated with age, tumour invasion through the muscularis propria and poor differentiation, but not with metastases. Endostatin levels showed a positive correlation with the markers of systemic inflammatory response and a negative correlation with the densities of tumour-infiltrating mast cells and dendritic cells. Collagen XVIII was expressed in tumour stroma most strikingly in blood vessels and capillaries, and in the muscle layer of the bowel wall. Conclusions: Elevated endostatin levels in CRC correlate with systemic inflammation and invasion through the muscularis propria. Increased endostatin level may be a result of invasion-related cleavage of collagen XVIII expressed in the bowel wall. The negative correlations between serum endostatin and intratumoural mast cells and immature dendritic cells may reflect angiogenesis inhibition by endostatin. PMID:25137019

  16. Cytokine serum level during severe sepsis in human IL-6 as a marker of severity.

    PubMed Central

    Damas, P; Ledoux, D; Nys, M; Vrindts, Y; De Groote, D; Franchimont, P; Lamy, M

    1992-01-01

    Forty critically ill surgical patients with documented infections were studied during their stay in an intensive care unit. Among these patients, 19 developed septic shock and 16 died, 9 of them from septic shock. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured each day and every 1 or 2 hours when septic shock occurred. Although IL-1 beta was never found, TNF alpha was most often observed in the serum at a level under 100 pg/mL except during septic shock. During these acute episodes TNF alpha level reached several hundred pg/mL, but only for a few hours. In contrast, IL-6 was always increased in the serum of acutely ill patients (peak to 500,000 pg/mL). There was a direct correlation between IL-6 peak serum level and TNF alpha peak serum level during septic shock and between IL-6 serum level and temperature or C-reactive protein serum level. Moreover, IL-6 correlated well with APACHE II score, and the mortality rate increased significantly in the group of patients who presented with IL-6 serum level above 1000 pg/mL. Thus, IL-6 appears to be a good marker of severity during bacterial infection. PMID:1558416

  17. Use of topical hemostatic agents in gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Wysham, Weiya Z; Roque, Dario R; Soper, John T

    2014-09-01

    Sutures, hemoclips, and electrocautery are the primary mechanisms used to achieve hemostasis during gynecologic surgery, but in situations in which these are inadequate or not feasible, an array of hemostatic agents are available to help achieve hemostasis. These agents include physical agents such as cellulose, collagen, or gelatin products as well as biologic agents such as thrombin and fibrin products. Limited data are available on many of these agents, although their use is increasing, sometimes at high costs. In gynecologic surgery, hemostatic agents are likely most effective when used in areas of oozing or slow bleeding and as an adjunct to conventional surgical methods of hemostasis.

  18. Safety and usability of hemostats, sealants, and adhesives.

    PubMed

    Burks, Sandra; Spotnitz, William

    2014-08-01

    Hemostats, sealants, and adhesives are an integral part of surgical patient care. Nurses who have knowledge about these agents can better help ensure safe, efficient surgical patient care. As a caregiver and patient advocate, the perioperative nurse must understand the most current information about these agents and be prepared to facilitate the transfer of this knowledge to all caregivers. Information about these agents, including the contraindications, warnings, and precautions associated with their use as well as their preparation and application, is provided here. Algorithms designed to clarify the best options for using hemostats, sealants, and adhesives are included as well.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid tau levels are a marker for molecular subtype in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Karch, André; Hermann, Peter; Ponto, Claudia; Schmitz, Matthias; Arora, Amandeep; Zafar, Saima; Llorens, Franc; Müller-Heine, Annika; Zerr, Inga

    2015-05-01

    The molecular subtype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is an important prognostic marker for patient survival. However, subtype determination is not possible during lifetime. Because the rate of disease progression is associated with the molecular subtype, this study aimed at investigating if total tau, a marker of neuronal death, allows premortem diagnosis of molecular subtype when codon 129 genotype is known. Two hundred ninety-six sCJD patients were tested for their cerebrospinal fluid total tau level at the time of diagnosis and were investigated for their sCJD subtype postmortem. There was a significant association between tau levels and the prion protein type in patients with codon 129 MM (p < 0.001), MV (p = 0.004), and VV (p = 0.001) genotype. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed values of area under the curve of 0.76-0.80 for the different genotypes indicating a good diagnostic validity of the test. Total tau can be used as a diagnostic test for the assessment of prion protein type when codon 129 genotype is known. It provides valuable information for physicians and next of kin about the further course of disease.

  20. Optimizing hemostatic practices: matching the appropriate hemostat to the clinical situation.

    PubMed

    Neveleff, Deborah J

    2012-11-01

    Achieving hemostasis is a critical focus of clinicians working in the surgical setting, given that uncontrolled surgical bleeding is associated with increased mortality rates and higher costs of care. As principal members of the surgical team, perioperative nurses are in an optimal position to plan and direct care during a bleeding event and throughout a patient's surgical stay. This supplement includes an assessment of the clinical and economic effects of surgical bleeding, a thorough review of available therapies, and a detailed comparison of these products to demonstrate which agents are best suited for a given clinical situation. By understanding the basic science of coagulation and hemostasis and current advances in topical hemostatic agents, including their safety, efficacy, and judicious use, perioperative nurses will be empowered to better assist the surgeon in optimizing patient outcomes.

  1. Inorganic hemostats: The state-of-the-art and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Pourshahrestani, Sara; Zeimaran, Ehsan; Djordjevic, Ivan; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Towler, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhage is the most common cause of death both in hospitals and on the battlefield. The need for an effective hemostatic agent remains, since all injuries are not amenable to tourniquet use. There are many topical hemostatic agents and dressings available to control severe bleeding. This article reviews the most commonly used inorganic hemostats, subcategorized as zeolite and clay-based hemostats. Their hemostatic functions as well as their structural properties that are believed to induce hemostasis are discussed. The most important findings from in vitro and in vivo experiments are also covered.

  2. Serum Adiponectin Level and Clinical, Metabolic, and Hormonal Markers in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Yunus; Ozaksit, Gülnur; Serdar Unlu, Bekir; Ozgu, Emre; Energin, Hasan; Kaba, Metin; Ugur, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the relationship between adiponectin, metabolic and hor- monal parameters, and insulin resistance in patients with non-treated polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 81 patients admitted to out-patient clinic with complaints of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism and obesity were enrolled. Serum adiponectin, biochemical and hormonal parameters, and 75 gram oral glu- cose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results: We observed inverse correlations between serum adiponectin level and body mass index, homeostasis model assessment insulin-resistance score, insulin level, fast- ing glucose level, and prolactin level (p=0.001, p=0.02, p=0.04, p=0.02, and p=0.005, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum adiponectin level and age, height, weight, Ferriman-Gallwey score, 2 hours OGTT test value and free tes- tosterone level (p=0.3, p=0.6, p=0.2, p=0.8, p=0.9, and p=0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that in polycystic ovary syndrome patients, when serum adiponectin level decreased, degree of insulin resistance increased. Our find- ings indicate that serum adiponectin level is likely to be an adequate marker for deter- mination of the degree of insulin resistance, and may be a predictor of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, which develop on the basis of insulin resistance. PMID:24520503

  3. Hemostatic management of patients undergoing ear-nose-throat surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Thomas; Kaftan, Holger; Hosemann, Werner; Greinacher, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative hemostatic management is increasingly important in the field of otolaryngology. This review summarizes the key elements of perioperative risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis and therapies for bridging of antithrombotic treatment. It gives practical advice based on the current literature with focus on patients undergoing ENT surgery. PMID:26770281

  4. Topical and effective hemostatic medicines in the battlefield

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin-Juan; Gao, Bo; Liu, Xi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage has been considered as one of the most important factors for causing death on the battlefront. If given timely and efficient hemostatic medicines in pre-hospital setting, patients will obtain more time and chance to wait for medical treatment so as to save their lives. However, there is not a certain answer about which kind of hemostatic drugs can achieve efficacious effect to hemostasis in the battle. This review aims to summarize effective hemostatic medicines applied in battlefield from 41 articles. After analyzing and comparing the efficacy and complications of those products, we conclude that Fibrin Sealant Dressing, Celox and Woundstat are prior to other materials to stanch life-threatening extremity hemorrhage on the battlefield based on present research in the related area. Therefore, in the prevalence of some inevitable battlefield throughout the world, especially in the Middle Eastern countries, our findings suggest for the first time that the effective hemostatic device is not only a key point to link pre-hospital and hospital care but also an essential way to increase the survival rate of battlefront in the foreseeable future. PMID:25784969

  5. Biologic response of local hemostatic agents used in endodontic microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Youngjune; Kim, Hyeon; Roh, Byoung-Duck

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate use of local hemostatic agent is one of the important factors on the prognosis of endodontic microsurgery. However, most investigations to date focus on the hemostatic efficacy of the agents, whereas their biologic characteristics have not received enough attention. The purpose of this paper was to review the biologic response of local hemostatic agents, and to provide clinical guidelines on their use during endodontic microsurgery. Electronic database (PUBMED) was screened to search related studies from 1980 to 2013, and 8 clinical studies and 18 animal studies were identified. Among the materials used in these studies, most widely-investigated and used materials, epinephrine, ferric sulfate (FS) and calcium sulfate (CS), were thoroughly discussed. Influence of these materials on local tissue and systemic condition, such as inflammatory and foreign body reaction, local ischemia, dyspigmentation, delayed or enhanced bone and soft tissue healing, and potential cardiovascular complications were assessed. Additionally, biological property of their carrier materials, cotton pellet and absorbable collagen, were also discussed. Clinicians should be aware of the biologic properties of local hemostatic agents and their carrier materials, and should pay attention to the potential complications when using them in endodontic microsurgery. PMID:24790919

  6. The Hemostatic System and Angiogenesis in Malignancy1

    PubMed Central

    Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z; Sierko, Ewa; Klement, Petr; Rak, Janusz

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Coagulopathy and angiogenesis are among the most consistent host responses associated with cancer. These two respective processes, hitherto viewed as distinct, may in fact be functionally inseparable as blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in their own right, influence tumor angiogenesis and thereby contribute to malignant growth. In addition, tumor angiogenesis appears to be controlled through both standard and non-standard functions of such elements of the hemostatic system as tissue factor, thrombin, fibrin, plasminogen activators, plasminogen, and platelets. “Cryptic” domains can be released from hemostatic proteins through proteolytic cleavage, and act systemically as angiogenesis inhibitors (e.g., angiostatin, antiangiogenic antithrombin III aaATIII). Various components of the hemostatic system either promote or inhibit angiogenesis and likely act by changing the net angiogenic balance. However, their complex influences are far from being fully understood. Targeted pharmacological and/or genetic inhibition of pro-angiogenic activities of the hemostatic system and exploitation of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors of the angiostatin and aaATIII variety are under study as prospective anti-cancer treatments. PMID:11687948

  7. Application of Absorbable Hemostatic Materials Observed in Thyroid Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Ming; Liang, Zhen-Zhen; Song, Yan

    2016-05-01

    To observe the application effects of the absorbable hemostatic materials in thyroid operation. Methods: From May 2014 to January 2015, 100 patients with thyroid surgery in our university affiliated hospital were selected as the research object. Randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 50 cases in each group. Application of absorbable hemostatic hemostatic materials in the experimental group during the operation, the control group using the traditional mechanical methods of hemostasis hemostasis to observe the operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage volume, complications and hospital stay of the two groups. Results: The operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage and hospital stay in the experimental group were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P< 0.05); The satisfaction of patients in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the difference was statistically significant in the two groups (P < 0.05); There was no significant difference in the incidence of wound bleeding complications between the study group and the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Absorbable hemostatic materials can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage, reduce the length of hospital stay and improve the success rate of surgery and patient satisfaction, which is worthy to be popularized in clinical thyroid surgery.

  8. A review on common chemical hemostatic agents in restorative dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Tarighi, Pardis; Khoroushi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Control of hemorrhage is one of the challenging situations dentists confront during deep cavity preparation and before impressions or cementation of restorations. For the best bond and least contamination it is necessary to be familiar with the hemostatic agents available on the market and to be able to choose the appropriate one for specific situations. This review tries to introduce the commercially available hemostatic agents, discusses their components and their specific features. The most common chemical agents that are widely used in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry according to their components and mechanism of action as well as their special uses are introduced. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for studies involving gingival retraction and hemostatic agents from 1970 to 2013. Key search words including: “gingival retraction techniques, impression technique, hemostasis and astringent” were searched. Based on the information available in the literature, in order to achieve better results with impression taking and using resin bonding techniques, common hemostatic agents might be recommended before or during acid etching; they should be rinsed off properly and it is recommended that they be used with etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. PMID:25225553

  9. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  14. Surgical hemostatic agents: assessment of drugs and medical devices.

    PubMed

    Aubourg, R; Putzolu, J; Bouche, S; Galmiche, H; Denis, C; d'Andon, A; Maitrot, D; Partensky, C

    2011-12-01

    Surgical hemostatic agents are indicated to improve hemostasis when conventional techniques (compression, sutures or electrocoagulation) are inadequate. The National French Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]) set out to assess these products (medical devices and agents) to determine their optimal utility. This evaluation included one class of products containing some form of human fibrinogen and thrombin and eight classes of medical devices and automated devices to prepare autologous fibrin. The assessment was based on a systematic review of the literature and expert opinion of health care professionals. The main measures of effectiveness of hemostatic agents were the success rate as expressed in terms of the time necessary to obtain adequate hemostasis, the volume of intra and/or postoperative blood loss, the need for blood transfusions, complication rate, duration of operations and hospital stay. A meta-analysis and 52 controlled randomized studies were selected involving cardiac or vascular surgery (19), ENT surgery (11), gastrointestinal surgery (5), urology (4), orthopedic surgery (4). Approximately half of the studies retained in this analysis evaluated blood derived agents (fibrin sealants) while the other half evaluated medical devices. The working group considered that there is not any evidence that these surgical hemostatic agents decrease the rates of transfusion, complications, reoperation, mortality, duration of operation and/or hospital stay. The working group considered that the use of surgical hemostatic agents to improve the safety of hemostasis in the absence of identified bleeding as an alternative to adequate conventional hemostasis was not justified. Surgical hemostatic agents can be used in ad hoc settings, as a complement to conventional methods to control persistent bleeding after conventional hemostatic techniques, or when abundant bleeding has led to biologic hemostatic disorders. The working group also distinguished

  15. Preoperative albumin level is a marker of alveolar echinococcosis recurrence after hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Joliat, Gaëtan-Romain; Labgaa, Ismail; Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify a preoperative blood marker predictive of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) recurrence after hepatectomy. METHODS All consecutive patients who underwent operation for liver AE at the Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) between January 1992 and December 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative laboratory values of leukocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), thrombocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin were collected and analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the risk factors for AE recurrence after liver resection. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define the best discrimination threshold of the blood marker. Moreover, recurrence-free survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS The cohort included 68 adult patients (37 females) with median age of 61 years [interquartile range (IQR): 46-71]. Eight of the patients (12%) presented a recurrence over a median follow-up time of 76 mo (IQR: 34-128). Median time to recurrence was 10 mo (IQR: 6-11). Median preoperative leukocyte, MCV, RDW, thrombocyte and CRP levels were similar between recurrent and non-recurrent cases. Median preoperative albumin level was 43 g/L (IQR: 41-45) for non-recurrent cases and 36 g/L (IQR: 33-42) for recurrent cases (P = 0.005). The area under the ROC curve for preoperative albumin level to predict recurrence was 0.840 (95%CI: 0.642-1, P = 0.002). The cut-off albumin level value was 37.5 g/L for sensitivity of 94.5% and specificity of 75%. In multivariate analysis, preoperative albumin and surgical resection margins were independent predictors of AE recurrence (HR = 0.099, P = 0.007 and HR = 0.182, P = 0.045 respectively). CONCLUSION Low preoperative albumin level was associated with AE recurrence in the present cohort. Thus, preoperative albumin may be a useful biomarker to guide follow-up. PMID:28223729

  16. Hemostatic absorbable gelatin sponge loaded with 5-fluorouracil for treatment of tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Chen, Yinghui; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Background Surgical tumor resection is the main treatment for tumors however the treatment process often results in massive bleeding and tumor cell residue. The main aim of this research was to address problems such as bleeding, systemic chemotherapy side effects while enhancing quality of life, and increasing drug concentrations at the tumor site by developing a novel formulation with local long-term efficacy for treatment of tumors and to stop bleeding. Methods 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was suspended in an ethyl acetate solution of poly D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and a vacuum drying method was applied. The hemostatic gelatin sponge loaded with 5-FU was prepared by absorption of the suspension. The in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the hemostatic gelatin sponge loaded with 5-FU (5-FU-HAGS) were investigated. Results 5-FU-HAGS (hemostatic absorbable gelatin sponge loaded with 5-fluorouracil) was successfully produced with controlled release of the content and was reproducibly suitable for local tumor treatment as an implant to stop bleeding. The encapsulation efficiency of 5-FU-HAGS was above 98%. The in vitro 5-FU release kinetic profile matched a near zero-order equation for 20 days. The in vivo 5-FU plasma concentration was at a more stable level than when 5-FU solution was administered by subcutaneous injection. Bleeding can be stopped more effectively by coating a piece of blank gelatin sponge. The survival ratio of tumor-bearing mice using a 5-FU-HAGS subcutaneous implant was higher when compared to mice given a subcutaneous injection of 5-FU solution. Conclusion The 5-FU-HAGS system is a potential and effective way of enhancing the survival ratio and improving the quality of life of tumor-bearing mice. PMID:23626465

  17. Influence of stearic acid on hemostatic risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, Tine

    2005-12-01

    Stearic acid has been claimed to be prothrombotic. Elevated plasma factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) may raise the risk of coronary thrombosis in the event of plaque rupture. Fibrinogen, an acute-phase protein, is necessary for normal blood clotting; however, elevated levels of fibrinogen increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Here I report the results of three controlled, human dietary intervention studies, which used a randomized crossover design to investigate the hemostatic effects of stearic acid-rich test diets in healthy young men. A diet high in stearic acid (shea butter) resulted in a 13% lower fasting plasma FVIIc than a high palmitic acid diet, and was 18% lower than a diet high in myristic and lauric acids (P = 0.001) after 3 wk of intervention. The stearic acid-rich test fat increased plasma fibrinogen concentrations slightly compared with the myristic-lauric acid diet (P < 0.01). When investigating the acute effects of fatty meals, those high in stearic acid (synthesized test fat) resulted in a smaller postprandial increase in FVII than those high in trans and oleic FA, indicating a smaller increase in activated FVII after ingesting stearic acid compared with fats high in monounsaturated FA, probably caused by lower postprandial lipemia. Thus, the present investigations did not find dietary stearic acid to be more thrombogenic, in either fasting effects compared with other long-chain FA, or in acute effects compared with dietary unsaturated FA, including trans monounsaturated FA. The slightly increased effect on fasting plasma fibrinogen may be biologically insignificant, but it should be investigated further.

  18. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of cardiovascular markers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Liu, Mengling; Wójcik, Oktawia; Parvez, Faruque; Rahaman, Ronald; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob L; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2012-06-15

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relation between arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (matrix metalloproteinase-9, myeloperoxidase, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, soluble E-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)) using baseline data from 668 participants (age, >30 years) in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh (2007-2008). Both well water arsenic and urinary arsenic were positively associated with plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1. For every 1-unit increase in log-transformed well water arsenic (ln μg/L) and urinary arsenic (ln μg/g creatinine), plasma soluble VCAM-1 was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.03) and 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07) times greater, respectively. There was a significant interaction between arsenic exposure and higher body mass index, such that the increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and soluble VCAM-1 associated with arsenic exposure were stronger among people with higher body mass index. The findings indicate an effect of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that could be modified by body mass index and also suggest a potential mechanism underlying the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease.

  19. Circulating leptin levels in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a marker of nutritional status?

    PubMed Central

    Perfetto, F; Tarquini, R; Simonini, G; Bindi, G; Mancuso, F; Guiducci, S; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Falcini, F

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess if plasma leptin is a mediator of cytokine dependent decreased food intake during inflammatory diseases and if it is increased in JIA. Methods: Leptin levels were determined in 31 patients with polyarticular disease and in 37 with oligoarticular disease; 32 healthy children served as controls. Results: Patients had significantly reduced body mass index (BMI) compared with controls (17.3 (3) v 19.1 (3) kg/m2; p<0.005). Leptin was significantly lower in patients than controls (8.1 (4.8) v 10.7 (7.3) ng/ml; p = 0.036), but leptin/BMI values were similar. Absolute (8.2 (4.8) v 8 (4.9); p>0.05) and normalised (0.45 (0.24) v 0.47 (0.24); p>0.05) leptin levels were not significantly different between patients with active and inactive disease and between patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular arthritis (7.8 (4.4) v 8.6 (5.3); p>0.05 and 0.45 (0.23) v 0.48 (0.26); p>0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Leptin production per unit of fat mass is similar in patients and controls. The hypothesis that high levels of proinflammatory cytokines that characterise JIA might induce an increase of adipocytes leptin production is not supported by the results. Leptin may be a marker of nutritional status of JIA. PMID:15608316

  20. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    PubMed

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and to the CSA fraction formed by type 1 and 2a fibers (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). However, when adjusted for body height and age by multiple regression, MG yielded a largely improved prediction of total CSA (multiple r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and of fiber type 1 and 2a CSA (multiple r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The correlations between CK and these muscle parameters were weaker, and elevated CK values were observed in 20% of control subjects despite a prior abstinence from exercise for 5 days. In conclusion, plasma MG, when adjusted for anthropometric parameters unaffected by weight, may be considered as a novel marker of muscle mass (CSA) indicating best the mass of MG-rich type 1 and 2a fibers as well as VO(2)max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer

  1. The plasma levels of soluble ST2 as a marker of gut mucosal damage in early HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Mehraj, Vikram; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Ponte, Rosalie; Lebouché, Bertrand; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Thomas, Réjean; Baril, Jean-Guy; LeBlanc, Roger; Cox, Joseph; Tremblay, Cécile; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Following tissue barrier breaches, interleukin-33 (IL-33) is released as an ‘alarmin’ to induce inflammation. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), as an IL-33 decoy receptor, contributes to limit inflammation. We assessed the relationship between the IL-33/ST2 axis and markers of gut mucosal damage in patients with early (EHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI) and elite controllers. Design: Analyses on patients with EHI and CHI were conducted to determine IL-33/sST2 changes over time. Methods: IL-33 and sST2 levels were measured in plasma. Correlations between sST2 levels and plasma viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, expression of T-cell activation/exhaustion markers, gut mucosal damage, microbial translocation and inflammation markers, as well as kynurenine/tryptophan ratio were assessed. Results: Plasma sST2 levels were elevated in EHI compared with untreated CHI and uninfected controls, whereas IL-33 levels were comparable in all groups. In EHI, sST2 levels were positively correlated with the CD8+ T-cell count and the percentage of T cells expressing activation and exhaustion markers, but not with viral load or CD4+ T-cell count. Plasma sST2 levels also correlated with plasma levels of gut mucosal damage, microbial translocation and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and for some markers of inflammation. Prospective analyses showed that early antiretroviral therapy had no impact on sST2 levels, whereas longer treatment duration initiated during CHI normalized sST2. Conclusion: As sST2 levels were elevated in EHI and were correlated with CD8+ T-cell count, immune activation, and microbial translocation, sST2 may serve as a marker of disease progression, gut damage and may directly contribute to HIV pathogenesis. PMID:27045377

  2. Increased levels of oxidative and carbonyl stress markers in normal ovarian cortex surrounding endometriotic cysts.

    PubMed

    Di Emidio, Giovanna; D'Alfonso, Angela; Leocata, Pietro; Parisse, Valentina; Di Fonso, Adina; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Patacchiola, Felice; Tatone, Carla; Carta, Gaspare

    2014-11-01

    Many evidence support the view that endometriotic cyst may exert detrimental effect on the surrounding ovarian microenvironment so representing a risk to functionality of adjacent follicles. Patients with benign ovarian cyst (endometriotic, follicular and dermoid cysts) subjected to laparoscopic cystectomy were enrolled in the present retrospective study in order to analyze whether endometriotic tissue could negatively affect the surrounding normal ovarian cortex more severely than other ovarian cysts. To this end we carried out immunohistochemistry analysis and comparative determination of the transcription factor FOXO3A, oxidized DNA adduct 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) and damaged proteins known as AGEs (Advanced Glycation End products) as markers of ovarian stress response and molecular damage. Our results show that all the markers analyzed were present in normal ovarian tissue surrounding benign cysts. We observed higher levels of FOXO3A (15.90 ± 0.28), 8-OHdG (13.33 ± 2.07) and AGEs (12.58 ± 4.34) staining in normal ovarian cortex surrounding endometriotic cysts in comparison with follicular cysts (9.04 ± 0.29, 2.67 ± 2.67, 11.31 ± 2.95, respectively) and dermoid cysts (2.02 ± 0.18, 4.33 ± 2.58 and 10.56 ± 4.03, respectively). These results provide evidence that ovarian endometrioma is responsible for more severe alterations to cellular biomolecules than follicular and dermoid cysts.

  3. Increased Levels of NF-kB-Dependent Markers in Cancer-Associated Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Malaponte, Grazia; Signorelli, Salvatore S; Bevelacqua, Valentina; Polesel, Jerry; Taborelli, Martina; Guarneri, Claudio; Fenga, Concettina; Umezawa, Kazou; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies highlight the role of inflammatory markers in thrombosis as well as in cancer. However, their combined role in cancer-associated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the molecular mechanisms, involved in its pathophysiology, needs further investigations. In the present study, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteases-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue factor (TF), fibrinogen and soluble P-selectin, were analyzed in plasma and in monocyte samples from 385 cancer patients, of whom 64 were concomitantly affected by DVT (+). All these markers were higher in cancer patients DVT+ than in those DVT-. Accordingly, significantly higher NF-kB activity was observed in cancer patients DVT+ than DVT-. Significant correlation between data obtained in plasma and monocyte samples was observed. NF-kB inhibition was associated with decreased levels of all molecules in both cancer DVT+ and DVT-. To further demonstrate the involvement of NF-kB activation by the above mentioned molecules, we treated monocyte derived from healthy donors with a pool of sera from cancer patients with and without DVT. These set of experiments further suggest the significant role played by some molecules, regulated by NF-kB, and detected in cancer patients with DVT. Our data support the notion that NF-kB may be considered as a therapeutic target for cancer patients, especially those complicated by DVT. Treatment with NF-kB inhibitors may represent a possible strategy to prevent or reduce the risk of DVT in cancer patients.

  4. Hemostatic factors in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaimin; Rowley, Kevin; Best, James; McDermott, Robyn; Taylor, Michael; O'Dea, Kerin

    2007-05-01

    Hemostatic processes are important in precipitating myocardial infarction and stroke. Elevated plasma fibrinogen is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the results of previous studies on the association of plasma factor VIIc activity with CVD and diabetes have been inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to explore the association of plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc to clinical characteristics and estimated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Cross-sectional surveys of Australian Aboriginal people (n = 852) and Torres Strait Islanders (n = 276) aged 15 years and older were conducted from 1993 to 1995. Anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, fasting plasma fibrinogen, factor VIIc, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were measured. Levels of fibrinogen (mean, 95% confidence interval) for Aboriginal (3.52, 3.44-3.59 g/L) and Torres Strait Islander people (3.62, 3.49-3.75 g/L) were higher compared with previous reports from other populations. Factor VIIc (mean, 95% confidence interval) was especially high in Torres Strait Islanders (116%, 111%-122%) compared with Aboriginal people (99%, 97%-102%). Fibrinogen increased with age in both ethnic groups and sexes. Fibrinogen was independently associated with female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and diabetes, whereas the independent predictors for factor VIIc were Torres Strait Islander ethnicity, female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, and total cholesterol. Average fibrinogen levels were high (>3.5 mg/dL) even for people considered "below average risk of coronary heart disease" according to conventional risk factor levels. For Aboriginal women, levels of fibrinogen and factor VIIc were significantly higher for persons at high risk than those at below average risk. The data suggest that plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc might

  5. Control of bleeding in surgical procedures: critical appraisal of HEMOPATCH (Sealing Hemostat)

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin Michael; Kuntze, Carl Erik; Gulle, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    The need for advanced hemostatic agents increases with the complexity of surgical procedures and use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet treatments. HEMOPATCH (Sealing Hemostat) is a novel, advanced hemostatic pad that is composed of a synthetic, protein-reactive monomer and a collagen backing. The active side is covered with a protein-reactive monomer: N-hydroxysuccinimide functionalized polyethylene glycol (NHS-PEG). NHS-PEG rapidly affixes the collagen pad to tissue to promote and maintain hemostasis. The combined action of the NHS-PEG and collagen is demonstrated to have benefit relative to other hemostatic agents in surgery and preclinical surgical models. This paper reviews the published investigations and case reports of the hemostatic efficacy of HEMOPATCH, wherein HEMOPATCH is demonstrated to be an effective, easy-to-use hemostatic agent in open and minimally invasive surgery of patients with thrombin- or platelet-induced coagulopathies. PMID:26730213

  6. Control of bleeding in surgical procedures: critical appraisal of HEMOPATCH (Sealing Hemostat).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevin Michael; Kuntze, Carl Erik; Gulle, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    The need for advanced hemostatic agents increases with the complexity of surgical procedures and use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet treatments. HEMOPATCH (Sealing Hemostat) is a novel, advanced hemostatic pad that is composed of a synthetic, protein-reactive monomer and a collagen backing. The active side is covered with a protein-reactive monomer: N-hydroxysuccinimide functionalized polyethylene glycol (NHS-PEG). NHS-PEG rapidly affixes the collagen pad to tissue to promote and maintain hemostasis. The combined action of the NHS-PEG and collagen is demonstrated to have benefit relative to other hemostatic agents in surgery and preclinical surgical models. This paper reviews the published investigations and case reports of the hemostatic efficacy of HEMOPATCH, wherein HEMOPATCH is demonstrated to be an effective, easy-to-use hemostatic agent in open and minimally invasive surgery of patients with thrombin- or platelet-induced coagulopathies.

  7. Obesity indices and metabolic markers are related to hs-CRP and adiponectin levels in overweight and obese females.

    PubMed

    Sanip, Zulkefli; Ariffin, Farah Diana; Al-Tahami, Belqes Abdullah Mohammed; Sulaiman, Wan Azman Wan; Rasool, Aida Hanum Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Obese subjects had increased serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), decreased adiponectin levels, and impaired microvascular endothelial function compared to lean subjects. We investigated the relationships of serum hs-CRP, adiponectin and microvascular endothelial function with obesity indices and metabolic markers in overweight and obese female subjects. Anthropometric profile, body fat composition, biochemical analysis, serum hs-CRP and adiponectin levels, and microvascular endothelial function were measured in 91 female subjects. Microvascular endothelial function was determined using laser Doppler fluximetry and the process of iontophoresis. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) of subjects were 34.88 (7.87) years and 32.93 (4.82) kg/m(2). hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat and visceral fat. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-%S), and inversely correlated with waist hip ratio, triglyceride, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). No relationship was seen between microvascular endothelial function and obesity indices, and metabolic markers. In overweight and obese female subjects, hs-CRP levels were correlated with obesity indices while adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with obesity indices and metabolic markers. No significant relationship was seen between microvascular endothelial function with obesity indices and metabolic markers including hs-CRP and adiponectin in female overweight and obese subjects.

  8. Patient blood management: use of topical hemostatic and sealant agents.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sherri

    2013-11-01

    Patient blood management is the scientific use of safe, effective medical and surgical techniques designed to conserve blood, prevent anemia, decrease bleeding, and optimize coagulation in an effort to improve patient outcomes. Perioperative and primary care nurses play a vital role in promoting and making the best use of patient blood management and can play a key role in implementing effective strategies that decrease or eliminate patient exposure to allogeneic blood. The fast and effective minimization of intraoperative bleeding is integral in an effective blood management program. Topical hemostatic and sealant agents can be used to improve blood conservation, reduce overall procedure time, and contribute to faster patient recovery based on specific clinical situations. The proper selection of hemostatic agents can greatly influence the patient's clinical outcomes.

  9. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among

  10. Monthly hemostatic factor variability in women and men

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alison M.; Stewart, Paul W.; Fung, Mark K.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Tracy, Russell P.; Pearson, Thomas A.; Lefevre, Michael; Reed, Roberta G.; Elmer, Patricia J.; Holleran, Stephen; Ershow, Abby G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hormonal status influences hemostatic factors including fibrinogen, factor VII and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and concentrations differ among men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women. This study examines how phases of the menstrual cycle influence variability of fibrinogen, factor VII and PAI-1. Design We studied 103 subjects (39 premenopausal women, 18 postmenopausal women, and 46 men) during three, randomized, 8-week energy and nutrient-controlled experimental diets in the DELTA (Dietary Effects on Lipids and Thrombotic Activity) Study. Fasting blood samples were collected weekly during the last four weeks of each diet period and hemostatic factors were quantified. Two linear mixed-effects models were used for fibrinogen, factor VII and PAI-1: one to estimate and compare group-specific components of variance, the other to estimate additional fixed effects representing cyclical functions of day of menstrual cycle in premenopausal women. Results Systematic cyclical variation with day of menstrual cycle was observed for fibrinogen (p<0.0001), factor VII (p=0.0012), and PAI-1 (p=0.0024) in premenopausal women. However, the amplitude of cycling was small relative to the total magnitude of intra-individual variability. In addition, the intra-individual variance and corresponding coefficient of variation observed in premenopausal women did not differ from postmenopausal women and men. Conclusions The variability in hemostatic factors in premenopausal women is no greater than for postmenopausal women or men. Consequently, premenopausal women can be included in studies investigating hemostatic factor responses without controlling for stage of menstrual cycle. PMID:24382103

  11. Thrombin-Based Hemostatic Agent in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xin; Tian, Peng; Xu, Gui-Jun; Sun, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Xin-Long

    2017-02-01

    The present meta-analysis pooled the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to identify and assess the efficacy and safety of thrombin-based hemostatic agent in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Potential academic articles were identified from the Cochrane Library, Medline (1966-2015.5), PubMed (1966-2015.5), Embase (1980-2015.5), and ScienceDirect (1966-2015.5). Relevant journals and the recommendations of expert panels were also searched by using Google search engine. RCTs assessing the efficacy and safety of thrombin-based hemostatic agent in primary TKA were included. Pooling of data was analyzed by RevMan 5.1 (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). A total of four RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis revealed significant differences in postoperative hemoglobin decline (p < 0.00001), total blood loss (p < 0.00001), drainage volume (p = 0.01), and allogenic blood transfusion (p = 0.01) between the treatment group and the control group. No significant differences were found regarding incidence of infection (p = 0.45) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT; p = 0.80) between the groups. Meta-analysis indicated that the application of thrombin-based hemostatic agent before wound closure decreased postoperative hemoglobin decline, drainage volume, total blood loss, and transfusion rate and did not increase the risk of infection, DVT, or other complications. Therefore, the reviewers believe that thrombin-based hemostatic agent is effective and safe in primary TKA.

  12. Association of Plasma ADMA Levels with MRI Markers of Vascular Brain Injury: The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Pikula, Aleksandra; Böger, Rainer H.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Maas, Renke; DeCarli, Charles; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Himali, Jayandra J.; Schulze, Friedrich; Au, Rhoda; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kase, Carlos S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wolf, Philip A.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Elevated circulating ADMA concentrations have been associated with systemic and carotid atherosclerosis, an elevated risk of developing stroke and with MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH). The relation of plasma ADMA to subclinical vascular brain injury has not been previously studied in a middle-aged, community-based sample. Methods In 2013 stroke-free Framingham Offspring (mean age 58±9.5yrs, 53% women) we related baseline plasma ADMA levels (1995–98) to subsequent brain MRI (1999–2004) measures of subclinical vascular injury: presence of silent brain infarcts (SBI) and large white matter hyperintensity volume (LWMH; defined as >1SD above age-specific mean). Results Prevalence of SBI and LWMH were 10.7% and 12.6%, respectively. In multivariable analyses adjusting for age-, sex- and traditional stroke risk factors, higher ADMA levels were associated with an increased risk of prevalent SBI (OR per SD increase in ADMA: 1.16, 95%CI: 1.01–1.33, p= 0.04).We observed that participants in the upper three age-specific quartiles of plasma ADMA had an increased prevalence of SBI (OR for Q2–4 versus Q1:1.43, 95%CI: 1.00–2.04, p<0.05). Prevalence of SBI in Q1and Q2–4 was 8.3% and 11.6%, respectively. Prevalence of LWMH did not differ according to ADMA concentrations. Conclusion Higher plasma ADMA was associated with increased prevalence of SBI after adjustment for traditional stroke risk factors. Thus, ADMA may be a potentially useful new biomarker of subclinical vascular brain injury, which is an important correlate of vascular cognitive impairment and risk of stroke. PMID:19644064

  13. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine differentially affects hemostatic parameters in diverse conditions in rats: an investigation via thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Cam, Betul; Sagdilek, Engin; Yildirim, Nalan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-04-01

    Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has several physiological and pharmacological effects on various bodily functions, including hemostasis. This study determined the impact of CDP-choline on hemostasis in a trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) model in rats or under in vitro conditions or after chronic treatment via thromboelastography. Trauma-hemorrhage resuscitation was induced, and either saline (1 mL/kg) or CDP-choline (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously just prior to resuscitation in the T-H group and at the same time point in the sham-control group. The effects of CDP-choline on thromboelastogram parameters, coagulation markers, and platelet aggregation were investigated under in vitro conditions (1.5 mM, 30- or 3-min incubation in blood or plasma) and after chronic use (50 mg/kg, i.p., 10 days). Acute CDP-choline treatment was shown to decrease the initial and maximum clot formation time, accelerate clotting rapidity, reduce the lysis percentage, and increase the coagulation index in the T-H resuscitation group, whereas the same treatment in the sham-control rats did not alter any of the thromboelastogram parameters. However, the incubation of whole blood with CDP-choline prolonged the initial and maximum clot formation time, and CDP-choline treatment significantly decreased the slopes of the disaggregation and aggregation curves when platelets were stimulated with ADP and collagen, respectively. Interestingly, the chronic use of this drug did not influence any of these hemostatic parameters. These data implicate that acute but not chronic CDP-choline administration may differentially alter the hemostatic parameters under diverse conditions. The drug may produce a hypercoagulable state in activated situations but cause opposite effects under normal in vitro conditions.

  14. Preparation and hemostatic property of low molecular weight silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Lei, Caihong; Zhu, Hailin; Li, Jingjing; Feng, Xinxing; Chen, Jianyong

    2016-01-01

    Effective hemorrhage control becomes increasingly significant in today's military and civilian trauma, while the topical hemostats currently available in market still have various disadvantages. In this study, three low molecular weight silk fibroins (LMSF) were prepared through hydrolysis of silk fibroin in a ternary solvent system of CaCl2/H2O/EtOH solution at different hydrolysis temperatures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the content of β sheet structure in the LMSF decreased with the increase in hydrolysis temperature. The results of thromboelastographic and activated partial thromboplastin time methods showed that the LMSF hydrolyzed at 50 °C can significantly strengthen the coagulation in blood and activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade. In the murine hepatic injury model, the LMSF hydrolyzed at 50 °C can promote the blood clotting and decrease the blood loss and bleeding time. Based on these results, it can be suggested that the developed LMSF has the excellent hemostatic effect and may be a promising material in clinical hemostatic application.

  15. Osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts on a hemostatic gelatin sponge

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Zong-Keng; Lai, Po-Liang; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon; Weng, Cheng-Hsi; Tseng, Hsiang-Wen; Chang, Pei-Zen; Chen, Chih-Chen; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering provides many advantages for repairing skeletal defects. Although many different kinds of biomaterials have been used for bone tissue engineering, safety issues must be considered when using them in a clinical setting. In this study, we examined the effects of using a common clinical item, a hemostatic gelatin sponge, as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The use of such a clinically acceptable item may hasten the translational lag from laboratory to clinical studies. We performed both degradation and biocompatibility studies on the hemostatic gelatin sponge, and cultured preosteoblasts within the sponge scaffold to demonstrate its osteogenic differentiation potential. In degradation assays, the gelatin sponge demonstrated good stability after being immersed in PBS for 8 weeks (losing only about 10% of its net weight and about 54% decrease of mechanical strength), but pepsin and collagenases readily biodegraded it. The gelatin sponge demonstrated good biocompatibility to preosteoblasts as demonstrated by MTT assay, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation and the migration of preosteoblasts, elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, and in vitro mineralization were observed within the scaffold structure. Each of these results indicates that the hemostatic gelatin sponge is a suitable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27616161

  16. Growth inhibitory activity of Ankaferd hemostat on primary melanoma cells and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Seyhan; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Hocaoglu, Helin; Mutlu, Duygu; Gunes, Gursel; Aksu, Salih; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Ankaferd hemostat is the first topical hemostatic agent about the red blood cell–fibrinogen relations tested in the clinical trials. Ankaferd hemostat consists of standardized plant extracts including Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ankaferd hemostat on viability of melanoma cell lines. Methods: Dissimilar melanoma cell lines and primary cells were used in this study. These cells were treated with different concentrations of Ankaferd hemostat to assess the impact of different dosages of the drug. All cells treated with different concentrations were incubated for different time intervals. After the data had been obtained, one-tailed T-test was used to determine whether the Ankaferd hemostat would have any significant inhibitory impact on cell growth. Results: We demonstrated in this study that cells treated with Ankaferd hemostat showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared to control groups. The cells showed different resistances against Ankaferd hemostat which depended on the dosage applied and the time treated cells had been incubated. We also demonstrated an inverse relationship between the concentration of the drug and the incubation time on one hand and the viability of the cells on the other hand, that is, increasing the concentration of the drug and the incubation time had a negative impact on cell viability. Conclusion: The findings in our study contribute to our knowledge about the anticancer impact of Ankaferd hemostat on different melanoma cells. PMID:28293423

  17. Effects on hemostatic variables of desogestrel- and gestodene-containing oral contraceptives in comparison with levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives: a review.

    PubMed

    Winkler, U H

    1998-09-01

    In some studies third-generation oral contraceptives have been reported to be associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism than are second-generation oral contraceptives, whereas recent, more refined studies have not confirmed this. The reasons for the alleged differences are under discussion, and differential effects on hemostasis have been proposed. Eighteen studies comparing second- and third-generation oral contraceptives with respect to their effects on hemostasis were analyzed. Significant changes from baseline were reported for many variables with both second- and third-generation oral contraceptives without significant between-group differences. Also, in a combined analysis of nonsignificant changes, no consistent pattern of change emerged for any marker, with the exception of higher factor VII levels associated with third-generation oral contraceptives. However, factor VII is not related to venous thromboembolism risk. In addition, 1 cross-sectional study with an unvalidated assay reported a higher ratio of activated protein C sensitivity with third-generation oral contraceptives. Only 2 components of the hemostatic system (factor VII and activated protein C sensitivity ratio) emerged as potentially differentially affected by second- and third-generation oral contraceptives; the association with venous thromboembolism risk is questionable in the former case and unknown in the latter.

  18. Can the laboratory assay of protein C activity assist in monitoring the hemostatic function in pre-eclampsia?

    PubMed

    He, S; Bremme, K; Blombäck, M

    1999-04-01

    Published reports do not agree about whether protein C activity is non-significantly changed or decreased in a hypercoagulable state induced by pre-eclampsia without hemolysis-elevated liver enzyme/low platelet (HELLP) syndrome. In order to assess the relationship between this anticoagulant and enhanced hemostasis, levels of protein C activity, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, soluble fibrin, fibrin D-dimers and antithrombin were determined in 30 pre-eclampsia patients without the HELLP syndrome, in 22 normal pregnant women in gestational weeks 30-35, and in 13 non-pregnant controls. Levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, soluble fibrin and D-dimers increased (P < 0.05) whereas antithrombin decreased (P < 0.05) in patients with pre-eclampsia, compared with normal pregnant women. Levels of protein C did not differ significantly between patients with pre-eclampsia, normal pregnant women and controls (P > 0.05). The 5th and 95th percentiles of protein C levels in normal pregnant women were 0.53 and 1.30 U/ml, respectively; levels between these two values could be considered physiological. When the pre-eclampsia patients were subdivided according to these percentiles, none belonged to the subgroup with protein C < or = 5th percentile; 23% (seven of 30) fell into the subgroup with protein C > or = 95th percentile. Elevated levels of hypercoagulation markers were shown in the groups whose protein C fell within 5th-95th or > or = 95th percentiles (P < 0.05), compared with normal pregnant women. Concentrations of protein C and thrombin-antithrombin complex were significantly correlated (r = 0.69, P > 0.05) in patients with pre-eclampsia. In summary, in subjects with pre-eclampsia without the HELLP syndrome, protein C activity may be similar to that in normal pregnant women. However, such a 'physiological' anticoagulant level in association with the enhanced thrombin generation and fibrin formation does not necessarily reflect a physiological capability of coagulation

  19. Increased serum resistin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes are not linked with markers of insulin resistance and adiposity.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, G; Ohta, M; Ichida, Y; Obayashi, H; Shigeta, M; Yamasaki, M; Fukui, M; Yoshikawa, T; Nakamura, N

    2005-06-01

    The role of resistin in human biology remains uncertain. We measured serum resistin levels in Japanese patients with (n=111) and without (n=98) type 2 diabetes mellitus and investigated the significance of this hormone in the pathophysiology of diabetes. The levels of serum adiponectin and leptin were also measured. Resistin levels were increased significantly in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects (24.7+/-2.6 vs. 15.0+/-1.2 ng/ml, p=0.0013). However, there was no correlation in either patient group between serum resistin levels and markers of insulin resistance, obesity or hyperlipidaemia. These results were in direct contrast to the data of leptin or adiponectin, both of which were closely related to these clinical markers of diabetes. Multivariate regression analysis on the combined data of the two groups demonstrated that the presence of diabetes and HDL cholesterol levels were significant predictors of serum resistin levels (diabetes: beta=0.159, p=0.035; HDL: beta=-0.172, p=0.039). No correlation was observed between C-reactive protein and resistin adjusted for BMI. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that serum resistin levels are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes, but this increase is not linked to markers of insulin resistance or adiposity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the significance of serum resistin concentration in human pathophysiology.

  20. [Effects of mexidol and sulodexide on the level of specific markers of endothelial dysfunction in animals with experimental diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Voronkov, A V; Slietsans, A A; Snigur, G L

    2012-01-01

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetes leads to the development of endothelial dysfunction, as evidenced by decreased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increased expression of endothelin-1 as specific markers of endothelial disorders. All test substances showed endotelioprotective activity by increasing the concentration of eNOS and reducing the level of endothelin-1. With respect to the degree of impact on the eNOS and endothelin-1 levels, the compounds studied can be rated as follows: sulodexide > meksidol.

  1. Effect of HPV on tumor expression levels of the most commonly used markers in HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Polanska, Hana; Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Raudenska, Martina; Svobodova, Marketa; Balvan, Jan; Fojtu, Michaela; Binkova, Hana; Horakova, Zuzana; Kostrica, Rom; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Masarik, Michal

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 90 % of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), and the overall 5-year survival rate is not higher than 50 %. There is much evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may influence the expression of commonly studied HNSCC markers. Our study was focused on the possible HPV-specificity of molecular markers that could be key players in important steps of cancerogenesis (MKI67, EGF, EGFR, BCL-2, BAX, FOS, JUN, TP53, MT1A, MT2A, VEGFA, FLT1, MMP2, MMP9, and POU5F). qRT-PCR analysis of these selected genes was performed on 74 biopsy samples of tumors from patients with histologically verified HNSCC (22 HPV-, 52 HPV+). Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to determine the relevance of these selected markers for HNSCC prognosis. In conclusion, our study confirms the impact of HPV infection on commonly studied HNSCC markers MT2A, MMP9, FLT1, VEGFA, and POU5F that were more highly expressed in HPV-negative HNSCC patients and also shows the relevance of studied markers in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC patients.

  2. Hemostatic efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a recombinant von Willebrand factor in severe von Willebrand disease

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Joan C.; Castaman, Giancarlo; Windyga, Jerzy; Kouides, Peter; Ragni, Margaret; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Obermann-Slupetzky, Ortrun; Chapman, Miranda; Fritsch, Sandor; Pavlova, Borislava G.; Presch, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    This phase 3 trial evaluated the safety and hemostatic efficacy of a recombinant von Willebrand factor (rVWF) for treatment of bleeds in severe von Willebrand disease (VWD). rVWF was initially administered together with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) and subsequently alone, as long as hemostatic factor VIII activity (FVIII:C) levels were maintained. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated in a randomized cross-over design (rVWF vs rVWF:rFVIII at 50 IU VWF:ristocetin cofactor activity [RCo]/kg). Bleed control for all treated bleeds (N = 192 bleeds in 22 subjects) was rated good or excellent (96.9% excellent; 119 of 122 minor, 59 of 61 moderate, and 6 of 7 major bleeds) on a 4-point scale (4 = none to 1 = excellent). A single infusion was effective in 81.8% of bleeds. Treatment success, defined as the number of subjects with a mean efficacy rating of <2.5, was 100%. The PK profile of rVWF was not influenced by rFVIII (mean VWF:RCo terminal half-life: 21.9 hours for rVWF and 19.6 hours for rVWF:rFVIII). FVIII:C levels increased rapidly after rVWF alone, with hemostatic levels achieved within 6 hours and sustained through 72 hours after infusion. Eight adverse events (AEs; 6 nonserious AEs in 4 subjects and 2 serious AEs [chest discomfort and increased heart rate, without cardiac symptomatology] concurrently in 1 subject) were associated with rVWF. There were no thrombotic events or severe allergic reactions. No VWF or FVIII inhibitors, anti-VWF binding antibodies, or antibodies against host cell proteins were detected. These results show that rVWF was safe and effective in treating bleeds in VWD patients and stabilizes endogenous FVIII:C, which may eliminate the need for rFVIII after the first infusion. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01410227. PMID:26239086

  3. Hemostatic efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a recombinant von Willebrand factor in severe von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Gill, Joan C; Castaman, Giancarlo; Windyga, Jerzy; Kouides, Peter; Ragni, Margaret; Leebeek, Frank W G; Obermann-Slupetzky, Ortrun; Chapman, Miranda; Fritsch, Sandor; Pavlova, Borislava G; Presch, Isabella; Ewenstein, Bruce

    2015-10-22

    This phase 3 trial evaluated the safety and hemostatic efficacy of a recombinant von Willebrand factor (rVWF) for treatment of bleeds in severe von Willebrand disease (VWD). rVWF was initially administered together with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) and subsequently alone, as long as hemostatic factor VIII activity (FVIII : C) levels were maintained. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated in a randomized cross-over design (rVWF vs rVWF:rFVIII at 50 IU VWF:ristocetin cofactor activity [RCo]/kg). Bleed control for all treated bleeds (N = 192 bleeds in 22 subjects) was rated good or excellent (96.9% excellent; 119 of 122 minor, 59 of 61 moderate, and 6 of 7 major bleeds) on a 4-point scale (4 = none to 1 = excellent). A single infusion was effective in 81.8% of bleeds. Treatment success, defined as the number of subjects with a mean efficacy rating of <2.5, was 100%. The PK profile of rVWF was not influenced by rFVIII (mean VWF:RCo terminal half-life: 21.9 hours for rVWF and 19.6 hours for rVWF:rFVIII). FVIII : C levels increased rapidly after rVWF alone, with hemostatic levels achieved within 6 hours and sustained through 72 hours after infusion. Eight adverse events (AEs; 6 nonserious AEs in 4 subjects and 2 serious AEs [chest discomfort and increased heart rate, without cardiac symptomatology] concurrently in 1 subject) were associated with rVWF. There were no thrombotic events or severe allergic reactions. No VWF or FVIII inhibitors, anti-VWF binding antibodies, or antibodies against host cell proteins were detected. These results show that rVWF was safe and effective in treating bleeds in VWD patients and stabilizes endogenous FVIII : C, which may eliminate the need for rFVIII after the first infusion. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01410227.

  4. Effects of vitamin-mineral supplementation on cardiac marker and radical scavenging enzymes, and MDA levels in young swimmers.

    PubMed

    Cavas, Levent; Tarhan, Leman

    2004-04-01

    The relationship among the enzyme activities of cardiac markers, the antioxidant defense system, and erythrocyte membrane malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels related to vitamin-mineral supplementation in swim exercise was investigated. Swimmers aged 11 - 13 years were divided into 2 separate groups as control and vitamin-mineral supplemented. Swimmers participated in a monthly swimming program (4 times/wk) and swam approximately 2- 2.5 km/d. Cardiac markers such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK - MB), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [GOT (AST)], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in post-training samples were found to be significantly (p<.05) higher than in pre-training samples. Except for GOT (AST), the activity increases in CK, CK-MB, and LDH in female and male supplemented groups were significantly (p<.05) lower than those of control groups during the 1-month period of swim training. Antioxidant enzyme activity increases in the male vitamin-mineral group were significantly (p <.05) higher when compared with the other groups. Post-training MDA levels were significantly (p <.001) higher than pre-training MDA levels in the control groups, whereas no significant (p<.05) differences were found between the vitamin-mineral supplemented groups. Vitamin-mineral supplementation was found to attenuate cardiac and muscle damage markers while also enhancing antioxidant levels and reducing membrane LPO levels in response to 1 month of swim training.

  5. Current Status of Hemostatic Agents and Sealants in Urologic Surgical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kommu, Sashi S; McArthur, Robert; Emara, Amr M; Reddy, Utsav D; Anderson, Christopher J; Barber, Neil J; Persad, Raj A; Eden, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    There has been a recent and near exponential increase in the use of hemostatic agents and sealants to supplement the rapidly evolving methods in the surgical management of urologic patients. This article reviews the use of hemostatic agents and sealants in current urologic practice. PMID:26543429

  6. In vitro analysis of polyurethane foam as a topical hemostatic agent.

    PubMed

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; van Oeveren, Wim; Zuidema, Johan; Visscher, Susan H; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2011-04-01

    Topical hemostatic agents can be used to treat problematic bleedings in patients who undergo surgery. Widely used are the collagen- and gelatin-based hemostats. This study aimed to develop a fully synthetic, biodegradable hemostatic agent to avoid exposure to animal antigens. In this in vitro study the suitability of different newly developed polyurethane-based foams as a hemostatic agent has been evaluated and compared to commonly used agents. An experimental in vitro test model was used in which human blood flowed through the test material. Different modified polyurethane foams were compared to collagen and gelatin. The best coagulation was achieved with collagen. The results of the polyurethane foam improved significantly by increasing the amount of polyethylene glycol. Therefore, the increase of the PEG concentration seems a promising approach. Additional in vivo studies will have to be implemented to assess the application of polyurethane foam as a topical hemostatic agent.

  7. Hemostatic effect of topical hemocoagulase spray in digestive endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Dan-Na; Liu, Wen-Tian; Zheng, Zhong-Qing; Chen, Xin; Fang, Wei-Li; Li, Shu; Liang, Li; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the hemostatic effect of topical hemocoagulase spray in digestive endoscopy. METHODS: Eighty-nine patients who developed oozing bleeding during endoscopic treatment from September 2014 to October 2014 at Center for Digestive Endoscopy, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital were randomly divided into either a study group (n = 39) or a control group (n = 50). The study group was given topical hemocoagulase spray intraoperatively, while the control group was given traditional 8% norepinephrine spray. Hemostatic efficacy was compared between the two groups. Bleeding site, wound cleanliness and perforation were recorded, and the rates of perforation and late bleeding were compared. RESULTS: Successful hemostasis was achieved in 39 (100%) patients of the study group and in 47 (94.0%) patients of the control group, and there was no significant difference in the rate of successful hemostasis between the two groups. Compared with the control group, after topical hemocoagulase spray in the study group, the surgical field was clearer, the bleeding site was more easily identified, and the wound was cleaner. There was no significant difference in the rate of perforation between the study and control groups (16.7% vs 35.0%, P = 0.477), but the rates of late bleeding (0% vs 15.8%, P = 0.048) and overall complications (P = 0.032) were significantly lower in the study group. CONCLUSION: Topical hemocoagulase spray has a definite hemostatic effect for oozing bleeding in digestive endoscopy, and this method is convenient, safe, and reliable. It is expected to become a new method for endoscopic hemostasis. PMID:27433096

  8. The possible role of hydrogen sulfide as a modulator of hemostatic parameters of plasma.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

    2014-09-05

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well known toxic gas at high levels. However, at physiological levels, H2S may play a role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to study the effects of exogenous H2S on the hemostatic parameters (coagulation and fibrinolytic activity) of human plasma. Human plasma was incubated (5, 15 and 30 min) with NaHS as a H2S donor at the final concentration of 0.01-100 μM. Hemostatic factors, such as maximum velocity of clot formation, fibrin lysis half-time, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT) were estimated. Moreover, the aim of our study was to establish the influence of NaHS (10 μM; 5, 15 and 30 min) on the clot formation using the purified fibrinogen. We demonstrated that coagulation/fibrinolytic properties of human plasma incubated with NaHS were changed. APPT, PT and TT of plasma treated with NaHS at tested concentrations--0.01-100 μM were prolonged. We observed that NaHS (0.01-100 μM) reduced fibrin polymerization in whole plasma and 10 μM NaHS also reduced polymerization of purified fibrinogen. In the presence of NaHS (at the low tested concentration--1 μM) the decrease was about 18% (in plasma, p<0.05). Our experiments also showed that NaHS (0.01-100 μM) stimulated the fibrin lysis in whole plasma. However, the time-dependent (5, 15 and 30 min) reduction of fibrin/fibrinogen polymerization and stimulation of fibrin lysis by NaHS (10 μM) was not observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the anticoagulant properties of exogenous H2S in vitro.

  9. Correlation between the serum and tissue levels of oxidative stress markers and the extent of inflammation in acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Dumlu, Ersin Gürkan; Tokaç, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Birkan; Yildirim, Murat Baki; Ergin, Merve; Yalçin, Abdussamed; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum and tissue levels of markers of impaired oxidative metabolism and correlate these levels with the histopathology and Alvarado score of acute appendicitis patients. METHOD: Sixty-five acute appendicitis patients (mean age, 31.4±12.06 years; male/female, 30/35) and 30 healthy control subjects were studied. The Alvarado score was recorded. Serum samples were obtained before surgery and 12 hours postoperatively to examine the total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, paraoxonase, stimulated paraoxonase, arylesterase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, ceruloplasmin, oxidative stress markers (advanced oxidized protein products and total thiol level) and ischemia-modified albumin. Surgical specimens were also evaluated. RESULTS: The diagnoses were acute appendicitis (n = 37), perforated appendicitis (n = 8), phlegmonous appendicitis (n = 12), perforated+phlegmonous appendicitis (n = 4), or no appendicitis (n = 4). The Alvarado score of the acute appendicitis group was significantly lower than that of the perforated+phlegmonous appendicitis group (p = 0.004). The serum total antioxidant status, total thiol level, advanced oxidized protein products, total oxidant status, catalase, arylesterase, and ischemia-modified albumin levels were significantly different between the acute appendicitis and control groups. There was no correlation between the pathological extent of acute appendicitis and the tissue levels of the markers; additionally, there was no correlation between the tissue and serum levels of any of the parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant systems plays a role in the pathogenesis acute appendicitis. The Alvarado score can successfully predict the presence and extent of acute appendicitis. PMID:25518019

  10. Correlation of Serum CA-125 and Progesterone Levels with Ultrasound Markers in The Prediction of Pregnancy Outcome in Threatened Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Al Mohamady, Maged; Fattah, Ghada Abdel; Elkattan, Eman; Bayoumy, Rasha; Hamed, Dalia Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ultrasonographic findings and serum progesterone and cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) levels in threatened miscarriage and to predict pregnancy outcome. Materials and Methods In a prospective comparative case-control study, serum CA-125 and progesterone levels were measured for 100 pregnant women with threatened miscarriage who attended the outpatient clinic or the causality department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Kasr El-Aini Hospital, Giza, Egypt, during the period from March 2013 to October 2013. Ultrasound was performed for fetal viability, crown-rump length (CRL), gestational sac diameter (GSD) and fetal heart rate (FHR). The patients were followed up and divided into two groups based on the outcome: 20 women who miscarried (group 1), and 80 women who continued pregnancy (group 2). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and overall accuracy were tested for CA-125 and progesterone levels in prediction of the pregnancy outcome. Correlation of these chemical markers with the ultrasound markers was also examined. Results In the group that miscarried, CA-125 level was significantly higher (P<0.001) and serum progesterone level was significantly lower (P<0.001). For prediction of the outcome of pregnancy, the cut-off limit of 31.2 IU/ml for CA-125 level yielded sensitivity, specificity and an overall accuracy of 96.2, 100 and 99.4% respectively. The cut-off limit of 11.5 ng/ml for progesterone level yielded sensitivity, specificity and an overall accuracy of 97.5, 100 and 99.8% respectively. CA-125 level had a negative correlation with progesterone level and FHR levels (r=-0.716, P<0.001) and (r=-0.414, P<0.001) respectively. Serum progesterone level correlated with GSD (r=0.521, P<0.001) and with CRL (r=0.407, P<0.001) and FHR (r=0.363, P<0.001). CA-125 level was significantly higher in the group that showed hematoma as compared with the

  11. Evaluation of topical hemostatic agents for combat wound treatment.

    PubMed

    Kheirabadi, Bijan

    2011-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage remains the leading cause of potentially preventable death in combat casualties. In the current conflict, nearly two-thirds of these deaths occurred as a result of torso injuries with noncompressible hemorrhage and one-third from extremity injuries with compressible bleeding. The natural ability of blood to clot rapidly and stop bleeding from large vessels is far less than needed in the face of severe injuries and may even be diminished as a result of a massive tissue trauma (acute coagulopathy). Therefore, the use of a pressure device (ie, tourniquet) or topical hemostatic dressing is essential to stop compressible hemorrhage and prevent possible shock or death of casualties at the point of injury. To provide combat medics with the best means of treating hemorrhages, it is essential to understand the mechanism of action, efficacy strength, and possible adverse effects of each available hemostatic agent. In this article, we review the risks and benefits of the agents/dressings that have been used on the battlefield, the process that led to the selection of the new agents, and the present deficiencies that must be addressed in the development of new products.

  12. Spirostanol glycosides with hemostatic and antimicrobial activities from Trillium kamtschaticum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Qin, Xu-Jie; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Hui; Shu, Tong; Jin, Ling-Yu; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-11-01

    Ten spirostanol glycosides, trillikamtosides A-J, together with eleven known analogues, were isolated from the hemostatic fraction of the 75% aqueous EtOH extract of the whole herbs of Trillium kamtschaticum. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic data analysis and chemical methods. The aglycones of three of these compounds had unique 3β,17α-dihydroxy-spirostanes featuring a double bond between C-4 and C-5, while two others represent a rare class of spirostanol glycosides which possess a 5(6 → 7) abeo-steroidal aglycone. All the compounds were evaluated for their hemostatic and antimicrobial activities. Three of the spirostanol glycosides exhibited induced-platelet aggregation at a concentration of 300 μg/mL with maximal induced-platelet aggregation rates of 72%, 71%, and 62% in rabbits, respectively, and their EC50 values were 492.7, 203.3, and 109.8 μM. Five of the spirostanol glycosides showed an anti-Candida albicans effect with MIC values of 21.1, 10.6, 8.8, 21.6, and 11.0 μM, respectively.

  13. Achieving hemostasis with topical hemostats: making clinically and economically appropriate decisions in the surgical and trauma settings.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Martin A; Neveleff, Deborah J

    2011-11-01

    Achieving hemostasis is a crucial focus of clinicians working in surgical and trauma settings. Topical hemostatic agents-including mechanical hemostats, active hemostats, flowable hemostats, and fibrin sealants-are frequently used in efforts to control bleeding, and new options such as hemostatic dressings, initially used in combat situations, are increasingly being used in civilian settings. To achieve successful hemostasis, a number of vital factors must be considered by surgeons and perioperative nurses, such as the size of the wound; bleeding severity; and the efficacy, possible adverse effects, and method of application of potential hemostatic agents. Understanding how and when to use each of the available hemostatic agents can greatly affect clinical outcomes and help to limit the overall cost of treatment.

  14. Clinical Significance of Serum IL-12 Level in Patients with Early Breast Carcinoma and Its Correlation with Other Tumor Markers

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Samar Samir; Mohammad, Manal Moussa; Ezz-El-Arab, Lobna R.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic significance of Interleukin 12 (IL-12) in breast cancer (BC) and its correlation with other tumor markers including cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and MMP9/TIMP1 ratio. METHODS: Serum levels of IL-12, tumor markers, and hormone receptors were measured in 92 BC and 56 benign lesion patients versus 40 healthy subjects. Clinical stage, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, grade, and histological type were recorded. RESULTS: BC patients have lower IL-12, but higher CA 15.3 and CEA than control group. High levels of serum IL-12 were associated with lymph node positivity and progesterone receptor negativity. IL-12 was significant lower in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared to non IDC histological type. IL-12 was higher in patients with higher stage and grade but the difference was not statistically significant. IL-12 correlates negatively with MMP9/TIMP1 ratio. CONCLUSION: IL-12 is less specific than CEA for screening early BC, but its correlation with tumor aggressiveness and progression markers may have a prognostic value. PMID:27275301

  15. Low antimullerian hormone levels may be associated with cardiovascular risk markers in women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Verit, Fatma Ferda; Akyol, Hurkan; Sakar, Mehmet Nafi

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the study was to investigate whether there was any relationship between antimullerian hormone (AMH) and CVD risk markers in the study. Ninety women with DOR and 90 women with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) attending the infertility unit at XXXX, were enrolled in the study. CVD risk markers such as insulin resistance [defined by the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-IR)], C-reactive protein (CRP), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) were assessed. HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, LDL levels were higher and HDL and AMH were lower among patients with DOR compared with controls (p < 0.05, for all). There were positive associations between low AMH and HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, LDL levels and a negative correlation with HDL (p < 0.05, for all). However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HOMA-IR, CRP, TG and HDL were independent variables that were associated with low AMH. There was a close relationship between low AMH and CVD risk markers in the study. Further studies with larger groups are needed to investigate the nature of this link in these patients.

  16. Short-Term Effects of Ankaferd Hemostat for Renal Artery Embolization: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ozbek, Orhan; Acar, Kadir; Koc, Osman; Saritas, Kadir; Toy, Hatice; Solak, Yalcin; Ozbek, Seda; Kucukapan, Ahmet; Guler, Ibrahim; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celaleddin

    2013-04-15

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that is utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We used Ankaferd for RAE in a sheep model. Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective renal arteriogram using 5-F diagnostic catheter was performed to make sure that each kidney was fed by a single renal artery and the animal had normal renal vasculature. Coaxial 2.7-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal main renal artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 2 mL of Ankaferd mixed with 2 mL of nonionic iodinated contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration of flow and stagnation. Control renal angiograms were performed just after embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for 1 day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. The technical success was observed in seven of the seven animals.. After embolization procedure, none of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event. On macroscopic examination of the embolized kidneys, thrombus at the level of main renal artery formed after Ankaferd embolization was more compact compared with the thrombi that was not Ankaferd-associated, which was observed elsewhere. Microscopically, majority of the renal tubular cells (80-90 %) were necrotic, and there was epithelial cell damage in a small portion of the cells (10-20 %). RAE was safe and effective in the short-term with Ankaferd in studied animals. Further studies should be conducted to better delineate the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent.

  17. Decline in platelet microparticles contributes to reduced hemostatic potential of stored plasma

    PubMed Central

    Matijevic, Nena; Wang, Yao-Wei W.; Kostousov, Vadim; Wade, Charles E.; Vijayan, K. Vinod; Holcomb, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In an effort to administer life-saving transfusions quickly, some trauma centers maintain thawed plasma (TP). According to AABB, TP is approved for transfusion for up to five days when stored at 1 – 6 °C. However, the alterations in microparticles (MP) contained in the plasma, which are an integral component of plasma’s hemostatic capacity, are not well characterized. We report on MP changes in TP between its initial thaw (FFP-0) and five days (FFP-5) of storage. Materials and Methods FFP units (n=30) were thawed at 37 °C and kept refrigerated for five days. Phenotypes of residual cells, which include platelets, erythrocytes, leukocytes, monocytes, endothelial cells, and MP counterparts of each cell type, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Functional assays were used for MP procoagulant activity, plasma thrombin generation, and clotting properties (thromboelastography). Results In FFP-0 the majority (94%) of residual cells were platelets, along with significant levels of platelet MPs (4408×103/L). FFP-5 showed a decline in MP count by 50% (p<0.0001), and procoagulant activity by 29% (p<0.0001). FFP-5 exhibited only 54% (p<0.0001) of the potential for thrombin generation as FFP-0, while thromboelastography indicated a slower clotting response (p<0.0001) and a longer delay in reaching maximum clot (p<0.01). Removal of MP by filtration resulted in reduced thrombin generation, while the MP replacement restored it. Conclusions Decline in MP with storage contributes to FFP-5’s reduced ability to provide the hemostatic potential exhibited by FFP-0, suggesting the presence of platelet MPs in freshly TP may be beneficial and protective in the initial treatment of hemorrhage. PMID:21421259

  18. Elevated Levels of Microbial Translocation Markers and CCL2 Among Older HIV-1–Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Eileen; Lockhart, Ainsley; Huang, Lisa; Robles, Yvonne; Becerril, Carlos; Romero-Tejeda, Marisol; Albrecht, Mary A.; Palmer, Christine D.; Bosch, Ronald J; Altfeld, Marcus; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Lin, Nina H.

    2016-01-01

    The aging of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected population obligates a focus on the interaction between aging, comorbid conditions, and HIV-1. We recruited a cohort of HIV-1–infected men aged ≤35 years or ≥50 years who were receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed plasma markers of inflammation; T-cell activation, exhaustion, proliferation; and innate cellular subsets and functional capacity. Levels of lipopolysaccharide and the plasma marker of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 were significantly elevated in older HIV-infected men despite comparable cellular phenotypes. Compared with similarly age-stratified uninfected subjects, older HIV-1–infected adults were also more frequently in the upper quartile of soluble CD14 expression. PMID:26494772

  19. Safety and effectiveness of a synthetic hemostatic patch for intraoperative soft tissue bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Schuhmacher, Christoph; Pratschke, Johann; Weiss, Sascha; Schneeberger, Stefan; Mihaljevic, André L; Schirren, Rebekka; Winkler, Michael; Emmanouilidis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Background Continuous bleeding after using conventional hemostatic methods involving energy, sutures, or clips, is a serious and costly surgical complication. Many topical agents have been developed to promote intraoperative hemostasis, but improvement is needed in both decreasing time to hemostasis and increasing ease of use. Veriset™ hemostatic patch is CE-marked for controlling bleeding on the liver and in soft tissue. In the current study, we aimed to gather further evidence for the safety and effectiveness of Veriset™ hemostatic patch in soft tissue bleeding during a variety of surgical procedures. Methods Thirty patients scheduled for nonemergency surgery, each with an intraoperative soft tissue bleeding site, were treated with Veriset™ hemostatic patch. Time to hemostasis was monitored, and adverse events were assessed during the 90 days after surgery. Results When Veriset™ hemostatic patch was used, hemostasis occurred within 5 minutes in 29/30 (96.7%) subjects and within 1 minute in 21/30 (70.0%) subjects. No device-related serious adverse events were recorded during the 30 days after surgery, and no reoperations for device-related bleeding complications were performed during the 5 days after surgery. Conclusions Veriset™ hemostatic patch is a safe and effective hemostat for controlling soft tissue bleeding during a variety of surgical procedures. PMID:25878513

  20. Isolation, Characterization and Evaluation of Collagen from Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye for Use in Hemostatic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaochen; Liu, Chenguang

    2017-01-01

    Hemostat has been a crucial focus since human body is unable to control massive blood loss, and collagen proves to be an effective hemostat in previous studies. In this study, collagen was isolated from the mesoglea of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye and its hemostatic property was studied. The yields of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble (PSC) were 0.12% and 0.28% respectively. The SDS-PAGE patterns indicated that the collagen extracted from jellyfish mesoglea was type I collagen. The lyophilized jellyfish collagen sponges were cross-linked with EDC and interconnected networks in the sponges were revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Collagen sponges exhibited higher water absorption rates than medical gauze and EDC/NHS cross-linking method could improve the stability of the collagen sponges. Compared with medical gauze groups, the blood clotting indexes (BCIs) of collagen sponges were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and the concentration of collagen also had an influence on the hemostatic property (P < 0.05). Collagen sponges had an improved hemostatic ability compared to the gauze control in tail amputation rat models. Hemostatic mechanism studies showed that hemocytes and platelets could adhere and aggregate on the surface of collagen sponge. All properties make jellyfish collagen sponge to be a suitable candidate used as hemostatic material and for wound healing applications. PMID:28103327

  1. Elevated Levels of Urinary Markers of Oxidative DNA and RNA Damage in Type 2 Diabetes with Complications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinle; Gan, Wei; Zou, Yuangao; Su, Zhenzhen; Deng, Jin; Wang, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying progression of type 2 diabetes are complex and varied. Recent studies indicated that oxidative stress provided a new sight. To further assess the relationship between nucleic acid oxidation and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes and explore its possible molecular mechanisms, we studied 1316 subjects, including 633 type 2 diabetes patients and 683 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Urinary levels of DNA oxidation marker 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and RNA oxidation marker 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) were measured by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Serum glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were also determined. The results showed significantly elevated levels of both the urinary 8-oxodGuo and 8-oxoGuo in diabetes patients with/without complications compared with age-matched healthy control subjects (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, resp.). Patients with complications, especially macrovascular complications, exhibited higher levels of 8-oxoGuo than those without complications, while there was no difference in the concentrations of serum glucose and lipids. The finding indicates the role for oxidative damage to DNA and RNA, as a molecular mechanism contributing to the progression of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of 8-oxoGuo may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes complications, especially in diabetic macrovascular complications. PMID:26770653

  2. Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Madhavi, K.; Dhananjaya Naidu, M.; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200 mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50 mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state. PMID:24204387

  3. Secretory IgA, albumin level, and bone density as markers of biostimulatory effects of laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Bartova, Jirina; Mazanek, Jiri

    1998-12-01

    The aim of contribution is to evaluate the effects of low- level laser radiation on healing process after human molars extraction in lower jaw using frequency 5 Hz, 292 Hz and 9000 Hz. Changes in bone density and monitoring of secretory IgA and albumin levels in saliva were used as a marker of biostimulatory effect. Bone density after extraction and 6 month after surgical treatment was examined using the dental digital radiography. Bone healing was followed by osseointegration of bone structure in extraction wound. Changes of bone density, secretory IgA and albumin levels were compared in groups of patients with laser therapy and control group without laser therapy. Differences in levels of the saliva markers (sIgA and albumin) were found to be significant comparing irradiated and non-irradiated groups, as well as comparing groups irradiated by various modulatory frequencies. Density of alveolar bone (histogram) was examined on five slices acquired from every RVG image. Histograms were evaluated with computer program for microscopic image analysis. Differences of density were verified in area of the whole slice. There were no significant differences found between the bone density in irradiated and non irradiated groups perhaps due to our used therapeutical diagram.

  4. C-reactive Protein as a Prognostic Marker after Lacunar Stroke: The Levels of Inflammatory Markers in the Treatment of Stroke (LIMITS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Luna, Jorge M.; McClure, Leslie A.; Zhang, Yu; Coffey, Christopher S.; Roldan, Ana; Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Pretell, Edwin Javier; Pettigrew, L. Creed; Meyer, Brett C.; Tapia, Jorge; White, Carole; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Inflammatory biomarkers predict incident and recurrent cardiac events, but their relationship to stroke prognosis is uncertain. We hypothesized that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) predicts recurrent ischemic stroke after recent lacunar stroke. Methods Levels of Inflammatory Markers in the Treatment of Stroke (LIMITS) was an international, multicenter, prospective ancillary biomarker study nested within Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3), a Phase III trial in patients with recent lacunar stroke. Patients were assigned in factorial design to aspirin versus aspirin plus clopidogrel, and higher versus lower blood pressure targets. Patients had blood samples collected at enrollment, and hsCRP measured using nephelometry at a central laboratory. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HR, 95%CI) for recurrence risks before and after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and statin use. Results Among 1244 lacunar stroke patients (mean 63.3 ± 10.8 years), median hsCRP was 2.16 mg/L. There were 83 recurrent ischemic strokes (including 45 lacunes), and 115 major vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular death). Compared with the bottom quartile, those in the top quartile (hsCRP >4.86 mg/L) were at increased risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (unadjusted HR 2.54, 95%CI 1.30–4.96), even after adjusting for demographics and risk factors (adjusted HR 2.32, 95%CI 1.15–4.68). HsCRP predicted increased risk of major vascular events (top quartile adjusted HR 2.04, 95%CI 1.14–3.67). There was no interaction with randomized antiplatelet treatment. Conclusions Among recent lacunar stroke patients, hsCRP levels predict risk of recurrent strokes and other vascular events. HsCRP did not predict response to dual antiplatelets. PMID:24523037

  5. Hemostatic properties of the free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cram, Gary P., Jr.; Copeland, Michael L.

    1998-09-01

    We have investigated the hemostatic properties of the free-electron laser (FEL) and compared these properties to the most commonly used commercial lasers in neurosurgery, CO 2 and Nd:YAG, using an acute canine model. Arterial and venous vessels, of varying diameters from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, were divided with all three lasers. Analysis of five wavelengths of the FEL (3.0, 4.5, 6.1, 6.45, and 7.7 microns) resulted in bleeding without evidence of significant coagulation, regardless of whether the vessel was an artery or vein. Hemorrhage from vessels less than 0.4 mm diameter was subsequently easily controlled with Gelfoam® (topical hemostatic agent) alone, whereas larger vessels required bipolar electrocautery. No significant charring, or contraction of the surrounding parenchyma was noted with any of the wavelengths chosen from FEL source. The CO 2 laser, in continuous mode, easily coagulated vessels with diameters of 4 mm and less, while larger vessels displayed significant bleeding requiring bipolar electrocautery for control. Tissue charring was noted with application of the CO 2 laser. In super pulse mode, the CO 2 laser exhibited similar properties, including significant charring of the surrounding parenchyma. The Nd:YAG coagulated all vessels tested up to 1.4 mm, which was the largest diameter cortical artery found, however this laser displayed significant and extensive contraction and retraction of the surrounding parenchyma. In conclusion, the FEL appears to be a poor hemostatic agent. Our results did not show any benefit of the FEL over current conventional means of achieving hemostasis. However, control of hemorrhage was easily achieved with currently used methods of hemostasis, namely Gelfoam® or bipolar electrocuatery. Although only cortical vessels in dogs were tested, we feel this data can be applied to all animals, including humans, and the peripheral, as well as central, vasculature, as our data on the CO 2 and Nd:YAG appear to closely support previous

  6. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  7. Salivary Iron (Fe) Ion Levels, Serum Markers of Anemia and Caries Activity in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Costa, Elisa Miranda; Azevedo, Juliana Aires Paiva de; Martins, Rafiza Félix Marão; Rodrigues, Vandilson Pereira; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coêlho; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Anemia is a very frequent event among pregnant women. There are evidences of differences in the incidence of dental caries between pregnant and non-pregnant women, but the relationship between salivary iron (Fe) and serum markers of anemia and caries development has not been investigated. Objective To evaluate the correlation between salivary (Fe) and serum iron (Fe, ferritin and hemoglobin) parameters in pregnant women with the development of dental caries. Methods A prospective cohort was conducted with 59 women. The outcome of interest was represented by new dental caries lesions during pregnancy, using the Nyvad criteria. Pregnant women were evaluated at three clinical times: up to the 16th week of gestational age (GA) (T1), in the last trimester of pregnancy (T2), and postpartum (T3), at the Mother and Child Unit of University Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Maranhão. A stimulated saliva sample was collected for biochemical analysis of salivary Fe, and a blood sample was collected early in the morning. The correlation between salivary and serum Fe was evaluated through the Pearson correlation test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the means of anemia parameters at different times. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the anemia parameters between the groups of pregnant women (with and without new caries lesions). Results Serum Fe concentrations were higher in the first trimester of pregnancy and lower after delivery (p = 0.036). It was also observed that the ferritin concentrations were higher in the first trimester and lower at the end of gestation (p = 0.011). There was no association between the expositions of salivary iron and anemia, and the development of dental caries. There was a positive correlation between serum Fe in T1 and salivary Fe in T2 (p < 0.05). Conclusion The serum markers of anemia were more prevalent in the last trimester of pregnancy.

  8. The Relationship between Inflammatory Marker Levels and Hepatitis C Virus Severity

    PubMed Central

    He, Qitian; He, Quan; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan; Li, Taijie; Xie, Li; Deng, Yan; He, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Red cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been studied in a variety of etiological diseases. We aim to investigate the relationship between RDW and PLR and the severity of hepatitis C virus- (HCV-) related liver disease. Methods. We included fifty-two chronic HCV and 42 HCV-related cirrhosis patients and 84 healthy controls. Hematological and virological parameters and liver function biomarkers of HCV-related patients at admission were recorded. Results. RDW, RDW-to-platelet (RPR), and 1/PLR values in HCV-related cirrhosis patients were significantly higher than in chronic HCV patients and healthy controls (all P < 0.001). The aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR), AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis index based on the four factors (FIB-4) scores in HCV-related cirrhosis patients were significantly higher than in chronic HCV patients (all P < 0.001). The areas under the curve of the RDW, RPR, and 1/PLR for predicting cirrhosis were 0.791, 0.960, and 0.713, respectively. Bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that RDW could independently predict the presence of cirrhosis in chronic HCV patients. Conclusions. RDW, RPR, and PLR may be potential markers for estimating HCV severity. PMID:28090206

  9. High level of genetic diversity among spelt germplasm revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Bertin, P; Grégoire, D; Massart, S; de Froidmont, D

    2004-12-01

    The genetic diversity of spelt (Triticum aestivum (L.) Thell. subsp. spelta (L.) Thell.) cultivated presently is very narrow. Although the germplasm collections of spelt are extensive, the related genetic knowledge is often lacking and makes their use for genetic improvement difficult. The genetic diversity and structure of the spelt gene pool held in gene banks was determined using 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers applied to 170 spelt accessions collected from 27 countries and 4 continents. The genetic distances (1 - proportion of shared alleles) were calculated and an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA)-based dendrogram was generated. The genetic diversity was high: 259 alleles were found and the mean interaccession genetic distance was 0.782 +/- 0.141. The dendrogram demonstrated the much higher genetic diversity of spelt held in germplasm collections than in the currently used genotypes. Accessions with the same geographical origin often tended to cluster together. Those from the Middle East were isolated first. All but one of the Spanish accessions were found in a unique subcluster. Most accessions from eastern Europe clustered together, while those from northwestern Europe were divided into two subclusters. The accessions from Africa and North America were not separated from the European ones. This analysis demonstrates the extent of genetic diversity of spelts held in germplasm collections and should help to widen the genetic basis of cultivated spelt in future breeding programs.

  10. Serum Bone Markers Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Teoman; Taspınar, Ozgur; Akbal, Yildiz; Peru, Celaleddin; Guler, Mustafa; Uysal, Omer; Yakıcıer, M. Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure bone mineral density, serum and urinary bone turnover parameters, and to evaluate the influence of demographic and genetic factors on these parameters in FMF patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven attack-free patients who were diagnosed with FMF (in accordance with Tel Hashomer criteria) were recruited at outpatient rheumatology clinics. We investigated whether there were any differences between the FMF patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur bone mineral density (BMD), standard deviation scores (Z scores and T scores) and bone markers. [Results] In terms of the median values of lumbar BMD (p = 0.21), lumbar T (p = 0.098) and Z (p = 0.109) scores, femoral neck BMD, femoral T and Z scores and total femur BMD, T (p = 0.788) and Z scores, there were no significant differences. [Conclusion] In our study, no statistically significant differences were found between FMF patients and a control group in terms of osteoporosis. The 25-OH vitamin D was found to be significantly lower in FMF patients than in the control group. PMID:25276036

  11. How hemostatic agents interact with the coagulation cascade.

    PubMed

    Overbey, Douglas M; Jones, Edward L; Robinson, Thomas N

    2014-08-01

    Hemostasis is a critical component of the preservation of hemodynamic stability and operative visibility during surgery. Initially, hemostasis is achieved via the careful application of direct pressure to allow time for the coagulation cascade to create a fibrin and platelet plug. Other first-line methods of hemostasis in surgery include repair or ligation of the bleeding vessel with sutures, clips, or staples and coagulation of the bleeding site with a thermal energy-based device. When these methods are insufficient to provide adequate hemostasis, topical hemostatic agents can be used to augment the creation of a clot during surgery. A basic understanding of how and where these products interact with the coagulation cascade is essential to achieving optimal hemostasis outcomes.

  12. Hemostasis During Urologic Surgery: Fibrin Sealant Compared With Absorbable Hemostat

    PubMed Central

    Albala, David M; Riebman, Jerome B; Kocharian, Richard; Ilie, Bogdan; Albanese, John; Shen, Jessica; Ovington, Liza; Batiller, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, fibrin sealants have been used to achieve hemostasis for nearly two decades. Although their clinical utility was first demonstrated in cardiac surgery, their effectiveness and safety have since been demonstrated to extend to a wide array of procedures. Fibrin sealants typically contain two components—fibrinogen and thrombin—that are combined and delivered simultaneously to a target bleeding site in order to achieve hemostasis. However, many commercial formulations contain other additional components, such as antifibrinolytic agents, that have been associated with adverse outcomes. This subanalysis compares the safety and effectiveness of a fibrin sealant versus an absorbable hemostat for achieving hemostasis during urologic procedures with mild to moderate bleeding. PMID:26028998

  13. Hemostatic methods for the management of spleen and liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Mischinger, H J; Pfeifer, J; Kronberger, L; Rabl, H; Werkgartner, G; Steindorfer, P; Kraft-Kirz, J

    1996-10-01

    The spleen and liver are the most frequently injured organs during blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Emergency laparotomy is crucial for early control of bleeding and to prevent "secondary" injury as a result of physiologic splanchnic vasoconstriction and free oxygen radicals. Altogether 98 patients with spleen and liver injuries were treated over an 8-year period. Primary orthotopic spleen preservation could be achieved in 46 of 63 patients. In 58 patients with hepatic trauma, hemostatic treatment was chosen based on the severity of the injury. Nonoperative management was used for four splenic and seven hepatic trauma patients. The most commonly used techniques were fibrin sealing, suturing, and débridement for hepatic injury and mesh splenorrhaphy, fibrin glue, and partial resection with a TA stapler for splenic injury. The death of patients with complex injuries was mainly due to preclinical massive blood loss and multiple organ failure.

  14. Influence of stearic acid on postprandial lipemia and hemostatic function.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B; Berry, Sarah E E

    2005-12-01

    It has been suggested that fats rich in stearic acid may result in exaggerated postprandial lipemia and have adverse effects on hemostatic function. The effects of test meals containing different saturated and monounsaturated FA were compared in healthy subjects in a series of studies to investigate this hypothesis. Stearic acid, when present as cocoa butter, resulted in similar postprandial lipemia and factor VII activation compared with a meal containing high-oleic sunflower oil. Stearic acid when presented as shea butter or as randomized stearate-rich TAG resulted in decreased postprandial lipemia and decreased postprandial activation of factor VII. Stearic acid-rich test meals did not result in impaired fibrinolytic activity compared with either a low-fat meal or a meal high in oleate. The difference in responses between the different stearic acid-rich fats appears to be due to varying solid fat contents of the fats at 37 degrees C.

  15. Comparative tissue reactivity to topical hemostatic agents in the periureteral area.

    PubMed

    Wahlstrom, E; Yadegar, J; Amodeo, P; O'Connell, M; Morgenstern, L

    1983-12-01

    Application of the topical hemostatic agents microfibrillar collagen hemostat (Avitene), oxidized cellulose (Surgicel), and absorbable gelatin sponge (Gelfoam) to the periureteral regions in dogs did not incite an adverse inflammatory or fibrotic reaction when used in standard, recommended fashion. No instances of ureteral obstruction resulted from such application. The addition of a small amount of sterile urine in the same area with the topical agent did not influence the degree of reaction. We concluded that these useful hemostatic agents, when used properly, are absorbed with only slight or no residual tissue reaction. The adverse tissue reaction occasionally reported probably can be ascribed to either improper use of the hemostatic agent, other concomitant noxious influences such as infection, or admixture with abnormal collections of body fluids.

  16. Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) on the hemostatic system in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Huraib, S; al-Momen, A K; Gader, A M; Mitwalli, A; Sulimani, F; Abu-Aisha, H

    1991-11-01

    Hemostatic measurements were undertaken in eight chronic hemodialysis uremic patients on recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo). Same measurements were repeated in another seven patients in whom anemia was corrected by the transfusion of red blood cells. The correction of the anemia by rHuEpo therapy was accompanied by 1. correction of the prolonged Simplate Bleeding Time (BT) to normal less than 10.0, minutes after 16 weeks of rHuEpo treatment; 2. significant increases in the levels of fibrinogen, clotting FVIII:C, vWF:antigen, vWF:ristocetin cofactor and platelet count; 3. enhanced aggregation responses to ADP, adrenaline, arachidonic acid, collagen and ristocetin. There was no significant fluctuation in other coagulation parameters PT, APTT, TT, reptilase time and antithrombin III and plasma fibrinogen. In patients who were treated with RBC transfusion and despite the correction of the anemia, the bleeding time shortened significantly but not corrected, mean BT before and after RBC transfusion was 17.1 +/- 1.4 and 11.6 +/- 1.9 minutes respectively. Besides there was significant elevation of vWF:Ricofactor levels but not FVIII:C, vWF:Ag or platelet count. Platelet aggregation responses to ADP remained unchanged. It is concluded that significant elevations of FVIII:related activities, plasma fibrinogen, improved platelet aggregability and correction of the BT are salient hemostatic changes that follow rHuEpo therapy in uremic patients.

  17. Vitamin D Levels and Markers of Inflammation and Metabolism in HIV-Infected Individuals on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Jordan E.; Wilhalme, Holly M.; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Currier, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on vitamin D insufficiency as a cause of inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals are conflicting. We examined the relationships between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism in stored blood samples from a prospective trial of vitamin D repletion. Blood samples from HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/ml enrolled in a prospective study were analyzed for 25(OH)D levels, a broad panel of cytokines, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, D-dimer, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin. Correlations between markers and 25(OH)D levels were determined. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum test was used to compare markers between individuals 25(OH)D insufficient and sufficient at baseline and before and after repletion among those who were insufficient and repleted to ≥30 ng/ml after 12 weeks. Of 106 subjects with stored plasma [66 with 25(OH)D <30 ng/ml and 40 ≥ 30 ng/ml], the median age was 50, the CD4 count was 515 cells/mm3, 94% were male, and the median baseline 25(OH)D was 27 ng/ml. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (r = −0.20, p = 0.04) and higher adiponectin levels (r = 0.30, p = 0.002). Following successful repletion to 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/ml there were no significant changes in inflammatory or metabolic parameters. Our study found associations between low 25(OH)D levels and TNF-α and adiponectin. Repletion did not result in changes in markers of inflammation or metabolism. These data support continued study of the relationship between vitamin D, inflammation, and metabolism in treated HIV infection. PMID:26569649

  18. Plasma D-lactic acid level: a useful marker to distinguish perforated from acute simple appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Demircan, Mehmet; Cetin, Selma; Uguralp, Sema; Sezgin, Nurzen; Karaman, Abdurrahman; Gozukara, Engin M

    2004-10-01

    Early diagnosis of perforated appendicitis is important for reducing morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to determine the value and utility of plasma D-lactic acid levels in identifying the type of appendicitis. In this clinical study, plasma D-lactic acid levels were assessed in 44 consecutive paediatric patients (23 with acute appendicitis, 21 with perforated appendicitis) before laparotomy. D-lactic acid levels were determined by an enzymatic spectrophotometric technique using a D-lactic acid dehydrogenase kit. Patients with perforated appendicitis had higher D-lactic acid levels (3.970 +/- 0.687 mg/dL) than patients in the control group (0.478 +/- 0.149 mg/dL) and patients with acute appendicitis (1.409 +/- 0.324 mg/dL; p < 0.05). For a plasma D-lactic acid level greater than 2.5 mg/dL, the sensitivity and specificity of the D-lactic acid assay were 96% and 87%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 87%, the negative predictive value was 96%, and the diagnostic value was 91%. These results suggest that the measurement of plasma D-lactic acid levels may be a useful adjunct to clinical and radiological findings in distinguishing perforated from acute non-perforated appendicitis in children.

  19. Topical hemostatic effect of a common ornamental plant, the geraniaceae Pelargonium zonale.

    PubMed

    Páez, Ximena; Hernández, Luis

    2003-03-01

    Geranium has been traditionally used as a local hemostatic medicine in some Andean regions, but this effect has not been tested in controlled experiments. In the present report, the leaves of a geraniaceae (Pelargonium zonale) were tested on a bleeding rat model. The bleeding time was 50% shorter in the geranium leaf juice treatment group (18.10 +/- 2.03 min) and 80% shorter in the geranium crushed-leaf group (7.10 +/- 0.88 min) than in the control (nontreatment) group (37.6 +/- 3.04 min), p < 0.0001. Bleeding time with guava (Psidium guajava) crushed leaves (39.90 +/- 1.54 min) was not different from the control group. A proved hemostatic agent, gelatin sponge, had a similar effect as geranium juice (16.7 +/- 3.32 min) in the same animal model. A buffer solution at pH 3 (the same pH as the geranium leaf extract) did not have any hemostatic effect, and the bleeding time (39.3 +/- 2.71 min) was not different from the control group. The dilution 1:4 geranium leaf juice at pH 3(25.6 +/- 3.08 min) or pH 5 (28.8 +/- 3.98 min) still had a statistically significant hemostatic effect. The results confirm the hemostatic effect of P. zonale leaves and show that it is similar (geranium leaf juice) or better (crushed geranium leaves) than the hemostatic effect of a commercial hemostatic sponge. It seems that the hemostasis caused by P. zonale extract leaves is not due to its low pH. The potential benefits as a new, inexpensive, safe, and easily available natural topical hemostatic agent are discussed.

  20. Randomized, Controlled Comparison of Advanced Hemostatic Pads in Hepatic Surgical Models

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Blood loss during hepatic surgery leads to poor patient outcomes. This study investigates the hemostatic efficacy of a novel sealing hemostatic pad (polyethylene glycol-coated collagen, PCC) and a fibrin sealant pad (fibrin-thrombin coated collagen, FTC) in a leporine hepatic segmentectomy and a porcine hepatic abrasion model. A segmentectomy was used to compare hemostatic success and hematoma incidence in 20 rabbits (10/group). Hepatic abrasions were used to compare hemostatic success up to 10 min after application in six pigs (42 lesions/group). In the segmentectomy model, PCC achieved 100% hemostatic success within 2 min (95% CI: 72.3% to 100%) and FTC achieved 80% hemostatic success within 3 min (49.0% to 94.3%). PCC had lower hematoma incidence at 15 min (0.0 versus 11.1%) and 24 h (20.0 versus 66.7%). In the abrasion model, PCC provided superior hemostatic success at 3 (odds ratio: 24.8, 95% CI: 8.86 to 69.2, P < 0.001), 5 (66.3, 28.5 to 153.9, P < 0.001), 7 (177.5, 64.4 to 489.1, P < 0.001), and 10 min (777.6, 148.2 to 4078, P < 0.001) leading to statistically significant less blood loss. The novel sealing hemostat provides faster and more sustained hemostasis than a fibrin sealant pad in a leporine hepatic segmentectomy and a porcine hepatic abrasion model of hepatic surgery. PMID:24729905

  1. Serum Levels of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide as a Prognostic Marker in Early Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Carmen; Ortiz, Ana M.; Juarranz, Yasmina; Lamana, Amalia; Seoane, Iria V.; Leceta, Javier; García-Vicuña, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Objective Suitable biomarkers are essential for the design of therapeutic strategies in personalized medicine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has demonstrated immunomodulatory properties in autoimmune murine and ex vivo human models. Our aim was to study serum levels of VIP during the follow-up of an early arthritis (EA) cohort and to analyze its value as a biomarker predicting severity and therapeutic requirements. Methods Data from 91 patients on an EA register were analyzed (76% rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 24% undifferentiated arthritis, 73% women, and median age 54 years; median disease duration at entry, 5.4 months). We collected per protocol sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic data. VIP levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay in sera harvested from the 91 patients (353 visits; 3.9 visit/patient) and from 100 healthy controls. VIP values below the 25th percentile of those assessed in healthy population were considered low. To determine the effect of independent variables on VIP levels, we performed a longitudinal multivariate analysis nested by patient and visit. A multivariate ordered logistic regression was modeled to determine the effect of low VIP serum levels on disease activity at the end of follow-up. Results VIP concentrations varied considerably across EA patients. Those fulfilling the criteria for RA had the lowest values in the whole sample, although no significant differences were observed compared with healthy donors. Disease activity, which was assessed using DAS28, inversely correlated with VIP levels. After a two-year follow-up, those patients with low baseline levels of VIP displayed higher disease activity and received more intensive treatment. Conclusion Patients who are unable to up-regulate VIP seem to have a worse clinical course despite receiving more intense treatment. Therefore, measurement of VIP levels may be suitable as a prognostic biomarker. PMID:24409325

  2. Elevated Serum Titanium Level as a Marker for Failure in a Titanium Modular Fluted Tapered Stem.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Ian P; Abdel, Matthew P

    2016-07-01

    Serum ion concentrations of cobalt and chromium are commonly used to monitor for the development of local metal reactions in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties, as well as dual-modular constructs. Although rarely used in clinical practice, elevated serum titanium levels have the ability to indicate a failure with contemporary revision constructs, such as with titanium modular fluted tapered (TMFT) stems. The authors report the case of a 64-year-old man with a TMFT stem after revision total hip arthroplasty for a dual-modular neck construct who had set screw disengagement with subsequent proximal body loosening. The patient's serum cobalt and chromium levels were normal, but he had a markedly elevated serum titanium level, indicating failure of the titanium modular junction. Implant failures at modular junctions in femoral components are well described. Although several different failure mechanisms have been defined, to the authors' knowledge this is the first reported failure of this particular TMFT stem. In addition, this is the first report describing the use of serum titanium levels in identifying a novel failure mechanism. With the popularity of this stem, surgeons should be aware that an elevated serum titanium level may aid in the diagnosis of this unique complication. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e768-e770.].

  3. Bletilla striata Micron Particles Function as a Hemostatic Agent by Promoting Rapid Blood Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Zeng, Rui; Liao, Zhencheng; Fu, Chaomei; Luo, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The human body cannot control blood loss without treatment. Available hemostatic agents are ineffective at treating cases of severe bleeding and are expensive or raise safety concerns. Bletilla striata serve as an inexpensive, natural, and promising alternative. However, no detailed studies on its hemostatic approach have been performed. The aim of this study was to examine the hemostatic effects of B. striata Micron Particles (BSMPs) and their hemostatic mechanisms. We prepared and characterized BSMPs of different size ranges and investigated their use as hemostatic agent. BSMPs of different size ranges were characterized by scanning electron microscope. In vitro coagulation studies revealed BSMP-blood aggregate formation via stereoscope and texture analyzers. In vivo studies based on rat injury model illustrated the BSMP capabilities under conditions of hemostasis. Compared to other BSMPs of different size ranges, BSMPs of 350–250 μm are most efficient in hemostasis. As powder sizes decrease, the degree of aggregation between particles and hemostatic BSMP effects declines. The BSMP in contact with a bleeding surface locally forms a visible particle/blood aggregate as a physical barrier that facilitates hemostasis. Considering the facile preparation, low cost, and long shelf life of B. striata, BSMPs offer great potential as mechanisms of trauma treatment. PMID:28386291

  4. Effect of Yoga Practice on Levels of Inflammatory Markers After Moderate and Strenuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Doreswamy, Venkatesh; Narasipur, Omkar Subbaramajois; Kunnavil, Radhika; Srinivasamurthy, Nandagudi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives To evaluate the effect of yoga practice and exercise challenge on Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and lipid profile. Materials and Methods Two hundred and eighteen subjects participated in the study. One hundred and nine volunteers (51 males and 58 females) in the age group of 20 to 60 years, who practiced yoga regularly for over five years for a period of one hour daily, performed a bout of moderate exercise and a bout of strenuous exercise as per Standardized Shuttle Walk test protocol. Anthropometrically matched, age matched and gender matched subjects, who did not practice yoga (non-yoga group) were chosen as controls (non-yoga, n=109). The non-yoga group also performed similar exercises. The blood samples of both the groups were collected before and after the exercises. TNF-α and IL-6 was analysed before and after the exercise by Sandwich ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Results Resting plasma TNF-α concentration was significantly higher in non-yoga group when compared to yoga group (p<0.05). There was an increase in TNF-α levels in both the groups in response to strenuous exercise. There was no gender difference in TNF-α and IL-6 levels before and after exercise in yoga and non-yoga groups. Conclusion Regular practice of yoga lowers basal TNF-α and IL-6 levels. It also reduces the extent of increase of TNF-α and IL-6 to a physical challenge of moderate exercise and strenuous exercise. There is no significant gender difference in the TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Regular practice of yoga can protect the individual against inflammatory diseases by favourably altering pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:26266115

  5. Plasmatic proinflammatory chemokines levels are tricky markers to monitoring HTLV-1 carriers.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Sales, Camila Campos; de Cássia Gonçalves, Poliane; da Silva-Malta, Maria Clara Fernandes; Romanelli, Luiz Cláudio; Ribas, João Gabriel; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Martins, Marina Lobato

    2016-08-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is present throughout the world and is associated with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and other inflammatory conditions. The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP involves a chronic inflammatory response in central nervous system (CNS), with the presence of HTLV-1 infected cells and HTLV-1-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. Chemokines may have a role in the infiltration of these cells into the CNS. In this context, the present study analyzed the level of plasmatic chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL5 (RANTES), IL8 (CXCL8), CXCL9 (MIG), and CXCL10 (IP-10) and HTLV-1 proviral load from peripheral blood in 162 asymptomatic carriers and 136 HAM/TSP patients to determine the differences that be associated with the clinical status of the HTLV-1 infection. The results showed that patients with HAM/TSP have significantly higher levels of IL8 and CXCL9, and that the level of IL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 was significantly greater in HTLV-1 infected individuals with high (>1%) than those with low proviral load (<1%). However, the levels of the chemokines tested have not showed high sensitivity to discriminate HAM/TSP patients from asymptomatic carriers. In addition, chemokine profiles in asymptomatic carriers and HAM/TSP groups were similar, with no significant increased frequency of higher producers of chemokines in HAM/TSP individuals. Results indicate that the heterogeneity of the individuals in the groups regarding time of infection, duration of disease, proviral load level and other possible confound factors may impair the use of chemokines levels to monitor HTLV-1 carriers in clinical practice. J. Med. Virol. 88:1438-1447, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Association of expression levels of pluripotency/stem cell markers with the differentiation outcome of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells into insulin producing cells.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Dina H; Kamal, Mohamed M; El-Kholy, Abd El-Latif G; El-Mesallamy, Hala O

    2016-08-01

    Recently, there has been much attention towards generation of insulin producing cells (IPCs) from stem cells, especially from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs). However, generation of mature IPCs remains a challenge. Assessment of generation of IPCs was usually done by examining β-cell markers, however, assessment of pluripotency/stem cell markers drew less attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of pluripotency/stem cell markers during differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs and the association of these levels with differentiation outcomes. WJ-MSCs were isolated, characterized then induced to differentiate into IPCs using three different protocols namely A, B and C. Differentiated IPCs were assessed by the expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers, together with β-cell markers using qRT-PCR, and functionally by measuring glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Differentiated cells from protocol A showed lowest expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers and relatively best GSIS. However, protocol B showed concomitant expression of pluripotency/stem cell and β-cell markers with relatively less insulin secretion as compared to protocol A. Protocol C failed to generate glucose-responsive IPCs. In conclusion, sustained expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers could be associated with the incomplete differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs. A novel finding for which further investigations are warranted.

  7. Neural Markers of Subordinate-Level Categorization in 6- to 7-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Reiss, Jason E.; Hoffman, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Subordinate-level category-learning processes in infants were investigated with ERP and looking-time measures. ERPs were recorded while 6- to 7-month-olds were presented with Saint Bernard images during familiarization, followed by novel Saint Bernards interspersed with Beagles during test. In addition, infant looking times were measured during a…

  8. New molecular markers for fungal phylogenetics: Two genes for species level systematics in the Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant progress has been made resolving deep branches of the fungal tree of life in recent works, many fungal systematists are interested in species-level questions to both define species and to assess fungal biodiversity. Fungal genome sequences are a useful resource to systematic bio...

  9. Fish consumption, low-level mercury, lipids, and inflammatory markers in children.

    PubMed

    Gump, Brooks B; MacKenzie, James A; Dumas, Amy K; Palmer, Christopher D; Parsons, Patrick J; Segu, Zaneer M; Mechref, Yehia S; Bendinskas, Kestutis G

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that consuming fish has numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, fish is also the primary source of human exposure to mercury (Hg). In a cross-sectional study of 9-11 year old children (N=100), we measured fish consumption, blood lipids, total blood Hg, diurnal salivary cortisol (4 samples collected throughout the day), and performed a proteomic analysis of serum proteins using spectral count shotgun proteomics. Children who consumed fish had a significantly more atheroprotective lipid profile but higher levels of blood Hg relative to children that did not consume fish. Although the levels of blood Hg were very low in these children (M=0.77 μg/L; all but 1 participant had levels below 3.27 μg/L), increasing blood Hg was significantly associated with blunted diurnal cortisol levels. Blood Hg was also significantly associated with acute-phase proteins suggesting systemic inflammation, and several of these proteins were found to significantly reduce the association between Hg and diminished cortisol when included in the model. This study of a pediatric population is the first to document an association between blood Hg, systemic inflammation, and endocrine disruption in humans. Without a better understanding of the long-term consequences of an atheroprotective lipid profile relative to blunted diurnal cortisol and systemic inflammation, a determination of the risk-benefit ratio for fish consumption by children is not possible.

  10. Fish Consumption, Low-Level Mercury, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Dumas, Amy K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Mechref, Yehia S.; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that consuming fish has numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, fish is also the primary source of human exposure to mercury (Hg). In a cross-sectional study of 9–11 year old children (N = 100), we measured fish consumption, blood lipids, total blood Hg, diurnal salivary cortisol (4 samples collected throughout the day), and performed a proteomic analysis of serum proteins using spectral count shotgun proteomics. Children that consumed fish had a significantly more atheroprotective lipid profile but higher levels of blood Hg relative to children that did not consume fish. Although the levels of blood Hg were very low in these children (M = 0.77 μg/L; all but 1 participant had levels below 3.27 μg/L), increasing blood Hg was significantly associated with blunted diurnal cortisol levels. Blood Hg was also significantly associated with acute-phase proteins suggesting systemic inflammation, and several of these proteins were found to significantly reduce the association between Hg and diminished cortisol when included in the model. This study of a pediatric population is the first to document an association between blood Hg, systemic inflammation, and endocrine disruption in humans, in a pediatric sample. Without a better understanding of the long-term consequences of an atheroprotective lipid profile relative to blunted diurnal cortisol and systemic inflammation, a determination of the risk-benefit ratio for fish consumption by children is not possible. PMID:22030286

  11. Serum alpha 1-antichymotrypsin level as a marker for Alzheimer-type dementia.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, J; Schleissner, L; Tachiki, K H; Kling, A S

    1995-01-01

    Excessive alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) in brain has been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We measured serum ACT by radial immunodiffusion in 57 patients with presumed AD, 110 healthy controls (24 children; 86 adults), 67 non-AD patients from a geriatric private practice and a VA nursing home, and 136 asthmatics (56 adults; 80 children) as an inflammatory disease control group. Serum ACT was significantly higher in AD (73.1 +/- 22 mg/dl) than in healthy controls (47.9 +/- 8.1 mg/dl) or non-AD patients (61.8 +/- 23.9 mg/dl). A level of 60 mg/dl best separated AD patients from controls or non-AD patients. Serial measurements served to distinguish elevations of ACT level in AD from non-AD inflammatory conditions; the ACT level in the latter returned to normal with therapy or time, but the levels in AD remained elevated. A measure of serum ACT by radial immunodiffusion can be used to support a diagnosis of AD disease but not necessarily as a screening test due to the potentially large number of false positives (26% in the population studied) should malignancy or inflammatory disease be concurrent.

  12. High Prolidase Levels may be a Marker of Irreversible Extracellular Matrix Changes in Controlled Acromegaly Patients?

    PubMed

    Tabur, S; Sezen, H; Korkmaz, H; Ozkaya, M; Akarsu, E

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of prolidase in controlled acromegaly patients and its association with oxidative stress. 25 acromegalic patients in remission who were followed in our outpatient clinic and 31 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), total antioxidative status (TAS), total oxidative stress (TOS), total free sulfhydryl (-SH), paraoxonase (PON), arylesterase (ARE), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) and prolidase activity levels were measured. Percent ratio of TOS to TAS level was accepted as oxidative stress index (OSI). Serum prolidase activity, TOS, OSI, and LOOH levels were significantly higher in acromegaly patients compared to the healthy control group (p<0.001, p=0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). SH levels were significantly lower in the acromegaly patients compared to the healthy control group (p=0.002). Prolidase activity were positively correlated with TOS, OSI, LOOH and negatively correlated with -SH in patients with acromegaly (r=0.471, p<0.001; r=0.527, p<0.001; r=0.717, p<0.001; r=- 0.516, p<0.001, respectively). These associations were confirmed in the multiple regression analysis (R(2)=0.502, p<0.001). In conclusion, serum prolidase activity and oxidative stress levels were high in controlled acromegaly patients. These results suggest that extracellular matrix changes continue eventhough the disease is controlled, and elevated oxidative stress is involved in the increased prolidase activity in acromegaly patients.

  13. A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based on a genomic multi-marker approach.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta S; Matschiner, Michael; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-02-01

    The species-flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Victoria, Malawi and Tanganyika constitute the most diverse extant adaptive radiations in vertebrates. Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the lakes, harbors the morphologically and genetically most diverse assemblage of cichlids and contains the highest number of endemic cichlid genera of all African lakes. Based on morphological grounds, the Tanganyikan cichlid species have been grouped into 12-16 distinct lineages, so-called tribes. While the monophyly of most of the tribes is well established, the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes remain largely elusive. Here, we present a new tribal level phylogenetic hypothesis for the cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika that is based on the so far largest set of nuclear markers and a total alignment length of close to 18kb. Using next-generation amplicon sequencing with the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we compiled a dataset consisting of 42 nuclear loci in 45 East African cichlid species, which we subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses. We analyzed the entire concatenated dataset and each marker individually, and performed a Bayesian concordance analysis and gene tree discordance tests. Overall, we find strong support for a position of the Oreochromini, Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini and Trematocarini outside of a clade combining the substrate spawning Lamprologini and the mouthbrooding tribes of the 'H-lineage', which are both strongly supported to be monophyletic. The Eretmodini are firmly placed within the 'H-lineage', as sister-group to the most species-rich tribe of cichlids, the Haplochromini. The phylogenetic relationships at the base of the 'H-lineage' received less support, which is likely due to high speciation rates in the early phase of the radiation. Discordance among gene trees and marker sets further suggests the occurrence of past hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting in the cichlid

  14. The Effectiveness of a New Hemostatic Agent (Ankaferd Blood Stopper) for the Control of Bleeding following Tooth Extraction in Hemophilia: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kazancıoğlu, Hakkı Oğuz; Çakır, Onur; Ak, Gülsüm; Zülfikar, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hemostatic efficacy of a new local hemostatic agent, Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), for the control of bleeding following tooth extraction in hemophiliacs. Materials and Methods: Simple tooth extractions were performed in 27 hemophilia A patients. In the treatment group (n=17) local hemostasis was achieved via application of ABS to the extraction sockets, whereas in the control group (n=10) local hemostasis was achieved via direct packing with gauze. Results: In all, 57 (21 primary and 36 permanent) teeth extractions were performed in 27 hemophilia A patients. There were no significant differences in age or factor VIII level distribution between the 2 groups (p>0.05). The most significant clinical difference between the groups was associated with the use of ABS; those in the treatment group had significantly shorter duration of bleeding (p=0.002). Conclusion: This is the first study to evaluate the efficacy of ABS for the control of bleeding following tooth extraction in hemophiliacs. ABS can be considered an alternative local hemostatic agent for reducing clotting factor concentrates in hemophilia patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385748

  15. Comparison of the hemostatic effects of oxidized cellulose and calcium alginate in an experimental animal model of hepatic parenchymal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Dorterler, Mustafa Erman; Ayangil, Harun Resit; Turan, Cüneyt; Deniz, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite all recent developments, bleeding is still one of the main causes of increasing morbidity and mortality following both trauma and elective hepatic surgery. The main goal of treatment is stop the bleeding immediately. In this study, the hemostatic and histopathological effects of Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS), oxidized cellulose (OC), and calcium alginate (CA) were compared in an experimental liver injury. Materials and Methods: Forty Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten animals each, receiving 0.9% NaCl, CA, OC, or ABS following liver resection. After 5 days, the samples from the resection site were acquired for histopathological evaluation. The efficacy of the agents was assessed using the hematocrit level and histopathological examination. Statistical analyses were applied. Results: The amount of bleeding was lowest in ABS–treated rats, followed by those treated with OC, CA, and NaCl, respectively. The difference among the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). ABS–treated rats also had significantly less necrosis than those receiving OC; other differences in this regard were not significant. Inflammatory status was significantly different between OC- and CA–treated rats (P < 0.05) but not among the other groups (P > 0.05). No significant difference was determined between the groups regarding granulation (P > 0.05). Conclusion: ABS reduced the volume of bleeding in liver surgery and partial liver resection. The hemostatic effect of CA was limited. PMID:28149820

  16. Exosome levels in human body fluids: A tumor marker by themselves?

    PubMed

    Cappello, Francesco; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Campanella, Claudia; Bavisotto, Celeste Caruso; Marcilla, Antonio; Properzi, Francesca; Fais, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Despite considerable research efforts, the finding of reliable tumor biomarkers remains challenging and unresolved. In recent years a novel diagnostic biomedical tool with high potential has been identified in extracellular nanovesicles or exosomes. They are released by the majority of the cells and contain detailed molecular information on the cell of origin including tumor hallmarks. Exosomes can be isolated from easy accessible body fluids, and most importantly, they can provide several biomarkers, with different levels of specificity. Recent clinical evidence shows that the levels of exosomes released into body fluids may themselves represent a predictive/diagnostic of tumors, discriminating cancer patients from healthy subjects. The aim of this review is to highlight these latest challenging findings to provide novel and groundbreaking ideas for successful tumor early diagnosis and follow-up.

  17. Reprint of "EXOSOME LEVELS IN HUMAN BODY FLUIDS: A TUMOR MARKER BY THEMSELVES?"

    PubMed

    Cappello, Francesco; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Campanella, Claudia; Bavisotto, Celeste Caruso; Marcilla, Antonio; Properzi, Francesca; Fais, Stefano

    2017-02-15

    Despite considerable research efforts, the finding of reliable tumor biomarkers remains challenging and unresolved. In recent years a novel diagnostic biomedical tool with high potential has been identified in extracellular nanovesicles or exosomes. They are released by the majority of the cells and contain detailed molecular information on the cell of origin including tumor hallmarks. Exosomes can be isolated from easy accessible body fluids, and most importantly, they can at once provide with several biomarkers, with different levels of specificity. Recent clinical evidence shows that the levels of exosomes released into body fluids may by themselves represent a predictive/diagnostic of tumors, discriminating cancer patients from healthy subjects. The aim of this review is to highlight these latest challenging findings to provide novel and groundbreaking ideas for successful tumor early diagnosis and follow-up.

  18. Running a Marathon Induces Changes in Adipokine Levels and in Markers of Cartilage Degradation – Novel Role for Resistin

    PubMed Central

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Leppänen, Tiina; Kekkonen, Riina; Korpela, Riitta; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3∶30∶46±0∶02∶46 (h:min:sec). The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = –0.448, p = 0.002). YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009) and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, p<0.001) and the pre-marathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008). The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation. PMID:25333960

  19. Running a marathon induces changes in adipokine levels and in markers of cartilage degradation--novel role for resistin.

    PubMed

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Leppänen, Tiina; Kekkonen, Riina; Korpela, Riitta; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3:30:46±0:02:46 (h:min:sec). The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = -0.448, p = 0.002). YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009) and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, p<0.001) and the pre-marathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008). The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation.

  20. Effects of Thermal Status on Markers of Blood Coagulation During Simulated Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    evaluation of markers of hemostatic function. Thermal and hemodynamic variables will be continuously obtained. LBNP: lower body negative pressure; VO2max ...replacement (90 min at 45% of VO2max ) Simulated Hemorrhage (LBNP) Post-LBNP (thermoneutral chamber temperature; 60 min) Planned work during the

  1. Elevated Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahi, Hamad; Shimada, Kazunori; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Yoshihara, Takuma; Sai, Eiryu; Shiozawa, Tomoyuki; Naito, Ryo; Aikawa, Tatsuro; Ouchi, Shohei; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Miyazaki, Tetsuro; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with either acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods. We enrolled 20 ACS patients and 50 stable CAD patients without previous history of ACS who underwent cardiac catheterization. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and C-reactive protein of ≥1.0 mg/dL were excluded. Blood samples were collected from the patients just before catheterization, and PBMCs were isolated from the whole blood. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were measured by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Results. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-10, IL-23A, IL-27, and IL-37 was significantly higher in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P < 0.05). The ACS patients had higher plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in the ACS group than in the CAD group. Conclusion. Circulating levels of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-23A, IL-27, IL-33, and IL-37, may be associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in ACS patients. PMID:26504600

  2. Markov model and markers of small cell lung cancer: assessing the influence of reversible serum NSE, CYFRA 21-1 and TPS levels on prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Boher, J-M; Pujol, J-L; Grenier, J; Daurès, J-P

    1999-01-01

    High serum NSE and advanced tumour stage are well-known negative prognostic determinants of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) when observed at presentation. However, such variables are reversible disease indicators as they can change during the course of therapy. The relationship between risk of death and marker level and disease state during treatment of SCLC chemotherapy is not known. A total of 52 patients with SCLC were followed during cisplatin-based chemotherapy (the median number of tumour status and marker level assessments was 4). The time-homogeneous Markov model was used in order to analyse separately the prognostic significance of change in the state of the serum marker level (NSE, CYFRA 21-1, TPS) or the change in tumour status. In this model, transition rate intensities were analysed according to three different states: alive with low marker level (state 0), alive with high marker level (state 1) and dead (absorbing state). The model analysing NSE levels showed that the mean time to move out of state ‘high marker level’ was short (123 days). There was a 44% probability of the opposite reversible state ‘low marker level’ being reached, which demonstrated the reversible property of the state ‘high marker level’. The relative risk of death from this state ‘high marker level’ was about 2.24 times greater in comparison with that of state 0 ‘low marker level’ (Wald's test; P < 0.01). For patients in state ‘high marker level’ at time of sampling, the probability of death increased dramatically, a transition explaining the rapid decrease in the probability of remaining stationary at this state. However, a non-nil probability to change from state 1 ‘high marker level’ to the opposite transient level, state 0 ‘low marker level’, was observed suggesting that, however infrequently, patients in state 1 ‘high marker level’ might still return to state 0 ‘low marker level’. Almost similar conclusions can be drawn regarding the

  3. Influence of blood collection in plastic vs. glass evacuated serum-separator tubes on hormone and tumour marker levels.

    PubMed

    Smets, Eva M L; Dijkstra-Lagemaat, Josien E; Blankenstein, Marinus A

    2004-04-01

    Introduction of preanalytical automation in our laboratory required the use of plastic blood collection tubes. Because of possible interference caused by adsorption of components to the plastic wall and because there is virtually no literature on this subject, we investigated the influence of collection of serum in plastic tubes on the results of nearly all our immunoassays for hormones and tumour markers. Blood from healthy volunteers was collected simultaneously in glass and plastic tubes, or sera prepared from blood collected in glass tubes were brought into the plastic tubes under investigation. Hormone and tumour marker levels were measured in the pairs thus obtained. Results were analysed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank tests. We found small but statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between glass and plastic for free triiodothyronine, progesterone, prolactin, prostate-specific antigen and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Non-significant trends (0.05

  4. Cyclic variation in myocardial gray level as a marker of viability in man. A videodensitometric study.

    PubMed

    Marini, C; Picano, E; Varga, A; Marzullo, P; Pingitore, A; Paterni, M

    1996-03-01

    Experimental and human studies have shown that a preserved cyclic (diastolic-to-systolic) echoreflectivity variation, assessed by radiofrequency sampling of backscatter signal with non-commercially available prototypes, identifies viability in a myocardial segment with a resting dyssynergy. The objective of this study was to assess whether a videodensitometric analysis of myocardial gray level variation during cardiac cycle might identify viable but dyssynergic myocardium in a clinical setting. Thirty-four patients with a resting dyssynergy (akinesis in 26, marked hypokinesis in eight) in the septum and/or inferno-posterior wall were evaluated by videodensitometry. All echo studies were performed with commercially available instruments in the long axis parasternal view, with quantitative analysis of gray levels performed off-line on digitized images. Segmental wall motion was assessed with a 16 segment model of the left ventricle, each scored from 1, normal, to 4, dyskinetic. A follow-up echo study was obtained in all patients > 4 weeks after successful revascularization (in 22 by angioplasty, in 12 by bypass surgery). Two groups of segments were identified: 18 viable segments (contractile improvement of 1 grade or more in resting function after revascularization); 16 necrotic segments (no contractile improvement in resting function after revascularization). The % cyclic variation was higher in viable vs necrotic segments (26 +/- 16 vs 1 +/- 13%, P < 0.01), in spite of similar % systolic thickening (5 +/- 5 vs 4 +/- 6%, P = ns) and end-diastolic thickness (10 +/- 2 vs 10 +/- 2 mm, P = ns). When individual patient analysis was performed, % cyclic variation was below the 95% confidence limits obtained from normal control regions (n = 34; % cyclic variation = 38 +/- 14) in two out of 18 viable and in 14 out of 16 necrotic segments. A cut-off of > or = 9.4% cyclic variations in a dyssynergic segment yielded 89% sensitivity and 88% specificity for predicting functional

  5. Circulating Cytokine Levels as Markers of Inflammation in Philadelphia Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Diagnostic and Prognostic Interest

    PubMed Central

    Mondet, Julie; Hussein, Kais; Mossuz, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are well known mediators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. They contribute to the regulation of normal hematopoiesis but increasing data suggest that they also have a clinical impact in some hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, there is evidence that cytokines are implicated in the functional symptoms of Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph− MPNs), suggesting that evaluation of circulating levels of cytokines could be of clinical interest for the characterization of patients at the time of diagnosis and for disease prognosis. In this review, we present the current knowledge on alteration of circulating cytokine profiles in MPNs and their role in myelofibrosis pathogenesis. Phenotypic correlation, prognostic value of cytokines, and impact of JAK inhibitors are also discussed. PMID:26525644

  6. Preoperative embolization versus local hemostatic agents in surgery of hypervascular spinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ptashnikov, Dmitry; Mikhaylov, Dmitry; Masevnin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there is no consensus about how to reduce the intraoperative risk of hemorrhage in spinal decompression surgery of hypervascular spinal tumors, such as aggressive hemangioma, multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Methods A retrospective study of 110 patients, operated in our institute was held in the period between 2003 and 2013. There were 69 male and 41 female patients with extradural hypervascular spinal tumor. The study included 61 patients with metastasis of renal cell carcinoma, 27 with multiple myeloma, 15 with plasmacytoma and 7 with aggressive hemangioma. The first group included 57 patients who underwent preoperative tumor embolization. The second group consisted of 53 patients, which were treated surgically using intraoperative local hemostatic agents. We performed 2 types of treatment options: palliative decompression and total spondylectomy. The first group was divided into two subgroups: 30 patients with palliative decompression (1PD) and 27 with total spondylectomy (1TS). In the second group there were: 28 patients with palliative decompression (2PD) and 25 with total spondylectomy (2TS). The parameters under evaluation were the blood loss volume, drainage loss, operation time, hemoglobin level, possible complications and time of hospital stay. Results The average intraoperative blood loss for all embolized patients was slightly less than in subgroups with local hemostatic agents. No significant difference in blood loss volume was found between groups 1PD and 2PD (p > 0.05). In groups 1TS and 2TS, we did get significant difference (p < 0.05). Statistically significant difference in the average drainage loss was found between two methods of hemostasis in both subgroups (p < 0.05). The operation time was not significantly different between groups. Postoperative hemoglobin level reduce is almost equal in both groups of patients. Postoperative complications were also nearly equal in the groups. The

  7. Gli2 protein expression level is a feasible marker of ligand-dependent hedgehog activation in pancreatic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Y; Sasajima, J; Mizukami, Y; Koizumi, K; Kawamoto, T; Ono, Y; Karasaki, H; Tanabe, H; Fujiya, M; Kohgo, Y

    2016-06-01

    The hedgehog pathway is known to promote proliferation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and has been shown to restrain tumor progression. To understand how hedgehog causes these effects, we sought to carefully examine protein expression of hedgehog signaling components during different tumor stages. Genetically engineered mice, Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D and Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D;p53lox/+, were utilized to model distinct phases of tumorigenesis, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanIN) and PDA. Human pancreatic specimens of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and PDA were also employed. PanIN and IPMN lesions highly express Sonic Hedgehog, at a level that is slightly higher than that observed in PDA. GLI2 protein is also expressed in both PanIN/IPMN and PDA. Although there was no difference in the nuclear staining, the cytoplasmic GLI2 level in PDA was modest in comparison to that in PanIN/IPMN. Hedgehog interacting protein was strongly expressed in the precursors, whereas the level in PDA was significantly attenuated. There were no differences in expression of Patched1 at early and late stages. Finally, a strong correlation between Sonic Hedgehog and GLI2 staining was found in both human and murine pancreatic tumors. The results indicate that the GLI2 protein level could serve as a feasible marker of ligand-dependent hedgehog activation in pancreatic neoplasms.

  8. Marker genes that are less conserved in their sequences are useful for predicting genome-wide similarity levels between closely related prokaryotic strains

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Yemin; Rosen, Gail; Hershberg, Ruth

    2016-05-03

    The 16s rRNA gene is so far the most widely used marker for taxonomical classification and separation of prokaryotes. Since it is universally conserved among prokaryotes, it is possible to use this gene to classify a broad range of prokaryotic organisms. At the same time, it has often been noted that the 16s rRNA gene is too conserved to separate between prokaryotes at finer taxonomic levels. In this paper, we examine how well levels of similarity of 16s rRNA and 73 additional universal or nearly universal marker genes correlate with genome-wide levels of gene sequence similarity. We demonstrate that the percent identity of 16s rRNA predicts genome-wide levels of similarity very well for distantly related prokaryotes, but not for closely related ones. In closely related prokaryotes, we find that there are many other marker genes for which levels of similarity are much more predictive of genome-wide levels of gene sequence similarity. Finally, we show that the identities of the markers that are most useful for predicting genome-wide levels of similarity within closely related prokaryotic lineages vary greatly between lineages. However, the most useful markers are always those that are least conserved in their sequences within each lineage. In conclusion, our results show that by choosing markers that are less conserved in their sequences within a lineage of interest, it is possible to better predict genome-wide gene sequence similarity between closely related prokaryotes than is possible using the 16s rRNA gene. We point readers towards a database we have created (POGO-DB) that can be used to easily establish which markers show lowest levels of sequence conservation within different prokaryotic lineages.

  9. Marker genes that are less conserved in their sequences are useful for predicting genome-wide similarity levels between closely related prokaryotic strains

    DOE PAGES

    Lan, Yemin; Rosen, Gail; Hershberg, Ruth

    2016-05-03

    The 16s rRNA gene is so far the most widely used marker for taxonomical classification and separation of prokaryotes. Since it is universally conserved among prokaryotes, it is possible to use this gene to classify a broad range of prokaryotic organisms. At the same time, it has often been noted that the 16s rRNA gene is too conserved to separate between prokaryotes at finer taxonomic levels. In this paper, we examine how well levels of similarity of 16s rRNA and 73 additional universal or nearly universal marker genes correlate with genome-wide levels of gene sequence similarity. We demonstrate that themore » percent identity of 16s rRNA predicts genome-wide levels of similarity very well for distantly related prokaryotes, but not for closely related ones. In closely related prokaryotes, we find that there are many other marker genes for which levels of similarity are much more predictive of genome-wide levels of gene sequence similarity. Finally, we show that the identities of the markers that are most useful for predicting genome-wide levels of similarity within closely related prokaryotic lineages vary greatly between lineages. However, the most useful markers are always those that are least conserved in their sequences within each lineage. In conclusion, our results show that by choosing markers that are less conserved in their sequences within a lineage of interest, it is possible to better predict genome-wide gene sequence similarity between closely related prokaryotes than is possible using the 16s rRNA gene. We point readers towards a database we have created (POGO-DB) that can be used to easily establish which markers show lowest levels of sequence conservation within different prokaryotic lineages.« less

  10. The effect of high level natural ionizing radiation on expression of PSA, CA19-9 and CEA tumor markers in blood serum of inhabitants of Ramsar, Iran.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Porghasem, Mohsen; Mirzaei, Nazanin; Mohseni, Jafar Hesam; Heidari, Matine; Azargashb, Eznollah; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Heidari, Reihane; Molouki, Aidin; Larijani, Leila

    2014-02-01

    Since several high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) exist on our planet, considerable attention has been drawn to health issues that may develop as the result of visiting or living in such places. City of Ramsar in Iran is an HNLRA, and is a tourist attraction mainly due to its hot spas. However, the growing awareness over its natural radiation sources has prompted widespread scientific investigation at national level. In this study, using an ELISA method, the level of expression of three tumor markers known as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and carcino antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in blood serum of 40 local men of Ramsar (subject group) was investigated and compared to 40 men from the city of Noshahr (control group). Noshahr was previously identified as a normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) that is some 85 km far from Ramsar. According to statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in the levels of PSA and CA19-9 markers between the two groups (p < 0.001) with those of Ramsar being considerably higher. CEA level did not show any difference. Although some of the volunteers tested positive to the markers, they were in good health as confirmed by the physician. Moreover, the high number of positive markers in Noshahr was considerable. Therefore, future study is needed to further validate this result and to determine the level of positivity to tumor markers in both cities.

  11. Comparative evaluation of absorbable hemostats: advantages of fibrin-based sheets.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Lissy K; Mohanty, Mira; Umashankar, P R; Lal, Arthur Vijayan

    2004-11-01

    Bioactive hemostats and wound dressings consist of either inherently active materials or act as delivery vehicles which contain such materials. Fibrin is a natural hemostat and scaffold, guiding the direction of wound contraction and closure. In order to improve the ease of application of liquid fibrin glue, we have made a freeze-dried form of polymerized fibrin that supports hemostasis and wound healing. The bleeding from the middle ear artery of rabbits was found to be arrested instantaneously on application of fibrin sheets, even when the animal was heparinized systemically. As the fibrin sheet was found to be fragile, gelatin was incorporated to the sheet and thus the mechanical stability was improved without compromising the hemostatic effect. The efficacy of the fabricated fibrin and fibrin-gelatin sheets to seal traumatized rat liver was compared with commercially available hemostats, Abgel (cross-linked gelatin) and Surgicel (cross-linked cellulose). Tissue compatibility of all the hemostats was studied by analyzing the liver tissue 15 days after application. While the hemostatic effect was best with fibrin and fibrin-gelatin sheets, both Surgicel and Abgel were not capable of arresting the bleeding quickly. Gross analysis of tissue on the 15th day of application, visibly, Abgel was not only degraded but resulted in severe adhesions of internal organs and histologically capsule formation around the implant was evident. Though Surgicel was also seen as cream soft material on the site of application that joined two pieces of liver, there was no adhesion of other internal organs and histologically, immune reaction and foreign-body-type giant cells were present in large amounts. Fibrin was not found grossly on application site whereas fibrin-gelatin was seen as a small white spot. Granulation tissue formation and cell migration into the fibrin-based sheets were evident, and therefore, fibrin-based sheets are not only efficient hemostats but showed optimum

  12. Association of preoperative levels of selected blood inflammatory markers with prognosis in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Auezova, Raushan; Ryskeldiev, Nurzhan; Doskaliyev, Aidos; Kuanyshev, Yerbol; Zhetpisbaev, Berik; Aldiyarova, Nurgul; Ivanova, Natalia; Akshulakov, Serik; Auezova, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Red cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet count (PLT) routinely tested as part of the complete blood count are indicative of systemic inflammation. The prognostic significance of NLR and PLT in cancer was demonstrated in many studies while the role of RDW has been hardly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the association of RDW, NLR, and PLT with survival and tumor grade in glioma patients. Methods Clinical data from 178 patients with primary gliomas treated in a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curves for cutoff value determination, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, various bivariate tests, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed. Results Patients with high RDW (≥13.95) and NLR (≥4) levels had worse overall survival (OS) (Wilcoxon test, P<0.026 and P<0.003, respectively) while the effect of thrombocytosis (≥400×109/L) on prognosis was not significant. Besides, a strong association between RDW and NLR was found (Spearman’s rho =0.230, P<0.02; χ2=8.887, P<0.03; Mann–Whitney U-test, P<0.017). Moreover, RDW and NLR were significantly associated with tumor grade. In univariate Cox analysis, elevated NLR (hazard ratio, HR 1.385; confidence interval, CI 1.020–1.881, P<0.037), older age (HR 0.452, CI 0.329–0.621, P<0), and higher tumor grade (HR 1.624, CI 1.187–2.223, P<0.002) were associated with poor outcomes. In the multivariate analysis, tumor grade, age, and Karnofsky performance score were identified as being independently prognostic for OS. Conclusion Preoperative NLR and RDW values can help to evaluate disease progression and outcomes in patients with gliomas, thereby contributing to patient follow-up optimization. PMID:27785058

  13. Modulation of Interleukins in Sepsis-Associated Clotting Disorders: Interplay With Hemostatic Derangement.

    PubMed

    Low, Christopher; Syed, Daneyal; Khan, Daniel; Tetik, Sermin; Walborn, Amanda; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Mosier, Michael; Fareed, Jawed

    2017-01-01

    Interleukins play a central role in the immune system and are involved in a variety of immunological, inflammatory, and infectious disease states including sepsis syndrome. Levels of interleukins may correlate with overall survival and may directly or indirectly affect some of the regulators of coagulation and fibrinolysis, thereby disrupting hemostasis and thrombosis. Our hypothesis is that in sepsis-associated coagulopathies (SACs), interleukins may be upregulated, leading to hemostatic imbalance by generating thrombogenic mediators. We profiled the levels of interleukins IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in addition to d-dimer (DD) in patients with SAC and in normal donors. We observed the highest increase in interleukins IL-6 (322-fold), IL-8 (48-fold), IL-10 (72-fold), and DD (18-fold). This suggests that interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-10 have a close association with coagulopathy and fibrinolytic dysregulation in sepsis and can be considered as candidates for potential therapeutic targets in SAC.

  14. Levels of Neopterin and other Inflammatory Markers in Obese and Non-Obese Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Agacayak, Elif; Tunc, Senem Yaman; Sak, Sibel; Basaranoglu, Serdar; Yüksel, Hatice; Turgut, Abdulkadir; Gul, Talip

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to measure the levels of inflammatory markers and neopterin in obese and non-obese patients with PCOS by using 2 separate control groups with matching body mass index (BMI). Material/Methods A total of 60 women of reproductive age with (n=30) and without (n=30) PCOS were included in this study. Based on their BMI, patients with PCOS were divided into 2 groups as obese (n=15) and non-obese (n=15) PCOS groups. In addition, 2 BMI-matched control groups were formed. Neopterin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio), and vitamin B12 were assessed by complete blood count. Results No significant difference was found between patients with PCOS and control subjects in neopterin, IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels. However, N/L ratio levels were significantly higher (p 0.045) and vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower (p 0.033) in patients with PCOS compared to control subjects. No statistically significant difference was found between obese and non-obese patients with PCOS and control subjects in neopterin, IL-6, TNF-α, and N/L ratio levels. However, CRP levels were significantly higher in obese patients with PCOS compared to obese control subjects (p 0.007). Conclusions It can be concluded that inflammatory activity is increased in patients with PCOS, can lead to an increased risk for atherosclerosis, and this increase is not caused by obesity but rather by the polycystic ovary syndrome itself. However, studies with larger sample sizes are needed in this area. PMID:26292090

  15. Serum selenium levels as indicators of body status in cancer patients and their relationship with other nutritional and biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alarcón, M; de la Serrana, H L; Pérez-Valero, V; López-Martínez, C

    1998-04-08

    A cross-sectional study of serum selenium levels in patients (n = 59) with different types of cancer from southeastern Spain was carried out using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The subjects were divided into four groups according to the cancer location (respiratory, digestive, haematological and gynaecological groups). Serum selenium levels in all patients (54.41 +/- 24.80 mg/l) were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than those determined in control groups [healthy subjects from the same area (n = 130) and institutionalized elderly people (n = 93)]. Mean serum selenium concentrations were not significantly different among the four groups considered (P > 0.05). Linear regression analyses performed on serum selenium levels and biochemical markers (total cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, uric acid and urea) did not establish any statistically significant correlation (P > 0.05). No significant relationships between serum selenium concentrations and sex or age of patients was observed (P > 0.05). Given the marked overlap between the two ranges of the populations (the means are within approx. 1/2 S.D.) the predictive values of serum selenium are low. Thus, there is indeed a statistical significance between the means, but selenium cannot be used to determine whether or not a patient has cancer disease.

  16. Association of Allergic Rhinitis in Female University Students with Socio-economic Factors and Markers of Estrogens Levels.

    PubMed

    Wronka, I; Kliś, K; Jarzebak, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of allergic rhinitis in female university students with socio-economic factors and sex-hormone markers, including age at menarche, menstrual disorders, and selected anthropometrics indexes. The research was conducted among 640 female university students, aged 19-25 years. The measurements of body height, body mass, waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and its allergens were defined on the basis of medical workup. We found that a significantly larger number of cases of allergic rhinitis were recorded in the university students coming from families of high socio-economic level than those from lower level. Allergic rhinitis also was more frequent in the students who spent their childhood in cities than in those who lived in the countryside. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was inversely correlated to the number of siblings. There were no differences in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in relation to the birth order. The estrogen level seemed unassociated with rhinitis. However, there were slightly more allergic among females with an earlier age of menarche.

  17. Antibacterial hemostatic dressings with nanoporous bioglass containing silver.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gangfeng; Xiao, Luwei; Tong, Peijian; Bi, Dawei; Wang, Hui; Ma, Haitao; Zhu, Gang; Liu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous bioglass containing silver (n-BGS) was fabricated using the sol-gel method, with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide as template. The results showed that n-BGS with nanoporous structure had a surface area of 467 m(2)/g and a pore size of around 6 nm, and exhibited a significantly higher water absorption rate compared with BGS without nanopores. The n-BGS containing small amounts of silver (Ag) had a slight effect on its surface area. The n-BGS containing 0.02 wt% Ag, without cytotoxicity, had a good antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli, and its antibacterial rate reached 99% in 12 hours. The n-BGS's clotting ability significantly decreased prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), indicating n-BGS with a higher surface area could significantly promote blood clotting (by decreasing clotting time) compared with BGS without nanopores. Effective hemostasis was achieved in skin injury models, and bleeding time was reduced. It is suggested that n-BGS could be a good dressing, with antibacterial and hemostatic properties, which might shorten wound bleeding time and control hemorrhage.

  18. [Topical hemostatic devices in surgery: between science and marketing].

    PubMed

    González, Héctor Daniel; Figueras Felip, Joan

    2009-06-01

    Topical hemostatic agents have been used in surgery with varying degrees of success. These agents include oxidized cellulose, absorbable gelatin sponges, microfibrillar collagen and fibrin seals. Fibrin seals have become widely used as they improve perioperative hemostasis, reduce the need for red blood cell transfusions and prevent biliary leaks. Their widespread use, however, contrasts with the scarcity of data from controlled studies to support their clinical effectiveness. Therefore, a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center study was performed in 300 patients who underwent elective hepatectomy, with and without application of fibrin seal on the raw liver surface. None of the variables evaluated (blood loss, transfusions, biliary fistulas and postoperative results) differed between the two groups. We conclude that the application of fibrin seal does not seem justified and that discontinuing its routine use would substantially reduce costs. The use of a new agent, Tachosil, is supported by a single multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial, which is limited by the small number of patients and by the fact that the variable analyzed--time from application to hemostasis--may not be clinically relevant.

  19. Early circulating levels of endothelial cell activation markers in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: associations with cerebral ischaemic events and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Frijns, C J M; Fijnheer, R; Algra, A; van Mourik, J A; van Gijn, J; Rinkel, G J E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation of endothelial cell activation with delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Methods Concentrations of soluble (s) intercellular adhesion molecule‐1, sE‐selectin, sP‐selectin, ED1‐fibronectin, von Willebrand Factor (vWf), and vWf propeptide were measured within three days of SAH onset. The associations with poor outcome were investigated at three months in 106 patients. In 90 patients in whom the occurrence of cerebral ischaemia could be dated accurately, two analyses were undertaken: one for all ischaemic events (n = 32), including those related to treatment, and another for spontaneous DCI (n = 11). Concentrations of markers were dichotomised at their medians. The associations of endothelial cell activation markers with outcome were expressed as odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression and those with ischaemic events as hazard ratios (HR) derived from Cox regression. Results Early vWf concentrations were associated with poor outcome (crude OR = 4.6 (95% CI, 2.0 to 10.9; adjusted OR = 3.3 (1.1 to 9.8). Early levels of vWf were also positively related to occurrence of all ischaemic events (crude HR = 2.3 (1.1 to 4.9); adjusted HR = 1.8 (0.8 to 3.9) and with occurrence of spontaneous DCI (crude HR = 3.5 (0.9 to 13.1); adjusted HR = 2.2 (0.5 to 9.8). None of the other markers showed any associations. Conclusions Concentrations of sICAM‐1, sP‐selectin, sE‐selectin, and ED1‐fibronectin do not predict the occurrence of DCI or outcome. The positive associations of raised early vWf concentrations with ischaemic events and poor outcome after SAH may reflect a predisposition to further ischaemic injury through formation of microthrombi in the cerebral circulation. PMID:16361599

  20. Tumor endothelial marker 8 expression levels in dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines are related to clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Venanzi, Franco Maria; Petrini, Massimiliano; Fiammenghi, Laura; Bolli, Elisabetta; Granato, Anna Maria; Ridolfi, Laura; Gabrielli, Federica; Barucca, Alessandra; Concetti, Antonio; Ridolfi, Ruggero; Riccobon, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that tumor endothelial markers (TEMs 1-9) are up modulated in immunosuppressive, pro-angiogenic dendritic cells (DCs) found in tumor microenvironments. We recently reported that monocyte-derived DCs used for vaccination trials may accumulate high levels of TEM8 gene transcripts. Here, we investigate whether TEM8 expression in DC preparations represents a specific tumor-associated change of potential clinical relevance. TEM8 expression at the mRNA and protein level was evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and cytofluorimetric analysis in human clinical grade DCs utilized for the therapeutic vaccination of 17 advanced cancer patients (13 melanoma and 4 renal cell carcinoma). The analyses revealed that DCs from patients markedly differ in their ability to up-modulate TEM8. Indeed, mDCs from eight non-progressing patients [median overall survival (OS) = 32 months, all positive to the delayed-type hypersensitivity test (DTH)], had similar TEM8 mRNA expression levels [mDCs vs. immature iDCs; mean fold increase (mfi) = 1.97] to those found in healthy donors (mfi = 2.7). Conversely, mDCs from nine progressing patients (OS < 5 months, all but one with negative DTH) showed an increase in TEM8 mRNA levels (mfi = 12.88, p = 0.0018). The present observations suggest that TEM8 expression levels in DC-based therapeutic vaccines would allow the selection of a subgroup of patients who are most likely to benefit from therapeutic vaccination.

  1. Biostimulation effect of low-level laser on healing process after third molar surgery, based on biochemical markers in saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroulikova, Veronika; Dostálová, Tatjana; Podzimek, Stepan

    2015-02-01

    Third molar extractions in general anesthesia have become a standard procedure in dentistry. There is an effort to shorten healing time and decrease the number of complications as well as increase comfort after the treatment. Low-level lasers are known for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and stimulatory effect. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of low-level laser after surgery in general anesthesia reducing the patient's discomfort, i.e. mainly pain, and also, to monitor the biostimulation process. Our study included 79 patients treated at the Department of Maxilofacial Surgery, diagnosed with third molar retention. Diode low-level laser radiation (wavelength 830 nm, output power 270 mW, probe aperture of 6.4 mm2) with dose ~ 3 mJ was applied. The control group was treated by using placebo - red light. The exposure time was 11 seconds immediately after the suture; the treatment was repeated every day for the following 3 days. To evaluate the effect of laser biostimulation, the objective markers for immunological determination of healing - sIgA and lysozyme in non-stimulated saliva of patients - were used. The sIgA decreases after laser application from 546.91 mg/l to 304. 91mg/l and in the control group from 602.25mg/l to 425.62 mg/l. The results were statistically significant. The level of lysozyme decreases from 54.27 mg/l to 2.45mg/l after laser biostimulation, from 304.371mg/l to 11.08mg/l after placebo effect. The study has confirmed a low-level laser healing effect not directly related to pain.

  2. Relationship between serum leptin levels and bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farokhlagha; Salari, Sina; Maziar, Sima; Esfahanian, Fateme; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Ranjbarnovin, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the protein product of the obesity gene, which is produced in fat tissue. It was originally thought to be involved only in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. We aimed to investigate the relationship of serum leptin levels with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients on hemodialysis (HD). This study included 72 patients (43 males and 29 females), whose mean age was 55.1 ± 11.4 years, mean body mass index was 23.13 ± 2.75 kg/m 2 and mean duration on HD was 5 ± 3.4 years. The BMD values were calculated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Blood samples were taken for leptin, intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and albumin. The leptin levels were higher in females than in males (22.3 ± 19.6 vs 20.8 ± 23), but this difference was not significant. The serum leptin level had a strong positive correlation with Ca levels in the female patients (r = 0.659 and P = 0.01) and a negative correlation with albumin levels (r = -0.461 and P = 0.01). No correlation was found with age, BMI, duration on dialysis, BMD and serum levels of PTH, BAP and P for the entire patient group or either gender separately. The serum leptin level was significantly lower in females with PTH >300 pg/mL when compared with patients with PTH = 100-300 pg/mL (86 ± 85 vs 47 ± 48) (P = 0.011).Women with BAP <300 IU/L had significantly higher serum leptin than those with BAP 300-600 IU/L (P = 0.024). Women with Ca <8.5 mg/dL had significantly lower serum leptin levels compared with those with Ca levels of 8.5-10.5 mg/dL (P = 0.011). There was no significant difference between the two genders among variables such as age, BMI, duration on dialysis, serum leptin, I-PTH, Ca, P, BAP, albumin and BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine.

  3. Obtaining rapid and effective hemostasis: Part I. Update and review of topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Howe, Nicole; Cherpelis, Basil

    2013-11-01

    Effective and rapid hemostasis is critical to optimize surgical outcomes. An advantageous adjunct in accelerating the clotting process during dermatologic surgery is the use of topical hemostatic agents, which allow dermatologic surgeons to quickly clear the surgical field while avoiding the adverse effects of systemic medications. The growing rate of patients with pacemakers and defibrillators limits the possibility of electrosurgery. It is not unusual for patients to be taking ≥1 anticoagulant medication(s). For these reasons, the use of topical hemostatic agents is likely to gain more recognition in the literature. The term topical hemostatic agents encompasses an array of pharmacotherapies, sealants, adhesives, absorbable agents, biologics, and combination products. The optimal use of topical hemostatic agents demands that dermatologic surgeons be familiar with each of these options, because the type of product used must be selected based on surgical location, wound size, and the extent of bleeding. With few randomized controlled trials in existence reviewing the efficacy of these medications, the subject of topical styptic agents has largely gone unstudied. Part I of this continuing medical education article reviews the available topical hemostatic agents and the ideal clinical settings for their use.

  4. Evaluation of a gelatin matrix as a topical hemostatic agent for hepatic bleeding in the dog.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Daniel P; Kass, Philip H

    2013-01-01

    New generation topical hemostatic agents containing thrombin have been developed for use in surgical procedures when control of bleeding by conventional methods is either ineffective or impractical. The authors compared the safety, hemostatic efficacy, and handling characteristics of a thrombin-containing topical surgical hemostatic agent (a gelatin matrix) to a hemostatic gelatin sponge for treatment of parenchymal bleeding after liver biopsy. Fourteen dogs were enrolled in this prospective clinical study. Paired 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm and 0.5 cm deep liver biopsies were obtained via laparotomy for each dog. One bleeding liver biopsy lesion was treated with the gelatin matrix and the other with a gelatin sponge. The treated liver biopsy sites were compared for bleeding severity, time to hemostasis, cumulative blood loss, and hemostatic agent handling characteristics. Median time to hemostasis was significantly shorter (P = 0.034) and median cumulative blood loss was significantly lower (P = 0.033) for the lesions treated with the gelatin matrix than the gelatin sponge. Adverse reactions were not observed within the first 24 hr postoperatively. When used to control parenchymal bleeding from liver biopsy sites in the dog, the evaluated gelatin matrix was safe and more effective than the gelatin sponge.

  5. Assessment in vitro of the active hemostatic properties of wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Jesty, Jolyon; Wieland, Martin; Niemiec, Jack

    2009-05-01

    The development of actively hemostatic wound dressings for use in severe trauma remains a major public-health and military goal. But, although some manufacturers claim that existing dressings activate platelets and/or blood coagulation, mechanistic evidence is often lacking. We describe a method for assessing the active hemostatic properties of dressings in vitro, entailing measurement of the flow of recalcified platelet-rich plasma (PRP) through a dressing sample. If the dressing is hemostatically active, flow is reduced. This flow is then compared with the flow-through of PRP in which both platelet and coagulation function are blocked with EDTA. The ratio of the two generates a hemostatic index that ranges from 1.0 (no active hemostasis) to 0 (highly potent). The method is applicable to porous or semiporous dressings, whether fabric, sponge, fleece, or granules. For an active dressing, the test is easily modified to differentiate between the contributions of platelet and coagulation to overall hemostasis. The method is illustrated for fabrics, over-the-counter gauze and sponge dressings, collagen-based sheets, and an absorbent granule dressing. One active collagen dressing is used to illustrate discrimination between platelet and coagulation function. The ability to assess hemostatic properties may significantly enhance the development of advanced active dressings.

  6. Chitosan/gelatin composite sponge is an absorbable surgical hemostatic agent.

    PubMed

    Lan, Guangqian; Lu, Bitao; Wang, Tianyou; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Jinghao; Yu, Kun; Liu, Jiawei; Dai, Fangying; Wu, Dayang

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan is a versatile biological material that is very well known for its hemostatic properties. The purpose of this study was to test the hemostatic properties of a chitosan composite obtained from silkworm pupae and gelatin. This spongy porous material was cross-linked with tannins and then freeze-dried under vacuum to obtain composites containing chitosan and gelatin in different proportions. Results showed that the best blood-clotting index (BCI) was achieved in vitro by a chitosan/gelatin sponge (CG) ratio of 5/5 (W/W). Furthermore, CG had the best hemostatic effect in rabbit artery bleeding and liver model tests compared to the two components separately. The better hemostatic effect of CG may be due to its ability to absorb blood platelets easily and to the higher liquid adsorption ratio. However, no obvious differences were observed in thrombin generation with both aPTT and PT tests. Cell toxicity tests with L929 cells showed that CG caused no obvious cytotoxicity. In addition, subcutaneous transplantation of CG into rabbits resulted in almost complete degradation of CG after 6 weeks, together with rich vascular generation and proliferation in the transplanted region. Thus, CG can be considered an effective absorbable hemostatic material.

  7. Development of feather keratin nanoparticles and investigation of their hemostatic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju; Hao, Shilei; Luo, Tiantian; Yang, Qian; Wang, Bochu

    2016-11-01

    Chicken feathers are considered as the major waste in poultry industry, which are mostly constituted of keratin proteins. Development of feather keratin for biomedical application is very attractive for chicken feather recycling. Human hair keratins have been demonstrated the significant hemostatic efficacy in the previous studies, but there are few reports of feather keratin for the hemostatic application. Here, the chicken feather keratin nanoparticle was developed for use as a hemostatic agent. Keratin was extracted from chicken feather in the present study, and a modified ultrasonic dispersion method was used to prepare keratin nanoparticles. The characterizations of feather keratin extracts and nanoparticles were investigated, including electrophoretic separation, amino acid composition, particle size, zeta potential, morphology, chemical structure and crystal form. Additionally, the hemostatic efficacy in vitro and in vivo of keratin nanoparticles were also studied. The results of hemostatic tests showed that the bleeding time and blood loss in tail amputation and liver scratch rat models can be significantly decreased after application of feather keratin nanoparticles, which demonstrated the potential application of feather keratin nanoparticles for hemostasis.

  8. Effect of resveratrol on hemostatic properties of human fibrinogen and plasma during model of hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Joanna; Olas, Beata

    2010-11-01

    Resveratrol (3,4', 5 - trihydroxystilben), a phenolic antioxidant synthesized in grapes and vegetables and presents in wine, has been supposed to be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular events. In this study the influence of resveratrol on the clot formation (using human plasma and purified fibrinogen) and the fibrin lysis during model of hyperhomocysteinemia was investigated. We induced this process using a reduced form of Hcys (at final dose of 0.1mM) and the most reactive form of Hcys - its cyclic thioester, homocysteine thiolactone (HTL, 0.5μM). The aim of our study in vitro was to investigate the modifications of human plasma total proteins after incubation with Hcys, HTL and resveratrol. We observed that HTL, like its precursor, Hcys stimulated polymerization of fibrinogen. Our present results also demonstrated that Hcys (0.1mM) and HLT at lower doses than Hcys (0.5μM) reduced the fibrin lysis in human plasma. Moreover, Hcys and HTL change the level of thiol and amino groups in plasma total proteins. Our results indicate that resveratrol reduced the toxicity action of Hcys and HTL on hemostatic properties of fibrinogen or plasma, suggesting its possible protector role in hyperhomocysteinemia - induced cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Hemostatic studies in racing standardbred horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Hemostatic parameters at rest and after moderate exercise.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, I B; Viel, L; Crane, S; Whiting, T

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a defect in hemostasis might be a factor in the etiology of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH). Hemostatic parameters were evaluated in 22 EIPH-positive and ten EIPH-negative racing horses while in a rested state. Nineteen EIPH-positive and ten EIPH-negative horses were further evaluated just before and immediately after a 15 min exercise period on a 260 m oval track. When EIPH-positive and EIPH-negative horses were compared at rest, there was no significant difference in any of the coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters studied. There was however, a significant difference in platelet function as assessed by aggregometry. The platelets from affected horses were significantly less responsive than those from nonaffected horses when exposed in vitro to the platelet agonists adenosine diphosphate, collagen and platelet activating factor. Exercise tended to increase the packed cell volume and factor VIII/von Willebrand factor and to decrease platelet aggregation responses to low concentrations of adenosine diphosphate. These effects of exercise however were quantitatively similar in both EIPH-positive and EIPH-negative horses. Reduced platelet function may therefore be a contributing factor in the bleeding characteristic of horses with EIPH.

  10. Genome-Wide Survey of Nuclear Protein-Coding Markers for Beetle Phylogenetics and Their Application in Resolving both Deep and Shallow-Level Divergences.

    PubMed

    Che, Li-Heng; Zhang, Shao-Qian; Li, Yun; Liang, Dan; Pang, Hong; Ślipiński, Adam; Zhang, Peng

    2017-03-03

    Beetles (Coleoptera) are the most diverse and species-rich insect group, representing an impressive explosive radiation in the evolutionary history of insects, and their evolutionary relationships are often difficult to resolve. The amount of "traditional markers" (e.g., mitochondrial genes and nuclear rDNAs) for beetle phylogenetics is small and these markers often lack sufficient signals in resolving relationships for such a rapidly radiating lineage. Here, based on the available genome data of beetles and other related insect species, we performed a genome-wide survey to search nuclear protein-coding (NPC) genes suitable for research on beetle phylogenetics. As a result, we identified 1470 candidate loci, which provided a valuable data resource to the beetle evolutionary research community for NPC marker development. We randomly chose 180 candidate loci from the database to design primers and successfully developed 95 NPC markers which can be PCR amplified from standard genomic DNA extracts. These new nuclear markers are universally applicable across Coleoptera, with an average amplification success rate of 90%. To test the phylogenetic utility, we used them to investigate the backbone phylogeny of Coleoptera (18 families sampled) and the family Coccinellidae (39 species sampled). Both phylogenies are well resolved (average bootstrap support > 95%), showing that our markers can be used to address phylogenetic questions of various evolutionary depth (from species level to family level). In general, the newly developed nuclear markers are much easier to use and more phylogenetically informative than the "traditional markers", and show great potential to expedite resolution of many parts in the Beetle Tree of Life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. A comprehensive review of topical hemostatic agents: efficacy and recommendations for use.

    PubMed

    Achneck, Hardean E; Sileshi, Bantayehu; Jamiolkowski, Ryan M; Albala, David M; Shapiro, Mark L; Lawson, Jeffrey H

    2010-02-01

    Since ancient times we have attempted to facilitate hemostasis by application of topical agents. In the last decade, the number of different effective hemostatic agents has increased drastically. In order for the modern surgeon to successfully choose the right agent at the right time, it is essential to understand the mechanism of action, efficacy and possible adverse events as they relate to each agent. In this article we provide a comprehensive review of the most commonly used hemostatic agents, subcategorized as physical agents, absorbable agents, biologic agents, and synthetic agents. We also evaluate novel hemostatic dressings and their application in the current era. Furthermore, wholesale acquisition prices for hospitals in the United States are provided to aid in cost analysis. We conclude with an expert opinion on which agent to use under different scenarios.

  12. Prevention of biliary leakage after partial liver resection using topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Deha; Busch, Olivier R C; Gouma, Dirk J; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    Liver resection is widely accepted as the only potentially curative treatment in malignant or benign hepatobiliary lesions. Although not frequent, biliary leakage is a postoperative complication which may have considerable consequences. The field of topical hemostatic agents is rapidly developing, with various products currently available. This article reviews the risk factors associated with biliary leakage and the methods used for testing or prevention of biliary leakage. A literature search was performed using key words related to experimental and clinical studies dealing with biliary leakage. Experimental studies assessed the potential bilio-static effect of different topical hemostatic agents after bile duct reconstruction. Clinical series show biliary leakage rates up to 12%. There is no evidence that flushing of the bile duct system after resection reduces the incidence of biliary leakage. Further controlled studies are needed to clarify the preventive effect of topical hemostatic agents on biliary leakage after liver resection.

  13. Nanocomplexation of thrombin with cationic amylose derivative for improved stability and hemostatic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Baoxiong; Li, Zhihua; Pang, Jiadong; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Pinbo; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Qing; Zhou, Quanbo; Ye, Xiao; Ye, Huilin; Liu, Yimin; Zhang, Li-Ming; Chen, Rufu

    2015-01-01

    As a topical hemostatic agent, thrombin has wide application for many surgical treatments. However, native thrombin always suffers from its physical and chemical instabilities. In this work, a nanocomplexation strategy was developed for modifying the stability and hemostatic efficacy of thrombin, in which a water-soluble cationic amylose derivative containing poly(l-lysine) dendrons was prepared by a click reaction and then used to complex thrombin in an aqueous system. For resultant thrombin nanocomplexes, their morphology and particle size distribution were investigated. Their stabilities were studied in terms of activity retention percentages under different storage time, pH values, and illumination time. In addition, their ability to achieve in vitro fibrinogen and blood coagulation were evaluated. Via a rat hepatic hemorrhage model and a rat iliac artery hemorrhage model, these thrombin nanocomplexes were confirmed to have good tissue biocompatibility and in vivo hemostatic effectiveness. PMID:25673989

  14. Development of a resorbable macroporous cellulosic material used as hemostatic in an osseous environment.

    PubMed

    Laurence, S; Bareille, R; Baquey, C; Fricain, J C

    2005-06-15

    The control of bleeding is a frequently encountered therapeutic problem, particularly during dental surgery. The most efficient substances used to resolve this problem are not risk-free because of their animal or human origins, so cellulosic materials are potentially of interest. The aim of this study was to develop a resorbable macroporous cellulosic material for use as a resorbable hemostatic agent in bone sites. The degradation and the cytocompatibility of the cellulosic material versus controls were evaluated and its behaviour in vivo was studied. An original process using calcium carbonate powder as inverse matrix was used to develop a macroporous material. In order to predegrade the cellulosic material for hemostatic use, oxidation was performed with periodate. A dialdehyde component unstable at physiological pH was thus obtained. The material was found to have cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and resorption properties similar to control but its hemostatic power was higher.

  15. Microspheres of carboxymethyl chitosan, sodium alginate and collagen for a novel hemostatic in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinyi; Fang, Qiang; Ding, Miao; Wu, Jing; Ye, Fei; Lv, Zhengbing; Jin, Jia

    2016-02-01

    To develop biocompatible composite microspheres for novel hemostatic use, we designed and prepared a novel biomaterial, composite microspheres consisting of carboxymethyl chitosan, sodium alginate, and collagen (CSCM). The ultra-structure of CSCM was investigated by scanning electron microscopy assay. In hemostatic function experiment, it was found that CSCM could facilitate platelet adherence, platelet aggregation, and platelet activation in vitro. Besides, the maximum swelling of CSCM submerged in PBS for 50 min was over 300% of that exhibited by commercial hemostatic compound microporous polysaccharide haemostatic powder (CMPHP). In addition, CSCM exhibited good biodegradability and non-cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that CSCM may be useful in platelet plug formation, and this study would provide important information for further research on hemostasis experiment in vivo.

  16. Comparison of the Hemostatic Activity of Quercus persica Jaub. & Spach. (Oak) With Ferric Sulfate in Bony Crypts.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Zargaran, Arman; Moazami, Fariborz; Askari, Fatemeh; Sahebi, Safoora; Farhadpoor, Alireza; Faridi, Pouya

    2016-01-01

    Effective tissue hemostasis in periapical surgical site is important in the procedures. Plants with large amount of tannins may act as a local hemostatic agent. We aimed to compare the hemostatic effect of the extract of Quercus persica with one of the common hemostatic material used in periapical surgery. Six standardized bone holes were prepared in the calvaria of 5 Burgundy rabbits. Two hemostatic medicaments were tested for their hemostatic effect and were compared with control defects: Group 1, cotton pellet soaked in 15.5% ferric sulfate solution; Group 2, cotton pellet soaked in pure ethanolic extract of Q. persica. Bleeding score between the groups was compared. The ferric sulfate group exhibited significantly less bleeding than the other 2 groups. Q. persica was found to cause more hemostasis than the control group at 4 and 5 minutes but there were no significant differences between normal saline and Q. persica extract in bleeding control.

  17. A review of topical hemostatic agents for use in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Barnard, James; Millner, Russell

    2009-10-01

    Postoperative hemorrhage, redo sternotomy for bleeding, and transfusion of blood products are all associated with poorer outcomes in cardiac surgery. Topical hemostatic agents are important adjuncts to reduce blood loss after cardiac surgery and can have a role in reducing both "surgical" and "nonsurgical bleeding." There are many topical hemostatic agents to choose from, and with several new products in this field being approved for use in the last few years, the aim of this review is to appraise these agents and to look at the evidence for their efficacy.

  18. Topical Hemostatic Agents: What the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon Needs to Know.

    PubMed

    Vezeau, Patrick J

    2016-11-01

    Hemostasis is a key step in safe and predictable surgery. Knowledge of normal blood clotting mechanisms and abnormal diathesis is necessary to anticipate potential problems during and after surgery. As an adjunct to bleeding control, topical hemostatic agents have long been used in all surgical disciplines. This article provides a brief review of hemostasis and a topical summary of different classes of topical hemostatic agents useful to oral and maxillofacial surgery, including indications and potential complications/side effects. This rapidly evolving field promises to yield future agents with increased efficacy, cost efficiency, and decreased complications.

  19. Slime method: modified hemostatic technique of fibrin glue in major cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Tsutomu; Masuda, Shinsuke; Inoue, Tomoya

    2011-05-01

    Surgical bleeding from anastomoses due to systemic heparinization or prolonged extracorporeal circulation, which is more effectively controlled with topical hemostatic agents than with sutures, has been one of the major problems in cardiovascular surgery. We describe a novel hemostatic technique using fibrin glue. Briefly, the two components of fibrinogen and thrombin solutions are mixed and put over the bleeding point immediately after the glue has become a viscous gel. Within a minute of local compression, the glue sets well enough to stop the bleed.

  20. Correlation between clotting and collagen metabolism markers in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gabazza, E C; Osamu, T; Yamakami, T; Ibata, H; Sato, T; Sato, Y; Shima, T

    1994-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused essentially by an immune-mediated mechanism. However, abnormalities of the clotting system have also been incriminated as having an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. This study aims at assessing the clotting system and collagen metabolism alterations and the relationship between perturbances of the hemostatic pathway and the destructive and fibroproliferative processes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The coagulation system was evaluated by measuring thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and antithrombin III (AT-III). The fibrinolysis system was assessed by measuring fibrin degradation products (FDP), fibrinogen (FBG), alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2-PI), D-dimer (DD) and plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complex (PAP). As markers of collagen metabolism, the type III procollagen peptide (PIIIP) and the 7S domain of type IV collagen (7S-collagen) were determined. Blood concentrations of DD, PAP, TAT, PIIIP, and 7S-collagen were significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to controls. Serum levels of PIIIP were significantly correlated with PT, APTT, AT-III, FDP, and DD. 7S-collagen levels were inversely related to AT-III and FBG values. This study demonstrated the occurrence of a subclinical intravascular coagulation in rheumatoid arthritis and suggested the important role of blood coagulation in the alteration of the extracellular matrix metabolism in this disease.

  1. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes.

  2. Reproducing the Hemoglobin Saturation Profile, a Marker of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI Effect, at the Microscopic Level.

    PubMed

    Hadjistassou, Constantinos; Moyle, Keri; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    The advent of functional MRI in the mid-1990s has catalyzed progress pertaining to scientific discoveries in neuroscience. With the prospect of elucidating the physiological aspect of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) effect we present a computational capillary-tissue system capable of mapping venous hemoglobin saturation- a marker of the BOLD hemodynamic response. Free and facilitated diffusion and convection for hemoglobin and oxygen are considered in the radial and axial directions. Hemoglobin reaction kinetics are governed by the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. Brain activation, mimicked by dynamic transitions in cerebral blood velocity (CBv) and oxidative metabolism (CMRO2), is simulated by normalized changes in m = (ΔCBv/CBv)/(ΔCMRO2/CMRO2) of values 2, 3 and 4. Venous hemoglobin saturation profiles and peak oxygenation results, for m = 2, based upon a 50% and a 25% increase in CBv and CMRO2, respectively, lie within physiological limits exhibiting excellent correlation with the BOLD signal, for short-duration stimuli. Our analysis suggests basal CBv and CMRO2 values of 0.6 mm/s and 200 μmol/100g/min. Coupled CBv and CMRO2 responses, for m = 3 and m = 4, overestimate peak hemoglobin saturation, confirming the system's responsiveness to changes in hematocrit, CBv and CMRO2. Finally, factoring in neurovascular effects, we show that no initial dip will be observed unless there is a time delay in the onset of increased CBv relative to CMRO2.

  3. Differential associations of oral estradiol and conjugated equine estrogen with hemostatic biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Blondon, M.; Van Hylckama Vlieg, A.; Wiggins, K.L.; Harrington, L.B.; McKnight, B.; Rice, K.M.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Heckbert, S.R.; Psaty, B.M.; Smith, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The risk of venous thrombosis (VT) associated with oral hormone therapy (HT) may differ by type of estrogen compound. Objective To compare the thrombotic profile of women using oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with that of women using oral estradiol (E2). Methods In postmenopausal female health maintenance organization (HMO) members with no history of VT, we measured thrombin generation, levels of factor VII activity, antithrombin activity, and total protein S antigen. Mean levels of hemostasis biomarkers were cross-sectionally compared by use and type of estrogen using multiple linear regressions. The type of estrogen used was determined primarily by the HMO formulary, which changed its preferred estrogen from CEE to E2 during the study period. Results The sample included 92 E2 users and 48 CEE users, with a mean age of 64.1y and mean BMI of 29.1kg/m2. Twenty-seven percent of HT contained medroxyprogesterone acetate. Compared with E2 users, CEE users had greater thrombin generation peak values, endogenous thrombin potential, and lower total protein S (multivariate adjusted differences of 49.8 nM (95%CI: 21.0, 78.6); 175.0 nMxMin (95%CI: 54.4, 295.7); and -13.4% (95%CI: −9.8, −6.9), respectively). Factor VII and antithrombin levels were not different between E2 and CEE users. Results were similar in subgroups of users of unopposed HT, opposed HT, low-dose estrogen and standard dose estrogen. Conclusion The hemostatic profile of women using CEE is more prothrombotic than that of women using E2. These findings provide further evidence for a different thrombotic risk for oral CEE and oral E2. PMID:24628832

  4. The levels of bone turnover markers 25(OH)D and PTH and their relationship with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in a suburban district in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Qiao, J; Li, S S; Yu, W J; He, J W; Fu, W Z; Zhang, Z L

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs) and investigated relationships between them and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in China suburban district. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 25.03 % at lumbar spine and 6.23 % at femoral neck, and BTMs were negatively correlated with BMDs.

  5. Effects of Noise Exposure on Systemic and Tissue-Level Markers of Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijie; Wang, Fanfan; Lu, Haiying; Cao, Shuangfeng; Du, Ziwei; Wang, Yongfang; Feng, Xian; Gao, Ye; Zha, Mingming; Guo, Min; Sun, Zilin; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have indicated that noise exposure is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the nature of the connection between noise exposure and T2DM remains to be explored. Objectives: We explored whether and how noise exposure affects glucose homeostasis in mice as the initial step toward T2DM development. Methods: Male ICR mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups: the control group and three noise groups (N20D, N10D, and N1D), in which the animals were exposed to white noise at 95 decibel sound pressure level (dB SPL) for 4 hr per day for 20 successive days, 10 successive days, or 1 day, respectively. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were evaluated 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after the final noise exposure (1DPN, 1WPN, and 1MPN). Standard immunoblots, immunohistochemical methods, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to assess insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, the morphology of β cells, and plasma corticosterone levels. Results: Noise exposure for 1 day caused transient glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas noise exposure for 10 and 20 days had no effect on glucose tolerance but did cause prolonged insulin resistance and an increased insulin response to glucose challenge. Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in response to exogenous insulin were decreased in the skeletal muscle of noise-exposed animals. Conclusions: Noise exposure at 95 dB SPL caused insulin resistance in male ICR mice, which was prolonged with longer noise exposure and was likely related to the observed blunted insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Citation: Liu L, Wang F, Lu H, Cao S, Du Z, Wang Y, Feng X, Gao Y, Zha M, Guo M, Sun Z, Wang J. 2016. Effects of noise exposure on systemic and tissue-level markers of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in male mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:1390–1398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP162 PMID:27128844

  6. Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro O; Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Cristina; Miguéis, Samuel; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinto, Rui M A; Rolo, Eva A; Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Prates, José A M

    2014-08-14

    Canned sardines are a ready-to-use fish product with excellent nutritional properties owing to its high n-3 long-chain PUFA content, mainly EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The present study aimed to assess the effect of two dosages of canned sardines, recommended for the primary and secondary prevention of human CVD, on the inflammatory marker concentrations and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and key metabolic tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue and brain) in the rat model. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 11 % (w/w) of canned sardines (low-sardine (LS) diet) and a diet containing 22 % (w/w) of canned sardines (high-sardine (HS) diet) for 10 weeks. Daily food intake, weight gain, and organ and final body weights were not affected by the dietary treatments. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in both the LS and HS groups, while those of alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin increased. The concentrations of IL-1β increased only with the highest dosage of sardine. The dose-dependent influence of the graded levels of EPA+DHA was tissue specific. Compared with that of other tissues and erythrocytes, the fatty acid composition of the brain was less affected by the canned sardine-supplemented diets. In contrast, the retroperitoneal adipose tissue was highly responsive. The deposition ratios of EPA and DHA indicated that the LS diet was optimal for DHA deposition across the tissues, except in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings indicate that a LS diet positively affects plasma lipid profiles and inflammatory mediators, whereas a HS diet has contradictory effects on IL-1β, which, in turn, is not associated with variations in the concentrations of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This finding requires further investigation and pathophysiological understanding.

  7. California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) defenses against rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic toxins.

    PubMed

    Biardi, James E; Chien, David C; Coss, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that some mammals are able to neutralize venom from snake predators. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) show variation among populations in their ability to bind venom and minimize damage from northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus), but the venom toxins targeted by resistance have not been investigated. Four California ground squirrel populations, selected for differences in local density or type of rattlesnake predators, were assayed for their ability to neutralize digestive and hemostatic effects of venom from three rattlesnake species. In Douglas ground squirrels (S. b. douglasii), we found that animals from a location where snakes are common showed greater inhibition of venom metalloprotease and hemolytic activity than animals from a location where snakes are rare. Effects on general proteolysis were not different. Douglas ground squirrels also reduced the metalloprotease activity of venom from sympatric northern Pacific rattlesnakes (C. o. oreganus) more than the activity of venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes (C. atrox), but enhanced the fibrinolysis of sympatric venom almost 1.8 times above baseline levels. Two Beechey ground squirrel (S. b. beecheyi) populations had similar inhibition of venoms from northern and southern Pacific rattlesnakes (C. o. helleri), despite differences between the populations in the locally prevalent predator. However, the venom toxins inhibited by Beechey squirrels varied among venom from Pacific rattlesnake subspecies, and between these venoms and venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes. Blood plasma from Beechey squirrels showed highest inhibition of metalloprotease activity of northern Pacific rattlesnake venom, general proteolytic activity and hemolysis of southern Pacific rattlesnake venom, and hemolysis by allopatric western diamondback venom. These results reveal previously cryptic variation in venom activity against resistant prey

  8. California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) defenses against rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic toxins.

    PubMed

    Biardi, James E; Chien, David C; Coss, Richard G

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that some mammals are able to neutralize venom from snake predators. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) show variation among populations in their ability to bind venom and minimize damage from northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus), but the venom toxins targeted by resistance have not been investigated. Four California ground squirrel populations, selected for differences in local density or type of rattlesnake predators, were assayed for their ability to neutralize digestive and hemostatic effects of venom from three rattlesnake species. In Douglas ground squirrels (S. b. douglasii), we found that animals from a location where snakes are common showed greater inhibition of venom metalloprotease and hemolytic activity than animals from a location where snakes are rare. Effects on general proteolysis were not different. Douglas ground squirrels also reduced the metalloprotease activity of venom from sympatric northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus oreganus) more than the activity of venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes (C. atrox), but enhanced fibrinolysis of sympatric venom almost 1.8 times above baseline levels. Two Beechey ground squirrel (S. b. beecheyi) populations had similar inhibition of venoms from northern and southern Pacific rattlesnakes (C. o. helleri), despite differences between the populations in the locally prevalent predator. However, the venom toxins inhibited by Beechey squirrels did vary among venom from Pacific rattlesnake subspecies, and between these venoms and venom from allopatric western diamondback rattlesnakes. Blood plasma from Beechey squirrels showed highest inhibition of metalloprotease activity of northern Pacific rattlesnake venom, general proteolytic activity and hemolysis of southern Pacific rattlesnake venom, and hemolysis by allopatric western diamondback venom. These results reveal previously cryptic variation in venom activity against

  9. Topical hemostatic powder promotes reepithelialization and reduces scar formation after extensive esophageal mucosal resection.

    PubMed

    Beye, B; Barret, M; Alatawi, A; Beuvon, F; Nicco, C; Pratico, C A; Chereau, C; Chaussade, S; Batteux, F; Prat, F

    2016-08-01

    The development of techniques for endoscopic resection has provided new strategies for radical conservative treatment of superficial esophageal neoplasms, even those that are circumferential, such as Barrett's neoplasia. However, it is necessary to prevent the formation of scar tissue that can be responsible for esophageal strictures following circumferential resection. Preliminary data have suggested the possible efficacy of a hemostatic powder in the promotion of wound healing. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of Hemospray (Cook Medical) in a swine model of post-endoscopic esophageal stricture. Our prospective controlled study included 21 pigs. A 6-cm circumferential submucosal dissection of the esophagus (CESD) was performed in each pig. Group 1 (n = 11) only underwent CESD and Group 2 (n = 10) had repeated Hemospray applications after CESD. Clinical, endoscopic, and radiological monitoring were performed, blood levels of four inflammatory or pro-fibrotic cytokines were assessed, and histological analysis was performed. Median esophageal diameter was greater in the group treated with Hemospray (2 mm [1-3] vs. 3 mm [2-4], P = 0.01), and the rate of symptomatic esophageal stricture was 100% and 60% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.09). The thicknesses of esophageal fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltrate were significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P = 0.002 and 0.0003, respectively). The length of the neoepithelium was greater in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P = 0.0004). Transforming growth factor-β levels were significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P = 0.01). The application of Hemospray after esophageal CESD reduces scar tissue formation and promotes reepithelialization, and therefore is a promising therapeutic approach in the prevention of post-endoscopic esophageal stricture.

  10. Local tissue reaction after the application of topical hemostatic agents in a rat partial nephrectomy model.

    PubMed

    Chalupová, Marta; Suchý, Pavel; Pražanová, Gabriela; Bartošová, Ladislava; Sopuch, Tomáš; Havelka, Pavel

    2012-06-01

    Various hemostatics are used for renal surgical procedures. We investigated the hemostatic efficacy of cellulose derivatives on the model of partial nephrectomy in rats focusing on the local reaction of renal parenchyma. A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 animals each. Partial nephrectomy of the caudal pole without hilar vascular control was performed. Oxidized cellulose (OC), sodium salt of oxycellulose (OCN), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), dialdehyde cellulose (DAC), and gelatin-based hemostatic (C) were applied to the bleeding wounds. The time to hemostasis was monitored. Half of the animals were euthanized after 3 days, the second half 30 days from the experiment start date. The left kidney was excised and subjected to histopathological examination. The biochemical data was subjected to statistical analysis. The time to hemostasis in all groups was significantly less than in the C group (in OC p = 0.0057, OCN p = 0.0039, CMC and DAC p = 0.0001). In the C group, massive hemorrhages and necrosis did occur. In the OC and OCN groups, there were regenerative changes, a receding inflammatory reaction and hemorrhage. DAC caused an immune reaction and massive interstitial hemorrhages with biochemical signs of liver damage. Parenchyma in CMC revealed a reduction of necrosis and interstitial hemorrhages with regenerative processes. The most effective hemostatics were CMC and OC, achieving the best results both in the time to hemostasis, and for histopathological evaluation.

  11. Clotting Mimicry from Robust Hemostatic Bandages Based on Self-Assembling Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled bleeding from traumatic wounds is a major factor in deaths resulting from military conflict, accidents, disasters and crime. Self-assembling peptide nanofibers have shown superior hemostatic activity, and herein, we elucidate their mechanism by visualizing the formation of nanofiber-based clots that aggregate blood components with a similar morphology to fibrin-based clots. Furthermore, to enhance its direct application to a wound, we developed layer-by-layer assembled thin film coatings onto common materials used for wound dressings—gauze and gelatin sponges. We find these nanofibers elute upon hydration under physiological conditions and generate nanofiber-based clots with blood. After exposure to a range of harsh temperature conditions (−80 to 60 °C) for a week and even 5 months at 60 °C, these hemostatic bandages remain capable of releasing active nanofibers. In addition, the application of these nanofiber-based films from gauze bandages was found to accelerate hemostasis in porcine skin wounds as compared to plain gauze. The thermal robustness, in combination with the self-assembling peptide’s potent hemostatic activity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cost of production, makes this a promising approach for a cheap yet effective hemostatic bandage. PMID:26284753

  12. A novel human-like collagen hemostatic sponge with uniform morphology, good biodegradability and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xijuan; Wang, Ya; Fan, Daidi; Zhu, Chenhui; Liu, Lin; Duan, Zhiguang

    2017-03-01

    Biodegradable sponges, as a promising hemostatic biomaterial, has been clinically required over the past decades. Current hemostatic sponges are generally prepared by crosslinking and freeze-drying, but the quality control or biocompatibility is often unsatisfactory due to the freezing-caused morphological non-uniformity and the toxicity of raw materials or cross-linkers. The crosslinking often greatly retards the degradation of the sponges and thus affects the healing of the wound. In this work, we prepared a novel hemostatic sponge using human-like collagen and glutamine transaminase (non-toxic cross-linker) and optimized its morphology via "two-step" freezing instead of conventional "one-step" freezing. The resulting sponge showed a good biocompatibility in cytotoxicity and implantation tests and had a significant hemostatic effect in ear artery and liver injury models. Moreover, the sponge could be degraded high efficiently by several common enzymes in organisms (e.g. I collagenase, trypsase, and lysozyme), which means that the sponge can be easily digested by metabolism and can facilitate seamless healing. Finally, both the front and back of the sponge prepared via two-step freezing was more uniform in morphology than that prepared via one-step freezing. More importantly, two-step freezing can be used as a universal approach for preparation of diverse uniform biomaterials.

  13. Comparative Testing of Hemostatic Dressing in a Large Animal Model (Sus Scorofa) with Severe hepatic Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    hemostatic dressings in a large animal model (Sus scrofa ) with severe hepatic injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Capt...to Date Sus scrofa 36 18 18 Note. Many fewer animals than approved were used because one of the original treatment groups (Lypressin- soaked gauze

  14. Hierarchical organization of the hemostatic response to penetrating injuries in the mouse macrovasculature.

    PubMed

    Welsh, J D; Poventud-Fuentes, I; Sampietro, S; Diamond, S L; Stalker, T J; Brass, L F

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Methods were developed to image the hemostatic response in mouse femoral arteries in real time. Penetrating injuries produced thrombi consisting primarily of platelets. Similar to arterioles, a core-shell architecture of platelet activation occurs in the femoral artery. Differences from arterioles included slower platelet activation and reduced thrombin dependence.

  15. Comprehensive Assessment of the Hemostatic System in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burchall, Genia F; Piva, Terrence J; Linden, Matthew D; Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Teede, Helena J

    2016-02-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects 12 to 19% of women and has reproductive and metabolic features (endothelial dysfunction, increased diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors). It also appears to have altered coagulation and fibrinolysis with a prothrombotic state with epidemiological evidence of increased venous thromboembolism. We aimed to comprehensively assess hemostasis in women with PCOS versus control women. In an established case-control cohort of lean, overweight, and obese women with (n = 107) and without PCOS (n = 67), with existing measures of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), hormonal, and metabolic markers, we also assessed prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (PF1 & 2), plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and thrombin generation (TG). Higher levels of ADMA (0.70 vs. 0.39 µmol/L, p < 0.01), PAI-1 (4.80 vs. 3.66 U/mL, p < 0.01), and plasminogen (118.39 vs. 108.46%, p < 0.01) were seen in PCOS versus controls, and persisted after adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI). PF1 & 2 was marginally lower (180.0 vs. 236.0 pmol/L, p = 0.05), whereas tPA and TG were not different between groups, after adjustment for age and BMI. Significant relationships were observed between hormonal and metabolic factors with ADMA and PAI-1. We demonstrate impaired fibrinolysis in PCOS. In the context of abnormal endothelial function and known hormonal and metabolic abnormalities, this finding may underpin an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and venous thrombosis in PCOS.

  16. Effect of Short-Term Maximal Exercise on Biochemical Markers of Muscle Damage, Total Antioxidant Status, and Homocysteine Levels in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chahed, Henda; Ferchichi, Salyma; Kallel, Choumous; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged physical exercise results in transient elevations of biochemical markers of muscular damage. This study examined the effect of short-term maximal exercise on these markers, homocysteine levels (Hcy), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in trained subjects. Methods Eighteen male football players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5-min before and 3-min after a 30-s Wingate test. Results The results indicated that plasma biochemical markers of muscle injury increased significantly after the Wingate test (P<0.05). Moreover, significant increase of white blood Cells and their main subpopulations (i.e. monocytes, neutrophiles, and lymphocytes) (P<0.001) has been observed. Likewise, uric acid, total bilirubin, and TAS increased significantly after exercise (P<0.05). However, Hcy levels were unaffected by the Wingate test (for 3-min post-exercise measurement). Conclusions Short-term maximal exercise (e.g. 30-s Wingate test) is of sufficient intensity and duration to increase markers of muscle damage, and TAS; but not Hcy levels. Increases in the selected enzymes probably come primarily from muscle damage, rather than liver damage. Moreover, increase of TAS confirms the Wingate test induced oxidative stress. PMID:23342222

  17. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Autrup, H; Daneshvar, B; Dragsted, L O; Gamborg, M; Hansen, M; Loft, S; Okkels, H; Nielsen, F; Nielsen, P S; Raffn, E; Wallin, H; Knudsen, L E

    1999-03-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins.

  18. Comparison of Two Gelatin and Thrombin Combination Hemostats in a Porcine Liver Abrasion Model

    PubMed Central

    Atlee, Holly D.; Mannone, Angela J.; Dwyer, Joseph; Lin, Lawrence; Goppelt, Andreas; Redl, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surgical hemostasis is achieved using adjunctive hemostats when conventional methods fail. Objective: This study compares the effectiveness of two adjunctive gelatin-thrombin hemostats. Hypothesis: To determine effectiveness, hemostats were compared in vivo, in vitro, and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: In vivo, a heparinized porcine liver abrasion model was used to compare hemostatic success, degree of bleeding, and blood loss at 2, 5, and 10 minutes post-treatment. In vitro, thrombin in the supernatant of each hemostat and Red Blood Cells (RBC'S) in the supernatant of clots formed by each was compared. Results: Ultrastructure of one gelatin was smooth and the other stellate. In vivo, smooth gelatin provided superior hemostatic success at 5 (85% vs. 60%; OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 1.66 to 17.9) and 10 mins (72.5% vs. 47.5%; OR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.55 to 16.1). Smooth gelatin had a statistically different degree of bleeding at 5 (0.58 ± 0.87 [Mean ± SD] vs. 1.03 ± 1.12; OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.34 to 8.41) and 10 mins (1.13 ± 1.14 vs. 1.65 ± 1.05; OR: 3.87; 95% CI: 1.62 to 9.21). Mean blood loss was less with smooth gelatin at 2 (0.07 ± 0.19 vs. 0.13 ± 0.63 ml/min), 5 (0.04 ± 0.13 vs. 0.23 ± 0.45 ml/min), and 10 mins (0.09 ± 0.24 vs. 0.21 ± 0.32 ml/min). In vitro, supernatant of smooth gelatin had significantly less thrombin (6.81 vs. 10.9 IU/ml, p = .001), and significantly less RBC's than stellate gelatin (0.07 vs. 0.09 × 106/ul, p = .0085). Conclusion: Smooth gelatin has an increased ability to retain thrombin and RBC's in vitro which may explain why it provides superior hemostatic effectiveness, superior control of bleeding, and greater reduced blood loss in vivo. PMID:23514063

  19. Thromboemboli, acute right heart failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation after intraoperative application of a topical hemostatic matrix.

    PubMed

    Ferschl, Marla B; Rollins, Mark D

    2009-02-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are frequently used in spine surgeries to control or reduce bleeding. Although there are a number of commercially available products, at our institution, an absorbable gelatin powder (Surgifoam) is mixed with bovine thrombin and used for this purpose. We report the case of a patient undergoing a posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis who developed acute right heart failure, cardiac arrest, and disseminated intravascular coagulation after probable intravascular hemostatic agent-induced emboli. Clinicians need to be aware of this potentially deadly complication associated with topical hemostatic agents.

  20. The salubrious effect of tamoxifen [correction of Tamaxifen] on serum marker enzymes, glycoproteins, and lysosomal enzymes level in breast cancer woman.

    PubMed

    Thangaraju, M; Rameshbabu, J; Vasavi, H; Ilanchezhian, S; Vinitha, R; Sachdanandam, P

    1998-08-01

    Tumour markers correlate strongly with prognosis based on tumour burden and surgical resectability. If chemotherapy is extremely effective in certain stage of the disease, the sensitive marker may be of great use in monitoring disease response and drug treatment. Hence, this study was launched to evaluate the changes in tumour marker enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase in before and after 3 and 6 months tamoxifen treated breast cancer patients. In addition, the changes in serum glycoproteins viz., hexose, hexosamine, and sialic acid and lysosomal enzymes such as N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, beta-D-galactosidase, and beta-D-glucuronidase were analysed in these patients. These values were compared with their age matched healthy control subjects. At 6 months evaluation, the tamoxifen treated postmenopausal breast cancer women showed a statistically significant decreased (p < 0.001, 0.05 respectively) levels of LDH, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline and acid phosphatases than their baseline values. Similarly, the levels of hexose, hexosamine, and sialic acid and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, beta-D-galactosidase, and beta-D-glucuronidase were decreased significantly (p < 0.001) in tamoxifen received postmenopausal women. The result of this study suggested that tamoxifen potentially retard the metastasis of breast cancer as well as the bone demineralisation in postmenopausal breast cancer women. Thus, tamoxifen may also have its antitumour activity through its beneficial effects on tumour marker enzymes and serum proteins in breast cancer women.

  1. Transient elevation of serum bilirubin (a heme oxygenase-1 metabolite) level in hemorrhagic stroke: bilirubin is a marker of oxidant stress.

    PubMed

    Dohi, K; Mochizuki, Y; Satoh, K; Jimbo, H; Hayashi, M; Toyoda, I; Ikeda, Y; Abe, T; Aruga, T

    2003-01-01

    Bilirubin (Bil) is the end product of heme catabolism. The production of Bil reflects heme oxygenase-1 expression in response to oxidative stress in various diseases. To assess the role of Bil as a marker of oxidative stress in cases of brain damage, we measured serum Bil concentrations in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Serum levels of total Bil were measured in 20 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with symptomatic vasospasms and in 23 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage; concentrations were measured every day for 14 consecutive days. Serum Bil levels were significantly elevated in the early phases in both groups. Moreover, transient elevation was observed on the day prior to the observation of clinical manifestations of symptomatic vasospasm after SAH. Bil, known to be a powerful antioxidant, was induced after hemorrhagic stroke, reflecting the intensity of oxidative stress. Plasma Bil concentrations might serve as a useful marker of oxidative stress in hemorrhagic stroke patients.

  2. IGF-1 Levels Across the Spectrum of Normal to Elevated in Acromegaly: Relationship to Insulin Sensitivity, Markers of Cardiovascular Risk and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Tirissa J.; Jin, Zhezhen; Shen, Wei; Reyes-Vidal, Carlos M.; Fernandez, Jean Carlos; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Kostadinov, Jane; Post, Kalmon D.; Freda, Pamela U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Activity of acromegaly is gauged by levels of GH and IGF-1 and epidemiological studies demonstrate that their normalization reduces acromegaly’s excess mortality rate. However, few data are available linking IGF-1 levels to features of the disease that may relate to cardiovascular (CV) risk. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that serum IGF-1 levels relative to the upper normal limit relate to insulin sensitivity, serum CV risk markers and body composition in acromegaly. Methods In this prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at a pituitary tumor referral center we studied 138 adult acromegaly patients, newly diagnosed and previously treated surgically, with fasting and post-oral glucose levels of endocrine and CV risk markers and body composition assessed by DXA. Results Active acromegaly is associated with lower insulin sensitivity, body fat and CRP levels than acromegaly in remission. %ULN IGF-1 strongly predicts insulin sensitivity, better than GH and this persists after adjustment for body fat and lean tissue mass. %ULN IGF-1 also relates inversely to CRP levels and fat mass, positively to lean tissue and skeletal muscle estimated (SME) by DXA, but not to blood pressure, lipids, BMI or waist circumference (WC). Gender interacts with the IGF-1-lean tissue mass relationship. Conclusions Active acromegaly presents a unique combination of features associated with CV risk, reduced insulin sensitivity yet lower body fat and lower levels of some serum CV risk markers, a pattern that is reversed in remission. %ULN IGF-1 levels strongly predict these features. Given the known increased CV risk of active acromegaly, these findings suggest that of these factors insulin resistance is most strongly related to disease activity and potentially to the increased CV risk of active acromegaly. PMID:25907335

  3. Can signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein (SCUBE) levels be a marker of angiogenesis in patients with psoriasis?

    PubMed

    Capkin, Arzu Aydın; Demir, Selim; Mentese, Ahmet; Bulut, Çağlar; Ayar, Ahmet

    2017-04-01

    Angiogenesis is an important process being involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and promises new potential parameter for diagnosis and screening of treatment. This study investigated the levels of signal peptide-CUB-EGF (epidermal growth factor-like protein) family domain-containing protein (SCUBE) 1 and 3. Potential value as a novel marker of angiogenesis in patients with psoriasis is also evaluated by assessing possible relation of SCUBE-1 and 3 with disease activity in conjunction with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, as an established marker of angiogenesis. Forty-eight patients with psoriasis (aged >18 years) and 48 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Detailed information was obtained through history and physical examination. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) scores were calculated. Blood SCUBE 1 and 3, and VEGF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean PASI score of the patients was 6.7 ± 4.1. Patients' serum SCUBE 1 and 3 and VEGF levels were significantly higher than those of the controls (P = 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity were calculated as 83 and 62% for the 0.67 ng/ml cut-off level of SCUBE 1, and 63 and 71% for the 2.57 ng/ml cut-off level of SCUBE 3, respectively. A cut-off VEGF level of 310 ng/mL predicted the presence of psoriasis with a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 77%. The results of this pioneering study indicate that SCUBE protein family appears to have a probable role in the pathogenesis and angiogenesis development in psoriasis and SCUBE 1 and 3 may be novel markers of angiogenesis in psoriasis.

  4. An essential primer for understanding the role of topical hemostats, surgical sealants, and adhesives for maintaining hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Michael; Boucher, Bradley A

    2013-09-01

    A wide variety of topical hemostats are approved as adjunctive therapies in the maintenance of hemostasis during surgical procedures in which conventional methods are insufficient or not practical. A multidisciplinary approach to the selection and application of these agents requires input from all members of the surgical team including surgeons, perioperative nurses, blood bank specialists, and pharmacists. However, pharmacist knowledge regarding topical hemostats may be limited based on lack of formal education within college of pharmacy curricula as well as their use being predominantly in the operating room setting. Furthermore, some of these agents might be procured through central supply rather than the hospital pharmacy. Topical hemostats include agents that act as a mechanical barrier to bleeding and provide a physical matrix for clotting, biologically active agents that catalyze coagulation, combination therapies, and synthetic sealants and adhesives. Although many of the topical hemostats were approved for use before the requirement for clinical trials, this review provides an overview of the available clinical evidence regarding the appropriate uses and safety considerations associated with these agents. Proper use of these agents is vital to achieving the best clinical outcomes. Specifically, knowledge of the contraindications and potential adverse events associated with topical hemostats can help prevent unwanted outcomes. Therefore, an understanding of the benefits and potential risks associated with these agents will allow hospital pharmacists to assist in the development and implementation of institutional policies regarding the safe and effective use of hemostatic agents commonly used in the surgical suite.

  5. Serum levels of GFAP and EGFR in primary and recurrent high-grade gliomas: correlation to tumor volume, molecular markers, and progression-free survival.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Aida; Gardberg, Maria; Frantzén, Janek; Parkkola, Riitta; Vuorinen, Ville; Pesola, Marko; Minn, Heikki

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to study the association of two potential serum biomarkers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with prognostic markers such as IDH1 mutation, tumor burden, and survival in patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG). Additionally, our objective was to evaluate the potential of serum EGFR as a surrogate marker for EGFR status in the tumor. Pre-operative serum samples were prospectively collected from patients with primary (n = 17) or recurrent (n = 10) HGG. Serum GFAP and EGFR levels were determined by ELISA and studied for correlation with molecular markers including EGFR amplification, tumor volume in contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI, and progression-free survival (PFS). Pre-operative serum GFAP level of ≥0.014 ng/ml was 86 % sensitive and 85 % specific for the diagnosis of glioblastoma. High GFAP was related to the lack of IDH1 mutation (P = 0.016), high Ki67 proliferation index (P < 0.001), and poor PFS (HR 5.9, CI 1.2-29.9, P = 0.032). Serum GFAP correlated with enhancing tumor volume in primary (r = 0.64 P = 0.005), but also in recurrent HGGs (r = 0.76 P = 0.011). In contrast, serum EGFR levels did not differ between HGG patients and 13 healthy controls, and were not related to EGFR status in the tumor. We conclude that high serum GFAP associates with IDH1 mutation-negative HGG, and poor PFS. Correlation with tumor burden in recurrent HGG implicates the potential of serum GFAP for detection of tumor recurrence. Our results suggest that circulating EGFR is not derived from glioma cells and cannot be used as a marker for EGFR status in the tumor.

  6. Marker development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  7. Association between Serum Vitamin D Level and Glycemic and Inflammatory Markers in Non-obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Karandish, Majid; Saki, Azadeh; Pooraziz, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) has been shown to correlate with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D and glycemic and inflammatory markers in non-obese patients with T2DM. Methods: Eighty-four non-obese patients with T2DM were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary information was obtained from all the participants. The serum concentrations of glucose, HbA1C, insulin, 25(OH)D, and inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. A homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also evaluated. Results: The mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D was 11.01±5.55 ng/mL. Severe deficiency, deficiency, and insufficiency of vitamin D were detected in 60.71%, 35.72%, and 3.57% of the participants, respectively. The results showed that those in the lowest group of serum 25(OH)D had significantly higher TNF-α than did those in the highest group (P=0.026). Although the association between serum 25(OH)D and fasting blood sugar and TNF-α was statistically significant (P=0.049 and P=0.044, respectively), the other glycemic markers and hs-CRP did not have any significant relationships with 25(OH)D. Conclusion: According to the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the diabetic patients and the inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D and fasting blood sugar and TNF-α in this study, vitamin D status may be a determining factor of systemic inflammation in patients with T2DM. Further studies with larger sample sizes are suggested in this regard. PMID:27582585

  8. Application of energy-based technologies and topical hemostatic agents in the management of surgical hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Sileshi, Bantayehu; Achneck, Hardean; Ma, Liqiao; Lawson, Jeffrey H

    2010-01-01

    Achieving intraoperative hemostasis is essential for excellent surgical outcomes. A variety of methods, ranging from mechanical tools and energy-based technologies to topical hemostatic agents, are available to the modern surgeon. Given that bleeding develops from different origins, from small discrete bleeding or venous oozing to arterial hemorrhage, different tools and agents have different efficacy in specific situations. In this article, we review the mechanism by which currently available hemostatic tools and agents stop bleeding and give recommendations for their use during surgery. Furthermore, the costs of the various methods are presented, allowing the provider to choose not only the most potent but also the most cost-effective treatment modality in each situation.

  9. Comparative efficacy of topical hemostatic agents in a rat kidney model.

    PubMed

    Raccuia, J S; Simonian, G; Dardik, M; Hallac, D; Raccuia, S V; Stahl, R; Dardik, H

    1992-02-01

    The efficacies of four topical hemostatic agents were compared in a rat model employing a standardized renal injury. The materials used to effect hemostasis were oxidized cellulose, microfibrillar collagen powder, positively charged modified collagen, and single donor heterologous fibrin glue. Animals that were treated only with surgical gauze served as controls. Hemostasis was achieved by application of one of the topical hemostatic agents plus moderate digital pressure. The time necessary to achieve complete hemostasis was recorded for each animal. Control animals bled profusely and suffered an increased postoperative mortality rate compared with the experimental animals. Microscopic studies demonstrated progressive healing of the injuries with varying degrees of inflammation and scar formation. Fibrin glue was by far the most effective agent in controlling hemostasis. The collagen materials, though effective, required a longer time to control bleeding and did not differ statistically in their activity from one another.

  10. Severe blood loss during spinal reconstructive procedures: the potential usefulness of topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Block, Jon E

    2005-01-01

    Complex spinal reconstructive procedures are invariably associated with excessive intraoperative blood loss that significantly increases the risk of severe perioperative complications. In some cases, excessive hemorrhage is equivalent to estimated total blood volume. Unfortunately, widely exposed bony surfaces are not amenable to standard hemostatic maneuvers utilized during soft tissue surgery. This article evaluates the clinical effectiveness of several approaches to blood management in this setting, and hypothesizes that underappreciated topical hemostatic agents may provide benefit by reducing the need for autologous predonation, banked donor blood or antifibrinolytic agents. Topical agents combining collagen, thrombin and fibrin have demonstrated initial promise by inducing platelet aggregation and initiating the clotting cascade when applied directly to bleeding bony sites. Clinical studies are clearly warranted.

  11. Robotic surgery and hemostatic agents in partial nephrectomy: a high rate of success without vascular clamping.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Luca; Morelli, John; Palmeri, Matteo; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Kauffmann, Emanuele Federico; Tartaglia, Dario; Caprili, Giovanni; Pisano, Roberta; Guadagni, Simone; Di Franco, Gregorio; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco

    2015-09-01

    Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy has been proposed as a technique to overcome technical challenges of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. We prospectively collected and analyzed data from 31 patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy with systematic use of hemostatic agents, between February 2009 and October 2014. Thirty-three renal tumors were treated in 31 patients. There were no conversions to open surgery, intraoperative complications, or blood transfusions. The mean size of the resected tumors was 27 mm (median 20 mm, range 5-40 mm). Twenty-seven of 33 lesions (82%) did not require vascular clamping and therefore were treated in the absence of ischemia. All margins were negative. The high partial nephrectomy success rate without vascular clamping suggests that robotic nephron-sparing surgery with systematic use of hemostatic agents may be a safe, effective method to completely avoid ischemia in the treatment of selected renal masses.

  12. Use of chitosan as a biomaterial: studies on its safety and hemostatic potential.

    PubMed

    Rao, S B; Sharma, C P

    1997-01-01

    Chitosan, a mucopolysaccharide of marine origin, was studied for its safety and hemostatic potential. Its surface was treated with glutaraldehyde, carbodiimide, and plasma glow discharge to elicit effects of enzyme degradation. Of the seven enzymes used, leucine amino peptidase caused maximum degradation. Autoclaving appeared to be an ideal sterilizing method as it caused least decrease in tensile strength and effected a negligible rate of hemolysis. Sterilizing with glutaraldehyde with a physiologic pH retained the maximum tensile strength of chitosan. In vivo toxicity tests indicated that it is nontoxic, and the sterilized films were free of pyrogen. Coagulation and hemagglutination tests showed that the hemostatic mechanism of chitosan seems to be independent of the classical coagulation cascade and appears to be an interaction between the cell membrane of erythrocytes and chitosan.

  13. A study for proposal of use of regulatory T cells as a prognostic marker and establishing an optimal threshold level for their expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Alakananda; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-06-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been extensively studied in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, there is no uniform guideline or consensus regarding their use as a prognostic marker. This study describes the methodology used to develop an optimal threshold level for Tregs in these patients. Treg levels were assessed in the peripheral blood of 130 patients and 150 controls. Treg frequencies were linked to established prognostic markers as well as overall survival and time to first treatment. The cut-offs for Treg positivity were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A cut-off of 5.7% for Treg cell percentage and of 35 cells/μL for absolute Treg cell count were determined as optimal in patients with CLL along with a median Treg percentage of 15.5% used to separate patients with low- and high-risk disease. The experiments presented here will possibly aid in the use of Treg frequencies as a potential prognostic marker in CLL.

  14. Ostene, a New Alkylene Oxide Copolymer Bone Hemostatic Material, Does Not Inhibit Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Magyar, Clara E.; Aghaloo, Tara L.; Atti, Elisa; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study, we investigate the effects of a soft bone hemostatic wax comprised of water-soluble alkylene oxide copolymers (Ostene; Ceremed, Inc., Los Angeles, CA) on bone healing in a rat calvaria defect model. We compared the effects with a control (no hemostatic agent) and bone wax, an insoluble and nonresorbable material commonly used for bone hemostasis. METHODS Two bilateral 3-mm circular noncritical-sized defects were made in the calvariae of 30 rats. Alkylene oxide copolymer or bone wax was applied or no hemostatic material was used (control). After 3, 6, and 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and the calvariae excised. Bone healing, expressed as fractional bone volume (± standard error of the mean), was measured by microcomputed tomography. RESULTS Immediate hemostasis was achieved equally with bone wax and alkylene oxide copolymer. Bone wax-filled defects remained unchanged at all time points with negligible healing observed. At 3 weeks, no evidence of alkylene oxide copolymer was observed at the application site, with fractional bone volume significantly greater than bone wax-treated defects (0.20 ± 0.03 versus 0.02 ± 0.01; P = 0.0003). At 6 and 12-weeks, alkylene oxide copolymer-treated defects continued to show significantly greater healing versus bone wax (0.18 ± 0.04 versus 0.05 ± 0.01 and 0.31 ± 0.04 versus 0.06 ± 0.02, respectively). At all time points, alkylene oxide copolymer-treated and control defects showed good healing with no significant difference. CONCLUSION Alkylene oxide copolymer is an effective hemostatic agent that does not inhibit osteogenesis or bone healing. PMID:18981846

  15. Hemostatic agents for access tract in tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Is it worth?

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Francisco; Aliaga, Alfredo; Fleck, Daniela; Fernandez, Mario; Mercado, Alejandro; Vilches, Roberto; Moya, Francisco; Ledezma, Rodrigo; Reyes, Diego; Marchant, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role of hemostatic agents as an adjunct for closure of the nephrostomy tract in tubeless percutaneous surgery (tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy [tPNL]) has been previously evaluated, observing a potential benefit in terms of reduced bleeding and urinary leakage. We assessed the rate of postoperative complications after the use of hemostatic agents for sealing the nephrostomy tract in patients undergoing tPNL at our institution. Subjects and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 52 consecutive patients undergoing tPNL at our center between January 2010 and December 2013. No substance was placed within the tract in 25 patients (Group 1). A cylinder of Surgicel® in addition to 1 unit of Gelita® were placed within the access tract in 27 patients (Group 2). We accounted for demographic variables, stone size, operative time, postoperative pain, development of hematoma, postoperative hematocrit drop, urinary leakage, residual lithiasis, and hospital stay length. Results: Age and sex differed significantly between the two groups (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.048 respectively). However, there were no significant differences in terms of body mass index and stone burden. No significant differences between groups were found with regards to operative time, postoperative hematocrit drop, postoperative pain and presence of residual lithiasis. Conclusion: The use of Gelita® and Surgicel® as hemostatic agents in tPNL is safe, but we were not able to demonstrate any significant benefit in terms of postoperative morbidity after comparing the use of these agents in tPNL. We concluded that the uses of hemostatic agents needed to be evaluated in prospective randomized trials to define its benefits. PMID:27141194

  16. Normal Hemostatic Profiles and Coagulation Factors in Healthy Free-Living Florida Manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Barratclough, Ashley; Floyd, Ruth Francis; Conner, Bobbi; Reep, Roger; Ball, Ray; Stacy, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Hemostatic disorders presumptively play an important role in the pathophysiology of several important disease conditions in the Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris). Prior to pursuing such clinical implications, it is essential to establish normal hemostatic profiles in clinically healthy animals. During annual health assessments of free-living manatees organized by the US Geological Survey, blood samples were collected from 12 healthy animals from the Atlantic coast and 28 from the Gulf of Mexico coast of Florida, with body lengths of 210-324 cm. The following analyses were performed on citrated plasma: prothrombin (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and concentrations of fibrinogen, D-dimers, and coagulation factors VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII. Compared to other mammalian species, manatees had short PT (9.2±1.5 s) and PTT (10.7±0.5 s), fibrinogen was 369±78.7 mg/dL, antithrombin III was 132±11%, and D-dimer was 142±122 ng/mL. Baseline concentrations for the listed coagulation factors were established. When comparing coagulation factors between locations, Atlantic coast manatees had significantly higher factors VIII, IX, and X than did Gulf Coast manatees. This finding may reflect differences in water salinity, diet, or genetics. There were no differences in coagulation factors when among sexes and sizes. These baselines for hemostatic profiles and coagulation factors in healthy free-living manatees lay the foundation for diagnosis and future research of hemostatic disorders and contribute to understanding their role in the pathophysiology of manatees affected by various diseases.

  17. Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets for Transfusion: Physiologic Integrity and Hemostatic Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-17

    ONR Grant No. N00014-92-J-1244 EVALUATION OF DRIED STORAGE OF PLATELETS FOR TRANSFUSION: PHYSIOLOGIC INTEGRITY AND HEMOSTATIC FUNCTIONALITY. Principal...protection for commercialization of the manufacture and use of lyophilized platelets in transfusion medicine is still pending in U.S. Patent Court and... platelets for correction of bleeding times in thrombocytopenic rabbits. Three different preparations, representing the platelets from a total of six units

  18. The Effects of Hemostatic Agents and Hypothermia Control in a Porcine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-30

    investigated the effectiveness of hemostatic agents, specifically QCG in a hemodiluted or volume resuscitated state . In two separate studies, Johnson and...colleagues found that QCG was effective in a resuscitated and hemodiluted state , but they did not initially examine the additional effects of...suggest that QCG is effective in a hemodiluted state including prior dilution.11,26,27 Principal Investigator: Johnson, Arthur Don, PhD USU Project

  19. Plasma levels of soluble CD27: a simple marker to monitor immune activation during potent antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    DE MILITO, A; ALEMAN, S; MARENZI, R; SÖNNERBORG, A; FUCHS, D; ZAZZI, M; CHIODI, F

    2002-01-01

    Plasma levels of soluble CD27 (sCD27) are elevated in diseases characterized by T cell activation and are used as a marker of immune activation. We assessed the usefulness of determining plasma sCD27 as a marker for monitoring immune activation in HIV-1-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A first cross-sectional examination of 68 HIV-1-infected and 18 normal subjects showed high levels of sCD27 in HIV-1 infection; plasma sCD27 was correlated to HIV-1 viraemia and inversely correlated to CD4+ T cell count. Twenty-six HIV-1-infected patients undergoing HAART were studied at baseline and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of therapy. Seven additional patients under HAART were analysed at baseline, during and after interruption of therapy. In the total population, HAART induced a significant and progressive reduction, but not a normalization, of plasma levels of sCD27 after 24 months. A full normalization of plasma sCD27 was observed in the virological responders (undetectable HIV-1 RNA at months 18 and 24) and also in patients with moderate immunodeficiency at baseline (CD4+ T cell count >200 cells/mm3). Changes in plasma neopterin paralleled the changes in sCD27 but only baseline sCD27 levels were predictive of a greater increase in CD4+ T cell count during the follow-up. Discontinuation of therapy resulted in a rapid increase of sCD27 plasma levels associated with viraemia rebound and drop in CD4+ T cell count. Our findings suggest that plasma sCD27 may represent an alternative and simple marker to monitor immune activation during potent antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1-induced immune activation can be normalized by HAART in successfully treated patients where the disease is not advanced. PMID:11966765

  20. Gut microbial markers are associated with diabetes onset, regulatory imbalance, and IFN-γ level in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Krych, Ł; Nielsen, D S; Hansen, A K; Hansen, C H F

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulated imbalances in the host's immune profile seem to be an important factor in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D), and identifying bacterial markers for T1D may therefore be useful in diagnosis and prevention of T1D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between the early gut microbiota and immune parameters of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in order to select alleged bacterial markers of T1D. Gut microbial composition in feces was analyzed with 454/FLX Titanium (Roche) pyro-sequencing and correlated with diabetes onset age and immune cell populations measured in diabetic and non-diabetic mice at 30 weeks of age. The early gut microbiota composition was found to be different between NOD mice that later in life were classified as diabetic or non-diabetic. Those differences were further associated with changes in FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, CD11b(+) dendritic cells, and IFN-γ production. The model proposed in this work suggests that operational taxonomic units classified to S24-7, Prevotella, and an unknown Bacteriodales (all Bacteroidetes) act in favor of diabetes protection whereas members of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcus, and Oscillospira (all Firmicutes) promote pathogenesis.

  1. Autogenous skin and fascia grafts as topical hemostatic agents in splenic injuries.

    PubMed

    Eitan, A; Munichor, M; Barzilai, A

    1989-01-01

    Splenic salvage techniques were developed since the immunologic importance of the spleen has been recognized. Various synthetic products, such as Avitan, Collastat Gel foam, Superstat, Thrombostat, were used and lately even pig skin was tested for its hemostatic ability. In this study, a canine splenic bleeding model was used to test autologous split-thickness skin-graft hemostatic effect, compared to pig skin, human skin and canine fascia. Lyophilized pig skin was tested on 12 splenic wounds, lyophilized human skin on 10, canine skin on 10, canine fascia on 10 and simple pad gauze on 10 other splenic wounds. Each animal served as its own control. Pig skin was more effective than canine skin (p less than 0.01), but the canine skin was more effective than human skin (p less than 0.01) and canine fascia (p less than 0.05). Long-term implantation of the canine skin graft caused fibrosis and epidermoid cyst formation, but they were of no clinical significance in the dog. In conclusion, autologous split thickness graft, always at hand, was found to be an effective hemostatic procedure and proved to be safe in the dog.

  2. Biocompatibility and Effectiveness Evaluation of a New Hemostatic Embolization Agent: Thrombin Loaded Alginate Calcium Microsphere

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Fengqi; Rong, Jingjing; Liang, Ming; Zhang, Xuwen; Sun, Jingyang; Zhao, Lijun; Li, Yang; Liu, Dan; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiaozeng

    2017-01-01

    Background. Until now, there has been no ideal embolization agent for hemorrhage in interventional treatment. In this study, the thrombin was encapsulated in alginate calcium microsphere using electrostatic droplet technique to produce new embolization agent: thrombin loaded alginate calcium microspheres (TACMs). Objectives. The present work was to evaluate the biocompatibility and hemostatic efficiency of TACMs. Methods. Cell cytotoxicity, hemolysis, and superselective embolization of dog liver arteries were performed to investigate the biocompatibility of TACMs. To clarify the embolic effect of TACMs mixed thrombus in vivo, hepatic artery injury animal model of 6 beagles was established and transcatheter artery embolization for bleeding was performed. Results. Coculture with VECs revealed the noncytotoxicity of TACMs, and the hemolysis experiment was negligible. Moreover, the histological study of TACMs in liver blood vessel showed signs of a slight inflammatory reaction. The results of transcatheter application of TACMs mixed thrombus for bleeding showed that the blood flow was shut down completely after the TACMs mixed thrombus was delivered and the postprocedural survival rate of animal models at 12 weeks was 100%. Conclusions. With their good biocompatibility and superior hemostatic efficiency, TACMs might be a promising new hemostatic agent with a wide range of potential applications. PMID:28303245

  3. Fibrin Sealant: The Only Approved Hemostat, Sealant, and Adhesive—a Laboratory and Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Spotnitz, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fibrin sealant became the first modern era material approved as a hemostat in the United States in 1998. It is the only agent presently approved as a hemostat, sealant, and adhesive by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The product is now supplied as patches in addition to the original liquid formulations. Both laboratory and clinical uses of fibrin sealant continue to grow. The new literature on this material also continues to proliferate rapidly (approximately 200 papers/year). Methods. An overview of current fibrin sealant products and their approved uses and a comprehensive PubMed based review of the recent literature (February 2012, through March 2013) on the laboratory and clinical use of fibrin sealant are provided. Product information is organized into sections based on a classification system for commercially available materials. Publications are presented in sections based on both laboratory research and clinical topics are listed in order of decreasing frequency. Results. Fibrin sealant remains useful hemostat, sealant, and adhesive. New formulations and applications continue to be developed. Conclusions. This agent remains clinically important with the recent introduction of new commercially available products. Fibrin sealant has multiple new uses that should result in further improvements in patient care. PMID:24729902

  4. Role of hemostatic powders in the endoscopic management of gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Plumé, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) is a prevalent condition with significant influence on healthcare costs. Endoscopy is essential for the management of AGIB with a pivotal role in diagnosis, risk stratification and management. Recently, hemostatic powders have been added to our endoscopic armamentarium to treat gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. These substances are intended to control active bleeding by delivering a powdered product over the bleeding site that forms a solid matrix with a tamponade function. Local activation of platelet aggregation and coagulation cascade may be also boosted. There are currently three powders commercially available: hemostatic agent TC-325 (Hemospray®), EndoClot™ polysaccharide hemostatic system, and Ankaferd Bloodstopper®. Although the available evidence is based on short series of cases and there is no randomized controlled trial yet, these powders seem to be effective in controlling GI bleeding from a variety of origins with a very favorable side effects profile. They can be used either as a primary therapy or a second-line treatment, and they seem to be especially indicated in cases of cancer-related bleeding and lesions with difficult access. In this review, we will comment on the mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and technical challenges of the use of powders in several clinical scenarios and we will try to define the main current indications of use and propose new lines of research in this area. PMID:25133029

  5. Evaluation of hemostatic field dressing for bacteria, mycobacteria, or fungus contamination.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Brunstetter, Tyson; Beckius, Miriam; Dunne, James R; Mende, Katrin

    2013-03-01

    Infectious complications have a major impact on wounded warriors. Pathogens causing infections include multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria. The potential sources for these pathogens include nosocomial transmission, the environment (e.g., dirt), or the patients (skin flora) themselves. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the possibility that hemostatic field dressings might act as an inoculation source of pathogens into wounds. To accomplish this, hemostatic field dressings were assessed for the presence of bacterial, fungal, or mycobacterial contamination. We evaluated two samples of QuikClot Combat Gauze and two samples of CELOX Gauze subjected to normal stresses associated with storage after receipt from the manufacturer. We then evaluated 16 samples of QuikClot Combat Gauze that were collected from personnel deployed in Afghanistan and had undergone routine mechanical stress. Samples underwent screening with Trypticase Soy Broth, blood agar plates, MacConkey agar plates, CHROMagar Staphylococcus aureus plates, chocolate agar plates, Potato Flake agar, Lowenstein-Jensen media, and Middlebrook 7H11 media. No bacteria, fungi, or mycobacteria were recovered from the dressings. It does not appear that hemostatic field dressings are contaminated, even after subjected to field conditions. Further research is needed to identify inoculation sources of fungi and mycobacteria, which cause infections.

  6. Screening the Hemostatic Active Fraction of Artemisia annua L. In-vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Yu, Zhengwen; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. is the best medicine with the highest efficiency, the most effective and the lowest toxicity in treating ague nowadays. At present, most studies focus on artemisinin and its derivatives, while the study and report about the other active components are rare. This paper purposed to further discover new indication of Artemisia annua L. connecting with the record of traditional medicine. We screened the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. in-vitro by plasma recalcification time (PRT). The crude extract and the extract of n-butanol were purified by polyamide, MCI, gel column in order. Determining the part of 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The shorten rate of clotting time are followed by: crude extract of Artemisin annua L. (8.51%); the n-butanol extract (14.89%); water eluting fraction after the extract of n-butanol was purificated by polyamide (22.11%); 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel (27.37%). It can provide experimental data for the clinical application of Artemisia annua L. which can be exploited as hemostatic. This topic has a certain academic value and potential prospects on the deep research of the Artemisia annua L. resource.

  7. Screening the Hemostatic Active Fraction of Artemisia annua L. In-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Yu, Zhengwen; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. is the best medicine with the highest efficiency, the most effective and the lowest toxicity in treating ague nowadays. At present, most studies focus on artemisinin and its derivatives, while the study and report about the other active components are rare. This paper purposed to further discover new indication of Artemisia annua L. connecting with the record of traditional medicine. We screened the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. in-vitro by plasma recalcification time (PRT). The crude extract and the extract of n-butanol were purified by polyamide, MCI, gel column in order. Determining the part of 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The shorten rate of clotting time are followed by: crude extract of Artemisin annua L. (8.51%); the n-butanol extract (14.89%); water eluting fraction after the extract of n-butanol was purificated by polyamide (22.11%); 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel (27.37%). It can provide experimental data for the clinical application of Artemisia annua L. which can be exploited as hemostatic. This topic has a certain academic value and potential prospects on the deep research of the Artemisia annua L. resource. PMID:24363681

  8. Development of a chitosan-based wound dressing with improved hemostatic and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Ong, Shin-Yeu; Wu, Jian; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Tan, Mui-Hong; Lu, Jia

    2008-11-01

    Hemorrhage remains a leading cause of early death after trauma, and infectious complications in combat wounds continue to challenge caregivers. Although chitosan dressings have been developed to address these problems, they are not always effective in controlling bleeding or killing bacteria. We aimed to refine the chitosan dressing by incorporating a procoagulant (polyphosphate) and an antimicrobial (silver). Chitosan containing different amounts and types of polyphosphate polymers was fabricated, and their hemostatic efficacies evaluated in vitro. The optimal chitosan-polyphosphate formulation (ChiPP) accelerated blood clotting (p = 0.011), increased platelet adhesion (p=0.002), generated thrombin faster (p = 0.002), and absorbed more blood than chitosan (p < 0.001). Silver-loaded ChiPP exhibited significantly greater bactericidal activity than ChiPP in vitro, achieving a complete kill of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a > 99.99% kill of Staphylococcus aureus consistently. The silver dressing also significantly reduced mortality from 90% to 14.3% in a P. aeruginosa wound infection model in mice. Although the dressing exerted severe cytotoxicity against cultured fibroblasts, wound healing was not inhibited. This study demonstrated for the first time, the application of polyphosphate as a hemostatic adjuvant, and developed a new chitosan-based composite with potent hemostatic and antimicrobial properties.

  9. Vitamin D Levels Decline with Rising Number of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Healthy Adults: Association with Adipokines, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Advanced Glycation Markers

    PubMed Central

    Krivošíková, Zora; Gajdoš, Martin; Šebeková, Katarína

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypovitaminosis D associates with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipoproteinemia. We asked whether the presence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, and which particular combination, exerts additive negative effects on 25(OH)D3 levels; and whether 25(OH)D3 levels associate with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Subjects and Methods In non-diabetic medication-free adults central obesity (waist-to-height ratio > 0.5); elevated blood pressure (systolic BP≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg); increased atherogenic risk (log(TAG/HDL) ≥ 0.11); and insulin resistance (QUICKI < 0.322) were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. 25(OH)D3 status was classified as deficiency (25(OH)D3 ≤20 ng/ml); insufficiency (levels between 20-to-30 ng/ml), or as satisfactory (>30 ng/ml). Plasma adipokines, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, advanced glycation end-products, and their soluble receptor were determined. Results 162 subjects were cardiometabolic risk factors-free, 162 presented increased (i.e. 1 or 2), and 87 high number (i.e. 3 or 4) of cardiometabolic risk factors. Mean 25(OH)D3 decreased with rising number of manifested risk factors (36 ± 14 ng/ml, 33 ± 14 ng/ml, and 31 ± 15 ng/ml, respectively; pANOVA: 0.010), while prevalence of hypovitaminosis D did not differ significantly. Elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance appeared as significant determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Subjects presenting these risk factors concurrently displayed the lowest 25(OH)D3 levels (29 ± 15 ng/ml). Plasma adipokines, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, advanced glycation end-products, and their soluble receptor generally differed significantly between the groups, but only advanced oxidation protein products and advanced glycation end-products associated fluorescence of plasma showed significant independent association with 25(OH)D3 levels. Conclusion In apparently healthy adults increasing number of

  10. Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a promising target for cholangiocarcinoma treatment and bile LCN2 level is a potential cholangiocarcinoma diagnostic marker

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Wang, Shang-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to resistance to traditional chemotherapies and radiotherapies. New therapeutic strategies against CCA are urgently needed. This study investigated the role of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) in human cholangiocarcinoma as a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic marker. So far, the role of LCN2 in cancer is still controversial and studies regarding the role of LCN2 in CCA are limited. LCN2 knockdown inhibited CCA cell growth in vitro and in vivo through induction of cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phases and decreased metastatic potential due to repression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Overexpression of LCN2 in CCA cells increased cell metastatic potential. We showed for the first time that the N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) and NDRG2, known as tumor suppressor genes, are negatively regulated by LCN2 in CCA cells. LCN2 concentration in bile was higher in patients with CCA than that in patients with gallstones, with a cutoff value of 20.08 ng/ml making this a potential diagnostic marker. Higher LCN2 expression was associated with worse survival in patients with CCA. LCN2 is a promising target for CCA treatment and bile LCN2 level is a potential diagnostic marker for CCA. PMID:27782193

  11. A systems approach to hemostasis: 4. How hemostatic thrombi limit the loss of plasma-borne molecules from the microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, John D.; Muthard, Ryan W.; Stalker, Timothy J.; Taliaferro, Joshua P.; Diamond, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that hemostatic thrombi formed in response to penetrating injuries have a core of densely packed, fibrin-associated platelets overlaid by a shell of less-activated, loosely packed platelets. Here we asked, first, how the diverse elements of this structure combine to stem the loss of plasma-borne molecules and, second, whether antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants that perturb thrombus structure affect the re-establishment of a tight vascular seal. The studies combined high-resolution intravital microscopy with a photo-activatable fluorescent albumin marker to simultaneously track thrombus formation and protein transport following injuries to mouse cremaster muscle venules. The results show that protein loss persists after red cell loss has ceased. Blocking platelet deposition with an αIIbβ3 antagonist delays vessel sealing and increases extravascular protein accumulation, as does either inhibiting adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptors or reducing integrin-dependent signaling and retraction. In contrast, sealing was unaffected by introducing hirudin to block fibrin accumulation or a Gi2α gain-of-function mutation to expand the thrombus shell. Collectively, these observations describe a novel approach for studying vessel sealing after injury in real time in vivo and show that (1) the core/shell architecture previously observed in arterioles also occurs in venules, (2) plasma leakage persists well beyond red cell escape and mature thrombus formation, (3) the most critical events for limiting plasma extravasation are the stable accumulation of platelets, ADP-dependent signaling, and the emergence of a densely packed core, not the accumulation of fibrin, and (4) drugs that affect platelet accumulation and packing can delay vessel sealing, permitting protein escape to continue. PMID:26738537

  12. Marker chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  13. [Analysis of genetic variation in dogs (American Pit Bull Terrier breed) with high inbreeding level using microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Shinkarenko, L N; Guliakova, O G; Malienko, V A; Mel'nichuk, S D; Spiridonov, V G

    2010-01-01

    The level of gene polymorphism of 10 microsatellite loci in 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs which have a high value of the percentage of blood and inbreeding coefficient achieved 43.8% was studied. The excess of heterozigosity over expected for this level of inbreeding coefficient was established. Suggestion that the high level of heterozigosity is the result of the selection against homozygotes was made.

  14. [Biomolecular markers in cancer-associated thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Marco, Pascual; Marco, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cancer have an increased risk of developing thromboembolism, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and hinders its clinical management. Cancer generates a hypercoagulable state that increases the generation of thrombin. This coagulation activation, along with the inflammatory changes fostered by the neoplastic cells, favors tumor progression at the local and distal level. In this review, we present the most salient aspects of the pathophysiology of hypercoagulability in cancer and list the hemostatic biomarkers that reflect this biological situation of hypercoagulability. These parameters can be used as risk factors to predict the probability of developing thrombosis, which help identify patients who can benefit from antithrombotic prophylaxis.

  15. Application of NIR fluorescent markers to quantify expression level of HER2 receptors in carcinomas in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomordik, Victor; Hassan, Moinuddin; Lee, Sang Bong; Zielinski, Rafal; Capala, Jacek; Gandjbakhche, Amir

    2010-02-01

    HER2 overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in breast cancer patients. However, quantitative estimates of this important characteristic have been limited to ex vivo ELISA essays of tissue biopsies and/or PET. We develop a novel approach in optical imaging, involving specific probes, not interfering with the binding of the therapeutic agents, thus, excluding competition between therapy and imaging. Affibody-based molecular probes seem to be ideal for in vivo analysis of HER2 receptors using near-infrared optical imaging. Fluorescence intensity distributions, originating from specific markers in the tumor area, can reveal the corresponding fluorophore concentration. We use temporal changes of the signal from a contrast agent, conjugated with HER2-specific Affibody as a signature to monitor in vivo the receptors status in mice with different HER2 over-expressed tumor models. Kinetic model, incorporating saturation of the bound ligands in the tumor area due to HER2 receptor concentration, is suggested to analyze relationship between tumor cell characteristics, i.e., HER2 overexpression, obtained by traditional ("golden standard") ex vivo methods (ELISA), and parameters, estimated from the series of images in vivo. Observed correlation between these parameters and HER2 overexpression substantiates application of our approach to quantify HER2 concentration in vivo.

  16. Effects of sulodexide on hemostatic factors, lipid profile, and inflammation in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Bae; Kim, Su Hee; Lee, Moo Song; Chang, Jai Won; Lee, Sang Koo; Park, Jung Sik

    2007-01-01

    Sulodexide, a standardized extractive glycosaminoglycan containing 80% "fast moving" heparin and 20% dermatan sulfate, decreased plasma D-dimer, a marker of intravascular coagulation, and fibrinogen levels in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Blood levels of von Willebrand factor, lipid, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were not significantly changed. No bleeding episodes were reported. These results suggest that sulodexide was effective in partially reversing the thrombogenic coagulation profile without increasing the risk of bleeding.

  17. Effect of a combined oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene on hemostatic parameters.

    PubMed

    Aldrighi, José Mendes; De Campos, Luis Salvoni Carneiro; Eluf Gebara, Otávio Celso; Petta, Carlos Alberto; Bahamondes, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 75 microg gestodene (GSD) on prothrombin activity (PA), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), platelet number, fibrinogen, antithrombin III (ATIII), protein C, protein S and D-dimer were evaluated over 6 months in 23 young, healthy women. Laboratory assessments were performed prior to initiation of COC use (pretreatment) and after 3 and 6 months of use. Results showed no significant changes in fibrinogen, protein C, ATIII or D-dimer during COC use, compared with pretreatment values. The increase in platelet count, decreases in protein S level, PA and APTT, and the prolongation of TT were significant. In conclusion, the use of a COC containing 20 microg EE and 75 microg GSD did not cause any significant changes in the hemostatic parameters studied that could be suggestive of a higher prothrombotic risk. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary in order to obtain conclusive data.

  18. An evaluation of the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and bone turnover markers in professional football players and in physically inactive men.

    PubMed

    Solarz, K; Kopeć, A; Pietraszewska, J; Majda, F; Słowińska-Lisowska, M; Mędraś, M

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is synthesised in the skin during exposure to sunlight and its fundamental roles are the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism and bone mineralisation. The aim of our study was to evaluate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, PTH and bone turnover markers (P1NP, OC, beta-CTx, OC/beta-CTx) and the intake of calcium and vitamin D in Polish Professional Football League (Ekstraklasa) players and in young men with a low level of physical activity. Fifty healthy men aged 19 to 34 years were included in the study. We showed that 25(OH)D3 and P1NP levels and OC/beta-CTx were higher in the group of professional football players than in the group of physically inactive men. The daily vitamin D and calcium intake in the group of professional football players was also higher. We showed a significant relationship between 25(OH)D3 levels and body mass, body cell mass, total body water, fat-free mass, muscle mass, vitamin D and calcium intake. Optimum 25(OH)D3 levels were observed in a mere 16.7% of the football players and vitamin D deficiency was observed in the physically inactive men. The level of physical activity, body composition, calcium and vitamin D intake and the duration of exposure to sunlight may significantly affect serum levels of 25(OH)D3.

  19. Serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) in relation to markers of reproductive function in young males from the general Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Richthoff, Jonas; Rylander, Lars; Jönsson, Bo A G; Akesson, Heléne; Hagmar, Lars; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter; Stridsberg, Mats; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2003-04-01

    A time-related deterioration in male reproductive function caused by exposure to endocrine disrupters, including persistent organochlorines (POCs), has been hypothesized. In animal studies, POCs were found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function. However, little is known about the impact of POC exposure on reproductive parameters in men. In a study of 305 young Swedish men 18-21 years old from the general population, we correlated lipid-adjusted serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5' -hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153)--an index substance for POC exposure--to markers of male reproductive function: testis size assessed by ultrasound, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility assessed manually and with a computer-aided sperm analyzer (CASA), and serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, testosterone, sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone, and estradiol. We found weak but statistically significant, negative correlations between CB-153 levels and both the testosterone:SHBG ratio (r = -0.25, p < 0.001)--a measure of the biologically active free testosterone fraction--and CASA sperm motility (r = -0.13, p = 0.02). No statistically significant association with other seminal, hormonal, or clinical markers of male reproductive function was found. In previous studies of more highly POC-exposed groups of adult men, the correlation between POC exposure, including CB-153, and free testosterone levels was not statistically significant. The present study gives some tentative support for weak negative effects of CB-153 exposure on sperm motility and free testosterone levels in young men, but further semen studies on more highly exposed groups may give more firm conclusions on the hazard for male reproductive function from dietary POC exposure.

  20. Bone marrow mast cell burden and serum tryptase level as markers of response in patients with systemic mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Sever, Matjaz; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    Two important response criteria in systemic mastocytosis (SM) are the elimination or reduction in percentage of bone marrow mast cells (MCs) and the reduction of serum tryptase levels. We investigated the accuracy of a single time point reduction of bone marrow MCs and serum tryptase level as response criteria in 50 patients with SM with available serial assessments. Bone marrow MC percentage varied significantly, with an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 65% (range, 6–173%) and 44% of patients having a CV higher than the average. The average CV for serum tryptase level was 19% (range, 0–96%), with 36% of patients having a CV higher than average. These wide variations in bone marrow MC burden and serum tryptase level were independent of the administration of SM-directed therapy, type of therapy or disease subtype. Furthermore, the achievement of a single time point therapy-induced bone marrow complete response (no histological evidence of malignant bone marrow MCs) did not correlate with tryptase level or symptomatic improvement. In conclusion, the value of single measurements of bone marrow MC percentage and serum tryptase level as response criteria in SM is not supported by clinical data. Incorporation of an assessment of the degree in reduction of MCs and tryptase, and assessment of response durability, would make response criteria more clinically meaningful. PMID:23278641

  1. Type-IV pili spectroscopic markers: applications in the quantification of piliation levels in Moraxella bovis cells by a FT-IR ANN-based model.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Alejandra; Prieto, Claudia; Serra, Diego Omar; Martina, Pablo; Stämmbler, Maren; Naumann, Dieter; Schmitt, Jürgen; Yantorno, Osvaldo

    2010-08-01

    Type-IV pili are cell surface organelles found in a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria. They have traditionally been detected by electron microscopy and ELISA techniques. However, these methodologies are not appropriate for the rapid discrimination and quantification of piliated and nonpiliated cells in industrial or field conditions. Here, the analysis of FT-IR spectra of piliated, nonpiliated and sheared Moraxella bovis cells, together with purified pili suspensions spectra, allowed the identification of 3 IR regions associated to spectroscopic markers of Type-IV pili: 1750-1600, 1450-1350 and 1280-950 cm(-1). Such IR-specific markers were found for piliated cells grown in different culture systems (liquid or solid media), independently of the strain or pili serotype. They were also sensitive to pili expression levels. Therefore, on the bases of these specific spectral features, an FT-IR ANN-based model was developed to classify piliation levels in 5 distinct groups. An overall classification rate of almost 90% demonstrates the strong potential of the ANN system developed to monitor M. bovis cultures in vaccine production.

  2. Is there a role for therapeutic drug monitoring of vitamin D level as a surrogate marker for fracture risk?

    PubMed

    Isenor, Jennifer E; Ensom, Mary H H

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies have suggested a possible association of low serum vitamin D levels in patients with bone fractures. This, coupled with a high prevalence of fractures and increases in associated disability and mortality, begs the question, is there evidence to support a role for therapeutic drug monitoring of vitamin D levels to prevent bone fractures? We use a previously published nine-step decision-making algorithm to answer this question. Optimal dosages of vitamin D have not been determined, although daily intake guidelines are suggested. Current vitamin D assays yield varying results, making it challenging for clinicians to interpret results from clinical trials and apply them directly to patients and their specific serum level data. Fracture risk is not easily assessable clinically, with no clear relationship between vitamin D concentrations and bone mineral density. The existing primary literature shows no clear relationship between vitamin D concentrations and fracture risk; target concentrations are not well established. Although the pharmacokinetic parameters of vitamin D are unpredictable and vitamin D supplementation is frequently lifelong, results of a vitamin D assay are unlikely to make a significant difference in the clinical decision-making process (i.e., provide more information than clinical judgment alone). Most published studies on vitamin D levels and fracture risk did not control for other potential reasons to monitor levels, multifactorial risks for fractures, and other confounders. Given limited data to support a direct relation between vitamin D levels and clinical outcome of fracture, inconsistent between-assay results, and no consensus on optimal levels, there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine therapeutic drug monitoring of vitamin D for fracture prevention; however, other reasons for monitoring might exist that are beyond the scope of this review. Recent availability of vitamin D assay standards may lead to future

  3. High multi-cytokine levels are not a predictive marker of alloimmunization in transfused sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed

    Tatari-Calderone, Zohreh; Fasano, Ross M; Miles, Megan R; Pinto, Ligia A; Luban, Naomi L C; Vukmanovic, Stanislav

    2014-07-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) receive multiple red blood cell (RBC) transfusions for both prevention of and therapy for disease-related complications. In some patients, transfusion results in development of both allo- and auto-antibodies to RBC antigens. What precipitates the antibody formation is currently unclear. It has been hypothesized that a pro-inflammatory state preceding the therapeutic transfusion may be a predisposing factor. Plasma levels of ten cytokines were evaluated upon recruitment to the study of 83 children with SCD undergoing therapeutic RBC transfusions. The levels of cytokines were correlated with development of anti-RBC antibodies prior, or during seven years post recruitment. Twelve subjects displayed significantly higher levels of all cytokines examined, with pro-, as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Surprisingly, the elevated levels of cytokines were preferentially found in patients without anti-RBC allo- and/or auto-antibodies. Further, presence of high cytokine levels was not predictive of anti-RBC antibody development during the subsequent seven year follow up. These data suggest that the increased concentration of multiple cytokines is not a biomarker of either the presence of or susceptibility to the development of RBC alloimmunization.

  4. Genetic Markers Associated with Plasma Protein C Level in African Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Munir, M. Shahzeb; Weng, Lu-Chen; Tang, Weihong; Basu, Saonli; Pankow, James S.; Matijevic, Nena; Cushman, Mary; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    Protein C is an endogenous anticoagulant protein with anti-inflammatory properties. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the levels of circulating protein C in European Americans. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of plasma protein C concentration with approximately 2.5 million SNPs in 2,701 African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Seventy-nine SNPs from the 20q11 and 2q14 regions reached the genome-wide significance threshold of 5 × 10−8. A missense variant rs867186 in the PROCR gene at 20q11 is known to affect protein C levels in individuals of European descent and showed the strongest signal (P = 9.84 × 10−65) in African Americans. The minor allele of this SNP was associated with higher protein C levels (β = 0.49 μg/ml; 10% variance explained). In the 2q14 region, the top SNPs were near or within the PROC gene: rs7580658 (β = 0.15 μg/ml; 2% variance explained, P = 1.7 × 10−12) and rs1799808 (β = 0.15 μg/ml; 2% variance explained, P = 2.03 × 10−12). These two SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with another SNP rs1158867 that resides in a biochemically functional site and in weak to strong LD with the top PROC variants previously reported in individuals of European descent. In addition, two variants outside the PROC region were significantly and independently associated with protein C levels: rs4321325 in CYP27C1 and rs13419716 in MYO7B. In summary, this first GWA study for plasma protein C levels in African Americans confirms the associations of SNPs in the PROC and PROCR regions with circulating levels of protein C across ethnic populations and identifies new candidates for protein C regulation. PMID:25376901

  5. Low Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin Level as a Marker of Malnutrition in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Imamaki, Hirotaka; Ishii, Akira; Yokoi, Hideki; Kasahara, Masato; Kuwabara, Takashige; Mori, Keita P.; Kato, Yukiko; Kuwahara, Takashi; Satoh, Masugi; Nakatani, Kimihiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Sugawara, Akira; Nakao, Kazuwa; Mukoyama, Masashi; Yanagita, Motoko; Mori, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL or LCN2) is an iron-transporting factor which possesses various activities such as amelioration of kidney injury and host defense against pathogens. Its circulating concentrations are elevated in acute and chronic kidney diseases and show a positive correlation with poor renal outcome and mortality, but its clinical significance in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients remains elusive. Methods Serum NGAL levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in out-patient, Japanese HD subjects. Their correlation to laboratory findings and morbidity (as development of severe infection or serum albumin reduction) was investigated using linear regression analysis and χ2 test. Results Pre-dialysis serum NGAL levels in HD patients were elevated by 13-fold compared to healthy subjects (n=8, P<0.001). In a cross-sectional study of 139 cases, serum NGAL concentrations were determined independently by % creatinine generation rate (an indicator of muscle mass, standardized coefficient β=0.40, P<0.001), peripheral blood neutrophil count (β=0.38, P<0.001) and anion gap (which likely reflects dietary protein intake, β=0.16, P<0.05). Iron administration to anemic HD patients caused marked elevation of peripheral blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin and iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin-25 levels, but NGAL levels were not affected. In a prospective study of 87 cases, increase in serum albumin levels a year later was positively associated to baseline NGAL levels by univariate analysis (r=0.36, P<0.01). Furthermore, within a year, patients with the lowest NGAL tertile showed significantly increased risk for marked decline in serum albumin levels (≥0.4 g/dl; odds ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.5–20.3, P<0.05) and tendency of increased occurrence of severe infection requiring admission (odds ratio 3.1, not significant) compared to the middle and highest tertiles. Conclusion Low serum NGAL levels appear to be

  6. Relationship between proliferative activity of bone marrow micrometastasis and plasmatic level of a new cancer marker: lipid associated sialic acid (LASA) in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ginsbourg, M; Musset, M; Misset, J L; Mathé, G

    1986-01-01

    The correlation between elevated level of a new plasma cancer marker, Lipid Associated Sialic Acid (LASA) and detection of bone marrow heterotopic epithelial cells by monoclonal antibodies using an immunocytologic technique, associated with the study of the proliferative activity of these heterotopic cells by measurement of their labelling index (LI) was analyzed in 158 samples obtained from 94 breast cancer patients. Six different groups of patients in complete remission of breast cancer, after radical treatment of the primary (minimal residual disease (MRD] were defined, according to the presence with or without proliferative activity of heterotopic cells in the bone marrow or the absence of such cells and to the level, normal or elevated of LASA in the serum of the same patient at the same time. 115 samples (73%) of the patients had an elevated LASA level at the time of the study among which 71 (45%) came from patients in which heterotopic cells were detected in the bone marrow, 32 (20%) of which with proliferative activity (LI+) 39 (25%) without (LI-). In 44 (28%) samples, no heterotopic cells were detected in the B.M. 43 samples (27%) of the patients had a normal LASA level. In 29 (18%) no heterotopic cells could be detected in the B.M. In only 14 could such cells be found, 5 with LI+, 9 with LI-. Both of these cytological and biological parameters can be useful markers of minimal residual disease and help to determine the prognosis and define optimal therapeutic strategy for curable breast cancer. Their prognostic value in predicting relapse awaits further observation with longer follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Transferrin Level Before Treatment and Genetic Polymorphism in HFE Gene as Predictive Markers for Response to Adalimumab in Crohn's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Repnik, Katja; Koder, Silvo; Skok, Pavel; Ferkolj, Ivan; Potočnik, Uroš

    2016-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (anti-TNF) have improved treatment of several complex diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD). However, the effect varies and approximately one-third of the patients do not respond. Since blood parameters as well as genetic factors have shown a great potential to predict response during treatment, the aim of the study was to evaluate response to anti-TNF treatment with adalimumab (ADA) between genes HFE and TF and haematological parameters in Slovenian refractory CD patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1799852 in gene TF and rs2071303 in gene HFE were genotyped in 68 refractory CD patients for which response has been measured using inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ) index. Haematological parameters and IBDQ index were determined before therapy and after 4, 12, 20 and 30 weeks. We found novel strong association between SNP rs2071303 in gene HFE and response to ADA treatment, particularly patients with G allele comparing to A allele had better response after 20 weeks (p = 0.008). Further, we found strong association between transferrin level at baseline and treatment response after 12, 20 and 30 weeks, where average transferrin level before therapy was lower in responders (2.38 g/L) compared to non-responders (2.89 g/L, p = 0.005). Association was found between transferrin level in week 30 and SNP rs1799852 (p = 0.023), and between MCHC level before treatment and SNP rs2071303 (p = 0.007). Our results suggest that SNP in gene HFE as well as haematological markers serve as promising prognostic markers of response to anti-TNF treatment in CD patients.

  8. EVIDENCE FOR LANDSCAPE LEVEL, POLLEN-MEDIATED GENE FLOW FROM CREEPING BENTGRASS WITH CP4 EPSPS AS A MARKER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a landscape level study, gene flow via pollen was tracked from multiple source fields of genetically modified (GM) herbicide resistant creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident populations of Agrostis s...

  9. Swelling, sealing, and hemostatic ability of a novel biomaterial: A polyethylene glycol-coated collagen pad.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevin M; Spazierer, Daniel; Slezak, Paul; Baumgartner, Bernhard; Regenbogen, Johannes; Gulle, Heinz

    2014-11-01

    Trends in the development of hemostatic agents are towards self-adhering pads. This study investigates a novel biomaterial made of a polyethylene glycol-coated collagen pad (PCC). The swelling and adherence of PCC were investigated in vitro, and the hemostatic and sealing ability was investigated in vivo. In vitro, the maximum swell of PCC submerged in human plasma for 24 h is 65%. The greatest swell was in thickness, averaging 24% to a mean thickness of 2.5 ± 0.19 mm (mean±SD) (N = 20). PCC withstood clinically relevant pressures when applied to a collagen casing washed with bile, lymph, urine, saline, and cerebrospinal fluid mixed at 33% and 67% with blood. In vivo, PCC provided complete hemostasis when applied to severe, arterial bleeds of actively ventilated pulmonary parenchyma at 3, 5, 8, and 10 min after application in a heparinized porcine pulmonary segmentectomy model. The mean rate of bleeding was 17.7 ± 8.6 ml/min. The lungs were ventilated at 15 ± 4 breaths per min and an airway pressure of 19 ± 2 cm H2O. PCC had no incidence of hematoma and an 11% incidence of intraoperative air leak (N = 36). These data are promising for future clinical application of a new versatile, self-adhering hemostatic sealing pad consisting of a polyethylene glycol-coated collagen.

  10. Is a stable or decreasing prolactin level in a patient with prolactinoma a surrogate marker for lack of tumor growth?

    PubMed

    Alkabbani, Abdulrahman G; Mon, Sann Y; Hatipoglu, Betul; Kennedy, Laurence; Faiman, Charles; Weil, Robert J; Hamrahian, Amir H

    2014-04-01

    The optimal interval for follow-up imaging of patients with prolactinomas is unclear. We wish to determine the likelihood of tumor enlargement in patients with prolactinomas who have a stable or reduced prolactin (PRL) level over time, whether or not they are treated with a dopamine agonist (DA). We identified 80 patients with prolactinomas (34 men, 46 women) who had at least two paired sets of serum PRL levels and pituitary MRIs, 3 or more months apart. Patients with hyperprolactinemia due to drug or stalk effects were excluded. The median (range) age was 45 (25-77) years. Sixty-three patients (78.8%) were treated with DA. PRL levels (ng/mL) at the initial and latest sets were 114 (0.3-15,732) and 16 (0.3-1,204), respectively. In patients with identifiable tumors, the maximum tumor diameters (mm) at the initial and latest MRI studies were 12.5 (2-60) and 12.5 (2-39) respectively, with an interval of 2.9 (0.3-9.7) years. Sixty percent of patients (n = 48) had a macroadenoma. Forty-two (52.5%) patients had either disappearance of the tumor (n = 22) or reduction (n = 20) in tumor size. In the remainder, tumor size was stable in 35 but increased in 3 patients. One of these patients, observed off therapy had a concomitant rise in PRL level. The other 2 had evidence of pituitary hemorrhage with no PRL increase. Tumor growth in prolactinoma patients with a stable or decreasing PRL level, regardless of size, is a rare event. Repetitive pituitary imaging in these patients may not be warranted.

  11. Effects of low-level laser therapy on performance, inflammatory markers, and muscle damage in young water polo athletes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Lira, Fábio Santos; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 5 days of 810-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) intervention on inflammatory and muscle damage markers and performance in young water polo players. Twenty young male water polo players participated in the study, which was designed as a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Active LLLT or an identical placebo LLLT were delivered to eight points on the adductor muscle region immediately after each training day. Performance was measured by a 200-m maximal swimming (P200) and a 30-s crossbar jump test (30CJ) which was performed every day before training, and blood samples were drawn pre and post the final LLLT intervention to measure interleukins (IL) and muscle damage markers. There was no significant change in the P200 exercise in the LLLT group compared with the placebo group but there was a moderate improvement in the 30CJ (8.7 ± 2.6 %). IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha presented increased (P < 0.016) concentration within group 48 h after the last LLLT intervention compared to pre, 0, and 24 h, but did not differ between groups. IL-10 increased over time in the placebo group and reached a moderate effect compared to the LLLT group. The creatine kinase decreased significantly (P = 0.049) over the time within the LLLT treatment group, but there was no significant change in lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.150). In conclusion, LLLT resulted in a non-significant, but small to moderate effect on inflammatory and muscle damage markers and a moderate effect on performance in water polo players. In addition, the lack of positive results could be due to the small area covered by irradiation and this should be considered in future studies.

  12. Transcriptional expression levels of cell stress marker genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to acute thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Farcy, Émilie; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    During the annual cycle, oysters are exposed to seasonal slow changes in temperature, but during emersion at low tide on sunny summer days, their internal temperature may rise rapidly, resulting in acute heat stress. We experimentally exposed oysters to a 1-h acute thermal stress and investigated the transcriptional expression level of some genes involved in cell stress defence mechanisms, including chaperone proteins (heat shock proteins Hsp70, Hsp72 and Hsp90 (HSP)), regulation of oxidative stress (Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, metallothionein (MT)), cell detoxification (glutathione S-transferase sigma, cytochrome P450 and multidrug resistance (MDR1)) and regulation of the cell cycle (p53). Gene mRNA levels were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and expressed as their ratio to actin mRNA, used as a reference. Of the nine genes studied, HSP, MT and MDR1 mRNA levels increased in response to thermal stress. We compared the responses of oysters exposed to acute heat shock in summer and winter and observed differences in terms of magnitude and kinetics. A larger increase was observed in September, with recovery within 48 h, whereas in March, the increase was smaller and lasted more than 2 days. The results were also compared with data obtained from the natural environment. Though the functional molecule is the protein and information at the mRNA level only has limitations, the potential use of mRNAs coding for cell stress defence proteins as early sensitive biomarkers is discussed. PMID:19002605

  13. Effects of Eccentric and Concentric Emphasized Resistance Exercise on IL-15 Serum Levels and Its Relation to Inflammatory Markers in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bazgir, Behzad; Salesi, Mohsen; Koushki, Maryam; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytokines play an important role in modulating the muscle’s metabolic and immunological responses to exercise. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated changes in the serum levels of Interleukin (IL)-15 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as markers of inflammation, in athlete and non-athlete young men following eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) emphasized resistance exercise (RE). Patients and Methods: This study recruited 28 young males, 14 athletes and 14 non-athletes. Subjects completed two bouts of ECC and CON emphasized RE five days apart. Each bout included seven exercises that emphasized all major muscle groups with weight loads of 70% - 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM) for CON RE and 90% - 100% of 1RM for ECC RE. We analyzed subjects’ blood samples before and immediately after each bout of exercise to determine cytokine and hs-CRP serum levels according to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between IL-15 serum levels before and after ECC and CON RE in non-athletes (P = 0.03). In athletes, IL-15 serum level only increased after ECC RE (P = 0.01), which was noted to be the highest degree of change in IL-15 levels in all subjects. For athletes, the hs-CRP levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The serum levels of both TNF-α and hs-CRP were also significantly down-regulated after ECC RE in non-athletes. Conclusions: These results indicated that fitness level and RE could modulate circulating levels of IL-15 and suggest the potential anti-inflammatory effects of IL-15 during RE. PMID:26448857

  14. High serum levels of proinflammatory markers during epileptogenesis. Can omega-3 fatty acid administration reduce this process?

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Telma Luciana Furtado; Vieira de Sousa, Paula Viviane; de Almeida, Sandro Soares; Nejm, Mariana Bocca; Vieira de Brito, Joíse Marques; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Salu, Bruno Ramos; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Scorza, Fúlvio Alexandre; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2015-10-01

    During the epileptogenic process, several events may occur, such as an important activation of the immune system in the central nervous system. The response to seizure activity results in an inflammation in the brain as well as in the periphery. Moreover, CRP and cytokines may be able to interact with numerous ligands in response to cardiac injury caused by sympathetic stimulation in ictal and postictal states. Based on this, we measured the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines during acute, silent, and chronic phases of rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. We have also analyzed the effect of a chronic treatment of these rats with omega-3 fatty acid in CRP and cytokine levels, during an epileptic focus generation. C-reactive protein and cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α presented high concentration in the blood of rats, even well after the occurrence of SE. We found reduced levels of CRP and all proinflammatory cytokines in the blood of animals with chronic seizures, treated with omega-3, when compared with those treated with vehicle solution. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the omega-3 is an effective treatment to prevent SUDEP occurrence due to its capability to act as an anti-inflammatory compound, reducing the systemic inflammatory parameters altered by seizures.

  15. Topical hemostatic agents to reduce bleeding from cancellous bone surfaces: a comparison of Gelfoam paste and bone wax.

    PubMed

    Zirna, H; Keating, S E; DeVincentis, A F

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the history of topical bone hemostatic agents, listing advantages and disadvantages of the more commonly used agents. Gelfoam paste and bone wax were chosen to study the effects that bone hemostatic agents have on the occurrence and severity of postoperative edema and pain. The authors discovered 80% of the patients utilizing bone wax, and 91% of the patients receiving Gelfoam paste, had markedly decreased amounts of immediate postoperative edema. Furthermore, 90% of the patients treated with bone wax, and 75% of the patients treated with Gelfoam paste, reported less postoperative pain than anticipated with the surgical procedure performed.

  16. Marginal integrity of low-shrinkage and methacrylate-based composite resins: Effect of three different hemostatic agents

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Sahraneshin-Samani, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background Moisture control is very important in restorative procedures in dentistry. Use of hemostatic agents helps control moisture; however, they might result in changes on enamel and dentin surfaces, affecting composite resin bond quality. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of two different composite resins with the use of three different hemostatic agents. Material and Methods Standardized Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 48 premolars with cervical margins 1 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). The samples were randomly divided into 8 groups. In groups 1 to 4, an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond) was applied as the bonding system, followed by exposure to different hemostatic agent: group 1: no hemostatic agent (control); group 2: ViscoStat; group 3: ViscoStat Clear; and group 4: trichloracetic acid, as hemostatic agents. The cavities were restored with Z-250 composite resin. In group 5 to 8 Silorane System Adhesive (Filtek P90 Adhesive) was applied as a bonding agent, followed by exposure to different hemostatic agents in a manner similar to that in groups 1to 4. The cavities were restored with Filtek P90, a low-shrinkage composite resin. The samples in each group were evaluated for dye penetration under a stereomicroscope at ×36 after 24 hours and a 500-round thermocycling procedure at enamel and dentin margins. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Results Z-250 composite resin exhibited significantly higher dentin microleakage scores compared to Filtek P90 (P = 0.004). Trichloracetic acid increased dentin microleakage with Filtek P90 (P=0.033). Conclusions Under the limitations of this in vitro study, application of hemostatic agents did not affect microleakage of the two tested composite resins except for trichloracetic acid that increased marginal microleakage when used with Filtek P90. Key words

  17. [Clinical research on improvement of glucose metabolic marker level by coffee drinking-validity of saliva caffeine concentration measurement].

    PubMed

    Okada, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kono, Suminori; Shimazoe, Takao

    2010-05-01

    We measured both serum and saliva caffeine concentration using HPLC and assessed the correlation between them in volunteers with mild obesity. Significant correlation was shown between saliva and serum caffeine concentration. It may be necessary to measure caffeine metabolite concentration because its metabolites may also have an improving effect of glucose metabolism. In summary, we found that saliva caffeine concentration measurement was useful to assess caffeine intake level. Moreover, it will be helpful to know whether caffeine has an improving effect of glucose metabolism.

  18. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luiz Arthur Calheiros; Pimenta Filho, Adenor Almeida; Ferreira, Rita de Cássia dos Santos; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; dos Santos, Bianka Santana; Montenegro, Silvia Maria Lucena; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida; Domingues, Ana Lúcia Coutinho; Owen, James Stuart; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5–10%) progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55). Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X), protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status. PMID:26267788

  19. Measurement of peroxiredoxin-4 serum levels in rat tissue and its use as a potential marker for hepatic disease.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ritsu; Takahashi, Motoko; Ihara, Hideyuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Fujii, Junichi; Ikeda, Yoshitaka

    2012-08-01

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx)-4, a secretable endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident isoform of the mammalian Prx family, functions as a thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase. It is acknowledged that Prx-4 plays a role in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, and potentially other peroxides, which may be generated during the oxidative folding of proteins and oxidative stress in the ER. The present study was undertaken in order to specifically quantify the tissue levels of Prx-4. To accomplish this, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed using a specific polyclonal antibody produced by immunizing a rabbit with native recombinant rat Prx-4 protein. The assay was used to detect Prx-4 in the range of 0.1 and 10 ng/ml, and to investigate tissue distribution in rats. Using this immunoassay, we found that the serum levels of Prx-4 were substantially lower in asymptomatic Long-Evans Cinnamon rats, a rat model of Wilson's disease, compared to normal rats. In addition, the treatment of rat hepatoma cells with N-acetylcysteine led to a significant increase in the release of Prx-4 protein into the medium; thus, it appears likely that the secretion of Prx-4 is associated with the redox state within cells. These results suggest that serum Prx-4 has potential for use as a biomarker for hepatic oxidative stress.

  20. Increased Serum Pepsinogen II Level as a Marker of Pangastritis and Corpus-Predominant Gastritis in Gastric Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Haj-Sheykholeslami, Arghavan

    2016-02-01

    Serum pepsinogen I and II are considered as indicators of changes in gastric morphology. Important publications from the last decades are reviewed with regard to the serum level of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of normal gastric mucosa, diffuse gastritis and its change to atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Due to the low sensitivity of serum biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer, especially at its early stage and the poor prognosis of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, its prevention by eradication of H. pylori remains the mandatory strategy. On the other hand, the severity of regression and non-reversibility of precancerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa through eradication of H. pylori make it necessary to diagnose diffuse gastritis at its early stage. Increased serum pepsinogen II compared to normal serum pepsinogen I seems to indicate the presence of diffuse gastritis without precancerous lesions suitable for eradication of H. pylori infection, when it is serologically positive. A diagram illustrates the strategy of this therapeutic measure depending on the age of people and the level of serum biomarkers in areas with high gastric cancer prevalence.

  1. Association between Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines expression and levels of inflammation markers in sickle cell anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Nebor, Danitza; Durpes, Marie Claude; Mougenel, Danielle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Elion, Jacques; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc

    2010-07-01

    Since inflammation plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) modulates the function of inflammatory processes, we analyzed the relationship between the erythrocyte DARC phenotype and clinical expression of SCA. DARC locus was genotyped in 212 SS adult patients followed by the sickle cell center of Guadeloupe (French West Indies). After patients' stratification according to RBC DARC expression, the prevalence of renal disease, leg ulcers, priapism and osteonecrosis was compared between patient groups as well as hematological variables and plasma levels of chemokines. Duffy-positive patients exhibited higher counts of white blood cells (9.95+/-2.36 vs 8.88+/-2.32 10(9)/L, p=0.0066), polynuclear neutrophils (5.1+/-1.73 vs 4.51+/-1.71 10(9)/L, p=0.0227), higher plasma levels of IL-8 (4.46+/-1.22 vs 1.47+/-0.5 pg/mL, p=0.0202) and RANTES (27.8+/-4.3 vs 18.1+/-2.3 ng/mL, p=0.04) than Duffy-negative patients. No association was detected between RBC expression of DARC and the studied complications.

  2. Impact of chronic periodontitis on quality-of-life and on the level of blood metabolic markers

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Leila Cristina; Cataldo, Dionisia de Matos; Moutinho, Helena; Canabarro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Context: Despite the recognition that systemic factors can alter the risk to the chronic periodontitis (CP), only recently has evidence begun to emerge, still under investigation, that infections of the oral cavity are related with low quality-of-life (QoL) and are able to influence the occurrence and severity of certain conditions and systemic diseases. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CP on the QoL and on the metabolic systemic condition of CP patients. Settings and Designs: Cross–sectional, case-controlled, age- and gender-matched study. Subjects and Methods: Quality-of-life assessment (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue), periodontal examinations and blood tests were obtained from 20 CP patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). Statistical Analysis Used: parametric paired t-test for numerical data (metabolic parameters) and nonparametric paired Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the QoL ordinal data of both groups. Statistical significance was determined at the 0.05 level. Results: Healthy controls had fewer negative impacts in all QoL areas studied. CP patients showed higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid compared with the HC. Conclusions: Chronic periodontitis negatively affected the overall well-being and systemic condition of a group of Brazilian individuals. PMID:26015664

  3. Time-dependent changes of markers associated with inflammation in the lungs of humans exposed to ambient levels of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Devlin, R.B.; Becker, S.; Perez, R.; McDonnell, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Acute exposure of humans to 0.4 ppm ozone results in reversible respiratory function decrements, and cellular and biochemical changes leading to the production of substances which can mediate inflammation and acute lung injury. The purpose of the study was to determine whether inflammatory changes occur relatively rapidly (within 1h) following exposure to ozone, or if the cascade of events which are initiated by ozone and lead to inflammation, take some time to develop. The authors exposed 10 healthy volunteers twice: once to filtered air and once to 0.4 ppm ozone. Each exposure lasted for 2h at an exercise level of 60 1/min, and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 1h following exposure. The data from the study were exposed to 03 under identical conditions except that bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 18h following exposure. The results of the present study demonstrate that 03 is capable of inducing rapid cellular and biochemical changes in the lung. These changes were detectable as early as 1h following a 2h exposure of humans to ozone. The profiles of these changes were different at 1h and 18h following ozone exposures. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid had levels of neutrophils, IL-6, and prostaglandin E2 that were higher at 1h than at 18h post exposure.

  4. The neutral self-assembling peptide hydrogel SPG-178 as a topical hemostatic agent.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Seiji; Nagai, Yusuke; Naruse, Keiji; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Conventional self-assembling peptide hydrogels are effective as topical hemostatic agents. However, there is a possibility to harm living tissues due to their low pH. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the efficacy of SPG-178, a neutral self-assembling peptide hydrogel, as a topical hemostatic agent. First, we measured the bleeding duration of incisions made on rat livers after application of SPG-178 (1.0% w/v), SPG-178 (1.5% w/v), RADA16 (1.0% w/v), and saline (n = 12/group). Second, we observed the bleeding surfaces by transmission electron microscopy immediately after hemostasis. Third, we measured the elastic and viscous responses (G' and G″, respectively) of the hydrogels using a rheometer. Our results showed that bleeding duration was significantly shorter in the SPG-178 group than in the RADA16 group and that there were no significant differences in transmission electron microscopy findings between the groups. The greater the G' value of a hydrogel, the shorter was the bleeding duration. We concluded that SPG-178 is more effective and has several advantages: it is non-biological, transparent, nonadherent, and neutral and can be sterilized by autoclaving.

  5. Radiological and histopathological examination of early tissue reactions to absorbable hemostatic agents in the rabbit brain.

    PubMed

    Kaymaz, Memduh; Tokgoz, Nil; Kardes, Ozgür; Ozköse, Zerrin; Ozogul, Candan; Orbay, Toygun

    2005-05-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are widely and safely used in neurosurgery. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyse the early tissue reactions to two hemostatic agents, oxidized regenerated cellulose and gelatin sponge, in rabbit brain by magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic sections. Bilateral identical parenchymal lesions were made in the frontal regions of each hemisphere in 13 rabbits. Hemostasis was achieved using oxidized regenerated cellulose or gelatin sponge, one agent being used on each side. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was performed 24 h postoperatively and there was no statistical difference in edema formation at the site of the lesions. Histopathologic examinations indicated that pericapillary edema and endothelial distortion were common in both groups but that there was additional tissue degeneration evident in the regions where gelatin sponge had been used. Oxidized regenerated cellulose seemed to cause greater tissue distortion in magnetic resonance images than gelatin sponge but in contrast, histological examination of lesions in which oxidized regenerated cellulose had been used revealed less tissue degeneration than histopathologic examinations of lesions in which gelatin sponge had been used.

  6. Development and assessment of kerateine nanoparticles for use as a hemostatic agent.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tiantian; Hao, Shilei; Chen, Xiaoliang; Wang, Ju; Yang, Qian; Wang, Yazhou; Weng, Yulan; Wei, Huimin; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Bochu

    2016-06-01

    Uncontrolled bleeding frequently occurs in some emergencies which can result in severe injury and even death. Keratin hydrogel has been found that it had good ahemostatic efficacy in the previous studies. However, an ideal hemostatic agent should not require mixing or preparation in advance, and hydrogel is not easy to store and carry. In the present study, the kerateine was firstly extracted from human hair, and then was prepared nanoparticles by a modified emulsion diffusion method. The synthesized nanoparticles showed spherical morphology with an average diameter of approximately 200 nm. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicated that the chemical structure of kerateine did not change but the crystal form may be transformed in the nanoparticles. In addition, kerateine nanoparticles displayed a faster clotting time in vitro study than the kerateine extracts. Furthermore, kerateine nanoparticles significantly reduced the blood loss and coagulation time in the liver puncture and tail amputation in rat models. Our results indicated that kerateine nanoparticles could quickly form a high viscosity gel onto the wound and accelerate the blood coagulation based on their high specific surface area. Therefore, kerateine nanoparticles have great potential for hemostatic application.

  7. Gelatin blending and sonication of chitosan nanofiber mats produce synergistic effects on hemostatic functions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Jong-Il; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To improve the hemostatic function of chitosan nanofiber mats, we studied the synergetic effects of gelatin blending and porosity control. Gelatin-blended-chitosan (Chi-Gel) nanofiber mats were evaluated with respect to surface morphology, mechanical properties and wettability, and functionally tested in a blood clotting study. The blood clotting efficiency of Chi-Gel nanofiber mats using rabbit whole blood in vitro was superior to that of chitosan nanofibers. Moreover, Chi-Gel nanofiber mats with enlarged porosity, produced by ultra-sonication, showed improved blood clotting efficiency, cell viability and cell infiltration compared with non-sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a richer density of platelets on sonicated nanofiber mats than on non-sonicated nanofiber mats after 3 min of blood clotting. The proliferation of human dermal fibroblast cells on sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats using the DNA assay was higher than that on non-sonicated chitosan nanofiber mats after 7 days of culture. Confocal z-stack images showed that sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats with high porosity supported active cell migration and infiltration into the 3-dimensional nanofiber mats. These results suggest that hydrophilic gelatin blending and sonication of chitosan nanofiber mats yields synergistic effects that not only improve hemostatic function but also promote wound repair.

  8. Effects of chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge on the blood parameters of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-04-10

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the field of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents.

  9. Hemostatic Techniques for Laparoscopic Management of Cornual Pregnancy: Double-Impact Devascularization Technique.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Yousri; Mahmud, Ayesha; Fatma, Alfia

    2016-02-01

    Cornual pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, accounting for up to 2% to 4% of all ectopic pregnancies, with a mortality range of 2.0% to 2.5%. Hemorrhage is a key concern in the management of such pregnancies. Traditional treatment options include a conservative approach, failing which patients are offered surgical options such as cornual resection at laparotomy, which carries a high risk of hysterectomy. In recent years newer laparoscopic cornual resection or cornuotomy techniques have been used successfully to achieve better outcomes with fewer complications. We present the double-impact devascularization (DID) technique for laparoscopic management of cornual ectopic pregnancies. This technique permits hemostatic control by compression effect, which in turn allows reduction in procedure-related patient morbidity and mortality. We also provide an overview of other reported methods of hemostatic control used in similar laparoscopic procedures. DID appears to be a useful, safe, minimally invasive technique that can be used in both laparoscopic and open surgical procedures.

  10. A Novel Ultrasound-Based Method to Evaluate Hemostatic Function of Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Francesco; Mauldin, F. William; Lin-Schmidt, Xiefan; Haverstick, Doris M.; Lawrence, Michael B.; Walker, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Unregulated hemostasis represents a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Being able to recognize and quantify defects of the hemostatic process is critical to reduce mortality and implement appropriate treatment. Methods: We describe a novel ultrasound-based technology, named sonorheometry, which can assess hemostasis function from a small sample of blood. Sonorheometry uses the phenomenon of acoustic radiation force to measure the dynamic changes in blood viscoelasticity during clot formation and clot dissolution. We performed in vitro experiments using whole blood samples of 1ml to demonstrate that sonorheometry is indicative of hemostatic functions that depend on plasma coagulation factors, platelets, and plasma fibrinolytic factors. Results: Sonorheometry measurements show titration effects to compounds known to alter the coagulation factors (GPRP peptide, 0 to 8 mmol/l), platelets (abciximab, 0 to 12 ug/ml), and fibrinolytic factors (urokinase, 0 to 200U). Repeated measurements of blood samples from the same subjects yielded reproducibility errors on the order of 5%. Conclusions: These data indicate that sonorheometry accurately quantifies the functional role of the components of hemostasis in vitro. PMID:19861121

  11. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D level does not reflect intestinal calcium absorption: an assay using strontium as a surrogate marker.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Marília Brasilio Rodrigues; Vilaça, Tatiane; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Rocha, Olguita G Ferreira; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2015-05-01

    There is conflicting evidence as to the optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration for intestinal calcium absorption (Abs-Ca). Our purpose was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and Abs-Ca in postmenopausal women. Fifty volunteers with low bone mass were grouped according to their serum 25(OH)D concentration as follows: mild deficient, <50 nmol/L (DEF) and sufficient, ≥75 nmol/L (SUF). The subjects were submitted to an oral strontium overload test to assess their Abs-Ca. Fasting blood samples were obtained to perform the relevant hormonal and biochemical tests. After the subjects received the test solution, blood samples were drawn at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min to determine the strontium concentrations. Abs-Ca was indirectly expressed as the area under the serum strontium concentration curve (AUC). A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to determine the differences among the groups. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to study the associations between the variables. The mean 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] concentrations differed between the groups (SUF vs. DEF) as follows: 98.7 ± 18.2 vs. 38.4 ± 8.5 nmol/L (p < 0.001) and 36.2 ± 10.2 vs. 24.9 ± 4.6 pg/mL (p < 0.001), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for parathyroid hormone and AUC. Only 1,25(OH)2D influenced the strontium absorption in the last 2 h of the test. In the studied population, no correlation between levels of 25(OH)D and Abs-Ca was found. Only 1,25(OH)2D influenced Abs-Ca as measured by a strontium absorption test.

  12. Lack of relationship between hair lead levels and some usual markers (blood lead levels, ZPP, urinary ALA-D) in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Tracqui, A; Bosque, M A; Costa, V; Kintz, P; Siegel, F; Mangin, P

    1994-01-01

    Blood and hair samples collected from 54 male workers occupationally exposed to lead were assayed for this metal by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Blood ZPP and urinary ALA-D were also determined for most subjects tested. Blood and hair lead concentrations (PbB and PbH) ranged from 100 to 770 ng/ml (10 to 77 micrograms/100 ml) (mean +/- SD: 384.6 +/- 143.4 ng/ml (38.46 +/- 14.34 micrograms/100 ml)), and from 3 to 243 ng/mg (mean +/- SD: 102.4 +/- 72.6 ng/mg), respectively. No correlation was observed between the PbH and PbB values, nor between PbH and ZPP or ALA-D values. Neither hair coloration nor subjects' age were related to PbH levels. Results are discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  13. Plasma Neurofilament Heavy Chain Levels Correlate to Markers of Late Stage Disease Progression and Treatment Response in SOD1G93A Mice that Model ALS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ching-Hua; Petzold, Axel; Kalmar, Bernadett; Dick, James; Malaspina, Andrea; Greensmith, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder characterised by progressive degeneration of motor neurons leading to death, typically within 3–5 years of symptom onset. The diagnosis of ALS is largely reliant on clinical assessment and electrophysiological findings. Neither specific investigative tools nor reliable biomarkers are currently available to enable an early diagnosis or monitoring of disease progression, hindering the design of treatment trials. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, using the well-established SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS and a new in-house ELISA method, we have validated that plasma neurofilament heavy chain protein (NfH) levels correlate with both functional markers of late stage disease progression and treatment response. We detected a significant increase in plasma levels of phosphorylated NfH during disease progression in SOD1G93A mice from 105 days onwards. Moreover, increased plasma NfH levels correlated with the decline in muscle force, motor unit survival and, more significantly, with the loss of spinal motor neurons in SOD1 mice during this critical period of decline. Importantly, mice treated with the disease modifying compound arimoclomol had lower plasma NfH levels, suggesting plasma NfH levels could be validated as an outcome measure for treatment trials. Conclusions/Significance These results show that plasma NfH levels closely reflect later stages of disease progression and therapeutic response in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS and may potentially be a valuable biomarker of later disease progression in ALS. PMID:22815892

  14. Tracing novel hemostatic compounds from heating products of total flavonoids in Flos Sophorae by spectrum-effect relationships and column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeqing; Yu, Hongli; Wu, Hao; Pan, Yaozong; Wang, Kuilong; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yangping; Zhang, Chenchao

    2015-05-01

    Flos Sophorae and its processed product have been clinically used to treat hemorrhage. In this study, the total ion chromatographic fingerprints of the heating products of total flavonoids in Flos Sophorae were established by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and the hemostatic activities were studied by hemostatic screening tests in vivo. The spectrum-effect relationships between fingerprints and hemostatic activities were investigated using canonical correlation analysis to trace the peaks responsible for the hemostatic effects. The predicted active peaks in fingerprints were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The hemostatic activities of them were verified by platelet aggregation and procoagulation assays in vitro. Canonical correlation analysis results showed that peak 8 and peak 11 were correlated most closely, thus probably being the main hemostatic compounds. Through column chromatography separation, peak 8 (compound I) and peak 11 (compound II) were obtained with purities of 95.61 and 93.38%, respectively, and were discovered new hemostatic compounds named as huaicarbon A (I) and huaicarbon B (II), respectively. This study provides a universal model to trace the active compounds of other herbs which have bioactivity enhancement after processing by spectrum-effect relationships and column chromatography.

  15. Hemostatic and hematological abnormalities in gain-of-function fps/fes transgenic mice are associated with the angiogenic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sangrar, W; Senis, Y; Samis, J A; Gao, Y; Richardson, M; Lee, D H; Greer, P A

    2004-11-01

    The Fps/Fes tyrosine kinase has been implicated in the regulation of hematopoiesis and inflammation. Mice expressing an activated variant of Fps/Fes (MFps) encoded by a gain-of-function mutant transgenic fps/fes allele (fps(MF)) exhibited hematological phenotypes, which suggested that Fps/Fes can direct hematopoietic lineage output. These mice also displayed marked hypervascularity and multifocal-hemangiomas which implicated this kinase in the regulation of angiogenesis. Here we explored the potential involvement of Fps/Fes in the regulation of hemostasis through effects on blood cells and the vascular endothelium. Hematological parameters of fps(MF) mice were characterized by peripheral blood analysis, histology, and transmission electron microscopy. Hemostasis parameters and platelet functions were assessed by flow cytometry and measurements of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, thrombin clot time, platelet aggregation, bleeding times and in vitro fibrinolytic assays. Hematological and morphological analyses showed that fps(MF) mice displayed mild thrombocytopenia, anemia, red cell abnormalities and numerous hemostatic defects, including hypofibrinogenemia, hyper-fibrinolysis, impaired whole blood aggregation and a mild bleeding diathesis. fps(MF) mice displayed a complex array of hemostatic perturbations which are reminiscent of hemostatic disorders such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and of hemangioma-associated pathologies such as Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMS). These studies suggest that Fps/Fes influences both angiogenic and hemostatic function through regulatory effects on the endothelium.

  16. Postponed surgery of an acute aortic dissection (type A) in a Jehovah's Witness with significant hemostatic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Waligórski, Szymon; Mokrzycki, Krzysztof; Brykczyński, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    In this case report, we present the treatment of an acute type A aortic dissection in a Jehovah's Witness patient. In accordance with the will of the patient, blood products were not used. Additionally, the patient had significant hemostatic disorders due to the use of antiplatelet drugs. PMID:27785141

  17. Properties of novel bone hemostat prepared using sugar-modified hydroxyapatite, phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium and thermoplastic resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimira, Tokio; Umeda, Tomohiro; Musha, Yoshiro; Itatani, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    A novel hemostatic agent was prepared using phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca), hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; HAp) obtained by the hydrolysis of POs-Ca or sugar-containing HAp (s-HAp; 60.3 mass% calcium-deficient HAp and 39.5 mass% organic materials, Ca/P ratio = 1.56) and thermoplastic resin (the mixture of random copolymer of ethylene oxide/propylene oxide (EPO) and polyethylene oxide (EO); EPO : EO : water = 25 : 15 : 60 (mass ratio); 25EPO-15EO). The gel formed by mixing 25EPO-15EO with water (25EPO-15EO/water mass ratio: 0.20) was flash frozen at -80°C, freeze-dried at -50°C for 15 h and then ground using mixer. The consistency conditions of hemostats mixed with POs-Ca or s-HAp were optimized for the practical uses. The mean stanching times of hemostats were: s-HAp/25EPO-15EO (8.2 h; s-HAp/25EPO-15EO = 0.20) > 25EPO-15EO (5.3 h) > POs-Ca/25EPO-15EO (4.7 h; POs-Ca/25EPO-15EO = 0.20). The gentamicin, a typical antibiotic agent, loaded s-HAp/25EPO-15EO composite hemostat showed the steady state releasing in phosphate buffered saline till 10 h immersion at 37.0°C.

  18. Expression Level of the DREB2-Type Gene, Identified with Amplifluor SNP Markers, Correlates with Performance, and Tolerance to Dehydration in Bread Wheat Cultivars from Northern Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Zhumalin, Aibek; Serikbay, Dauren; Botayeva, Makpal; Otemisova, Ainur; Absattarova, Aiman; Sereda, Grigoriy; Sereda, Sergey; Shvidchenko, Vladimir; Turbekova, Arysgul; Jatayev, Satyvaldy; Lopato, Sergiy; Soole, Kathleen; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A panel of 89 local commercial cultivars of bread wheat was tested in field trials in the dry conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. Two distinct groups of cultivars (six cultivars in each group), which had the highest and the lowest grain yield under drought were selected for further experiments. A dehydration test conducted on detached leaves indicated a strong association between rates of water loss in plants from the first group with highest grain yield production in the dry environment relative to the second group. Modern high-throughput Amplifluor Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) technology was applied to study allelic variations in a series of drought-responsive genes using 19 SNP markers. Genotyping of an SNP in the TaDREB5 (DREB2-type) gene using the Amplifluor SNP marker KATU48 revealed clear allele distribution across the entire panel of wheat accessions, and distinguished between the two groups of cultivars with high and low yield under drought. Significant differences in expression levels of TaDREB5 were revealed by qRT-PCR. Most wheat plants from the first group of cultivars with high grain yield showed slight up-regulation in the TaDREB5 transcript in dehydrated leaves. In contrast, expression of TaDREB5 in plants from the second group of cultivars with low grain yield was significantly down-regulated. It was found that SNPs did not alter the amino acid sequence of TaDREB5 protein. Thus, a possible explanation is that alternative splicing and up-stream regulation of TaDREB5 may be affected by SNP, but these hypotheses require additional analysis (and will be the focus of future studies). PMID:27917186

  19. Effects of low-level laser therapy applied before or after plyometric exercise on muscle damage markers: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Carolina Gassen; Dornelles, Maurício Pinto; Severo-Silveira, Lucas; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Rosso, Isabele de Albuquerque; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2016-12-01

    Promising effects of phototherapy on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage has been already demonstrated in constant load or isokinetic protocols. However, its effects on more functional situations, such as plyometric exercises, and when is the best moment to apply this treatment (pre- or post-exercise) remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) before or after plyometric exercise on quadriceps muscle damage markers. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 24 healthy men, 12 at pre-exercise treatment group and 12 at post-exercise treatment group. Placebo and LLLT (810 nm, 200 mW per diode, 6 J per diode, 240 J per leg) were randomly applied on right/left knee extensor muscles of each volunteer before/after a plyometric exercise protocol. Muscular echo intensity (ultrasonography images), soreness (visual analogue scale - VAS), and strength impairment (maximal voluntary contraction - MVC) were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. Legs treated with LLLT before or after exercise presented significantly smaller increments of echo intensity (values up to 1 %) compared to placebo treatments (increased up to ∼7 %). No significant treatment effect was found for VAS and MVC, although a trend toward better results on LLLT legs have been found for VAS (mean values up to 30 % lesser than placebo leg). In conclusion, LLLT applied before or after plyometric exercise reduces the muscle echo intensity response and possibly attenuates the muscle soreness. However, these positive results were not observed on strength impairment.

  20. Lymphopenia and Elevated Blood C-Reactive Protein Levels at Four Days Postoperatively Are Useful Markers for Early Detection of Surgical Site Infection Following Posterior Lumbar Instrumentation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Koizumi, Munehisa; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Purpose To identify the characteristics of candidate indexes for early detection of surgical site infection (SSI). Overview of Literature SSI is a serious complication of spinal instrumentation surgery. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for the welfare of the patient postoperation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed laboratory data of patients who underwent posterior lumbar instrumentation surgery for degenerative spine disease. The sensitivity and specificity of six laboratory markers for early detection of SSI were calculated: greater elevation of the white blood cell count at day 7 than at day 4 postoperatively, greater elevation of the C-reactive protein (CRP) level at day 7 than at day 4 postoperatively, a CRP level of >10 mg/dL at 4 days postoperatively, neutrophil percentage of >75% at 4 days postoperatively, a lymphocyte percentage of <10% at 4 days postoperatively, and a lymphocyte count of <1,000/µL at 4 days postoperatively. Statistical analysis was via Fisher's exact test and a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results In total, 85 patients were enrolled. Of these, five patients developed deep SSI. The sensitivity and specificity of each index were as follows: index 1, 20.0% and 77.5%; index 2, 20.0% and 83.8%; index 3, 40.0% and 97.5%; index 4, 40.0% and 86.3%; index 5, 0% and 96.3%; and index 6, 80.0% and 80.0%. A significant difference was noted for indexes 3 and 6. Conclusions A CRP level of >10 mg/dL at 4 days postoperatively would be useful for definitive diagnosis of SSI, and a lymphocyte count of <1,000/µL at 4 days postoperatively would be a useful screening test for SSI. Although laboratory markers for early detection of SSI have been frequently reported, we believe that it is important to understand the characteristics of each index for a precise diagnosis. PMID:27114760

  1. Serum osteocalcin or bone Gla-protein, a biochemical marker for bone metabolism in horses: differences in serum levels with age.

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, O M; Marcoux, M; Tremblay, A

    1990-01-01

    Levels of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin or bone Gla-protein, a new marker of bone metabolism, were analyzed in blood samples of 50 clinically normal female Standardbred horses between four months and twenty years of age. Samples were collected in the morning before exercise. Serum osteocalcin was measured by radioimmunoassay using bovine antibodies. There was a significant inverse correlation between alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and the age of the animals up to 48 months. The decrease in osteocalcin levels in serum was very marked during the first 30 months of life. The mean osteocalcin concentration was respectively 47.3, 35.7 and 6.7 ng/mL for animals less than one year, between 1.5 and 2.5 years of age and older than 3.5 years. Alkaline phosphatase serum activity was higher in foals less than one year of age (means = 856 U/L) than in the two older groups (meansII = 339, meansIII = 351 U/L). We believe that osteocalcin is a useful parameter for the evaluation of bone metabolism in growing animals and in adults and is probably more specific than alkaline phosphatase. PMID:2357658

  2. Hemostatic potential of natural/synthetic polymer based hydrogels crosslinked by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-01-01

    Various raw materials and hydrogels prepared from their combination were assessed for hemostatic capability using swine whole blood clotting analysis. Initial screening showed efficient coagulative properties from κ-carrageenan and its carboxymethylated form, and α-chitosan, even compared to commercial products like QuikClot Zeolite Powder. Blending natural and synthetic polymers formed into hydrogels using gamma radiation produced materials with improved properties. KC and CMKC hydrogels were found to have the lowest blood clotting index in granulated form and had the higher capacity for platelet adhesion in foamed form compared to GelFoam. Possible mechanisms involved in the evident thrombogenicity of the materials include adsorption of platelets and related proteins that aid in platelet activation (primary hemostasis), absorption of water to concentrate protein factors that control the coagulation cascade, contact activation by its negatively charged surface and the formation of gel-blood clots.

  3. Gallium nitrate induces fibrinogen flocculation: an explanation for its hemostatic effect?

    PubMed

    Bauters, A; Holt, D J; Zerbib, P; Rogosnitzky, M

    2013-12-01

    A novel hemostatic effect of gallium nitrate has recently been discovered. Our aim was to perform a preliminary investigation into its mode of action. Thromboelastography® showed no effect on coagulation but pointed instead to changes in fibrinogen concentration. We measured functional fibrinogen in whole blood after addition of gallium nitrate and nitric acid. We found that gallium nitrate induces fibrinogen precipitation in whole blood to a significantly higher degree than solutions of nitric acid alone. This precipitate is not primarily pH driven, and appears to occur via flocculation. This behavior is in line with the generally observed ability of metals to induce fibrinogen precipitation. Further investigation is required into this novel phenomenon.

  4. Up to date concepts about Von Willebrand disease and the diagnose of this hemostatic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Buga-Corbu, I; Arion, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The authors review the current data in literature regarding the recent knowledge about hemostase, coagulation and clinical and laboratory diagnostic algorithms of hemostatic disorders. They also present the pathological classification of bleeding disorders - the basis to clinical approach of these diseases. Abbreviations: AD=autosomal dominant; Ag=antigen; DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid; ADAMTS13=serum metalloproteinase; AR=autosomal recessive; Arg=arginine; RNA=ribonucleic acid; VWD=von Willebrand disease; Cys=cysteine; C1—C9=factors of the seric complement; ELISA=enzyme linked immuno assay; FI---FXIII=plasmatic factors of coagulation; Glu=glutamines; Pg=platelet glycoprotein; HMW=high molecular weight; IL=interleukin; SLE=systemic lupus erythematosus; Met=methionine; PFA=automated study test of platelets aggregation; RCo=ristocetin cofactor; RI PA=ristocetin induced platelet aggregation; Tyr=tyrosine; VWF= von Willebrand factor PMID:25408749

  5. Hemostatic analysis of a 13 year old with antiphospholipid syndrome and restrictive pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Steenwyk, Brad L; Burch, Thomas M; King, Colin K; McGiffin, David C

    2007-10-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune thrombophilic disorder that is uncommon in adults and remarkably rare in children. Thrombotic etiological factors are variable in antiphospholipid syndrome, including antibody-antigen complex-mediated platelet activation, inhibition of anticoagulants, or attenuation of fibrinolysis. We present the case of a child with antiphospholipid syndrome presenting with syncope, constrictive pericarditis and hepatic enlargement that was found to have platelet-mediated hypercoagulability and marked clot lysis via thrombelastography in the preoperative period. Restoration of circulation following pericardectomy and inotropic support was associated with attenuation of hypercoagulability and fibrinolysis. It is concluded that the etiological factors responsible for antiphospholipid syndrome-mediated hemostatic abnormalities and the probable effects of hepatic hypoperfusion on clot lysis in this patient were detected with thrombelastography, and similar thrombelastographic analyses are recommended to compliment standard coagulation assessments of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

  6. Effect of hemostatic agents on properties of gelatin-alginate soft tissue adhesives.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Oded; Zilberman, Meital

    2014-01-01

    Lacerations and traumatic wounds are considered to be among the most prevalent scenarios encountered in hospitals and emergency rooms. Reattachment of the lacerated soft tissue edges is traditionally performed using sutures. Use of tissue adhesives, i.e. substances that have the ability to firmly attach lacerated tissues back together, has raised interest as an alternative, due to several advantages. Novel tissue adhesives based on the natural polymers gelatin and alginate, and cross-linked by carbodiimide (EDC), were recently developed by our research group. In the current research, two types of hemostatic agents, tranexamic acid and kaolin, were loaded into our gelatin-alginate bioadhesive, in order to improve the adhesion abilities in the hemorrhagic environment of the wound. Their effects on the ex vivo adherence properties, physical properties, and biocompatibility were investigated. Incorporation of kaolin significantly improved the ex vivo bonding strength of the gelatin-alginate-EDC bioadhesives through a combination of three physical mechanisms and decreased the swelling ratio without affecting weight loss. In contradiction, incorporation of tranexamic acid into the bioadhesive formulation resulted in a lower ex vivo bonding strength and a higher swelling ratio and weight loss, probably due to reduced efficiency of the cross-linking reaction between the molecules of the natural polymers and the cross-linking agent EDC. The hemostatic agent-loaded bioadhesives showed good biocompatibility when tested in vitro on fibroblast cells. This research clearly shows that the incorporation of kaolin in our gelatin-alginate tissue adhesives may be a very promising novel approach for improving the bonding strength and physical properties of the tissue adhesives for use in hemorrhagic environments.

  7. A shape memory foam composite with enhanced fluid uptake and bactericidal properties as a hemostatic agent.

    PubMed

    Landsman, T L; Touchet, T; Hasan, S M; Smith, C; Russell, B; Rivera, J; Maitland, D J; Cosgriff-Hernandez, E

    2017-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage accounts for more than 30% of trauma deaths worldwide. Current hemostatic devices focus primarily on time to hemostasis, but prevention of bacterial infection is also critical for improving survival rates. In this study, we sought to improve on current devices used for hemorrhage control by combining the large volume-filling capabilities and rapid clotting of shape memory polymer (SMP) foams with the swelling capacity of hydrogels. In addition, a hydrogel composition was selected that readily complexes with elemental iodine to impart bactericidal properties to the device. The focus of this work was to verify that the advantages of each respective material (SMP foam and hydrogel) are retained when combined in a composite device. The iodine-doped hydrogel demonstrated an 80% reduction in bacteria viability when cultured with a high bioburden of Staphylococcus aureus. Hydrogel coating of the SMP foam increased fluid uptake by 19× over the uncoated SMP foam. The composite device retained the shape memory behavior of the foam with more than 15× volume expansion after being submerged in 37°C water for 15 min. Finally, the expansion force of the composite was tested to assess potential tissue damage within the wound during device expansion. Expansion forces did not exceed 0.6N, making tissue damage during device expansion unlikely, even when the expanded device diameter is substantially larger than the target wound site. Overall, the enhanced fluid uptake and bactericidal properties of the shape memory foam composite indicate its strong potential as a hemostatic agent to treat non-compressible wounds.

  8. TAPE: A Biodegradable Hemostatic Glue Inspired by a Ubiquitous Compound in Plants for Surgical Application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keumyeon; Lee, Haeshin; Hong, Seonki

    2016-06-08

    This video describes the simplest protocol for preparing biodegradable surgical glue that has an effective hemostatic ability and greater water-resistant adhesion strength than commercial tissue adhesives. Medical adhesives have attracted great attention as potential alternative tools to sutures and staples due to their convenience in usage with minimal invasiveness. Although there are several protocols for developing tissue adhesives including those commercially available such as fibrin glues and cyanoacrylate-based materials, mostly they require a series of chemical syntheses of organic molecules, or complicated protein-purification methods, in the case of bio-driven materials (i.e., fibrin glue). Also, the development of surgical glues exhibiting high adhesive properties while maintaining biodegradability is still a challenge due to difficulties in achieving good performance in the wet environment of the body. We illustrate a new method to prepare a medical glue, known as TAPE, by the weight-based separation of a water-immiscible supramolecular aggregate formed after a physical mixing of a plant-derived, wet-resistant adhesive molecule, Tannic Acid (TA), and a well-known biopolymer, Poly(Ethylene) glycol (PEG). With our approach, TAPE shows high adhesion strength, which is 2.5-fold more than commercial fibrin glue in the presence of water. Furthermore, TAPE is biodegradable in physiological conditions and can be used as a potent hemostatic glue against tissue bleeding. We expect the widespread use of TAPE in a variety of medical settings and drug delivery applications, such as polymers for muco-adhesion, drug depots, and others.

  9. Exercise-induced hemostatic alterations are detectable by rotation thrombelastography (ROTEM): A marathon study.

    PubMed

    Sucker, Christoph; Zotz, Rainer B; Senft, Beate; Scharf, Rudiger E; Kröger, Knut; Erbel, Raimund; Möhlenkamp, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Rotation thrombelastography (ROTEM) provides a whole blood assay that allows the assessment of plasmic- and platelet-related hemostasis in a single-step procedure. In our current study, we focused on the capability of the method to detect hemostatic alterations induced by physical exercise, enrolling 33 healthy participants of the Dusseldorf Marathon 2006. Venous blood drawn immediately before and after finishing the marathon was analyzed by a rotational thrombelastograph (Pentapharm, Munich, Germany). On initiation of blood coagulation by recalcification, standard ROTEM parameters were determined. Comparison of the results obtained before and after the physical exercise was performed using the Student t test for paired samples. As a result, the mean clotting time (CT) determined from blood samples obtained immediately after the marathon was significantly shorter (662.9 + or - 67.8 seconds vs 505.6 + or - 97.3 seconds, P = .002) and the mean maximal clot firmness was significantly broader (48.4 +/- 6.6 mm vs 51.5 +/- 4.5 mm, P = .0004) when compared to results obtained before the physical exercise. Differences between mean clot formation times (CFTs; 280.6 + 96 seconds vs 270.4 + or - 73.8 seconds) and mean alpha angles (45.9 degrees + or - 8 degrees vs 47.8 degrees + or - 5.8 degrees ) before and after the marathon were not statistically significant. Remarkably, some participants showed opposed results, particularly prolongation of CT and narrowing of maximum clot firmness (MCF). Our study demonstrates that ROTEM is sensitive to exercise-induced hemostatic alterations. The method appears to be capable of detecting even distinct changes in hemostasis in a single-step procedure. Further analyses are needed to clarify which hemostasis parameters influence ROTEM results and which ROTEM results are independent predictors of exercise-induced alterations of plasmic and platelet function. This might help to explain interindividual differences in exercise

  10. Preparation of porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) superabsorbent by solvent precipitation and its application as a hemostatic wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Fengju; Meng, Weiwei; Yang, Xinlin; Li, Peng; Jiang, Jianxin; Tan, Huimin; Zheng, Yongfa

    2016-06-01

    The volume phase transition of a hydrogel initiated by shrinking may result in complex patterns on its surface. Based on this unique property of hydrogel, we have developed a novel solvent precipitation method to prepare a kind of novel superabsorbent polymers with excellent hemostatic properties. A porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) (CMCTS-g-PAA) superabsorbent polymer was prepared by precipitating CMCTS-g-PAA hydrogel with ethanol. Its potential application in hemostatic wound dressing was investigated. The results indicate that the modified superabsorbent polymer is non-cytotoxic. It showed a high swelling capacity and better hemostatic performance in the treatments of hemorrhage model of ear artery, arteria cruralis and spleen of the New Zealand white rabbit than the unmodified polymer and other commonly used clinic wound dressings. The hemostatic mechanism of the porous CMCTS-g-PAA polymer was also discussed.

  11. Risk factors associated with hepatitis B or C markers or elevated alanine aminotransferase level among blood donors on a tropical island: the Guadeloupe experience.

    PubMed

    Fest, T; Viel, J F; Agis, F; Coffe, C; Dupond, J L; Hervé, P

    1992-10-01

    Donated blood is currently screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to prevent posttransfusion hepatitis. A prospective study of 2368 blood donors was carried out in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) with a view to determining the risk factors associated with serologic abnormalities. Blood donors included in the study had to complete a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed on the data thus obtained: 571 donations (24%) were positive for at least one of the four analyzed markers. The results were that 3.2 percent were positive for HBsAg, 22 percent for anti-HBc, and 0.8 percent for anti-HCV, and 1.4 percent had ALT > or = 45 IU per L. A good correlation was found between anti-HCV and elevated ALT. Transfusion history and two socioeconomic categories (working class, military personnel) were found to be risk factors. Other risk factors were lifelong residence in Guadeloupe (with risk increasing with the number of years), birthplace and current residence in the southern part of the island, and the existence of gastrointestinal discomfort unrelated to viral hepatitis (odds ratio = 2.98). The results of this study illustrate the difficulty of implementing a preventive policy against posttransfusion hepatitis in a tropical area. The unique epidemiologic situation of Guadeloupe as regards hepatitis B virus has led to more restrictive criteria for the acceptance of blood donors.

  12. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watrud, L.S.; Lee, E.H.; Fairbrother, A.; Burdick, C.; Reichman, J.R.; Bollman, M.; Storm, M.; King, G.; Van De Water, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    Sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. This study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), one of the first wind-pollinated, perennial, and highly outcrossing transgenic crops being developed for commercial use. Most of the gene flow occurred within 2 km in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximal gene flow distances observed were 21 km and 14 km in sentinel and resident plants, respectively, that were located in primarily nonagronomic habitats. The selectable marker used in these studies was the CP4 EPSPS gene derived from Agrobacterium spp. strain CP4 that encodes 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and confers resistance to glyphosate herbicide. Evidence for gene flow to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident Agrostis plants was based on seedling progeny survival after spraying with glyphosate in greenhouse assays and positive TraitChek, PCR, and sequencing results. Additional studies are needed to determine whether introgression will occur and whether it will affect the ecological fitness of progeny or the structure of plant communities in which transgenic progeny may become established.

  13. pH level as a marker for predicting death among patients with Vibrio vulnificus infection, South Korea, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Dong-Min; Lee, Jun; Han, Mi Ah

    2015-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infection can progress to necrotizing fasciitis and death. To improve the likelihood of patient survival, an early prognosis of patient outcome is clinically important for emergency/trauma department doctors. To identify an accurate and simple predictor for death among V. vulnificus-infected persons, we reviewed clinical data for 34 patients at a hospital in South Korea during 2000-2011; of the patients, 16 (47%) died and 18 (53%) survived. For nonsurvivors, median time from hospital admission to death was 15 h (range 4-70). For predicting death, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and initial pH were 0.746 and 0.972, respectively (p = 0.005). An optimal cutoff pH of <7.35 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 83%. Compared with the APACHE II score, the initial arterial blood pH level in V. vulnificus-infected patients was a more accurate predictive marker for death.

  14. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker.

    PubMed

    Watrud, Lidia S; Lee, E Henry; Fairbrother, Anne; Burdick, Connie; Reichman, Jay R; Bollman, Mike; Storm, Marjorie; King, George; Van de Water, Peter K

    2004-10-05

    Sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. This study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), one of the first wind-pollinated, perennial, and highly outcrossing transgenic crops being developed for commercial use. Most of the gene flow occurred within 2 km in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximal gene flow distances observed were 21 km and 14 km in sentinel and resident plants, respectively, that were located in primarily nonagronomic habitats. The selectable marker used in these studies was the CP4 EPSPS gene derived from Agrobacterium spp. strain CP4 that encodes 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and confers resistance to glyphosate herbicide. Evidence for gene flow to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident Agrostis plants was based on seedling progeny survival after spraying with glyphosate in greenhouse assays and positive TraitChek, PCR, and sequencing results. Additional studies are needed to determine whether introgression will occur and whether it will affect the ecological fitness of progeny or the structure of plant communities in which transgenic progeny may become established.

  15. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker

    PubMed Central

    Watrud, Lidia S.; Lee, E. Henry; Fairbrother, Anne; Burdick, Connie; Reichman, Jay R.; Bollman, Mike; Storm, Marjorie; King, George; Van de Water, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    Sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. This study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), one of the first wind-pollinated, perennial, and highly outcrossing transgenic crops being developed for commercial use. Most of the gene flow occurred within 2 km in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximal gene flow distances observed were 21 km and 14 km in sentinel and resident plants, respectively, that were located in primarily nonagronomic habitats. The selectable marker used in these studies was the CP4 EPSPS gene derived from Agrobacterium spp. strain CP4 that encodes 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and confers resistance to glyphosate herbicide. Evidence for gene flow to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident Agrostis plants was based on seedling progeny survival after spraying with glyphosate in greenhouse assays and positive TraitChek, PCR, and sequencing results. Additional studies are needed to determine whether introgression will occur and whether it will affect the ecological fitness of progeny or the structure of plant communities in which transgenic progeny may become established. PMID:15448206

  16. Relationship of periodontal infection to serum antibody levels to periodontopathic bacteria and inflammatory markers in periodontitis patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Honda, T; Domon, H; Okui, T; Kajita, K; Amanuma, R; Kudoh, C; Takashiba, S; Kokeguchi, S; Nishimura, F; Kodama, M; Aizawa, Y; Oda, H

    2007-09-01

    Several reports have demonstrated a possible association of periodontal infections with coronary heart disease (CHD) by elevated antibody titre to periodontopathic bacteria in CHD patients compared with non-diseased controls. Although each periodontopathic bacterium may vary in virulence for periodontitis and atherosclerosis, antibody response to multiple bacteria in CHD patients has not been understood fully. Therefore, serum levels of antibody to 12 periodontopathic bacteria together with other atherosclerotic risk markers were compared among 51 patients with CHD, 55 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals. The antibody response was the most prevalent for Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major causative organism, in CHD as well as periodontitis patients. However, antibody positivity was different between CHD and periodontitis if the response was analysed for two different strains of P. gingivalis, namely FDC381 and Su63. While periodontitis patients were positive for both P. gingivalis FDC381 and Su63, a high frequency of antibody positivity for P. gingivalis Su63 but not for FDC381 was observed in CHD patients. The results indicate that the presence of particular periodontopathic bacteria with high virulence may affect atherogenesis. Identifying the virulence factors of P. gingivalis Su63 may gain insight into the new therapeutic modality for infection-induced deterioration of atherosclerosis.

  17. The levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in individuals occupationally exposed to municipal solid waste in Ogun State, South West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ebesunu, Maria O; Ekor, Martins

    2013-10-01

    Airway inflammation and related respiratory complaints are common symptoms among waste management workers (WMWs). This study investigated the relationship between exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) and the levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress among WMW of Ogun State, South West Nigeria. A total of 280 subjects consisting of 180 WMW and 100 controls were recruited. Ten millilitres of blood were collected from antecubital vein of the subjects for analysis. Results reveal that exposure to MSW is associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Significant (p < 0.001) elevation of ceruloplasmin (Cp) and C-reactive protein was associated with marked decreases in superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01), catalase (p < 0.001), and glutathione (p < 0.05) and significant (p < 0.001) increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and uric acid when compared with control. Haematological disorders include significant (p < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular volume and significant (p < 0.01) increase in total leucocyte count. Apart from decreased albumin (p < 0.05) and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.05) activity observed in WMW, other markers of hepatic (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol and triglycerides) and renal (urea and creatinine) functions did not change significantly (p > 0.05) when compared with the control. A positive correlation between leucocytes (r = 0.195, p < 0.01), Cp (r = 0.210, p < 0.01) and job duration and between Cp and MDA (r = 0.200, p < 0.01) and Cp and leucocytes (r = 0.260, p < 0.001) were observed in WMW. Overall, exposure to MSW predisposes to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and Cp may be a useful biomarker for monitoring health status of Nigerian WMWs.

  18. Differential effects of isoflurane and CO2 inhalation on plasma levels of inflammatory markers associated with collagen-induced arthritis in DBA mice.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, Christopher C; Lucas, Edralin A; Clarke, Stephen L; Smith, Brenda J; Kuvibidila, Solo

    2009-07-01

    Inhalation of CO2 or isoflurane is a commonly used method of euthanasia with mice, but information related to their effects on serum inflammatory markers in chronic models of inflammation is limited. In the current study, nineteen-week old DBA female mice with (n = 53) or without (n = 51) collagen-induced arthritis were randomly assigned to euthanization with CO2 (n = 55) or isoflurane (n = 49. Plasma was collected for the measurement of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by ELISA. When mice without and with collagen-induced arthritis were pooled, compared to CO2, administration of isoflurane was associated with lower production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha (pg/ml, mean +/- SEM) (26.1 +/- 2.82 versus 48.1 +/- 7.99) and IL-6 (25.18 +/- 2.73 versus 48.1 +/- 6.82) (ANOVA, p < 0.05). In contrast to TNF-alpha and IL-6, administration of CO2 decreased the plasma sICAM-1 level (1170+/- 50 versus 758 +/- 24 for CO2) (p < 0.00001). When data were analyzed as a function of collagen-induced arthritis, the differences between CO2 and isoflurane persisted. Low plasma sICAM-1 levels found in CO2 euthanasia group may be due to degradation. Since mice are the most common animal model for studying inflammation, researchers should be aware of these iatrogenic experimental variables before interpreting their data.

  19. Effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm) on markers of muscle damage: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Felismino, Amanda Soares; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Araújo Moura Lemos, Telma Maria; de Brito Vieira, Wouber Hérickson

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK) and strength performance) in the biceps brachii. Twenty-two physically active men were randomized into two groups: placebo and laser. All volunteers were submitted to an exercise-induced muscle damage protocol for biceps brachii (biceps curl, 10 sets of 10 repetitions with load of 50% of one-repetition maximum test (1RM)). Active LLLT (808 nm; 100 mW; 35.7 W/cm(2), 357.14 J/cm(2) per point, energy of 1 J per point applied for 10 s on four points of the biceps brachii belly of each arm) or placebo was applied between the sets of the biceps curl exercise. CK activity and maximum strength performance (1RM) were measured before, immediately after, 24, 48, and 72 h after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol. There was an increase in CK activity after the muscle damage protocol in both groups; however, this increase was attenuated in the laser group compared to the placebo group at 72 h (placebo = 841 vs. laser = 357%; p < 0.05). Maximum strength performance was decreased immediately after the muscle damage protocol in both groups (p < 0.05), but at 24, 48, and 72 h, and it returned to the baseline level in both groups. In conclusion, the LLLT attenuated CK activity 72 h after the muscle damage protocol but did not have a positive effect on the recovery of strength performance.

  20. Stent-Grafts in the Management of Hemorrhagic Complications Related to Hemostatic Closure Devices: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Giansante Abud, Daniel; Mounayer, Charbel; Saint-Maurice, Jean Pierre; Salles Rezende, Marco Tulio; Houdart, Emmanuel; Moret, Jacques

    2007-02-15

    We report 2 cases of hemorrhagic complications related to use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device that were successfully managed with stent-grafts. Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were referred to our departments for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The treatment was performed through a femoral access; the sheaths were removed immediately after the procedures, and the punctures sites closed by Angio-Seals. Both patients presented clinical signs of hypovolemic shock after treatment. The diagnosis of active bleeding through the puncture site was made by emergency digital subtraction angiography. The lesions were managed with stent-grafts. The use of stent-grafts proved to be efficient in the management of these life-threatening hemorrhagic complications following the use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device.

  1. Plasma membrane cholesterol level and agonist-induced internalization of δ-opioid receptors; colocalization study with intracellular membrane markers of Rab family.

    PubMed

    Brejchova, Jana; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Roubalova, Lenka; Parenti, Marco; Mauri, Mario; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-08-01

    Decrease of cholesterol level in plasma membrane of living HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by β-cyclodextrin (β-CDX) resulted in a slight internalization of δ-OR. Massive internalization of δ-OR induced by specific agonist DADLE was diminished in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that agonist-induced internalization of δ-OR, which has been traditionally attributed exclusively to clathrin-mediated pathway, proceeds at least partially via membrane domains. Identification of internalized pools of FLAG-δ-OR by colocalization studies with proteins of Rab family indicated the decreased presence of receptors in early endosomes (Rab5), late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7) and fast recycling vesicles (Rab4). Slow type of recycling (Rab11) was unchanged by cholesterol depletion. As expected, agonist-induced internalization of oxytocin receptors was totally suppressed in β-CDX-treated cells. Determination of average fluorescence lifetime of TMA-DPH, the polar derivative of hydrophobic membrane probe diphenylhexatriene, in live cells by FLIM indicated a significant alteration of the overall PM structure which may be interpreted as an increased "water-accessible space" within PM area. Data obtained by studies of HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by "antibody feeding" method were extended by analysis of the effect of cholesterol depletion on distribution of FLAG-δ-OR in sucrose density gradients prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing FLAG-δ-OR. Major part of FLAG-δ-OR was co-localized with plasma membrane marker Na,K-ATPase and β-CDX treatment resulted in shift of PM fragments containing both FLAG-δ-OR and Na,K-ATPase to higher density. Thus, the decrease in content of the major lipid constituent of PM resulted in increased density of resulting PM fragments.

  2. Association of markers of chronic viral hepatitis and blood mercury levels in US reproductive-age women from NHANES 2001–2008: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin primarily found in seafood; exposures in reproductive-age women are of concern due to vulnerability of the developing fetus. MeHg is mainly eliminated via an enterohepatic cycle involving the liver and gallbladder. Dysfunction in these organs has been associated with slower MeHg elimination in laboratory animals. We hypothesized that women testing positive for chronic hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV), both associated with risk of longer-term liver and gallbladder impairment, would have higher total blood mercury (TBHg) concentrations than those negative for the viruses, reflecting slower MeHg elimination. Methods Geometric mean (GM) TBHg levels from a representative sample of over 5,000 seafood-consuming, reproductive-age women from eight years (2001–2008) of the US NHANES survey were compared by viral hepatitis status (as determined by serological assay) using multiple linear regression. Adjustment was made for estimated MeHg intake from seafood consumption, social and demographic variables and other predictors. Results Women with chronic HBV had 1.52 (95% CI 1.13, 2.05, p < 0.01) times the GM TBHg of women who had not come into contact with the virus. The positive association was strongest in those with most severe disease. A modest negative association was found with HCV markers. Conclusions While study design prevents inferences on causality, the finding that MeHg biomarkers differ by hepatitis status in this population suggests viral hepatitis may alter the pace of MeHg elimination. Offspring of HBV-infected seafood-consuming women may be at higher risk of MeHg-induced developmental delays than offspring of those uninfected. Possible reasons for the unanticipated negative association with HCV are explored. PMID:22970929

  3. Nasal Polyp-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Exhibit Lack of Immune-Associated Molecules and High Levels of Stem/Progenitor Cells Markers

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Pedro Wey Barbosa; Pezato, Rogério; Agudelo, Juan Sebastian Henao; Perez-Novo, Claudina Angela; Berghe, Wim Vanden; Câmara, Niels Olsen; de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Gregorio, Luís Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered adult progenitor stem cells and have been studied in a multitude of tissues. In this context, the microenvironment of nasal polyp tissue has several inflammatory cells, but their stroma compartment remains little elucidated. Hence, we isolated MSCs from nasal polyps Polyp-MSCs (PO-MSCs) and compared their molecular features and gene expression pattern with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). Initially, both PO-MSCs and BM-MSCs were isolated, cultivated, and submitted to morphologic, differentiation, phenotypic, immunosuppressive, and gene expression assays. Compared to BM-MSCs, PO-MSCs showed normal morphology and similar osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation potential, but their immunophenotyping showed lack of immune-associated molecules (e.g., CD117, HLA-DR, PDL-1, and PDL-2), which was linked with less immunoregulatory abilities such as (i) inhibition of lymphocytes proliferation and (ii) regulatory T cell expansion. Furthermore, we detected in the PO-MSCs a distinct gene expression profile in comparison with BM-MSCs. PO-MSC expressed higher levels of progenitor stem cells specific markers (e.g., CD133 and ABCB1), while BM-MSCs showed elevated expression of cytokines and growth factors (e.g., FGF10, KDR, and GDF6). The gene ontology analysis showed that the differentially modulated genes in PO-MSC were related with matrix remodeling process and hexose and glucose transport. For BM-MSCs, the highly expressed genes were associated with behavior, angiogenesis, blood vessel morphogenesis, cell–cell signaling, and regulation of response to external stimulus. Thus, these results suggest that PO-MSCs, while sharing similar aspects with BM-MSCs, express a different profile of molecules, which presumably can be implicated in the development of nasal polyp tissue. PMID:28194153

  4. Lower levels of the glial cell marker TSPO in drug-naive first-episode psychosis patients as measured using PET and [(11)C]PBR28.

    PubMed

    Collste, K; Plavén-Sigray, P; Fatouros-Bergman, H; Victorsson, P; Schain, M; Forsberg, A; Amini, N; Aeinehband, S; Erhardt, S; Halldin, C; Flyckt, L; Farde, L; Cervenka, S

    2017-02-14

    Several lines of evidence are indicative of a role for immune activation in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and radioligands for the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker for glial activation, have yielded inconsistent results. Whereas early studies using a radioligand with low signal-to-noise in small samples showed increases in patients, more recent studies with improved methodology have shown no differences or trend-level decreases. Importantly, all patients investigated thus far have been on antipsychotic medication, and as these compounds may dampen immune cell activity, this factor limits the conclusions that can be drawn. Here, we examined 16 drug-naive, first-episode psychosis patients and 16 healthy controls using PET and the TSPO radioligand [(11)C]PBR28. Gray matter (GM) volume of distribution (VT) derived from a two-tissue compartmental analysis with arterial input function was the main outcome measure. Statistical analyses were performed controlling for both TSPO genotype, which is known to affect [(11)C]PBR28 binding, and gender. There was a significant reduction of [(11)C]PBR28 VT in patients compared with healthy controls in GM as well as in secondary regions of interest. No correlation was observed between GM VT and clinical or cognitive measures after correction for multiple comparisons. The observed decrease in TSPO binding suggests reduced numbers or altered function of immune cells in brain in early-stage schizophrenia.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 14 February 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.247.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of fast-swelling porous superabsorbent hydrogel based on starch as a hemostatic agent.

    PubMed

    Mirzakhanian, Zeinab; Faghihi, Khalil; Barati, Abolfazl; Momeni, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    The body can't control massive bleeding without treatment. Different hemostatic agents have been prepared recently, but most of them are ineffective in severe bleeding and expensive or cause safety concerns. In this study, in order to achieve fast control of bleeding, we synthesized and characterized fast-swelling porous superabsorbent hydrogel (FSPSH) and investigated its use as a hemostatic agent. The FSPSH was prepared by grafting acrylic acid and acrylamide onto starch through free-radical polymerization in aqueous solution. The FSPSH was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and thermogravimetric analysis. Then, temporal swelling behavior and coagulation time experiments were used to predict the in vivo behavior of the FSPSH. The hemocompatibility of synthesized FSPSH was evaluated by hemolysis test and blood cells function. In vivo study using femoral artery injury in rat demonstrated the FSPSH's ability to aid in rapid hemostasis. Furthermore, monitoring the rat on first and seventh day after femoral artery injury also showed no harmful effect. This study indicates that FSPSH adsorbs fluid and swells, thus forms a physical barrier to blood loss. FSPSH, moreover, as hemostat is simple to use, lightweight, stable, and harmless.

  6. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  7. Effects of time-of-day on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, biochemical markers, and hormonal response following level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test.

    PubMed

    Aloui, K; Abedelmalek, S; Chtourou, H; Wong, D P; Boussetta, N; Souissi, N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of time-of-day on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, muscle damage parameters, and hormonal responses following the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT). A total of 11 healthy subjects performed an intermittent test (YYIRT) at two times-of-day (i.e., 07:00 h and 17:00 h), with a recovery period of ≥36 h in-between, in a randomized order. Blood samples were taken at the rest (baseline) and immediately (post-YYIRT) after the YYIRT for measuring oxidative stress, biochemical markers, and hormonal response. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way and two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni test at p < 0.05. Observed power (α = 0.05) and partial eta-squared were used. Our results showed that oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal aerobic speed, and the total distance covered tended to be higher in the evening (17:00 h). There was also a main effect of time-of-day for cortisol and testosterone concentration, which were higher after the YYIRT in the morning (p < 0.05). The heart rate peak and the rating of perceived exertion scales were lower in the morning (p < 0.05). However, the plasma glucose (p < 0.01), malondialdehyde, creatine kinase (p < 0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05), high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.01), total cholesterol (p < 0.01), and triglycerides (p < 0.05) were higher after the YYIRT in the evening. Low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lactate levels (p > 0.05) were similar for the morning and evening test. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aerobic performance presents diurnal variation with great result observed in the evening accompanied by an improvement of hormonal, metabolic, and oxidative responses. These data may help to guide athletes and coaches and contribute to public health recommendations on exercise and muscle damage particularly in the competitive periods.

  8. Circannual rhythm of plasmatic vitamin D levels and the association with markers of psychophysical stress in a cohort of Italian professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Vitale, Jacopo Antonino; Logoluso, Sergio; Logoluso, Giovanni; Cocco, Nino; Cocco, Giulio; Cocco, Antonino; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-03-17

    Adequate plasmatic Vitamin D levels are crucial to maintain calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism both in the general population and in athletes. Correct dietary supply and a regular sun exposure are fundamental for allowing the desired and effective fitness level. Past studies highlighted a scenario of Vitamin D insufficiency among professional soccer players in several countries, especially in North Europe, whilst a real deficiency in athletes is rare. The typical seasonal fluctuations of Vitamin D are wrongly described transversally in athletes belonging to teams that play at different latitudes and a chronobiologic approach studying the Vitamin D circannual rhythm in soccer players has not been described yet. Therefore, we studied plasma vitamin D, cortisol, testosterone, and creatin kinase (CK) concentrations in three different Italian professional teams training at the same latitude during a period of two consecutive competitive seasons (2013 and 2014). In this retrospective observational study, 167 professional soccer players were recruited (mean age at sampling 25.1 ± 4.7 years) and a total of 667 blood drawings were carried out to determine plasma 25(OH)D, serum cortisol, serum testosterone and CK levels. Testosterone to cortisol ratio (TC) was calculated based as a surrogate marker of overtraining and psychophysical stress and each athlete was drawn until a maximum of 5 times per season. Data extracted by a subgroup of players that underwent at least 4 sample drawings along a year (N = 45) were processed with the single and population mean cosinor tests to evaluate the presence of circannual rhythms: the amplitude (A), acrophase (Φ) and the MESOR (M) are described. In total, 55 players (32.9%) had an insufficient level of 25(OH)D during the seasons and other 15 athletes (9.0%) showed, at least once, a deficiency status of Vitamin D. The rhythmometric analyses applied to the data of Vitamin D revealed the presence of a significant circannual rhythm (p

  9. The effect of three hemostatic agents on early bone healing in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Resorbable bone hemostasis materials, oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC) and microfibrillar collagen (MFC), remain at the site of application for up to 8 weeks and may impair osteogenesis. Our experimental study compared the effect of a water-soluble alkylene oxide copolymer (AOC) to ORC and MFC versus no hemostatic material on early bone healing. Methods Two circular 2.7 mm non-critical defects were made in each tibia of 12 rabbits. Sufficient AOC, ORC or MFC was applied to achieve hemostasis, and effectiveness recorded. An autologous blood clot was applied to control defects. Rabbits were sacrificed at 17 days, tibiae excised and fixed. Bone healing was quantitatively measured by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) expressed as fractional bone volume, and qualitatively assessed by histological examination of decalcified sections. Results Hemostasis was immediate after application of MFC and AOC, after 1-2 minutes with ORC, and >5 minutes for control. At 17 days post-surgery, micro-CT analysis showed near-complete healing in control and AOC groups, partial healing in the ORC group and minimal healing in the MFC group. Fractional bone volume was 8 fold greater in the control and AOC groups than in the MFC group (0.42 ± 0.06, 0.40 ± 0.03 vs 0.05 ± 0.01, P < 0.001) and over 1.5-fold greater than in the ORC group (0.25 ± 0.03, P < 0.05). By histology, MFC remained at the application site with minimal healing at the defect margins and early fibrotic tissue within the defect. ORC-treated defects showed partial healing but with early fibrotic tissue in the marrow space. Conversely, control and AOC-treated defects demonstrated newly formed woven bone rich in cellular activity with no evidence of AOC remaining at the application site. Conclusions Early healing appeared to be impaired by the presence of MFC and impeded by the presence of ORC. In contrast, AOC did not inhibit bone healing and suggest that AOC may be a better bone hemostatic material for

  10. Comparison of topical hemostatic agents in elective hepatic resection: a clinical prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kohno, H; Nagasue, N; Chang, Y C; Taniura, H; Yamanoi, A; Nakamura, T

    1992-01-01

    To compare the difference in efficacy of microcrystalline collagen powder (CL) and fibrin glue (FG) in elective hepatic resection, 62 patients (female 14, male 48) with ages ranging from 51 to 75 years were randomly allocated to receive either CL or FG as a topical agent during hepatectomy. There were no significant differences between the patients treated with CL (n = 31) and those treated with FG (n = 31) regarding sex, age, liver function, coagulation function, platelet counts, type of liver resection, and operative duration. A dry cut surface of the liver was obtained during surgery in 27 (87%) patients and 25 (81%) patients treated with CL and FG, respectively. Both CL and FG showed similar hemostatic effects. The CL and FG groups were not different in terms of postoperative rebleeding, bile leakage, or morbidity and mortality rates (6% vs. 6%, 6% vs. 6%, 45% vs. 39%, and 13% vs. 10%, respectively). Of the 52 patients with a dry cut surface of the liver during surgery, 3 patients in the CL group encountered rebleeding (n = 1) or bile leakage (n = 2) from the cut surface postoperatively, while no such complications were noted in the FG group. The results seem to favor FG for reliability in the postoperative period. The application of CL or FG may be better performed with consideration of the characteristics of each agent.

  11. Screening for hemostatic activities of popular Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ohkura, Naoki; Yokouchi, Haruna; Mimura, Mariyo; Nakamura, Riki; Atsumi, Gen-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to identify new hemostyptics by assessing the coagulation enhancing activity of 114 Chinese herbal extracts in vitro. Methods: Herbs were boiled in water for 30 min, filtered and then lyophilized filtrates (10 mg/mL) were dissolved in water. Coagulation was assayed as prothrombin time (PT). Plasma diluted in saline was incubated with each extract for 5 min and then PT reagent was added, followed by CaCl2 solution and the time taken to form clots was measured. Extracts that decreased coagulation time were regarded as containing active compounds. The abilities of extracts to activate Factor XII were assessed and the activated form of factor XII (XIIa) was resolved by SDS-PAGE and visualized by silver staining. Results: Coagulation time was obviously shortened by extracts of Alpinia Rhizome, Areca, Artemisia Leaf, Cassia Bark, Danshen Root, Ephedra Herb, Epimedium Herb, Forsythia Fruit, Great Burdock Achene, Moutan Bark, Perilla Herb, Red Paeony Root, Schizonepeta Spike, Senticosus Rhizome, Sweet Annie, Uncaria Thorn and Zanthoxylum Peel. Factor XII was obviously activated by extracts of Artemisia Leaf and Great Burdock Achene, and slightly by Perilla herb. Conclusion: Some popular Chinese medicinal herbs have potential as hemostatic agents and could thus be develope as new strategies for the treatment and prevention of bleeding. PMID:26401379

  12. A combined approach to early detect in vitro drug-induced hemostatic changes in preclinical safety.

    PubMed

    Defontis, Myriam; Côté, Serge; Ledieu, David

    2017-02-09

    Early detection of drug-induced alterations of hemostasis is challenging. Drugs can affect different components of the Virchow's triad and measurement of plasmatic coagulation times lacks sensitivity. New techniques for a more global assessment of the hemostasis are now available: the impedance platelet aggregometry, the thromboelastography and the thrombin generation measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate three techniques (i.e.: Multiplate(®), TEG(®) and CAT) for the in vitro detection of the effect of a drug known to induce hemostatic alterations in a preclinical safety environment. Cyclosporine A was chosen and tested at 4 concentrations after solubilization in DMSO in Wistar rats and Beagle dogs. The results obtained were comparable between both species except for the thrombin generation in platelet rich plasma. Enhanced platelet aggregability was observed after ADP stimulation and alterations of the thromboelastograms consisted in decreased maximum amplitude and increased LY30. A dual effect on thrombin generation was observed and suggested that CsA may interact with platelets in rat platelet rich plasma and speed up thrombin generation. The results of this study indicate that using a combined approach on hemostasis testing in preclinical safety it is possible to detect in vitro drug-induced alterations of hemostasis.

  13. Qualitative/Chemical Analyses of Ankaferd Hemostat and Its Antioxidant Content in Synthetic Gastric Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Koluman, Ahmet; Akar, Nejat; Malkan, Umit Y.; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Ankaferd hemostat (ABS) is the first topical haemostatic agent involving the red blood cell-fibrinogen interactions. The antihemorrhagic efficacy of ABS has been tested in controlled clinical trials. The drug induces the formation of an encapsulated complex protein web with vital erythroid aggregation. The aim of this study is to detect the essential toxicity profile and the antioxidant molecules inside ABS. Methods. The pesticides were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS. The determination by ICP-MS after pressure digestion was performed for the heavy metals. HPLC was used for the detection of mycotoxins. Dioxin Response Chemically Activated Luciferase Gene Expression method was used for the dioxin evaluation. TOF-MS and spectra data were evaluated to detect the antioxidants and other molecules. Results. TOF-MS spectra revealed the presence of several antioxidant molecules (including tocotrienols, vitamin E, tryptophan, estriol, galangin, apigenin, oenin, 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran, TBHQ, thymol, BHA, BHT, lycopene, glycyrrhetinic acid, and tomatine), which may have clinical implications in the pharmacobiological actions of ABS. Conclusion. The safety of ABS regarding the presence of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, GMO and dioxins, and PCBs was demonstrated. Thus the present toxicological results indicated the safety of ABS. The antioxidant content of ABS should be investigated in future studies. PMID:26925418

  14. STRUCTURAL BASIS OF THE VASCULAR HEMOSTATIC MECHANISM IN THE UTERINE CERVIX.

    PubMed

    Prokopchook-Lyckbäck, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the angioarchitectonics and the functional morphology of the vessels of the cervix and to clarify the role of structural features of these vessels in preventing hemorrhaging in parturition during cervical dilatation. Cervixes uteri were obtained from corpses of 30 women of various ages and 5 ablated at labor. Series of histotopographical specimens of the cervixes were processed using histological and histochemical methods. Peculiar features of the angioarchitectonics, histotopography and structure of cervical vessels were encountered. Arteries penetrating the cervix are surrounded by tight muffs of anastomizing veins that are closely adjacent to the arteries. In other cases, the arteries are located within the lumen of veins--"vessels within vessels". Cervical arteries make up subendocervical convolutions. During pregnancy, smooth muscle "cushions" develop in the vessels. The cervix is pierced by a network of veins that divide the cervical tissue into separate stromal "lobules". This peculiar vascular architecture might be important structural basis of the vascular hemostatic mechanism in the neck of the uterus triggered by labor. It prevents vessel rupture, hemorrhaging and amniotic fluid and air embolism during cervical dilatation. The venous network that passes through the cervix makes it easy for the separate stromal "lobules" of the cervix to move relative to each other during cervical dilatation.

  15. Comparison of the effect of homocysteine in the reduced form, its thiolactone and protein homocysteinylation on hemostatic properties of plasma.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Joanna; Nowak, Paweł; Olas, Beata

    2011-03-01

    Mechanisms involved in the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and hemostatic process are still unclear. In the literature there are few papers describing studies on the effects of homocysteine (Hcys) on proteins that participate in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in human. The aim of our study was to establish and compare the influence of a reduced form of Hcys (at final doses of 0.01 - 1 mM) and the most reactive form of Hcys - its cyclic thioester, homocysteine thiolactone (HTL, 0.1 - 1 μM) on the clot formation (using whole human plasma and purified fibrinogen) and the fibrin lysis. Moreover, the aim of our study was to explain the effect of plasma protein modifications (S- and N-homocysteinylation) on selected parameters of hemostasis. We observed that HTL, like its precursor, a reduced form of Hcys stimulated polymerization of fibrinogen, but this process was not dose-dependent. In the presence of HTL (at the lowest tested concentration - 0.1μM) the increase was about 55%. Our present results also demonstrated that Hcys in the reduced form (0.01 - 1 mM) and HTL at lower doses than Hcys (0.1 - 1 μM) reduced the fibrin lysis in whole human plasma. Our results reported that HTL, like the reduced form of Hcys (at concentrations corresponding to concentrations in plasma during hyperhomocysteinemia) induced modifications of hemostatic plasma proteins, and the consequence of these modifications may be alteration in protein structure associated with changes of hemostatic functions.

  16. Inflammatory and hemostatic responses to repeated mental stress: individual stability and habituation over time.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Gibson, E Leigh; Vuononvirta, Raisa; Williams, Emily; Steptoe, Andrew

    2006-09-01

    An important assumption underlying psychobiological studies relating stress reactivity with disease risk is that individuals are characterized by stable response profiles that can be reliably assessed using acute psychophysiological stress testing. Previous research has mainly focused on the stability of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and cellular immune responses to repeated stressors, and less attention has been given to inflammatory and platelet responses. We therefore examined both average stability and individual test-retest stability of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, hemostatic, inflammatory, and subjective responses to mental stress over two repeated stress sessions, four weeks apart. Ninety-one healthy, non-smoking men (mean age 33.2 years) completed a 3-min speech task followed by a 5-min mirror tracing task on two separate occasions. Blood samples were taken at baseline and 10 min after the stress tasks while cardiovascular activity, saliva samples, and subjective ratings were measured repeatedly. There was significant cardiovascular and cortisol activation to the stressors and stress-induced increases in plasma C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor antigen, and platelet activation indexed by leukocyte-platelet aggregates. The magnitude of stress responses did not differ between sessions in any variable. Significant test-retest correlations between sessions were observed for baseline and stress values of all variables (r=0.47-0.74, p<.001), but reactivity (change scores) for C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor, cortisol, and platelet activation were not significantly correlated. Our results demonstrate that the stress-induced responses did not habituate between sessions, though the small magnitude of acute inflammatory, cortisol, and platelet responses limits the test-retest reliability of stress reactivity assessments.

  17. Hemostatic disorders of the menopausal period: the role of microRNA

    PubMed Central

    Zając, Agnieszka; Nowak, Marek; Stetkiewicz, Tomasz; Wilczyński, Jacek R.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse changes in hemostasis of menopausal women, observed e.g. in atherosclerotic or neoplastic cases, are of multicausal origin. It is believed that in the development and regulation of these processes, an important role is played by microRNA particles, which presence is ascertained in endothelial cells, atherosclerotic plaques and systemic circulation. Discovered for the first time over 20 years ago, up to now over two and a half thousand types of microRNA have been identified in the human body. MicroRNAs are single stranded RNA molecules of 20-24 nucleotides, encoded by the cell's genome and then transcribed by polymerase II. They regulate the expression of a large gene pool, approximately 30% of all genes, in the human body. MicroRNA molecules, like other bioactive molecules – RNA, protein – both play important roles in tumor invasion, metastasis, inflammation, coagulation, and regeneration. What is important, they can be detected not only in tissues (e.g. tumor tissues), but also in circulation (blood serum), where they are released. Accurate understanding of the role played by certain types of microRNA (e.g. miR-126, miR-17-92, miR-33, miR-613, miR-27a/b, miR-143, miR-335, miR-370, miR-122, miR-19b, miR-520, or miR-220) in hemostatic processes may allow in the future for their use not only as specific biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases but also as the target for innovative gene therapies. PMID:26327903

  18. Effects of a supersulfated low molecular weight heparin (IK-SSH) on different hemostatic parameters.

    PubMed

    Glusa, E; Barthel, W; Schenk, J; Radziwon, P; Butti, A; Markwardt, F; Breddin, K H

    1998-01-01

    In a phase I trial effects of a new supersulfated low molecular weight heparin (IK-SSH) on different hemostatic parameters were investigated in healthy volunteers. Parameters studied were activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time, Heptest, anti-activated factor II (anti-FIIa) and anti-activated factor X (anti-FXa) activity, platelet adhesion, platelet count, platelet-induced thrombin generation time (PITT), bleeding time, antithrombin III, fibrinogen and several safety parameters. After single intravenous (i.v.) injections of IK-SSH (0.14, 0.33 and 0.66 mg/kg) aPTT, Heptest and PITT were strongly and dose-dependently prolonged. After ascending subcutaneous (s.c.) doses of IK-SSH (0.33, 0.66 and 1 mg/kg) aPTT, Heptest and PITT were prolonged in a dose-dependent manner. Repeat s.c. injections of 1 mg/kg IK-SSH for 5 days markedly prolonged aPTT, Heptest and PITT. No cumulative effects were observed. Anti-FIIa and anti-FXa activity were not or only slightly increased. Bleeding time, thrombin time and platelet adhesion were not significantly changed after i.v. and s.c. injections of IK-SSH. However, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentration was markedly increased after each injection of IK-SSH and returned to the preinjection value 24 h later. IK-SSH prolongs aPTT, Heptest and PITT in a similar manner as other low molecular weight heparins but without significantly affecting thrombin time, FIIa and FXa activity. The release of TFPI may well be responsible for the prolongation of aPTT, Heptest and PITT. IK-SSH may be further developed as an antithrombotic agent.

  19. Generation of Chimeric "ABS Nanohemostat" Complex and Comparing Its Histomorphological In Vivo Effects to the Traditional Ankaferd Hemostat in Controlled Experimental Partial Nephrectomy Model.

    PubMed

    Huri, Emre; Beyazit, Yavuz; Mammadov, Rashad; Toksoz, Sila; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O; Ustun, Huseyin; Kekilli, Murat; Dadali, Mumtaz; Celik, Tugrul; Astarci, Müzeyyen; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Using the classical Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) solution to create active hemostasis during partial nephrectomy (PN) may not be so effective due to insufficient contact surface between the ABS hemostatic liquid agent and the bleeding area. In order to broaden the contact surface, we generated a chimeric hemostatic agent, ABS nanohemostat, via combining a self-assembling peptide amphiphile molecule with the traditional Ankaferd hemostat. Materials and Methods. In order to generate ABS nanohemostat, a positively charged Peptide Amphiphile (PA) molecule was synthesized by using solid phase peptide synthesis. For animal experiments, 24 Wistar rats were divided into the following 4 groups: Group 1: control; Group 2: conventional PN with only 0.5 ml Ankaferd hemostat; Group 3: conventional PN with ABS + peptide gel; Group 4: conventional PN with only 0.5 ml peptide solution. Results. Mean warm ischemia times (WITs) were 232.8  ±  56.3, 65.6 ± 11.4, 75.5 ± 17.2, and 58.1 ± 17.6 seconds in Group 1 to Group 4, respectively. Fibrosis was not different among the groups, while inflammation was detected to be significantly different in G3 and G4. Conclusions. ABS nanohemostat has comparable hemostatic efficacy to the traditional Ankaferd hemostat in the partial nephrectomy experimental model. Elucidation of the cellular and tissue effects of this chimeric compound may establish a catalytic spark and open new avenues for novel experimental and clinical studies in the battlefield of hemostasis.

  20. [Role of genetic polymorphisms of the hemostatic system in the development of multiple organ dysfunctions in acute disseminated intravascular coagulation].

    PubMed

    Vorob'eva, N A; Kapustin, S I

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the hereditary predisposition of the hemostatic system to the severe course of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The results of evaluation of some types of genetic polymorphisms of the factors of coagulation and of the fibrinolytic system are recent and important for clinical application. Analysis of mortality in the fulminant course of acute DIC showed significant differences in the detection rates of the variants of genetic polymorphism in the type I plasminogen activator inhibitor gene, which is indicative of the possible genetic determination of acute DIC.

  1. High-Level Genetic Diversity but No Population Structure Inferred from Nuclear and Mitochondrial Markers of the Peritrichous Ciliate Carchesium polypinum in the Grand River Basin (North America)▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gentekaki, E.; Lynn, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that assess intraspecific genetic variation in ciliates are few and quite recent. Consequently, knowledge of the subject and understanding of the processes that underlie it are limited. We sought to assess the degree of intraspecific genetic variation in Carchesium polypinum (Ciliophora: Peritrichia), a cosmopolitan, freshwater ciliate. We isolated colonies of C. polypinum from locations in the Grand River basin in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. We then used the nuclear markers—ITS1, ITS2, and the hypervariable regions of the large subunit rRNA—and an 819-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (cox-1) to investigate the intraspecific genetic variation of C. polypinum and the degree of resolution of the above-mentioned markers at the population level. We also sought to determine whether the organism demonstrated any population structure that mapped onto the geography of the region. Our study shows that there is a high degree of genetic diversity at the isolate level, revealed by the mitochondrial markers but not the nuclear markers. Furthermore, our results indicate that C. polypinum is likely not a single morphospecies as previously thought. PMID:19304815

  2. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor level is more sensitive than angiotensin-converting enzyme or lysozyme for diagnosis of sarcoidosis and may be a marker of multiple organ involvement.

    PubMed

    Thi Hong Nguyen, Chuyen; Kambe, Naotomo; Kishimoto, Izumi; Ueda-Hayakawa, Ikuko; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-11

    Skin lesions in sarcoidosis are often the initial symptoms that enable the dermatologist to be the first to diagnose this granulomatosis. However, diagnosis is sometimes very problematic. In 2015, the diagnostic criteria for sarcoidosis were updated in Japan, with elevated serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) replacing negative tuberculin reaction. Therefore, we assessed the clinical utility of sIL-2R compared with two other common markers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and lysozyme, in patients who visited the dermatology clinic. Data from 72 patients showed that sIL-2R was more sensitive than both ACE and lysozyme in supporting a diagnosis of sarcoidosis (52.8%) compared with ACE (29%) and lysozyme (26.4%). Additionally, the sIL-2R level was significantly higher in patients with multiple organ involvement and parenchymal infiltration. Patients with elevated sIL-2R levels had higher serum ACE and lysozyme levels, a higher incidence of pulmonary involvement, more severe chest radiographic stage and a high incidence of expression-specific signs by imaging analysis. Receiver-operator curve analysis showed that sIL-2R was a better marker at the threshold cut-off point compared with ACE and lysozyme for identifying patients with multiple organ involvement, detecting patients with pulmonary disease and parenchymal infiltration as well as predicting the presence of specific signs in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Moreover, the kinetics of sIL-2R levels correlated closely with clinical manifestations, in contrast to the modest changes of ACE and lysozyme levels during the follow-up period. In conclusion, sIL-2R may be considered a good marker for diagnosis and a potential indicator of disease activity.

  3. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  4. Saharan dust aerosol over the central Mediterranean Sea: optical columnar measurements vs. aerosol load, chemical composition and marker solubility at ground level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, M.; Sferlazzo, D. M.; Becagli, S.; Bommarito, C.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; di Sarra, A.; Ghedini, C.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Lucarelli, F.; Meloni, D.; Monteleone, F.; Nava, S.; Pace, G.; Piacentino, S.; Rugi, F.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2013-08-01

    average aerosol optical depth at 495.7 nm up to 0.28 in June-August). We found that 71.3% of the events identified from optical properties over the air column display a high dust content at the ground level. Conversely, the remaining 28.7% of cases present a negligible or small impact of dust on the surface aerosol composition due to the Saharan dust transport processes over the Mediterranean that frequently occur above the marine boundary layer especially in spring, summer and early autumn. The solubility of different elements presents a large variability. In general, the solubility is lower in Saharan dust samples than for non-Saharan dust events. The solubility also displays a marked dependency on size for Saharan dust samples. Crustal markers show two relative maxima in the size range 2.1-3.3 μm and 5.8-9 μm, generally characterized by low solubility. Optical particle counter measurements present similar values of median radii for the dust size distribution. Conversely, elements mainly due to anthropic sources display a maximum in the finest fraction, and a high solubility. For instance, Fe, K, and Co present a very low solubility in the coarse fraction (8% in the size range 2.1-3.3 μm for Fe), while the finest fraction is characterized by high solubility (69% in the size range 0.4-0.7 μm for Fe). A ionic balance analysis on multi-stage impactor samples shows that exchange reactions involving anthropic acids, and crustal matter may play a significant role in cases of mixing. These reactions may affect the solubility and bioavailability of the crustal elements.

  5. The serum levels of tumor marker CA19-9, CEA, CA72-4, and NSE in type 2 diabetes without malignancy and the relations to the metabolic control

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Xiaojing; Song, Chunqing; Du, Xiaoming; Shao, Hailin; Xu, Donghong; Wang, Xiaolai

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether there is a difference in carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in 268 type 2 diabetic patients and 95 non-diabetic ones, and their serum levels of CA19-9, CEA, CA72-4, and NSE were compared in our endocrine ward at the Tianjin Fourth Central Hospital, Tianjin, China during the period from January to June 2015. The diabetic patients were divided into 4 groups based on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels to investigate the relationship between levels of tumor markers and glucose status. Results: Diabetic patients had higher levels of tumor markers than non-diabetic subjects (CA19-9: 13.0 versus 7.25U/mL, p=0.000; CEA: 2.55 versus 2.25 ng/mL, p=0.012; CA72-4: 1.95 versus 1.50U/mL, p=0.001; NSE: 11.64 versus 10.22ng/mL, p=0.000). CA19-9 levels increased in a stepwise manner with poor diabetes status. CEA levels were increased in patients with HbA1c ≥9% and CA72-4 elevation was predominant in patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥11%). NSE levels were not associated with metabolic parameters. Conclusion: Serum levels of CA19-9, CEA, CA72-4, and NSE were elevated in type 2 diabetes; however, only CA19-9, CEA, and CA72-4 levels were associated with hyperglycemia. PMID:28133696

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of osteopontin in advanced head-and-neck cancer: Prognostic role and correlation with oxygen electrode measurements, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1{alpha}-related markers, and hemoglobin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, Matthias; Reddemann, Rolf; Said, Harun M.; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen; Taubert, Helge; Becker, Axel; Kuhnt, Thomas; Haensgen, Gabriele; Dunst, Juergen; Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: The tumor-associated glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is discussed as a plasma marker of tumor hypoxia. However, the association of immunohistochemical OPN expression in tumor sections with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), the hypoxia-related markers hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), or hemoglobin and systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels has not been investigated. Methods and Materials: Tumor tissue sections of 34 patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy were assessed by immunochemistry for the expression of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX. Relationship of OPN expression with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), HIF-1{alpha} and CA IX expression, hemoglobin and serum VEGF level, and clinical parameters was studied. Results: Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation of positive OPN staining with low hemoglobin level (p = 0.02), high HIF-1{alpha} expression (p = 0.02), and high serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (p = 0.02) for advanced head-and-neck cancer. Furthermore, considering the 31 Stage IV patients, the median pO{sub 2} correlated significantly with the OPN expression (p = 0.02). OPN expression alone had only a small impact on prognosis. However, in a univariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, the expression of either OPN or HIF-1{alpha} or CA IX was associated with a 4.1-fold increased risk of death (p = 0.02) compared with negativity of all three markers. Conclusion: Osteopontin expression detected immunohistochemically is associated with oxygenation parameters in advanced head-and-neck cancer. When the results of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX immunohistochemistry are combined into a hypoxic profile, a strong and statistically significant impact on overall survival is found.

  7. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  8. Use of Monsel solution to treat obstetrical hemorrhage: a review and comparison to other topical hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Devin T; Roque, Dana M; Santin, Alessandro D

    2015-06-01

    Peripartum hemorrhage accounts for 8% of maternal deaths in the United States, and nearly 27% worldwide. A growing need exists for tactics to spare morbidity given a rise of abnormal placentation that contributes to excessive blood loss at the time of delivery. Approaches such as compression sutures, balloon tamponade, and pelvic artery embolization are not without side effects and potential implications for future fertility. The use of topical hemostatic agents has become widespread in gynecologic and obstetric surgery despite a paucity of distinct studies in the field, and may allow providers to increasingly avoid cesarean hysterectomy. A variety of topical hemostatic agents exist along a wide cost continuum, each characterized by specific efficacy, advantages, drawbacks, and often gaps in long-term data to support safety and impact on future fertility. Herein, we comprehensively review these agents and illustrate a nontraditional use of Monsel solution applied directly to the placental bed in a case of focal placenta accreta. This ultimately contributed to successful uterine preservation with no known adverse sequelae. Monsel solution may have a role in establishing hemostasis in the setting of abnormal placentation, and may be a particularly attractive alternative in resource-poor nations.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of glutaraldehyde-based crosslinked gelatin as a local hemostat sponge in surgery: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Imani, Rana; Rafienia, Mohammad; Emami, Shahriar Hojjati

    2013-01-01

    In this study, preparation and characterization of soft crosslinked gelatin sponge for blood hemostasis application was considered. The effects of gelatin and crosslinker concentrations and altering freeze-drying temperature on sponges' density and structure, water absorption ability and biodegradation, cytotoxicity, mechanical properties and hemostatic effect were investigated. The density measurement indicated that the density of freeze-dried sponges increased when the freezing temperature was lowered. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope images showed that gelatin sponges had uniform small pores (60 μm) after freezing at liquid nitrogen (-196°C). Biodegradation study demonstrated that the crosslinked sponges containing 1% and 2% gelatin lost respectively nearly 40 to 70% of their weight during 24 h. Prepared sponges showed desired water absorption ability (30-40 times of own dry weight) improved by lowering glutaraldehyde concentration. Cell toxicity was not detected in any of the samples. Compression modulus of sponges decreased four times (160 to 40 kPa) as the gelatin content varied from 2 to 1% w/v. Hemostasis study confirmed that the hemolytic ability of sponges increased through raising gelatin content and porosity of sponge. We suggest using gelatin sponges containing 1% w/v gelatin, 0.5% w/v glutaraldehyde frozen in liquid nitrogen, as a potential substitution for local hemostat absorbable sponge.

  10. Correlation between International Normalized Ratio values and sufficiency of two different local hemostatic measures in anticoagulated patients

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Mohamed Zaghlool; Mourad, Samah I.; Salem, Ahmed S.; Abdelfadil, Ehab

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The management of patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) undergoing minor oral surgeries is controversial. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between International Normalized Ratio (INR) values and the sufficiency of two different local hemostatic measures in controlling postextraction bleeding in anticoagulated patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty patients receiving Warfarin OAT were included in this study. Patients were selected so that 80 patients have INR values of ≤2, whereas the remaining patients have the INR values ranging from 2 to 3. Forty patients were then randomly selected from each category to form two equal groups. Forty-five patients who had never been on OAT were selected as a negative control group (group 1). Failure to achieve hemostasis using a pressure pack was managed using either tranexamic acid (group 2) or Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) (group 3). Results: The INR values of patients included in group 2 and 3 ranged from 1.5 to 3, with a mean of 2.2. No significant difference was recorded between the use of either tranexamic acid or ABS in achieving hemostasis in anticoagulated patients with INR values ranging between 2 and 3 (P = 0.93). Conclusion: Based on our findings, ABS is a hemostatic agent of good efficacy. The effect of ABS in controlling post-extraction bleeding in anticoagulated patients with INR values ≤3 is comparable to tranexamic acid with no evidence to support the superiority of tranexamic acid over ABS. PMID:25512727

  11. Hemostatic Nanoparticles Improve Survival Following Blunt Trauma Even after 1 Week Incubation at 50 °C

    PubMed Central

    Lashof-Sullivan, Margaret; Holland, Mark; Groynom, Rebecca; Campbell, Donald; Shoffstall, Andrew; Lavik, Erin

    2016-01-01

    According to the CDC, the leading cause of death for both men and women between the ages of 5 and 44 is traumatic injury. Blood loss is the primary cause of death at acute time points post trauma. Early intervention is critical to save lives, and yet there are no treatments to stop internal bleeding that can be deployed in the field. In this work, we developed hemostatic nanoparticles that are stable at high temperatures (50 °C for 7 days) and are still effective at stopping bleeding and improving survival over the one hour time period in a rat liver injury model. These particles are exceptionally simple: PLA-based nanospheres functionalized with PEG terminated with variants of the RGD motif. This simple system can be stored at temperatures up to 50°C and maintain size, shape, and efficacy. The particles lead to a reduction in bleeding and increased acute survival with significance compared to both control particles and saline. Overall, these hemostatic nanoparticles offer an important step towards an immediate intervention in the field to stop bleeding and improve survival. PMID:27672679

  12. Use of Monsel’s Solution to Treat Obstetrical Hemorrhage: A Review and Comparison to Other Topical Hemostatic Agents

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, Devin T.; ROQUE, Dana M.; SANTIN, Alessandro D.

    2014-01-01

    Peripartum hemorrhage accounts for 8% of maternal deaths in the United States, and nearly 27% worldwide. A growing need exists for tactics to spare morbidity given a rise of abnormal placentation that contributes to excessive blood loss at the time of delivery. Approaches such as compression sutures, balloon tamponade, and pelvic artery embolization are not without side effects and potential implications for future fertility. The use of topical hemostatic agents has become widespread in gynecologic and obstetric surgery despite a paucity of distinct studies in the field, and may allow providers to increasingly avoid cesarean hysterectomy. A variety of topical hemostatic agents exist along a wide cost continuum, each characterized by specific efficacy, advantages, drawbacks, and often gaps in long-term data to support safety and impact on future fertility. Herein, we comprehensively review these agents and illustrate a non-traditional use of Monsel’s solution applied directly to the placental bed in a case of focal placenta accreta. This ultimately contributed to successful uterine preservation with no known adverse sequelae. Monsel’s solution may have a role in establishing hemostasis in the setting of abnormal placentation, and may be a particularly attractive alternative in resource-poor nations. PMID:25577672

  13. Secretory IgA, albumin, and bone-density level changes as markers of biostimulatory effects from laser radiation on the healing process after extraction of human molars on the lower jaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Bartova, Jirina; Mazanek, Jiri

    1999-05-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser radiation on the healing process after human lower molar extraction. Frequencies of 5 Hz, 292 Hz and 9000 Hz were used in this experiment. Monitoring the secretory IgA and albumin levels in saliva and changes in bone density were used as a marker of biostimulatory effect. Bone density after extraction and six month after surgical treatment was examined using the dental digital radiography. Wound closure was followed by healing of bone structure in extraction site. Changes of secretory IgA, albumin levels and bone density were compared in groups of patients with laser treatment and control group without any laser therapy. Differences in levels of the saliva markers were found to be significant comparing irradiated and non-irradiated groups, as well as comparing groups irradiated by various modulatory frequencies. Density of alveolar bone was examined on five slices acquired from every digital radiography image. Histogram were evaluated wit a computer program for microscopic image analysis. Density differences were verified in area of the whole slice. There were no significant differences found between bone density in irradiated and non irradiated groups perhaps due to our used therapeutical diagram.

  14. Hemostatic properties of Venezuelan Bothrops snake venoms with special reference to Bothrops isabelae venom.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Sánchez, Elda E; Márquez, Adriana; Carvajal, Zoila; Salazar, Ana M; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Gil, Amparo; Guerrero, Belsy

    2010-11-01

    In Venezuela, Bothrops snakes are responsible for more than 80% of all recorded snakebites. This study focuses on the biological and hemostatic characteristics of Bothrops isabelae venom along with its comparative characteristics with two other closely related Bothrops venoms, Bothrops atrox and Bothrops colombiensis. Electrophoretic profiles of crude B. isabelae venom showed protein bands between 14 and 100 kDa with the majority in the range of 14-31 kDa. The molecular exclusion chromatographic profile of this venom contains five fractions (F1-F5). Amidolytic activity evaluation evidenced strong thrombin-like followed by kallikrein-like activities in crude venom and in fractions F1 and F2. The fibrinogenolytic activity of B. isabelae venom at a ratio of 100:1 (fibrinogen/venom) induced a degradation of A alpha and B beta chains at 15 min and 2 h, respectively. At a ratio of 100:10, a total degradation of A alpha and B beta chains at 5 min and of gamma chains at 24 h was apparent. This current study evidences one of rarely reported for Bothrops venoms, which resembles the physiologic effect of plasmin. B. isabelae venom as well as F2 and F3 fractions, contain fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plate of 36, 23.5 and 9.45 mm(2)/microg, respectively using 25 microg of protein. Crude venom and F1 fraction showed gelatinolytic activity. Comparative analysis amongst Venezuelan bothropoid venoms, evidenced that the LD(50) of B. isabelae (5.9 mg/kg) was similar to B. atrox-Puerto Ayacucho 1 (6.1 mg/kg) and B. colombiensis-Caucagua (5.8 mg/kg). B. isabelae venom showed minor hemorrhagic activity, whereas B. atrox-Parguasa (Bolivar state) was the most hemorrhagic. In this study, a relative high thrombin-like activity was observed in B. colombiensis venoms (502-568 mUA/min/mg), and a relative high factor Xa-like activity was found in B. atrox venoms (126-294 mUA/min/mg). Fibrinolytic activity evaluated with 10 microg protein, showed that B. isabelae venom contained higher

  15. European Initial Hands-On Experience with HEMOPATCH, a Novel Sealing Hemostatic Patch: Application in General, Gastrointestinal, Biliopancreatic, Cardiac, and Urologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, Abe; Uranues, Selman; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Felli, Emanuele; Colasanti, Marco; Scerrino, Gregorio; Melfa, Giusepina Irene; Raspanti, Cristina; Gulotta, Gaspare; Meyer, Alexander; Oberhoffer, Martin; Schmoeckel, Michael; Weltert, Luca Paolo; Vignolini, Graziano; Salvi, Matteo; Masieri, Lorenzo; Vittori, Guido; Siena, Giampaolo; Minervini, Andrea; Serni, Sergio; Carini, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Topical hemostatic agents that can seal tissues and assist in the coagulation cascade of patients undergoing surgery have been readily available for several decades. Using either synthetic or animal/plant-derived materials, these agents represent a powerful tool to reduce postoperative bleeding complications in cases where mechanical or energy-driven hemostasis is not possible or insufficient. Recently, a novel sealing hemostatic patch, HEMOPATCH (Baxter International, Deerfield, IL), was developed. The device is a thin and flexible patch consisting of a specifically-formulated porous collagen matrix, coated on one side with a thin protein-binding layer. This gives the patch a dual mechanism of action, in which the two components interact to achieve hemostasis by sealing off the bleeding surface and initiating the body's own clotting mechanisms. Here we present a series of case reports that outline the quick, effective hemostatic sealing of HEMOPATCH in a variety of clinical applications, including solid organ, gastrointestinal, biliopancreatic, endocrine, cardiovascular, and urologic surgeries. Essentially a feasibility study, these reports demonstrate how HEMOPATCH can be applied to seal almost any bleeding surface encountered during a range of procedures. Our results show that the device is eminently capable in both via laparotomy and laparoscopic approaches, and in patients with impaired coagulation or highly variable anatomies. In conclusion, our cases document the ease-of-use, application, and immediate hemostatic effect of the patch across a broad range of surgical settings and paves the way for future randomized clinical trials with more extensive follow-up.

  16. Associations between vitamin K status and hemostatic and inflammatory biomarkers in community-dwelling adults: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K is integral to hemostatic function, and in vitro and animal experiments suggest that vitamin K can suppress production of inflammatory cytokines. To test the hypothesis that higher vitamin K status is associated with lower hemostasic activation and inflammation in community-dwelling adults...

  17. Management of External Hemorrhage in Tactical Combat Casualty Care: Chitosan-Based Hemostatic Gauze Dressings--TCCC Guidelines-Change 13-05.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brad L; Littlejohn, Lanny F; Kheirabadi, Bijan S; Butler, Frank K; Kotwal, Russ S; Dubick, Michael A; Bailey, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhage remains the leading cause of combat death and a major cause of death from potentially survivable injuries. Great strides have been made in controlling extremity hemorrhage with tourniquets, but not all injuries are amenable to tourniquet application. Topical hemostatic agents and dressings have also contributed to success in controlling extremity and compressible junctional hemorrhage, and their efficacy continues to increase as enhanced products are developed. Since the addition of Combat Gauze™ (Z-Medica Corporation, Wallingford, CT, USA; http://www.z-medica.com/) in April 2008 to the Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) Guidelines, there are consistent data from animal studies of severe hemorrhage that chitosan-based hemostatic gauze dressings developed for battlefield application are, at least, equally efficacious as Combat Gauze. Successful outcomes are also reported using newer chitosan-based dressings in civilian hospital-based surgical case reports and prehospital (battlefield) case reports and series. Additionally, there have been no noted complications or safety concerns in these cases or across many years of chitosan-based hemostatic dressing use in both the military and civilian prehospital sectors. Consequently, after a decade of clinical use, there is added benefit and a good safety record for using chitosan-based gauze dressings. For these reasons, many specific US military Special Operations Forces, NATO militaries, and emergency medical services (EMS) and law enforcement agencies have already implemented the widespread use of these new recommended chitosan-based hemostatic dressings. Based on the past battlefield success, this report proposes to keep Combat Gauze as the hemostatic dressing of choice along with the new addition of Celox™ Gauze (Medtrade Products Ltd., Crewe, UK; http://www.celoxmedical.com/usa/products /celox-gauze/) and ChitoGauze® (HemCon Medical Technologies, Portland, OR, USA; http://www.hemcon.com/) to the TCCC

  18. Serum copper, zinc, and iron levels, and markers of carbohydrate metabolism in postmenopausal women with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2016-11-16

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate serum level of copper, zinc, iron and metabolic parameters in postmenopausal women with diabetes. A total of 413 postmenopausal women were enrolled in the current study. Women were divided into 4 groups with equal age and body mass index according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (≤5.5; 5.5-6.0; 6.0-6.5; >6.5%). Serum Fe, Cu, and Zn levels were assessed using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Blood HbA1c, serum glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, and ceruloplasmin (Cp) were assessed using commercial kits. Homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and transferrin (Tf) saturation were calculated. The obtained data demonstrate that every 0.5% increase in HbA1c levels from 5.5% is associated with a significant elevation of glucose, insulin, CRP, and HOMA-IR values. Diabetic patients were characterized by significantly higher Fe (11%), Cu (8%), and Zn (6%) levels as compared to the controls. At the same time, the overall trend to increased metal levels in association with HbA1c was detected only for Fe (p<0.05) and Cu (p<0.05). Serum ferritin levels in diabetic women was 3-fold higher than in the controls, whereas Tf saturation was decreased by 35%. Serum Cp levels were significantly increased by 19% in prediabetes, whereas in diabetic postmenopausal women no such increase was observed. A significant elevation of total metal concentration in diabetic subjects without a concomitant elevation of transport proteins may be indicative of increased levels of "free" Fe and Cu, known to be toxic.

  19. Day care PNL using ‘Santosh-PGI hemostatic seal’ versus standard PNL: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shivanshu; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To compare the outcomes of tubeless day care PNL using hemostatic seal in the access tract versus standard PNL. Material and methods It was a prospective randomized controlled study. Cases were randomized to either the day care group with hemostatic seal (DCS) or the control group where patients were admitted and a nephrostomy tube was placed at the conclusion of surgery. Results A total of 180 cases were screened and out of these, 113 were included in the final analysis. The stone clearance rates were comparable in both the groups. The mean drop in hemoglobin was significantly lower in DCS group than the control group (1.05 ±0.68 vs. 1.30 ±0.58 gm/dl, p = 0.038).Mean postoperative pain score, analgesic requirement (paracetamol) and duration of hospital stay were also significantly lower in the DCS group (3.79 ±1.23 vs. 6.12 ±0.96, 1.48 ±0.50 vs. 4.09 ±1.11 grams and 0.48 ±0.26 vs. 4.74 ±1.53 days respectively; p <0.05). The incidence of urine leakage through the access tract site was significantly lower in the DCS subgroup when compared to the controls (3.6% vs. 21.1%, p <0.05). Cases in the DCS group resumed their normal activities in a significantly shorter time (8.05 ±3.05 vs.18.42 ±4.42 days; p <0.05). Higher proportion of cases in the DCS group got re-admitted, although it was not a statistically significant number (7.1% vs. 1.8%; p = 0.21). Conclusions Tubeless day care PNL with composite hemostatic tract seal is considered safe. It resulted in a significant reduction of blood loss and analgesic requirement with significantly reduced hospital stay, nephrostomy tube site morbidity and time required to resume normal activity when compared to the standard PNL. However, patients must be compliant with the given instructions and should have access to a health care facility, as few of them may need re-admission. PMID:27551557

  20. WIPP marker development

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    This article discusses the development of permanent, passive markers for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and presents some preliminary concepts in drawings and a table of components for the markers. The panel, convened by Sandia National Laboratories, was charged with developing design characteristics for permanent markers and judging the efficacy of markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A new surgical technique versus an old marker: can expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty reduce C-reactive protein levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea?

    PubMed

    Binar, Murat; Akcam, Timur; Karakoc, Omer; Sagkan, Rahsan Ilikci; Musabak, Ugur; Gerek, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) before and after expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty (ESP) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Fifty-one patients with newly diagnosed OSA were prospectively enrolled in this study. We performed ESP in twenty-three patients in the surgery group and twenty-eight patients were included in the CPAP group. Serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays before and 3 months after treatment. The relations between CRP and the apnea hypopnea index (AHI), visual analog scale (VAS), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and saturation parameters were evaluated. Both surgical and CPAP treatments caused significant improvements in the clinical and laboratory parameters. However, only the patients whose postoperative AHI levels improved to final AHI of <5 (n = 6) after ESP, had significant decrease in their serum CRP levels (p = 0.028). CPAP group and the rest of the patients in the surgery group did not show statistically significant difference in CRP levels after treatment. We suggest that the successful surgical treatment for OSA-ESP in this study-, which provides OSA cure, can decrease serum levels of CRP and reduce possible cardiovascular morbidity.

  2. Detection of the level of fluoride in the commercially available toothpaste using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with the marker atomic transition line of neutral fluorine at 731.1 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Maganda, Y. W.; Dastageer, M. A.; Al Adel, F. F.; Naqvi, A. A.; Qahtan, T. F.

    2014-04-01

    Fourth harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 266 nm) in combination with high resolution spectrograph equipped with Gated ICCD camera has been employed to design a high sensitive analytical system. This detection system is based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and has been tested first time for analysis of semi-fluid samples to detect fluoride content present in the commercially available toothpaste samples. The experimental parameters were optimized to achieve an optically thin and in local thermo dynamic equilibrium plasma. This improved the limits of detection of fluoride present in tooth paste samples. The strong atomic transition line of fluorine at 731.102 nm was used as the marker line to quantify the fluoride concentration levels. Our LIBS system was able to detect fluoride concentration levels in the range of 1300-1750 ppm with a detection limit of 156 ppm.

  3. Hemostatic Function of Apheresis Platelets Stored at 4 deg C and 22 deg C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    function (5). Cold storage at 4-C could prolong shelf life by diminishing the risk of bacterial sepsis , decreasing platelet metabolism, and...glucose and lactate accumulation that occurs from continuous metabolic activity (37, 38). These markers represent different molecular events of...These data suggest that distinct mechanisms of activation are triggered at each storage temperature tested. While platelet activation at RT is

  4. Relative sea-level changes since the mid-Holocene on the southern coast of Turkey reconstructed using beachrocks and archaeological markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desruelles, S.

    2009-04-01

    On the southern coast of Turkey, up to three beachrock levels, can be observed. Although most of the beachrocks are situated on the vicinity of the actual sea level, some are submerged, sometimes down to -4.5 m or emerged up to +0.5 m. Because beachrocks are formed within the intertidal zone by carbonate cementation of the beach deposits during stages of shoreline stabilisation, they correspond to different generations indicating different sea-level stands. Fourteen sites along this coast were studied and samples were analysed using a polarising microscope, cathodoluminescence and SEM. Due to the abundance of micrite in between the limestone pebbles that often compose the beachrocks, cements had to be manually extracted for AMS Carbone 14 datings. Even then only beachrocks from two sites can be dated. However, by cross-comparing these results with the geometry of the beachrocks, the position of notches, vermet reefs, abrasion platforms and archaeological vestiges together with the available tectonic data, it is possible to distinguish 4 areas where different relative sea-level positions are recorded. These results reveal a very dynamic tectonic regime, especially subsidence to the West and uplift to the East since at least mid-Holocene and before Roman era.

  5. Biological Monitoring of Blood Naphthalene Levels as a Marker of Occupational Exposure to PAHs among Auto-Mechanics and Spray Painters in Rawalpindi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Routine exposure to chemical contaminants in workplace is a cause for concern over potential health risks to workers. In Pakistan, reports on occupational exposure and related health risks are almost non-existent, which reflects the scarce availability of survey data and criteria for determining whether an unsafe exposure has occurred. The current study was designed to evaluate blood naphthalene (NAPH) levels as an indicator of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile workshop mechanics (MCs) and car-spray painters (PNs). We further determined the relationship between blood NAPH levels and personal behavioural, job related parameters and various environmental factors that may further be associated with elevated risks of occupational exposures to PAHs. Methods Sixty blood samples (n = 20 for each group i.e. MC, PN and control group) were collected to compare their blood NAPH levels among exposed (MCs and PNs) and un-exposed (control) groups. Samples were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data regarding demographic aspects of the subjects and their socioeconomic features were collected using a questionnaire. Subjects were also asked to report environmental hygiene conditions of their occupational environment. Results We identified automobile work areas as potential sites for PAHs exposure, which was reflected by higher blood NAPH levels among MCs. Blood NAPH levels ranged from 53.7 to 1980.6 μgL-1 and 54.1 to 892.9 μgL-1 among MCs and PNs respectively. Comparison within each group showed that smoking enhanced exposure risks several fold and both active and passive smoking were among personal parameters that were significantly correlated with log-transformed blood NAPH levels. For exposed groups, work hours and work experience were job related parameters that showed strong associations with the increase in blood NAPH levels. Poor workplace hygiene and ventilation were recognized as most significant

  6. Hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of cysteine proteases from Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br. Latex

    PubMed Central

    Bindhu, Omana Sukumaran; Singh, Maheshwari Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Plant latex is a natural source of biologically active compounds and several hydrolytic enzymes responsible for their diverse health benefits. Recent past has witnessed substantial progress in understanding their supplementary industrial and pharmaceutical utility. Calotropis gigantea is one of the important latex producing plants belonging to asclepediaceae family with wide ethnopharmacological applications and is rich in proteolytic enzymes. Present study investigates hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of C. gigantea latex proteases. Materials and Methods: The protease activity of crude enzyme (CE), obtained by centrifugation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis, was assayed using casein as the substrate. Effect of pH, temperature and specific inhibitors on protease activity was determined. Native PAGE and in gel protease activity of CE was performed. Hemostatic (Fibrinogen polymerization, fibrinogen agarose plate and blood clot lysis assays), milk clotting and blood stain removal efficacies of CE were determined. Results: CE exhibited high caseinolytic activity. Enzyme activity was optimum at 37-50ºC and pH 8.0. Fibrinogen polymerization assay showed concentration dependent increase in turbidity indicating thrombin like activity which was further confirmed by fibrinogen agarose plate assays. Clot lysis assay indicated 92.41% thrombolysis by CE in 90 min. CE also revealed significantly high ratio of milk clotting to protease activity (Milk Clotting Index, MCI = 827.59 ± 1.52). Complete destaining of blood stained fabric was observed when incubated with 1% detergent incorporated with 0.1mg/ml CE. The study highlights and validates the compound application potential of latex cysteine proteases from C. gigantea. PMID:24991114

  7. Pain and swelling after periapical surgery related to the hemostatic agent used: Anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor or aluminum chloride

    PubMed Central

    Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gay-Escoda, Cosme; von-Arx, Tomas; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess pain and swelling in the first 7 days after periapical surgery and their relationship with the agent used for bleeding control. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted between October 2006 and March 2009. Patients subjected to root surgery, who completed the questionnaire and who consented to the postoperative instructions were included in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the hemostatic agent used: A) gauze impregnated with anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor; or B) aluminum chloride. The patients were administered a questionnaire, and were asked to record the severity of their pain and swelling on a plain horizontal visual analog scale (VAS). Data were recorded by the patients on the first 7 postoperative days. In addition, the patients were asked to record analgesic consumption. Results: A total of 76 questionnaires (34 in group A and 42 in group B) were taken to be correctly completed. Pain was reported to be most intense two hours after surgery. At this point 52.6% of the patients had no pain. Seventy-five percent of the patients consumed analgesics in the first 24 hours. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the intensity of pain or in the consumption of analgesics. Swelling reached its maximum peak on the second day; at this point, 60.6% of the patients suffered mild or moderate swelling. The Expasyl™ group showed significantly greater swelling than the gauzes group. Conclusion: The type of hemostatic agent used did not influence either the degree of pain or the need for analgesia among the patients in this study. However, the patients belonging to the Expasyl™ group suffered greater swelling than the patients treated with gauzes impregnated with anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor. Key words:Hemostasis, periradicular surgery, aluminum chloride, pain, swelling. PMID:22322510

  8. Evaluation of the hemostatic and histopathological effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper in experimental liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Satar, Nihal Y Gul; Akkoc, Ahmet; Oktay, Ayberk; Topal, Ayse; Inan, Kivanc

    2013-07-01

    We studied the hemostatic and histopathological effects, and intra-abdominal adhesion scores of a new hemostatic agent, Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), in an experimental liver injury model and compared it with regenerated oxidized cellulose. Thirty-six rats were randomly assigned to ABS, oxidized cellulose (Surgicel), and control groups (n=12, each). A wedge resection was performed on the left medial lobe of the liver. In the ABS group the liver surface was sprayed with ABS, whereas in the Surgicel group the liver was covered with double-layered oxidized cellulose. In the control group, saline solution was sprayed on the cut surface. The mean bleeding time was shorter in the ABS (23.08±6.99s) and Surgicel groups (47.91±8.21s) than in the control group (223.42±57.83s). No significant difference was found in the ABS and Surgicel groups in terms of preoperative and postoperative hematocrit (hct) values (P>0.05). Whereas there was no significant difference on day 7 (P>0.05), total adhesion score of ABS group was lower than both Surgicel (P<0.05) and control groups (P<0.01) on day 14. Liver sections from ABS group displayed more favorable histopathological changes when compared with Surgicel group on day 7 and day 14. All livers in the ABS group completed their regeneration process with minimal signs of inflammation. Our findings suggest that ABS is more effective than Surgicel and control groups in achieving hemostasis and in reducing blood loss. Apart from this, ABS causes more encouraging histopathological changes and better intra-abdominal adhesion scores in rat experimental liver trauma model.

  9. C-reactive protein levels in the perioperative period as a predictive marker of endoscopic recurrence after ileo-colonic resection for Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Iaculli, E; Agostini, M; Biancone, L; Fiorani, C; Di Vizia, A; Montagnese, F; Sibio, S; Manzelli, A; Tesauro, M; Rufini, A; Sica, GS

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the perioperative behavior of C-reactive protein (CRP) in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients undergoing elective ileo-cecal (IC) resection and to identify association between perioperative CRP levels and endoscopic recurrence at 1 year. Study hypothesis was that perioperative CRP changes are disease specific and could detect subset of patients with more aggressive pathopysiology. Seventy-five patients undergoing IC resection for CD were prospectively enrolled. Serial CRP levels were assessed: preoperative, postoperative day 1 (POD1) and day 5 (POD5). CD patients’ values were compared against same interval assessments of control groups undergoing right colectomy and appendicectomy. At POD1, the serum concentration increase was significantly higher in CD patients than in controls. Comparing with control groups, CRP levels remained remarkably high and showed a lower reduction in CD at POD5. Difference between groups was statistically significant. Optimal cutoff levels have been identified: serum CRP concentrations of >39.8 mg/l at POD1 and of >23.2 mg/l at POD5 have shown a significant association to endoscopic recurrence when using bivariate correlation. In this preliminary series, binary logistic regression could not demonstrate statistical relationship between endoscopic recurrence and any of the variables evaluated as prognostic factor. This is the only study so far that investigates and confirms a disease-specific upregulation of CRP response in the perioperative period for CD patients undergoing surgery. The postoperative CRP levels and kinetics seem to be related to the grade of mucosal inflammation and recurrence rate according to our 12 months endoscopic evaluation. PMID:27551522

  10. Elevated tissue Cr levels, increased plasma oxidative markers, and global hypomethylation of blood DNA in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to potassium dichromate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Wei; Yao, Chunji; Lou, Jianlin; Chen, Riping; Jin, Lingzhi; Wu, Nanxiang; Gao, Ming; Song, Peng; Tan, Yufeng; Liu, Kecheng

    2016-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is prevalent in ground water in some areas, but evidence on the toxic effects of Cr (VI) via ingestion through drinking water remains insufficient. The aims of our study were to investigate the toxic effects of Cr (VI) through oral water ingestion on oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, and exposed to porassium dichromate (K2 Cr2 O7 ; 0, 30, 100, and 300 mg/L) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Mean body weight gain, mean water consumption, clinical chemistry determinations, and oxidative stress levels in plasma were measured. Global DNA methylation changes and DNA methylation status at the promoter of p16 gene were also detected. After 4 weeks, mild anemic effects and increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels occurred in rats exposed to 100 mg/L or 300 mg/L of Cr (VI). Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity decreased in all exposed groups. Global DNA methylation levels were reduced in 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L exposure groups. However, DNA methylation status at the promoter of P16 gene remained unchanged in all K2 Cr2 O7- treated groups. The correlation analysis indicated that increased MDA levels were closely correlated to global DNA hypomethylation. Our results indicated that oral ingestion of Cr (VI) through drinking water caused not only oxidative stress in plasma, but also global DNA hypomethylation in blood cells from male rats, and a good correlation was found between increased MDA levels and reduced global DNA methylation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1080-1090, 2016.

  11. IL-17A levels in systemic lupus erythematosus associated with inflammatory markers and lower rates of malignancy and heart damage: Evidence for a dual role

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Warren; Ostli-Eilertsen, Gro; Griffiths, Sheynae; Nossent, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Objective The interleukin 17 (IL-17) cytokine family is involved in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. In spite of contradictory findings and a lack of causality in clinical studies, IL-17 inhibition for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has regained attention as a potential therapeutic pathway, after demonstrating disease-modifying capabilities in ankylosing spondylitis. We investigated the clinical associations of interleukin 17 A (IL-17A) in patients with SLE. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed involving SLE patients (n=102; age: 49 years; 86% female) recruited from a regional registry. IL-17A levels were determined by immunoassay, disease activity by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2K (SLEDAI-2K), and cumulative damage by Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics Damage Index (SDI) scores. Non-parametric techniques were used to examine the association between IL-17A and disease activity and autoantibody profiles were compared with healthy controls (n=31): principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the interplay of immune cells across disease states and damage development in SLE patients. Results SLE patients had higher IgG levels, lower T-cell and B-cell counts, but median IL-17A levels did not differ from the controls (28.4 vs. 28.4 pg/mL, p=0.9). In SLE patients, IL-17A did not correlate with SLEDAI-2K or SDI, but was inversely related with age (correlation coefficients, Rs.=–0.29, p<0.05), systolic blood pressure (Rs.=–0.31, p<0.05), years of smoking (Rs.=–0.43, p<0.05), cumulative heart (Rs.=–0.22, p<0.05), and malignancy damage (Rs.=–0.18, p<0.05). Serological correlations for IL-17A existed with immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (Rs.=0.21, p<0.05), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels (Rs.=0.28, p<0.05), proteinuria (Rs.=0.64, p<0.05), and pre-albumin (Rs.=–0.22, p<0.05). Longitudinal data showed only modest fluctuation in IL-17A levels, independent of

  12. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Total- and Self-etching Adhesive Systems after Application of Chlorhexidine to Dentin Contaminated with a Hemostatic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Farhadpour, Hajar

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Hemostatic agents may influence the bond strength of different bonding agents. Also, chlorhexidine has shown positive effects on bond strength values and their combination effect has not been reported yet. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of contamination with a hemostatic agent on shear bond strength (SBS) of total- and self-etching adhesive systems and the effect of chlorhexidine application after removal of the hemostatic agent. Materials and Method In this experimental study, the occlusal enamel of each sixty caries-free mandibular molars was removed and their midcoronal dentin was exposed. The specimens were then mounted in auto-polymerizing resin 1mm apical to CEJ. Then, the specimens were divided into 6 groups (n=10) based on contamination with a hemostatic agent (H), application of chlorhexidine (CHX) and the adhesive system used; and then were classified as Group 1: Adper Single Bond (ASB); Group 2: H+ASB; Group 3: H+0.2% CHX+ASB; Group 4: Clearfil SE Bond (CSB); Group 5: H+CSB; Group 6: H+0.2% CHX+CSB. Then, composite resin rods (4×2 mm) were built up on the dentin surfaces and after thermocycling, the SBS (MPa) was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences between bond strength values of group 1 (ASB) and group 2 (H+ASB) (p< 0.001) and group 1 (ASB) and group 3 (H+CHX+ASB) (p< 0.001). Similarly, significant differences were seen between group 4 (CSB) and group 5 (H+CSB) (p< 0.001) and between group 4 (CSB) and group 6 (H+CHX+CSB) (p< 0.001). Conclusion Contamination with hemostatic agent reduced the SBS of both total- and self-etching adhesive systems. In addition, application of chlorhexidine after the removal of hemostatic agent had a negative effect on SBS of total- and self-etching adhesive systems. PMID:26331146

  13. [THE CHOICE OF THE ANESTHESY OPTIMAL METHOD, USING DETERMINATION OF THE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS LEVEL IN THE PLASM AS A MARKER OF HYPERALGESIA IN EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD].

    PubMed

    Dmytriyev, D V

    2016-01-01

    There were examined 47 children, operated on for tumors of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space. The opioid-induced hyperalgesia may occur in early postoperative period. The anesthesia conduction of m. transverses abdominis (TAP-block), using 0.375% bupivacaine solution and combined spinal epidural analgesia (CSEA) for postoperative anesthesia have promoted the hyperalgesia severity reduction. Hyperalgesia in early postoperative period was demonstrated by upgrading of the toll-like receptors (TLR-4) level in the blood. The TLR-4 expression increased in the blood was noted while application of a TAP-block and CSEA.

  14. Short Communication: A Low-Cost Method for Analyzing Nevirapine Levels in Hair as a Marker of Adherence in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiyun; Bacchetti, Peter; Huang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The measurement of antiretroviral concentrations in hair is emerging as an important technology to objectively quantify adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy. Hair levels of antiretrovirals are the strongest independent predictor of virologic success in large prospective cohorts of HIV-infected patients and surpass self-report in predicting outcomes. Hair is easy to collect and store, but validated methods to analyze antiretroviral levels in hair using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are expensive. We report here on the development of a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) assay for the semiquantitative analysis of nevirapine in hair. TLC assay results from 11 samples were consistent with results using LC-MS/MS [Spearman correlation coefficient 0.99 (95% CI 0.95–0.996)]. This simple, low-cost method of analyzing nevirapine concentrations in hair may provide a novel monitoring tool for antiretroviral adherence in resource-limited settings and merits further study in clinical settings. PMID:24164410

  15. GidB mutation as a phylogenetic marker for Q1 cluster Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and intermediate-level streptomycin resistance determinant in Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, J; Macedo, R; Machado, D; Silva, C; Jordão, L; Couto, I; Viveiros, M; Portugal, I

    2014-05-01

    Development of streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is usually associated with mutations in rpsL and rrs genes, although up to 50% of clinical streptomycin-resistant isolates may present no mutation in either of these genes. In the present report we investigate the role of gidB gene mutations in streptomycin resistance. We have analyzed 52 streptomycin-resistant and 30 streptomycin-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates by sequencing and endonuclease analysis of the gidB and rpsL genes. All clinical isolates were genotyped by 12-loci MIRU-VNTR. The gidB gene of 18 streptomycin-resistant isolates was sequenced and four missense mutations were found: F12L (1/18), L16R (18/18), A80P (4/18) and S100F (18/18). The remaining isolates were screened by endonuclease analysis for mutations A80P in the gidB gene and K43R in the rpsL gene. Overall, mutation A80P in the gidB gene was found in eight streptomycin-resistant isolates and 11 streptomycin-susceptible multidrug-resistant isolates. Also noteworthy, is the fact that gidB mutations were only present in isolates without rpsL and rrs mutations, all from genetic cluster Q1. Streptomycin quantitative drug susceptibility testing showed that isolates carrying the gidB A80P mutation were streptomycin intermediate-level resistant and that standard drug susceptibility testing yielded inconsistent results, probably due to borderline resistance. We conclude that gidB mutations may explain the high number of streptomycin-resistant strains with no mutation in rpsL or rrs. These mutations might occasionally confer low-level streptomycin resistance that will go undetected in standard susceptibility testing.

  16. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, C.E.

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  17. AFP mRNA level in enriched circulating tumor cells from hepatocellular carcinoma patient blood samples is a pivotal predictive marker for metastasis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Junhua; Niu, Xiaojuan; Zou, Lihui; Li, Lin; Li, Shugang; Han, Jingli; Zhang, Peiying; Song, Jinghai; Xiao, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) quantification may be helpful for evaluating cancer dissemination, predicting prognosis and assessing therapeutic effectiveness and safety. In the present study, CTCs from blood samples of 72 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were enriched with anti-EpCAM nanoparticles. AFP mRNA level was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after enrichment of CTCs from HCC blood samples at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after hepatectomy, respectively. AFP mRNA expression in CTCs was positive in 43 patients (59.7%) and negative in 29 patients (40.3%) before hepatectomy. Among 43 patients with positive AFP mRNA expression in CTCs before hepatectomy, 10 and 11 were diagnosed as intrahepatic/extrahepatic metastasis before and after hepatectomy, respectively. In addition, these 21 patients with metastasis had persisting positive AFP mRNA of CTCs during the whole tested year. Specifically, 3 patients with AFP mRNA negative in CTCs before hepatectomy changed to be positive at 6 and 9 months, and 2 of them were diagnosed as metastasis 12 months after hepatectomy. We conclude that the positive AFP mRNA of CTCs can be a pivotal predictor for HCC metastasis before and after hepatectomy. The release of AFP expression from hepatocellular carcinoma cells into circulation must be a major source of HCC metastasis.

  18. Fertility and Markers of Male Reproductive Function in Inuit and European Populations Spanning Large Contrasts in Blood Levels of Persistent Organochlorines

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Giwercman, Aleksander; Spano, Marcello; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Bizzaro, Davide; Ludwicki, Jan K.; Zvyezday, Valentina; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C.; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objective We synthesized the main findings from an international epidemiologic study on the impact of biopersistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human reproductive function. Data sources and extraction We used a database with interview and biological data from 2,269 women and their spouses, and 18 published core papers. Data synthesis The study did not provide direct evidence of hormone-like activity of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener CB-153 and the main dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE), as serum concentrations of these compounds were not consistently related to either endogenous or exogenous hormone activity in serum. Nevertheless several links bewteen POP exposure and biomarkers of male reproductive function were identified. First, an association between high CB-153 serum levels and low sperm counts was detected within a subgroup of men with short androgen receptor CAG repeat length. Second, a relationship between increased CB-153 serum concentrations and decreased sperm motility was seen in all four studied regions, and indications of reduced neutral α-glucosidase activity in seminal plasma point to a post-testicular effect. Third, damage of sperm chromatin integrity was considerably less frequent in Greenlandic Inuits compared with that in European groups, and only in the latter was impairment of sperm chromatin integrity related to POPs. Despite these effects, fertility in terms of time taken to conceive was not related to POPs except in Inuits. A likely explanation of the latter was not identified. Conclusions POPs may interfere with male reproductive function without major impact on fertility. The data do not provide direct evidence for endocrine disruption, hence other mechanisms should also be considered. PMID:18335090

  19. Circulating Plasma Levels of MicroRNA-21 and MicroRNA-221 Are Potential Diagnostic Markers for Primary Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kemeny, Nancy; Kingham, T. Peter; Allen, Peter J.; D’Angelica, Michael I.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Betel, Doron; Klimstra, David; Jarnagin, William R.; Ventura, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers in various malignancies. We aim to characterize miRNA expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and identify circulating plasma miRNAs with potential diagnostic and prognostic utility. Methods Using deep-sequencing techniques, miRNA expression between tumor samples and non-neoplastic liver parenchyma were compared. Overexpressed miRNAs were measured in plasma from an independent cohort of patients with cholangiocarcinoma using RT-qPCR and compared with that healthy volunteers. The discriminatory ability of the evaluated plasma miRNAs between patients and controls was evaluated with receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Small RNAs from 12 ICC and 11 tumor-free liver samples were evaluated. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using the miRNA expression data showed clear grouping of ICC vs. non-neoplastic liver parenchyma. We identified 134 down-regulated and 128 upregulated miRNAs. Based on overexpression and high fold-change, miR21, miR200b, miR221, and miR34c were measured in plasma from an independent cohort of patients with ICC (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 7). Significant overexpression of miR-21 and miR-221 was found in plasma from ICC patients. Furthermore, circulating miR-21 demonstrated a high discriminatory ability between patients with ICC and healthy controls (AUC: 0.94). Conclusion Among the differentially expressed miRNAs in ICC, miR-21 and miR-221 are overexpressed and detectable in the circulation. Plasma expression levels of these miRNAs, particularly miR-21, accurately differentiates patients with ICC from healthy controls and could potentially serve as adjuncts in diagnosis. Prospective validation and comparison with other hepatobiliary malignancies is required to establish their potential role as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:27685844

  20. Analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 sequences in Ensis razor shells: suitability as molecular markers at the population and species levels, and evolution of these ribosomal DNA spacers.

    PubMed

    Vierna, Joaquín; Martínez-Lage, Andrés; González-Tizón, Ana M

    2010-01-01

    Internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) sequences were analysed in Ensis razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae). We aimed to (1) test ITS1 and ITS2 as molecular markers at the population level in the successful alien E. directus (Conrad, 1843); (2) test these spacers at the species level in E. directus and three other Ensis species, E. siliqua (L., 1758), E. macha (Molina, 1782), and E. magnus (Schumacher, 1817); and (3) analyse the evolutionary processes that may be shaping Ensis ITS1 and ITS2 extant variation. In E. directus, despite the intragenomic divergence detected, ITS1 and ITS2 were informative in differentiating the geographic areas considered (Denmark and Canada) by means of both the insertion-deletion polymorphism and the nucleotide polymorphism. In this species, the 5.8S ribosomal gene (5.8S) showed scarce polymorphism. At the species level, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses revealed that ITS1 and ITS2 may be suitable to reconstruct Ensis phylogenetic relationships. Finally, the evolutionary models that best fit the long-term evolution of Ensis ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 are discussed. A mixed process of concerted evolution, birth-and-death evolution, and selection is chosen as an option that may reconcile the long-term evolution of Ensis ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 5S ribosomal DNA.

  1. Fast in situ generated ɛ-polylysine-poly (ethylene glycol) hydrogels as tissue adhesives and hemostatic materials using an enzyme-catalyzed method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Wei; Feng, Xiao-hai; Li, Sha; Yu, Dong-feng; Chang, Jia-cong; Chi, Bo; Xu, Hong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, novel bio-inspired in situ hydrogels as tissue adhesives and hemostatic materials were designed and prepared based on ɛ-polylysine-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) and tyramine via enzymatic cross-linking. The enzymatic cross-linked method enabled fast gelation within seconds, which facilitated its therapeutic applications. By changing the cross-linking conditions, the storage modulus of the hydrogels could be tunable and the mechanical strength influenced the tissue adhesiveness of the hydrogels. Besides, the hydrogels showed fine network structures with appropriate pore sizes, which were thought to be a contributing factor to the strong adhesiveness. Benefiting from the strong mechanical properties and fine network structures, the ɛ-polylysine-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) and tyramine hydrogels exhibited superior wound-healing and hemostatic ability compared to conventional and commercially available medical materials. Moreover, indirect cytotoxicity assessment indicated that the ɛ-polylysine-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) and tyramine hydrogels were nontoxic to the L929 cell. These results demonstrated that the enzymatic cross-linked in situ ɛ-polylysine hydrogels hold high potential for tissue sealants and hemostatic materials.

  2. The efficacy of Ankaferd Blood Stopper in antithrombotic drug-induced primary and secondary hemostatic abnormalities of a rat-bleeding model.

    PubMed

    Kosar, Ali; Cipil, Handan S; Kaya, Arif; Uz, Burak; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C; Goker, Hakan; Ozdemir, Oktay; Ercetin, Sevil; Kirazli, Serafettin; Firat, Huseyin Cahit

    2009-04-01

    Ankaferd comprises a standardized mixture of plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum and Urtica dioica. Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) as a medicinal product has been approved in the management of external hemorrhage and dental surgery bleedings in Turkey. This study aimed to evaluate the in-vivo hemostatic effect of ABS in rats pretreated with acetylsalicylic acid or enoxaparin. Wistar rats (210-270 g) of both sexes were used in this study. The animals were pretreated with acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg/kg) orally for 4 days or enoxaparin sodium (8 mg/kg) subcutaneously for 3 days or did not receive any anticoagulant before tail cut at 4th day. ABS was administered topically [a total of 4 ml (1 ml/puff x 4)] to the cut tail in the studied animals. The duration of bleeding and the amount of bleeding were measured in order to evaluate the hemostatic effect of ABS. In acetylsalicylic acid-treated animals, topical ABS reduced both the duration and also the amount of bleeding volume by 68.4 and 54.6%, respectively. It was also effective in shortening the duration of bleeding (30.6%) and decreasing the amount of bleeding (32.8%) in enoxaparin-treated animals. ABS, a traditional folkloric medicinal plant extract, has in-vivo hemostatic actions, which may provide a therapeutic potential for the management of patients with deficient hemostasis in the clinical medicine.

  3. Tumour markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cove, D. H.; Woods, K. L.; Smith, S. C.; Burnett, D.; Leonard, J.; Grieve, R. J.; Howell, A.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of 8 potential tumour markers has been evaluated in 69 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer and 57 patients with Stage III and IV. Serum CEA concentrations were raised in 13% of patients with local and 65% of those with advanced breast cancer. In patients with clinical evidence of progression or regression of tumour, serum CEA levels changed appropriately in 83% of cases. Taking 4 of the markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lactalbumin, alpha subunit and haptoglobin) serum concentrations of one or more were raised in 33% of patients with local disease and 81% of those with advanced breast cancer. However, marker concentrations were often only marginally raised, and are unlikely to provide sensitive guide to tumour burden. CEA, lactalbumin and alpha subunit were detectable in 68%, 43% and 40% respectively of extracts of primary breast cancers. PMID:92331

  4. [A 50-year history of new drugs in Japan-the development and trends of hemostatics and antithrombotic drugs].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hikaru; Abiko, Yasushi; Akimoto, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The developments and trends of hemostatic and antithrombotic drugs in Japan were investigated chronologically for the last 50 years after the 2nd World War. 1. Hemostatic drugs are classified into three groups ; capillary stabilizers, blood coagulants and antifibrinolytics. l) As to capillary stabilizers, flavonoid (rutin, 1949), adrenochrome derivative (carbazochrome, 1954) and conjugated estrogen (Premarin, 1964) were introduced therapeutically. Especially, the soluble types of adrenochrome compounds (Adona 1956, S-Adchnon, 1962) were devised and used widely in Japan. 2) Drugs concerning blood coagulation, thrombin, introduced in 1953, and hemocoagulase, a snake venom introduced in 1966, were used clinically. V.K. groups producing various coagulation factors were introduced as V.K1 (Phytonadione, 1962) and V.K2 (rnenatetrenone,1972), and they were admitted in "The Japanese Pharmacopoeia"editions 8 and 14, respectively). 3) Regarding antifibrinolytic drugs, Japanese researchers have made remarkable contributions. e-Aminocapronic acid (Ipsilon, 1962) and tranexamic acid (Transamin, 1965) were developed and used for various abnormal bleedings or hemorrhage associated with plasmin over-activation. tranexamic acid also proved to suppress inflammations of the throat such as tonsillitis, pharyngitis or laryngitis. 2. Antithrombotic drugs are also divided into three groups; anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs and fibrinolytics.1) The anticoagulants used therapeutically by injection are heparins (Na-salt, 1951; Ca-salt, 1962) and low-molecular-weight heparins such as dalteparin (1992), parnaparin (1994) and reviparin (1999). The low molecule compounds are superior to the original heparins in reducing the risk of bleeding. As oral anticoagulants, coumarin derivatives, dicumarol (1950), ethylbiscoumacetate (1954), phenylindandione (1956) and warfarin (1962) are known. Warfarin potassium is the main drug for oral therapy of thromboembolism lately. Gabexate mesilate (1989) and

  5. Single automated donor plateletpheresis increases the plasma level of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha which does not associate with endothelial release markers von Willebrand factor and fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Karadoğan, I; Ozdoğan, M; Undar, L

    2000-12-01

    The effect of plateletpheresis on endothelium, which has strong effects on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet function, is not known. Activation of leukocytes and subsequent generation of proinflammatory cytokines during the extracorporeal circulation may activate the endothelium. To test this hypothesis we measured plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as a prototype of the proinflammatory cytokines, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) and fibronectin as endothelial release/damage markers before and after a single plateletpheresis procedure on an intermittent-flow machine Haemonetics MCS 3p in 17 healthy donors. We found a significant increase in median plasma level of TNF-alpha following plateletpheresis (3.5 vs 26.5 pg/ml, P=0.02). Such increases in vWF and fibronectin were not observed. The increase in plasma TNF-alpha indicates that a single plateletpheresis procedure causes leukocyte activation which does not seemingly impair endothelial cell function. The relation of plateletpheresis-induced proinflammatory cytokine release to some adverse effects observed in both donors and recipients, and the effect of repeated plateletpheresis on endothelium deserve further studies.

  6. Urine markers of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the current state of the art with regard to urine markers of interstitial cystitis (IC), and describes the areas that need continuing research. Articles referenced in MEDLINE that describe urine alterations in IC were reviewed. Additional articles were identified by cross-referencing. The different marker alterations were tabulated. The relevant articles were discussed, considering different purposes for urine markers including: (1) diagnosing IC; (2) confirming a specific pathophysiology for IC; and (3) predicting or following response to a specific treatment. Currently, 2 markers (glycoprotein-51 and antiproliferative factor [APF]) clearly separate IC and control subjects, with minimal overlap. Markers that correlate with specific bladder biopsy features include 1,4-methylimidazole acetic acid and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which correlate with mast cell density, and interleukin (IL)-6, which correlates with mononuclear inflammation. Markers that changed after treatment were as follows: (1) nitric oxide synthase and cyclic guanosine monophosphate increased with oral L-arginine; (2) ECP decreased with subcutaneous heparin; (3) prostaglandin E(2) and kallikrein decreased after bladder distention; (4) neutrophil chemotactic activity decreased after dimethyl sulfoxide; (5) IL-2 inhibitor decreased after oral nifedipine; (6) IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine; and (7) APF and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor changed to or toward normal levels after bladder distention or sacral nerve stimulation. A larger number of urine alterations have been reported, and a few are being pursued further by correlating with bladder biopsy findings or treatment responses. Further research is needed.

  7. Efficacy of a topical bovine-derived thrombin solution as a hemostatic agent in a rodent model of hepatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli, Desiree D.; Brainard, Benjamin M.; Schmiedt, Chad W.

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhage is a major concern in patients undergoing hepatic surgery or in those with hepatic trauma. In these cases, employing traditional hemostatic strategies can be problematic due to the diffuse nature of hepatic hemorrhage and limited opportunities for direct hemostasis. This study assessed the efficacy of a bovine-derived thrombin solution, (BT), as a topical liquid agent to augment hemostasis and survival following severe hepatic hemorrhage in a rat model. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), packed cell volume (PCV), and overall survival were evaluated in 54 rats randomly assigned to receive topical application of BT, saline, or suture ligation applied immediately to a liver lobe following controlled laceration. Six additional rats received liver laceration with no applied treatment. Intravenous fluid resuscitation was initiated and HR and ABP were recorded for 60 min, after which survivors were recovered from anesthesia. Rats were then monitored for 72 h, after which survivors were euthanized. There was no significant difference in survival time, percentage survival, intra-operative ABP or HR, or post-operative PCV between treatment groups. There is insufficient evidence to recommend BT as the sole therapy using this delivery method for mitigating severe hemorrhage from liver injury. PMID:26424911

  8. Bcl-xL-inhibitory BH3 mimetics can induce a transient thrombocytopathy that undermines the hemostatic function of platelets.

    PubMed

    Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jarman, Kate E; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Hua, My; Qiao, Jianlin; White, Michael J; Josefsson, Emma C; Alwis, Imala; Ono, Akiko; Willcox, Abbey; Andrews, Robert K; Mason, Kylie D; Salem, Hatem H; Huang, David C S; Kile, Benjamin T; Roberts, Andrew W; Jackson, Shaun P

    2011-08-11

    BH3 mimetics are a new class of proapo-ptotic anticancer agents that have shown considerable promise in preclinical animal models and early-stage human trials. These agents act by inhibiting the pro-survival function of one or more Bcl-2-related proteins. Agents that inhibit Bcl-x(L) induce rapid platelet death that leads to thrombocytopenia; however, their impact on the function of residual circulating platelets remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the BH3 mimetics, ABT-737 or ABT-263, induce a time- and dose-dependent decrease in platelet adhesive function that correlates with ectodomain shedding of the major platelet adhesion receptors, glycoprotein Ibα and glycoprotein VI, and functional down-regulation of integrin α(IIb)β(3). Analysis of platelets from mice treated with higher doses of BH3 mimetics revealed the presence of a subpopulation of circulating platelets undergoing cell death that have impaired activation responses to soluble agonists. Functional analysis of platelets by intravital microscopy revealed a time-dependent defect in platelet aggregation at sites of vascular injury that correlated with an increase in tail bleeding time. Overall, these studies demonstrate that Bcl-x(L)-inhibitory BH3 mimetics not only induce thrombocytopenia but also a transient thrombocytopathy that can undermine the hemostatic function of platelets.

  9. Snake bites by the Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus canni): paralysis, hemostatic and electrocardiographic abnormalities, and effects of antivenom.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, D G; Trevett, A J; Korinhona, A; Nwokolo, N; Laurenson, I F; Paul, M; Black, J; Naraqi, S; Mavo, B; Saweri, A

    1995-06-01

    One hundred sixty-six patients with enzyme immunoassay-proven bites by taipans (Oxyuranus scutellatus canni) were studied in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. One hundred thirty-nine (84%) showed clinical evidence of envenoming: local signs were trivial, but most developed hemostatic disorders and neurotoxicity. The blood of 77% of the patients was incoagulable and 35% bled spontaneously, usually from the gums. Fifty-one per cent had microscopic hematuria. Neurotoxic signs (ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, bulbar paralysis, and peripheral muscular weakness) developed in 85%. Endotracheal intubation was required in 42% and mechanical ventilation in 37%. Electrocardiographic abnormalities (sinus bradycardia and septal T wave inversion) were found in 52% of a group of 69 unselected patients. Specific antivenom raised against Australian taipan venom was effective in stopping spontaneous systemic bleeding and restoring blood coagulability but, in most cases, it neither reversed nor prevented the evolution of paralysis even when given within a few hours of the bite. However, early antivenom treatment was associated statistically with decreased incidence and severity of neurotoxic signs. The low case fatality rate of 4.3% is attributable mainly to the use of mechanical ventilation, a technique rarely available in Papua New Guinea. Earlier use of increased doses of antivenoms of improved specificity might prove more effective.

  10. Cloning, expression, and hemostatic activities of a disintegrin, r-mojastin 1, from the mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elda E; Lucena, Sara E; Reyes, Steven; Soto, Julio G; Cantu, Esteban; Lopez-Johnston, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Belsy; Salazar, Ana Maria; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Galán, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Pérez, John C

    2010-09-01

    Interactions with exposed subendothelial extracellular proteins and cellular integrins (endothelial cells, platelets and lymphocytes) can cause alterations in the hemostatic system associated with atherothrombotic processes. Many molecules found in snake venoms induce pathophysiological changes in humans, cause edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Disintegrins are low molecular weight, non-enzymatic proteins found in snake venom that mediate changes by binding to integrins of platelets or other cells and prevent binding of the natural ligands such as fibrinogen, fibronectin or vitronectin. Disintegrins are of great biomedical importance due to their binding affinities resulting in the inhibition of platelet aggregation, adhesion of cancer cells, and induction of signal transduction pathways. RT-PCR was used to obtain a 216 bp disintegrin cDNA from a C. s. scutulatus snake venom gland. The cloned recombinant disintegrin called r-mojastin 1 codes for 71 amino acids, including 12 cysteines, and an RGD binding motif. r-Mojastin 1 inhibited platelet adhesion to fibronectin with an IC50 of 58.3 nM and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood with an IC50 of 46 nM. r-Mojastin 1 was also tested for its ability to inhibit platelet ATP release using PRP resulting with an IC50 of 95.6 nM. MALDI-TOF mass spectrum analysis showed that r-mojastin has a mass of 7.95676 kDa.

  11. Factors associated with excessive postoperative blood loss and hemostatic transfusion requirements: a multivariate analysis in cardiac surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Despotis, G J; Filos, K S; Zoys, T N; Hogue, C W; Spitznagel, E; Lappas, D G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether heparin and protamine doses administered using a standardized protocol based on body weight and activated clotting time values are associated with either transfusion of hemostatic blood products (HBPs) or excessive postoperative bleeding. Analysis using 10 multiple logistic or linear regression models in 487 cardiac surgical patients included perioperative variables that may have an association with either transfusion of HBP and/or excessive postoperative chest tube drainage (CTD). Prolonged duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), lower pre-CPB heparin dose, lower core body temperature in the intensive care unit, combined procedures, older age, repeat procedures, a larger volume of salvaged red cells reinfused intraoperatively and abnormal laboratory coagulation results (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and platelet count) after CPB were associated with both transfusion of HBP and increased CTD. Female gender, lower total heparin dose, preoperative aspirin use and the number of HBPs administered intraoperatively were associated only with increased CTD, whereas a larger total protamine dose was associated only with perioperative transfusion of HBPs. Preoperative use of warfarin or heparin was not associated with excessive blood loss of perioperative transfusion of HBPs. In contrast to previous studies using bovine heparin, data from the present study do not support the use of reduced doses of porcine heparin during CPB.

  12. The effects of compounded bioidentical transdermal hormone therapy on hemostatic, inflammatory, immune factors; cardiovascular biomarkers; quality-of-life measures; and health outcomes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kenna; Neuenschwander, Pierre F; Kurdowska, Anna K

    2013-01-01

    Menopause impacts 25 million women world wide each year, and the World Health Organization estimates 1.2 billion women will be postmenopausal by 2030. Menopause has been associated with symptoms of hot flashes, night sweats, dysphoric mood, sleep disturbance, and conditions of cardiovascular disease, depression, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, depression, dementia, and frailty. Conventional hormone replacement therapy results in increased thrombotic events, and an increased risk of breast cancer and dementia as evidenced in large prospective clinical trials including Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study I and the Women's Health Initiative. A possible mechanism for these adverse events is the unfavorable net effects of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate on the hemostatic balance and inflammatory and immune factors. Physiologic sex steroid therapy with transdermal delivery for peri/postmenopausal women may offer a different risk/benefit profile, yet long-term studies of this treatment model are lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term effects of compounded bioidentical transdermal sex steroid therapy including estriol, estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, and testosterone on cardiovascular biomarkers, hemostatic, inflammatory, immune signaling factors; quality-of-life measures; and health outcomes in peri/postmenopausal women within the context of a hormone restoration model of care. A prospective, cohort, closed-label study received approval from the Human Subjects Committee. Recruitment from outpatient clinics at an academic medical center and the community at large resulted in three hundred women giving signed consent. Seventy-five women who met strict inclusion/exclusion criteria were enrolled. Baseline hormone evaluation was performed along with baseline experimental measures. Following this, women received compounded transdermal bioidentical hormone therapy of BiEst (80%Estriol/20%Estradiol), and

  13. Recognition of immunogold markers in electron micrographs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixuan; Pokhariya, Himanshu; McKenna, Stephen J; Lucocq, John

    2011-11-01

    Immunoelectron microscopy is used in cell biological research to study the spatial distribution of intracellular macromolecules at the ultrastructural level. Colloidal gold particles (immunogold markers) are commonly used to localise molecules of interest on ultrathin sections and can be visualised in transmission electron micrographs as dark spots. Quantitative analysis involves detection of the immunogold markers, and is often performed manually or interactively as part of a stereological estimation technique. The method presented in this paper automatically detects and counts immunogold markers, estimating the location, size and type of each marker. It was evaluated on single-labelled as well as double-labelled images showing markers of two different sizes. This is a first step towards automatic analysis of immunoelectron micrographs, enabling a rapid and more complete quantitative analysis than is currently practicable.

  14. Lipid, Lipoproteins, C-Reactive Protein, and Hemostatic Factors at Baseline in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE — Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) appear to be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) due at least in part to an increased prevalence of risk factors. We evaluated lipid, lipoprotein, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) levels at study entry in the largest multiethnic cohort of participants with IGT described, namely in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — Measurements were performed at the baseline visit of 3,819 randomized participants of the DPP. Among 3,622 participants who were not taking lipid-lowering medicines, cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in relation to demographic, anthropometric, and metabolic measures. Major determinants of risk factors were assessed in multivariate analysis. RESULTS — Over 40% of participants had elevated triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and CRP levels and reduced HDL cholesterol levels. Men had higher triglyceride and tPA and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations and smaller LDL particle size than women, whereas women had higher CRP and fibrinogen levels. African Americans had less dyslipidemia but higher fibrinogen levels, and Asian Americans had lower CRP and fibrinogen levels than Caucasians and Hispanics. The surrogate measure of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) had the strongest association with HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and tPA levels and LDL particle size. BMI had the greatest influence on CRP and fibrinogen levels. Using median splits of indexes of insulin resistance and insulin secretion (insulin-to-glucose ratio), participants with greater insulin resistance had a more adverse CVD risk-factor profile, whereas insulin secretion had little influence on risk factors. CONCLUSIONS — The pattern of CVD risk factors in participants with IGT in the DPP exhibits substantial heterogeneity and is significantly influenced by race, sex, and age, as well as

  15. 78 FR 35567 - Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker 219 to Mile Marker 229, in the Vicinity of Port...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker 219 to... Mississippi River beginning at mile marker 219 and ending at mile marker 229, extending the entire width of.... The water levels on the Lower Mississippi River in this area have risen very rapidly, creating...

  16. Surrogate nutrition markers, malnutrition, and adequacy of nutrition support.

    PubMed

    Seres, David S

    2005-06-01

    Surrogate nutrition markers are used to assess adequacy of nourishment and to define malnutrition despite evidence that fails to link nourishment, surrogate markers, and outcomes. Markers such as serum levels of albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, and IGF-1 and delayed hypersensitivity and total lymphocyte count may be valid to help stratify risk. However, it is not appropriate to consider these as markers of adequacy of nourishment in the sick patient.

  17. Biological markers in older people at risk of mobility limitations.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Montagnana, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Due to the progressive ageing of the worldwide population, prevention and treatment of late-life dysfunctions, including functional decline and mobility limitations, represent leading targets of scientists and clinicians, but are also receiving growing attention from governments and healthcare systems. The early identification of elderly patients more prone to physical decline represents a crucial step for establishing preventive measures. Although functional capacity can easily be assessed, the use of additional criteria that anticipate the onset of mobility limitations seems much more advantageous. The most challenging issues in the identification of biological markers for assessing the risk of functional decline in the elderly originates from the complex and multifaceted pathogenesis of sarcopenia and the resulting physiological decrement, so that bridging the gap between basic research and clinical practice may appear intricate. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence now confirm the existence of negative associations between functional mobility and values of hemoglobin, total and HDL-cholesterol, vitamin D, testosterone, adiponectin and antioxidants such carotenoids, vitamin C and E, selenium and magnesium, whereas positive associations have been reported with the values of uric acid, white blood cells, plasma and blood viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), triglycerides, homocysteine, plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), markers of renal functions (i.e., creatine and cystatin C), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), as well as several inflammatory (e.g., C reactive protein, Intereleukin-6, Interleukin- 1 receptor antagonist), hemostatic (e.g., fibrinogen, Von Willebrand Factor, factors VIII and IX) and oxidative (oxidized lipoproteins, 8-oxo-7,8-2'-deoxyguanosine, protein carbonylation) biomarkers. In the foreseeable future, proteomic studies might predictably help identify novel associations between putative biomarkers and functional

  18. A comparative study of the effects of the hemostatic system of two monophasic gestodene oral contraceptives containing 20 micrograms and 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol.

    PubMed

    Winkler, U H; Schindler, A E; Endrikat, J; Düsterberg, B

    1996-02-01

    The effects of two oral contraceptives, containing gestodene and either 20 micrograms or 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol, on hemostatic parameters was investigated in a six-month randomized study involving a total of 40 healthy women between the ages of 18 and 30 years. A large number of hemostatic parameters were measured, which were categorized as either pro-coagulatory, anti-coagulatory, profibrinolytic, anti-fibrinolytic or indicative of fibrin turnover. Additionally, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) were measured before and after venous occlusion and delta and ratio values calculated. Pro-coagulatory factors as well as reaction products reflecting in vivo coagulatory activity (thrombin-antithrombin III complex, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2) were found to increase. Among the anti-coagulatory parameters, only protein S concentration and protein S activity decreased, most notably in the 30 micrograms EE group. There was a corresponding increase in fibrinolytic activity reflected by reaction products of in vivo fibrinolysis (plasmin-antiplasmin 2-complex, fibrin-degradation products). Measurement of t-PA and PAI-1, before and after venous occlusion, revealed that the fibrinolytic response was more pronounced in the 20 micrograms EE group. There was also an increase in the threshold of fibrinolytic inhibition (ratio PAI-1) in both groups, which was less pronounced in the 20 micrograms EE group. Apart from isolated measurements, all parameters remained within their normal ranges and values returned to baseline in the follow-up cycle. It is concluded that both preparations had a balanced effect on the hemostatic system stimulating both pro-coagulant and fibrinolytic activity. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups; however, there was a trend towards greater fibrinolytic capacity in the 20 micrograms EE group.

  19. The hemostatic profile of recombinant activated factor VII. Can low concentrations stop bleeding in off-label indications?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High concentrations of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) can stop bleeding in hemophilic patients. However the rFVIIa dose needed for stopping haemhorrage in off-label indications is unknown. Since thrombin is the main hemostatic agent, this study investigated the effect of rFVIIa and tissue factor (TF) on thrombin generation (TG) in vitro. Methods Lag time (LT), time to peak (TTP), peak TG (PTG), and area under the curve after 35 min (AUCo-35 min) with the calibrated automated thrombography was used to evaluate TG. TG was assayed in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) samples from 29 healthy volunteers under basal conditions and after platelet stimulation with 5.0 μg/ml, 2.6 μg/ml, 0.5 μg/ml, 0.25 μg/ml, and 0.125 μg/ml rFVIIa alone and in normal platelet-poor plasma (PPP) samples from 22 healthy volunteers, rFVIIa in combination with various concentrations of TF (5.0, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.5 pM). Results In PRP activated by rFVIIa, there was a statistically significant increase in TG compared to basal values. A significant TF dose-dependent shortening of LT and increased PTG and AUCo→35 min were obtained in PPP. The addition of rFVIIa increased the effect of TF in shorting the LT and increasing the AUCo→35 min with no effect on PTG but were independent of rFVIIa concentration. Conclusion Low concentrations of rFVIIa were sufficient to form enough thrombin in normal PRP or in PPP when combined with TF, and suggest low concentrations for normalizing hemostasis in off-label indications. PMID:20444280

  20. Hemostatic interference of Indian king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) Venom. Comparison with three other snake venoms of the subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Gowtham, Yashonandana J; Kumar, M S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2012-06-01

    Unlike Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus, Echis carinatus, and Daboia/Vipera russellii venoms, Ophiophagus hannah venom is medically ignored in the Indian subcontinent. Being the biggest poisonous snake, O. hannah has been presumed to inject several lethal doses of venom in a single bite. Lack of therapeutic antivenom to O. hannah bite in India makes any attempt to save the victim a difficult exercise. This study was initiated to compare O. hannah venom with the above said venoms for possible interference in hemostasis. Ophiophagus hannah venom was found to actively interfere in hemostatic stages such as fibrin clot formation, platelet activation/aggregation, and fibrin clot dissolution. It decreased partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin clotting time (TCT). These activities are similar to that shown by E. carinatus and D. russellii venoms, and thus O. hannah venom was found to exert procoagulant activity through the common pathway of blood coagulation, while N. naja venom increased aPTT and TCT but not PT, and hence it was found to exert anticoagulant activity through the intrinsic pathway. Venoms of O. hannah, E. carinatus, and D. russellii lack plasminogen activation property as they do not hydrolyze azocasein, while they all show plasmin-like activity by degrading the fibrin clot. Although N. naja venom did not degrade azocasein, unlike other venoms, it showed feeble plasmin-like activity on fibrin clot. Venom of E. carinatus induced clotting of human platelet rich plasma (PRP), while the other three venoms interfered in agonist-induced platelet aggregation in PRP. Venom of O. hannah least inhibited the ADP induced platelet aggregation as compared to D. russellii and N. naja venoms. All these three venoms showed complete inhibition of epinephrine-induced aggregation at varied doses. However, O. hannah venom was unique in inhibiting thrombin induced aggregation.

  1. Topical hemostatic agents for bone bleeding in humans. A quantitative comparison of gelatin paste, gelatin sponge plus bovine thrombin, and microfibrillar collagen.

    PubMed

    Harris, W H; Crothers, O D; Moyen, B J; Bourne, R B

    1978-06-01

    The three topical hemostatic agents--gelatin paste, microfibrillar collagen, and gelatin sponge soaked in thrombin--individually were effective in reducing bleeding from cancellous bone, as tested on the femoral surface of trochanteric osteotomies during total hip replacement. During a three-minute interval, the spontaneous reduction in bleeding in eight control hips to which no agent was applied was 11 per cent. Gelatin paste gave a reduction of 85 per cent; gelatin sponge soaked in thrombin, a reduction of 75 per cent; and microfibrillar collagen, a reduction of 47 per cent. None of these agents interfered with healing of the trochanteric osteotomy.

  2. Topical hemostatic agents to reduce bleeding from cancellous bone. A comparison of microcrystalline collagen, thrombin, and thrombin-soaked gelatin foam.

    PubMed

    Cobden, R H; Thrasher, E L; Harris, W H

    1976-01-01

    In fifty-three dogs microcrystalline collagen, thrombin-soaked gelatin foam, and thrombin powder were evaluated as hemostatic agents when applied to bleeding cancellous surfaces after osteotomy of the greater trochanter using two quantitative models: one, a single osteotomy; the other, a double osteotomy. All three agents significantly reduced bleeding compared with the controls, the microcrystalline collagen being most effective. At three months there was no evidence that microcrystalline collagen and thrombin-gelatin interfered with bone healing after the greater trochanter was reattached with two wires.

  3. Endoscopic glue injection with application of hemostatic clips: a novel method of closing a gastro colonic fistula after PEG tube complication.

    PubMed

    Alsayari, Khalid; Masoodi, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Gastrocolonic fistula after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG tube) placement is an uncommon but a serious complication of the procedure. These fistulous tracts are often fibrotic and require surgical intervention if the spontaneous closure fails. We describe development of gastroclonic fistula in an old man who presented with history of post feeding diarrhea of 2 weeks duration three months after placement of PEG tube. Successful closure of fistulous tract was documented after local glue injection and hemostatic clips without any complication obviating need of surgery. The patient is on our follow-up for last 8 months now.

  4. Fiducial Marker Placement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body General Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) Proton Therapy Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Images related to Fiducial Marker Placement Sponsored by ...

  5. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type . GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...and recovery from severe alcoholism symptoms. ■󈧒:584-587) Blood - typing marker studies have produced similar mixed results. One study published in...1959 showed a high correlation among 939 alcoholics and blood type A. (20:4 60-4 61) A similar study in 1973 reported no blood type distribution

  6. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.

  7. Antibacterial Activities of Ankaferd Hemostat (ABS) on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Other Pathogens Significant in Foodborne Diseases.

    PubMed

    Koluman, Ahmet; Akar, Nejat; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim C

    2017-03-01

    Amaç: Ankaferd hemostat (Ankaferd Blood Stopper®, ABS) gamma fibrinojene etki ederek eritroid agregasyonuna neden olan farmakolojik modülasyondur. Topikal endoskopik ABS uygulaması gastrointestinal (Gİ) kanamalarda ve enfekte Gİ yaralarında etkili olmaktadır. Escherichia coli O157:H7, en sık karşılaşılan enterohemorajik Escherichia coli tipi olup sporadik veya salgınlar şeklinde hemorajik kolitin önemli bir etkenidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı ABS ile 6 farklı Shiga Toksijenik Escherichia coli serotipi (O26, O103, O104, O111, O145 ve O157) ve diğer önemli gıda kaynaklı patojenlerden Salmonella, Campylobacter ve Listeria monocytogenes üzerine etkisi değerlendirilmiştir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Tüm patojenler hazırlanarak ABS’nin farklı miktarları uygulanmış ve antimikrobiyel etki izlenmiştir. Salmonella canlılığı floresan in situ hibridizasyon tekniği ile izlenmiştir. Bulgular: ABS uygulamalarının sadece Escherichia coli O157 ve non-O157’ler üzerine değil aynı zamanda diğer patojenlerde de logaritmik azalma tetiklediği izlenmiştir. Bu çalışmada ABS ile farklı patojenler üzerine antibakteriyel etki gözlemlenmiştir. Sonuç: Bu çalışma özellikle trombositopenik purpura, hemolitik üremik sendrom ve hemorajik kolit yönünden önemli Escherichia coli O157:H7’nin üzerine ABS’nin antimikrobiyel etkisi olduğunu belirleyen ilk çalışmadır. ABS uygulamalarının kolitis, enfeksiyon ve hemostaz ilişkisi daha ileri seviyede araştırılmalıdır.

  8. Markers of erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kelvin P.; Melman, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED), the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic) with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients. PMID:19468461

  9. The effects of treatment with alpha-lipoic acid or evening primrose oil on vascular hemostatic and lipid risk factors, blood flow, and peripheral nerve conduction in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Ford, I; Cotter, M A; Cameron, N E; Greaves, M

    2001-08-01

    Oxidative stress and defective fatty acid metabolism in diabetes may lead to impaired nerve perfusion and contribute to the development of peripheral neuropathy. We studied the effects of 2-week treatments with evening primrose oil (EPO; n = 16) or the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA; n = 16) on endoneurial blood flow, nerve conduction parameters, lipids, coagulation, and endothelial factors, in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Compared with their nondiabetic littermates, untreated diabetic rats had impaired sciatic motor and saphenous sensory nerve-conduction velocity (NCV; P <.001), reduced endoneurial blood flow (P <.001), and increased serum triglycerides (P <.01), cholesterol (P < 0.01), plasma factor VII (P <.0001), and von Willebrand factor (vWF; P <.0001). Plasma fibrinogen and serum high-density lipoprotein concentrations were not significantly different. Treatment with either ALA or EPO effectively corrected the deficits in NCV and endoneurial blood flow. ALA was associated with marked and statistically significant decreases in fibrinogen, factor VII, vWF, and triglycerides (P <.01, paired t tests before v after treatment). In contrast, EPO was associated with significant (P <.05) increases in fibrinogen, factor VII, vWF, triglycerides, and cholesterol and a significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein. Changes in levels of coagulation factors and lipids, qualitatively similar to those found with EPO, were obtained with a diet containing sunflower oil (to control for calorific and lipid content) or with a normal diet alone. Blood glucose and hematocrit levels were not significantly altered by treatments. These data suggest that although both ALA and EPO improve blood flow and nerve function, their actions on vascular factors differ. The marked effects of ALA in lowering lipid and hemostatic risk factors for cardiovascular disease indicate potential antithrombotic and antiatherosclerotic actions that could be of benefit in human diabetes

  10. A Model for Studying the Hemostatic Consumption or Destruction of Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Mark R.; Josefsson, Emma C.; Henley, Katya J.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental issue in understanding homeostasis of the hematopoietic system is to what extent intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate cell fate. We recently revisited this issue for the case of blood platelets and concluded that platelet life span is largely regulated by internal factors, in contrast to the long-held view that accumulated damage from the environment triggers clearance. However, it is known that in humans there is an ongoing fixed requirement for platelets to maintain hemostasis and prevent bleeding; hence a proportion of platelets may be consumed in such processes before the end of their natural life span. Whether it is possible to detect this random loss of platelets in normal individuals at steady-state is unknown. To address this question, we have developed a mathematical model that independently incorporates age-independent random loss and age-dependent natural senescent clearance. By fitting to population survival curves, we illustrate the application of the model in quantifying the fixed requirement for platelets to maintain hemostasis in mice, and discuss the relationship with previous work in humans. Our results suggest a higher requirement for platelets in mice than in humans, however experimental uncertainty in the data limits our ability to constrain this quantity. We then explored the relationship between experimental uncertainty and parameter constraint using simulated data. We conclude that in order to provide useful constraint on the random loss fraction the standard error in the mean of the data must be reduced substantially, either through improving experimental uncertainty or increasing the number of experimental replicates to impractical levels. Finally we find that parameter constraint is improved at higher values of the random loss fraction; thus the model find utility in situations where the random loss fraction is expected to be high, for example during active bleeding or some types of thrombocytopenia. PMID:23505441

  11. Development of Hemostatic Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-31

    CP-35 (1 plEtOH inglas lumnomter ube the effects of CP-305 (o), EtOH (o), and luminol (m) CP-305 (10 oa EtOH) in glass luminometer tube on superoxide...release as a function of time. containing luminol (1 mM). Samples were monitored as a function of time using a single tube luminometer (Berthold...Detection Systems). Control samples consisted of 10 .d of EtOH and luminol only assays. Figure 16 shows that neither CP-305 nor EtOH caused a significant

  12. Absorbable Antimicrobial Battlefield Hemostat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    to graphene sheet and carbon nanotubes . Coupled with ABTS, the GQDs can be used for the detection of hydrogen peroxide with the limit of detection......dressing could be made of any material that is compatible to our coating solvent. Examples include gelatin based and cellulose based substrates. The

  13. Whole-exome sequencing of a patient with severe and complex hemostatic abnormalities reveals a possible contributing frameshift mutation in C3AR1

    PubMed Central

    Leinøe, Eva; Nielsen, Ove Juul; Jønson, Lars; Rossing, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of genome-wide analysis has made it possible to rapidly sequence the exome of patients with undiagnosed or unresolved medical conditions. Here, we present the case of a 64-yr-old male patient with schistocytes in the peripheral blood smear and a complex and life-threatening coagulation disorder causing recurrent venous thromboembolic events, severe thrombocytopenia, and subdural hematomas. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a frameshift mutation (C3AR1 c.355-356dup, p.Asp119Alafs*19) resulting in a premature stop codon in C3AR1 (Complement Component 3a Receptor 1). Based on this finding, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome was suspected because of a genetic predisposition, and a targeted treatment regime with eculizumab was initiated. Life-threatening hemostatic abnormalities would most likely have persisted had it not been for the implementation of whole-exome sequencing in this particular clinical setting. PMID:27551680

  14. Intraspecies differences in hemostatic venom activities of the South American rattlesnakes, Crotalus durissus cumanensis, as revealed by a range of protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ana M; Aguilar, Irma; Guerrero, Belsy; Girón, María E; Lucena, Sara; Sánchez, Elda E; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2008-09-01

    Crotalus durissus cumanensis is an endemic rattlesnake found in Venezuela and Colombia. In this study, a comparative analysis of hemorrhagic, coagulation and fibrino(geno)lytic activities in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors was performed with venoms of the same species Crotalus durissus cumanensis, from seven geographical regions of Venezuela (Lagunetica, Santa Teresa, Carrizales, Guarenas, Anzoátegui, Margarita and Maracay). Lagunetica, Carrizales and Anzoátegui venoms induced hemorrhagic activity. All venoms, except that of snakes from the Carrizales region presented thrombin-like activity, which was inhibited completely by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylene glycol-bis-N, N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. This effect of the latter could be explained by the high chelant calcium effect, which is a cofactor for the fibrin polymerization process. Soybean trypsin inhibitor was effective on Santa Teresa venom. Antithrombin III/Hep complex and phenantroline partially inhibited this activity in all venoms except Margarita and Anzoátegui, respectively, which were not inhibited. Serine protease inhibitors were more effective against thrombin, kallikrein and plasmin-like amidolytic activities. Additionally, metalloprotease inhibitors significantly inhibited the t-PA-like amidolytic activity and completely the hemorrhagic and fibrino(geno)lytic activities. In conclusion, the thrombin-like activity observed in these venoms was partially reduced by serine protease inhibitors, indicating the possible presence of catalytic domains in those enzymes that do not interact with these inhibitors. Using protease inhibitors on venom hemostatic activities could contribute to our understanding of the active components of snake venom on the hemostatic system, and further reveal the intraspecies variation of venoms, which is important in the treatment of envenomation, and in addition represents an interesting model for the study of venom in hemostasis.

  15. Hemostatic potential of latex proteases from Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. ex. Roem. and Schult. and Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex. F.A. Zorn) Forsberg.

    PubMed

    Singh, Maheshwari Kumari; Usha, R; Hithayshree, K R; Bindhu, O S

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological properties exhibited by latex of plants are due to various biologically active compounds including several proteolytic enzymes. Present study evaluates hemostatic potential of Tabernaemontana divaricata and Artocarpus altilis from Apocynaceae and Moraceae families respectively. The latex of these plants were initially subjected to dialysis and crude extracts were estimated for proteolytic activity using casein as the substrate. Mean caseinolytic activity for 100 μg of latex protein was found to be 56.16 ± 0.57 and 45 ± 0.3 U/h for T. divaricata and A. altilis respectively. Caseinolytic activity by both the plant extracts was higher than standard proteases, papain and trypsin. However the difference was significant (p < 0.05) with papain alone. Crude enzymes (CE) from both plants exhibited coagulant activity on human platelet poor plasma by recalcification time. A significant reduction in clotting time was exhibited by T. divaricata compared to A. altilis (p < 0.05). These results were further substantiated with fibrinogen agarose plate assay. Crude enzyme of both plants also hydrolyzed blood clot. Mean % of thrombolysis by T. divaricata was 80.75 ± 1.2 and that of A. altilis was 70.24 ± 1.52. Inhibition studies confirmed cysteine protease nature of CE. Comparative analysis revealed T. divaricata to be the best among the two for its hemostatic potential. This study scientifically validates the use of latex from these plants in the management of fresh cuts or wounds.

  16. Referential Markers and Agreement Markers in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengeveld, Kees

    2012-01-01

    It follows from the ordering principles that are applied in Functional Discourse Grammar that the positional possibilities of markers of agreement and those of cross-reference are different. Markers of cross reference are predicted to occur closer to the verb stem, while markers of agreement would occupy peripheral positions. This paper tests…

  17. Lipoprotein marker for hypertriglyceridemia

    DOEpatents

    Cubicciotti, Roger S.; Karu, Alexander E.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    1986-01-01

    Methods and compositions are provided for the detection of a particular low density lipoprotein which has been found to be a marker for patients suffering from type IV hypertriglyceridemia. A monoclonal antibody capable of specifically binding to a characteristic epitopic site on this LDL subspecies can be utilized in a wide variety of immunoassays. Hybridoma cell line SPL.IVA5A1 was deposited at the American Type Culture Collection on Mar. 29, 1984, and granted accession no. HB 8535.

  18. Serum tumor markers.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Greg L; Slater, Evan D; Sanders, Georganne K; Prichard, John G

    2003-09-15

    Monoclonal antibodies are used to detect serum antigens associated with specific malignancies. These tumor markers are most useful for monitoring response to therapy and detecting early relapse. With the exception of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tumor markers do not have sufficient sensitivity or specificity for use in screening. Cancer antigen (CA) 27.29 most frequently is used to follow response to therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen is used to detect relapse of colorectal cancer, and CA 19-9 may be helpful in establishing the nature of pancreatic masses. CA 125 is useful for evaluating pelvic masses in postmenopausal women, monitoring response to therapy in women with ovarian cancer, and detecting recurrence of this malignancy. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, sometimes is used to screen highly selected populations and to assess hepatic masses in patients at particular risk for developing hepatic malignancy. Testing for the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) is an integral part of the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease. Combined AFP and beta-hCG testing is an essential adjunct in the evaluation and treatment of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, and in monitoring the response to therapy. AFP and beta-hCG also may be useful in evaluating potential origins of poorly differentiated metastatic cancer. PSA is used to screen for prostate cancer, detect recurrence of the malignancy, and evaluate specific syndromes of adenocarcinoma of unknown primary.

  19. [Considerations in rational use of tumor markers in breast carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Crombach, G

    1998-04-22

    The objective of this review is to determine clinical practical guidelines for the use of serum tumor markers in the care of breast cancer patients outside of clinical trials. Mucin antigens (CA 15-3, MCA, CA 549) and CEA are established markers in breast cancer. Owing to their low sensitivity, none of these markers can be recommended for screening, diagnosis or staging. During follow-up, increasing marker levels may indicate recurrence 3-6 months earlier than clinical and radiological examinations in about 40-50% of patients. However, the clinical benefit of this lead-time is not established. Tumor markers are able to monitor response to treatment in 70-80% of patients with metastatic breast cancer. However, paradoxical changes of the markers especially in the beginning of treatment, the insufficient concordance with tumor activity in 20-30% of the women, and the lack of curative therapy regimens limit the prospective clinical use of the markers in the individual patient. Therefore, marker changes require confirmation by radiological methods in most cases. The present data are insufficient to recommend routine use of tumor markers alone for monitoring breast cancer patients after primary treatment or during palliative therapy. However, in the absence of readily measurable disease (e. g. bone metastases) continuously increasing marker levels may be used to indicate treatment failure. If high-dose chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer renders to be effective, the clinical impact of tumor markers will increase considerably. Until that time, the analytical performance and the sensitivity of the established marker assays should be improved, and the clinical role of newer marker tests (TPS, CA 27.29) should be evaluated.

  20. Tumour markers in diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Warnes, T W; Smith, A

    1987-01-01

    The 20-year period since the discovery of AFP by Abelev has seen the introduction of a wide range of new tumour markers and it is now clear that PLC is biologically heterogeneous. Hepatoblastomas, fibrolamellar carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas and cholangiocarcinomas may secrete a variety of distinctive markers which are predominantly glycoproteins, and may resemble those found in placenta or fetal liver. Diagnostically, AFP remains the best marker for HCC, both in sensitivity and specificity; it is known to consist of isoforms. In patients with elevated serum AFP and filling defects on liver scan, Con A reactive AFP may differentiate PLC from hepatic metastases, whilst fucosylated AFP may distinguish PLC from benign disorders when AFP is non-diagnostically elevated. With this recognition of tumour heterogeneity the value of a multiple-marker approach has become apparent. The measurement of vitamin B12 binding protein and neurotensin should lead to the detection of most patients with the fibrolamellar variant of HCC and many of these should be resectable. In patients with normal serum AFP levels, HCC-associated GGTP is of major value whilst in low-incidence areas for HCC, patients should also be screened for H-ALP; using a multiple marker approach in high-risk groups, 90% of clinically diagnosed hepatocellular carcinomas are serologically positive. The Chinese and Alaskan studies, in which small, potentially resectable tumours were detected, suggest that it is now possible to achieve 5-year survival figures of up to 60% in HCC patients detected by screening. The value of such a strategy in low-incidence countries is currently under study. In patient monitoring, as in diagnosis, AFP remains the outstanding marker. In AFP-negative patients, other markers including vitamin B12-binding protein, neurotensin, HCC-specific isoenzymes, des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin and alpha-fucosidase, are of undoubted diagnostic value, but their value as indicants of disease

  1. Use of a fluorescent marker for assessing hospital bathroom cleanliness.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Mattia; Ceriale, Emma; Nante, Nicola; Lenzi, Daniele; Manzi, Pietro; Basagni, Claudia; Messina, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    A fluorescent marker was used to assess the efficacy of daily cleaning in hospital en suite bathrooms. We applied the marker on 218 surfaces and we assigned a score according how completely the mark had been removed. We found significant statistical differences among different surfaces and wards (P < .05). Microbiologic contamination and marker removal score did not seem to be correlated. Differences in cleanliness may indicate discrepancies in cleaning procedures. Fluorescent marker proved to be a practical and effective method and it could be adopted as a first-level control system to assess hospital cleanliness.

  2. Metabolic markers in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should

  3. Circulating tumour markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Seregni, Ettore; Coli, Antonio; Mazzucca, Nicola

    2004-06-01

    A large number of markers have been proposed for breast cancer, but among them only CA 15.3, CEA and cytokeratins (i.e. TPA, TPS and Cyfra 21.1) are currently used in clinical practice. Serum marker levels reflect tumour burden and for this reason they are not sensitive enough to be used for screening and early diagnosis of primary breast cancer. By contrast, the role of tumour markers is established in the diagnosis of recurrent disease and in the evaluation of response to treatment. In the former case, however, prospective randomised studies are required to demonstrate any survival benefit when earlier therapeutic interventions are instituted upon elevation of serum markers. In the second case, tumour marker evaluation represents a simple, objective method for monitoring of therapeutic response that seems to offer significant advantages over conventional imaging methods (e.g. objectivity, modifications in tumour biology). Furthermore, research studies are ongoing to identify and validate new biochemical parameters which can be of use not only in advanced disease but also in other stages of the diagnostic work-up of breast cancer.

  4. [New approved markers of bone turnover for osteoporosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Miki, Takami; Masaki, Hideki

    2012-06-01

    Various markers of bone turnover are already under clinical use in Japan, and mostly for clinical investigation in some countries. Standard values including ranges and variations are summarized in the previous edition of the guideline. The information of additional new markers adapted by government is summarized including clinical features in the new edition 2012. Among the new markers, the methods for measurement for TRACP-5b and ucOC are developed in Japan. As P1NP and TRACP-5b levels are not affected by meals, biological variations are smaller compared with other markers. ucOC is unique because it is to evaluate vitamin K insufficiency for bone. New bone markers adapted in the Japanese guideline 2012 will facilitate clinicians to utilize of metabolic markers of bone for osteoporosis treatment.

  5. Iterative marker excision system.

    PubMed

    Myronovskyi, Maksym; Rosenkränzer, Birgit; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2014-05-01

    The deletions of large genomic DNA fragments and consecutive gene knockouts are prerequisites for the generation of organisms with improved properties. One of the key issues in this context is the removal of antibiotic resistance markers from engineered organisms without leaving an active recombinase recognition site. Here, we report the establishment of an iterative marker excision system (IMES) that solves this problem. Based on the phiC31 integrase and its mutant att sites, IMES can be used for highly effective deletion of DNA fragments between inversely oriented B-CC and P-GG sites. The B-CC and P-GG sites are derived from attB and attP by substitution of the central core TT dinucleotide with CC and GG, respectively. An unnatural RR site that resides in the chromosome following deletion is the joining product of the right shoulders of B-CC and P-GG. We show that the RR sites do not recombine with each other as well as the RR site recombines with B-CC. The recombination efficiencies between RR and P-GG or RR and LL are only 0.1 % and 1 %, respectively. Thus, IMES can be used for multistep genomic engineering without risking unwanted DNA recombination. The fabrication of multi-purpose antibiotic cassettes and examples of the utilisation of IMES are described.

  6. Embryonic markers of cone differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Helen M.; Belcastro, Marycharmain; Sokolov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor cells are born in two distinct phases of vertebrate retinogenesis. In the mouse retina, cones are born primarily during embryogenesis, while rod formation occurs later in embryogenesis and early postnatal ages. Despite this dichotomy in photoreceptor birthdates, the visual pigments and phototransduction machinery are not reactive to visual stimulus in either type of photoreceptor cell until the second postnatal week. Several markers of early cone formation have been identified, including Otx2, Crx, Blimp1, NeuroD, Trβ2, Rorβ, and Rxrγ, and all are thought to be involved in cellular determination. However, little is known about the expression of proteins involved in cone visual transduction during early retinogenesis. Therefore, we sought to characterize visual transduction proteins that are expressed specifically in photoreceptors during mouse embryogenesis. Methods Eye tissue was collected from control and phosducin-null mice at embryonic and early postnatal ages. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qPCR) were used to measure the spatial and temporal expression patterns of phosducin (Pdc) and cone transducin γ (Gngt2) proteins and transcripts in the embryonic and early postnatal mouse retina. Results We identified the embryonic expression of phosducin (Pdc) and cone transducin γ (Gngt2) that coincides temporally and spatially with the earliest stages of cone histogenesis. Using immunohistochemistry, the phosducin protein was first detected in the retina at embryonic day (E)12.5, and cone transducin γ was observed at E13.5. The phosducin and cone transducin γ proteins were seen only in the outer neuroblastic layer, consistent with their expression in photoreceptors. At the embryonic ages, phosducin was coexpressed with Rxrγ, a known cone marker, and with Otx2, a marker of photoreceptors. Pdc and Gngt2 mRNAs were detected as early as E10.5 with qPCR, although at low levels. Conclusions Visual transduction

  7. Markers of exposure to carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Wogan, G.N. )

    1989-05-01

    Methods have been developed for the detection of exposure to carcinogens and other DNA damaging agents in experimental animals and man through the detection of carcinogens or their metabolic derivatives in body fluids, or through adducts bound covalently to DNA or hemoglobin. The successful use of urinary markers of genotoxic exposures has been reported with respect to nitrosoproline as an indicator of exposure to N-nitroso compounds. The same approach has been used to detect AFB1 and AFB1-N7-Gua as markers of exposure to aflatoxin B1; of 3-methyladenine produced as a result of exposure to methylating agents; and thymine glycol as an indicator of exposure to agents causing oxidative damage to DNA. Detection of adducts formed between genotoxic agents and hemoglobin has been reported in studies of populations occupationally exposed to ethylene oxide, in which 3-hydroxyhistidine and 3-hydroxyvaline have been measured, and in smokers, whose hemoglobin has been found to contain levels of 4-aminobiphenyl and 3-hydroxyvaline that were correlated with the frequency of cigarette smoking. Detection of DNA adducts of genotoxic agents in the cells and tissues of exposed individuals has also been accomplished through the use of several types of analytical methods. Immunoassays and physicochemical methods have been applied to detect adducts formed through the major intermediate in the activation of benzo(a)pyrene, the 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE). This adduct has been found in the DNA of peripheral leukocytes of workers in foundries, aluminum manufacturing plants, roofers, and coke oven plants, and also in cigarette smokers. 36 references.

  8. Tunnel diode circuit used as nanosecond-range time marker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, R. N.; Shear, E. B.

    1968-01-01

    Simple tunnel diode time marker circuit determines the time at which an event occurs in a scintillation crystal. It is capable of triggering at voltages as low as the noise level of a 10-stage PM tube.

  9. Impact of stearic acid and oleic acid on hemostatic factors in the context of controlled diets consumed by healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S K; Tracy, R P; Baer, D J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of stearic acid (STA) on cardiovascular disease risk beyond lipid and lipoprotein risk factors, including hemostasis, are unclear, particularly when compared with unsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of STA with those of oleic acid (OL) on markers of hemostasis. In a randomized crossover study, 50 men consumed six controlled diets for 5 weeks each (39% energy from fat, 15% energy from protein, 46% energy from carbohydrate (CHO)). Fat (8% energy) was replaced across diets by: STA, OL, CHO (control), trans fatty acids (TFAs), TFA/STA and 12:0-16:0 saturated fatty acids. Factor VIIc, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasmin alpha-2-antiplasmin complex concentrations were not different between OL and STA (P>0.05). Compared with control, OL increased factor VIIc and PAI-1 (P≤0.05), whereas there were no differences with STA (P>0.05). STA and OL similarly affect markers of hemostasis in healthy men, within the context of a highly controlled diet.

  10. Urinary markers for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer has the fifth highest incidence of all malignancies in the United States, with a propensity to recur, requiring lifelong surveillance after diagnosis. Urinary markers of disease have been of extreme interest in this field in an effort to simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors. Many markers have been described, but most remain investigational. However, some markers have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use. In this review, urinary markers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer are discussed. PMID:23864929

  11. Individual Identifiability Predicts Population Identifiability in Forensic Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B; Edge, Michael D; Kim, Jaehee; Li, Jun Z; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2016-04-04

    Highly polymorphic genetic markers with significant potential for distinguishing individual identity are used as a standard tool in forensic testing [1, 2]. At the same time, population-genetic studies have suggested that genetically diverse markers with high individual identifiability also confer information about genetic ancestry [3-6]. The dual influence of polymorphism levels on ancestry inference and forensic desirability suggests that forensically useful marker sets with high levels of individual identifiability might also possess substantial ancestry information. We study a standard forensic marker set-the 13 CODIS loci used in the United States and elsewhere [2, 7-9]-together with 779 additional microsatellites [10], using direct population structure inference to test whether markers with substantial individual identifiability also produce considerable information about ancestry. Despite having been selected for individual identification and not for ancestry inference [11], the CODIS markers generate nontrivial model-based clustering patterns similar to those of other sets of 13 tetranucleotide microsatellites. Although the CODIS markers have relatively low values of the F(ST) divergence statistic, their high heterozygosities produce greater ancestry inference potential than is possessed by less heterozygous marker sets. More generally, we observe that marker sets with greater individual identifiability also tend toward greater population identifiability. We conclude that population identifiability regularly follows as a byproduct of the use of highly polymorphic forensic markers. Our findings have implications for the design of new forensic marker sets and for evaluations of the extent to which individual characteristics beyond identification might be predicted from current and future forensic data.

  12. Genetic markers in atherosclerosis: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, N E

    1976-01-01

    There is a growing number of lipoprotein markers recognized by immunological, electrophoretic, and other biochemical methods, and a beginning has been made on studying their modes of inheritance and linkage relations. Suggestive but inconclusive evidence of a relation between the cerumen polymorphism and arteriosclerosis has been published. Associations of the ABO blood groups with cardiovascular disease and serum lipid levels have been established, but the exact relation to lipoproteins and atherosclerosis remains to be determined. PMID:180292

  13. Blueberry Microsatellite Markers Identify Cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six blueberry simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites were tested for the ability to amplify a polymorphic marker in eight American cranberry accessions. Sixteen SSRs resulted in informative and polymorphic SSR primer pairs and were used to fingerprint 16 economically important...

  14. Novel markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in Behçet's disease patients with ocular involvement: epicardial fat thickness, carotid intima media thickness, serum ADMA level, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Murat; Yildiz, Abdulkadir; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Ekinci, Aysun; Elbey, Bilal; Tekbas, Ebru; Alan, Sait

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of Behçet's disease (BD) has not been fully elucidated. However, immunological and environmental factors, endothelial dysfunction (ED), and genetic susceptibility have been proposed to play a role. In this study, we aimed to evaluate epicardial fat thickness (EFT) together with serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in BD patients with ocular involvement. Thirty-six ocular BD patients (17 active and 19 inactive ocular involvement), and 35 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. All patients underwent examinations with transthoracic echocardiography and carotid Doppler ultrasound. Serum ADMA levels, CIMT, EFT, and NLR were compared between groups, and their association with disease activity was evaluated. Behçet's disease patients had higher WBC counts, neutrophil counts, NLR, CIMT, EFT values, and serum ADMA levels than do healthy controls. The other biochemical, hematological, and echocardiographic parameters were comparable between the two groups. Behçet's disease duration was positively correlated with EFT and CIMT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased serum ADMA concentration and CIMT are independently associated with BD. Neutrophil counts, NLR, and serum ADMA level were higher, and lymphocyte count was lower in patients with active ocular BD compared to those of inactive ocular BD group. Carotid intima media thickness, serum ADMA level, EFT, and NLR were increased in ocular BD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, both serum ADMA level and NLR were associated with disease activity of ocular involvement. Increase in disease duration was associated with increase in CIMT and EFT which suggests that anatomical changes occur in time during the disease course. Increased CIMT, serum ADMA level, EFT, and NLR may provide new clues about the role of ED and inflammation in the

  15. Evaluation of serum fibrinogen, plasminogen, α2-anti-plasmin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor levels (PAI) and their correlation with presence of retinopathy in patients with type 1 DM.

    PubMed

    Polat, Sefika Burcak; Ugurlu, Nagihan; Yulek, Fatma; Simavli, Huseyin; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir; Erel, Ozcan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in the world. Retinopathy can still progress despite optimal metabolic control. The aim of the study was to determine whether different degrees of DR (proliferative or nonproliferative) were associated with abnormally modulated hemostatic parameters in patients with T1DM. METHOD. 52 T1DM patients and 40 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were subdivided into three categories. Group I was defined as those without retinopathy, group II with NPRP, and group III with PRP. We compared these subgroups with each other and the control group (Group IV) according to the serum fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-anti-plasmin ( α2-anti-plasmin), and PAI. RESULTS. We detected that PAI-1, serum fibrinogen, and plasminogen levels were similar between the diabetic and control groups (P = 0.209, P = 0.224, and P = 0.244, resp.), whereas α2-anti-plasmin was higher in Groups I, II, and III compared to the control group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, resp.). There was a positive correlation between serum α2-anti-plasmin and HbA1c levels (r = 0,268, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION. To our knowledge there is scarce data in the literature about α2-anti-plasmin levels in type 1 diabetes. A positive correlation between α2-anti-plasmin with HbA1c suggests that fibrinolytic markers may improve with disease regulation and better glycemic control.

  16. Prognostic markers in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gomatos, Ilias P; Xiaodong, Xu; Ghaneh, Paula; Halloran, Christopher; Raraty, Michael; Lane, Brian; Sutton, Robert; Neoptolemos, John P

    2014-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis has a mortality rate of 5-10%. Early deaths are mainly due to multiorgan failure and late deaths are due to septic complications from pancreatic necrosis. The recently described 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification and the Determinant Classification both provide a more accurate description of edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis and local complications. The 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification uses the modified Marshall scoring system for assessing organ dysfunction. The Determinant Classification uses the sepsis-related organ failure assessment scoring system for organ dysfunction and, unlike the 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification, includes infected necrosis as a criterion of severity. These scoring systems are used to assess systemic complications requiring intensive therapy unit support and intra-abdominal complications requiring minimally invasive interventions. Numerous prognostic systems and markers have been evaluated but only the Glasgow system and serum CRP levels provide pragmatic prognostic accuracy early on. Novel concepts using genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic profiling and also functional imaging for the identification of specific disease patterns are now required.

  17. Design III with Marker Loci

    PubMed Central

    Cockerham, C. C.; Zeng, Z. B.

    1996-01-01

    Design III is an experimental design originally proposed by R. E. COMSTOCK and H. F. ROBINSON for estimating genetic variances and the average degree of dominance for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and has recently been extended for mapping QTL. In this paper, we first extend COMSTOCK and ROBINSON's analysis of variance to include linkage, two-locus epistasis and the use of F(3) parents. Then we develop the theory and statistical analysis of orthogonal contrasts and contrast X environment interaction for a single marker locus to characterize the effects of QTL. The methods are applied to the maize data of C. W. STUBER. The analyses strongly suggest that there are multiple linked QTL in many chromosomes for several traits examined. QTL effects are largely environment-independent for grain yield, ear height, plant height and ear leaf area and largely environment dependent for days to tassel, grain moisture and ear number. There is significant QTL epistasis. The results are generally in favor of the hypothesis of dominance of favorable genes to explain the observed heterosis in grain yield and other traits, although epistasis could also play an important role and overdominance at individual QTL level can not be ruled out. PMID:8807314

  18. Molecular marker systems in insects: current trends and future avenues.

    PubMed

    Behura, Susanta K

    2006-10-01

    Insects comprise the largest species composition in the entire animal kingdom and possess a vast undiscovered genetic diversity and gene pool that can be better explored using molecular marker techniques. Current trends of application of DNA marker techniques in diverse domains of insect ecological studies show that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), expressed sequence tags (EST) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers have contributed significantly for progresses towards understanding genetic basis of insect diversity and for mapping medically and agriculturally important genes and quantitative trait loci in insect pests. Apart from these popular marker systems, other novel approaches including transposon display, sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (S-SAP), repeat-associated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers have been identified as alternate marker systems in insect studies. Besides, whole genome microarray and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays are becoming more popular to screen genome-wide polymorphisms in fast and cost effective manner. However, use of such methodologies has not gained widespread popularity in entomological studies. The current study highlights the recent trends of applications of molecular markers in insect studies and explores the technological advancements in molecular marker tools and modern high throughput genotyping methodologies that may be applied in entomological researches for better understanding of insect ecology at molecular level.

  19. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the “a” determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. Patients and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003–2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Results Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some “a” determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. Conclusions We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive

  20. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    PubMed Central

    Cuckle, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs), chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening. PMID:26237388

  1. Temporal binding of interval markers

    PubMed Central

    Derichs, Christina; Zimmermann, Eckart

    2016-01-01

    How we estimate the passage of time is an unsolved mystery in neuroscience. Illusions of subjective time provide an experimental access to this question. Here we show that time compression and expansion of visually marked intervals result from a binding of temporal interval markers. Interval markers whose onset signals were artificially weakened by briefly flashing a whole-field mask were bound in time towards markers with a strong onset signal. We explain temporal compression as the consequence of summing response distributions of weak and strong onset signals. Crucially, temporal binding occurred irrespective of the temporal order of weak and strong onset markers, thus ruling out processing latencies as an explanation for changes in interval duration judgments. If both interval markers were presented together with a mask or the mask was shown in the temporal interval center, no compression occurred. In a sequence of two intervals, masking the middle marker led to time compression for the first and time expansion for the second interval. All these results are consistent with a model view of temporal binding that serves a functional role by reducing uncertainty in the final estimate of interval duration. PMID:27958311

  2. Breast cancer statistics and markers.

    PubMed

    Donepudi, Mallika Siva; Kondapalli, Kasturi; Amos, Seelam Jeevan; Venkanteshan, Pavithra

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D), genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc.), and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins) used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  3. Uncertain thrombophilia markers.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Martinelli, Ida; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2016-01-01

    The development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, may be associated with inherited or acquired risk factors that can be measured in plasma or DNA testing. The main inherited thrombophilias include the plasma deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants antithrombin, protein C and S; the gain-of-function mutations factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A; some dysfibrinogenaemias and high plasma levels of coagulation factor VIII. Besides these established biomarkers, which usually represent the first-level laboratory tests for thrombophilia screening, a number of additional abnormalities have been less consistently associated with an increased VTE risk. These uncertain causes of thrombophilias will be discussed in this narrative review, focusing on their clinical impact and the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. Currently, there is insufficient ground to recommend their inclusion within the framework of conventional thrombophilia testing.

  4. Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy with non-absorbable hemostatic sealant (Quikclot®) versus nephrostomy tube placement: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Park, Sang Un; Jang, Ho Sung; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) using a non-absorbable hemostatic sealant (Quikclot(®)) as an adjunct compared to nephrostomy tube placement in patients exhibiting significant parenchymal bleeding following PNL. We identified 113 PNL cases performed between May 2011 and October 2014. For patients with insignificant parenchymal bleeding following stone removal, defined as a clear visualization of the surgical field at full irrigation of the nephroscope, tubeless PNL was performed. For patients with significant parenchymal bleeding, we introduced the tubeless Quikclot(®) technique as of September 2013 and have performed it ever since. Formerly, nephrostomy placement PNL was performed. In this study, 40 Quikclot(®) applied PNL cases were matched with an equal number of nephrostomy placement cases by propensity scoring based on body mass index, stone size, and Guy's stone score. The mean postoperative drop in hematocrit was comparative between the Quikclot(®) group and the nephrostomy group on both postoperative days 1 (p = 0.459) and 2 (p = 0.325). Quikclot(®) application was associated with lower VAS scores throughout the postoperative period, lower cumulative analgesic requirement (p = 0.025), and with shorter hospitalization (p = 0.002). Complication rates were comparable with no need for blood transfusions in any patients. Tubeless Quikclot(®) PNL was safe and provided effective hemostasis of significant parenchymal bleeding. By avoiding nephrostomy placement, we were able to reduce postoperative pain, analgesic requirements, and hospitalization. Application of Quikclot(®) may be considered prior to nephrostomy placement in patients with significant parenchymal bleeding.

  5. Hemostatic efficacy of chitosan-based bandage for closure of percutaneous arterial access sites: An experimental study in heparinized sheep model

    PubMed Central

    Kranokpiraksa, Pawanrat; Pavcnik, Dusan; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Uchida, Barry T.; Jeromel, Miran; Keller, Frederick S.; Rösch, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Background Most of the presently used percutaneous arterial closure devices (PACD) for hemostasis after interventional vascular procedures are effective, but carry risk of complications by deposition of a foreign body. A new promising externally applied PACD – chitosan-based HemCon Bandage (HCB) was explored in sheep. The HCB hemostatic efficacy and complications occurring with its use were compared to those with the standard manual compression (SMC). Material and methods Both superficial femoral arteries (SFA) of 9 heparinized sheep were catheterized with an 8F sheath for 5 minutes. After the sheath withdrawal, hemostasis with the HCB was compared with hemostasis achieved with SMC in the contralateral SFA. Iliac angiograms performed by carotid artery approach determined the hemostasis time. Results The HCB use shortened time to hemostasis with a mean time of 6.9 ± 3.9 minutes versus 10.8 ± 2.8 minutes for the SMC (P-value 0.019). Seven SFAs in the HCB group and only 1 SFA in the SMC group exhibited hemostasis in 5 minutes. All nine SFAs using the HCB showed femoral artery patency and demonstrated less hematoma (2/9) than in the SMC group (8/9). No complications developed in the HCB group, one SFA occlusion was seen in the SMC group. Conclusions The externally applied HCB in heparinized sheep was safe and effective. It significantly shortened time to hemostasis at the SFA access sites following 8F sheath removal. Proper application of the HCB was necessary to shorten hemostasis and prevent hematoma formation. The HCB should be tested in a clinically controlled study to evaluate its efficacy in humans. PMID:22933896

  6. Early systemic sclerosis: marker autoantibodies and videocapillaroscopy patterns are each associated with distinct clinical, functional and cellular activation markers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Early systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon together with scleroderma marker autoantibodies and/or a scleroderma pattern at capillaroscopy and no other distinctive feature of SSc. Patients presenting with marker autoantibodies plus a capillaroscopic scleroderma pattern seem to evolve into definite SSc more frequently than patients with either feature. Whether early SSc patients with only marker autoantibodies or capillaroscopic positivity differ in any aspect at presentation is unclear. Methods Seventy-one consecutive early SSc patients were investigated for preclinical cardiopulmonary alterations. Out of these, 44 patients and 25 controls affected by osteoarthritis or primary fibromyalgia syndrome were also investigated for serum markers of fibroblast (carboxyterminal propeptide of collagen I), endothelial (soluble E-selectin) and T-cell (soluble IL-2 receptor alpha) activation. Results Thirty-two of the 71 patients (45.1%) had both a marker autoantibody and a capillaroscopic scleroderma pattern (subset 1), 16 patients (22.5%) had only a marker autoantibody (subset 2), and 23 patients (32.4%) had only a capillaroscopic scleroderma pattern (subset 3). Patients with marker autoantibodies (n = 48, 67.6%) had a higher prevalence of impaired diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (P = 0.0217) and increased serum levels of carboxyterminal propeptide of collagen I (P = 0.0037), regardless of capillaroscopic alterations. Patients with a capillaroscopic scleroderma pattern (n = 55, 77.5%) had a higher prevalence of puffy fingers (P = 0.0001) and increased serum levels of soluble E-selectin (P = 0.0003) regardless of marker autoantibodies. Conclusion These results suggest that the autoantibody and microvascular patterns in early SSc may each be related to different clinical-preclinical features and circulating activation markers at presentation. Longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate whether these subsets undergo a

  7. Smart markers for watershed-based cell segmentation.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, Can Fahrettin; Arslan, Salim; Durmaz, Irem; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    Automated cell imaging systems facilitate fast and reliable analysis of biological events at the cellular level. In these systems, the first step is usually cell segmentation that greatly affects the success of the subsequent system steps. On the other hand, similar to other image segmentation problems, cell segmentation is an ill-posed problem that typically necessitates the use of domain-specific knowledge to obtain successful segmentations even by human subjects. The approaches that can incorporate this knowledge into their segmentation algorithms have potential to greatly improve segmentation results. In this work, we propose a new approach for the effective segmentation of live cells from phase contrast microscopy. This approach introduces a new set of "smart markers" for a marker-controlled watershed algorithm, for which the identification of its markers is critical. The proposed approach relies on using domain-specific knowledge, in the form of visual characteristics of the cells, to define the markers. We evaluate our approach on a total of 1,954 cells. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach, which uses the proposed definition of smart markers, is quite effective in identifying better markers compared to its counterparts. This will, in turn, be effective in improving the segmentation performance of a marker-controlled watershed algorithm.

  8. New developments in biological markers of bone metabolism in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Garnero, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Over the last 15 years several biological markers of bone turnover have been developed with increased specificity and sensitivity. In osteoporosis clinical studies, the IOF and IFCC organizations have recently recommended the measurements of serum type I collagen N-propeptide (PINP) and the crosslinked C-terminal telopeptide (serum CTX) as markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively. However these markers have some limitations including a lack of specificity for bone tissue, their inability to reflect osteocyte activity or periosteal apposition. In addition they do not allow the investigation of bone tissue quality an important determinant of skeletal fragility. To address these limitations, new developments in markers of bone metabolism have been recently achieved. These include assays for periostin, a matricellular protein preferentially localized in the periosteal tissue, sphingosine 1-phosphate, a lipid mediator which acts mainly on osteoclastogenesis and the osteocyte factors such as sclerostin and FGF-23. Recent studies have shown an association between the circulating levels of these biological markers and fracture risk in postmenopausal women or elderly men, although data require confirmation in additional prospective studies. Finally, recent studies suggest that the measurements of circulating microRNAs may represent a novel class of early biological markers in osteoporosis. It is foreseen that with the use of genomics and proteomics, new markers will be developed to ultimately improve the management of patients with osteoporosis.

  9. Fabricating Diminishable Visual Markers for Geometric Registration in Projection Mapping.

    PubMed

    Asayama, HIrotaka; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    2017-01-24

    We propose a visual marker embedding method for the pose estimation of a projection surface to correctly map projected images onto the surface. Assuming that the surface is fabricated by a full-color or multi-material three-dimensional (3D) printer, we propose to automatically embed visual markers on the surface with mechanical accuracy. The appearance of the marker is designed such that the marker is detected by infrared cameras even when printed on a non-planar surface while its appearance can be diminished by the projection to be as imperceptible as possible to human observers. The marker placement is optimized using a genetic algorithm to maximize the number of valid viewpoints from which the pose of the object can be estimated correctly using a stereo camera system. We also propose a radiometric compensation technique to quickly diminish the marker appearance. Experimental results confirm that the pose of projection objects are correctly estimated while the appearance of the markers was diminished to an imperceptible level. At the same time, we confirmed the limitations of the current method; only one object can be handled, and pose estimation is not performed at interactive frame rates. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed technique to show that it works successfully for various surface shapes and target textures.

  10. [Genomic markers and anticancer chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide research on the human genome exerts a major impact on medical science. The growing evidence that genetic polymorphisms in the metabolism, the disposition, and the targets of drugs can have an even greater influence on the efficacy and the toxicity led to the creation of a novel chemotherapeutic strategy, personalized medicine. Much effort has been directed toward identifying the indicators of individual response to drugs, and these studies have provided a variety of potent predictive markers of individual drug response, which include some significant markers in clinical practice with sufficient evidence. Personalized medicine based on the response prediction using genomic marker is increasingly being recognized as a practical treatment approach in cancer chemotherapy, and to be indispensable when molecular targeted drugs are involved in the therapy. Even so, the ingenious and intricate mechanism of individual drug response creates obstacles in predicting chemotherapeutic response: Multiple factors are involved in the mechanisms, and key factors for drug response vary significantly among individuals. DNA chip technology enables us to overview a huge number of gene expressions simultaneously, but gene expression profiles of drug sensitivity vary considerably even for the same drug, which shows the limited value of a static microarray-expression profile as a marker aimed at individualizing patient therapy. Selection of a set of truly significant genomic markers and understanding of their interplay are of key importance in prediction of individual response to drug therapies. Challenges to such biological complexity are now started to identify a better genomic marker. The contribution of genomic marker research to anticancer chemotherapy and problems of the day were reviewed.

  11. The significance of markers in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żyła, Monika M.; Wilczyński, Jacek R.; Kostrzewa, Marta; Księżakowska-Łakoma, Kinga; Nowak, Marek; Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Szyłło, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the most common cancers experienced by women throughout the world. It is also the most common malignancy within the female reproductive system, representing 37.7% of all disorders. The incidence increases with age, and is diagnosed most frequently in women between 45 and 65 years old. In the last few years, numerous studies have been performed to identify tumour biomarkers. Biomarkers include not only protein routinely used as tumour markers but also genes and chromosomes. The limiting factor in the use of markers in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer is their lack of specificity. However, specific markers for endometrial cancer are the subject of much research attention. Although moderately elevated levels of markers are present in a number of inflammatory or non-malignant diseases, significantly increased levels of markers indicate the development of cancer. Recently, research has been focused on the identification of molecular changes leading to different histological subtypes of endometrial cancer. In this paper the authors reviewed several currently investigated markers. Progress in these investigations is very important in the diagnostics and treatment of endometrial cancer. In particular, the identification of novel mutations and molecular profiles should enhance our ability to personalise adjuvant treatment with genome-guided targeted therapy. PMID:27980530

  12. Marker imputation in barley association studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping requires higher marker density than linkage mapping, potentially leading to more missing marker data and to higher genotyping costs. In human genetics, methods exist to impute missing marker data and whole markers that were typed in a reference panel but not in the experimental d...

  13. Markers of bile duct tumors

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Paladina, Isabella; Rando, Alessandra; Uccello, Mario; Basile, Francesco; Biondi, Antonio; Carnazzo, Santo; Alessandria, Innocenza; Mazzarino, Clorinda

    2011-01-01

    Biliary tract carcinomas are relatively rare, representing less than 1% of cancers. However, their incidence has increased in Japan and in industrialized countries like the USA. Biliary tract tumors have a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate because they are usually detected late in the course of the disease; therapeutic treatment options are often limited and of minimal utility. Recent studies have shown the importance of serum and molecular markers in the diagnosis and follow up of biliary tract tumors. This review aims to introduce the main features of the most important serum and molecular markers of biliary tree tumors. Some considerable tumor markers are cancer antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, chromogranin A, mucin 1, mucin 5, alpha-fetoprotein, claudins and cytokeratins. PMID:21528090

  14. Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-10

    AD VIRULENCE MARKERS OF DENGUE VIRUSES 00 ANNUAL REPORT 0 James L. Hardy and Srisakul C. Kliks June 10, 1988 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH...Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) James L. Hardy ind Sriqakul.C. Klik,,q 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF...TERMS (Continue on reverse it necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Dengue viruses, dengue hemorrhagic fever, virulence, U3

  15. Identification of genetic risk variants for deep vein thrombosis by multiplexed next-generation sequencing of 186 hemostatic/pro-inflammatory genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Next-generation DNA sequencing is opening new avenues for genetic association studies in common diseases that, like deep vein thrombosis (DVT), have a strong genetic predisposition still largely unexplained by currently identified risk variants. In order to develop sequencing and analytical pipelines for the application of next-generation sequencing to complex diseases, we conducted a pilot study sequencing the coding area of 186 hemostatic/proinflammatory genes in 10 Italian cases of idiopathic DVT and 12 healthy controls. Results A molecular-barcoding strategy was used to multiplex DNA target capture and sequencing, while retaining individual sequence information. Genomic libraries with barcode sequence-tags were pooled (in pools of 8 or 16 samples) and enriched for target DNA sequences. Sequencing was performed on ABI SOLiD-4 platforms. We produced > 12 gigabases of raw sequence data to sequence at high coverage (average: 42X) the 700-kilobase target area in 22 individuals. A total of 1876 high-quality genetic variants were identified (1778 single nucleotide substitutions and 98 insertions/deletions). Annotation on databases of genetic variation and human disease mutations revealed several novel, potentially deleterious mutations. We tested 576 common variants in a case-control association analysis, carrying the top-5 associations over to replication in up to 719 DVT cases and 719 controls. We also conducted an analysis of the burden of nonsynonymous variants in coagulation factor and anticoagulant genes. We found an excess of rare missense mutations in anticoagulant genes in DVT cases compared to controls and an association for a missense polymorphism of FGA (rs6050; p = 1.9 × 10-5, OR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.22-1.72; after replication in > 1400 individuals). Conclusions We implemented a barcode-based strategy to efficiently multiplex sequencing of hundreds of candidate genes in several individuals. In the relatively small dataset of our pilot study we were

  16. TWO ASPECT MARKERS IN MANDARIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, WILLIAM S-Y.

    TWO ASPECT MARKERS IN MANDARIN CHINESE ARE STUDIED WITHIN THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. THEY ARE COMMONLY REPRESENTED AS "-LE," INDICATING COMPLETION OF ACTION, AND "-GUO," INDICATING THAT AN ACTION HAS TAKEN PLACE AT LEAST ONCE. THE PROBLEM INVOLVES SEVERAL SEEMING IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF…

  17. Article surveillance magnetic marker having an hysteresis loop with large Barkhausen discontinuities

    DOEpatents

    Humphrey, Floyd B.

    1987-01-01

    A marker for an electronic article surveillance system is disclosed comprising a body of magnetic material with retained stress and having a magnetic hysteresis loop with a large Barkhausen discontinuity such that, upon exposure of the marker to an external magnetic field whose field strength in the direction opposing the instantaneous magnetic polarization of the marker exceeds a predetermined threshold value, there results a regenerative reversal of the magnetic polarization of the marker. An electronic article surveillance system and a method utilizing the marker are also disclosed. Exciting the marker with a low frequency and low field strength, so long as the field strength exceeds the low threshold level for the marker, causes a regenerative reversal of magnetic polarity generating a harmonically rich pulse that is readily detected and easily distinguished.

  18. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; Červenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  19. EST-SSR markers derived from an elite barley cultivar (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Morex'): polymorphism and genetic marker potential.

    PubMed

    Emebiri, Livinus C

    2009-08-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats have become the markers of choice for marker-assisted selection because of their low template DNA requirement, high reproducibility, and high level of polymorphism. This study investigated a new set of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) EST-derived SSR markers designed to target gene sequences expressed during grain development, as they are more likely to be important in determining grain quality. The EST sequences (HVSMEh and HVSMEi) were derived from cDNA libraries of the elite six-rowed cultivar Morex, made from spikes harvested at 5 to 45 days after pollination. Approximately half of the 110 SSR markers derived from the ESTs were polymorphic in a panel of 8 diverse barley genotypes, with PIC values between 0.19 and 0.79. Twenty of the new markers were mapped to chromosomal locations using 2 doubled haploid populations. To demonstrate marker potential, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses were carried out with phenotypic data on wort beta-glucan content and beta-glucanase activity, two traits with a long history of genetic studies. Most of the EST-SSR markers mapped to within 10 cM of the cellulose synthase (HvCesA) and cellulose synthase-like (HvCslF) genes, which provides highly informative functional markers for tracking these genes in breeding programs. It was also observed that on any given chromosome, the QTL for beta-glucan content and beta-glucanase activity were rarely coincident but tended to occur in adjacent intervals along chromosomal regions, which agreed with their independent genetic basis; the adjacent localization may be important for coordination of cell wall degradation during germination and malting.

  20. Lessons from mouse chimaera experiments with a reiterated transgene marker: revised marker criteria and a review of chimaera markers.

    PubMed

    Keighren, Margaret A; Flockhart, Jean; Hodson, Benjamin A; Shen, Guan-Yi; Birtley, James R; Notarnicola-Harwood, Antonio; West, John D

    2015-08-01

    Recent reports of a new generation of ubiquitous transgenic chimaera markers prompted us to consider the criteria used to evaluate new chimaera markers and develop more objective assessment methods. To investigate this experimentally we used several series of fetal and adult chimaeras, carrying an older, multi-copy transgenic marker. We used two additional independent markers and objective, quantitative criteria for cell selection and cell mixing to investigate quantitative and spatial aspects of developmental neutrality. We also suggest how the quantitative analysis we used could be simplified for future use with other markers. As a result, we recommend a five-step procedure for investigators to evaluate new chimaera markers based partly on criteria proposed previously but with a greater emphasis on examining the developmental neutrality of prospective new markers. These five steps comprise (1) review of published information, (2) evaluation of marker detection, (3) genetic crosses to check for effects on viability and growth, (4) comparisons of chimaeras with and without the marker and (5) analysis of chimaeras with both cell populations labelled. Finally, we review a number of different chimaera markers and evaluate them using the extended set of criteria. These comparisons indicate that, although the new generation of ubiquitous fluorescent markers are the best of those currently available and fulfil most of the criteria required of a chimaera marker, further work is required to determine whether they are developmentally neutral.

  1. Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms. In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities. PMID:21062457

  2. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. PMID:26257650

  3. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence.

  4. Marker-assisted selection for biotic stress resistance in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut ranks second to soybean in the world market trade of oilseeds both in area grown and tonnage produced, and is well-suited to contribute significantly to poverty reduction in the developing world. Peanut is a tetrapoid of recent origin, and has shown low levels of molecular marker polymorphis...

  5. Are there biological markers of wear?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Thomas W; Shanbhag, Arun S

    2008-01-01

    Potential systemic markers of implant wear include products of the wear process (particles and ions) and mediators of the inflammatory reaction that can be induced by wear. Ions from polymers used in arthroplasty are not specific, but high metal ion levels may help identify patients with unexpectedly high wear of metal-on-metal implants. The kinetics of ion production, transport, and excretion are complex, however, so it is currently difficult to interpret the significance of mild elevations in metal ions. Indices of bone turnover (eg, collagen fragments) and mediators involved in the inflammatory reaction to particles (eg, osteoprotegerin, RANKL, interleukins) may be associated with osteolysis, but systemic disorders (eg, osteoarthritis) and the use of medications that influence bone remodeling limit the predictive value of these analytes with respect to the consequences of implant wear. Using genomic and proteomic methods to measure multiple analytes offers promise, but the challenge is to identify markers specifically associated with wear that are not elevated by other conditions that often coexist in this patient population.

  6. Inflammatory and immunogenetic markers in correlation with pulmonary tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Beatriz Lima Alezio; Ramalho, Daniela Maria de Paula; dos Santos, Paula Fernanda Gonçalves; Mesquita, Eliene Denites Duarte; Kritski, Afranio Lineu; Oliveira, Martha Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe serum levels of the cytokines IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, as well as polymorphisms in the genes involved in their transcription, and their association with markers of the acute inflammatory response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a descriptive, longitudinal study involving 81 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated at two referral hospitals. We collected data on sociodemographic variables and evaluated bacteriological conversion at the eighth week of antituberculosis treatment, gene polymorphisms related to the cytokines studied, and serum levels of those cytokines, as well as those of C-reactive protein (CRP). We also determined the ESR and CD4+ counts. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 43 years; 67 patients (82.7%) were male; and 8 patients (9.9%) were infected with HIV. The ESR was highest in the patients with high IFN-γ levels and low IL-10 levels. IFN-γ and TNF-α gene polymorphisms at positions +874 and −238, respectively, showed no correlations with the corresponding cytokine serum levels. Low IL-10 levels were associated with IL-10 gene polymorphisms at positions −592 and −819 (but not −1082). There was a negative association between bacteriological conversion at the eighth week of treatment and CRP levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic markers and markers of acute inflammatory response are useful in predicting the response to antituberculosis treatment. PMID:24473766

  7. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A skin marker is a pen-like device intended to be used to write on the patient's skin, e.g., to outline...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A skin marker is a pen-like device intended to be used to write on the patient's skin, e.g., to outline...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A skin marker is a pen-like device intended to be used to write on the patient's skin, e.g., to outline...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A skin marker is a pen-like device intended to be used to write on the patient's skin, e.g., to outline...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A skin marker is a pen-like device intended to be used to write on the patient's skin, e.g., to outline...

  12. A Lack of Bioactive Predictability for Marker Compounds Commonly Used for Herbal Medicine Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Guillermo G.; Nelson, Erik O.; Kozin, Adam F.; Turner, Tiffany C.; Waters, Robert F.; Langland, Jeffrey O.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical medicine by practitioners and the general public has dramatically increased in recent years. Most of these botanical therapeutics are obtained through commercial manufacturers or nutraceutical companies. The current standard of practice that manufacturers typically use to standardize botanicals is done based on the level of a well-known, abundant marker compound present in the botanical. This study evaluated the putative correlation between the level of a marker compound and the biological activity of eight common botanicals. Overall, the standardization of a botanical based on a marker compound was found not to be a reliable method when compared to in vitro bioactivity. A marker compound is often not the biologically active component of a plant and therefore the level of such a marker compound does not necessarily correlate with biological activity or therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27458926

  13. Fast and slow myosins as markers of muscle injury

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, M; Guiu-Comadevall, M; Cadefau, J A; Parra, J; Balius, R; Estruch, A; Rodas, G; Bedini, J L; Cussó, R

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of muscular lesions suffered by athletes is usually made by clinical criteria combined with imaging of the lesion (ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance) and blood tests to detect the presence of non-specific muscle markers. This study was undertaken to evaluate injury to fast and slow-twitch fibres using specific muscle markers for these fibres. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 51 non-sports people and 38 sportsmen with skeletal muscle injury. Western blood analysis was performed to determine fast and slow myosin and creatine kinase (CK) levels. Skeletal muscle damage was diagnosed by physical examination, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance and biochemical markers. Results: The imaging tests were found to be excellent for detecting and confirming grade II and III lesions. However, grade I lesions were often unconfirmed by these techniques. Grade I lesions have higher levels of fast myosin than slow myosin with a very small increase in CK levels. Grade II and III lesions have high values of both fast and slow myosin. Conclusions: The evaluation of fast and slow myosin in the blood 48 h after the lesion occurs is a useful aid for the detection of type I lesions in particular, since fast myosin is an exclusive skeletal muscle marker. The correct diagnosis of grade I lesions can prevent progression of the injury in athletes undergoing continual training sessions and competitions, thus aiding sports physicians in their decision making. PMID:18070807

  14. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  15. Aqueous marker penetration into ion irradiated polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Müller, M.; Petrov, A.; Klett, R.; Palmetshofer, L.; Hnatowicz, V.; Vacik, J.; Cervena, J.; Chadderton, L. T.

    2002-05-01

    The penetration of aqueous 6Li + markers into low energy ion irradiated polyimide (PI) foils was examined by the neutron depth profiling technique in combination with a modified tomographic approach. The ion irradiation always leads to an enhancement in marker uptake. After irradiation at low fluence the marker profiles follow the nuclear damage distribution even in three dimensions. At elevated fluences saturation in the marker uptake is clearly seen. The polymer's penetrant uptake can be described well by regular diffusion, with nuclear damage centres acting as saturable traps. These observations are strikingly different from the marker penetration into high-energy heavy-ion irradiated PI.

  16. Novel Identity and Functional Markers for Human Corneal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bartakova, Alena; Alvarez-Delfin, Karen; Weisman, Alejandra D.; Salero, Enrique; Raffa, Gabriella A.; Merkhofer, Richard M.; Kunzevitzky, Noelia J.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) density decreases with age, surgical complications, or disease, leading to vision impairment. Such endothelial dysfunction is an indication for corneal transplantation, although there is a worldwide shortage of transplant-grade tissue. To overcome the current poor donor availability, here we isolate, expand, and characterize HCECs in vitro as a step toward cell therapy. Methods Human corneal endothelial cells were isolated from cadaveric corneas and expanded in vitro. Cell identity was evaluated based on morphology and immunocytochemistry, and gene expression analysis and flow cytometry were used to identify novel HCEC-specific markers. The functional ability of HCEC to form barriers was assessed by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) assays. Results Cultured HCECs demonstrated canonical morphology for up to four passages and later underwent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Quality of donor tissue influenced cell measures in culture including proliferation rate. Cultured HCECs expressed identity markers, and microarray analysis revealed novel endothelial-specific markers that were validated by flow cytometry. Finally, canonical HCECs expressed higher levels of CD56, which correlated with higher TEER than fibroblastic HCECs. Conclusions In vitro expansion of HCECs from cadaveric donor corneas yields functional cells identifiable by morphology and a panel of novel markers. Markers described correlated with function in culture, suggesting a basis for cell therapy for corneal endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27196322

  17. Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-20

    Soawy Ca saoouj Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses (U) 12. PCIRSONAL AUTHORS) James L. Hardy, Ph.D. and Srisakul C. Kliks, Ph.D. 13a. TYPE Of REPORT...17. COSATI COOLS I& S UBiJECT TERMS0,G ’-mPJ!’ iwin.. - fl OV nu0a mef) FIELD I GROUP SUS-GROUIP Dengue viruses, dengue hemorrhagic fever, virulence...serotypes of dengue virus vary from mild forms i.e. pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) and dengue fever (DF) to severe forms i.e. dengue hemorrhagic fever and

  18. Genetic markers as instrumental variables

    PubMed Central

    von Hinke, Stephanie; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Propper, Carol; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The use of genetic markers as instrumental variables (IV) is receiving increasing attention from economists, statisticians, epidemiologists and social scientists. Although IV is commonly used in economics, the appropriate conditions for the use of genetic variants as instruments have not been well defined. The increasing availability of biomedical data, however, makes understanding of these conditions crucial to the successful use of genotypes as instruments. We combine the econometric IV literature with that from genetic epidemiology, and discuss the biological conditions and IV assumptions within the statistical potential outcomes framework. We review this in the context of two illustrative applications. PMID:26614692

  19. Genetic Markers and Quantitative Genetic Variation in Medicago Truncatula (Leguminosae): A Comparative Analysis of Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    Bonnin, I.; Prosperi, J. M.; Olivieri, I.

    1996-01-01

    Two populations of the selfing annual Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (Leguminoseae), each subdivided into three subpopulations, were studied for both metric traits (quantitative characters) and genetic markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA and one morphological, single-locus marker). Hierarchical analyses of variance components show that (1) populations are more differentiated for quantitative characters than for marker loci, (2) the contribution of both within and among subpopulations components of variance to overall genetic variance of these characters is reduced as compared to markers, and (3) at the population level, within population structure is slightly but not significantly larger for markers than for quantitative traits. Under the hypothesis that most markers are neutral, such comparisons may be used to make hypotheses about the strength and heterogeneity of natural selection in the face of genetic drift and gene flow. We thus suggest that in these populations, quantitative characters are under strong divergent selection among populations, and that gene flow is restricted among populations and subpopulations. PMID:8844165

  20. Extension and contraction of faulted marker planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Marie D.; Delaney, Paul T.

    1985-08-01

    We present graphical and analytical methods to determine the extensional or contractional separation of a faulted planar marker using commonly measured field data: fault attitude, slip direction, and bedding or other marker-plane attitude. This determination is easily accomplished for horizontal markers. Faults with normal components of slip extend the markers and indicate extensional tectonics; those with reverse components are contractional. Although the methods quantify this simple relation for horizontal markers, they are most useful in rocks with planar fabrics of steep dip where marker separation cannot be uniquely determined from map or outcrop patterns alone and where faults with normal components of dip slip can contract markers and those with reverse components can extend them. The methods rely on two parameters: (1) the angle between normals to the marker and fault planes and (2) the angle between the slip direction and intersection of the marker and fault. This second parameter measures the obliquity of slip relative to the directions of maximum extensional or contractional separation of the marker, and for a horizontal marker, it is equivalent to the rake of the slip direction. The graphical method requires stereographic projections routinely used for faulting data; the analytical method is programmable on a calculator. *Present address: Department of Applied Earth Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94035

  1. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Emily J; Stovold, Grahame T; Li, Yongjun; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario G; Dungey, Heidi S

    2015-01-01

    Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K). The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi-species SNP resource

  2. Fluoroscopic tracking of multiple implanted fiducial markers using multiple object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Sharp, Greg C.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2007-07-01

    other hand, our proposed system can track markers well and can also successfully detect tracking failures. Failure rate was calculated on a per-frame-per-marker basis for the proposed tracking system. When the system considered breathing pattern information, it had a 0% failure rate 75% of the time and 0.4% failure rate 25% of the time. However, when the system did not consider breathing patterns, it had a much higher failure rate, in the range of 1.2%-12%. Both examples of the proposed system yielded low e95 (the maximum marker tracking error at 95% confidence level)—less than 1.5 mm.

  3. Inflammation markers in individuals with history of mental health crisis.

    PubMed

    Justo, Dan; Arbel, Yaron; Altberg, Gal; Kinori, Michael; Shirom, Arie; Melamed, Samuel; Shapira, Itzhak; Rogowski, Ori

    2008-08-01

    The association between temporary emotional states and systemic inflammation has never been studied. We measured the levels of systemic inflammation markers in the peripheral blood of individuals with history of mental health crisis. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen plasma level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) serum level, and white blood cell count (WBCC) were measured for each individual during routine screening examinations. History of mental health crisis was self-reported. Individuals taking psychotropic agents were excluded. A total of 4,669 males and 2,576 females were included. One hundred forty-eight (2.0%) individuals (77 males and 71 females) reported a history of mental health crisis, and 7,097 (98.0%) individuals (4,592 males and 2,505 females) did not report a history of mental health crisis. After adjustment for multiple confounders which had been associated with elevated systemic inflammation markers, the levels of systemic inflammation markers were significantly higher among males with history of mental health crisis compared with males with no history of mental health crisis, including fibrinogen plasma levels (294+/-6.1 vs. 279+/-1.9 mg/dl, p=0.010), and WBCC (7.2+/-0.2 vs. 6.8+/-0.1 x 10(3) cells/dl, p=0.039). The levels of systemic inflammation markers were not significantly higher among females with history of mental health crisis compared with females with no history of mental health crisis. History of mental health crisis might be associated with systemic inflammation in males. This finding may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in males.