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Sample records for hemp cannabis sativa

  1. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  2. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Seeds, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Potential Overdose.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Lewis, Melissa M; Bello, Angelica M; Wasilewski, Ewa; Clarke, Hance A; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cannabis sativa (hemp) seeds are popular for their high nutrient content, and strict regulations are in place to limit the amount of potentially harmful phytocannabinoids, especially Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC). In Canada, this limit is 10 μg of Δ 9 -THC per gram of hemp seeds (10 ppm), and other jurisdictions in the world follow similar guidelines. Materials and Methods: We investigated three different brands of consumer-grade hemp seeds using four different procedures to extract phytocannabinoids, and quantified total Δ 9 -THC and cannabidiol (CBD). Discussion: We discovered that Δ 9 -THC concentrations in these hemp seeds could be as high as 1250% of the legal limit, and the amount of phytocannabinoids depended on the extraction procedure employed, Soxhlet extraction being the most efficient across all three brands of seeds. Δ 9 -THC and CBD exhibited significant variations in their estimated concentrations even from the same brand, reflecting the inhomogeneous nature of seeds and variability due to the extraction method, but almost in all cases, Δ 9 -THC concentrations were higher than the legal limit. These quantities of total Δ 9 -THC may reach as high as 3.8 mg per gram of hemp seeds, if one were consuming a 30-g daily recommended amount of hemp seeds, and is a cause for concern for potential toxicity. It is not clear if these high quantities of Δ 9 -THC are due to contamination of the seeds, or any other reason. Conclusion: Careful consideration of the extraction method is very important for the measurement of cannabinoids in hemp seeds.

  3. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Seeds, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Potential Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Lewis, Melissa M.; Bello, Angelica M.; Wasilewski, Ewa; Clarke, Hance A.; Kotra, Lakshmi P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cannabis sativa (hemp) seeds are popular for their high nutrient content, and strict regulations are in place to limit the amount of potentially harmful phytocannabinoids, especially Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). In Canada, this limit is 10 μg of Δ9-THC per gram of hemp seeds (10 ppm), and other jurisdictions in the world follow similar guidelines. Materials and Methods: We investigated three different brands of consumer-grade hemp seeds using four different procedures to extract phytocannabinoids, and quantified total Δ9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD). Discussion: We discovered that Δ9-THC concentrations in these hemp seeds could be as high as 1250% of the legal limit, and the amount of phytocannabinoids depended on the extraction procedure employed, Soxhlet extraction being the most efficient across all three brands of seeds. Δ9-THC and CBD exhibited significant variations in their estimated concentrations even from the same brand, reflecting the inhomogeneous nature of seeds and variability due to the extraction method, but almost in all cases, Δ9-THC concentrations were higher than the legal limit. These quantities of total Δ9-THC may reach as high as 3.8 mg per gram of hemp seeds, if one were consuming a 30-g daily recommended amount of hemp seeds, and is a cause for concern for potential toxicity. It is not clear if these high quantities of Δ9-THC are due to contamination of the seeds, or any other reason. Conclusion: Careful consideration of the extraction method is very important for the measurement of cannabinoids in hemp seeds. PMID:29098190

  4. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

    2010-01-01

    Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `Pūriņi' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

  5. Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Frassinetti, Stefania; Moccia, Eleonora; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Gabriele, Morena; Longo, Vincenzo; Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgi, Gianluca; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2018-10-01

    In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. seeds and sprouts (3 and 5 days of germination) was evaluated. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH (in vitro assays), CAA-RBC (cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells) and hemolysis test (ex vivo assays) evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds. Untargeted analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode allowed the identification of main polyphenols (caffeoyltyramine, cannabisin A, B, C) in seeds and of ω-6 (linoleic acid) in sprouts. Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion our results show that C. sativa seeds and sprouts exert beneficial effects on yeast and human cells and should be further investigated as a potential functional food. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction.

    PubMed

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; Marín-Aguilar, F; García-Giménez, M D; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2014-02-05

    Non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L., collectively namely as "hemp", have been an interesting source of food, fiber, and medicine for thousands of years. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components. The lipid profile showed that linoleic (55%), α-linolenic (16%), and oleic (11%) were the most abundant fatty acids. A yield (1.84-1.92%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained, and the most interesting compounds were β-sitosterol (1905.00 ± 59.27 mg/kg of oil), campesterol (505.69 ± 32.04 mg/kg of oil), phytol (167.59 ± 1.81 mg/kg of oil), cycloartenol (90.55 ± 3.44 mg/kg of oil), and γ-tocopherol (73.38 ± 2.86 mg/100 g of oil). This study is an interesting contribution for C. sativa L. consideration as a source of bioactive compounds contributing to novel research applications for hemp seed oil in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic food, and other non-food industries.

  7. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars reveals its karyotype variations and sex chromosomes constitution.

    PubMed

    Razumova, Olga V; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Divashuk, Mikhail G; Sukhorada, Tatiana I; Karlov, Gennady I

    2016-05-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L., 2n = 20) is a dioecious plant. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation. The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach. Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. The DNA of 210 monoecious plants was used for PCR analysis with the male-associated markers MADC2 and SCAR323. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the subtelomeric CS-1 probe to chromosomes plates and karyotyping revealed a lack of Y chromosome and presence of XX sex chromosomes in monoecious cultivars with the chromosome number 2n = 20. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected. The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants.

  8. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.) with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd), for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82%) followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%), Armanca (29.27-25.32%), Silvana (28.89-25.04%) and Denise (26.96-25.30%). Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed), Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed), K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed), Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1) and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1). For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1), Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1) and K (232–257 mg.kg-1). Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1) and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1) remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1). The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K) and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1), Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1) and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1) are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium

  9. Pro-technological and functional characterization of lactic acid bacteria to be used as starters for hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) sourdough fermentation and wheat bread fortification.

    PubMed

    Nionelli, Luana; Montemurro, Marco; Pontonio, Erica; Verni, Michela; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2018-08-20

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) flour, spontaneously fermented dough, and type I sourdough. Isolates were identified and further selected based on pro-technological, nutritional and functional properties. Lactobacillus plantarum/s5, Pediococcus acidilactici/s5, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides/s1 were used as mixed starter to produce hemp sourdough. Significant decreases of the concentration of phytic acid, condensed tannins, and total saponins were observed during fermentation. The in vitro protein digestibility increased up to 90%. Experimental wheat breads were made adding 5% to 15% (w/w) hemp sourdough to the formula, characterized, and compared to baker's yeast wheat bread manufactured without hemp sourdough. The use of hemp sourdough improved the textural features of wheat bread, without adversely affect the sensory profile. Proportionally to the fortification with hemp sourdough, protein digestibility of the breads increased, while the predicted glycemic index significantly decreased (87 vs 100%). This work demonstrated that the fermentation with selected starters improved nutritional functionality of hemp flour, allowing its large-scale use in different food applications, meeting the consumers and producers request for novel fermented baked goods with a well-balanced nutritional profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Characterization of Lignanamides from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed and Their Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoli; Tang, Jiajing; dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Nurisso, Alessandra; Simões-Pires, Claudia Avello; Ji, Mei; Lou, Hongxiang; Fan, Peihong

    2015-12-16

    Hemp seed is known for its content of fatty acids, proteins, and fiber, which contribute to its nutritional value. Here we studied the secondary metabolites of hemp seed aiming at identifying bioactive compounds that could contribute to its health benefits. This investigation led to the isolation of 4 new lignanamides, cannabisin M (2), cannabisin N (5), cannabisin O (8), and 3,3'-demethyl-heliotropamide (10), together with 10 known lignanamides, among which 4 was identified for the first time from hemp seed. Structures were established on the basis of NMR, HR-MS, UV, and IR as well as by comparison with the literature data. Lignanamides 2, 7, and 9-14 showed good antioxidant activity, among which 7, 10, and 13 also inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The newly identified compounds in this study add to the diversity of hemp seed composition, and the bioassays implied that hemp seed, with lignanamides as nutrients, may be a good source of bioactive and protective compounds.

  12. New ACE-Inhibitory Peptides from Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Proteins.

    PubMed

    Orio, Lara P; Boschin, Giovanna; Recca, Teresa; Morelli, Carlo F; Ragona, Laura; Francescato, Pierangelo; Arnoldi, Anna; Speranza, Giovanna

    2017-12-06

    A hemp seed protein isolate, prepared from defatted hemp seed meals by alkaline solubilization/acid precipitation, was subjected to extensive chemical hydrolysis under acid conditions (6 M HCl). The resulting hydrolysate was fractionated by semipreparative RP-HPLC, and the purified fractions were tested as inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Mono- and bidimensional NMR experiments and LC-MS analyses led to the identification of four potentially bioactive peptides, i.e. GVLY, IEE, LGV, and RVR. They were prepared by solid-phase synthesis, and tested for ACE-inhibitory activity. The IC 50 values were GVLY 16 ± 1.5 μM, LGV 145 ± 13 μM, and RVR 526 ± 33 μM, confirming that hemp seed may be a valuable source of hypotensive peptides.

  13. Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles from Cannabis sativa (industrial hemp) and their capacity for biofilm inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Priyanka; Pandit, Santosh; Garnæs, Jørgen; Tunjic, Sanja; Mokkapati, Venkata RSS; Sultan, Abida; Thygesen, Anders; Mackevica, Aiga; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Baun, Anders; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa (hemp) is a source of various biologically active compounds, for instance, cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, which exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. With the purpose of expanding the auxiliary application of C. sativa in the field of bio-nanotechnology, we explored the plant for green and efficient synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Methods and results The nanoparticles were synthesized by utilizing an aqueous extract of C. sativa stem separated into two different fractions (cortex and core [xylem part]) without any additional reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. In the synthesis of AuNPs using the cortex enriched in bast fibers, fiber-AuNPs (F-AuNPs) were achieved. When using the core part of the stem, which is enriched with phenolic compounds such as alkaloids and cannabinoids, core-AuNPs (C-AuNPs) and core-AgNPs (C-AgNPs) were formed. Synthesized nanoparticles were character-ized by UV–visible analysis, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight. In addition, the stable nature of nanoparticles has been shown by thermogravimetric analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Finally, the AgNPs were explored for the inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli biofilms. Conclusion The synthesized nanoparticles were crystalline with an average diameter between 12 and 18 nm for F-AuNPs and C-AuNPs and in the range of 20–40 nm for C-AgNPs. ICP-MS analysis revealed concentrations of synthesized nanoparticles as 0.7, 4.5 and 3.6 mg/mL for F-AuNPs, C-AuNPs and C-AgNPs, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of flavonoids, cannabinoids, terpenes and phenols on the nanoparticle surface, which could be responsible for reducing the salts to

  14. Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of industrial hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Soo-Jeong; Sung, Yong Joo

    2008-09-01

    The electron beam irradiation was applied as a pretreatment of the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp biomass with doses of 150, 300 and 450 kGy. The higher irradiation dose resulted in the more extraction with hot-water extraction or 1% sodium hydroxide solution extraction. The higher solubility of the treated sample was originated from the chains scission during irradiation, which was indirectly demonstrated by the increase of carbonyl groups as shown in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra. The changes in the micro-structure of hemp resulted in the better response to enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases (Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 342). The improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis by the irradiation was more evident in the hydrolysis of the xylan than in that of the cellulose.

  15. Identification of fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins in textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.): in silico analyses and gene expression patterns in different tissues.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Gea; Mangeot-Peter, Lauralie; Legay, Sylvain; Behr, Marc; Lutts, Stanley; Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2017-09-20

    The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) belong to the arabinogalactan protein (AGP) superfamily and are known to play different physiological roles in plants. This class of proteins was shown to participate in plant growth, development, defense against abiotic stresses and, notably, cell wall biosynthesis. Although some studies are available on the characterization of FLA genes from different species, both woody and herbaceous, no detailed information is available on the FLA family of textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), an economically important fibre crop. By searching the Cannabis genome and EST databases, 23 CsaFLAs have been here identified which are divided into four phylogenetic groups. A real-time qPCR analysis performed on stem tissues (isolated bast fibres and shivs sampled at three heights), hypocotyls (6-9-12-15-17-20 days-old), whole seedlings, roots, leaves and female/male flowers of the monoecious fibre variety Santhica 27, indicates that the identified FLA genes are differentially expressed. Interestingly, some hemp FLAs are expressed during early phases of fibre growth (elongation), while others are more expressed in the middle and base of the stem and thus potentially involved in secondary cell wall formation (fibre thickening). The bioinformatic analysis of the promoter regions shows that the FLAs upregulated in the younger regions of the stem share a conserved motif related to flowering control and regulation of photoperiod perception. The promoters of the FLA genes expressed at higher levels in the older stem regions, instead, share a motif putatively recognized by MYB3, a transcriptional repressor belonging to the MYB family subgroup S4. These results point to the existence of a transcriptional network fine-tuning the expression of FLA genes in the older and younger regions of the stem, as well as in the bast fibres/shivs of textile hemp. In summary, our study paves the way for future analyses on the biological functions of FLAs in

  16. Development of a new extraction technique and HPLC method for the analysis of non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L. (hemp).

    PubMed

    Brighenti, Virginia; Pellati, Federica; Steinbach, Marleen; Maran, Davide; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2017-09-05

    The present work was aimed at the development and validation of a new, efficient and reliable technique for the analysis of the main non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) inflorescences belonging to different varieties. This study was designed to identify samples with a high content of bioactive compounds, with a view to underscoring the importance of quality control in derived products as well. Different extraction methods, including dynamic maceration (DM), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE) were applied and compared in order to obtain a high yield of the target analytes from hemp. Dynamic maceration for 45min with ethanol (EtOH) at room temperature proved to be the most suitable technique for the extraction of cannabinoids in hemp samples. The analysis of the target analytes in hemp extracts was carried out by developing a new reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with diode array (UV/DAD) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection, by using an ion trap mass analyser. An Ascentis Express C 18 column (150mm×3.0mm I.D., 2.7μm) was selected for the HPLC analysis, with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in both water and acetonitrile, under gradient elution. The application of the fused-core technology allowed us to obtain a significant improvement of the HPLC performance compared with that of conventional particulate stationary phases, with a shorter analysis time and a remarkable reduction of solvent usage. The analytical method optimized in this study was fully validated to show compliance with international requirements. Furthermore, it was applied to the characterization of nine hemp samples and six hemp-based pharmaceutical products. As such, it was demonstrated to be a very useful tool for the analysis of cannabinoids in both the plant material and its derivatives for

  17. Phytochemistry of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Radwan, Mohamed M; Gul, Waseem; Chandra, Suman; Galal, Ahmed

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa, or hemp) and its constituents-in particular the cannabinoids-have been the focus of extensive chemical and biological research for almost half a century since the discovery of the chemical structure of its major active constituent, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC). The plant's behavioral and psychotropic effects are attributed to its content of this class of compounds, the cannabinoids, primarily Δ 9 -THC, which is produced mainly in the leaves and flower buds of the plant. Besides Δ 9 -THC, there are also non-psychoactive cannabinoids with several medicinal functions, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG), along with other non-cannabinoid constituents belonging to diverse classes of natural products. Today, more than 560 constituents have been identified in cannabis. The recent discoveries of the medicinal properties of cannabis and the cannabinoids in addition to their potential applications in the treatment of a number of serious illnesses, such as glaucoma, depression, neuralgia, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, and alleviation of symptoms of HIV/AIDS and cancer, have given momentum to the quest for further understanding the chemistry, biology, and medicinal properties of this plant.This contribution presents an overview of the botany, cultivation aspects, and the phytochemistry of cannabis and its chemical constituents. Particular emphasis is placed on the newly-identified/isolated compounds. In addition, techniques for isolation of cannabis constituents and analytical methods used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of cannabis and its products are also reviewed.

  18. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  19. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Judith K.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety ‘Finola’ revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of ‘Finola’ resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties. PMID:28355238

  20. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given.

  1. Bioactive spirans and other constituents from the leaves of Cannabis sativa f. sativa.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Qing-Chao; Zhao, Yong; Hou, Yu-Fei; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Sheng-Yong; Bai, Nai-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, 17 compounds (1-17) were isolated from the leaves of Hemp (Cannabis sativa f. sativa). Among the isolates, two were determined to be new spirans: cannabispirketal (1), and α-cannabispiranol 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranose (2) by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known compounds 7, 8, 10, 13, 15, and 16 were isolated from Hemp (C. sativa f. sativa) for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 8 and 13 were isolated from the nature for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity on different tissue-derived passage cancer cell lines through cell viability and apoptosis assay. Among these compounds, compounds 5, 9 and 16 exhibited a broad-spectrum antitumor effect via inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. These results obtained have provided valuable clues to the understanding of the cytotoxic profile for these isolated compounds from Hemp (C. sativa f. sativa).

  2. [Detection method for the ability of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed germination by the use of 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC)].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Jun; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Goda, Yukihiro

    2008-11-01

    Cannabis plants show a high Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol content and are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore the cultivation of hemp and its possession are prohibited by law in Japan. Meanwhile, Cannabis seeds have been used as a component of shichimi-togarashi (a Japanese spice), bird feed, or a crude drug (mashinin). To exclude the possibility of germination, it is officially noticed that hemp seeds must be killed. However, the number of violators has increased in recent years. To judge the ability of seed germination, a germination test is performed. However, the test requires several days and thus has not been used for on-site inspection. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method to determine the ability of Cannabis seeds to germinate using 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC). The principle of the assay is as follows. The endogenous respiratory enzymes in hemp seeds convert added colorless TTC into red 1,3,5-triphenylformazan. Consequently, a living embryo is stained red, while red does not appear in the dead seeds. The reaction was active over a pH range of 8.0-9.0, and the optimum activity was found from 40 to 50 degrees C. Under the optimum conditions, we were able to determine the ability of seeds to germinate based on the presence of color within 20 min. Since this method is rapid and simple, it is applicable to on-site inspections. In addition, it could be used as an alternative technique to the germination test, because erroneous decisions is cannot occur under the assay principle.

  3. The complete chloroplast genomes of Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Daniela; White, Kristin H; Keepers, Kyle G; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and Humulus are sister genera comprising the entirety of the Cannabaceae sensu stricto, including C. sativa L. (marijuana, hemp), and H. lupulus L. (hops) as two economically important crops. These two plants have been used by humans for many purposes including as a fiber, food, medicine, or inebriant in the case of C. sativa, and as a flavoring component in beer brewing in the case of H. lupulus. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes for two distinct hemp varieties of C. sativa, Italian "Carmagnola" and Russian "Dagestani", and one Czech variety of H. lupulus "Saazer". Both C. sativa genomes are 153 871 bp in length, while the H. lupulus genome is 153 751 bp. The genomes from the two C. sativa varieties differ in 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while the H. lupulus genome differs in 1722 SNPs from both C. sativa cultivars.

  4. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Purple Kush using shortread approaches. We report a draft haploid genome sequence of 534 Mb and a transcriptome of 30,000 genes. Comparison of the transcriptome of Purple Kush with that of the hemp cultivar 'Finola' revealed that many genes encoding proteins involved in cannabinoid and precursor pathways are more highly expressed in Purple Kush than in 'Finola'. The exclusive occurrence of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase in the Purple Kush transcriptome, and its replacement by cannabidiolic acid synthase in 'Finola', may explain why the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is produced in marijuana but not in hemp. Resequencing the hemp cultivars 'Finola' and 'USO-31' showed little difference in gene copy numbers of cannabinoid pathway enzymes. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively high level of variation among four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. Conclusions The availability of the Cannabis sativa genome enables the study of a multifunctional plant that occupies a unique role in human culture. Its availability will aid the development of therapeutic marijuana strains with tailored cannabinoid profiles and provide a basis for the breeding of hemp with improved agronomic characteristics. PMID:22014239

  5. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    van Bakel, Harm; Stout, Jake M; Cote, Atina G; Tallon, Carling M; Sharpe, Andrew G; Hughes, Timothy R; Page, Jonathan E

    2011-10-20

    Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Purple Kush using shortread approaches. We report a draft haploid genome sequence of 534 Mb and a transcriptome of 30,000 genes. Comparison of the transcriptome of Purple Kush with that of the hemp cultivar 'Finola' revealed that many genes encoding proteins involved in cannabinoid and precursor pathways are more highly expressed in Purple Kush than in 'Finola'. The exclusive occurrence of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase in the Purple Kush transcriptome, and its replacement by cannabidiolic acid synthase in 'Finola', may explain why the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is produced in marijuana but not in hemp. Resequencing the hemp cultivars 'Finola' and 'USO-31' showed little difference in gene copy numbers of cannabinoid pathway enzymes. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively high level of variation among four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. The availability of the Cannabis sativa genome enables the study of a multifunctional plant that occupies a unique role in human culture. Its availability will aid the development of therapeutic marijuana strains with tailored cannabinoid profiles and provide a basis for the breeding of hemp with improved agronomic characteristics.

  6. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  7. Effects of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) on functional characteristics of gluten-free crackers.

    PubMed

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Tsao, Rong

    2014-03-01

    A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers. All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves. All crackers with added hemp flour had a significantly increased fiber content (39% to 249%) and decreased carbohydrate content (8.4% to 42.3%), compared to the brown rice flour crackers. All samples had antioxidant properties, even without the addition of green tea leaves. Optimization of the responses was conducted based on the maximized values for protein, fibers, omega-3 fatty acids content, as well as for the antioxidant activity and overall score. The suggested values for the addition of the hemp oil press-cake was 20% (total flour weight) with 4 g of decaffeinated green tea leaves that would provide protein content of 14.1 g/100 g; fibers content of 8.4 g/100 g; omega-3 fatty acids content of 3.2 g/100 g; antioxidant activity measured via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl value of 30.3 μmol TE/g d.w.; and an overall score of 8.9. This formulation has demonstrated potential application in the baking industry and marketing of these gluten-free crackers as a value-added functional product. Hemp seed oil press-cake as a by-product of cold-pressed oil processing and brown rice flour were used to design a functional gluten-free snack-type product-savory crackers. All crackers were high in minerals, fibers, and omega-3 fatty acids with a desirable omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio. Green tea leaves were added to improve antioxidant activity, which greatly

  8. [Therapeutic potential of Cannabis sativa].

    PubMed

    Avello L, Marcia; Pastene N, Edgar; Fernández R, Pola; Córdova M, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marihuana) is considered an illicit drug due to its psychoactive properties. Recently, the Chilean government opened to the use cannabis in the symptomatic treatment of some patients. The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary treatment of specific clinical situations such as chronic pain. We retrieved scientific information about the analgesic properties of cannabis, using it as a safe drug. The drug may block or inhibit the transmission of nervous impulses at different levels, an effect associated with pain control. Within this context and using adequate doses, forms and administration pathways, it can be used for chronic pain management, considering its effectiveness and low cost. It could also be considered as an alternative in patients receiving prolonged analgesic therapies with multiple adverse effects.

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) on meat quality and egg fatty acid composition of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Yalcin, H; Konca, Y; Durmuscelebi, F

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted in two separate experiments. Experiment I was conducted to investigate the effects of hemp seed (HS) on meat quality traits, and experiment II was designed to determine egg fatty acid (FA) composition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). In experiment I and experiment II treatments, groups were as follows: (i) control (not included HS0), (ii) 5% HS inclusion to diets, (iii) 10% HS inclusion to diets and (iv) 20% HS inclusion to diets. In experiment I, a total of 192 7-day-old-quail were fed with HS diets for 5 weeks, and end of the experiment I, a total of 64 quail (16 each) slaughtered and meat samples were analysed for meat colour, pH, cooking and thawing loss and FA composition. In experiment II, a total of 120 8-week-old laying quail were fed with experimental diets for 6 weeks and egg FA composition were determined. Breast meat cooking loss was significantly lower in 20% supplemented group (p < 0.01). Hemp seed inclusion to diets caused a linear and cubic increase in redness (a*) of hip meat (p < 0.01). Palmitoleic and oleic FAs were decreased with HS addition in breast meat (p < 0.05); however, linoleic and linolenic acid contents of meat were linearly increased (p < 0.01). In experiment II, the linoleic and linolenic FA contents of egg samples were linearly increased with increasing the dietary HS ratio (p < 0.01). Hemp seed addition was provided lower palmitoleic and oleic FAs in quail eggs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, HS supplementation to quail diets may increase quail meat redness and meat and egg yolk omega-3 FA content and decrease cooking loss of quail meats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alok; Pravez, Mohammad; Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Parul A

    2014-08-01

    Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39±0.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2±0.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95±1.02μm) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; Birch, John

    2016-07-15

    Hemp protein isolates (HPIs) were hydrolysed by proteases (AFP, HT, ProG, actinidin and zingibain). The enzymatic hydrolysis of HPIs was evaluated through the degree of hydrolysis and SDS-PAGE profiles. The bioactive properties of the resultant hydrolysates (HPHs) were accessed through ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities. The physical properties of the resultant HPHs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. HT had the highest rate of caseinolytic activity at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)) compared to other proteases that required concentration of 100 mg mL(-1) to achieve their maximum rate of caseinolytic activity. This led to the highest degree of hydrolysis of HPIs by HT in the SDS-PAGE profiles. Among all proteases and substrates, HT resulted in the highest bioactivities (ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities) generated from alkali extracted HPI in the shortest time (2 h) compared to the other protease preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Cannabis sativa allergens.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ajay P; Green, Brett J; Sussman, Gordon; Berlin, Noam; Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Hettick, Justin M; Beezhold, Donald H

    2013-07-01

    Allergic sensitization to Cannabis sativa is rarely reported, but the increasing consumption of marijuana has resulted in an increase in the number of individuals who become sensitized. To date, little is known about the causal allergens associated with C sativa. To characterize marijuana allergens in different components of the C sativa plant using serum IgE from marijuana sensitized patients. Serum samples from 23 patients with a positive skin prick test result to a crude C sativa extract were evaluated. IgE reactivity was variable between patients and C sativa extracts. IgE reactivity to C sativa proteins in Western blots was heterogeneous and ranged from 10 to 70 kDa. Putative allergens derived from 2-dimensional gels were identified. Prominent IgE reactive bands included a 23-kDa oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 and a 50-kDa protein identified to be the photosynthetic enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Additional proteins were identified in the proteomic analysis, including those from adenosine triphosphate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and luminal binding protein (heat shock protein 70), suggesting these proteins are potential allergens. Deglycosylation studies helped refine protein allergen identification and demonstrated significant IgE antibodies against plant oligosaccharides that could help explain cross-reactivity. Identification and characterization of allergens from C sativa may be helpful in further understanding allergic sensitization to this plant species. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Use of Embryos Extracted from Individual Cannabis sativa Seeds for Genetic Studies and Forensic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soler, Salvador; Borràs, Dionís; Vilanova, Santiago; Sifres, Alicia; Andújar, Isabel; Figàs, Maria R; Llosa, Ernesto R; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Christelle M.; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metabolites show potent bioactivities on human health and its outer and inner stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics and concrete-like material, respectively. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special emphasis on molecules of industrial interest, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, mainly due to their wide range of pharmaceutical effects in humans, including psychotropic activities. The therapeutic and commercial interests of some terpenes and phenolic compounds, and in particular stilbenoids and lignans, are also highlighted in view of the most recent literature data. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp secondary metabolites are proposed by discussing the power of plant genetic engineering and tissue culture. In particular two systems are reviewed, i.e., cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Additionally, an entire section is devoted to hemp trichomes, in the light of their importance as phytochemical factories. Ultimately, prospects on the benefits linked to the use of the -omics technologies, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to speed up the identification and the large-scale production of lead agents from bioengineered Cannabis cell culture, are presented. PMID:26870049

  16. Cannabis sativa allergy: looking through the fog.

    PubMed

    Decuyper, I I; Van Gasse, A L; Cop, N; Sabato, V; Faber, M A; Mertens, C; Bridts, C H; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L; Rihs, H P; Ebo, D G

    2017-02-01

    IgE-mediated Cannabis (C. sativa, marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may trigger a C. sativa sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical presentation of a C. sativa allergy varies from mild to life-threatening reactions and often seems to depend on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can result in various cross-allergies, mostly for plant foods. This clinical entity, designated as the 'cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome', might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, natural latex and plant-food-derived alcoholic beverages. Hitherto, these cross-allergies are predominantly reported in Europe and appear mainly to rely upon cross-reactivity between nonspecific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in C. sativa and their homologues, ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies predominantly rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from crushed buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures. Whether avoidance of further use will halt the extension of related cross-allergies remains uncertain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.

    PubMed

    Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian

    2012-10-10

    Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular characterization of edestin gene family in Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Docimo, Teresa; Caruso, Immacolata; Ponzoni, Elena; Mattana, Monica; Galasso, Incoronata

    2014-11-01

    Globulins are the predominant class of seed storage proteins in a wide variety of plants. In many plant species globulins are present in several isoforms encoded by gene families. The major seed storage protein of Cannabis sativa L. is the globulin edestin, widely known for its nutritional potential. In this work, we report the isolation of seven cDNAs encoding for edestin from the C. sativa variety Carmagnola. Southern blot hybridization is in agreement with the number of identified edestin genes. All seven sequences showed the characteristic globulin features, but they result to be divergent members/forms of two edestin types. According to their sequence similarity four forms named CsEde1A, CsEde1B, CsEde1C, CsEde1D have been assigned to the edestin type 1 and the three forms CsEde2A, CsEde2B, CsEde2C to the edestin type 2. Analysis of the coding sequences revealed a high percentage of similarity (98-99%) among the different forms belonging to the same type, which decreased significantly to approximately 64% between the forms belonging to different types. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that both edestin types are expressed in developing hemp seeds and the amount of CsEde1 was 4.44 ± 0.10 higher than CsEde2. Both edestin types exhibited a high percentage of arginine (11-12%), but CsEde2 resulted particularly rich in methionine residues (2.36%) respect to CsEde1 (0.82%). The amino acid composition determined in CsEde1 and CsEde2 types suggests that these seed proteins can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Data Normalization in Cannabis sativa Stem Tissues.

    PubMed

    Mangeot-Peter, Lauralie; Legay, Sylvain; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Esposito, Sergio; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-09-15

    Gene expression profiling via quantitative real-time PCR is a robust technique widely used in the life sciences to compare gene expression patterns in, e.g., different tissues, growth conditions, or after specific treatments. In the field of plant science, real-time PCR is the gold standard to study the dynamics of gene expression and is used to validate the results generated with high throughput techniques, e.g., RNA-Seq. An accurate relative quantification of gene expression relies on the identification of appropriate reference genes, that need to be determined for each experimental set-up used and plant tissue studied. Here, we identify suitable reference genes for expression profiling in stems of textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), whose tissues (isolated bast fibres and core) are characterized by remarkable differences in cell wall composition. We additionally validate the reference genes by analysing the expression of putative candidates involved in the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway and in the first step of the shikimate pathway. The goal is to describe the possible regulation pattern of some genes involved in the provision of the precursors needed for lignin biosynthesis in the different hemp stem tissues. The results here shown are useful to design future studies focused on gene expression analyses in hemp.

  20. Proteomic characterization of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Aiello, Gilda; Fasoli, Elisa; Boschin, Giovanna; Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Citterio, Attilio; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-09-16

    This paper presents an investigation on hempseed proteome. The experimental approach, based on combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs), SDS-PAGE separation, nLC-ESI-MS/MS identification, and database search, permitted identifying in total 181 expressed proteins. This very large number of identifications was achieved by searching in two databases: Cannabis sativa L. (56 gene products identified) and Arabidopsis thaliana (125 gene products identified). By performing a protein-protein association network analysis using the STRING software, it was possible to build the first interactomic map of all detected proteins, characterized by 137 nodes and 410 interactions. Finally, a Gene Ontology analysis of the identified species permitted to classify their molecular functions: the great majority is involved in the seed metabolic processes (41%), responses to stimulus (8%), and biological process (7%). Hempseed is an underexploited non-legume protein-rich seed. Although its protein is well known for its digestibility, essential amino acid composition, and useful techno-functional properties, a comprehensive proteome characterization is still lacking. The objective of this work was to fill this knowledge gap and provide information useful for a better exploitation of this seed in different food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Discriminating the effects of Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica: a web survey of medical cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Daniel D; Mitsouras, Katherine; Irizarry, Kristopher J

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the opinions of medical cannabis (MC) users on the effects of Cannabis indica vs. those of Cannabis sativa on conditions and symptoms through an online survey. Survey of 95 non-randomly assigned MC users. A two-sided chi-square test followed by Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparison and Fisher exact test were used to determine correlations. The Cronbach α was used to determine internal consistency. Announcements on 13 MC websites with links to SurveyMonkey.com. Self-identified MC users. Web survey. Species effects were compared regarding health symptoms, conditions, purpose, route, and trust in product label. Trust in the purity, the route of administration, or the purpose (recreational vs. medicinal) did not differ between the two species. A preference for C. indica was statistically significant for pain management (p=0.001), helping with sedation (p=0.015), and sleep (p<0.001). C. sativa was preferred for euphoria (p<0.001) and enhancing energy (p=0.022). The conditions reaching statistical significance for C. indica preference were: nonmigraine headaches (p=0.042), glaucoma (p=0.036), neuropathy (p=0.024), spasticity (p=0.048), seizures (p=0.031), insomnia (p<0.001), and joint pain (p=0.048). For C. sativa, no conditions reached significance. The MC websites' descriptions of effects that agreed with the survey results are listed. Some conditions had very few respondents. The internal consistency/reliability (Cronbach α) was adequate for the condition scale but not for the symptom survey. In this anonymous Web survey, which had limitations, the two species had different effect associations on symptoms and conditions, possibly because of ingredient differences. Future surveys and subsequent prospective definitive trials are needed to confirm the findings.

  2. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY chromosome sex determination system.

    PubMed

    Divashuk, Mikhail G; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Razumova, Olga V; Kirov, Ilya V; Karlov, Gennady I

    2014-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was karyotyped using by DAPI/C-banding staining to provide chromosome measurements, and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for 45 rDNA (pTa71), 5S rDNA (pCT4.2), a subtelomeric repeat (CS-1) and the Arabidopsis telomere probes. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair (XX in female and XY in male plants). The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes. The Y chromosome is larger than the autosomes, and carries a fully heterochromatic DAPI positive arm and CS-1 repeats only on the less intensely DAPI-stained, euchromatic arm. The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CS-1-carrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C. sativa sex chromosomes is a starting point for helping to make C. sativa a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution.

  3. [Ttextual research of Cannabis sativa varieties and medicinal part].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yingfang; Wang, Huadong; Guo, Shanshan; Yan, Jie; Long, Fei

    2010-07-01

    To determine the medicinal part and varieties of Cannabis Sativa through herbal textual research to Provide bibliographic reference for clinical application. Herbal textual research of C. Sativa from ancient herbal works and modern data analysis. Through the herbal textual research, the plant of the C. sativa, for Fructus Cannabis used now is identical with that described in ancient herbal literatures. People did not make a sharp distinction on medicinal part of C. sativa in the early stage literatures, female inflorescence and unripe fruit, fruit and kernel of seed were all used. Since Taohongjing realized the toxicity ofpericarp, all the herbal and prescription works indicate that the pericarp shall be removed before usage and only the kernel can be used. However, in modem literatures, both fruit and kernel can be used as medicinal part. The plants for Fructus Cannabis described in modern and ancient literatures are identical. The base of the original plant is the same either in ancient or modern. And the toxicity of the fruit is more than that of the kernel. The kernel is the exact medicinal part of C. Sativa.

  4. In silico gene expression profiling in Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Massimino, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The cannabis plant and its active ingredients (i.e., cannabinoids and terpenoids) have been socially stigmatized for half a century. Luckily, with more than 430,000 published scientific papers and about 600 ongoing and completed clinical trials, nowadays cannabis is employed for the treatment of many different medical conditions. Nevertheless, even if a large amount of high-throughput functional genomic data exists, most researchers feature a strong background in molecular biology but lack advanced bioinformatics skills. In this work, publicly available gene expression datasets have been analyzed giving rise to a total of 40,224 gene expression profiles taken from cannabis plant tissue at different developmental stages. The resource presented here will provide researchers with a starting point for future investigations with Cannabis sativa .

  5. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    PubMed

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  6. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp

    PubMed Central

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E.; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  7. Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?

    PubMed

    Maule, W J

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both.

  8. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Chinese native Cannabis sativa cultivars by using ISSR and chromosome markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L G; Chang, Y; Zhang, X F; Guan, F Z; Yuan, H M; Yu, Y; Zhao, L J

    2014-12-12

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is an important fiber crop, and native cultivars exist widely throughout China. In the present study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 27 important Chinese native hemp cultivars, by using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and chromosome markers. We determined the following chromosome formulas: 2n = 20 = 14m + 6sm; 2n = 20 = 20m; 2n = 20 = 18m + 2sm; 2n = 20 = 16m + 4sm; and 2n = 20 = 12m + 8sm. The results of our ISSR analysis revealed the genetic relationships among the 27 cultivars; these relationships were analyzed by using the unweighted pair-group method based on DNA polymorphism. Our results revealed that all of the native cultivars showed considerable genetic diversity. At a genetic distance of 0.324, the 27 varieties could be classified into five categories; this grouping corresponded well with the chromosome formulas. All of the investigated hemp cultivars represent relatively primitive types; moreover, the genetic distances show a geographical distribution, with a small amount of regional hybridity.

  9. In silico discovery of terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Massimino, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Due to their efficacy, cannabis based therapies are currently being prescribed for the treatment of many different medical conditions. Interestingly, treatments based on the use of cannabis flowers or their derivatives have been shown to be very effective, while therapies based on drugs containing THC alone lack therapeutic value and lead to increased side effects, likely resulting from the absence of other pivotal entourage compounds found in the Phyto-complex. Among these compounds are terpenoids, which are not produced exclusively by cannabis plants, so other plant species must share many of the enzymes involved in their metabolism. In the present work, 23,630 transcripts from the canSat3 reference transcriptome were scanned for evolutionarily conserved protein domains and annotated in accordance with their predicted molecular functions. A total of 215 evolutionarily conserved genes encoding enzymes presumably involved in terpenoid metabolism are described, together with their expression profiles in different cannabis plant tissues at different developmental stages. The resource presented here will aid future investigations on terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa .

  10. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyehyun; Seo, Boyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Jo, Euna; Park, Jin-Kyoung; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. The genome sizes were 153,848 bp (the Korean non-drug variety, Cheungsam) and 153,854 bp (the African variety, Yoruba Nigeria). The genome structures were identical with 131 individual genes [86 protein-coding genes (PCGs), eight rRNA, and 37 tRNA genes]. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. sativa varieties, the cp genomes of C. sativa had conservative features similar to that of all known species in the order Rosales. To verify the position of C. sativa within the order Rosales, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using concatenated sequences of all PCGs from 17 complete cp genomes. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. sativa, showed close relationship with the family Moraceae. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales.

  11. Cannabis smoke condensate III: the cannabinoid content of vaporised Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Pomahacova, B; Van der Kooy, F; Verpoorte, R

    2009-11-01

    Cannabis sativa is a well-known recreational drug and, as such, a controlled substance of which possession and use are illegal in most countries of the world. Due to the legal constraints on the possession and use of C. sativa, relatively little research on the medicinal qualities of this plant has been conducted. Interest in the medicinal uses of this plant has, however, increased in the last decades. The methods of administration for medicinal purposes are mainly through oral ingestion, smoking, and nowadays also inhalation through vaporization. During this study the commercially available Volcano vaporizing device was compared with cannabis cigarette smoke. The cannabis smoke and vapor (obtained at different temperatures) were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, different quantities of cannabis material were also tested with the vaporizer. The cannabinoids:by-products ratio in the vapor obtained at 200 degrees C and 230 degrees C was significantly higher than in the cigarette smoke. The worst ratio of cannabinoids:by-products was obtained from the vaporized cannabis sample at 170 degrees C.

  12. Chemotaxonomic features associated with flavonoids of cannabinoid-free cannabis (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa L.) in relation to hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Vanhoenacker, Gerd; Van Rompaey, Philippe; De Keukeleire, Denis; Sandra, Pat

    2002-02-01

    The major flavonoids present in the leaves and flowers of the cannabinoid-free cannabis (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa L.) cultivars Felina and Futura are orientin (1), vitexin (2), luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (3), and apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (4), while prenylated flavonoids, to which the potent estrogenicity of hops (Humilus lupulus L.) is associated, are absent. The different composition of flavonoids has chemotaxonomic value.

  13. Biologically active cannabinoids from high-potency Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Mohamed M; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Slade, Desmond; Ahmed, Safwat A; Khan, Ikhlas A; Ross, Samir A

    2009-05-22

    Nine new cannabinoids (1-9) were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. Their structures were identified as (+/-)-4-acetoxycannabichromene (1), (+/-)-3''-hydroxy-Delta((4'',5''))-cannabichromene (2), (-)-7-hydroxycannabichromane (3), (-)-7R-cannabicoumarononic acid A (4), 5-acetyl-4-hydroxycannabigerol (5), 4-acetoxy-2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentylphenol (6), 8-hydroxycannabinol (7), 8-hydroxycannabinolic acid A (8), and 2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentyl-1,4-benzoquinone (9) through 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known sterol beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-6'-acetate was isolated for the first time from cannabis. Compounds 6 and 7 displayed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively, while 5 displayed strong antileishmanial activity.

  14. Early phenylpropanoid biosynthetic steps in Cannabis sativa: link between genes and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Docimo, Teresa; Consonni, Roberto; Coraggio, Immacolata; Mattana, Monica

    2013-06-28

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production. This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health. In this study, we report the isolation of hemp PAL and 4CL cDNA and genomic clones. Through in silico analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences, more than an 80% identity with homologues genes of other plants was shown and phylogenetic relationships were highlighted. Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabis sativa tissues were evaluated. Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues. The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves (mainly flavonoids) and roots (mainly lignin) was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data.

  15. Early Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Steps in Cannabis sativa: Link between Genes and Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Docimo, Teresa; Consonni, Roberto; Coraggio, Immacolata; Mattana, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production. This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health. In this study, we report the isolation of hemp PAL and 4CL cDNA and genomic clones. Through in silico analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences, more than an 80% identity with homologues genes of other plants was shown and phylogenetic relationships were highlighted. Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabis sativa tissues were evaluated. Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues. The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves (mainly flavonoids) and roots (mainly lignin) was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data. PMID:23812081

  16. Developmental and internal validation of a novel 13 loci STR multiplex method for Cannabis sativa DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Houston, Rachel; Birck, Matthew; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2017-05-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is a plant cultivated and trafficked worldwide as a source of fiber (hemp), medicine, and intoxicant. The development of a validated method using molecular techniques such as short tandem repeats (STRs) could serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases by means of genetic individualization or association of cannabis samples. For this purpose, a 13 loci STR multiplex method was developed, optimized, and validated according to relevant ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. The STR multiplex consists of 13 previously described C. sativa STR loci: ANUCS501, 9269, 4910, 5159, ANUCS305, 9043, B05, 1528, 3735, CS1, D02, C11, and H06. A sequenced allelic ladder consisting of 56 alleles was designed to accurately genotype 101 C. sativa samples from three seizures provided by a U.S. Customs and Border Protection crime lab. Using an optimal range of DNA (0.5-1.0ng), validation studies revealed well-balanced electropherograms (inter-locus balance range: 0.500-1.296), relatively balanced heterozygous peaks (mean peak height ratio of 0.83 across all loci) with minimal artifacts and stutter ratio (mean stutter of 0.021 across all loci). This multi-locus system is relatively sensitive (0.13ng of template DNA) with a combined power of discrimination of 1 in 55 million. The 13 STR panel was found to be species specific for C. sativa; however, non-specific peaks were produced with Humulus lupulus. The results of this research demonstrate the robustness and applicability of this 13 loci STR system for forensic DNA profiling of marijuana samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture and the environment: a systematic, spatially-explicit survey and potential impacts

    Treesearch

    Van Butsic; Jacob C. Brenner

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States that is changing rapidly with policy liberalization. Anecdotal observations fuel speculation about associated environmental impacts, and there is an urgent need for systematic empirical research. An example from Humboldt...

  18. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug.

    PubMed

    Zuardi, A W; Crippa, J A S; Hallak, J E C; Moreira, F A; Guimarães, F S

    2006-04-01

    A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  19. Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes.

    PubMed

    Fischedick, Justin Thomas; Hazekamp, Arno; Erkelens, Tjalling; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Rob

    2010-12-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important medicinal plant. In order to develop cannabis plant material as a medicinal product quality control and clear chemotaxonomic discrimination between varieties is a necessity. Therefore in this study 11 cannabis varieties were grown under the same environmental conditions. Chemical analysis of cannabis plant material used a gas chromatography flame ionization detection method that was validated for quantitative analysis of cannabis monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and cannabinoids. Quantitative data was analyzed using principal component analysis to determine which compounds are most important in discriminating cannabis varieties. In total 36 compounds were identified and quantified in the 11 varieties. Using principal component analysis each cannabis variety could be chemically discriminated. This methodology is useful for both chemotaxonomic discrimination of cannabis varieties and quality control of plant material. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New food allergies in a European non-Mediterranean region: is Cannabis sativa to blame?

    PubMed

    Ebo, D G; Swerts, S; Sabato, V; Hagendorens, M M; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to fruit and vegetables exhibit geographic variation regarding the severity of symptoms and depending on the sensitization profile of the patient. These sensitization profiles and routes remain incompletely understood. Cannabis is a very popular drug and derived from Cannabis sativa, a plant containing lipid transfer proteins (LTP) also known as important allergens in plant and fruit allergies. In this study we sought to elucidate a potential connection between C. sativa allergy and plant food allergies. A case-control study involving 21 patients consulting for plant food allergies. Twelve patients were cannabis allergic and 9 had a pollen or latex allergy without cannabis allergy. Testing for cannabis IgE implied measurement of specific IgE, skin testing and basophil activation tests. Allergen component analysis was performed with a microarray technique. Plant food allergy in patients with documented cannabis allergy had more severe reactions than patients without cannabis allergy and frequently implied fruits and vegetables that are not observed in a (birch) pollen-related food syndrome. With the exception of 1 patient with cannabis allergy, all were sensitized to nonspecific (ns)-LTP. Our data suggest that illicit cannabis abuse can result in cannabis allergy with sensitization to ns-LTP. This sensitization might result in various plant-food allergies. Additional collaborative studies in different geographical areas are needed to further elucidate on this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Application of Hemp Hurds in the Preparation of Biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigasova, J.; Stevulova, N.; Schwarzova, I.; Sicakova, A.; Junak, J.

    2015-11-01

    Hemp is a controversial bio-product with promising performance as a sustainable building material. The fact that hemp is an organic, natural product makes it highly relevant in the present reality of global pollution and struggle for coping with planetary warming. The construction sector is among the leading industries when it comes to energy consumption, release of CO2; it is responsible for great amounts of waste and pollution. The research and implementation of sustainable building materials is a crucial necessity in the modern times. Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is an agricultural crop that can be used as a building material in combination with conventional or alternative binders. Hemp composites have many advantages as a building material, but it is not load-bearing and must be used in combination with a loadbearing wooden frame. Despite this disadvantage, hemp composite materials offer several of appropriate properties, namely: low density, good thermal insulation, antiseptic and breathability. This paper studies the possibility of preparing the lightweight composites based on hemp hurds (treated and/or untreated) as a filler and alternative MgO-cement as a binder. Properties of hemp composites are characterized by mechanical and physical methods.

  2. Life cycle assessment of hemp cultivation and use of hemp-based thermal insulator materials in buildings.

    PubMed

    Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Vernelli, Valeria

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this research is to assess the sustainability of a natural fiber, such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), and its use as thermal insulator for building applications. The sustainability of hemp was quantified by life cycle assessment (LCA) and particular attention was given to the amount of CO2eq of the whole process, and the indicator greenhouse gas protocol (GGP) was selected to quantify CO2eq emissions. In this study also CO2 uptake of hemp was considered. Two different allocation procedures (i.e., mass and economic) were adopted. Other indicators, such as Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and EcoIndicator99 H were calculated. The production of 1 ha yielded 15 ton of hemp, whose global warming potential (GWP100) was equal to about -26.01 ton CO2eq: the amount allocated to the technical fiber (20% of the total amount of hemp biomass) was -5.52 ton CO2eq when mass allocation was used, and -5.54 ton CO2eq when economic allocation was applied. The sustainability for building applications was quantified by considering an insulation panel made by hemp fiber (85%) and polyester fiber (15%) in 1 m(2) of wall having a thermal transmittance (U) equal to 0.2 W/m(2)_K. The environmental performances of the hemp-based panel were compared to those of a rockwool-based one.

  3. Cannabinoid ester constituents from high-potency Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Safwat A; Ross, Samir A; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M; Zulfiqar, Fazila; Matsumoto, Rae R; Xu, Yan-Tong; Viard, Eddy; Speth, Robert C; Karamyan, Vardan T; ElSohly, M A

    2008-04-01

    Eleven new cannabinoid esters, together with three known cannabinoid acids and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Delta9-THC ), were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. The structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses to be beta-fenchyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 1), epi-bornyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 2), alpha-terpenyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 3), 4-terpenyl Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 4), alpha-cadinyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 5), gamma-eudesmyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 6), gamma-eudesmyl cannabigerolate ( 7), 4-terpenyl cannabinolate ( 8), bornyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 9), alpha-fenchyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 10), alpha-cadinyl cannabigerolate ( 11), Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Delta9-THC ), Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A ( Delta9-THCA ), cannabinolic acid A ( CBNA), and cannabigerolic acid ( CBGA). Compound 8 showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 90028 with an IC 50 value of 8.5 microg/mL. The isolated acids and the ester-containing fractions showed low affinity to the CB-1 receptor. [corrected

  4. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Safwat A; Ross, Samir A; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2015-09-01

    Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. variety. Structure elucidation was achieved using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and GC-MS. These minor compounds include four hexahydrocannabinols, four tetrahydrocannabinols, and one hydroxylated cannabinol, namely 9α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 7-oxo-9α-hydroxyhexa-hydrocannabinol, 10α-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, 10aR-hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-THC aldehyde A, 8-oxo-Δ(9)-THC, 10aα-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(8)-THC, 9α-hydroxy-10-oxo-Δ(6a,10a)-THC, and 1'S-hydroxycannabinol, respectively. The latter compound showed moderate anti-MRSa (IC50 10.0 μg/mL), moderate antileishmanial (IC50 14.0 μg/mL) and mild antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (D6 clone) and P. falciparum (W2 clone) with IC50 values of 3.4 and 2.3 μg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Cold-Pressed Seed Oil from Finola Cultivar of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Lanuzza, Francesco; D'Angelo, Valeria; Circosta, Clara

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses. From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146.76 mmol of TE/100 g oil), inhibited β-carotene bleaching, quenched a chemically generated peroxyl radical in vitro and showed high ferrous ion chelating activity. Reactivity towards 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power values were 695.2 µmol of TE/100g oil and 3690.6 µmol of TE/100 g oil respectively. FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which 2780.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/100 g of total flavonoids. The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF. Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marawa; Salem, Neveen A.; El-Din M. Gaafar, Alaa

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration in mice. Cannabis extract was given by subcutaneous route at 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) once daily for 18 days and the effect on haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced catalepsy was examined at selected time intervals using the bar test. Mice were euthanized 18 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate) were determined in brain and liver. In saline-treated mice, no catalepsy was observed at doses of cannabis up to 20 mg/kg. Mice treated with haloperidol at the dose of 1 mg/kg, exhibited significant cataleptic response. Mice treated with cannabis and haloperidol showed significant decrease in catalepsy duration, compared with the haloperidol only treated group. This decrease in catalepsy duration was evident on days 1-12 after starting cannabis injection. Later the effect of cannabis was not apparent. The administration of only cannabis (10 or 20 mg/kg) decreased brain MDA by 17.5 and 21.8 %, respectively. The level of nitric oxide decreased by 18 % after cannabis at 20 mg/kg. Glucose in brain decreased by 20.1 % after 20 mg/kg of cannabis extract. The administration of only haloperidol increased MDA (22.2 %), decreased GSH (25.7 %) and increased brain nitric oxide by 44.1 %. The administration of cannabis (10 or 20 mg/kg) to haloperidol-treated mice resulted in a significant decrease in brain MDA and nitric

  7. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marawa; Salem, Neveen A; El-Din M Gaafar, Alaa

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration in mice. Cannabis extract was given by subcutaneous route at 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) once daily for 18 days and the effect on haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced catalepsy was examined at selected time intervals using the bar test. Mice were euthanized 18 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate) were determined in brain and liver. In saline-treated mice, no catalepsy was observed at doses of cannabis up to 20 mg/kg. Mice treated with haloperidol at the dose of 1 mg/kg, exhibited significant cataleptic response. Mice treated with cannabis and haloperidol showed significant decrease in catalepsy duration, compared with the haloperidol only treated group. This decrease in catalepsy duration was evident on days 1-12 after starting cannabis injection. Later the effect of cannabis was not apparent. The administration of only cannabis (10 or 20 mg/kg) decreased brain MDA by 17.5 and 21.8 %, respectively. The level of nitric oxide decreased by 18 % after cannabis at 20 mg/kg. Glucose in brain decreased by 20.1 % after 20 mg/kg of cannabis extract. The administration of only haloperidol increased MDA (22.2 %), decreased GSH (25.7 %) and increased brain nitric oxide by 44.1 %. The administration of cannabis (10 or 20 mg/kg) to haloperidol-treated mice resulted in a significant decrease in brain MDA and nitric

  8. The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed Central

    de Meijer, Etienne P M; Bagatta, Manuela; Carboni, Andrea; Crucitti, Paola; Moliterni, V M Cristiana; Ranalli, Paolo; Mandolino, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    Four crosses were made between inbred Cannabis sativa plants with pure cannabidiol (CBD) and pure Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) chemotypes. All the plants belonging to the F(1)'s were analyzed by gas chromatography for cannabinoid composition and constantly found to have a mixed CBD-THC chemotype. Ten individual F(1) plants were self-fertilized, and 10 inbred F(2) offspring were collected and analyzed. In all cases, a segregation of the three chemotypes (pure CBD, mixed CBD-THC, and pure THC) fitting a 1:2:1 proportion was observed. The CBD/THC ratio was found to be significantly progeny specific and transmitted from each F(1) to the F(2)'s derived from it. A model involving one locus, B, with two alleles, B(D) and B(T), is proposed, with the two alleles being codominant. The mixed chemotypes are interpreted as due to the genotype B(D)/B(T) at the B locus, while the pure-chemotype plants are due to homozygosity at the B locus (either B(D)/B(D) or B(T)/B(T)). It is suggested that such codominance is due to the codification by the two alleles for different isoforms of the same synthase, having different specificity for the conversion of the common precursor cannabigerol into CBD or THC, respectively. The F(2) segregating groups were used in a bulk segregant analysis of the pooled DNAs for screening RAPD primers; three chemotype-associated markers are described, one of which has been transformed in a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker and shows tight linkage to the chemotype and codominance. PMID:12586720

  9. [Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2010-02-01

    Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation.

  10. Genetic identification of female Cannabis sativa plants at early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Techen, Natascha; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2010-11-01

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were used to identify female plants at an early developmental stage in four different varieties of Cannabis sativa. Using the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, DNA was isolated from two-week-old plants of three drug-type varieties (Terbag W1, Terbag K2, and Terbag MX) and one fiber-type variety (Terbag Fedora A7) of C. sativa grown under controlled environmental conditions through seeds. Attempts to use MADC2 (male-associated DNA from Cannabis sativa) primers as a marker to identify the sex of Cannabis sativa plants were successful. Amplification of genomic DNA using MADC2-F and MADC2-R primers produced two distinct fragments, one with a size of approximately 450 bp for female plants and one for male plants with a size of approximately 300 bp. After harvesting the tissues for DNA extraction, plants were subjected to a flowering photoperiod (i.e., 12-h light cycle), and the appearance of flowers was compared with the DNA analysis. The results of the molecular analysis were found to be concordant with the appearance of male or female flowers. The results of this study represent a quick and reliable technique for the identification of sex in Cannabis plants using SCAR markers at a very early developmental stage. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Cannabis-induced Moto-Cognitive Dysfunction in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Aminu; Ajao, Moyosore Saliu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Ibrahim, Abdulmumin; Olajide, Olayemi Joseph; Ajibola, Musa Iyiola; Alli-Oluwafuyi, Abdulmusawir; Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on cannabis-induced moto-cognitive defects. Methods Scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was given to induce dementia as a standard base line for cannabis (20 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairment, followed by an oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The Morris water maze (MWM) paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies. Results Cannabis-like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis-induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes. Conclusions The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis. PMID:27904421

  12. Cannabis-induced Moto-Cognitive Dysfunction in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa.

    PubMed

    Imam, Aminu; Ajao, Moyosore Saliu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Ibrahim, Abdulmumin; Olajide, Olayemi Joseph; Ajibola, Musa Iyiola; Alli-Oluwafuyi, Abdulmusawir; Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on cannabis-induced moto-cognitive defects. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was given to induce dementia as a standard base line for cannabis (20 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairment, followed by an oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The Morris water maze (MWM) paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies. Cannabis-like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis-induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes. The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis.

  13. Levels of selected metals in leaves of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zerihun, Agalu; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Debebe, Ayalew; Mehari, Bewketu

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is one of the illicit drug bearing plants. Cannabis products are the most widely trafficked drugs worldwide. The highest levels of cannabis production in the world take place in the African continent. A small volume of cannabis is produced in rural areas of Ethiopia, of which a small portion is exported to neighboring countries and the majority is consumed at home. The literature survey revealed that there is no report on the metal contents in cannabis cultivated in Ethiopia. The main objective of this study is to determine the level of selected metals in leaves of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in Ethiopia. Cannabis sativa L. samples were collected from Metema (Amhara Region), Mekelle (Tigray Region), Sheshemene (Oromia Region) and Butajira (South Nations Nationality and Peoples (SNNP) Region) of Ethiopia. After proper sample pretreatment, the volumes of reagents used, digestion temperature and digestion time were optimized and using the optimized conditions the levels of metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by analyzing the digest of the spiked samples with standard solution and the percentage recoveries varied from 88 to 103%. The levels of metals determined (µg/g dry weight) were in the ranges Ca (657-1,511), Zn (321-380), Ni (124-172), Cu (122-176), Cd (3-10), Pb (8-10), and Cr (4-8). Zn was with the highest concentration among trace metals. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 95% confidence level indicated that there is a significant difference in the levels of all the metals between the four sample means except Pb. The results indicate that the content of Pb and Cd exceeds the permissible amount for medicinal plants which form the raw materials for the finished products set by World Health Organization (WHO).

  14. Detection and Quantification of Cannabinoids in Extracts of Cannabis sativa Roots Using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gul, Waseem; Gul, Shahbaz W; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Ibrahim, Elsayed A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2018-03-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry single-laboratory validation was performed for the detection and quantification of the 10 major cannabinoids of cannabis, namely, (-)- trans -Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, tetrahydrocannabivarian, cannabinol, (-)- trans -Δ 8 -tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, in the root extract of Cannabis sativa . Acetonitrile : methanol (80 : 20, v/v) was used for extraction; d 3 -cannabidiol and d 3 - tetrahydrocannabinol were used as the internal standards. All 10 cannabinoids showed a good regression relationship with r 2  > 0.99. The validated method is simple, sensitive, and reproducible and is therefore suitable for the detection and quantification of these cannabinoids in extracts of cannabis roots. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the quantification of cannabinoids in cannabis roots. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Rapid Detection of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei

    2016-07-01

    In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. are restricted by law. As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C. sativa is desired. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid identification of C. sativa. By optimizing the conditions for the LAMP reaction that targets a highly conserved region of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, C. sativa was identified within 50 min at 60-66°C. The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR. The LAMP assay detected all 21 specimens of C. sativa, showing high specificity. Using a simple protocol, the identification of C. sativa could be accomplished within 90 min from sample treatment to detection without use of special equipment. A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. sativa has been developed and is applicable to forensic investigations and industrial quality control.

  16. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  17. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Vaseghi, Golnaz; Taki, Mohamad Javad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2017-10-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617) was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls. C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  18. Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lukhele, Sindiswa T; Motadi, Lesetja R

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer remains a global health related issue among females of Sub-Saharan Africa, with over half a million new cases reported each year. Different therapeutic regimens have been suggested in various regions of Africa, however, over a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer, annually. This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies. In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines. To achieve our aim, phytochemical screening, MTT assay, cell growth analysis, flow cytometry, morphology analysis, Western blot, caspase 3/7 assay, and ATP measurement assay were conducted. Results obtained indicate that both cannabidiol and Cannabis sativa extracts were able to halt cell proliferation in all cell lines at varying concentrations. They further revealed that apoptosis was induced by cannabidiol as shown by increased subG0/G1 and apoptosis through annexin V. Apoptosis was confirmed by overexpression of p53, caspase 3 and bax. Apoptosis induction was further confirmed by morphological changes, an increase in Caspase 3/7 and a decrease in the ATP levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevent cell growth and induce cell death in cervical cancer cell lines.

  19. Evaluation of a 13-loci STR multiplex system for Cannabis sativa genetic identification.

    PubMed

    Houston, Rachel; Birck, Matthew; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-05-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit substance in the USA. The development of a validated method using Cannabis short tandem repeats (STRs) could aid in the individualization of samples as well as serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases. For this purpose, a modified 13-loci STR multiplex method was optimized and evaluated according to ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. A real-time PCR quantification method for C. sativa was developed and validated, and a sequenced allelic ladder was also designed to accurately genotype 199 C. sativa samples from 11 U.S. Customs and Border Protection seizures. Distinguishable DNA profiles were generated from 127 samples that yielded full STR profiles. Four duplicate genotypes within seizures were found. The combined power of discrimination of this multilocus system is 1 in 70 million. The sensitivity of the multiplex STR system is 0.25 ng of template DNA. None of the 13 STR markers cross-reacted with any of the studied species, except for Humulus lupulus (hops) which generated unspecific peaks. Phylogenetic analysis and case-to-case pairwise comparison of 11 cases using F st as genetic distance revealed the genetic association of four groups of cases. Moreover, due to their genetic similarity, a subset of samples (N = 97) was found to form a homogeneous population in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. The results of this research demonstrate the applicability of this 13-loci STR system in associating Cannabis cases for intelligence purposes.

  20. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-sensitized patients.

    PubMed

    de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Carnés, Jerónimo; García-Abujeta, José Luís; García-Endrino, Ana; Muñoz-Palomino, Elena; Huertas, Angel Julio; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Ferrer, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. sativa and to characterize the C. sativa leaf extract. A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: group A, 10 individuals sensitized to tomato, reporting reactions by contact or inhalation to Cannabis; group B, 14 individuals sensitized to tomato, without reactions to Cannabis; group C, 8 individuals not sensitized to tomato and without reactions to Cannabis. Sensitivity to Cannabis, tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE. Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects (and 1 negative) had positive skin tests to C. sativa leaves and hashish. Specific IgE to C. sativa and peach peel was more common than to tomato. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa. Tomato, peach and A. vulgaris extracts inhibited most of the bands present in C. sativa. P. hybrida inhibited only the high-molecular-weight bands. Sensitization to C. sativa with or without symptoms is frequent among patients in Spain sensitized to tomato. C. sativa leaves are a potential allergenic source and their allergens may cross-react with other allergenic sources from plants (fruit peels and pollen). (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Species identification of Cannabis sativa using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher E; Premasuthan, Amritha; Satkoski Trask, Jessica; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2013-03-01

    Most narcotics-related cases in the United States involve Cannabis sativa. Material is typically identified based on the cystolithic hairs on the leaves and with chemical tests to identify of the presence of cannabinoids. Suspect seeds are germinated into a viable plant so that morphological and chemical tests can be conducted. Seed germination, however, causes undue analytical delays. DNA analyses that involve the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been developed for identification of C. sativa materials, but they require several nanograms of template DNA. Using the trnL 3' exon-trnF intragenic spacer regions within the C. sativa chloroplast, we have developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay that is capable of identifying picogram amounts of chloroplast DNA for species determination of suspected C. sativa material. This assay provides forensic science laboratories with a quick and reliable method to identify an unknown sample as C. sativa. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Identification of IgE- binding pollen protein from Cannabis sativa in pollen-hypersensitive patients from north Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Shazia; Murad, Sheeba; Hayat, Muhammad Qasim; Shakoor, Zahid; Arshad, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa (C.sativa) is well-known for its medicinal, industrial and recreational use. However, allergies in relation to Cannabis sativa (C.sativa) are rarely reported. C. sativa is one of the common weeds found in Pakistan and its pollen grains are common in spring and fall season. Although categorized as an aeroallergen, there are limited number of reports regarding allergenic potential in C. sativa. Therefore, the current study is aimed at exploring the IgE- binding potential among the C. sativa pollen in local pollen allergic patients. Initial screening of C. sativa sensitized individuals was carried out by dot blot from the sera of pollen allergic patients. Proteins from the pollen grains were extracted and resolved on 10% gel. Eight bands were visible on gel however only one protein fragment i.e. of 14KDa size was found to bind to IgE as analyzed through protein gel blot analysis. Strong IgE affinity of a 14 kDa protein fragment from C. sativa pollen extract suggests its allergenic potential. Further study is required to find the exact nature of this protein fragment.

  3. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Non-cannabinoid constituents from a high potency Cannabis sativa variety

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Mohamed M.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Slade, Desmond; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Wilson, Lisa; El-Alfy, Abir T.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Six new non-cannabinoid constituents were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. variety, namely 5-acetoxy-6-geranyl-3-n-pentyl-1,4-benzoquinone (1), 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3,6-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (2), 4-hydroxy-2,3,6,7-tetramethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3), 4,7-dimethoxy-1,2,5-trihydroxyphenanthrene (4), cannflavin C (5) and β-sitosteryl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-2'-O-palmitate (6). In addition, five known compounds, α-cannabispiranol (7), chrysoeriol (8), 6-prenylapigenin (9), cannflavin A (10) and β-acetyl cannabispiranol (11) were identified, with 8 and 9 being reported for the first time from cannabis. Some isolates displayed weak to strong antimicrobial, antileishmanial, antimalarial and anti-oxidant activities. Compounds 2–4 were inactive as analgesics. PMID:18774146

  5. Larval susceptibility of Aloe barbadensis and Cannabis sativa against Culex quinquefasciatus, the filariasis vector.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Prejwltta; Mohan, Lalit; Sharma, Preeti; Srivastava, C N

    2008-11-01

    Larvicidal potential of petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride and methanol extracts of Aloe barbadensis and Cannabis sativa has been investigated against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts examined, Carbon tetrachloride extract (Cte) of Aloe barbadensis was the most effective with LC50 values of 15.31 and 11.01 ppm after 24 and 48 hr of exposure, respectively followed by pertoleum ether extract (Pee) of A barbadensis, Cte of C. sativa, methanol extract (Mee) of A. barbadensis, methanol and petroleum ether of C. saliva, LC, being 25.97, 88.51, 144.44, 160.78 and 294.42 ppm affer 24hr and 16.60, 68.69, 108.38, 71.71 and 73.32 ppm after 48 hr of post treatment, respectively. Cte of both the plants exhibits potential larvicidal activity and can be used as ecofriendly alternative in the management of the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus.

  6. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cannabis Sativa on appetite hormone in rat.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Baghban Taraghdari, Sara; Rezaee, Peyman; Kamgar, Maryam; Jomezadeh, Mohammad Reza; Akbarieh Hasani, Omid; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Esmaily, Habibollah; Patterson, Michael; Nematy, Mohsen

    2014-12-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide which is secreted from stomach. Cannabis sativa is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is published about its effect on energy intake and its mechanism. In the current study, the possible effect of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativa on appetite and ghrelin is evaluated. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Two control groups were selected, the first group received 0.5 mL water per day (vehicle group) and another group did not receive anything (control group). The other three groups were treated daily with 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of C. sativa for 7 days, respectively. Daily energy intake of the rats was calculated for 10 days prior to the> intervention and for the 7 day intervention. To investigate changes in plasma ghrelin as a potential mechanism, an orexigenic dose (150 mg/kg) of C. sativa or distilled water (vehicle) was fed to two separate groups of six rats by gavage. Total ghrelin levels in plasma were measured for 3 h post-gavage. There was no significant difference in energy intake between control and vehicle groups. Treatment with 100 and 150 mg/kg of the extract significantly increased energy intake vs the other groups (p<0.05). Total ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in the C. sativa group vs vehicle 30 and 60 min post-gavage. This study showed that C. sativa had both positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant in human.

  7. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Steve J; Stout, Jake M; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-07-31

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2-C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.

  8. A PCR marker linked to a THCA synthase polymorphism is a reliable tool to discriminate potentially THC-rich plants of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Staginnus, Christina; Zörntlein, Siegfried; de Meijer, Etienne

    2014-07-01

    Neither absolute THC content nor morphology allows the unequivocal discrimination of fiber cultivars and drug strains of Cannabis sativa L. unequivocally. However, the CBD/THC ratio remains constant throughout the plant's life cycle, is independent of environmental factors, and considered to be controlled by a single locus (B) with two codominant alleles (B(T) and B(D)). The homozygous B(T)/B(T) genotype underlies the THC-predominant phenotype, B(D)/B(D) is CBD predominant, and an intermediate phenotype is induced by the heterozygous state (B(T)/B(D)). Using PCR-based markers in two segregating populations, we proved that the THCA synthase gene represents the postulated B locus and that specific sequence polymorphisms are absolutely linked either to the THC-predominant or the THC-intermediate chemotype. The absolute linkage provides an excellent reliability of the marker signal in forensic casework. For validation, the species-specific marker system was applied to a large number of casework samples and fiber hemp cultivars. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    PubMed

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.

  11. [Therapeutic use of Cannibis Sativa L. in Arab medicine].

    PubMed

    Lozano, I

    1997-01-01

    Arab scientists were various centuries ahead of our current knowledge of the curative power of hemp (Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae). Modern scientific literature ignores their contribution on the subject. We review in this paper the therapeutic uses of the plant in Arabic medicine from the 8th to the 18th century. Arab physicians knew and used its diuretic, anti-emetic, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, pain-killing and antipyretic properties, among others.

  12. Cannabis sativa smoke inhalation decreases bone filling around titanium implants: a histomorphometric study in rats.

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio da R; Cadide, Tiago; Rosa, Bruno T; Neiva, Tiago G; Tunes, Roberto; Peruzzo, Daiane; Nociti, Francisco Humberto; César-Neto, João B

    2008-12-01

    Although the harmful effect of tobacco smoking on titanium implants has been documented, no studies have investigated the effects of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoking. Thus, this study investigated whether marijuana smoke influences bone healing around titanium implants. Thirty Wistar rats were used. After anesthesia, the tibiae surface was exposed and 1 screw-shaped titanium implant was placed bilaterally. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: control (n = 15) and marijuana smoke inhalation (MSI) 8 min/d (n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetra-hidro-cannabinoid. After 60 days, the animals were killed. The degree of bone-to-implant contact and the bone area within the limits of the threads of the implant were measured in the cortical (zone A) and cancellous bone (zone B). Tetra-hidro-cannabinoid in urine was positive only for the rats of MSI group. Intergroup analysis did not indicate differences in zone A-cortical bone (P > 0.01), however, a negative effect of marijuana smoke (MSI group) was observed in zone B-cancellous bone for bone-to-implant contact and bone area (Student's t test, P < 0.01) values. Considering the limitations of the present study, the deleterious impact of cannabis sativa smoke on bone healing may represent a new concern for implant success/failure.

  13. The Cannabis sativa Versus Cannabis indica Debate: An Interview with Ethan Russo, MD.

    PubMed

    Piomelli, Daniele; Russo, Ethan B

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Ethan Russo, MD, is a board-certified neurologist, psychopharmacology researcher, and Medical Director of PHYTECS, a biotechnology company researching and developing innovative approaches targeting the human endocannabinoid system. Previously, from 2003 to 2014, he served as Senior Medical Advisor and study physician to GW Pharmaceuticals for three Phase III clinical trials of Sativex ® for alleviation of cancer pain unresponsive to optimized opioid treatment and studies of Epidiolex ® for intractable epilepsy. He has held faculty appointments in Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Montana, in Medicine at the University of Washington, and as visiting Professor, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is a past President of the International Cannabinoid Research Society and former Chairman of the International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines. He serves on the Scientific Advisory Board for the American Botanical Council. He is the author of numerous books, book chapters, and articles on Cannabis, ethnobotany, and herbal medicine. His research interests have included correlations of historical uses of Cannabis with modern pharmacological mechanisms, phytopharmaceutical treatment of migraine and chronic pain, and phytocannabinoid/terpenoid/serotonergic/vanilloid interactions.

  14. Identification of Cannabis sativa L. using the 1-kbTHCA synthase-fluorescence in situ hybridization probe.

    PubMed

    Jeangkhwoa, Pattraporn; Bandhaya, Achirapa; Umpunjun, Puangpaka; Chuenboonngarm, Ngarmnij; Panvisavas, Nathinee

    2017-03-01

    This study reports a successful application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in the identification of Cannabis sativa L. cells recovered from fresh and dried powdered plant materials. Two biotin-16-dUTP-labeled FISH probes were designed from the Cannabis-specific tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) gene and the ITS region of the 45S rRNA gene. Specificity of probe-target hybridization was tested against the target and 4 non-target plant species, i.e., Humulus lupulus, Mitragyna speciosa, Papaver sp., and Nicotiana tabacum. The 1-kb THCA synthase hybridization probe gave Cannabis-specific hybridization signals, unlike the 700-bp Cannabis-ITS hybridization probe. Probe-target hybridization was also confirmed against 20 individual Cannabis plant samples. The 1-kb THCA synthase and 700-bp Cannabis-ITS hybridization probes clearly showed 2 hybridization signals per cell with reproducibility. The 1-kb THCA synthase probe did not give any FISH signal when tested against H. lupulus, its closely related member of the Canabaceae family. It was also showed that 1-kb THCA synthase FISH probe can be applied to identify small amount of dried powdered Cannabis material with an addition of rehydration step prior to the experimental process. This study provided an alternative identification method for Cannabis trace. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Identification of Terpenoid Chemotypes Among High (-)-trans-Δ9- Tetrahydrocannabinol-Producing Cannabis sativa L. Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Fischedick, Justin T

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: With laws changing around the world regarding the legal status of Cannabis sativa (cannabis) it is important to develop objective classification systems that help explain the chemical variation found among various cultivars. Currently cannabis cultivars are named using obscure and inconsistent nomenclature. Terpenoids, responsible for the aroma of cannabis, are a useful group of compounds for distinguishing cannabis cultivars with similar cannabinoid content. Methods: In this study we analyzed terpenoid content of cannabis samples obtained from a single medical cannabis dispensary in California over the course of a year. Terpenoids were quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and peak identification was confirmed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Quantitative data from 16 major terpenoids were analyzed using hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Results: A total of 233 samples representing 30 cultivars were used to develop a classification scheme based on quantitative data, HCA, PCA, and OPLS-DA. Initially cultivars were divided into five major groups, which were subdivided into 13 classes based on differences in terpenoid profile. Different classification models were compared with PLS-DA and found to perform best when many representative samples of a particular class were included. Conclusion: A hierarchy of terpenoid chemotypes was observed in the data set. Some cultivars fit into distinct chemotypes, whereas others seemed to represent a continuum of chemotypes. This study has demonstrated an approach to classifying cannabis cultivars based on terpenoid profile.

  16. Identification of candidate genes affecting Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Marks, M. David; Tian, Li; Wenger, Jonathan P.; Omburo, Stephanie N.; Soto-Fuentes, Wilfredo; He, Ji; Gang, David R.; Weiblen, George D.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    RNA isolated from the glands of a Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-producing strain of Cannabis sativa was used to generate a cDNA library containing over 100 000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequencing of over 2000 clones from the library resulted in the identification of over 1000 unigenes. Candidate genes for almost every step in the biochemical pathways leading from primary metabolites to THCA were identified. Quantitative PCR analysis suggested that many of the pathway genes are preferentially expressed in the glands. Hexanoyl-CoA, one of the metabolites required for THCA synthesis, could be made via either de novo fatty acids synthesis or via the breakdown of existing lipids. qPCR analysis supported the de novo pathway. Many of the ESTs encode transcription factors and two putative MYB genes were identified that were preferentially expressed in glands. Given the similarity of the Cannabis MYB genes to those in other species with known functions, these Cannabis MYBs may play roles in regulating gland development and THCA synthesis. Three candidates for the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene responsible for the first committed step in the pathway to THCA were characterized in more detail. One of these was identical to a previously reported chalcone synthase (CHS) and was found to have CHS activity. All three could use malonyl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as substrates, including the CHS, but reaction conditions were not identified that allowed for the production of olivetolic acid (the proposed product of the PKS activity needed for THCA synthesis). One of the PKS candidates was highly and specifically expressed in glands (relative to whole leaves) and, on the basis of these expression data, it is proposed to be the most likely PKS responsible for olivetolic acid synthesis in Cannabis glands. PMID:19581347

  17. Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    de Mello Schier, Alexandre R; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Natalia P; Coutinho, Danielle S; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Crippa, Jose A; Zuardi, Antonio W; Nardi, Antonio E; Silva, Adriana C

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are pathologies that affect human beings in many aspects of life, including social life, productivity and health. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a constituent non-psychotomimetic of Cannabis sativa with great psychiatric potential, including uses as an antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like compound. The aim of this study is to review studies of animal models using CBD as an anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like compound. Studies involving animal models, performing a variety of experiments on the above-mentioned disorders, such as the forced swimming test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM) and Vogel conflict test (VCT), suggest that CBD exhibited an anti-anxiety and antidepressant effects in animal models discussed. Experiments with CBD demonstrated non-activation of neuroreceptors CB1 and CB2. Most of the studies demonstrated a good interaction between CBD and the 5-HT1A neuro-receptor.

  18. Temperature response of photosynthesis in different drug and fiber varieties of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

    2011-07-01

    The temperature response on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of three medicinal drug type (HP Mexican, MX and W1) and four industrial fiber type (Felinq 34, Kompolty, Zolo 11 and Zolo 15) varieties of Cannabis sativa, originally from different agro-climatic zones worldwide, were studied. Among the drug type varieties, optimum temperature for photosynthesis (Topt) was observed in the range of 30-35 °C in high potency Mexican HPM whereas, it was in the range of 25-30 °C in W1. A comparatively lower value (25 °C) for Topt was observed in MX. Among fiber type varieties, Topt was around 30 °C in Zolo 11 and Zolo 15 whereas, it was near 25 °C in Felinq 34 and Kompolty. Varieties having higher maximum photosynthesis (PN max) had higher chlorophyll content as compared to those having lower PN max. Differences in water use efficiency (WUE) were also observed within and among the drug and fiber type plants. However, differences became less pronounced at higher temperatures. Both stomatal and mesophyll components seem to be responsible for the temperature dependence of photosynthesis (PN) in this species, however, their magnitude varied with the variety. In general, a two fold increase in dark respiration with increase in temperature (from 20 °C to 40 °C) was observed in all the varieties. However, a greater increase was associated with the variety having higher rate of photosynthesis, indicating a strong association between photosynthetic and respiratory rates. The results provide a valuable indication regarding variations in temperature dependence of PN in different varieties of Cannabis sativa L.

  19. Prevalence of sensitization to Cannabis sativa. Lipid-transfer and thaumatin-like proteins are relevant allergens.

    PubMed

    Larramendi, Carlos H; López-Matas, M Ángeles; Ferrer, Angel; Huertas, Angel Julio; Pagán, Juan Antonio; Navarro, Luis Ángel; García-Abujeta, José Luis; Andreu, Carmen; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Although allergy to Cannabis sativa was first reported over 40 years ago, the allergenicity has scarcely been studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of sensitization to this plant, to analyze the clinical characteristics and allergenic profile of sensitized individuals and to identify the allergens involved. Five hundred and forty-five individuals in Spain attending allergy clinics with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms underwent a skin-prick test (SPT) with C. sativa leaf extract. The extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Specific IgE to C. sativa was measured in positive SPT individuals. The clinical and allergenic profiles of sensitized individuals were investigated and the most-recognized allergens sequenced and characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Of this preselected population, 44 individuals had positive SPT to C. sativa (prevalence 8.1%). Prevalence was higher in individuals who were C. sativa smokers (14.6%). Two individuals reported mild symptoms with C. sativa. Twenty-one individuals from 32 available sera (65.6%) had positive specific IgE to C. sativa. Twelve sera recognized at least 6 different bands in a molecular-weight range of between 10 and 60 kDa. Six of them recognized a 10-kDa band, identified as a lipid transfer protein (LTP) and 8 recognized a 38-kDa band, identified as a thaumatin-like protein. There is a high prevalence of sensitization to C. sativa leaves. The clinical symptoms directly attributed to C. sativa were uncommon and mild. The sensitization profile observed suggests that C. sativa sensitization may be mediated by two mechanisms, i.e. cross-reactivity, mainly with LTP and thaumatin-like protein, and exposure-related 'de novo' sensitization. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor (CB1) Ligands with Therapeutic Potential for Withdrawal Syndrome in Chemical Dependents of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jaderson V; Chaves, Gisele A; Marino, Bianca L B; Sousa, Kessia P A; Souza, Lucilene R; Brito, Maiara F B; Teixeira, Hueldem R C; da Silva, Carlos H T P; Santos, Cleydson B R; Hage-Melim, Lorane I S

    2017-08-22

    Cannabis sativa withdrawal syndrome is characterized mainly by psychological symptoms. By using computational tools, the aim of this study was to propose drug candidates for treating withdrawal syndrome based on the natural ligands of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1). One compound in particular, 2-n-butyl-5-n-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol (ZINC1730183, also known as stemphol), showed positive predictions as a human CB1 ligand and for facile synthetic accessibility. Therefore, ZINC1730183 is a favorable candidate scaffold for further research into pharmacotherapeutic alternatives to treat C. sativa withdrawal syndrome. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A cannabigerol-rich Cannabis sativa extract, devoid of [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol, elicits hyperphagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Daniel I; Samuels, James; Duncan, Marnie; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

    2017-06-01

    Nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids (pCBs) from Cannabis sativa may represent novel therapeutic options for cachexia because of their pleiotropic pharmacological activities, including appetite stimulation. We have recently shown that purified cannabigerol (CBG) is a novel appetite stimulant in rats. As standardized extracts from Cannabis chemotypes dominant in one pCB [botanical drug substances (BDSs)] often show greater efficacy and/or potency than purified pCBs, we investigated the effects of a CBG-rich BDS, devoid of psychoactive [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol, on feeding behaviour. Following a 2 h prefeed satiation procedure, 16 male Lister-hooded rats were administered CBG-BDS (at 30-240 mg/kg) or vehicle. Food intake, meal pattern microstructure and locomotor activity were recorded over 2 h. The total food intake was increased by 120 and 240 mg/kg CBG-BDS (1.53 and 1.36 g, respectively, vs. 0.56 g in vehicle-treated animals). Latency to feeding onset was dose dependently decreased at all doses, and 120 and 240 mg/kg doses increased both the number of meals consumed and the cumulative size of the first two meals. No significant effect was observed on ambulatory activity or rearing behaviour. CBG-BDS is a novel appetite stimulant, which may have greater potency than purified CBG, despite the absence of [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol in the extract.

  2. Impact of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoke on alveolar bone loss: a histometric study in rats.

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio R; Todescan, Sylvia; Shah, Adnan; Rosa, Bruno T; Tunes, Urbino da R; Cesar Neto, Joao B

    2011-11-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) can interfere with bone physiopathology because of its effect on osteoblast and osteoclast activity. However, its impact on periodontal tissues is still controversial. The present study evaluates whether marijuana smoke affects bone loss (BL) on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. A ligature was placed around one of the mandible first molars (ligated teeth) of each animal, and they were then randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 15) or marijuana smoke inhalation ([MSI] for 8 minutes per day; n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified sections of the furcation area were obtained and evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: bone area (BA), bone density (BD), and BL. Tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in urine samples only for the rats of the MSI group. Non-significant differences were observed for unligated teeth from both groups regarding BL, BA, and BD (P >0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed that all ligated teeth presented BL and a lower BA and BD compared to unligated teeth (P <0.05). The intergroup evaluation of the ligated teeth showed that the MSI group presented higher BL and lower BD (P <0.05) compared to ligated teeth from the control group. Considering the limitations of this animal study, cannabis smoke may impact alveolar bone by increasing BL resulting from ligature-induced periodontitis.

  3. Chemical and biological studies of β-carotene after exposure to Cannabis sativa smoke.

    PubMed

    do Monte, Dulciana S; Bezerra Tenório, Jonh A; Bastos, Isla V G A; de S Mendonça, Fábio; Neto, Joaquim E; da Silva, Teresinha G; Ramos, Clécio S

    2016-01-01

    Considering the increase in consumption of Cannabis sativa and the use of the compound β- carotene (BC) as supplement, we investigated potential changes in the chemical and biological proprieties of BC after exposure to C. sativa smoke (CSS). Our results showed that the BC exposed to CSS underwent 98.8% degradation and suffered loss of its antiradical activity. The major degradation products identified were 3-hydroxy-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)2-methylpropanoate and (2-ethyl-3-hydroxyhexyl)2-methylpropanoate compounds. These are found in higher levels in the exhalations of colorectal cancer patients and are similar to the toxic products associated with lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In toxicological assays using micro-crustacean Artemia salina the BC was non-toxic, while the BC degraded by CSS had a toxicity of LC 50  = 397.35 μg/mL. In Wistar rats, females treated with BC degraded by CSS (BCCSS) showed whitish liver spots, alterations in liver weight and in bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels, and decrease in the number of leukocytes associated with atypical lymphocytosis. In male rats, there was an increase in the number of leukocytes when compared to the control group. In the histopathological analysis, the cortical region of the kidneys showed the presence of discrete amorphous eosinophilic material (cylinders) in the lumen of the proximate and distal convoluted tubules. In general, the BC in contact with CSS undergoes chemical changes and exhibits toxicity to rats and Artemia salina .

  4. Crystallization of Δ{sup 1}-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from Cannabis sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Takeuchi, Ayako; Taura, Futoshi

    Δ{sup 1}-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from C. sativa was crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. Δ{sup 1}-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is a novel oxidoreductase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the psychoactive compound THCA in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). In order to investigate the structure–function relationship of THCA synthase, this enzyme was overproduced in insect cells, purified and finally crystallized in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.4 M sodium citrate. A single crystal suitable for X-ray diffraction measurement was obtained in 0.09 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.26 Mmore » sodium citrate. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution at beamline BL41XU, SPring-8. The crystal belonged to the primitive cubic space group P432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 178.2 Å. The calculated Matthews coefficient was approximately 4.1 or 2.0 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} assuming the presence of one or two molecules of THCA synthase in the asymmetric unit, respectively.« less

  5. Differentiation of Cannabis subspecies by THCA synthase gene analysis using RFLP.

    PubMed

    Cirovic, Natasa; Kecmanovic, Miljana; Keckarevic, Dusan; Keckarevic Markovic, Milica

    2017-10-01

    Cannabis sativa subspecies, known as industrial hemp (C. sativa sativa) and marijuana (C. sativa indica) show no evident morphological distinctions, but they contain different levels of psychoactive Δ-9-tetrahidrocanabinol (THC), with considerably higher concentration in marijuana than in hemp. C. sativa subspecies differ in sequence of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, responsible for THC production, and only one active copy of the gene, distinctive for marijuana, is capable of producing THC in concentration more then 0,3% in dried plants, usually punishable by the law. Twenty different samples of marijuana that contain THC in concentration more then 0,3% and three varieties of industrial hemp were analyzed for presence of an active copy of THCA synthase gene using in-house developed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method All twenty samples of marijuana were positive for the active copy of THCA synthase gene, 16 of them heterozygous. All three varieties of industrial hemp were homozygous for inactive copy. An algorithm for the fast and accurate forensic analysis of samples suspected to be marijuana was constructed, answering the question if an analyzed sample is capable of producing THC in concentrations higher than 0.3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Romano, Barbara; Borrelli, Francesca; Pagano, Ester; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pertwee, Roger G; Izzo, Angelo A

    2014-04-15

    Colon cancer is a major public health problem. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS, i.e. CBD botanical drug substance, on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and in experimental models of colon cancer in vivo. Proliferation was evaluated in colorectal carcinoma (DLD-1 and HCT116) as well as in healthy colonic cells using the MTT assay. CBD BDS binding was evaluated by its ability to displace [(3)H]CP55940 from human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. In vivo, the effect of CBD BDS was examined on the preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci), polyps and tumours induced by the carcinogenic agent azoxymethane (AOM) as well as in a xenograft model of colon cancer in mice. CBD BDS and CBD reduced cell proliferation in tumoral, but not in healthy, cells. The effect of CBD BDS was counteracted by selective CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists. Pure CBD reduced cell proliferation in a CB1-sensitive antagonist manner only. In binding assays, CBD BDS showed greater affinity than pure CBD for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, with pure CBD having very little affinity. In vivo, CBD BDS reduced AOM-induced preneoplastic lesions and polyps as well as tumour growth in the xenograft model of colon cancer. CBD BDS attenuates colon carcinogenesis and inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation via CB1 and CB2 receptor activation. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of Cannabis-based medicines in cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Cannabinoids from Cannabis Sativa L. Optimized by Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Charu; Máthé, Katalin; Hofmann, Tamás; Csóka, Levente

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from Cannabis sativa L. such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and cannabinoids. The influence of 3 independent factors (time, input power, and methanol concentration) was evaluated on the extraction of total phenols (TPC), flavonoids (TF), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and the overall yield. A face-centered central composite design was used for statistical modelling of the response data, followed by regression and analysis of variance in order to determine the significance of the model and factors. Both the solvent composition and the time significantly affected the extraction while the sonication power had no significant impact on the responses. The response predictions obtained at optimum extraction conditions of 15 min time, 130 W power, and 80% methanol were 314.822 mg GAE/g DW of TPC, 28.173 mg QE/g DW of TF, 18.79 mM AAE/g DW of FRAP, and 10.86% of yield. A good correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental values of the responses, which validated the mathematical model. On comparing the ultrasonic process with the control extraction, noticeably higher values were obtained for each of the responses. Additionally, ultrasound considerably improved the extraction of cannabinoids present in Cannabis. Low frequency ultrasound was employed to extract bioactive compounds from the inflorescence part of Cannabis. The responses evaluated were-total phenols, flavonoids, ferric reducing assay and yield. The solvent composition and time significantly influenced the extraction process. Appreciably higher extraction of cannabinoids was achieved on sonication against control. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Metals and organic compounds in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids: a chemometric approach to the analysis of Cannabis sativa samples.

    PubMed

    Radosavljevic-Stevanovic, Natasa; Markovic, Jelena; Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Razic, Slavica

    2014-01-01

    Illicit production and trade of Cannabis sativa affect many societies. This drug is the most popular and easy to produce. Important information for the authorities is the production locality and the indicators of a particular production. This work is an attempt to recognise correlations between the metal content in the different parts of C. sativa L., in soils where plants were cultivated and the cannabinoids content, as a potential indicator. The organic fraction of the leaves of Cannabis plants was investigated by GC-FID analysis. In addition, the determination of Cu, Fe, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ca and Mg was realised by spectroscopic techniques (FAAS and GFAAS). In this study, numerous correlations between metal content in plants and soil, already confirmed in previous publications, were analysed applying chemometric unsupervised methods, that is, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, in order to highlight their role in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids.

  9. The hexanoyl-CoA precursor for cannabinoid biosynthesis is formed by an acyl-activating enzyme in Cannabis sativa trichomes.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jake M; Boubakir, Zakia; Ambrose, Stephen J; Purves, Randy W; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-08-01

    The psychoactive and analgesic cannabinoids (e.g. Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) in Cannabis sativa are formed from the short-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) precursor hexanoyl-CoA. Cannabinoids are synthesized in glandular trichomes present mainly on female flowers. We quantified hexanoyl-CoA using LC-MS/MS and found levels of 15.5 pmol g(-1) fresh weight in female hemp flowers with lower amounts in leaves, stems and roots. This pattern parallels the accumulation of the end-product cannabinoid, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). To search for the acyl-activating enzyme (AAE) that synthesizes hexanoyl-CoA from hexanoate, we analyzed the transcriptome of isolated glandular trichomes. We identified 11 unigenes that encoded putative AAEs including CsAAE1, which shows high transcript abundance in glandular trichomes. In vitro assays showed that recombinant CsAAE1 activates hexanoate and other short- and medium-chained fatty acids. This activity and the trichome-specific expression of CsAAE1 suggest that it is the hexanoyl-CoA synthetase that supplies the cannabinoid pathway. CsAAE3 encodes a peroxisomal enzyme that activates a variety of fatty acid substrates including hexanoate. Although phylogenetic analysis showed that CsAAE1 groups with peroxisomal AAEs, it lacked a peroxisome targeting sequence 1 (PTS1) and localized to the cytoplasm. We suggest that CsAAE1 may have been recruited to the cannabinoid pathway through the loss of its PTS1, thereby redirecting it to the cytoplasm. To probe the origin of hexanoate, we analyzed the trichome expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. The high abundance of transcripts that encode desaturases and a lipoxygenase suggests that hexanoate may be formed through a pathway that involves the oxygenation and breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids. © 2012 National Research Council of Canada. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Determination of Acid and Neutral Cannabinoids in Extracts of Different Strains of Cannabis sativa Using GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Elsayed A; Gul, Waseem; Gul, Shahbaz W; Stamper, Brandon J; Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel Salam, Randa A; Ibrahim, Amany K; Ahmed, Safwat A; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Radwan, Mohamed M; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the family Cannabaceae. Trans -Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the two major phytocannabinoids accounting for over 40% of the cannabis plant extracts, depending on the variety. At the University of Mississippi, different strains of C. sativa, with different concentration ratios of CBD and Δ 9 -THC, have been tissue cultured via micropropagation and cultivated. A GC-FID method has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of acid and neutral cannabinoids in C. sativa extracts. The method involves trimethyl silyl derivatization of the extracts. These cannabinoids include tetrahydrocannabivarian, CBD, cannabichromene, trans -Δ 8 -tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ 9 -THC, cannabigerol, cannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A. The concentration-response relationship of the method indicated a linear relationship between the concentration and peak area ratio with R 2  > 0.999 for all 10 cannabinoids. The precision and accuracy of the method were found to be ≤ 15% and ± 5%, respectively. The limit of detection range was 0.11 - 0.19 µg/mL, and the limit of quantitation was 0.34 - 0.56 µg/mL for all 10 cannabinoids. The developed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and suitable for the detection and quantitation of acidic and neutral cannabinoids in different extracts of cannabis varieties. The method was applied to the analysis of these cannabinoids in different parts of the micropropagated cannabis plants (buds, leaves, roots, and stems). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Effect of alkali treatment on the physical and surface properties of Indian hemp fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangappa, Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Somashekar, R.

    2013-02-01

    The Plant fibers are rich in cellulose and they are a cheap, easily renewable source of fibers with the potential for polymer reinforcement. The presence of surface impurities and the large amount of hydroxyl groups make plant fibers less attractive for reinforcement of polymeric materials. Hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) fibers were subjected to alkalization using 1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The structural properties and surface morphology of untreated and chemically modified fibers have been studied using X-ray diffraction (WAXS) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively.

  12. Metabolic analysis of elicited cell suspension cultures of Cannabis sativa L. by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pec, Jaroslav; Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Cannabis cell cultures were treated with jasmonic acid (JA) and pectin as elicitors to evaluate their effect on metabolism from two cell lines using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the chloroform extract of the pectin-treated cultures were more different than control and JA-treated cultures; but in the methanol/water extract the metabolome of the JA-treated cells showed clear differences with control and pectin-treated cultures. Tyrosol, an antioxidant metabolite, was detected in cannabis cell cultures. The tyrosol content increased after eliciting with JA.

  13. Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) alters blood chemistry and the cytoarchitecture of some organs in Sprague Dawley rat models.

    PubMed

    Abey, Nosarieme Omoregie

    2018-06-01

    There is evidence that Cannabis whose active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly abused neuroactive substance, among young adults. This work investigated the effects of Cannabis sativa on the cytoarchitecture of some key organs and the blood chemistry of rat models. Twenty-one (21) male Sprague Dawley rats were fed different percentage of cannabis chow (0%, 5% and 10%) for a period of seven (7) weeks. Rats were subjected to intermittent cognitive function test and sacrificed after the seventh week, collecting the blood, brain and other important tissues for analysis which include; brain total protein and nitric oxide concentration, blood chemistry and histopathology. Results revealed a dose-dependent decline in the cognitive function, statistically significant decrease in the brain total protein and nitric oxide. Histopathology revealed significant hypertrophy in the heart, hypercellularity in neuronal cells, prominent sinusoids cytoarchitecture of the hepatocytes and vascular congestion in the seminiferous tubules of testes. There was a statistically significant difference in the plasma ALP, ALT, AST level between controls and the cannabis test groups. Cannabis use caused cellular damage through mediation of imbalance and altered cytoarchitecture which may affects the overall health of dependent user. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystallization of Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Takeuchi, Ayako; Taura, Futoshi; Tamada, Taro; Adachi, Motoyasu; Kuroki, Ryota; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Δ1-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is a novel oxidoreductase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of the psychoactive compound THCA in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). In order to investigate the structure–function relationship of THCA synthase, this enzyme was overproduced in insect cells, purified and finally crystallized in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.4 M sodium citrate. A single crystal suitable for X-ray diffraction measurement was obtained in 0.09 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 1.26 M sodium citrate. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution at beamline BL41XU, SPring-8. The crystal belonged to the primitive cubic space group P432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 178.2 Å. The calculated Matthews coefficient was approximately 4.1 or 2.0 Å3 Da−1 assuming the presence of one or two molecules of THCA synthase in the asymmetric unit, respectively. PMID:16511162

  15. Developmental validation of a Cannabis sativa STR multiplex system for forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Howard, Christopher; Gilmore, Simon; Robertson, James; Peakall, Rod

    2008-09-01

    A developmental validation study based on recommendations of the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) was conducted on a multiplex system of 10 Cannabis sativa short tandem repeat loci. Amplification of the loci in four multiplex reactions was tested across DNA from dried root, stem, and leaf sources, and DNA from fresh, frozen, and dried leaf tissue with a template DNA range of 10.0-0.01 ng. The loci were amplified and scored consistently for all DNA sources when DNA template was in the range of 10.0-1.0 ng. Some allelic dropout and PCR failure occurred in reactions with lower template DNA amounts. Overall, amplification was best using 10.0 ng of template DNA from dried leaf tissue indicating that this is the optimal source material. Cross species amplification was observed in Humulus lupulus for three loci but there was no allelic overlap. This is the first study following SWGDAM validation guidelines to validate short tandem repeat markers for forensic use in plants.

  16. Isolation and Pharmacological Evaluation of Minor Cannabinoids from High-Potency Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Mohamed M; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; El-Alfy, Abir T; Ahmed, Safwat A; Slade, Desmond; Husni, Afeef S; Manly, Susan P; Wilson, Lisa; Seale, Suzanne; Cutler, Stephen J; Ross, Samir A

    2015-06-26

    Seven new naturally occurring hydroxylated cannabinoids (1-7), along with the known cannabiripsol (8), have been isolated from the aerial parts of high-potency Cannabis sativa. The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, GC-MS, and HRESIMS as 8α-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (1), 8β-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (2), 10α-hydroxy-Δ(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (3), 10β-hydroxy-Δ(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (4), 10α-hydroxy-Δ(9,11)-hexahydrocannabinol (5), 9β,10β-epoxyhexahydrocannabinol (6), and 11-acetoxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (7). The binding affinity of isolated compounds 1-8, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and Δ(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol toward CB1 and CB2 receptors as well as their behavioral effects in a mouse tetrad assay were studied. The results indicated that compound 3, with the highest affinity to the CB1 receptors, exerted the most potent cannabimimetic-like actions in the tetrad assay, while compound 4 showed partial cannabimimetic actions. Compound 2, on the other hand, displayed a dose-dependent hypolocomotive effect only.

  17. Effect of induced polyploidy on some biochemical parameters in Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Mahsa; Mansouri, Hakimeh

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at testing the efficiency of colchicine on inducing polyploidy in Cannabis sativa L. and investigation of effects of polyploidy induction on some primary and secondary metabolites. Shoot tips were treated with three different concentrations of colchicine (0, 0.1, 0.2 % w/v) for 24 or 48 h. The biggest proportion of the almost coplanar tetraploids (43.33 %) and mixoploids (13.33 %) was obtained from the 24-h treatment in 0.2 and 0.1 % w/v, respectively. Colchicine with 0.2 % concentration and 48 h duration was more destructive than 24 h. The ploidy levels were screened with flow cytometry. The biochemical analyses showed that reducing sugars, soluble sugars, total protein, and total flavonoids increased significantly in mixoploid plants compared with tetraploid and diploid plants. Tetraploid plants had a higher amount of total proteins, total flavonoids, and starch in comparison with control plants. The results showed that polyploidization could increase the contents of tetrahydrocannabinol in mixoploid plants only, but tetraploid plants had lower amounts of this substance in comparison with diploids. Also, we found such changes in protein concentration in electrophoresis analysis. In overall, our study suggests that tetraploidization could not be useful to produce tetrahydrocannabinol for commercial use, and in this case, mixoploids are more suitable.

  18. Expression, purification and crystallization of a plant polyketide cyclase from Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinmei; Matsui, Takashi; Mori, Takahiro; Taura, Futoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Plant polyketides are a structurally diverse family of natural products. In the biosynthesis of plant polyketides, the construction of the carbocyclic scaffold is a key step in diversifying the polyketide structure. Olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC) from Cannabis sativa L. is the only known plant polyketide cyclase that catalyzes the C2–C7 intramolecular aldol cyclization of linear pentyl tetra-β-ketide-CoA to generate olivetolic acid in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids. The enzyme is also thought to belong to the dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein family. However, because of a lack of functional analysis of other plant DABB proteins and low sequence identity with the functionally distinct bacterial DABB proteins, the catalytic mechanism of OAC has remained unclear. To clarify the intimate catalytic mechanism of OAC, the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.40 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 47.3, c = 176.0 Å. Further crystallographic analysis will provide valuable insights into the structure–function relationship and catalytic mechanism of OAC. PMID:26625288

  19. Expression, purification and crystallization of a plant polyketide cyclase from Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmei; Matsui, Takashi; Mori, Takahiro; Taura, Futoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Plant polyketides are a structurally diverse family of natural products. In the biosynthesis of plant polyketides, the construction of the carbocyclic scaffold is a key step in diversifying the polyketide structure. Olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC) from Cannabis sativa L. is the only known plant polyketide cyclase that catalyzes the C2-C7 intramolecular aldol cyclization of linear pentyl tetra-β-ketide-CoA to generate olivetolic acid in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids. The enzyme is also thought to belong to the dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein family. However, because of a lack of functional analysis of other plant DABB proteins and low sequence identity with the functionally distinct bacterial DABB proteins, the catalytic mechanism of OAC has remained unclear. To clarify the intimate catalytic mechanism of OAC, the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.40 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 47.3, c = 176.0 Å. Further crystallographic analysis will provide valuable insights into the structure-function relationship and catalytic mechanism of OAC.

  20. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g -1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg -1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C 18 :2 :C 18 :3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Diversity analysis in Cannabis sativa based on large-scale development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunsheng; Xin, Pengfei; Cheng, Chaohua; Tang, Qing; Chen, Ping; Wang, Changbiao; Zang, Gonggu; Zhao, Lining

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important economic plant for the production of food, fiber, oils, and intoxicants. However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has limited the development of cannabis genetic research. Here, large-scale development of expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers was performed to obtain more informative genetic markers, and to assess genetic diversity in cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). Based on the cannabis transcriptome, 4,577 SSRs were identified from 3,624 ESTs. From there, a total of 3,442 complementary primer pairs were designed as SSR markers. Among these markers, trinucleotide repeat motifs (50.99%) were the most abundant, followed by hexanucleotide (25.13%), dinucleotide (16.34%), tetranucloetide (3.8%), and pentanucleotide (3.74%) repeat motifs, respectively. The AAG/CTT trinucleotide repeat (17.96%) was the most abundant motif detected in the SSRs. One hundred and seventeen EST-SSR markers were randomly selected to evaluate primer quality in 24 cannabis varieties. Among these 117 markers, 108 (92.31%) were successfully amplified and 87 (74.36%) were polymorphic. Forty-five polymorphic primer pairs were selected to evaluate genetic diversity and relatedness among the 115 cannabis genotypes. The results showed that 115 varieties could be divided into 4 groups primarily based on geography: Northern China, Europe, Central China, and Southern China. Moreover, the coefficient of similarity when comparing cannabis from Northern China with the European group cannabis was higher than that when comparing with cannabis from the other two groups, owing to a similar climate. This study outlines the first large-scale development of SSR markers for cannabis. These data may serve as a foundation for the development of genetic linkage, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted breeding of cannabis.

  2. Diversity Analysis in Cannabis sativa Based on Large-Scale Development of Expressed Sequence Tag-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chaohua; Tang, Qing; Chen, Ping; Wang, Changbiao; Zang, Gonggu; Zhao, Lining

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important economic plant for the production of food, fiber, oils, and intoxicants. However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has limited the development of cannabis genetic research. Here, large-scale development of expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers was performed to obtain more informative genetic markers, and to assess genetic diversity in cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). Based on the cannabis transcriptome, 4,577 SSRs were identified from 3,624 ESTs. From there, a total of 3,442 complementary primer pairs were designed as SSR markers. Among these markers, trinucleotide repeat motifs (50.99%) were the most abundant, followed by hexanucleotide (25.13%), dinucleotide (16.34%), tetranucloetide (3.8%), and pentanucleotide (3.74%) repeat motifs, respectively. The AAG/CTT trinucleotide repeat (17.96%) was the most abundant motif detected in the SSRs. One hundred and seventeen EST-SSR markers were randomly selected to evaluate primer quality in 24 cannabis varieties. Among these 117 markers, 108 (92.31%) were successfully amplified and 87 (74.36%) were polymorphic. Forty-five polymorphic primer pairs were selected to evaluate genetic diversity and relatedness among the 115 cannabis genotypes. The results showed that 115 varieties could be divided into 4 groups primarily based on geography: Northern China, Europe, Central China, and Southern China. Moreover, the coefficient of similarity when comparing cannabis from Northern China with the European group cannabis was higher than that when comparing with cannabis from the other two groups, owing to a similar climate. This study outlines the first large-scale development of SSR markers for cannabis. These data may serve as a foundation for the development of genetic linkage, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted breeding of cannabis. PMID:25329551

  3. Melatonin and vitamin C exacerbate Cannabis sativa-induced testicular damage when administered separately but ameliorate it when combined in rats.

    PubMed

    Alagbonsi, Isiaka A; Olayaki, Luqman A; Salman, Toyin M

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms involved in the spermatotoxic effect of Cannabis sativa are inconclusive. The involvement of oxidative stress in male factor infertility has been well documented, and the antioxidative potential of melatonin and vitamin C in many oxidative stress conditions has been well reported. This study sought to investigate whether melatonin and vitamin C will ameliorate C. sativa-induced spermatotoxicity or not. Fifty-five (55) male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided in a blinded fashion into five oral treatment groups as follows: group I (control, n=5) received 1 mL/kg of 10% ethanol for 30 days; groups IIa, IIb, and IIc (n=5 each) received 2 mg/kg C. sativa for 20, 30, and 40 days, respectively; groups IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc (n=5 each) received a combination of 2 mg/kg C. sativa and 4 mg/kg melatonin for 20, 30, and 40 days, respectively; groups IVa, IVb, and IVc (n=5 each) received a combination of 2 mg/kg C. sativa and 1.25 g/kg vitamin C for 20, 30, and 40 days, respectively; group V (n=5) received a combination of 2 mg/kg C. sativa, 4 mg/kg melatonin, and 1.25 g/kg vitamin C for 30 days. Cannabis treatments reduced the Johnsen score, sperm count, motility, morphology, paired testicular/body weight ratio, and total antioxidant capacity, but increased lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition, supplementation of cannabis-treated rats with either melatonin or vitamin C exacerbates the effect of cannabis on those parameters, whereas combination of melatonin and vitamin C reversed the trend to the level comparable to control. This study further showed the gonadotoxic effect of C. sativa, which could be mediated by oxidative stress. It also showed that melatonin and vitamin C exacerbate C. sativa-induced testicular damage when administered separately but ameliorate it when combined in rats.

  4. Identification and quantification of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Omar, Jone; Navarro, Patricia; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2014-11-01

    High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to cannabis plant extracts in order to identify cannabinoid compounds after their quantitative isolation by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). MS conditions were optimized by means of a central composite design (CCD) approach, and the analysis method was fully validated. Six major cannabinoids [tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN)] were quantified (RSD < 10%), and seven more cannabinoids were identified and verified by means of a liquid chromatograph coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-ToF) detector. Finally, based on the distribution of the analyzed cannabinoids in 30 Cannabis sativa L. plant varieties and the principal component analysis (PCA) of the resulting data, a clear difference was observed between outdoor and indoor grown plants, which was attributed to a higher concentration of THC, CBN, and CBD in outdoor grown plants.

  5. The Bibenzyl Canniprene Inhibits the Production of Pro-Inflammatory Eicosanoids and Selectively Accumulates in Some Cannabis sativa Strains.

    PubMed

    Allegrone, Gianna; Pollastro, Federica; Magagnini, Gianmaria; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Seegers, Julia; Koeberle, Andreas; Werz, Oliver; Appendino, Giovanni

    2017-03-24

    Canniprene (1), an isoprenylated bibenzyl unique to Cannabis sativa, can be vaporized and therefore potentially inhaled from marijuana. Canniprene (1) potently inhibited the production of inflammatory eicosanoids via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway (IC 50 0.4 μM) and also affected the generation of prostaglandins via the cyclooxygenase/microsomal prostaglandin E 2 synthase pathway (IC 50 10 μM), while the related spiranoid bibenzyls cannabispiranol (2) and cannabispirenone (3) were almost inactive in these bioassays. The concentration of canniprene (1) was investigated in the leaves of 160 strains of C. sativa, showing wide variations, from traces to >0.2%, but no correlation was found between its accumulation and a specific phytocannabinoid profile.

  6. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Sailani, M R; Moeini, H

    2007-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly (P=0.00) in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa. The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  7. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Giofrè, Salvatore V; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Cicero, Nicola; D'Angelo, Valeria; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Circosta, Clara

    2018-02-07

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) is currently very important. The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. chemotypes with high content of cannabidiol (CBD)/cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerol (CBG)/cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), respectively, on human recombinant and pig kidney aldose reductase activity in vitro. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The extracts showed significant dose-dependent aldose reductase inhibitory activity (>70%) and higher than fractions. The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors. The extracts of Cannabis with high content of non-psychotropic cannabinoids CBD/CBDA or CBG/CBGA significantly inhibit aldose reductase activity. These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. sativa chemotypes based preparations as aldose reductase inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture and the environment: a systematic, spatially-explicit survey and potential impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butsic, Van; Brenner, Jacob C.

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States that is changing rapidly with policy liberalization. Anecdotal observations fuel speculation about associated environmental impacts, and there is an urgent need for systematic empirical research. An example from Humboldt County California, a principal cannabis-producing region, involved digitizing 4428 grow sites in 60 watersheds with Google Earth imagery. Grows were clustered, suggesting disproportionate impacts in ecologically important locales. Sixty-eight percent of grows were >500 m from developed roads, suggesting risk of landscape fragmentation. Twenty-two percent were on steep slopes, suggesting risk of erosion, sedimentation, and landslides. Five percent were <100 m from threatened fish habitat, and the estimated 297 954 plants would consume an estimated 700 000 m3 of water, suggesting risk of stream impacts. The extent and magnitude of cannabis agriculture documented in our study demands that it be regulated and researched on par with conventional agriculture.

  9. Monitoring Metabolite Profiles of Cannabis sativa L. Trichomes during Flowering Period Using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics and Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Happyana, Nizar; Kayser, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Cannabis sativa trichomes are glandular structures predominantly responsible for the biosynthesis of cannabinoids, the biologically active compounds unique to this plant. To the best of our knowledge, most metabolomic works on C. sativa that have been reported previously focused their investigations on the flowers and leaves of this plant. In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics and real-time PCR analysis were applied for monitoring the metabolite profiles of C. sativa trichomes, variety Bediol, during the last 4 weeks of the flowering period. Partial least squares discriminant analysis models successfully classified metabolites of the trichomes based on the harvest time. Δ (9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (1) and cannabidiolic acid (2) constituted the vital differential components of the organic preparations, while asparagine, glutamine, fructose, and glucose proved to be their water-extracted counterparts. According to RT-PCR analysis, gene expression levels of olivetol synthase and olivetolic acid cyclase influenced the accumulation of cannabinoids in the Cannabis trichomes during the monitoring time. Moreover, quantitative (1)H NMR and RT-PCR analysis of the Cannabis trichomes suggested that the gene regulation of cannabinoid biosynthesis in the C. sativa variety Bediol is unique when compared with other C. sativa varieties. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Structural basis for olivetolic acid formation by a polyketide cyclase from Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmei; Matsui, Takashi; Kodama, Takeshi; Mori, Takahiro; Zhou, Xiaoxi; Taura, Futoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    In polyketide biosynthesis, ring formation is one of the key diversification steps. Olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC) from Cannabis sativa, involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis, is the only known plant polyketide cyclase. In addition, it is the only functionally characterized plant α+β barrel (DABB) protein that catalyzes the C2-C7 aldol cyclization of the linear pentyl tetra-β-ketide CoA as the substrate, to generate olivetolic acid (OA). Herein, we solved the OAC apo and OAC-OA complex binary crystal structures at 1.32 and 1.70 Å resolutions, respectively. The crystal structures revealed that the enzyme indeed belongs to the DABB superfamily, as previously proposed, and possesses a unique active-site cavity containing the pentyl-binding hydrophobic pocket and the polyketide binding site, which have never been observed among the functionally and structurally characterized bacterial polyketide cyclases. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis studies indicated that Tyr72 and His78 function as acid/base catalysts at the catalytic center. Structural and/or functional studies of OAC suggested that the enzyme lacks thioesterase and aromatase activities. These observations demonstrated that OAC employs unique catalytic machinery utilizing acid/base catalytic chemistry for the formation of the precursor of OA. The structural and functional insights obtained in this work thus provide the foundation for analyses of the plant polyketide cyclases that will be discovered in the future. Structural data reported in this paper are available in the Protein Data Bank under the accession numbers 5B08 for the OAC apo, 5B09 for the OAC-OA binary complex and 5B0A, 5B0B, 5B0C, 5B0D, 5B0E, 5B0F and 5B0G for the OAC His5Q, Ile7F, Tyr27F, Tyr27W, Val59M, Tyr72F and His78S mutant enzymes, respectively. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth, physiology and cannabinoid production of Cannabis sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Lydon, J.

    The concentration of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. is correlated with high ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation environments. ..delta../sup 9/-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid, both major secondary products of C. sativa, absorb UV-B radiation and may function as solar screens. The object of this study was to test the effects of UV-B radiation on the physiology and cannabinoid production of C. sativa. Drug and fiber-type C. sativa were irradiated with three levels of UV-B radiation for 40 days in greenhouse experiments. Physiological measurements on leaf tissues were made by infra-red gas analysis. Drug and fiber-type control plants had similar CO/sub 2/ assimilationmore » rates from 26 to 32/sup 0/C. Drug-type control plant had higher dark respiration rates and stomatal conductances than fiber-type control plants. The concentration of ..delta../sup 9/-THC, but not of other cannabinoids) in both vegetative and reproductive tissues increased with UV-B dose in drug-type plants. None of the cannabinoids in fiber-type plants were affected by UV-B radiation. The increased level of ..delta../sup 9/-THC found in leaves after irradiation may account for the physiological and morphological insensitivity to UV-B radiation in the drug-type plants. However, fiber plants showed no comparable change in the level of cannabidoil (CBD). Resin stripped form fresh fiber-type floral tissue by sonication was spotted on filter paper and irradiated continuously for 7 days. Cannabidiol (CBD) gradually decreased when irradiated but ..delta../sup 9/-THC and cannabichromene did not.« less

  12. Multidimensional analysis of cannabis volatile constituents: identification of 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane as a volatile marker of hashish, the resin of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Marie; Charvoz, Céline; Dujourdy, Laurence; Baldovini, Nicolas; Filippi, Jean-Jacques

    2014-11-28

    The volatile constituents of drug samples derived from Cannabis sativa L. were investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography techniques (GC-MS, GC×GC-MS). Samples of cannabis herb and hashish showed clear differences in their volatile chemical profiles, mostly resulting from photo-oxidation processes occurring during the transformation of fresh cannabis herb into hashish. Most unexpectedly, we could demonstrate hashish samples as containing remarkable amounts of a rare and unusual monoterpene - 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane - among the volatile compounds detected in their headspaces. We gave evidence for the formation of this compound from the light induced rearrangement of β-myrcene during the manufacture of hashish. In view of its high abundance among volatile constituents of cannabis resin and its scarce occurrence in other natural volatile extracts, we propose to rename this specific monoterpene hashishene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of cannabinoids in commercial hemp seed oil and decarboxylation kinetics studies of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).

    PubMed

    Citti, Cinzia; Pacchetti, Barbara; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Forni, Flavio; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2018-02-05

    Hemp seed oil from Cannabis sativa L. is a very rich natural source of important nutrients, not only polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins, but also terpenes and cannabinoids, which contribute to the overall beneficial effects of the oil. Hence, it is important to have an analytical method for the determination of these components in commercial samples. At the same time, it is also important to assess the safety of the product in terms of amount of any psychoactive cannabinoid present therein. This work presents the development and validation of a highly sensitive, selective and rapid HPLC-UV method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the main cannabinoids, namely cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), present in 13 commercial hemp seed oils. Moreover, since decomposition of cannabinoid acids generally occurs with light, air and heat, decarboxylation studies of the most abundant acid (CBDA) were carried out in both open and closed reactor and the kinetics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures in order to evaluate the stability of hemp seed oil in different storage conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequence heterogeneity of cannabidiolic- and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-synthase in Cannabis sativa L. and its relationship with chemical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Chiara; de Meijer, Etienne P M; Mandolino, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Sequence variants of THCA- and CBDA-synthases were isolated from different Cannabis sativa L. strains expressing various wild-type and mutant chemical phenotypes (chemotypes). Expressed and complete sequences were obtained from mature inflorescences. Each strain was shown to have a different specificity and/or ability to convert the precursor CBGA into CBDA and/or THCA type products. The comparison of the expressed sequences led to the identification of different mutations, all of them due to SNPs. These SNPs were found to relate to the cannabinoid composition of the inflorescence at maturity and are therefore proposed to have a functional significance. The amount of variation was found to be higher within the CBDAS sequence family than in the THCAS family, suggesting a more recent evolution of THCA-forming enzymes from the CBDAS group. We therefore consider CBDAS as the ancestral type of these synthases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR.

    PubMed

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L. trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, glandular trichomes were isolated over the flowering period (8 weeks) by laser microdissection (LMD) and the cannabinoid profile analyzed by LCMS. Cannabinoids were detected in extracts of 25-143 collected cells of capitate-sessile and capitate stalked trichomes and separately in the gland (head) and the stem of the latter. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA (1)], cannabidiolic acid [CBDA (2)], and cannabigerolic acid [CBGA (3)] were identified as most-abundant compounds in all analyzed samples while their decarboxylated derivatives, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC (4)], cannabidiol [CBD (5)], and cannabigerol [CBG (6)], co-detected in all samples, were present at significantly lower levels. Cannabichromene [CBC (8)] along with cannabinol (CBN (9)) were identified as minor compounds only in the samples of intact capitate-stalked trichomes and their heads harvested from 8-week old plants. Cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to confirm the occurrence of major cannabinoids, THCA (1) and CBDA (2), in capitate-stalked and capitate-sessile trichomes. Cryogenic NMR enabled the additional identification of cannabichromenic acid [CBCA (7)] in the dissected trichomes, which was not possible by LCMS as standard was not available. The hereby documented detection of metabolites in the stems of capitate-stalked trichomes indicates a complex biosynthesis and localization over the trichome cells forming the glandular secretion unit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A segment of rbcL gene as a potential tool for forensic discrimination of Cannabis sativa seized at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mello, I C T; Ribeiro, A S D; Dias, V H G; Silva, R; Sabino, B D; Garrido, R G; Seldin, L; de Moura Neto, Rodrigo Soares

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis sativa, known by the common name marijuana, is the psychoactive drug most widely distributed in the world. Identification of Cannabis cultivars may be useful for association to illegal crops, which may reveal trafficking routes and related criminal groups. This study provides evidence for the performance of a segment of the rbcL gene, through genetic signature, as a tool for identification for C. sativa samples apprehended by the Rio de Janeiro Police, Brazil. The PCR amplified and further sequenced the fragment of approximately 561 bp of 24 samples of C. sativa rbcL gene and showed the same nucleotide sequences, suggesting a possible genetic similarity or identical varieties. Comparing with other Cannabaceae family sequences, we have found 99% of similarity between the Rio de Janeiro sequence and three other C. sativa rbcL genes. These findings suggest that the fragment utilized at this study is efficient in identifying C. sativa samples, therefore, useful in genetic discrimination of samples seized in forensic cases.

  17. A review of the cultivation and processing of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) for production of prescription medicines in the UK.

    PubMed

    Potter, David J

    2014-01-01

    The quality demands of the pharmaceutical industry require prescription medicines to be consistent in their active ingredient content. Achieving this, using raw cannabis as a feedstock, is especially challenging. The plant material is extremely inhomogeneous, and the ratios of active ingredients are affected by a range of factors. These include the genetics of the plant, the growing and storage conditions, the state of maturity at harvest, and the methods used to process and formulate the material. The reasons for this variability are described, with particular emphasis on the botanical considerations. To produce the complex botanical medicine Sativex®, which contains the cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and a range of other ingredients, GW Pharmaceuticals had to manage these variables. This medicine, for the treatment of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, is the first cannabis-based medicine to be approved in the UK. The company's methodology for producing this and other chemotypes is described. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of different fractions of hemp essential oil extracted at 130 °C using steam distillation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Nawaz, Haq; Naz, Saima; Mukhtar, Rubina; Rashid, Nosheen; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for the characterization of pure essential oil (pure EO) isolated from the leaves of the Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.,) as well as its different fractions obtained by fractional distillation process. Raman spectra of pure Hemp essential oil and its different fractions show characteristic key bands of main volatile terpenes and terpenoids, which significantly differentiate them from each other. These bands provide information about the chemical composition of sample under investigation and hence can be used as Raman spectral markers for the qualitative monitoring of the pure EO and different fractions containing different active compounds. PCA differentiates the Raman spectral data into different clusters and loadings of the PCA further confirm the biological origin of the different fractions of the essential oil.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) from Cannabis sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Chiho; Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency; Taura, Futoshi

    Polyketide synthase-1 from C. sativa has been crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. Polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) is a novel type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of hexanoyl triacetic acid lactone in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). PKS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and finally crystallized in two different space groups. The crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M calcium acetate and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b =more » 59.3, c = 62.6 Å, α = 69, β = 81, γ = 80°. Another crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M sodium chloride and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 110, c = 130 Å. These data will enable us to determine the crystal structure of PKS-1.« less

  20. Inhibitory effect of standardized cannabis sativa extract and its ingredient cannabidiol on rat and human bladder contractility.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Borrelli, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Ferro, Matteo; Castaldo, Luigi; Montanaro, Vittorino; Altieri, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a Cannabis sativa extract enriched in cannabidiol (CBD) botanic drug substance (BDS) and pure CBD, on bladder contractility in vitro. Cannabis based-medicines, including CBD-enriched extracts, have been shown to reduce urinary urgency, incontinence episodes, frequency, and nocturia in patients with multiple sclerosis. Strips were cut from male Wistar rats and the human bladder body and placed in organ baths containing Krebs solution. Contractions were induced by electrical field stimulation, acetylcholine, KCl, and α,β-methylene adenosine triphosphate. CBD BDS significantly reduced the contractions induced by acetylcholine, but not those induced with electrical field stimulation, KCl, or α,β-methylene adenosine triphosphate in the isolated rat bladder. The inhibitory effect of CBD BDS was not significantly modified by the cannabinoid or opioid receptor antagonists or by modulators of calcium levels, but it was increased by ruthenium red and capsazepine, 2 transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 blockers. In humans, CBD BDS and pure CBD significantly reduced acetylcholine-induced contractions, an effect that was not changed by the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 blockers. Our data have suggested that CBD BDS reduces cholinergic-mediated contractility and that this effect is modulated by transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 in rats but not in humans. CBD is the chemical ingredient of CBD BDS responsible for such activity. If confirmed in vivo, such results could provide a pharmacologic basis to explain, at least in part, the efficacy of Cannabis medicines in reducing incontinence episodes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid identification of drug-type strains in Cannabis sativa using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei

    2017-01-01

    In Cannabis sativa L., tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive compound and exists as the carboxylated form, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). C. sativa is divided into two strains based on THCA content-THCA-rich (drug-type) strains and THCA-poor (fiber-type) strains. Both strains are prohibited by law in many countries including Japan, whereas the drug-type strains are regulated in Canada and some European countries. As the two strains cannot be discriminated by morphological analysis, a simple method for identifying the drug-type strains is required for quality control in legal cultivation and forensic investigation. We have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for identifying the drug-type strains of C. sativa. We designed two selective LAMP primer sets for on-site or laboratory use, which target the drug-type THCA synthase gene. The LAMP assay was accomplished within approximately 40 min. The assay showed high specificity for the drug-type strains and its sensitivity was the same as or higher than that of conventional polymerase chain reaction. We also showed the effectiveness of melting curve analysis that was conducted after the LAMP assay. The melting temperature values of the drug-type strains corresponded to those of the cloned drug-type THCA synthase gene, and were clearly different from those of the cloned fiber-type THCA synthase gene. Moreover, the LAMP assay with simple sample preparation could be accomplished within 1 h from sample treatment to identification without the need for special devices or techniques. Our rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple assay is expected to be applicable to laboratory and on-site detection.

  2. Resolution of co-eluting compounds of Cannabis Sativa in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares.

    PubMed

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Amigo, José Manuel; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC × GC/qMS) analysis of Cannabis sativa extracts shows a high complexity due to the large variety of terpenes and cannabinoids and to the fact that the complete resolution of the peaks is not straightforwardly achieved. In order to support the resolution of the co-eluted peaks in the sesquiterpene and the cannabinoid chromatographic region the combination of Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternating Least Squares algorithms was satisfactorily applied. As a result, four co-eluting areas were totally resolved in the sesquiterpene region and one in the cannabinoid region in different samples of Cannabis sativa. The comparison of the mass spectral profiles obtained for each resolved peak with theoretical mass spectra allowed the identification of some of the co-eluted peaks. Finally, the classification of the studied samples was achieved based on the relative concentrations of the resolved peaks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A qualitative and quantitative HPTLC densitometry method for the analysis of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Fischedick, Justin T; Glas, Ronald; Hazekamp, Arno; Verpoorte, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis and cannabinoid based medicines are currently under serious investigation for legitimate development as medicinal agents, necessitating new low-cost, high-throughput analytical methods for quality control. The goal of this study was to develop and validate, according to ICH guidelines, a simple rapid HPTLC method for the quantification of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and qualitative analysis of other main neutral cannabinoids found in cannabis. The method was developed and validated with the use of pure cannabinoid reference standards and two medicinal cannabis cultivars. Accuracy was determined by comparing results obtained from the HTPLC method with those obtained from a validated HPLC method. Delta(9)-THC gives linear calibration curves in the range of 50-500 ng at 206 nm with a linear regression of y = 11.858x + 125.99 and r(2) = 0.9968. Results have shown that the HPTLC method is reproducible and accurate for the quantification of Delta(9)-THC in cannabis. The method is also useful for the qualitative screening of the main neutral cannabinoids found in cannabis cultivars.

  4. Changes in hemp secondary fiber production related to technical fiber variability revealed by light microscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Tendero, Eva; Day, Arnaud; Legros, Sandrine; Habrant, Anouck; Hawkins, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Interest in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is increasing due to the development of a new range of industrial applications based on bast fibers. However the variability of bast fiber yield and quality represents an important barrier to further exploitation. Primary and secondary fiber content was examined in two commercial hemp varieties (Fedora 17, Santhica 27) grown under contrasted sowing density and irrigation conditions. Both growing conditions and hemp varieties impact stem tissue architecture with a large effect on the proportion of secondary fibers but not primary fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy allowed the discrimination of manually-isolated native primary fibers and secondary fibers but did not reveal any clustering according to growing conditions and variety. Infrared data were confirmed by wet chemistry analyses that revealed slight but significant differences between primary and secondary fiber cell wall composition. Infrared spectroscopy of technical fibers obtained after mechanical defibering revealed differences with native primary, but not secondary fibers and also discriminated samples obtained from plants grown under different conditions. Altogether the results suggested that the observed variability of hemp technical fibers could be partially explained by i) differences in secondary fiber production and ii) differential behavior during mechanical defibering resulting in unequal separation of primary and secondary fibers. PMID:28640922

  5. Changes in hemp secondary fiber production related to technical fiber variability revealed by light microscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Tendero, Eva; Day, Arnaud; Legros, Sandrine; Habrant, Anouck; Hawkins, Simon; Chabbert, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Interest in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is increasing due to the development of a new range of industrial applications based on bast fibers. However the variability of bast fiber yield and quality represents an important barrier to further exploitation. Primary and secondary fiber content was examined in two commercial hemp varieties (Fedora 17, Santhica 27) grown under contrasted sowing density and irrigation conditions. Both growing conditions and hemp varieties impact stem tissue architecture with a large effect on the proportion of secondary fibers but not primary fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy allowed the discrimination of manually-isolated native primary fibers and secondary fibers but did not reveal any clustering according to growing conditions and variety. Infrared data were confirmed by wet chemistry analyses that revealed slight but significant differences between primary and secondary fiber cell wall composition. Infrared spectroscopy of technical fibers obtained after mechanical defibering revealed differences with native primary, but not secondary fibers and also discriminated samples obtained from plants grown under different conditions. Altogether the results suggested that the observed variability of hemp technical fibers could be partially explained by i) differences in secondary fiber production and ii) differential behavior during mechanical defibering resulting in unequal separation of primary and secondary fibers.

  6. In Vitro Propagation of Cannabis sativa L. and Evaluation of Regenerated Plants for Genetic Fidelity and Cannabinoids Content for Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana; Cannabaceae), one of the oldest medicinal plants in the world, has been used throughout history for fiber, food, as well as for its psychoactive properties. The dioecious and allogamous nature of C. sativa is the major constraint to maintain the consistency in chemical profile and overall efficacy if grown from seed. Therefore, the present optimized in vitro propagation protocol of the selected elite germplasm via direct organogenesis and quality assurance protocols using genetic and chemical profiling provide an ideal pathway for ensuring the efficacy of micropropagated Cannabis sativa germplasm. A high frequency shoot organogenesis of C. sativa was obtained from nodal segments in 0.5 μM thidiazuron medium and 95 % in vitro rhizogenesis is obtained on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 500 mg/L activated charcoal and 2.5 μM indole-3-butyric acid. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID) are successfully used to monitor the genetic stability in micropropagated plants up to 30 passages in culture and hardened in soil for 8 months.

  7. High frequency plant regeneration from leaf derived callus of high Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol yielding Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

    2010-10-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation protocol for rapidly producing Cannabis sativa plantlets from young leaf tissue was developed. Using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), high THC yielding elite female clone of a drug-type CANNABIS variety (MX) was screened and its vegetatively propagated clones were used for micropropagation. Calli were induced from leaf explant on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 µM) of indole- 3-acetic acid (IAA), indole- 3- butyric acid (IBA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D) in combination with 1.0 µM of thidiazuron (TDZ) for the production of callus. The optimum callus growth and maintenance was in 0.5 µM NAA plus 1.0 µM TDZ. The two-month-old calli were subcultured to MS media containing different concentrations of cytokinins (BAP, KN, TDZ). The rate of shoot induction and proliferation was highest in 0.5 µM TDZ. Of the various auxins (IAA, IBA, and NAA) tested, regenerated shoots rooted best on half strength MS medium (1/2 - MS) supplemented with 2.5 µM IBA. The rooted plantlets were successfully established in soil and grown to maturity with no gross variations in morphology and cannabinoids content at a survival rate of 95 % in the indoor growroom. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Comelli, Francesca; Bettoni, Isabella; Colleoni, Mariapia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Costa, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and it is still considered to be relatively refractory to most of the analgesics. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of a controlled cannabis extract (eCBD) in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain. Repeated treatment with cannabis extract significantly relieved mechanical allodynia and restored the physiological thermal pain perception in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats without affecting hyperglycemia. In addition, the results showed that eCBD increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) content in the liver leading to a restoration of the defence mechanism and significantly decreased the liver lipid peroxidation suggesting that eCBD provides protection against oxidative damage in STZ-induced diabetes that also strongly contributes to the development of neuropathy. Finally, the nerve growth factor content in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats was restored to normal following the repeated treatment with eCBD, suggesting that the extract was able to prevent the nerve damage caused by the reduced support of this neurotrophin. These findings highlighted the beneficial effects of cannabis extract treatment in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain, possibly through a strong antioxidant activity and a specific action upon nerve growth factor. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Korthout, Henrie A A J; van Meeteren-Kreikamp, A P; Ehlert, Karl A; Wang, Mei; van der Greef, Jan; Rodenburg, Richard J T; Witkamp, Renger F

    2006-04-01

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its main non-psychoactive constituent Delta(9)-tetrahydrocanabinoid acid (THCa). By heating Cannabis extracts, THCa was shown to be converted into THC. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa were able to inhibit the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in culture supernatants from U937 macrophages and peripheral blood macrophages after stimulation with LPS in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibition persisted over a longer period of time, whereas after prolonged exposure time THC and heated Cannabis extract tend to induce the TNF-alpha level. Furthermore we demonstrated that THCa and THC show distinct effects on phosphatidylcholine specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa inhibit the PC-PLC activity in a dose-dependent manner, while THC induced PC-PLC activity at high concentrations. These results suggest that THCa and THC exert their immuno-modulating effects via different metabolic pathways.

  10. Biodegradation of phenol and benzene by endophytic bacterial strains isolated from refinery wastewater-fed Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Aneela; Arshad, Muhammad; Hashmi, Imran; Karthikeyan, Raghupathy; Gentry, Terry J; Schwab, Arthur Paul

    2017-06-13

    The presence of benzene and phenol in the environment can lead to serious health effects in humans and warrant development of efficient cleanup strategies. The aim of the present work was to assess the potential of indigenous endophytic bacterial strains to degrade benzene and phenol. Seven strains were successfully isolated from Cannabis sativa plants irrigated with oil refinery wastewater. Molecular characterization was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phenol was biodegraded almost completely with Achromobacter sp. (AIEB-7), Pseudomonas sp. (AIEB-4), and Alcaligenes sp. (AIEB-6) at 250, 500, and 750 mg L -1 ; however, the degradation was only 81%, 72%, and 69%, respectively, when exposed to 1000 mg L -1 . Bacillus sp. (AIEB-1), Enterobacter sp. (AIEB-3), and Acinetobacter sp. (AIEB-2) degraded benzene significantly at 250, 500, and 750 mg L -1 . However, these strains showed 80%, 72%, and 68% benzene removal at 1000 mg L -1 exposure, respectively. Rates of degradation could be modeled with first-order kinetics with rate constant values of 1.86 × 10 -2 for Pseudomonas sp. (AIEB-4) and 1.80 × 10 -2  h -1 for Bacillus sp. (AIEB-1) and half-lives of 1.5 and 1.6 days, respectively. These results establish a foundation for further testing of the phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in the presence of these endophytic bacteria.

  11. Molecular analysis of genetic fidelity in Cannabis sativa L. plants grown from synthetic (encapsulated) seeds following in vitro storage.

    PubMed

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Techen, Natascha; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2011-12-01

    The increasing utilization of synthetic (encapsulated) seeds for germplasm conservation and propagation necessitates the assessment of genetic stability of conserved propagules following their plantlet conversion. We have assessed the genetic stability of synthetic seeds of Cannabis sativa L. during in vitro multiplication and storage for 6 months at different growth conditions using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) DNA fingerprinting. Molecular analysis of randomly selected plants from each batch was conducted using 14 ISSR markers. Of the 14 primers tested, nine produced 40 distinct and reproducible bands. All the ISSR profiles from in vitro stored plants were monomorphic and comparable to the mother plant which confirms the genetic stability among the clones. GC analysis of six major cannabinoids [Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol and cannabinol] showed homogeneity in the re-grown clones and the mother plant with insignificant differences in cannabinoids content, thereby confirming the stability of plants derived from synthetic seeds following 6 months storage. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  12. Comparative in silico analyses of Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera compounds elucidating the medicinal properties against rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zaka, Mehreen; Sehgal, Sheikh Arslan; Shafique, Shagufta; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2017-06-01

    From last decade, there has been progressive improvement in computational drug designing. Several diseases are being cured from different plant extracts and products. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most shared disease among auto-inflammatory diseases. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α is associated with RA pathway and has adverse effects. Extensive literature review showed that plant species under study (Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera) possess anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-rheumatic properties. 13 anti-inflammatory compounds were characterised and filtered out from medicinal plant species and analysed for RA by targeting TNF-α through in silico analyses. By using ligand based pharmacophore generation approach and virtual screening against natural products libraries we retrieved twenty unique molecules that displayed utmost binding affinity, least binding energies and effective drug properties. The docking analyses revealed that Ala-22, Glu-23, Ser-65, Gln-67, Tyr-141, Leu-142, Asp-143, Phe-144 and Ala-145 were critical interacting residues for receptor-ligand interactions. It is proposed that the RA patients should use reported compounds for the prescription of RA by targeting TNF-α. This report is opening new dimensions for designing innovative therapeutic targets to cure RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of the Cannabinoid and Terpene Content during the Growth of Cannabis sativa Plants from Different Chemotypes.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Soydaner, Umut; Öztürk, Ekin; Schibano, Daniele; Simsir, Yilmaz; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2016-02-26

    The evolution of major cannabinoids and terpenes during the growth of Cannabis sativa plants was studied. In this work, seven different plants were selected: three each from chemotypes I and III and one from chemotype II. Fifty clones of each mother plant were grown indoors under controlled conditions. Every week, three plants from each variety were cut and dried, and the leaves and flowers were analyzed separately. Eight major cannabinoids were analyzed via HPLC-DAD, and 28 terpenes were quantified using GC-FID and verified via GC-MS. The chemotypes of the plants, as defined by the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid/cannabidiolic acid (THCA/CBDA) ratio, were clear from the beginning and stable during growth. The concentrations of the major cannabinoids and terpenes were determined, and different patterns were found among the chemotypes. In particular, the plants from chemotypes II and III needed more time to reach peak production of THCA, CBDA, and monoterpenes. Differences in the cannabigerolic acid development among the different chemotypes and between monoterpene and sesquiterpene evolution patterns were also observed. Plants of different chemotypes were clearly differentiated by their terpene content, and characteristic terpenes of each chemotype were identified.

  14. Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L. to variations in photosynthetic photon flux densities, temperature and CO2 conditions.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

    2008-10-01

    Effect of different photosynthetic photon flux densities (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol m(-2)s(-1)), temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C) and CO2 concentrations (250, 350, 450, 550, 650 and 750 μmol mol(-1)) on gas and water vapour exchange characteristics of Cannabis sativa L. were studied to determine the suitable and efficient environmental conditions for its indoor mass cultivation for pharmaceutical uses. The rate of photosynthesis (PN) and water use efficiency (WUE) of Cannabis sativa increased with photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) at the lower temperatures (20-25 °C). At 30 °C, PN and WUE increased only up to 1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1) PPFD and decreased at higher light levels. The maximum rate of photosynthesis (PN max) was observed at 30 °C and under 1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1) PPFD. The rate of transpiration (E) responded positively to increased PPFD and temperature up to the highest levels tested (2000 μmol m(-2)s(-1) and 40 °C). Similar to E, leaf stomatal conductance (gs) also increased with PPFD irrespective of temperature. However, gs increased with temperature up to 30 °C only. Temperature above 30 °C had an adverse effect on gs in this species. Overall, high temperature and high PPFD showed an adverse effect on PN and WUE. A continuous decrease in intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and therefore, in the ratio of intercellular CO2 to ambient CO2 concentration (Ci/Ca) was observed with the increase in temperature and PPFD. However, the decrease was less pronounced at light intensities above 1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1). In view of these results, temperature and light optima for photosynthesis was concluded to be at 25-30 °C and ∼1500 μmol m(-2)s(-1) respectively. Furthermore, plants were also exposed to different concentrations of CO2 (250, 350, 450, 550, 650 and 750 μmol mol(-1)) under optimum PPFD and temperature conditions to assess their photosynthetic response. Rate of photosynthesis, WUE and Ci decreased by 50 %, 53 % and 10

  15. The psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits the human trophoblast cell turnover.

    PubMed

    Costa, M A; Fonseca, B M; Marques, F; Teixeira, N A; Correia-da-Silva, G

    2015-08-06

    The noxious effects of cannabis consumption for fertility and pregnancy outcome are recognized for years. Its consumption during gestation is associated with alterations in foetal growth, low birth weight and preterm labor. The main psychoactive molecule of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs the production of reproductive hormones and is also able to cross the placenta barrier. However, its effect on the main placental cells, the trophoblasts, are unknown. Actually, the role of THC in cell survival/death of primary human cytotrophoblasts (CTs) and syncytiotrophoblasts (STs) and in the syncytialization process remains to be explored. Here, we show that THC has a dual effect, enhancing MTT metabolism at low concentrations, whereas higher doses decreased cell viability, on both trophoblast phenotypes, though the effects on STs were more evident. THC also diminished the generation of oxidative and nitrative stress and the oxidized form of glutathione, whereas the reduced form of this tripeptide was increased, suggesting that THC prevents ST cell death due to an antioxidant effect. Moreover, this compound enhanced the mitochondrial function of STs, as observed by the increased MTT metabolism and intracellular ATP levels. These effects were independent of cannabinoid receptors activation. Besides, THC impaired CT differentiation into STs, since it decreased the expression of biochemical and morphological biomarkers of syncytialization, through a cannabinoid receptor-dependent mechanism. Together, these results suggest that THC interferes with trophoblast turnover, preventing trophoblast cell death and differentiation, and contribute to disclose the cellular mechanisms that lead to pregnancy complications in women that consume cannabis-derived drugs during gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of the cataleptic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol by other constituents of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Formukong, E A; Evans, A T; Evans, F J

    1988-02-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) induced catalepsy in mice, whereas a cannabis oil (6.68% w/w THC), four cannabinoids and a synthetic mixture did not. Cannabinol (CBN) and olivetol inhibited THC-induced catalepsy in the mornings and the evenings, but cannabidiol (CBD) exhibited this effect only in the evenings. A combination of CBN and CBD inhibited THC-induced catalepsy equal to that of CBN alone in the mornings, but this inhibition was greater than that produced by CBN alone in the evenings.

  17. Antihyperalgesic effect of a Cannabis sativa extract in a rat model of neuropathic pain: mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Comelli, Francesca; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Bettoni, Isabella; Colleoni, Mariapia; Costa, Barbara

    2008-08-01

    This study aimed to give a rationale for the employment of phytocannabinoid formulations to treat neuropathic pain. It was found that a controlled cannabis extract, containing multiple cannabinoids, in a defined ratio, and other non-cannabinoid fractions (terpenes and flavonoids) provided better antinociceptive efficacy than the single cannabinoid given alone, when tested in a rat model of neuropathic pain. The results also demonstrated that such an antihyperalgesic effect did not involve the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, whereas it was mediated by vanilloid receptors TRPV1. The non-psychoactive compound, cannabidiol, is the only component present at a high level in the extract able to bind to this receptor: thus cannabidiol was the drug responsible for the antinociceptive behaviour observed. In addition, the results showed that after chronic oral treatment with cannabis extract the hepatic total content of cytochrome P450 was strongly inhibited as well as the intestinal P-glycoprotein activity. It is suggested that the inhibition of hepatic metabolism determined an increased bioavailability of cannabidiol resulting in a greater effect. However, in the light of the well known antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of terpenes and flavonoids which could significantly contribute to the therapeutic effects, it cannot be excluded that the synergism observed might be achieved also in the absence of the cytochrome P450 inhibition.

  18. In planta imaging of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in Cannabis sativa L. with hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbacik, Erik T.; Korai, Roza P.; Frater, Eric H.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cees; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2013-04-01

    Nature has developed many pathways to produce medicinal products of extraordinary potency and specificity with significantly higher efficiencies than current synthetic methods can achieve. Identification of these mechanisms and their precise locations within plants could substantially increase the yield of a number of natural pharmaceutics. We report label-free imaging of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in Cannabis sativa L. using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In line with previous observations we find high concentrations of THCa in pistillate flowering bodies and relatively low amounts within flowering bracts. Surprisingly, we find differences in the local morphologies of the THCa-containing bodies: organelles within bracts are large, diffuse, and spheroidal, whereas in pistillate flowers they are generally compact, dense, and have heterogeneous structures. We have also identified two distinct vibrational signatures associated with THCa, both in pure crystalline form and within Cannabis plants; at present the exact natures of these spectra remain an open question.

  19. In planta imaging of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in Cannabis sativa L. with hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Garbacik, Erik T; Korai, Roza P; Frater, Eric H; Korterik, Jeroen P; Otto, Cees; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2013-04-01

    Nature has developed many pathways to produce medicinal products of extraordinary potency and specificity with significantly higher efficiencies than current synthetic methods can achieve. Identification of these mechanisms and their precise locations within plants could substantially increase the yield of a number of natural pharmaceutics. We report label-free imaging of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa) in Cannabis sativa L. using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In line with previous observations we find high concentrations of THCa in pistillate flowering bodies and relatively low amounts within flowering bracts. Surprisingly, we find differences in the local morphologies of the THCa-containing bodies: organelles within bracts are large, diffuse, and spheroidal, whereas in pistillate flowers they are generally compact, dense, and have heterogeneous structures. We have also identified two distinct vibrational signatures associated with THCa, both in pure crystalline form and within Cannabis plants; at present the exact natures of these spectra remain an open question.

  20. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Nicole L.; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Method: Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Results: Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Conclusions: Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference. PMID:27172585

  1. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicole L; Heinz, Adrienne J; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference.

  2. Cold acclimation induces distinctive changes in the chromatin state and transcript levels of COR genes in Cannabis sativa varieties with contrasting cold acclimation capacities.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Boris F; Ali-Benali, Mohamed Ali; Demone, Jordan; Bertrand, Annick; Charron, Jean-Benoit

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the capacity of Cannabis sativa to cold-acclimate and develop freezing tolerance. This study investigates the cold acclimation (CA) capacity of nine C. sativa varieties and the underlying genetic and epigenetic responses. The varieties were divided into three groups based on their contrasting CA capacities by comparing the survival of non-acclimated and cold-acclimated plants in whole-plant freeze tests. In response to the CA treatment, all varieties accumulated soluble sugars but only the varieties with superior capacity for CA could maintain higher levels throughout the treatment. In addition, the varieties that acclimated most efficiently accumulated higher transcript levels of cold-regulated (COR) genes and genes involved in de novo DNA methylation while displaying locus- and variety-specific changes in the levels of H3K9ac, H3K27me3 and methylcytosine (MeC) during CA. Furthermore, these hardy C. sativa varieties displayed significant increases in MeC levels at COR gene loci when deacclimated, suggesting a role for locus-specific DNA methylation in deacclimation. This study uncovers the molecular mechanisms underlying CA in C. sativa and reveals higher levels of complexity regarding how genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors intertwine. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. ¹H NMR and HPLC/DAD for Cannabis sativa L. chemotype distinction, extract profiling and specification.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Wieland; Politi, Matteo

    2015-08-01

    The medicinal use of different chemovars and extracts of Cannabis sativa L. requires standardization beyond ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with complementing methods. We investigated the suitability of (1)H NMR key signals for distinction of four chemotypes measured in deuterated dimethylsulfoxide together with two new validated HPLC/DAD methods used for identification and extract profiling based on the main pattern of cannabinoids and other phenolics alongside the assayed content of THC, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG) their acidic counterparts (THCA, CBDA, CBGA), cannabinol (CBN) and cannflavin A and B. Effects on cell viability (MTT assay, HeLa) were tested. The dominant cannabinoid pairs allowed chemotype recognition via assignment of selective proton signals and via HPLC even in cannabinoid-low extracts from the THC, CBD and CBG type. Substantial concentrations of cannabinoid acids in non-heated extracts suggest their consideration for total values in chemotype distinction and specifications of herbal drugs and extracts. Cannflavin A/B are extracted and detected together with cannabinoids but always subordinated, while other phenolics can be accumulated via fractionation and detected in a wide fingerprint but may equally serve as qualitative marker only. Cell viability reduction in HeLa was more determined by the total cannabinoid content than by the specific cannabinoid profile. Therefore the analysis and labeling of total cannabinoids together with the content of THC and 2-4 lead cannabinoids are considered essential. The suitability of analytical methods and the range of compound groups summarized in group and ratio markers are discussed regarding plant classification and pharmaceutical specification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Purified Cannabidiol, the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, alone, counteracts neuronal apoptosis in experimental multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, S; Soundara Rajan, T; Galuppo, M; Pollastro, F; Grassi, G; Bramanti, P; Mazzon, E

    2015-12-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a global concern disease leading to a progressive, chronic and demyelinating condition, affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The pathology has an inflammatory/autoimmune origin; nevertheless, neuronal cell death mechanisms are not to be underestimated. The present study was designed to test the effects of intraperitoneal administration of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid of Cannabis sativa (CS), in an experimental model of MS. The aim is to evaluate the capability of CBD administration to thwart the cascade of mediators involved in MS-induced apoptosis. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide in mice. After immunization, mice were observed daily for signs of EAE and weight loss. Disease signs were evaluated using a standardized scoring system. Immunohistochemical and Western blot assessments of key apoptotic markers reveal that CBD treatment is able to avoid Fas pathway activation, phospho-ERK p42/44 and cleaved caspase-3 triggering as well as alterations in mitochondrial permeability due to Bax/Bcl-2 unbalance. Moreover, CBD interferes with p53-p21 axis activation. As results, the absence of tissue apobody formation in spinal cord tissues of EAE-mice treated with CBD was established. Most of therapeutic properties of CS are currently ascribed to the psychotropic effects of phenylterpenoid delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol. We have demonstrated that, alone, purified CBD possesses an anti-apoptotic power against the neurodegenerative processes underlying MS development. This represents an interesting new profile of CBD that could lead to its introduction in the clinical management of MS.

  5. Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice.

    PubMed

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Aviello, G; Romano, B; Scalisi, C; Capasso, F; Izzo, A A

    2008-07-01

    Cannabidiol is a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic compound that exerts a plethora of pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antitumour effects, with potential therapeutic interest. However, the actions of cannabidiol in the digestive tract are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol on intestinal motility in normal (control) mice and in mice with intestinal inflammation. Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of an orally administered fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh. In vivo, cannabidiol did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. The inhibitory effect of cannabidiol was counteracted by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 (N-[-1S-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide), by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or by the alpha2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine. Cannabidiol did not reduce motility in animals treated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor N-arachidonoyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, whereas loperamide was still effective. In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited ACh-induced contractions in the isolated ileum from both control and croton oil-treated mice. Cannabidiol selectively reduces croton oil-induced hypermotility in mice in vivo and this effect involves cannabinoid CB1 receptors and FAAH. In view of its low toxicity in humans, cannabidiol may represent a good candidate to normalize motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Assessment of cannabinoids content in micropropagated plants of Cannabis sativa and their comparison with conventionally propagated plants and mother plant during developmental stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2010-05-01

    Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to assess the chemical profile and quantification of cannabinoids to identify the differences, if existing, in the chemical constituents of in vitro propagated plants (IVP), conventionally grown plants (VP) and indoor grown mother plants (MP-Indoor) of a high THC yielding variety of Cannabis sativa L. during different developmental stages of growth. In general, THC content in all groups increased with plant age up to a highest level during the budding stage where the THC content reached a plateau before the onset of senescence. The pattern of changes observed in the concentration of other cannabinoids content with plants age has followed a similar trend in all groups of plants. Qualitatively, cannabinoids profiles obtained using GC-FID, in MP-indoor, VP and IVP plants were found to be similar to each other and to that of the field grown mother plant (MP field) of C. sativa. Minor differences observed in cannabinoids concentration within and among the groups were not found to be statistically significant. Our results confirm the clonal fidelity of IVP plants of C. sativa and suggest that the biochemical mechanism used in this study to produce the micropropagated plants does not affect the metabolic content and can be used for the mass propagation of true to type plants of this species for commercial pharmaceutical use. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  7. Repeated Acute Oral Exposure to Cannabis sativa Impaired Neurocognitive Behaviours and Cortico-hippocampal Architectonics in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Imam, A; Ajao, M S; Akinola, O B; Ajibola, M I; Ibrahim, A; Amin, A; Abdulmajeed, W I; Lawal, Z A; Ali-Oluwafuyi, A

    2017-03-06

    The most abused illicit drug in both the developing and the developed world is Cannabis disposing users to varying forms of personality disorders. However, the effects of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal architecture and cognitive behaviours still remain elusive.  The present study investigated the neuro-cognitive implications of oral cannabis use in rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomly grouped to three. Saline was administered to the control rats, cannabis (20 mg/kg) to the experimental group I, while Scopolamine (1 mg/kg. ip) was administered to the last group as a standard measure for the cannabis induced cognitive impairment. All treatments lasted for seven consecutive days. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to assess locomotor activities, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behaviour, and Y maze paradigm for spatial memory and data subjected to ANOVA and T test respectively. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and brains removed for histopathological studies. Cannabis significantly reduced rearing frequencies in the OFT and EPM, and increased freezing period in the OFT. It also reduced percentage alternation similar to scopolamine in the Y maze, and these effects were coupled with alterations in the cortico-hippocampal neuronal architectures. These results point to the detrimental impacts of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal neuronal architecture and morphology, and consequently cognitive deficits.

  8. A natural product from Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa inhibits homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), attenuating MPP+-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan; Zhu, Lingjuan; Zhao, Yuqian; Gao, Suyu; Sun, Dejuan; Yuan, Jingquan; Huang, Yuxin; Zhang, Xue; Yao, Xinsheng

    2017-06-01

    Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase, which regulate transcription, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Previous evidences indicated that HIPK2 could be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting as a novel target for Parkinson's disease (PD) therapeutic development. Herein, gene microarray analysis was performed to verify the key regulatory function of HIPK2 in PD. (Z)-methylp-hydroxycinnamate (ZMHC, 7) with other eighteen compounds were isolated from Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa, growing in Bama Yao Autonomous County, one of the five largest longevity regions of the world. Intriguingly, ZMHC was identified to bind HIPK2 with high affinity through molecular modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, cell morphology, flow cytometry and western blot assay suggested that ZMHC inhibited HIPK2, which attenuated MPP + -induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, these findings discovered a natural product that inhibited HIPK2, and highlighted that ZMHC could be a potential precursor agent for future PD therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pure Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin and a Cannabis sativa extract with high content in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin inhibit nitrite production in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Romano, Barbara; Pagano, Ester; Orlando, Pierangelo; Capasso, Raffaele; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pertwee, Roger; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Historical and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. We have here investigated the effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and of a Cannabis sativa extract with high (64.8%) content in THCV (THCV-BDS) on nitric oxide (NO) production, and on cannabinoid and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. THCV-BDS and THCV exhibited similar affinity in radioligand binding assays for CB 1 and CB 2 receptors, and inhibited, via CB 2 but not CB 1 cannabinoid receptors, nitrite production evoked by LPS in peritoneal macrophages. THCV down-regulated the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) proteins induced by LPS. Furthermore, THCV counteracted LPS-induced up-regulation of CB 1 receptors, without affecting the changes in CB 2 , TRPV2 or TRPV4 mRNA expression caused by LPS. Other TRP channels, namely, TRPA1, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPM8 were poorly expressed or undetectable in both unstimulated and LPS-challenged macrophages. It is concluded that THCV - via CB 2 receptor activation - inhibits nitrite production in macrophages. The effect of this phytocannabinoid was associated with a down-regulation of CB 1 , but not CB 2 or TRP channel mRNA expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehensive quality evaluation of medical Cannabis sativa L. inflorescence and macerated oils based on HS-SPME coupled to GC-MS and LC-HRMS (q-exactive orbitrap®) approach.

    PubMed

    Calvi, Lorenzo; Pentimalli, Daniela; Panseri, Sara; Giupponi, Luca; Gelmini, Fabrizio; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Vitali, Davide; Bruno, Massimo; Zilio, Emanuela; Pavlovic, Radmila; Giorgi, Annamaria

    2018-02-20

    There are at least 554 identified compounds in C. sativa L., among them 113 phytocannabinoids and 120 terpenes. Phytocomplex composition differences between the pharmaceutical properties of different medical cannabis chemotype have been attributed to strict interactions, defined as 'entourage effect', between cannabinoids and terpenes as a result of synergic action. The chemical complexity of its bioactive constituents highlight the need for standardised and well-defined analytical approaches able to characterise the plant chemotype, the herbal drug quality as well as to monitor the quality of pharmaceutical cannabis extracts and preparations. Hence, in the first part of this study an analytical procedures involving the combination of headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC-MS and High Resolution Mass-Spectrometry LC-HRMS (Orbitrap ® ) were set up, validated and applied for the in-depth profiling and fingerprinting of cannabinoids and terpenes in two authorised medical grade varieties of Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences (Bedrocan ® and Bediol ® ) and in obtained macerated oils. To better understand the trend of all volatile compounds and cannabinoids during oil storage a new procedure for cannabis macerated oil preparation without any thermal step was tested and compared with the existing conventional methods to assess the potentially detrimental effect of heating on overall product quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential oil yield, fatty acid composition, and oxidation stability of the hempseed oil from four Cannabis sativa L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Decorti, Deborah; Natolino, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The cultivation of four industrial hemp cultivars (Felina 32, Chamaeleon, Uso31, and Finola) was investigated for oil production in the north-east of Italy along two years. The oils of all cultivars resulted in rich amount of linoleic acid (ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (ω-3). Felina 32 and Chamaeleon oils exhibited the highest amount of linoleic acid (59%) and α-linolenic acid (18%). Finola and Uso31 oils resulted in the richest of γ-linolenic acid (5-6%). All hempseed oils presented high oxidation stability and an acceptable initial quality. It is suggested that these oils can be used to produce EFA dietary supplements high in ω-6 and ω-3 of vegetal origin.

  12. Rapid isolation procedure for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA) from Cannabis sativa using two flash chromatography systems.

    PubMed

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Mahler, Hellmut; Auwärter, Volker

    2011-10-15

    Two isolation procedures for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA), the biogenetic precursor in the biosynthesis of the psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the cannabis plant, are presented. Two flash chromatography systems that can be used independently from each other were developed to separate THCA from other compounds of a crude cannabis extract. In both systems UV absorption at 209 and 270 nm was monitored. Purity was finally determined by HPLC-DAD, NMR and GC-MS analysis with a focus on the impurity THC. System 1 consisted of a normal phase silica column (120 g) as well as cyclohexane and acetone--both spiked with the modifier pyridine--as mobile phases. Gradient elution was performed over 15 min. After the chromatographic run the fractions containing THCA fractions were pooled, extracted with hydrochloric acid to eliminate pyridine and evaporated to dryness. Loading 1800 mg cannabis extract yielded 623 mg THCA with a purity of 99.8% and a THC concentration of 0.09%. System 2 was based on a reversed-phase C18 column (150 g) combined with 0.55% formic acid and methanol as mobile phases. A very flat gradient was set over 20 minutes. After pooling the THCA-containing fractions methanol was removed in a rotary evaporator. THCA was re-extracted from the remaining aqueous phase with methyl tert-butyl ether. The organic phase was finally evaporated under high vacuum conditions. Loading 300 mg cannabis extract yielded 51 mg THCA with a purity of 98.8% and a THC concentration of 0.67%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of cannabinoids in hemp food products by use of headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kroener, Lars; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    A fully automated procedure using alkaline hydrolysis and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), followed by on-fiber derivatization and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) detection has been developed for determination of cannabinoids in hemp food samples. After addition of a deuterated internal standard, the sample was hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide and submitted to direct HS-SPME. After absorption of analytes for on-fiber derivatization, the fiber was placed directly into the headspace of a second vial containing N-methyl- N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA), before GC-MS analysis. Linearity was good for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, and cannabinol; regression coefficients were greater than 0.99. Depending on the characteristics of the matrix the detection limits obtained ranged between 0.01 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) and the precision between 0.4 and 11.8%. In comparison with conventional liquid-liquid extraction this automated HS-SPME-GC-MS procedure is substantially faster. It is easy to perform, solvent-free, and sample quantities are minimal, yet it maintains the same sensitivity and reproducibility. The applicability was demonstrated by analysis of 30 hemp food samples. Cannabinoids were detected in all of the samples and it was possible to differentiate between drug-type and fiber-type Cannabis sativa L. In comparison with other studies relatively low THC concentrations between 0.01 and 15.53 mg kg(-1) were determined.

  14. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, inhibits cocaine-induced seizures in mice: Possible role of the mTOR pathway and reduction in glutamate release.

    PubMed

    Gobira, Pedro H; Vilela, Luciano R; Gonçalves, Bruno D C; Santos, Rebeca P M; de Oliveira, Antonio C; Vieira, Luciene B; Aguiar, Daniele C; Crippa, José A; Moreira, Fabricio A

    2015-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, has therapeutic potential for certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. Studies in laboratory animals and limited human trials indicate that CBD has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties. Its effects against cocaine neurotoxicity, however, have remained unclear. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that CBD protects against cocaine-induced seizures and investigated the underlying mechanisms. CBD (30 mg/kg) pre-treatment increased the latency and reduced the duration of cocaine (75 mg/kg)-induced seizures in mice. The CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251 (1 and 3mg/kg), and the CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630 (2 and 4 mg/kg), failed to reverse this protective effect, suggesting that alternative mechanisms are involved. Synaptosome studies with the hippocampus of drug-treated animals revealed that cocaine increases glutamate release, whereas CBD induces the opposite effect. Finally, the protective effect of this cannabinoid against cocaine-induced seizure was reversed by rapamycin (1 and 5mg/kg), an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) intracellular pathway. In conclusion, CBD protects against seizures in a model of cocaine intoxication. These effects possibly occur through activation of mTOR with subsequent reduction in glutamate release. CBD should be further investigated as a strategy for alleviating psychostimulant toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid from cannabigerolic acid by whole cells of Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris expressing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Zirpel, Bastian; Stehle, Felix; Kayser, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) from Cannabis sativa was expressed intracellularly in different organisms to investigate the potential of a biotechnological production of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) using whole cells. Functional expression of THCAS was obtained in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris using a signal peptide from the vacuolar protease, proteinase A. No functional expression was achieved in Escherichia coli. The highest volumetric activities obtained were 98 pkat ml(-1) (intracellular) and 44 pkat ml(-1) (extracellular) after 192 h of cultivation at 15 °C using P. pastoris cells. Low solubility of CBGA prevents the THCAS application in aqueous cell-free systems, thus whole cells were used for a bioconversion of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) to THCA. Finally, 1 mM (0.36 g THCA l(-1)) THCA could be produced by 10.5 gCDW l(-1) before enzyme activity was lost. Whole cells of P. pastoris offer the capability of synthesizing pharmaceutical THCA production.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Iuvone, Teresa; Esposito, Giuseppe; Esposito, Ramona; Santamaria, Rita; Di Rosa, Massimo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2004-04-01

    Abstract Alzheimer's disease is widely held to be associated with oxidative stress due, in part, to the membrane action of beta-amyloid peptide aggregates. Here, we studied the effect of cannabidiol, a major non-psychoactive component of the marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa) on beta-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in cultured rat pheocromocytoma PC12 cells. Following exposure of cells to beta-amyloid peptide (1 micro g/mL), a marked reduction in cell survival was observed. This effect was associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation, as well as caspase 3 (a key enzyme in the apoptosis cell-signalling cascade) appearance, DNA fragmentation and increased intracellular calcium. Treatment of the cells with cannabidiol (10(-7)-10(-4)m) prior to beta-amyloid peptide exposure significantly elevated cell survival while it decreased ROS production, lipid peroxidation, caspase 3 levels, DNA fragmentation and intracellular calcium. Our results indicate that cannabidiol exerts a combination of neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects against beta-amyloid peptide toxicity, and that inhibition of caspase 3 appearance from its inactive precursor, pro-caspase 3, by cannabidiol is involved in the signalling pathway for this neuroprotection.

  17. Flexible Bionanocomposites from Epoxidized Hemp Seed Oil Thermosetting Resin Reinforced with Halloysite Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, Peter S; Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Marco, Carlos; Ellis, Gary

    2017-03-23

    Hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) oil comprises a variety of beneficial unsaturated triglycerides with well-documented nutritional and health benefits. However, it can become rancid over a relatively short time period, leading to increased industrial costs and waste of a valuable product. The development of sustainable polymers is presented as a strategy, where both the presence of unsaturation and peroxide content could be effectively used to alleviate both the waste and financial burden. After the reaction with peroxyacetic acid, the incorporation of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), and the subsequent thermal curing, without the need for organic solvents or interfacial modifiers, flexible transparent materials with a low glass-transition temperature were developed. The improvement in the thermal stability and both the static and dynamic mechanical properties of the bionanocomposites were significantly enhanced with the well-dispersed HNT filler. At an optimum concentration of 0.5 wt % HNTs, a simultaneous increase in stiffness, strength, ductility, and toughness was observed in comparison to the unfilled cured resin. These sustainable food-waste-derived bionanocomposites may provide an interesting alternative to petroleum-based materials, particularly for low-load-bearing applications, such as packaging.

  18. Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects

    PubMed Central

    Loiacono, Idalba; Lanzo, Giovanni; Gori, Luigi; Macchi, Claudio; Epifani, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    We examined the effects of essential oil from legal (THC <0.2% w/v) hemp variety on the nervous system in 5 healthy volunteers. GC/EIMS and GC/FID analysis of the EO showed that the main components were myrcene and β-caryophyllene. The experiment consisted of measuring autonomic nervous system (ANS) parameters; evaluations of the mood state; and electroencephalography (EEG) recording before treatment, during treatment, and after hemp inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. The results revealed decreased diastolic blood pressure, increased heart rate, and significant increased skin temperature. The subjects described themselves as more energetic, relaxed, and calm. The analysis EEG showed a significant increase in the mean frequency of alpha (8–13 Hz) and significant decreased mean frequency and relative power of beta 2 (18,5–30 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increased power, relative power, and amplitude of theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha brain waves activities and an increment in the delta wave (0,5–4 Hz) power and relative power was recorded in the posterior region of the brain. These results suggest that the brain wave activity and ANS are affected by the inhalation of the EO of Cannabis sativa suggesting a neuromodular activity in cases of stress, depression, and anxiety. PMID:29576792

  19. Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects.

    PubMed

    Gulluni, Nadia; Re, Tania; Loiacono, Idalba; Lanzo, Giovanni; Gori, Luigi; Macchi, Claudio; Epifani, Francesco; Bragazzi, Nicola; Firenzuoli, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    We examined the effects of essential oil from legal (THC <0.2% w/v) hemp variety on the nervous system in 5 healthy volunteers. GC/EIMS and GC/FID analysis of the EO showed that the main components were myrcene and β -caryophyllene. The experiment consisted of measuring autonomic nervous system (ANS) parameters; evaluations of the mood state; and electroencephalography (EEG) recording before treatment, during treatment, and after hemp inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. The results revealed decreased diastolic blood pressure, increased heart rate, and significant increased skin temperature. The subjects described themselves as more energetic, relaxed, and calm. The analysis EEG showed a significant increase in the mean frequency of alpha (8-13 Hz) and significant decreased mean frequency and relative power of beta 2 (18,5-30 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increased power, relative power, and amplitude of theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha brain waves activities and an increment in the delta wave (0,5-4 Hz) power and relative power was recorded in the posterior region of the brain. These results suggest that the brain wave activity and ANS are affected by the inhalation of the EO of Cannabis sativa suggesting a neuromodular activity in cases of stress, depression, and anxiety.

  20. Cannabinoid-free Cannabis sativa L. grown in the Po valley: evaluation of fatty acid profile, antioxidant capacity and metabolic content.

    PubMed

    Lesma, G; Consonni, R; Gambaro, V; Remuzzi, C; Roda, G; Silvani, A; Vece, V; Visconti, G L

    2014-01-01

    Within a project aimed to reintroduce non-drug hemp cultivars in the Italian Po valley, for fibre but also high added-value nutraceutical production, investigation on locally grown plants has been performed, in order to assess their oil and metabolic content. This study provides useful information regarding three different hemp cultivars, from two sites, in view of their potential industrial application. The oil was characterised by a high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and by an almost perfect balance of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, as requested for healthy foods. The alcoholic extracts, for which a high content of amino acids and phenolic compounds has been highlighted, could provide dietary supplements to help in preventing oxidative stress. By investigating the Carmagnola cultivar, six known and four new lignanamides have been identified, confirming and assessing the general metabolic pattern in the seeds of these locally grown plants.

  1. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-14

    yarns and raw or processed spun fibers, paper, carpeting, home furnishings, construction and insulation materials, auto parts, and composites. The...interior stalk (hurd) is used in various applications such as animal bedding, raw material inputs, low-quality papers, and composites. Hemp seed and...oilcake are used in a range of foods and beverages, and can be an alternative food protein source. Oil from the crushed hemp seed is an ingredient in a

  2. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  3. Cannabis species and cannabinoid concentration preference among sleep-disturbed medicinal cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Babson, Kimberly A; Vandrey, Ryan; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-11-01

    Individuals report using cannabis for the promotion of sleep, and the effects of cannabis on sleep may vary by cannabis species. Little research has documented preferences for particular cannabis types or cannabinoid concentrations as a function of use for sleep disturbances. 163 adults purchasing medical cannabis for a physical or mental health condition at a cannabis dispensary were recruited. They provided self-report of (a) whether cannabis use was intended to help with sleep problems (e.g. insomnia, nightmares), (b) sleep quality (PSQI), (c) cannabis use (including preferred type), and (d) symptoms of DSM-5 cannabis dependence. 81 participants reported using cannabis for the management of insomnia and 14 participants reported using cannabis to reduce nightmares. Individuals using cannabis to manage nightmares preferred sativa to indica strains (Fisher's exact test (2) = 6.83, p < 0.05), and sativa users were less likely to endorse DSM-5 cannabis dependence compared with those who preferred indica strains (χ(2)(2) = 4.09, p < 0.05). Individuals with current insomnia (t(9) = 3.30, p < 0.01) and greater sleep latency (F(3,6) = 46.7, p < 0.001) were more likely to report using strains of cannabis with significantly higher concentrations of CBD. Individuals who reported at least weekly use of hypnotic medications used cannabis with lower THC concentrations compared to those who used sleep medications less frequently than weekly (t(17) = 2.40, p < 0.05). Associations between sleep characteristics and the type of cannabis used were observed in this convenience sample of individuals using cannabis for the management of sleep disturbances. Controlled prospective studies are needed to better characterize the impact that specific components of cannabis have on sleep. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. When and How to Treat Possible Cannabis Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Annie; Le Foll, Bernard

    2018-07-01

    Cannabis (marijuana) is a drug product derived from the plant Cannabis sativa. Cannabinoid is a general term for all chemical constituents of the cannabis plant. Legalization of marijuana in numerous US states, the availability of cannabis of higher potency, and the emergence of synthetic cannabinoids may have contributed to increased demand for related medical services. The most effective available treatments for cannabis use disorder are psychosocial approaches. There is no pharmacotherapy approved treatment. This article reviews the current state of knowledge regarding effective treatments for cannabis use disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Results of a standardized survey on the medical use of cannabis products in the German-speaking area].

    PubMed

    Schnelle, M; Grotenhermen, F; Reif, M; Gorter, R W

    1999-10-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has a long history of medical use in the treatment of pain and spasms, the promotion of sleep, and the suppression of nausea and vomiting. However, in the early 70s cannabis was classified in the Narcotic Acts in countries all over the world as having no therapeutic benefit; therefore, it cannot be prescribed by physicians or dispensed by pharmacists. In the light of this contradictory situation an increasing number of patients practices a self-prescription with cannabis products for relieving a variety of symptoms. An anonymous standardized survey of the medical use of cannabis and cannabis products of patients in Germany, Austria and Switzerland was conducted by the Association for Cannabis as Medicine (Cologne, Germany). During about one year 170 subjects participated in this survey; questionnaires of 128 patients could be included into the evaluation. 68% of these participants were males, 32% females, with a total mean age of 37.5 (+/- 9.6) years. The most frequently mentioned indications for medicinal cannabis use were depression (12.0%), multiple sclerosis (10.8%), HIV-infection (9.0%), migraine (6.6%), asthma (6.0%), back pain (5.4%), hepatitis C (4. 8%), sleeping disorders (4.8%), epilepsy (3.6%), spasticity (3.6%), headache (3.6%), alcoholism (3.0%), glaucoma (3.0%), nausea (3.0%), disk prolapse (2.4%), and spinal cord injury (2.4%). The majority of patients used natural cannabis products such as marihuana, hashish and an alcoholic tincture; in just 5 cases dronabinol (Marinol) was taken by prescription. About half of the 128 participants of the survey (52.4%) had used cannabis as a recreational drug before the onset of their illness. To date 14.3% took cannabis orally, 49.2% by inhalation and in 36.5% of cases both application modes were used. 72.2% of the patients stated the symptoms of their illness to have 'much improved' after cannabis ingestion, 23.4% stated to have 'slightly improved', 4.8% experienced 'no change' and 1

  6. Effective Phytoextraction of Cadmium (Cd) with Increasing Concentration of Total Phenolics and Free Proline in Cannabis sativa (L) Plant Under Various Treatments of Fertilizers, Plant Growth Regulators and Sodium Salt.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ayaz; Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The comparative effect of fertilizers (NPK), plant growth regulators (GA3, IAA, Zeatin) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on Cd phytoaccumulation, proline and phenolics production in Cannabis sativa was evaluated. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application (in combination) most significantly increased the growth (19 cm root and 47 cm shoot) on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants (1101, 121 and 544 ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively). Significantly positive correlation was found between Cd concentration and dry biomass of root (R2=0.7511) and leaves (R2=0.5524). All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. The correlation between proline and phenolics was positive in leaf (R2=0.8439) and root (R2=0.5191). Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction.

  7. The Risks and Benefits of Cannabis in the Dermatology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Dhadwal, Gurbir; Kirchhof, Mark G

    Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa/indica), also known as marijuana, has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for millennia. There has been a recent trend to legalize the use of cannabis, as illustrated by the recent legalization votes in numerous states in the United States and legislation in Canada to allow recreational cannabis use. With this increasing consumption of cannabis, dermatologists will see increased pressure to prescribe cannabis and will see the side effects of cannabis use with greater frequency. There are several approved medical indications for cannabis use, including psoriasis, lupus, nail-patella syndrome, and severe pain. In addition, very preliminary studies have suggested cannabis and its derivatives might have use in acne, dermatitis, pruritus, wound healing, and skin cancer. Further well-controlled studies are required to explore these potential uses. Conversely, the side effects of cannabis use are relatively well documented, and dermatologists should be aware of these presentations. Side effects of cannabis use include cannabis allergy manifesting as urticaria and pruritus, cannabis arteritis presenting with necrosis and ulcers, and oral cancers from cannabis smoke. In this review, we summarize some of the studies and reports regarding the medicinal uses of cannabis in the dermatology clinic and some of the side effects that might present more often to dermatologists as the use of cannabis increases.

  8. Nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial data of a US cannabis DNA database.

    PubMed

    Houston, Rachel; Birck, Matthew; LaRue, Bobby; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2018-05-01

    As Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is a controlled substance in many parts of the world, the ability to track biogeographical origin of cannabis could provide law enforcement with investigative leads regarding its trade and distribution. Population substructure and inbreeding may cause cannabis plants to become more genetically related. This genetic relatedness can be helpful for intelligence purposes. Analysis of autosomal, chloroplast, and mitochondrial DNA allows for not only prediction of biogeographical origin of a plant but also discrimination between individual plants. A previously validated, 13-autosomal STR multiplex was used to genotype 510 samples. Samples were analyzed from four different sites: 21 seizures at the US-Mexico border, Northeastern Brazil, hemp seeds purchased in the US, and the Araucania area of Chile. In addition, a previously reported multi-loci system was modified and optimized to genotype five chloroplast and two mitochondrial markers. For this purpose, two methods were designed: a homopolymeric STR pentaplex and a SNP triplex with one chloroplast (Cscp001) marker shared by both methods for quality control. For successful mitochondrial and chloroplast typing, a novel real-time PCR quantitation method was developed and validated to accurately estimate the quantity of the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) using a synthetic DNA standard. Moreover, a sequenced allelic ladder was also designed for accurate genotyping of the homopolymeric STR pentaplex. For autosomal typing, 356 unique profiles were generated from the 425 samples that yielded full STR profiles and 25 identical genotypes within seizures were observed. Phylogenetic analysis and case-to-case pairwise comparisons of 21 seizures at the US-Mexico border, using the Fixation Index (F ST ) as genetic distance, revealed the genetic association of nine seizures that formed a reference population. For mitochondrial and chloroplast typing, subsampling was performed, and 134 samples were genotyped

  9. Cannabis Guidelines
.

    PubMed

    Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis has been used for centuries in the treatment of medical conditions. Cannabis has been recommended for appetite, anxiety, depression, sleep, and migraines. However, the stigma associated with cannabis as a recreational drug has created challenges to the legitimacy and social acceptance of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States.

  10. Water Absorption Behavior of Hemp Hurds Composites

    PubMed Central

    Stevulova, Nadezda; Cigasova, Julia; Purcz, Pavol; Schwarzova, Ivana; Kacik, Frantisek; Geffert, Anton

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, water sorption behavior of 28 days hardened composites based on hemp hurds and inorganic binder was studied. Two kinds of absorption tests on dried cube specimens in deionized water bath at laboratory temperature were performed. Short-term (after one hour water immersion) and long-term (up to 180 days) water absorption tests were carried out to study their durability. Short-term water sorption behavior of original hemp hurds composites depends on mean particle length of hemp and on binder nature. The comparative study of long-term water sorption behavior of composites reinforced with original and chemically modified hemp hurds in three reagents confirmed that surface treatment of filler influences sorption process. Based on evaluation of sorption curves using a model for composites based on natural fibers, diffusion of water molecules in composite reinforced with original and chemically modified hemp hurds is anomalous in terms of the Fickian behavior. The most significant decrease in hydrophility of hemp hurds was found in case of hemp hurds modified by NaOH and it relates to change in the chemical composition of hemp hurds, especially to a decrease in average degree of cellulose polymerization as well as hemicellulose content.

  11. Challenges towards Revitalizing Hemp: A Multifaceted Crop.

    PubMed

    Schluttenhofer, Craig; Yuan, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Hemp has been an important crop throughout human history for food, fiber, and medicine. Despite significant progress made by the international research community, the basic biology of hemp plants remains insufficiently understood. Clear objectives are needed to guide future research. As a semi-domesticated plant, hemp has many desirable traits that require improvement, including eliminating seed shattering, enhancing the quantity and quality of stem fiber, and increasing the accumulation of phytocannabinoids. Methods to manipulate the sex of hemp plants will also be important for optimizing yields of seed, fiber, and cannabinoids. Currently, research into trait improvement is hindered by the lack of molecular techniques adapted to hemp. Here we review how addressing these limitations will help advance our knowledge of plant biology and enable us to fully domesticate and maximize the agronomic potential of this promising crop. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro lethal efficacy of leaf extract of Cannabis sativa Linn on the larvae of Chironomous samoensis Edward: an insect of public health concern.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bishnupada; Dutta, B K

    2003-11-01

    Leaf extract of C. sativa causes paralysis leading to death in larvae of C. samoensis. The extract brought a drastic change in the morphology of sensilla trichoidea and the general body cuticle. The larvae exposed to the leaf extract also showed a significant reduction in the concentration of Mg and Fe, while Mn showed only slight average increase. Since the sensilla trichoidea has nerve connection, it is expected that the toxic principle of the leaf extract has affected the central nervous system. The significant reduction of the level of Fe indicates that the extract could cause the reduction in oxygen binding capacity of the haemolymph, thereby acting as a respiratory poison in addition to its known role as a neurotoxic substance.

  13. Properties Characterization of Chemically Modified Hemp Hurds

    PubMed Central

    Stevulova, Nadezda; Cigasova, Julia; Estokova, Adriana; Terpakova, Eva; Geffert, Anton; Kacik, Frantisek; Singovszka, Eva; Holub, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The effect of chemical treatment of hemp hurds slices in three solutions (EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), NaOH and Ca(OH)2) on the properties of natural material was discussed in this paper. Changes in the morphology, chemical composition and structure as well as thermal stability of hemp hurds before and after their modification were investigated by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray powder diffraction analysis) and TG (thermogravimetry)/DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) measurements were used for determination of degree of cellulose polymerization of hemp hurd samples. Chemical modification is related to the partial removal of non-cellulosic components of lignin, hemicellulose and pectin as well as waxes from the surface of hemp hurd slices. Another effect of the chemical treatment applied is connected with increasing the crystallinity index of cellulose determined by FTIR and XRD methods. Decrease in degree of cellulose polymerization and polydispersity index in chemically modified hemp hurds compared to the original sample was observed. Increase in thermal stability of treated hemp hurd was found. The most significant changes were observed in alkaline treated hemp hurds by NaOH. PMID:28788294

  14. Industrial hemp decreases intestinal motility stronger than indian hemp in mice.

    PubMed

    Sabo, A; Horvat, O; Stilinovic, N; Berenji, J; Vukmirovic, S

    2013-02-01

    Indian hemp has shown beneficial effects in various gastrointestinal conditions but it is not widely accepted due to high content of tetrahydrocannabinol resulting in unwanted psychotropic effects. Since industrial hemp rich in cannabidiol lacks psychotropic effects the aim of research was to study the effects of industrial hemp on intestinal motility. Animals were randomly divided in six groups (each group consisting of 6 animals): Control group, Cind group - receiving indian hemp infuse for 20 days, Cids group-receiving industrial hemp infuse for 20 days, M group - treated with single dose of morphine (5 mg/kg i.m.) Cind+M group - treated with indian hemp infuse and single dose of morphine (5 mg/kg i.m.), Cids+M - treated with industrial hemp infuse and single dose of morphine (5 mg/kg i.m.). On the 20th day of the study animals were administered charcoal meal, and were sacrificed 35 minutes after administration. Intestinal motility was estimated according to distance between carbo medicinalis and cecum in centimeters. Decrease of intestinal motility in animals treated with indian hemp infuse was not significant compared to controls and it was smaller compared to animals treated with morphine (Indian hemp =15.43±10.5 cm, morphine = 20.14±5.87 cm). Strongest decrease of intestinal motility was recorded in animals treated with industrial hemp infuse, and it was significant compared to controls and morphine (industrial hemp = 26.5±9.90 cm, morphine = 20.14±5.87 cm; p < 0.005). Although not completely without psychotropic activity cannabidiol could be a potential replacement for tetrahydrocannabinol. Since industrial hemp infuse rich in cannabidiol reduces intestinal motility in healthy mice cannabidiol should be further evaluated for the treatment of intestinal hypermotility.

  15. Understanding and learning from the diversification of cannabis supply laws.

    PubMed

    Kilmer, Beau; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo

    2017-07-01

    Prohibitions on producing, distributing and selling cannabis are loosening in various jurisdictions around the world. This paper describes the diversification of cannabis supply laws and discusses the challenges to and opportunities for learning from these changes. We document changes in cannabis supply laws that de jure legalized cannabis production for medical and/or non-medical purposes (excluding industrial hemp) in Australasia, Europe, North America and South America. We also highlight challenges to evaluating these legal changes based on our experiences studying cannabis laws and policies in the United States. As of August 2016, two countries have passed laws to legalize large-scale cannabis production for non-medical purposes at the national (Uruguay) or subnational level (four US states). At least nine other countries legally allow (or will soon allow) cannabis to be supplied for medicinal purposes. Most of the changes in cannabis supply laws have occurred since 2010. The data available in most countries are inadequate for rigorously evaluating the changes in cannabis supply laws. The evidence base for assessing changes in cannabis supply laws remains weak. Efforts should focus upon collecting information about quantities consumed and market transactions as well as validating self-report surveys. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-10

    Security Classification Guide ( SCG ). b. The HEMP simulation facility shall have a measured map of the peak amplitude waveform of the...Quadripartite Standardization Agreement s, sec second SCG security classification guide SN serial number SOP Standard Operating Procedure

  17. What You Need to Know about Drugs: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp ( Cannabis sativa ) plant. It looks like green, brown, or ... Called: weed, grass, pot, chronic, joint, blunt, herb, cannabis, hashish, Mary Jane How It's Used: Marijuana is ...

  18. Limitations to the Dutch cannabis toleration policy: Assumptions underlying the reclassification of cannabis above 15% THC.

    PubMed

    Van Laar, Margriet; Van Der Pol, Peggy; Niesink, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug. In 2011, an advisory committee recommended tightening up legislation, leading to a 2013 bill proposing the reclassification of high potency cannabis products with a THC content of 15% or more as a Schedule I drug. The purpose of this measure was twofold: to reduce public health risks and to reduce illegal cultivation and export of cannabis by increasing punishment. This paper focuses on the public health aspects and describes the (explicit and implicit) assumptions underlying this '15% THC measure', as well as to what extent these are supported by scientific research. Based on scientific literature and other sources of information, we conclude that the 15% measure can provide in theory a slight health benefit for specific groups of cannabis users (i.e., frequent users preferring strong cannabis, purchasing from coffee shops, using 'steady quantities' and not changing their smoking behaviour), but certainly not for all cannabis users. These gains should be weighed against the investment in enforcement and the risk of unintended (adverse) effects. Given the many assumptions and uncertainty about the nature and extent of the expected buying and smoking behaviour changes, the measure is a political choice and based on thin evidence. Copyright © 2016 Springer. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

  20. Cannabis arteritis.

    PubMed

    El Omri, Naoual; Eljaoudi, Rachid; Mekouar, Fadwa; Jira, Mohammed; Sekkach, Youssef; Amezyane, Taoufik; Ghafir, Driss

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis is the most consumed psychoactive substance by young people. Chronic use of cannabis can lead to cannabis arteritis, which is a very rare peripheral vascular disease similar to Buerger's disease. It is affecting young adults, especially men, consuming cannabis. A 27-year old woman, with no particular past medical history except for long-term use of cannabis and tobacco developed a digital necrosis in the left hand. She denied using other illicit drugs. Doppler ultrasound examination of the upper limbs was unremarkable. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of cannabis in both biological fluid and hair strand. Despite medical treatment, cessation of the cannabis and tobacco consumption and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an amputation of necrotic parts was then required. This case shows the prolonged use of cannabis could be a risk factor for young adult arteritis. Faced with a rapidly progressive arteritis occurring in young adult, the physician should consider the history of use of cannabis. Hair analysis can be useful for confirmation of the chronic consumption of drugs.

  1. [Medicinal cannabis].

    PubMed

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  2. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications.

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Jan, Catherine; Bienert, Friederike; Goudet, Jérôme; Fumagalli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs. non-drug Cannabis. However, forensic applications require rapid and affordable genotyping of informative and reliable molecular markers for which a broad-scale reference database, representing both intra- and inter-variety variation, is available. Here we provide such a resource for Cannabis, by genotyping 13 microsatellite loci (STRs) in 1 324 samples selected specifically for fibre (24 hemp varieties) and drug (15 marijuana varieties) production. We showed that these loci are sufficient to capture most of the genome-wide diversity patterns recently revealed by NGS data. We recovered strong genetic structure between marijuana and hemp and demonstrated that anonymous samples can be confidently assigned to either plant types. Fibres appear genetically homogeneous whereas drugs show low (often clonal) diversity within varieties, but very high genetic differentiation between them, likely resulting from breeding practices. Based on an additional test dataset including samples from 41 local police seizures, we showed that the genetic signature of marijuana cultivars could be used to trace crime scene evidence. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive genetic resource for Cannabis forensics worldwide.

  3. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Jan, Catherine; Bienert, Friederike; Goudet, Jérôme; Fumagalli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs. non-drug Cannabis. However, forensic applications require rapid and affordable genotyping of informative and reliable molecular markers for which a broad-scale reference database, representing both intra- and inter-variety variation, is available. Here we provide such a resource for Cannabis, by genotyping 13 microsatellite loci (STRs) in 1 324 samples selected specifically for fibre (24 hemp varieties) and drug (15 marijuana varieties) production. We showed that these loci are sufficient to capture most of the genome-wide diversity patterns recently revealed by NGS data. We recovered strong genetic structure between marijuana and hemp and demonstrated that anonymous samples can be confidently assigned to either plant types. Fibres appear genetically homogeneous whereas drugs show low (often clonal) diversity within varieties, but very high genetic differentiation between them, likely resulting from breeding practices. Based on an additional test dataset including samples from 41 local police seizures, we showed that the genetic signature of marijuana cultivars could be used to trace crime scene evidence. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive genetic resource for Cannabis forensics worldwide. PMID:28107530

  4. Cannabis: A Treasure Trove or Pandora's Box?

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Katalin; Köfalvi, Attila

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences. In the first part, we provide an in-depth review of the botany and taxonomy of Cannabis. We then overview the biosynthesis of phytocannabinoids within the glandular trichomes with emphasis on the role of peculiar plastids in the production of the secreted material. We also compile the analytical methods used to determine the phytocannabinoid composition of glandular trichomes. In the second part, we revisit the psychobiology and molecular medicine of marijuana. We summarize our current knowledge on the recreational use of cannabis with respect to the modes of consumption, short-term effects, chronic health consequences and cannabis use disorder. Next, we overview the molecular targets of a dozen major and minor bioactive cannabinoids in the body. This helps us introduce the endocannabinoid system in an unprecedented detail: its up-todate molecular biology, pharmacology, physiology and medical significance, and beyond. In conclusion, we offer an unbiased survey about cannabis to help better weigh its medical value versus the associated risks. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna; Mechulam, Raphael; Lev, Lihi Bar; Konikoff, Fred M

    2014-01-01

    The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries as a treatment for a variety of ailments. It contains over 60 different cannabinoid compounds. Studies have revealed that the endocannabinoid system is involved in almost all major immune events. Cannabinoids may, therefore, be beneficial in inflammatory disorders. In murine colitis, cannabinoids decrease histologic and microscopic inflammation. In humans, cannabis has been used to treat a plethora of gastrointestinal problems, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and diabetic gastroparesis. Despite anecdotal reports on medical cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there are few controlled studies. In an observational study in 30 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), we found that medical cannabis was associated with improvement in disease activity and reduction in the use of other medications. In a more recent placebo-controlled study in 21 chronic CD patients, we showed a decrease in the CD activity index >100 in 10 of 11 subjects on cannabis compared to 4 of 10 on placebo. Complete remission was achieved in 5 of 11 subjects in the cannabis group and 1 of 10 in the placebo group. Yet, in an additional study, low-dose cannabidiol did not have an effect on CD activity. In summary, evidence is gathering that manipulating the endocannabinoid system can have beneficial effects in IBD, but further research is required to declare cannabinoids a medicine. We need to establish the specific cannabinoids, as well as appropriate medical conditions, optimal dose, and mode of administration, to maximize the beneficial effects while avoiding any potential harmful effects of cannabinoid use. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Szutorisz, Henrietta; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a number of societal and political changes that have raised critical questions about the long-term impact of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) that are especially important given the prevalence of its abuse and that potential long-term effects still largely lack scientific data. Disturbances of the epigenome have generally been hypothesized as the molecular machinery underlying the persistent, often tissue-specific transcriptional and behavioral effects of cannabinoids that have been observed within one’s lifetime and even into the subsequent generation. Here, we provide an overview of the current published scientific literature that examined epigenetic effects of cannabinoids. Though mechanistic insights about the epigenome remain sparse, accumulating data in humans and animal models have begun to reveal aberrant epigenetic modifications in brain and the periphery linked to cannabis exposure. Expansion of such knowledge and causal molecular relationships could help provide novel targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:26546076

  7. Thermal Stress Effect on Density Changes of Hemp Hurds Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzova, Ivana; Cigasova, Julia; Stevulova, Nadezda

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this article is to study the behavior of prepared biocomposites based on hemp hurds as a filling agent in composite system. In addition to the filler and water, an alternative binder, called MgO-cement was used. For this objective were prepared three types of samples; samples based on untreated hemp hurds as a referential material and samples based on chemically (with NaOH solution) and physically (by ultrasonic procedure) treated hemp hurds. The thermal stress effect on bulk density changes of hemp hurds composites was monitored. Gradual increase in temperature led to composites density reduction of 30-40 %. This process is connected with mass loss of the adsorbed moisture and physically bound water and also with degradation of organic compounds present in hemp hurds aggregates such as pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose. Therefore the changes in the chemical composition of treated hemp hurds in comparison to original sample and its thermal decomposition were also studied.

  8. Cannabis in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I; Guzman, M

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis has been used in medicine for thousands of years prior to achieving its current illicit substance status. Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, mimic the effects of the endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), activating specific cannabinoid receptors, particularly CB1 found predominantly in the central nervous system and CB2 found predominantly in cells involved with immune function. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main bioactive cannabinoid in the plant, has been available as a prescription medication approved for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and anorexia associated with the AIDS wasting syndrome. Cannabinoids may be of benefit in the treatment of cancer-related pain, possibly synergistic with opioid analgesics. Cannabinoids have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of HIV-related peripheral neuropathy, suggesting that they may be worthy of study in patients with other neuropathic symptoms. Cannabinoids have a favorable drug safety profile, but their medical use is predominantly limited by their psychoactive effects and their limited bioavailability. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  9. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    PubMed

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Schicho, Rudolf; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In ancient medicine, cannabis has been widely used to cure disturbances and inflammation of the bowel. A recent clinical study now shows that the medicinal plant Cannabis sativa has lived up to expectations and proved to be highly efficient in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases. In a prospective placebo-controlled study, it has been shown what has been largely anticipated from anecdotal reports, i.e. that cannabis produces significant clinical benefits in patients with Crohn's disease. The mechanisms involved are not yet clear but most likely include peripheral actions on cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, and may also include central actions. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Intravenous administration of cannabis and lethal anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, John D; Grabowski, Marc; Byard, Roger W

    2017-04-01

    Cannabis allergy appears to be increasing. A 33-year-old woman is reported who collapsed and died shortly after injecting herself with a cannabis solution prepared by pouring boiling water onto plant material. There were no significant findings at autopsy, except for a single recent venepuncture wound in the left cubital fossa. Toxicological examination of the blood revealed low levels of methylamphetamine and amphetamine with tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ 9 -THC, and no opiates. The syringe used by the decedent contained Δ 9 -THC. Serum tryptase levels were markedly elevated (>200 µg/L; N < 12 µg/L). This finding coupled with the sudden collapse after injecting an aqueous extract of cannabis indicated a likely anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reaction to the extract. Cannabis allergy may occur following handling, inhalation, swallowing or injecting Cannabis sativa plants or their products. The possibility of an allergic reaction should therefore be considered at autopsy in deaths where there has been recent contact with cannabis.

  12. Role of cannabis in digestive disorders.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Hemant; Singla, Umesh; Gupta, Urvashi; May, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    Cannabis sativa, a subspecies of the Cannabis plant, contains aromatic hydrocarbon compounds called cannabinoids. [INCREMENT]-Tetrahydrocannabinol is the most abundant cannabinoid and is the main psychotropic constituent. Cannabinoids activate two types of G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors: cannabinoid type 1 receptor and cannabinoid type 2 receptor. There has been ongoing interest and development in research to explore the therapeutic potential of cannabis. [INCREMENT]-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts biological functions on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Cannabis has been used for the treatment of GI disorders such as abdominal pain and diarrhea. The endocannabinoid system (i.e. endogenous circulating cannabinoids) performs protective activities in the GI tract and presents a promising therapeutic target against various GI conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (especially Crohn's disease), irritable bowel syndrome, and secretion and motility-related disorders. The present review sheds light on the role of cannabis in the gut, liver, and pancreas and also on other GI symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, anorexia, weight loss, and chronic abdominal pain. Although the current literature supports the use of marijuana for the treatment of digestive disorders, the clinical efficacy of cannabis and its constituents for various GI disorders remains unclear.

  13. Cannabis, 1977.

    PubMed

    1978-10-01

    Recent advances in development of immunoassay methods for marijuana constituents in body fluids provide a rapid means of detection for forensic purposes and a useful research tool for accurate quantitation of dose-response relation. Therapeutic possibilities of cannabis, such as reduction in intraocular pressure and bronchodilatation, may stimulate development of synthetic cannabinoid derivatives that meet acceptable standards of safety and effiicacy for treatment of glaucoma and asthma. Cannabis use may have harmful short- and long-term impacts on health. Potentially serious short-term effects include predisposition to angina during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease. Even in healthy subjects, marijuana smoking decreases peak exercise performance, possibly because of its chronotropic effect with achievement of maximum heart rate at reduced work loads. Although no conclusive evidence exists for long-term biologic consequences of chronic cannabis use, preliminary evidence, suggesting impairment in pulmonary function and immune responses, requires further investigation with large-scale epidemiologic studies.

  14. Cannabis Allergy: What do We Know Anno 2015.

    PubMed

    Decuyper, Ine; Ryckebosch, Hanne; Van Gasse, Athina L; Sabato, Vito; Faber, Margaretha; Bridts, Chris H; Ebo, Didier G

    2015-10-01

    For about a decade, IgE-mediated cannabis (marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may lead to a cannabis sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical manifestations of a cannabis allergy can vary from mild to life-threatening reactions, often depending on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can trigger various secondary cross-allergies, mostly for plant-derived food. This clinical entity, which we have designated as the "cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome" might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, latex and plant-food derived alcoholic beverages. These secondary cross-allergies are mainly described in Europe and appear to result from cross-reactivity between non-specific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in Cannabis sativa and their homologues that are ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures including a stop of any further cannabis (ab)use.

  15. Medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  16. Tensile properties of interwoven hemp/PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) epoxy hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. A. A.; Majid, M. S. A.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Firdaus, A. Z. A.; Amin, N. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the tensile properties of interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid composites. The effect of hybridization of hemp (warp) with PET fibres (weft) on tensile properties was of interest. Hemp and PET fibres were selected as the reinforcing material while epoxy resin was chosen as the matrix. The interwoven Hemp/PET fabric was used to produce hybrid composite using a vacuum infusion process. The tensile test was conducted using Universal Testing Machine in accordance to the ASTM D638. The tensile properties of the interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid composite were then compared with the neat woven hemp/epoxy composite. The results show that the strength of hemp/PET with the warp direction was increased by 8% compared to the neat woven hemp composite. This enhancement of tensile strength was due to the improved interlocking structure of interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid fabric.

  17. Hydrophobicity of hemp shiv treated with sol-gel coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Atif; Calabria-Holley, Juliana; Schorr, Diane; Jiang, Yunhong; Lawrence, Mike; Blanchet, Pierre

    2018-03-01

    This is the first time sol-gel technology is used in the treatment of hemp shiv to develop sustainable thermal insulation building materials. The impact on the hydrophobicity of hemp shiv by depositing functionalised sol-gel coatings using hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS) has been investigated. Bio-based materials have tendency to absorb large amounts of water due to their hydrophilic nature and highly porous structure. In this work, the influence of catalysts, solvent dilution and HDTMS loading in the silica sols on the hydrophobicity of hemp shiv surface has been reported. The hydrophobicity of sol-gel coated hemp shiv increased significantly when using acid catalysed sols which provided water contact angles of up to 118° at 1% HDTMS loading. Ethanol diluted sol-gel coatings enhanced the surface roughness of the hemp shiv by 36% as observed under 3D optical profilometer. The XPS results revealed that the surface chemical composition of the hemp shiv was altered by the sol-gel coating, blocking the hydroxyl sites responsible for hydrophilicity.

  18. [MEDICAL CANNABIS - A SOURCE FOR A NEW TREATMENT FOR AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE?].

    PubMed

    Katz, Daphna; Katz, Itay; Golan, Amir

    2016-02-01

    Medical uses of Cannabis sativa have been known for over 6,000 years. Nowadays, cannabis is mostly known for its psychotropic effects and its ability to relieve pain, even though there is evidence of cannabis use for autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis centuries ago. The pharmacological therapy in autoimmune diseases is mainly based on immunosuppression of diffefent axes of the immune system while many of the drugs have major side effects. In this review we set out to examine the rule of Cannabis sativa as an immunomodulator and its potential as a new treatment option. In order to examine this subject we will focus on some major autoimmune diseases such as diabetes type I and rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. The influence of partial replacement of hemp shives by expanded perlite on physical properties of hemp-lime composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzyski, Przemysław; Widomski, Marcin

    2017-07-01

    The use of waste plants in building materials production is consistent with the principles of sustainable development, including waste management, CO2 balance, biodegradability of the material e.g. after building demolition. The porous structure of plant materials determines their usability as the insulation materials. An example of plant applicable in the construction industry is the industrial hemp. The shives are produced from the wooden core of the hemp stem as lightweight insulating filler in the composite based on lime binder. The discussed hemp-lime composite, due to the presence of lightweight, porous organic aggregates exhibits satisfactory thermal insulation properties and is used as filling and insulation of walls (as well as roofs and floors) in buildings of the wooden frame construction. The irregular shape of shives and their low density causes nonhomogenous compaction of composite and the formation of voids between the randomly arranged shives. In this paper the series of hemp-lime composites were tested. Apart from hemp shives, an additional aggregate - expanded perlite was used as a fine, lightweight, thermal insulating filler. Application of the additional aggregate was aimed to fill the voids between hemp shives and to investigate its influence on the physical properties of composite: apparent density, total porosity, water absorption and thermal conductivity.

  20. A study of cannabis potency in France over a 25 years period (1992-2016).

    PubMed

    Dujourdy, Laurence; Besacier, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis contains a unique class of compounds known as the cannabinoids. Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent is Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The amount of THC in conjunction with selected additional cannabinoid compounds (cannabidiol/CBD, cannabinol/CBN), determines the strength or potency of the cannabis product. Recently, reports have speculated over the change in the quality of cannabis products, from nearly a decade, specifically concerning the increase in cannabinoid content. This article exploits the analytical data of cannabis samples analyzed in the five French forensic police laboratories over 25 years. The increase potency of both herbal and resin cannabis in France is proved through the monitoring of THC content. For cannabis resin, it has slowly risen from 1992 to 2009, before a considerable increase in the last four years (mean THC content in mid-2016 is 23% compared to 10% in 2009). For herbal cannabis, it has known three main stages of growth (mean THC content is 13% in 2015 and mid-2016 compared to 7% in 2009 and 2% in 1995). The calculation of THC/CBD ratios in both herbal and resin samples confirms the recent change in chemotypes in favor of high potency categories. Finally, the CBN/THC ratios in marijuana samples were measured in order to evaluate the freshness of French seized hemp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Cannabis: Use and dependence].

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, irritability, anger, restlessness, depression, mood swings and cravings. Regular cannabis use induces cognitive impairment, especially of attention, episodic memory and working memory. Alcohol and other substances abuse or dependence are frequently found in patients with cannabis dependence. Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in patients with cannabis dependence, in particular anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The treatment of cannabis dependence includes behavioral psychotherapy, especially motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy, alongside treatment of co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. There are currently no available pharmacological treatment interventions for cannabis dependence. The treatment of cannabis dependence and withdrawal remains nonspecific. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Pregnenolone can protect the brain from cannabis intoxication.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Bellocchio, Luigi; Hébert-Chatelain, Etienne; Monlezun, Stéphanie; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Kasanetz, Fernando; Baillie, Gemma L; Panin, Francesca; Cathala, Adeline; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Fabre, Sandy; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane L; Shore, Derek M; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Spampinato, Umberto; Revest, Jean-Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Reggio, Patricia H; Ross, Ruth A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2014-01-03

    Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, and its potential functional effects have been largely uninvestigated. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via activation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling-specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals a previously unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor overactivation that could open an unforeseen approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction.

  3. [Cannabis and cannabinoids. Possibilities of their therapeutic use].

    PubMed

    Heim, M E

    1982-03-04

    Newer aspects of therapeutic potentials of cannabis and cannabinoids are reviewed. The major active constituent of cannabis sativa, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and synthetic cannabinoids are evaluated in several clinical trials on their antiemetic efficacy in cancer chemotherapy induced vomiting. 80% of patients refractory to standard antiemetic treatment could be improved with the synthetic cannabinoid levonantradol. Other therapeutic effects, which are presently investigated in clinical trials are analgesia, antispasticity, anticonvulsion and the reduction of intraocular pressure in glaucoma. The future goal of cannabinoid research is the separation between specific pharmacologic activities and undesirable psychotropic effects.

  4. Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure.

    PubMed

    Szutorisz, Henrietta; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2016-04-01

    The past decade has witnessed a number of societal and political changes that have raised critical questions about the long-term impact of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) that are especially important given the prevalence of its abuse and that potential long-term effects still largely lack scientific data. Disturbances of the epigenome have generally been hypothesized as the molecular machinery underlying the persistent, often tissue-specific transcriptional and behavioral effects of cannabinoids that have been observed within one's lifetime and even into the subsequent generation. Here, we provide an overview of the current published scientific literature that has examined epigenetic effects of cannabinoids. Though mechanistic insights about the epigenome remain sparse, accumulating data in humans and animal models have begun to reveal aberrant epigenetic modifications in brain and the periphery linked to cannabis exposure. Expansion of such knowledge and causal molecular relationships could help provide novel targets for future therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of vertical MnO2 wire arrays on hemp-derived carbon for efficient and robust green catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, MinHo; Kim, Dong Seok; Sim, Jae-Wook; Jeong, Jae-Min; Kim, Do Hyun; Choi, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Bong Gill

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) carbon materials derived from waste biomass have been attracted increasing attention in catalysis and materials science because of their great potential of catalyst supports with respect to multi-functionality, unique structures, high surface area, and low cost. Here, we present a facile and efficient way for preparing 3D heterogeneous catalysts based on vertical MnO2 wires deposited on hemp-derived 3D porous carbon. The 3D porous carbon materials are fabricated by carbonization and activation processes using hemp (Cannabis Sttiva L.). These 3D porous carbon materials are employed as catalyst supports for direct deposition of vertical MnO2 wires using a one-step hydrothermal method. The XRD and XPS results reveal the crystalline structure of α-MnO2 wires. The resultant composites are further employed as a catalyst for glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with high conversion yield of 98%, which is expected to be expressly profitable for plastics recycling industry.

  6. Apical Dominance and Planting Density Effects on Weed Suppression by Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Citra, Florida to evaluate the effects of seeding rate and removal of apical dominance of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) on weed suppression and seed production of sunn hemp. Three seeding rates of sunn hemp were used; a representative seed producti...

  7. Unintentional Cannabis Ingestion in Children: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Richards, John R; Smith, Nishelle E; Moulin, Aimee K

    2017-11-01

    To analyze published reports of unintentional cannabis ingestions in children to determine presenting signs and symptoms, route of exposure, treatment, and outcome. PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Articles were selected, reviewed, and graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Of 3316 articles, 44 were included (3582 children age ≤12 years). We found no high quality (Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine level I or II) studies and 10 level III studies documenting lethargy as the most common presenting sign and confirming increasing incidence of unintentional ingestion in states having decriminalized medical and recreational cannabis. We identified 16 level IV case series, and 28 level V case reports with 114 children, mean age 25.2 ± 18.7 months, range 8 months to 12 years, and 50 female children (44%). The most common ingestion (n = 43, 38%) was cannabis resin, followed by cookies and joints (both n = 15, 13%). Other exposures included passive smoke, medical cannabis, candies, beverages, and hemp oil. Lethargy was the most common presenting sign (n = 81, 71%) followed by ataxia (n = 16, 14%). Tachycardia, mydriasis, and hypotonia were also commonly observed. All cases were cared for in the emergency department or admitted, and mean length of stay was 27.1 ± 27.0 hours. Twenty (18%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 7 (6%) were intubated. Unintentional cannabis ingestion by children is a serious public health concern and is well-documented in numerous studies and case reports. Clinicians should consider cannabis toxicity in any child with sudden onset of lethargy or ataxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of cannabinoids in hemp nut products in Taiwan by HPLC-MS/MS coupled with chemometric analysis: quality evaluation and a pilot human study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Tung, Chun-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Tse; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2017-06-01

    Hemp nuts are mature cannabis seeds obtained after shelling and that are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional constipation. In this work, we screened hemp nut products, classified them, and verified the legality of consuming them. A total of 18 products were purchased from Taiwan, China, and Canada. Validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed for analyzing the cannabinoid (i.e., Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol) content of the products and the concentration of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. Chemometric techniques, namely hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were applied for rapidly classifying 11 concentrated powder products in Taiwan. A pilot human study comprising single and multiple administrations of a product with 1.5 µg/g of THC was conducted to examine the urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC concentration. Through optimization of 3 2 full factorial design, using 60% isopropanol as the extraction solvent exhibited the highest yield of cannabinoids and was applied as the optimal condition in further analysis. The results of HCA and PCA on quality evaluation were in good agreement; however, the tested products possessed distinct CBD-to-THC ratios which ranged widely from 0.1:1 to 46.8:1. Particularly, the products with CBD-to-THC ratios higher than 1:1 were the majority in Taiwan. Our data suggested that all the tested hemp nut products met the Taiwan restriction criterion of 10 µg/g of THC. We propose a usual consumption amount of hemp nut products in Taiwan would unlikely to violate the cut-off point of 15 ng/mL of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cannabinoid Poisoning by Hemp Seed Oil in a Child.

    PubMed

    Chinello, Matteo; Scommegna, Salvatore; Shardlow, Alison; Mazzoli, Francesca; De Giovanni, Nadia; Fucci, Nadia; Borgiani, Paola; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Locasciulli, Anna; Calvani, Mauro

    2017-05-01

    We report a case of mild cannabinoid poisoning in a preschool child, after 3-week ingestion of hemp seed oil prescribed by his pediatrician to strengthen his immune system. The patient presented neurological symptoms that disappeared after intravenous hydration. A possible mild withdrawal syndrome was reported after discharge. The main metabolite of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in urine, and very low concentration of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in the ingested product. This is, as far as we know, the first report of cannabinoid poisoning after medical prescription of hemp seed oil in a preschool child.

  10. New Green Polymeric Composites Based on Hemp and Natural Rubber Processed by Electron Beam Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Stelescu, Maria-Daniela; Craciun, Gabriela; Dumitrascu, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. Our experiments showed that the hemp fibers have a reinforcing effect on natural rubber similar to mineral fillers (chalk, carbon black, silica). The crosslinking rates of samples, measured using the Flory-Rehner equation, increase as a result of the amount of hemp in blends and the electron beam irradiation dose increasing. The swelling parameters of samples significantly depend on the amount of hemp in blends, because the latter have hydrophilic characteristics. PMID:24688419

  11. Hemp-Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites: Optimization of Processing and Improvement of Interfacial Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Qui, Renhui; Ren, Xiaofeng; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2011-02-25

    The processing variables for making hemp-fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were optimized through orthogonal experiments. It was found that the usage of initiator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, had the most significant effect on the tensile strength of the composites. The treatment of hemp fibers with a combination of 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane (DIH) and 2-hydroxylethyl acrylate (HEA) significantly increased tensile strength, flexural modulus of rupture and flexural modulus of elasticity, and water resistance of the resulting hemp-UPE composites. FTIR spectra revealed that DIH and HEA were covalently bonded to hemp fibers. Scanning electronic microscopy graphs of the fractured hemp-UPE composites demonstrated thatmore » treatment of hemp fibers with a combination of DIH and HEA greatly improved the interfacial adhesion between hemp fibers and UPE. The mechanism of improving the interfacial adhesion is proposed.« less

  12. New green polymeric composites based on hemp and natural rubber processed by electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Stelescu, Maria-Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Craciun, Gabriela; Dumitrascu, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. Our experiments showed that the hemp fibers have a reinforcing effect on natural rubber similar to mineral fillers (chalk, carbon black, silica). The crosslinking rates of samples, measured using the Flory-Rehner equation, increase as a result of the amount of hemp in blends and the electron beam irradiation dose increasing. The swelling parameters of samples significantly depend on the amount of hemp in blends, because the latter have hydrophilic characteristics.

  13. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory: effect of different nootropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marwa; Al-Said Ahmed, Noha; Seid Hussein, Jihan; El-Khyat, Zakaria A

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984[43]) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Cannabis sativa was given at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) alone or co-administered with donepezil (1 mg/kg), piracetam (150 mg/ kg), vinpocetine (1.5 mg/kg) or ginkgo biloba (25 mg/kg) once daily subcutaneously (s.c.) for one month. Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, glucose and brain monoamines were determined. Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis. Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis-treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam. The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose

  14. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory: effect of different nootropic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; Salem, Neveen A.; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marwa; Al-Said Ahmed, Noha; Seid Hussein, Jihan; El-Khyat, Zakaria A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984[43]) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Cannabis sativa was given at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) alone or co-administered with donepezil (1 mg/kg), piracetam (150 mg/ kg), vinpocetine (1.5 mg/kg) or ginkgo biloba (25 mg/kg) once daily subcutaneously (s.c.) for one month. Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, glucose and brain monoamines were determined. Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis. Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis-treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam. The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose

  15. Consumer perceptions of strain differences in Cannabis aroma

    PubMed Central

    DiVerdi, Joseph A.

    2018-01-01

    The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest. PMID:29401526

  16. Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against 'morning sickness'.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Rachel E; Janssen, Patricia A; Lucas, Philippe; Capler, Rielle

    2006-02-01

    A majority of women experience some nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. This condition can range from mild nausea to extreme nausea and vomiting, with 1-2% of women suffering from the life-threatening condition hyperemesis gravidarum. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) may be used therapeutically to mitigate pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. This paper presents the results of a survey of 84 female users of medicinal cannabis, recruited through two compassion societies in British Columbia, Canada. Of the seventy-nine respondents who had experienced pregnancy, 51 (65%) reported using cannabis during their pregnancies. While 59 (77%) of the respondents who had been pregnant had experienced nausea and/or vomiting of pregnancy, 40 (68%) had used cannabis to treat the condition, and of these respondents, 37 (over 92%) rated cannabis as 'extremely effective' or 'effective.' Our findings support the need for further investigations into cannabis therapy for severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

  17. The toxicology of cannabis and cannabis prohibition.

    PubMed

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2007-08-01

    The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients.

  18. [Epidemiological news in cannabis].

    PubMed

    Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is by far the most common illicit drug in France. Among 15-64 years, 32.1% have already experienced it and 8.4% declare they have used it at least once during the past twelve months. In Europe, France is one of the countries with the highest prevalence. Males are markedly more often cannabis users than females and this gender gap tends to increase with the level of use. During the last two decades, the part of the population having tried cannabis did not stop increasing, under the influence of a generalization of the cannabis experience among young people. However, cannabis last year prevalence is rather stable since 2000. Cannabis lifetime use is very rare at the beginning of middle school (1.5% in sixth grade at age 11) but increases in the following years (11% of the pupils of the eighth grade, 24% of the pupils of the ninth grade). Cannabis use at a younger age is related to subsequent onset of cannabis related problems. Adolescent and young adults from high socioeconomic status (SES) more often try cannabis than young people from lower SES. However, cannabis regular use is associated with bad school results, truancy and early school leaving, and with a lower SES. Young people from high SES indeed dispose of greater sociocultural resources to master and regulate their consumption and are more often conscious of their interest not to be tipped over in problematic use.

  19. Chronic toxicology of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. As societies reconsider the legal status of cannabis, policy makers and clinicians require sound knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of cannabis. This review focuses on the latter. A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar using the search terms "cannabis," "marijuana," "marihuana," "toxicity," "complications," and "mechanisms" identified 5,198 papers. This list was screened by hand, and papers describing mechanisms and those published in more recent years were chosen preferentially for inclusion in this review. There is evidence of psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone toxicity associated with chronic cannabis use. Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state. Respiratory conditions linked with cannabis include reduced lung density, lung cysts, and chronic bronchitis. Cannabis has been linked in a dose-dependent manner with elevated rates of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrythmias. It is known to affect bone metabolism and also has teratogenic effects on the developing brain following perinatal exposure. Cannabis has been linked to cancers at eight sites, including children after in utero maternal exposure, and multiple molecular pathways to oncogenesis exist. Chronic cannabis use is associated with psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone effects. It also has oncogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects all of which depend upon dose and duration of use.

  20. [Cannabis: A Cognitive Illusion].

    PubMed

    Galván, Gonzalo; Guerrero-Martelo, Manuel; Vásquez De la Hoz, Francisco

    The vision of cannabis as a soft drug is due to the low risk perception that young and old people have of the drug. This perception is based on erroneous beliefs that people have about the drug. To compare the beliefs of cannabis use and consequences among adolescents with a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use and those without a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use. Quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 156 high school students who completed an ad-hoc questionnaire that included sociodemographic data and 22 questions about the beliefs that young people had about cannabis use and its consequences. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use was 13.5%. The prevalence group consisted mostly of males. Statistically significant differences between different groups and different beliefs were found. The group with no lifetime prevalence of cannabis use perceived higher risk as regards the damage that cannabis can cause to memory, other cognitive functions, neurons, mental health, and general health. The group with a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use perceived a lower risk as regards the use of cannabis, and think that intelligent people smoke cannabis, and that cannabis has positive effects on the brain, increasing creativity. and is used to cure mental diseases. Those who used cannabis once in their life perceive the use of the substance as less harmful or less potential danger to health compared to those who never consumed. In fact those who consumed at some time even have beliefs that suggest positive effects in those people that consume it. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustainable hemp-based composites for the building industry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzova, Ivana; Stevulova, Nadezda; Junak, Jozef; Hospodarova, Viola

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability goals are essential driving principles for the development of innovative materials in the building industry. Natural plant (e.g. hemp) fibers represent an attractive alternative as reinforcing material due to its good properties and sustainability prerequisites. In this study, hemp-based composite materials, designed for building application as non-load bearing material, providing both thermal insulation and physico-mechanical properties, are presented. Composite materials were produced by bonding hemp hurds with a novel inorganic binder (MgO-based cement) and then were characterized in terms of physical properties (bulk density, water absorption), thermal properties (thermal conductivity) and mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strength). The composites exhibited promising physical, thermal and mechanical characteristics, generally comparable to commercially available products. In addition, the hemp-based composites have the advantage of a significantly low environmental impact (thanks to the nature of both the dispersed and the binding phase) and no negative effects on human health. All things considered, the composite materials seem like very promising materials for the building industry application.

  2. Wet-preserved hemp fibreboard properties improvement with veneering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilovs, E.; Kukle, S.; Gusovius, H.-J.

    2015-03-01

    The initial research describes a new type of fiber boards for the furniture interior design, developed in cooperation with ATB (Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering) by using a new method of raw materials preparation and specific production technologies of ATB. The main raw materials are aerobically aged hemp stalks. The samples are made of hemp chips with a long preservation time and fastened together with the UF glue. Specimens are 8 mm thick and correspond to a medium-density fiberboard, fitting standard EN622. Due to the fact that non-veneered material can be used only in non-load-bearing constructions, material improving technologies were studied, such as increase of board density, increase of glue percentage, partially substitution of wet-preserved hemp chips with a dry hemp and/or wooden chips to equalize moisture content of obtained mixture. The particular article describes how the new material is veneered with the oak veneer obtaining three-ply composite board with the improved mechanical properties that allows to use these boards in a load-bearing constructions. Tests are performed with the veneered material to determine such parameters as static bending strength (MOR), modulus of elasticity in static bending (MOE), swelling in thickness and hardness.

  3. Cannabis and epilepsy: An ancient treatment returns to the fore.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis has been associated with the treatment of epilepsy throughout history, and if ancient Assyrian sources referring to "hand of ghost" are considered credible, this relationship may span four millennia. A tradition of usage continued in Arabic medicine and Ayurvedic practice in India, which led, in turn, to early experiments in Europe and North America with "Indian hemp." Lack of standardization, bioavailability issues, and ultimately prohibition were all factors in cannabis-based medicines failing to maintain mainstream usage in seizure treatment, but investigation was resumed in the 1970s with interesting signals noted in both laboratory and clinical settings. Early case studies showed promise, but lacked sufficient rigor. Resumption of research coupled with mass experimentation by families of epilepsy patients has led to intense interest in cannabis-based medicines for its treatment once more, with greatest focus on cannabidiol, but additional investigation of tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, and other phytocannabinoids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential dangers of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Kaymakçalan, S

    1975-01-01

    Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society.

  5. Cannabis Use in Psychiatrie Patients.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, S; Sudarsanan, S; Salujha, S K; Srivastava, K

    2005-02-01

    Cannabis abuse has been associated with psychiatric disorders. The pattern of cannabis use and incidence of cannabis dependence and cannabis psychosis among 471 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary care psychiatric center was investigated. Cannabis use was reported by 67 (14.23%) patients of whom 42 (8.92%) were occasional users, 18 (3.82%) were classified as frequent users while 7 (1.49%) fulfilled criteria for cannabis dependence. 3 (0.64%) patients showed symptoms which were characteristic of cannabis psychosis. Among the 67 cannabis users, 56 (83.58%) had their first exposure to cannabis before entering service at 13-19 years of age. The remaining 14 (16.09%) began consuming cannabis 1-5 years after joining service. The reasons given for using cannabis were curiosity about its effects 32 (47.76%), peer pressure 17 (25.37%) or traditional use during festivals 18 (26.87%).

  6. Characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Cannabis plants grown in Northern Thailand and its forensic application.

    PubMed

    Tipparat, Prapatsorn; Natakankitkul, Surapol; Chamnivikaipong, Pipop; Chutiwat, Sirot

    2012-02-10

    The Thai government has recognized the possibility for legitimate cultivation of hemp. Further study of certain cannabinoid characteristics is necessary in establishing criteria for regulation of cannabis cultivation in Thailand. For this purpose, factors affecting characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Thai-grown cannabis were investigated. Plants were cultivated from seeds derived from the previous studies under the same conditions. 372 cannabis samples from landraces, three different trial fields and seized marijuana were collected. 100g of each sample was dried, ground and quantitatively analyzed for THC, CBD and CBN contents by GC-FID. The results showed that cannabis grown during March-June which had longer vegetative stages and longer photoperiod exposure, had higher cannabinoids contents than those grown in August. The male plants grown in trial fields had the range of THC contents from 0.722% to 0.848% d.w. and average THC/CBD ratio of 1.9. Cannabis in landraces at traditional harvest time of 75 days had a range of THC contents from 0.874% to 1.480% d.w. and an average THC/CBD ratio of 2.6. The THC contents and THC/CBD ratios of cannabis in second generation crops grown in the same growing season were found to be lower than those grown in the first generation, unless fairly high temperatures and a lesser amount of rainfall were present. The average THC content in seized fresh marijuana was 2.068% d.w. while THC/CBD ratios were between 12.6 and 84.09, which is 10-45 times greater than those of similar studied cannabis samples from the previous study. However, most Thai cannabis in landraces and in trial fields giving a low log(10) value of THC/CBD ratio at below 1 may be classified as intermediate type, whereas seized marijuana giving a higher log(10) value at above 1 could be classified as drug type. Therefore, the expanded information provided by the current study will assist in the development of criteria for regulation of hemp cultivation in

  7. Patterns of use of medical cannabis among Israeli cancer patients: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Waissengrin, Barliz; Urban, Damien; Leshem, Yasmin; Garty, Meital; Wolf, Ido

    2015-02-01

    The use of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) for the palliative treatment of cancer patients has been legalized in multiple jurisdictions including Israel. Yet, not much is currently known regarding the efficacy and patterns of use of cannabis in this setting. To analyze the indications for the administration of cannabis among adult Israeli cancer patients and evaluate its efficacy. Efficacy and patterns of use of cannabis were evaluated using physician-completed application forms, medical files, and a detailed questionnaire in adult cancer patients treated at a single institution. Of approximately 17,000 cancer patients seen, 279 (<1.7%) received a permit for cannabis from an authorized institutional oncologist. The median age of cannabis users was 60 years (range 19-93 years), 160 (57%) were female, and 234 (84%) had metastatic disease. Of 151 (54%) patients alive at six months, 70 (46%) renewed their cannabis permit. Renewal was more common among younger patients and those with metastatic disease. Of 113 patients alive and using cannabis at one month, 69 (61%) responded to the detailed questionnaire. Improvement in pain, general well-being, appetite, and nausea were reported by 70%, 70%, 60%, and 50%, respectively. Side effects were mild and consisted mostly of fatigue and dizziness. Cannabis use is perceived as highly effective by some patients with advanced cancer and its administration can be regulated, even by local authorities. Additional studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of cannabis as part of the palliative treatment of cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical-physical experimental tests on lime mortars and bricks reinforced with hemp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formisano, Antonio; Dessı, Enzo; Landolfo, Raffaele

    2017-11-01

    Hemp is an agricultural product used for various applications. In the Civil Engineering field, only a limited use of this natural material, called the "green pig" since exploitation of all its constituent parts is allowed, has been done. For this reason, in the paper an experimental activity on lime mortars and bricks reinforced with hemp components has been performed. Compression and bending tests have been carried out on specimens manufactured with hemp shives and fibres, respectively. The achieved results have shown that hemp products change the failure modes from brittle to ductile, leaving basically unaltered the strength capacity of reinforced specimens with respect to unreinforced ones.

  9. Industrial hemp as a potential bioenergy crop in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum.

    PubMed

    Das, Lalitendu; Liu, Enshi; Saeed, Areej; Williams, David W; Hu, Hongqiang; Li, Chenlin; Ray, Allison E; Shi, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This study takes combined field trial, lab experiment, and economic analysis approaches to evaluate the potential of industrial hemp in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum. Agronomy data suggest that the per hectare yield (5437kg) of industrial hemp stem alone was at a similar level with switchgrass and sorghum; while the hemp plants require reduced inputs. Field trial also showed that ∼1230kg/ha hemp grain can be harvested in addition to stems. Results show a predicted ethanol yield of ∼82gallons/dry ton hemp stems, which is comparable to the other three tested feedstocks. A comparative cost analysis indicates that industrial hemp could generate higher per hectare gross profit than the other crops if both hemp grains and biofuels from hemp stem were counted. These combined evaluation results demonstrate that industrial hemp has great potential to become a promising regional commodity crop for producing both biofuels and value-added products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health.

    PubMed

    Lafaye, Genevieve; Karila, Laurent; Blecha, Lisa; Benyamina, Amine

    2017-09-01

    Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance in the world. Though it was long considered to be a "soft" drug, studies have proven the harmful psychiatric and addictive effects associated with its use. A number of elements are responsible for the increased complications of cannabis use, including the increase in the potency of cannabis and an evolution in the ratio between the two primary components, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and cannabidiol (toward a higher proportion of Δ 9 -THC), Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has rapidly progressed over the last few years, primarily among frequent cannabis users, because SCs provide similar psychoactive effects to cannabis. However, their composition and pharmacological properties make them dangerous substances. Cannabis does have therapeutic properties for certain indications. These therapeutic applications pertain only to certain cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives. The objective of this article is to summarize current developments concerning cannabis and the spread of SCs. Future studies must further explore the benefit-risk profile of medical cannabis use.

  11. Cannabis Smoking in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Biehl, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent legislative successes allowing expanded access to recreational and medicinal cannabis have been associated with its increased use by the public, despite continued debates regarding its safety within the medical and scientific communities. Despite legislative changes, cannabis is most commonly used by smoking, although alternatives to inhalation have also emerged. Moreover, the composition of commercially available cannabis has dramatically changed in recent years. Therefore, developing sound scientific information regarding its impact on lung health is imperative, particularly because published data conducted prior to widespread legalization are conflicting and inconclusive. In this commentary, we delineate major observations of epidemiologic investigations examining cannabis use and the potential associated development of airways disease and lung cancer to highlight gaps in pulmonary knowledge. Additionally, we review major histopathologic alterations related to smoked cannabis and define specific areas in animal models and human clinical translational investigations that could benefit from additional development. Given that cannabis has an ongoing classification as a schedule I medication, federal funding to support investigations of modern cannabis use in terms of medicinal efficacy and safety profile on lung health have been elusive. It is clear, however, that the effects of inhaled cannabis on lung health remain uncertain and given increasing use patterns, are worthy of further investigation. PMID:25996274

  12. Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health

    PubMed Central

    Lafaye, Genevieve; Karila, Laurent; Blecha, Lisa; Benyamina, Amine

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance in the world. Though it was long considered to be a “soft” drug, studies have proven the harmful psychiatric and addictive effects associated with its use. A number of elements are responsible for the increased complications of cannabis use, including the increase in the potency of cannabis and an evolution in the ratio between the two primary components, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (toward a higher proportion of Δ9-THC), Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has rapidly progressed over the last few years, primarily among frequent cannabis users, because SCs provide similar psychoactive effects to cannabis. However, their composition and pharmacological properties make them dangerous substances. Cannabis does have therapeutic properties for certain indications. These therapeutic applications pertain only to certain cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives. The objective of this article is to summarize current developments concerning cannabis and the spread of SCs. Future studies must further explore the benefit-risk profile of medical cannabis use. PMID:29302228

  13. Dietary fats and pharmaceutical lipid excipients increase systemic exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines

    PubMed Central

    Zgair, Atheer; Wong, Jonathan CM; Lee, Jong Bong; Mistry, Jatin; Sivak, Olena; Wasan, Kishor M; Hennig, Ivo M; Barrett, David A; Constantinescu, Cris S; Fischer, Peter M; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    There has been an escalating interest in the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa in recent years. Cannabis is often administered orally with fat-containing foods, or in lipid-based pharmaceutical preparations. However, the impact of lipids on the exposure of patients to cannabis components has not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of oral co-administration of lipids on the exposure to two main active cannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). In this study, oral co-administration of lipids enhanced the systemic exposure of rats to THC and CBD by 2.5-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to lipid-free formulations. In vitro lipolysis was conducted to explore the effect of lipids on the intestinal solubilisation of cannabinoids. More than 30% of THC and CBD were distributed into micellar fraction following lipolysis, suggesting that at least one-third of the administered dose will be available for absorption following co-administration with lipids. Both cannabinoids showed very high affinity for artificial CM-like particles, as well as for rat and human CM, suggesting high potential for intestinal lymphatic transport. Moreover, comparable affinity of cannabinoids for rat and human CM suggests that similar increased exposure effects may be expected in humans. In conclusion, co-administration of dietary lipids or pharmaceutical lipid excipients has the potential to substantially increase the exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines. The increase in patient exposure to cannabinoids is of high clinical importance as it could affect the therapeutic effect, but also toxicity, of orally administered cannabis or cannabis-based medicines. PMID:27648135

  14. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cannabis and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pushpa-Rajah, Jonathan A; McLoughlin, Benjamin C; Gillies, Donna; Rathbone, John; Variend, Hannele; Kalakouti, Eliana; Kyprianou, Katerina

    2015-03-01

    Many people with schizophrenia smoke cannabis, and it is unclear why a large proportion do so and if the effects are harmful or beneficial. It is also unclear what the best method is to allow people with schizophrenia to alter their cannabis intake. To assess the effects of specific psychological treatments for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia. To assess the effects of antipsychotics for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia. To assess the effects of cannabinoids (cannabis-related chemical compounds derived from cannabis or manufactured) for symptom reduction in people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (August 2013) and all references of articles selected for further relevant trials. We contacted the first author of included studies for unpublished trials or data. We included all randomized controlled trials involving cannabinoids and schizophrenia/schizophrenia-like illnesses, which assessed: (1) treatments to reduce cannabis use in people with schizophrenia and (2) the effects of cannabinoids on people with schizophrenia. Results are limited and inconclusive due to the small number and size of randomized controlled trials available and quality of data reporting within these trials. Currently, there is no evidence to demonstrate that one type of adjunct psychological therapy or one type of drug therapy is more effective than another. There is also insufficient evidence to show that cannabidiol has an antipsychotic effect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Schizophrenia and cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Kumra, Sanjiv

    2007-01-01

    Genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Exposure to cannabis is one environmental factor that's being studied for its possible link to development of schizophrenia in adolescents. This article presents evidence that supports the hypothesis that repeated cannabis use could interfere with the development of frontal white matter in some adolescents and may exacerbate anatomic pathology in those with schizophrenia. This putative mechanism may explain the deficits in working memory and worsening in the severity of clinical symptoms in adolescents with schizophrenia who use cannabis.

  17. Cannabis induced asystole.

    PubMed

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan Joseph

    2016-05-16

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis.

  19. Extraction of High Quality DNA from Seized Moroccan Cannabis Resin (Hashish)

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. PMID:24124454

  20. Mechanical performance of hemp fiber polypropylene composites at different operating temperatures

    Treesearch

    Mehdi Tajvidi; Nazanin Motie; Ghonche Rassam; Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton

    2010-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of hemp fiber polypropylene composites, formulations containing 25% and 40% (by weight) hemp fiber were produced and tested at three representative temperatures of 256, 296, and 336 K. Flexural, tensile, and impact tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis, were performed and the reduction...

  1. Production of the sunn hemp cultivars 'AU Golden' and 'AU Durbin developed by Auburn University

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is the fastest growing species of the genus Crotalaria and is the most widely grown green manure in the tropics. Sunn hemp is also adapted to a wide range of conditions and soil types, while still producing high biomass yields. These characteristics enable the crop...

  2. HEMP 3D: A finite difference program for calculating elastic-plastic flow, appendix B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Mark L.

    1993-05-01

    The HEMP 3D program can be used to solve problems in solid mechanics involving dynamic plasticity and time dependent material behavior and problems in gas dynamics. The equations of motion, the conservation equations, and the constitutive relations listed below are solved by finite difference methods following the format of the HEMP computer simulation program formulated in two space dimensions and time.

  3. Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2011-01-01

    Aims Repeated drug exposure can lead to an approach-bias, i.e. the relatively automatically triggered tendencies to approach rather that avoid drug-related stimuli. Our main aim was to study this approach-bias in heavy cannabis users with the newly developed cannabis Approach Avoidance Task (cannabis-AAT) and to investigate the predictive relationship between an approach-bias for cannabis-related materials and levels of cannabis use, craving, and the course of cannabis use. Design, settings and participants Cross-sectional assessment and six-month follow-up in 32 heavy cannabis users and 39 non-using controls. Measurements Approach and avoidance action-tendencies towards cannabis and neutral images were assessed with the cannabis AAT. During the AAT, participants pulled or pushed a joystick in response to image orientation. To generate additional sense of approach or avoidance, pulling the joystick increased picture size while pushing decreased it. Craving was measured pre- and post-test with the multi-factorial Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Cannabis use frequencies and levels of dependence were measured at baseline and after a six-month follow-up. Findings Heavy cannabis users demonstrated an approach-bias for cannabis images, as compared to controls. The approach-bias predicted changes in cannabis use at six-month follow-up. The pre-test MCQ emotionality and expectancy factor were associated negatively with the approach-bias. No effects were found on levels of cannabis dependence. Conclusions Heavy cannabis users with a strong approach-bias for cannabis are more likely to increase their cannabis use. This approach-bias could be used as a predictor of the course of cannabis use to identify individuals at risk from increasing cannabis use. PMID:21518067

  4. Investigation of mechanical properties of kenaf, hemp and E-glass fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesh, Veena; Shivanand, H. K.; Vidyasagar, H. N.; Chari, V. Srinivasa

    2018-04-01

    Recently the use of fiber reinforced polymer composite in the automobile, aerospace overwhelming designing sectors has increased tremendously due to the ecological issues and health hazard possessed by the synthetic fiber during disposal and manufacturing. The paper presents tensile strength, flexural strength and hardness of kenaf-E glass-kenaf, hemp-E glass-hemp and kenaf-E glass-hemp fiber reinforced polyester composites. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses of each combination. In addition to the physical and mechanical properties, processing methods and application of kenaf and hemp fiber composites is also discussed.

  5. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  6. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  7. Cannabis and psychosis revisited.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Pantović, Maja; Damjanović, Aleksandra; Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Ivković, Maja; Milovanović, Srđan; Lacković, Maja; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    The association between cannabinoids and psychosis has been known for almost a thousand years, but it is still speculated whether cannabis use may be a contributory cause of psychosis, that is, whether it may precipitate schizophrenia in those at risk. In this paper, we will briefly present the data from individual longitudinal studies in the field, together with the factors that are considered important for the association of cannabis abuse and occurrence of schizophrenia and prevention opportunities in the target population. The reviewed studies clearly suggest that cannabis abuse predicts an increased risk for schizophrenia, particularly in young adults. They underline both the need to create adequate prevention measures and consequently avoid the occurrence of the disease in the young at risk. Particular attention should be additionally devoted toward encouraging the young presenting with psychotic symptoms to stop or, at the very least, reduce the frequency of cannabis abuse. The issues are undoubtedly to be addressed by the health care system in general.

  8. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    PubMed

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  9. Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists.

  10. [Cannabis and mood].

    PubMed

    Sanches, Rafael Faria; Marques, João Mazzoncini de Azevedo

    2010-06-01

    Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

  11. Cannabis and sport.

    PubMed

    Saugy, M; Avois, L; Saudan, C; Robinson, N; Giroud, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J

    2006-07-01

    Cannabis is on the list of prohibited substances in the practice of sport, although its performance enhancing effect has not yet been proved. Its popularity among the younger generations as a social drug puts cannabis at the top of the list of compounds detected by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency worldwide. The management of the results of urine analysis is quite difficult for the medical and disciplinary committees not only because of the social use of the substance, but also because of the interpretation of the analytical data from urine samples. This paper gives an overview of what is presently known about cannabis in relation with the practice of sport. Review of literature on the cannabis and exercise, its effect in the body, and the problems with interpretation of results when it is detected in urine. The paper outlines the major effects of cannabis in the context of its social use and its use for sport activities. The difficulties in the interpretation of urine sample analysis results because of the protracted excretion time of the main metabolite, long after the intake, are described. There is an urgent need for sport authorities to take measures necessary to avoid players misusing cannabis.

  12. Psychiatric effects of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Tunving, K

    1985-09-01

    That cannabis use may provoke mental disturbances is well known to Scandinavian psychiatrists today. A review of the psychiatric aspects of cannabis use is given, and the clinical signs of 70 cases of cannabis psychoses collected in Sweden are described. The bluntness and "amotivation" following chronic cannabis use are discussed. Anxiety reactions, flashbacks, dysphoric reactions and an abstinence syndrome are all sequels of cannabis use. Three risk groups begin to emerge: a) Young teenage cannabis users who lose some of their capacity to learn complex functions and who flee from reality to a world of dreams. With its sedative effect, cannabis could modify such emotions as anger and anxiety and slow down the liberation process of adolescence. b) Heavy daily users, often persons who cannot cope with depression or their life circumstances. c) Psychiatric patients whose resistance to relapses into psychotic reactions might be diminished according to the psychotropic effects of cannabis.

  13. Cannabis and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Benjamin C; Pushpa-Rajah, Jonathan A; Gillies, Donna; Rathbone, John; Variend, Hannele; Kalakouti, Eliana; Kyprianou, Katerina

    2014-10-14

    Schizophrenia is a mental illness causing disordered beliefs, ideas and sensations. Many people with schizophrenia smoke cannabis, and it is unclear why a large proportion do so and if the effects are harmful or beneficial. It is also unclear what the best method is to allow people with schizophrenia to alter their cannabis intake. To assess the effects of specific psychological treatments for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.To assess the effects of antipsychotics for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.To assess the effects of cannabinoids (cannabis related chemical compounds derived from cannabis or manufactured) for symptom reduction in people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register, 12 August 2013, which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PUBMED and PsycINFO.We searched all references of articles selected for inclusion for further relevant trials. We contacted the first author of included studies for unpublished trials or data. We included all randomised controlled trials involving cannabinoids and schizophrenia/schizophrenia-like illnesses, which assessed:1) treatments to reduce cannabis use in people with schizophrenia;2) the effects of cannabinoids on people with schizophrenia. We independently inspected citations, selected papers and then re-inspected the studies if there were discrepancies, and extracted data. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RR) and for continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed-effect model. We excluded data if loss to follow-up was greater than 50%. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE to rate the quality of the evidence. We identified eight randomised trials, involving 530 participants, which met our selection criteria.For the cannabis reduction studies no one treatment showed superiority for reduction

  14. [Cannabis--abuse and consequences].

    PubMed

    Wøien, Vidar-André; Horwitz, Henrik; Høgberg, Lotte C G; Askaa, Bjarke; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-02-02

    Cannabis is the world's most popular illicit drug, and around half of all Danes have tried it at least once. In this paper we review the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis. We also discuss the treatment of cannabis intoxication and present data from The Danish Poison Information Center.

  15. The effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J; Dariano, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    A number of states in the United States legally allow the use of cannabis as a medical therapy to treat an illness or to alleviate symptoms. Concern persists as to whether these types of laws are increasing juvenile recreational cannabis use. It is also plausible that medical cannabis laws engender an escalation of illicit non-cannabis drug use among juveniles because cannabis is frequently considered to be a gateway drug. This study uses longitudinal data drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health for the 50 U.S. states and a cross-sectional pooled-time series research design to investigate the effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use and on juvenile non-cannabis illicit drug use. Our study period encompasses five measurement periods calibrated in two-year intervals (2002-2003 to 2010-2011). This research design is advantageous in that it affords us the ability not only to assess the effect of the implementation of medical cannabis laws on juvenile drug use, but also to consider other state-specific factors that may explain variation in drug use that cannot be accounted for using a single time series. Findings show that medical cannabis laws amplify recreational juvenile cannabis use. Other salient predictors of juvenile cannabis use at the state-level of analysis include perceived availability of cannabis, percent of juveniles skipping school, severity of perceived punishment for cannabis possession, alcohol consumption, percent of respondents with a father residing in household, and percent of families in the state receiving public assistance. There is little empirical evidence to support the view that medical cannabis laws affect juveniles' use of illicit non-cannabis drugs. Based on our findings, it seems reasonable to speculate that medical cannabis laws amplify juveniles' use of cannabis by allaying the social stigma associated with recreational cannabis use and by placating the fear that cannabis use could potentially result in a

  16. Stability of cosmetic emulsion containing different amount of hemp oil.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, M; Ziomek, M; Żbikowska, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions, that is the content of hemp oil and time of homogenization to obtain stable dispersion systems. For this purpose, six emulsions were prepared, their stability was examined empirically and the most correctly formulated emulsion composition was determined using a computer simulation. Variable parameters (oil content and homogenization time) were indicated by the optimization software based on Kleeman's method. Physical properties of the synthesized emulsions were studied by numerous techniques involving particle size analysis, optical microscopy, Turbiscan test and viscosity of emulsions. The emulsion containing 50 g of oil and being homogenized for 6 min had the highest stability. Empirically determined parameters proved to be consistent with the results obtained using the computer software. The computer simulation showed that the most stable emulsion should contain from 30 to 50 g of oil and should be homogenized for 2.5-6 min. The computer software based on Kleeman's method proved to be useful for quick optimization of the composition and production parameters of stable emulsion systems. Moreover, obtaining an emulsion system with proper stability justifies further research extended with sensory analysis, which will allow the application of such systems (containing hemp oil, beneficial for skin) in the cosmetic industry. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. The Power Supply And Control Unit For The HEMP Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brag, Rafael; Lenz, Werner; Huther, Andreas; Herty, Frank

    2011-10-01

    In the recent years, Astrium GmbH started to develop electronics to control and supply Electric Propulsion systems or corresponding components. One of the developments is a Power Supply and Control Unit (PSCU) for the Thales Electron Devices development "High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster" (HEMP- T). The PSCU is developed, manufactured and tested on the Astrium southern Germany site in Friedrichshafen. The first application is the SGEO Satellite (HISPASAT- 1), where the In-Orbit Demonstration (IOD) of the HEMP Thruster system will prove the success of the product. Astrium conducted several coupling tests during the PSCU development especially concentrated on *Thruster electrical I/F parameters *Neutralizer electrical I/F parameters *Flow Control I/F parameters Results of these tests were used to refine the specification and adapt the PSCU drivers and control algorithms. Furthermore, the tests results gave Thales and Astrium the possibility for a deep understanding of the interaction between the physics and the electronics. The paper presents an overview of the PSCU topology, key features, technical and development logic details as well as a view into the control capabilities of the PSCU.

  18. History of cannabis and its preparations in saga, science, and sobriquet.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2007-08-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is possibly one of the oldest plants cultivated by man, but has remained a source of controversy throughout its history. Whether pariah or panacea, this most versatile botanical has provided a mirror to medicine and has pointed the way in the last two decades toward a host of medical challenges from analgesia to weight loss through the discovery of its myriad biochemical attributes and the endocannabinoid system wherein many of its components operate. This study surveys the history of cannabis, its genetics and preparations. A review of cannabis usage in Ancient Egypt will serve as an archetype, while examining first mentions from various Old World cultures and their pertinence for contemporary scientific investigation. Cannabis historians of the past have provided promising clues to potential treatments for a wide array of currently puzzling medical syndromes including chronic pain, spasticity, cancer, seizure disorders, nausea, anorexia, and infectious disease that remain challenges for 21st century medicine. Information gleaned from the history of cannabis administration in its various forms may provide useful points of departure for research into novel delivery techniques and standardization of cannabis-based medicines that will allow their prescription for treatment of these intractable medical conditions.

  19. Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Deiana, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The medical properties of cannabis have been known for many centuries; its first documented use dates back to 2800 BC when it was described for its hallucinogenic and pain-relieving properties. In the first half of the twentieth century, a number of pharmaceutical companies marked cannabis for indications such as asthma and pain, but since then its use has sharply declined, mainly due to its unpredictable effects, but also for socio-political issues. Recently, great attention has been directed to the medical properties of phytocannabinoids present in the cannabis plant alongside the main constituent Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); these include cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). Evidence suggests an association between cannabis and schizophrenia: schizophrenics show a higher use of marijuana as compared to the healthy population. Additionally, the use of marijuana can trigger psychotic episodes in schizophrenic patients, and this has been ascribed to THC. Given the need to reduce the side effects of marketed antipsychotics, and their weak efficacy on some schizophrenic symptoms, cannabinoids have been suggested as a possible alternative treatment for schizophrenia. CBD, a non-psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, has been receiving growing attention for its anti-psychotic-like properties. Evidence suggests that CBD can ameliorate positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Behavioural and neurochemical models suggest that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical anti-psychotic drugs and a clinical trial reported that this cannabinoid is a well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Medicinal cannabis in oncology.

    PubMed

    Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Erkens, Joëlle A; Herings, Ron M; Verweij, Jaap

    2007-12-01

    In The Netherlands, since September 2003, a legal medicinal cannabis product, constituting the whole range of cannabinoids, is available for clinical research, drug development strategies, and on prescription for patients. To date, this policy, initiated by the Dutch Government, has not yet led to the desired outcome; the amount of initiated clinical research is less than expected and only a minority of patients resorts to the legal product. This review aims to discuss the background for the introduction of legal medicinal cannabis in The Netherlands, the past years of Dutch clinical experience in oncology practice, possible reasons underlying the current outcome, and future perspectives.

  1. Extraction Method and Analysis of Cannabinoids in Cannabis Olive Oil Preparations.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Antonella; Roda, Gabriella; Casagni, Eleonora; Cristina, Cecilia; Musazzi, Umberto Maria; Franzè, Silvia; Rocco, Paolo; Giuliani, Claudia; Fico, Gelsomina; Minghetti, Paola; Gambaro, Veniero

    2018-03-01

    Recently, an increasing number of pharmacists had to supply medicinal products based on Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), prescribed by physicians to individual patients. Cannabis olive oil preparation is the first choice as a concentrated extract of cannabinoids, even though standardized operative conditions for obtaining it are still not available. In this work, the impact of temperature and extraction time on the concentration of active principles was studied to harmonize the different compounding methods, optimize the extraction process, and reduce the variability among preparations. Moreover, starting from the cannabis inflorescence, the effect of temperature on tetrahydrocannabinolic acid decarboxylation was evaluated. For the analysis, a GC/MS method, as suggested by the Italian Ministry of Health, and a GC/flame ionization detection method were developed, validated, and compared. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Variations and origin of the atmospheric pollen of Cannabis detected in the province of Tetouan (NW Morocco): 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Aboulaich, Nadia; Trigo, M Mar; Bouziane, Hassan; Cabezudo, Baltasar; Recio, Marta; El Kadiri, Mohamed; Ater, Mohammed

    2013-01-15

    Cannabis, also called marihuana or hemp, is a wind-pollinated plant that produces hundreds of flowers on large inflorescences. It is also one of the oldest psychoactive plants known to humanity. Morocco has become one of the main producers of Cannabis resin (hashish), primarily supplying the European market. The aim of this paper is to ascertain whether the atmospheric monitoring of Cannabis pollen can play a role, from a criminological point of view, in the surveillance of Cannabis cultivation in the area of Tetouan (NW Morocco) as well as to estimate pollen emission so that the sensitive population can be warned about the allergic diseases that its pollen can cause. Aerobiological samplings were made with the aid of a Hirst type volumetric trap (Hirst, 1952), which worked uninterruptedly during a 3-year period (2008-2010) according to the methodology proposed by the Spanish Aerobiology Network, the REA. Cannabis pollen was present in the atmosphere of Tetouan mainly from early April to late August, a period in which about 95% of the annual counts were registered. The highest levels were detected in June and July, with concentrations more or less evenly distributed throughout the day with slight increases of 5% between 12:00 and 16:00 h. The strong association between skin test reactivity, respiratory symptoms, and pollination period found by other authors, together with the levels registered, suggests that Cannabis pollen could be a clinically important aeroallergen for sensitive patients. On the other hand, the data obtained could serve as an indicator of the cultivation activity of this species and should be taken into account by the state authorities since they provide strong evidence of the existence of Cannabis crops in the region of Tetouan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. What Should We Tell Our Patients About Marijuana (Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa)?

    PubMed Central

    Pizzorno, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    With several states allowing medicinal use of marijuana and a growing number decriminalizing recreational use, many of our patients are using this herbal drug. Approximately 43% of US adults have tried marijuana, with 13% using it regularly. These users are seeking help from integrative medicine practitioners regarding safety. They are looking for advice based on research and clinical experience, not politics or philosophical bias. The major health problems caused by marijuana appear to be bronchial irritation, decreased motivation, learning difficulties, and injuries. However, less well appreciated are the toxicity problems caused by contamination with pesticides and solvent residues. We have important guidance to help prevent unnecessary toxicity in our patients who choose to use marijuana. This editorial reviews toxicity and safety. Medicinal use will be addressed in the future. PMID:28223891

  4. What Should We Tell Our Patients About Marijuana (Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa)?

    PubMed

    Pizzorno, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    With several states allowing medicinal use of marijuana and a growing number decriminalizing recreational use, many of our patients are using this herbal drug. Approximately 43% of US adults have tried marijuana, with 13% using it regularly. These users are seeking help from integrative medicine practitioners regarding safety. They are looking for advice based on research and clinical experience, not politics or philosophical bias. The major health problems caused by marijuana appear to be bronchial irritation, decreased motivation, learning difficulties, and injuries. However, less well appreciated are the toxicity problems caused by contamination with pesticides and solvent residues. We have important guidance to help prevent unnecessary toxicity in our patients who choose to use marijuana. This editorial reviews toxicity and safety. Medicinal use will be addressed in the future.

  5. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B; Guy, Geoffrey W; Robson, Philip J

    2007-08-01

    Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life.

  6. Monoculture and polyculture: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  7. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  8. Cannabis and psychosis: Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is a known risk factor for schizophrenia, although the exact neurobiological process through which the effects on psychosis occur is not well-understood. In this review, we attempt to develop and discuss a possible pathway for the development of psychosis. We examine the neurobiological changes due to cannabis to see if these changes are similar to those seen in schizophrenic patients the findings show similarities; however, these mere similarities cannot establish a ‘cause-effect’ relationship as a number of people with similar changes do not develop schizophrenia. Therefore, the ‘transition-to-psychosis’ due to cannabis, despite being a strong risk factor, remains uncertain based upon neurobiological changes. It appears that other multiple factors might be involved in these processes which are beyond neurobiological factors. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence, and the role of the cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions is of now, it is clear that some of the similarities in the neurobiology of cannabis and schizophrenia may indicate a mechanism for the development of psychosis, but its trajectories are undetermined. PMID:24574553

  9. Can we make cannabis safer?

    PubMed

    Englund, Amir; Freeman, Tom P; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis use and related problems are on the rise globally alongside an increase in the potency of cannabis sold on both black and legal markets. Additionally, there has been a shift towards abandoning prohibition for a less punitive and more permissive legal stance on cannabis, such as decriminalisation and legalisation. It is therefore crucial that we explore new and innovative ways to reduce harm. Research has found cannabis with high concentrations of its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), to be more harmful (in terms of causing the main risks associated with cannabis use, such as addiction, psychosis, and cognitive impairment) than cannabis with lower concentrations of THC. By contrast, cannabidiol, which is a non-intoxicating and potentially therapeutic component of cannabis, has been found to reduce the negative effects of cannabis use. Here, we briefly review findings from studies investigating various types of cannabis and discuss how future research can help to better understand and reduce the risks of cannabis use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cannabis-associated arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Anne Claire; Cacoub, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the different arterial complications reported in cannabis smokers. This study was a literature review. Cannabis use was found to be associated with stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb arteritis. Arterial disease involved especially young men. There was a very strong temporal link between arterial complications and cannabis use for stroke and myocardial infarction episodes. Patient outcome was closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal and relapses associated with cannabis rechallenge. Cannabis use was associated with particular characteristics of arterial disease. The increased risk of myocardial infarction onset occurred within 1 hour of smoking marijuana compared with periods of non-use. Strokes occurred mainly in the posterior cerebral circulation. Compared with cohorts of thromboangiitis obliterans patients, those with cannabis-associated limb arteritis were younger, more often male, and had more frequent unilateral involvement of the lower limbs at clinical presentation. Cannabis use is associated with arterial disease such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and limbs arteritis. It appears essential to investigate cannabis use in young patients presenting with such arterial manifestations, as outcome is closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cannabis effects on driving skills.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-03-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis' effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2-5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention, and include occasional and

  12. Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Seymour

    2016-01-01

    The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa and its derivatives, cannabinoids, have grown increasingly popular as a potential therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies have shown that modulation of the endocannabinoid system, which regulates various functions in the body and has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD, has a therapeutic effect in mouse colitis. Epidemiologic data and human therapy studies reveal a possible role for cannabinoids in the symptomatic treatment of IBD, although it has yet to be determined in human populations whether cannabinoids have therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects in IBD or are simply masking its many debilitating symptoms. Large, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials using serial inflammatory markers, biopsy findings, and endoscopic disease severity to demonstrate objective improvement in IBD are necessary before cannabis can be empirically accepted and recommended as an IBD treatment option. Questions concerning its safety profile and adverse effects prompt the need for further research, particularly in regard to dosing and route of administration to maximize benefits and limit potential harms. Cannabis use should be reserved for symptomatic control in patients with severe IBD refractory to the currently available standard-of-care and complementary and alternative medicines. PMID:28035196

  13. Therapeutic Mechanisms for Cannabinoid-Promoted Survival of Oligodendrocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-21

    studied as a possible treatment for MS and one class of compounds that is showing particular promise are the cannabinoids. Cannabis , or marijuana, as it...recreational drug. This effect was described by French poet Charles Baudelaire who gives a vivid account of the effects of the hemp plant ( Cannabis ...Research on the properties of cannabis sativa has dramatically increased since 1964 when the chemical structure of t’l.9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC

  14. Residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Pope, H G; Gruber, A J; Yurgelun-Todd, D

    2001-12-01

    Acute intoxication with cannabis clearly produces cognitive impairment, but it is less clear how long cognitive deficits persist after an individual stops regular cannabis use. Numerous methodologic difficulties confront investigators in the field attempting to assess the residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis among heavy users, and these must be understood to properly evaluate available studies. At present, it appears safe to conclude that deficits in attention and memory persist for at least several days after discontinuing regular heavy cannabis use. Some of these deficits may be caused or exacerbated by withdrawal effects from the abrupt discontinuation of cannabis; these effects typically peak after 3 to 7 days of abstinence. It is less clear, however, whether heavy cannabis use can cause neurotoxicity that persists long after discontinuation of use. It seems likely that such long-term effects, if they exist, are subtle and not clinically disabling--at least in the majority of cases.

  15. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

  16. Cannabis and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rathbone, John; Variend, Hannele; Mehta, Hetal

    2014-01-01

    Background Many people with schizophrenia use cannabis and its effects on the illness are unclear. Objectives To evaluate the effects of cannabis use on people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like illnesses. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Selection criteria We included all randomised trials involving cannabinoids and people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed effects model. We calculated the numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH). For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a fixed effects model. Main results We identified one randomised trial. No significant differences were found between the Cannabis and Psychosis Therapy (CAP) intervention group and the Psychoeducaton (PE) intervention for use of cannabis at three months assessment (n=47, RR 1.04 CI 0.6 to 1.7). BPRS-extended scale scores at three months assessment (n=47, WMD −3.60 CI −12.8 to 5.6) and nine months assessment (n=47, WMD 0.80 CI −7.5 to 9.1) were non-significant between CAP and PE. We found no significant improvement in social functioning in the CAP group compared with PE (at 3 months, n=47, WMD −0.80 CI −10 to 8.4) and (at 9 months, n=47, WMD −4.70 CI −14.5 to 5.1). Authors’ conclusions At present, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of cannabis/cannabinoid compounds for people suffering with schizophrenia. This review highlights the need for well designed, conducted and reported clinical trials to address the potential effects of cannabis based compounds for people with schizophrenia. PMID:18646115

  17. Synthetic cannabis and respiratory depression.

    PubMed

    Jinwala, Felecia N; Gupta, Mayank

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, synthetic cannabis use has been increasing in appeal among adolescents, and its use is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors. The constituents of synthetic cannabis are difficult to monitor, given the drug's easy accessibility. Currently, 40 U.S. states have banned the distribution and use of some known synthetic cannabinoids, and have included these drugs in the Schedule I category. The depressive respiratory effect in humans caused by synthetic cannabis inhalation has not been thoroughly investigated in the medical literature. We are the first to report, to our knowledge, two cases of self-reported synthetic cannabis use leading to respiratory depression and necessary intubation.

  18. [Somatic consequences of cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Cottencin, Olivier; Bence, Camille; Rolland, Benjamin; Karila, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis can have negative effects in its users, and a range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been dentified. Acute cannabis consumption is rarely lethal but it is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accident because of longer reaction time or impaired motor coordination. Chronic effects of cannabis use include generally cardiovascular and respiratory consequences but there are also oral, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and mucous, metabolic, gynecologic and obstetrical, sexual consequences, and cancer But associated tobacco smoking or other potential confounders may explain part of those somatic consequences.

  19. Attitudes of cannabis growers to regulation of cannabis cultivation under a non-prohibition cannabis model.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Simon; Frank, Vibeke A; Barratt, Monica J; Dahl, Helle Vibeke; Potter, Gary R

    2015-03-01

    How cannabis cultivation is dealt with under various examples of cannabis legalization or regulation is an important consideration in design of such schemes. This study aimed to (i) investigate support among current or recent cannabis growers, for various potential policy options for cannabis cultivation if prohibition were repealed, and (ii) explore the support for these options across countries, scale of growing operations, demographics, drug use and cannabis supply involvement variables. This study utilized data from the online web survey of largely 'small-scale' cannabis cultivators, aged 18yrs and over, in eleven countries conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC). Data from 1722 current and recent cannabis growers in Australia, Denmark and the UK, who were all asked about policy, were included in the analysis. It investigated support for various frameworks for cultivation: (no regulation (free market); adult only; growing licenses; restrictions on plant numbers; licensed business-only sale; approved commercial growing; etc.). Among current growers, support for these options were compared across countries, across scale of growing operations, and by demographics, drug use and crime variables. Although there were some between country differences in support for the various policy options, what was striking was the similarity of the proportions for each of the eight most popular policy options. Among current growers, many of these positions were predicted by demographic, drug use and cannabis growing variables which were conceptually congruent with these positions. The results have relevance for the provisions regarding cannabis cultivation in the design of new non-prohibitionist models of cannabis which are increasingly under consideration. It should be of interest to policy makers, drug policy researchers, law enforcement and cannabis cultivators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    PubMed Central

    Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC are investigated. PMID:28344554

  1. Neuroimaging studies towards understanding the central effects of pharmacological cannabis products on patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2017-05-01

    Recent interest for the use of cannabis-derived products as therapeutic agents in the treatment of epilepsies has necessitated a reevaluation of their effects on brain and behavior. Overall, prolonged cannabis use is thought to result in functional and structural brain alterations. These effects may be dependent on a number of factors: e.g., which phytocannabinoid is used (e.g., cannabidiol (CBD) vs. tetrahyrocannabinol (THC)), the frequency of use (occasional vs. heavy), and at what age (prenatal, childhood, adulthood) the use began. However, due to the fact that there are over seven hundred constituents that make up the Cannabis sativa plant, it is difficult to determine which compound or combination of compounds is responsible for specific effects when studying recreational users. Therefore, this review focuses only on the functional MRI studies investigating the effects of specific pharmacological preparations of cannabis compounds, specifically THC, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and CBD, on brain function in healthy individuals and persons with epilepsy with references to non-epilepsy studies only to underline the gaps in research that need to be filled before cannabis-derived products are considered for a wide use in the treatment of epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cannabis - the Israeli perspective.

    PubMed

    Mechoulam, Raphael

    2016-05-01

    Short overviews are presented on the historical uses of cannabis in the Middle East and on the more recent scientific and medical research on phytocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, with emphasis on research contributions from Israel. These are followed by examples of research projects and clinical trials with cannabinoids and by a short report on the regulation of medical marijuana in Israel, which at present is administered to over 22,000 patients.

  3. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  4. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kushani; Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world. Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to 4 March 2014), MEDLINE (to week 3 February 2014), EMBASE (to 3 March 2014) and PsycINFO (to week 4 February 2014). We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication (supportive care) in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving 958 participants. For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. Approximately 80% of study participants were male. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias. Three studies were at risk of attrition bias. All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing

  5. When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

  6. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for growth stage classification of cannabis cultivated in a greenhouse from seized seeds.

    PubMed

    Borille, Bruna Tassi; Marcelo, Marcelo Caetano Alexandre; Ortiz, Rafael Scorsatto; Mariotti, Kristiane de Cássia; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2017-02-15

    Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis, Cannabaceae), popularly called marijuana, is one of the oldest plants known to man and it is the illicit drug most used worldwide. It also has been the subject of increasing discussions from the scientific and political points of view due to its medicinal properties. In recent years in Brazil, the form of cannabis drug trafficking has been changing and the Brazilian Federal Police has exponentially increased the number of seizures of cannabis seeds sent by the mail. This new form of trafficking encouraged the study of cannabis seeds seized germinated in a greenhouse through NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. The plants were cultivated in a homemade greenhouse under controlled conditions. In three different growth periods (5.5weeks, 7.5weeks and 10weeks), they were harvested, dried, ground and directly analyzed. The iPCA was used to select the best NIR spectral range (4000-4375cm -1 ) in order to develop unsupervised and supervised methods. The PCA and HCA showed a good separation between the three groups of cannabis samples at different growth stages. The PLS-DA and SVM-DA classified the samples with good results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity and specificity for SVM-DA classification were equal to unity. This separation may be due to the correlation of cannabinoids and volatile compounds concentration during the growth of the cannabis plant. Therefore, the growth stage of cannabis can be predicted by NIR spectroscopy and chemometric tools in the early stages of indoor cannabis cultivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for growth stage classification of cannabis cultivated in a greenhouse from seized seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borille, Bruna Tassi; Marcelo, Marcelo Caetano Alexandre; Ortiz, Rafael Scorsatto; Mariotti, Kristiane de Cássia; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2017-02-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis, Cannabaceae), popularly called marijuana, is one of the oldest plants known to man and it is the illicit drug most used worldwide. It also has been the subject of increasing discussions from the scientific and political points of view due to its medicinal properties. In recent years in Brazil, the form of cannabis drug trafficking has been changing and the Brazilian Federal Police has exponentially increased the number of seizures of cannabis seeds sent by the mail. This new form of trafficking encouraged the study of cannabis seeds seized germinated in a greenhouse through NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. The plants were cultivated in a homemade greenhouse under controlled conditions. In three different growth periods (5.5 weeks, 7.5 weeks and 10 weeks), they were harvested, dried, ground and directly analyzed. The iPCA was used to select the best NIR spectral range (4000-4375 cm- 1) in order to develop unsupervised and supervised methods. The PCA and HCA showed a good separation between the three groups of cannabis samples at different growth stages. The PLS-DA and SVM-DA classified the samples with good results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity and specificity for SVM-DA classification were equal to unity. This separation may be due to the correlation of cannabinoids and volatile compounds concentration during the growth of the cannabis plant. Therefore, the growth stage of cannabis can be predicted by NIR spectroscopy and chemometric tools in the early stages of indoor cannabis cultivation.

  8. Study of Structural Morphology of Hemp Fiber from the Micro to the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei; Sain, Mohini; Oksman, Kristiina

    2007-03-01

    The focus of this work has been to study how high pressure defibrillation and chemical purification affect the hemp fiber morphology from micro to nanoscale. Microscopy techniques, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the structure and properties of the prepared micro and nanofibers. Microscopy studies showed that the used individualization processes lead to a unique morphology of interconnected web-like structure of hemp fibers. The nanofibers are bundles of cellulose fibers of widths ranging between 30 and 100 nm and estimated lengths of several micrometers. The chemical analysis showed that selective chemical treatments increased the α-cellulose content of hemp nanofibers from 75 to 94%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed that the pectins were partially removed during the individualization treatments. X-ray analysis showed that the relative crystallinity of the studied fibers increased after each stage of chemical and mechanical treatments. It was also observed that the hemp nanofibers had an increased crystallinity of 71 from 57% of untreated hemp fibers.

  9. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  10. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Cannabis and creativity: highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Mikael A; Hazekamp, Arno; Colzato, Lorenza S; van Steenbergen, Henk; van der Wee, Nic J A; Durieux, Jeffrey; Manai, Meriem; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Cannabis users often claim that cannabis has the potential to enhance their creativity. Research suggests that aspects of creative performance might be improved when intoxicated with cannabis; however, the evidence is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of cannabis on creativity. We examined the effects of administering a low (5.5 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) or high (22 mg THC) dose of vaporized cannabis vs. placebo on creativity tasks tapping into divergent (Alternate Uses Task) and convergent (Remote Associates Task) thinking, in a population of regular cannabis users. The study used a randomized, double-blind, between-groups design. Participants in the high-dose group (n = 18) displayed significantly worse performance on the divergent thinking task, compared to individuals in both the low-dose (n = 18) and placebo (n = 18) groups. The findings suggest that cannabis with low potency does not have any impact on creativity, while highly potent cannabis actually impairs divergent thinking.

  12. Statistics on Cannabis Users Skew Perceptions of Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Rachel M.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Everingham, Susan S.; Kilmer, Beau

    2013-01-01

    Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight (1) differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; (2) how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and (3) the correlation between frequency of use in the past-month and average grams consumed per use-day. Key findings: focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanics. Further, data from a survey conducted in seven European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations. PMID:24223560

  13. Acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and paraoxonase 1 activities in rats treated with cannabis, tramadol or both.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Youness, Eman R; Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sleem, Amany A

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa resin and/or tramadol, two commonly drugs of abuse on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities as a possible cholinergic biomarkers of neurotoxicity induced by these agents. Rats were treated with cannabis resin (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) (equivalent to the active constituent Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol), tramadol (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) or tramadol (10 mg/kg) combined with cannabis resin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) subcutaneously daily for 6 weeks. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured in brain and serum. We also measured the activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) in serum of rats treated with these agents. (i) AChE activity in brain increased after 10-20 mg/kg cannabis resin (by 16.3-36.5%). AChE activity in brain did not change after treatment with 5-20 mg/kg tramadol. The administration of both cannabis resin (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) and tramadol (10 mg/kg) resulted in decreased brain AChE activity by 14.1%, 12.9% and 13.6%, respectively; (ii) BChE activity in serum was markedly and dose-dependently inhibited by cannabis resin (by 60.9-76.9%). BChE activity also decreased by 17.6-36.5% by 10-20 mg/kg tramadol and by 57.2-63.9% by the cannabis resin/tramadol combined treatment; (iii) Cannabis resin at doses of 20 mg/kg increased serum PON1 activity by 25.7%. In contrast, tramadol given at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in serum PON1 activity by 19%, 36.7%, and 46.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, treatment with cannabis resin plus tramadol resulted in 40.2%, 35.8%, 30.7% inhibition of PON1 activity compared to the saline group. These data suggest that cannabis resin exerts different effects on AChE and BChE activities which could contribute to the memory problems and the decline in cognitive function in chronic users. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodegradable polyester-based eco-composites containing hemp fibers modified with macrocyclic oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conzatti, Lucia; Utzeri, Roberto; Hodge, Philip; Stagnaro, Paola

    2016-05-01

    An original compatibilizing pathway for hemp fibers/poly(1,4-butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) (PBAT) eco-composites was explored exploiting the capability of macrocyclic oligomers (MCOs), obtained by cyclodepolymerization (CDP) of PBAT at high dilution, of being re-converted into linear chains by entropically-driven ring-opening polymerization (ED-ROP) that occurs simply heating the MCOS in the bulk. CDP reaction of PBAT was carried out varying solvent, catalyst and reaction time. Selected MCOs were used to adjust the conditions of the ED-ROP reaction. The best experimental conditions were then adopted to modify hemp fibers. Eco-composites based on PBAT and hemp fibers as obtained or modified with PBAT macrocyclics or oligomers were prepared by different process strategies. The best fiber-PBAT compatibility was observed when the fibers were modified with PBAT oligomers before incorporation in the polyester matrix.

  15. Characterization of chemically and enzymatically treated hemp fibres using atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G.; Abboud, Zeinab; Bressler, David C.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanical and moisture resistance properties of natural fibre reinforced composites are dependent on the adhesion between the matrix of choice and the fibre. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of NaOH swelling of hemp fibres prior to enzymatic treatment and a novel chemical sulfonic acid method on the physical properties of hemp fibres. The colloidal properties of treated hemp fibres were studied exclusively using an atomic force microscope. AFM imaging in tapping mode revealed that each treatment rendered the surface topography of the hemp fibres clean and exposed the individual fibre bundles. Hemp fibres treated with laccase had no effect on the surface adhesion forces measured. Interestingly, mercerization prior to xylanase + cellulase and laccase treatments resulted in greater enzyme access evident in the increased adhesion force measurements. Hemp fibres treated with sulfonic acid showed an increase in surface de-fibrillation and smoothness. A decrease in adhesion forces for 4-aminotoulene-3-sulfonic acid (AT3S) treated fibres suggested a reduction in surface polarity. This work demonstrated that AFM can be used as a tool to estimate the surface forces and roughness for modified fibres and that enzymatic coupled with chemical methods can be used to improve the surface properties of natural fibres for composite applications. Further, this work is one of the first that offers some insight into the effect of mercerization prior to enzymes and the effect on the surface topography. AFM will be used to selectively screen treated fibres for composite applications based on the adhesion forces associated with the colloidal interface between the AFM tip and the fibre surfaces.

  16. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  17. [Consumption of cannabis in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Phan, O; Obradovic, I; Har, A

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the consumption of cannabis among adolescents has dramatically increased. Today, adolescent cannabis use is a major public health problem. Two forms of cannabis are commonly smoked: herb (marijuana) and resin. These forms have a high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active molecule of cannabis. Recent research has helped understand how the cannabinoid system works. This system combines specific receptors and specific molecules: the endocannabinoids. The effects of cannabis use are now well documented. Some adolescents report subjective positive effects. They use it not only on a recreational basis, but also to deal with their emotions. Over the long term, cannabis increases the risk of depression and schizophrenia for those adolescents who are at risk. Use, misuse, and dependence are frequently associated with heavy psychopathologic problems such as vulnerability and depression. Many cannabis dependence psychotherapies have shown their efficacy and efficiency. Motivational interviews, cognitive behavioral therapy, multidimensional family therapy (MDFT), and residential treatment have proved highly effective. MDFT seems very effective, especially in cases of heavy use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical perspectives on medical marijuana (cannabis) for neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Fife, Terry D; Moawad, Heidi; Moschonas, Constantine; Shepard, Katie; Hammond, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    The American Academy of Neurology published an evidence-based systematic review of randomized controlled trials using marijuana ( Cannabis sativa ) or cannabinoids in neurologic disorders. Several cannabinoids showed effectiveness or probable effectiveness for spasticity, central pain, and painful spasms in multiple sclerosis. The review justifies insurance coverage for dronabinol and nabilone for these indications. Many insurance companies already cover these medications for other indications. It is unlikely that the review will alter coverage for herbal marijuana. Currently, no payers cover the costs of herbal medical marijuana because it is illegal under federal law and in most states. Cannabinoid preparations currently available by prescription may have a role in other neurologic conditions, but quality scientific evidence is lacking at this time.

  19. Clinical perspectives on medical marijuana (cannabis) for neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fife, Terry D.; Moawad, Heidi; Moschonas, Constantine; Hammond, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Summary The American Academy of Neurology published an evidence-based systematic review of randomized controlled trials using marijuana (Cannabis sativa) or cannabinoids in neurologic disorders. Several cannabinoids showed effectiveness or probable effectiveness for spasticity, central pain, and painful spasms in multiple sclerosis. The review justifies insurance coverage for dronabinol and nabilone for these indications. Many insurance companies already cover these medications for other indications. It is unlikely that the review will alter coverage for herbal marijuana. Currently, no payers cover the costs of herbal medical marijuana because it is illegal under federal law and in most states. Cannabinoid preparations currently available by prescription may have a role in other neurologic conditions, but quality scientific evidence is lacking at this time. PMID:26336632

  20. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, James C.; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Objective To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field’s five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/control. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. Results In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7–8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a ‘gateway sequence’ and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence

  1. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review.

    PubMed

    Anthony, James C; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-04

    Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/ control. The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7-8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a 'gateway sequence' and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that governmentsponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  2. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, J. G.; van Wel, J. H.; Spronk, D. B.; Toennes, S. W.; Kuypers, K. P. C.; Theunissen, E. L.; Verkes, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  3. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, J G; van Wel, J H; Spronk, D B; Toennes, S W; Kuypers, K P C; Theunissen, E L; Verkes, R J

    2016-05-26

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic.

  4. Implicit Associations and Explicit Expectancies toward Cannabis in Heavy Cannabis Users and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Beraha, Esther M.; Cousijn, Janna; Hermanides, Elisa; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations toward cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s) and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between these implicit affective associations and explicit expectancies, subjective craving, cannabis use, and cannabis related problems. Results show that heavy cannabis users had stronger implicit positive-arousal associations but weaker implicit negative associations toward cannabis compared to controls. Moreover, heavy cannabis users had stronger sedation but weaker negative explicit expectancies toward cannabis compared to controls. Within heavy cannabis users, more cannabis use was associated with stronger implicit negative associations whereas more cannabis use related problems was associated with stronger explicit negative expectancies, decreasing the overall difference on negative associations between cannabis users and controls. No other associations were observed between implicit associations, explicit expectancies, measures of cannabis use, cannabis use related problems, or subjective craving. These findings indicate that, in contrast to other substances of abuse like alcohol and tobacco, the relationship between implicit associations and cannabis use appears to be weak in heavy cannabis users. PMID:23801968

  5. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  6. Cannabis use: a perspective in relation to the proposed UK drug-driving legislation.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Kim; Johnston, Atholl

    2014-01-01

    With regard to THC (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main psychoactive constituent identified in the plant Cannabis sativa L, several facts are indisputable. Cannabis remains the most commonly used drug in the UK among those who reported driving under the influence of illegal drugs in the previous 12 months. There is a significant dose-related decrement in driving performance following cannabis use; raised blood THC concentrations are significantly associated with increased traffic crash and death risk. When cannabis and alcohol are detected together, there is a greater risk to road safety than when either drug is used alone. Patterns of use are important when interpreting blood concentration data: Smoking infrequently a single cannabis cigarette leads to peak plasma THC concentrations (21-267 µg/L) causing acute intoxication. In habitual, daily users, plasma THC concentrations range from 1.0 to 11.0 µg/L and are maintained by sequestration of the drug from the tissues. These facts undoubtedly make setting thresholds for drug-driving legislation difficult but there is clearly a case for cannabis. Determining minimum blood THC concentrations at which a driver becomes sufficiently impaired to be unable to safely drive a vehicle is of particular concern given the increasing medicinal use of the drug. Internationally legislation for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is based on either a proof of impairment or a per se approach. For the latter this can be either zero-tolerance or based on concentration limits such as those used for alcohol. The different approaches are considered against current scientific evidence. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Weeding Out the Truth: Adolescents and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Tau, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The use of cannabis for both legal (similar to alcohol) and medical purposes is becoming more common. Although cannabis remains an illegal Schedule 1 drug federally, as of November 2015, 23 states and the District of Columbia have legalized "medical" cannabis, and 4 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for adults aged 21 years and older. It is very likely that more and more states will sooner rather than later allow cannabis for both medical and legal purposes. This review article will focus on a variety of issues relevant to the current debate about cannabis, and will address the following.

  8. Attitudes to legalizing cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jenny; van Ours, Jan C; Grossman, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cannabis use and attitudes to legalizing the use of cannabis. Predictions from theory provide a means of learning about the roles of information, self interest and regret in explaining differences in attitudes to legalization between those who currently use, those who have used in the past and those who have never used. Our empirical investigation suggests that users have a greater awareness of cannabis not being as harmful as abstainers think it is. This may explain why individuals are more inclined to be in favor of legalizing cannabis once they have used it themselves. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Anticoagulant effects of a Cannabis extract in an obese rat model.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, C; Levendal, R-A; van de Venter, M; Frost, C L

    2007-05-01

    Blood coagulation studies were conducted to determine the possible anti-/prothrombotic effect of an organic cannabis extract and the three major cannabinoids, THC, CBD and CBN. The in vitro effect of the cannabis extract on thrombin activity produced an IC50 value of 9.89 mg/ml, compared to THC at 1.79 mg/ml. It was also found that the extract, THC and CBN showed considerable inhibition of thrombin-induced clot formation in vitro with IC50 values of 600, 87 and 83 microg/ml for the extract, THC and CBN respectively. In an in vivo model used to determine clotting times of lean and obese rats treated with a cannabis extract, 50% clotting times were found to be 1.5 and 2 fold greater than their respective control groups, supporting the results obtained in the in vitro model. The study thus shows that Cannabis sativa and the cannabinoids, THC and CBN, display anticoagulant activity and may be useful in the treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes in which a hypercoagulable state exists.

  10. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    PubMed

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  11. Psychiatric Morbidity of Cannabis Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip; Murthy, Pratima; Singh, Swaran P

    2003-01-01

    The paper evaluates the hypothesis that cannabis abuse is associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders in India, an area with relatively high prevalence of cannabis use. Retrospective case-note review of all cases with cannabis related diagnosis over a 11 -year period, for subjects presenting to a tertiary psychiatric hospital in southern India was carried out. Information pertaining to sociodemographic, personal, social, substance-use related, psychiatric and treatment histories, was gathered. Standardized diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic Criteria for Research of the World Health Organization, on the basis of information available. Cannabis abuse is associated with widespread psychiatric morbidity that spans the major categories of mental disorders under the ICD-10 system, although proportion of patients with psychotic disorders far outweighed those with non-psychotic disorders. Whilst paranoid psychoses were more prevalent, a significant number of patients with affective psychoses, particularly mania, was also noted. Besides being known as either the causative agent or a potent risk factor in cases of paranoid psychoses, cannabis appears to have similar capabilities with regard to affective psychoses, particularly in cases of mania. It is suggested that cannabis has the potential to act as a "life event stressor" amongst subjects vulnerable to develop affective psychoses and the possible aetiopathogenesis of such a finding is discussed. PMID:21206852

  12. Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for Different Planting Dates and Seeding Rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated nitrogen (N) fertilizer costs have renewed interest in alternative N sources, such as legumes. Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume capable of producing considerable biomass in a short period of time. A randomized complete block design with a split-plot restriction and fou...

  13. Investigation of mechanical properties of hemp/glass fiber reinforced nano clay hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unki, Hanamantappa Ningappa; Shivanand, H. K.; Vidyasagar, H. N.

    2018-04-01

    Over the last twenty to thirty years composite materials have been used in engineering field. Composite materials possess high strength, high strength to weight ratio due to these facts composite materials are becoming popular among researchers and scientists. The major proportion of engineering materials consists of composite materials. Composite materials are used in vast applications ranging from day-to-day household articles to highly sophisticated applications. In this paper an attempt is made to prepare three different composite materials using e-glass and Hemp. In this present investigation hybrid composite of Hemp, Glass fiber and Nano clay will be prepared by Hand-layup technique. The glass fiber used in this present investigation is E-glass fiber bi-directional: 90˚ orientation. The composite samples will be made in the form of a Laminates. The wt% of nanoclay added in the preparation of sample is 20 gm constant. The fabricated composite Laminate will be cut into corresponding profiles as per ASTM standards for Mechanical Testing. The effect of addition of Nano clay and variation of Hemp/glass fibers will be studied. In the present work, a new Hybrid composite is developed in which Hemp, E glass fibers is reinforced with epoxy resin and with Nano clay.

  14. Utilization of sunn hemp for cover crops and weed control in temperate climates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The need to develop increasingly integrated pest management and sustainable food production systems has encouraged a greater interest to thoroughly evaluate effective utilization of cover crops in agricultural systems. Sunn hemp, a tropical legume that originated most likely from the Indo-Pakistani ...

  15. Solitary cannabis use in adolescence as a correlate and predictor of cannabis problems.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    Most adolescent cannabis use occurs in social settings among peers. Solitary cannabis use during adolescence may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior with important implications for understanding risk for cannabis problems. This longitudinal study examined associations of adolescent solitary cannabis use with levels of cannabis use and problems in adolescence and in young adulthood. Cannabis using-adolescents aged 12-18 were recruited from clinical programs (n=354; 43.8% female; 83.3% Caucasian) and community sources (n=93; 52.7% female; 80.6% Caucasian). Participants reported on cannabis use patterns and diagnostic symptoms at baseline and multiple follow-ups into young adulthood. Compared to social-only users, adolescent solitary cannabis users were more likely to be male and reported more frequent cannabis use and more DSM-IV cannabis use disorder (CUD) symptoms. Regression analyses showed that solitary cannabis use in adolescence predicted CUD symptom counts in young adulthood (age 25) after controlling for demographic variables and the frequency of adolescent cannabis use. However, solitary adolescent cannabis use was no longer predictive of age 25 CUD symptoms after additionally controlling for adolescent CUD symptoms. Solitary cannabis use is associated with greater cannabis use and problems during adolescence, but evidence is mixed that it predicts young adult cannabis problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Related, induced and associated psychiatric disorders to cannabis].

    PubMed

    Laqueille, Xavier

    2005-01-15

    Cannabis disorders, according to the DSM-IV and the ICD-10 criteria, include cannabis intoxication, cannabis abuse, cannabis dependence, and cannabis-related disorders (anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, cannabis intoxication delirium). Although cannabis withdrawal syndrome has clinical importance, it is not included in these classifications. The amotivational syndrome remains controversial. The psychiatric disorders related to cannabis use are anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and psychotic disorders. Cannabis use could be closely linked with the neurobiology of schizophrenia. As the other psychoactive substances, cannabis use worsens the psychiatric outcomes and is associated with poorer treatment compliance.

  17. Distance to Cannabis Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use.

    PubMed

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-11-01

    In the Netherlands, cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a mixed proportional hazard rate framework to take account of observable as well as unobservable characteristics that influence the uptake of cannabis. We find that distance matters. Individuals who grow up within 20 km of a cannabis shop have a lower age of onset. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Driving under the influence of cannabis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-05

    As more states decriminalize and legalize medical and recreational use of cannabis (marijuana), traffic safety leaders and public health advocates have growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). How do we understand the cu...

  19. Pharmacological Foundations of Cannabis Chemovars.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mark A; Russo, Ethan B; Smith, Kevin M

    2018-03-01

    An advanced Mendelian Cannabis breeding program has been developed utilizing chemical markers to maximize the yield of phytocannabinoids and terpenoids with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. Cannabis is often divided into several categories based on cannabinoid content. Type I, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol-predominant, is the prevalent offering in both medical and recreational marketplaces. In recent years, the therapeutic benefits of cannabidiol have been better recognized, leading to the promotion of additional chemovars: Type II, Cannabis that contains both Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and cannabidiol-predominant Type III Cannabis. While high- Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and high-myrcene chemovars dominate markets, these may not be optimal for patients who require distinct chemical profiles to achieve symptomatic relief. Type II Cannabis chemovars that display cannabidiol- and terpenoid-rich profiles have the potential to improve both efficacy and minimize adverse events associated with Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol exposure. Cannabis samples were analyzed for cannabinoid and terpenoid content, and analytical results are presented via PhytoFacts, a patent-pending method of graphically displaying phytocannabinoid and terpenoid content, as well as scent, taste, and subjective therapeutic effect data. Examples from the breeding program are highlighted and include Type I, II, and III Cannabis chemovars, those highly potent in terpenoids in general, or single components, for example, limonene, pinene, terpinolene, and linalool. Additionally, it is demonstrated how Type I - III chemovars have been developed with conserved terpenoid proportions. Specific chemovars may produce enhanced analgesia, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anti-anxiety effects, while simultaneously reducing sequelae of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol such as panic, toxic psychosis, and short-term memory impairment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  20. Sex differences in associations between cannabis craving and neural responses to cannabis cues: Implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical research indicates that there are sex differences in how men and women initiate, progress, respond to, and withdraw from cannabis use; however, neurophysiological differences, such as neural responses to cannabis cues, are not well understood. Using functional MRI and an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent backward-masking task, we compared neural responses to backward-masked cannabis cues to neutral cues in treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent adults (N = 44; 27 males) and examined whether sex differences exist. In addition, functional MRI findings were correlated with cannabis craving. Backward-masked cannabis cues elicited greater neural responses than neutral cues in reward-related brain regions, including the striatum, hippocampus/amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, p < .01, k > 121 voxels. Although no significant sex differences in neural responses to cannabis cues emerged, women showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the bilateral insula and cannabis craving and an inverse correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and cannabis craving. Men, however, showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the striatum and cannabis craving. Given that cues and craving are important triggers and the focus on many behavioral treatment approaches, these findings suggest that treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent men and women may benefit from sex-specific and tailored cannabis use disorder treatments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Cannabis Use and Performance in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Anil; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…

  2. Seized cannabis seeds cultivated in greenhouse: A chemical study by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Kristiane de Cássia; Marcelo, Marcelo Caetano Alexandre; Ortiz, Rafael S; Borille, Bruna Tassi; Dos Reis, Monique; Fett, Mauro Sander; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is cultivated in most regions of the world. In 2013, the Brazilian Federal Police (BFP) reported 220 tons of marijuana seized and about 800,000 cannabis plants eradicated. Efforts to eradicate cannabis production may have contributed to the development of a new form of international drug trafficking in Brazil: the sending of cannabis seeds in small amounts to urban centers by logistics postal. This new and increasing panorama of cannabis trafficking in Brazil, encouraged the chemical study of cannabis seeds cultivated in greenhouses by gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) associated with exploratory and discriminant analysis. Fifty cannabis seeds of different varieties and brands, seized by the BFP were cultivated under predefined conditions for a period of 4.5 weeks, 5.5 weeks, 7.5 weeks, 10 weeks and 12 weeks. Aerial parts were analyzed and cannabigerol, cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabichromene Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other terpenoids were detected. The chromatographic chemical profiles of the samples were significantly different, probably due to different variety, light exposition and age. THC content increased with the age of the plant, however, for other cannabinoids, this correlation was not observed. The chromatograms were plotted in a matrix with 50 rows (samples) and 3886 columns (abundance in a retention time) and submitted to PCA, HCA and PLS-DA after pretreatment (normalization, first derivative and autoscale). The PCA and HCA showed age separation between samples however it was not possible to verify the separation by varieties and brands. The PLS-DA classification provides a satisfactory prediction of plant age. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An update on cannabis research.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Khan, I

    1985-01-01

    A symposium of over 125 scientists, held in August 1984 at the campus of Oxford University, considered the latest developments concerning cannabis research. Evidence on the mode of tetrahydrocannabinol action on the central nervous system indicates that acetylcholine turnover in the hippocampus through a GABA-ergic mechanism is of major importance, though the role of the dopaminergic or serotoninergic mechanism and involvement of prostaglandins and c-AMP is not ruled out. The use of cannabis causes prominent and predictable effects on the heart, including increased work-load, increased plasma volume and postural hypotension, which could impose threats to the cannabis users with hypertension, cerebrovascular disease or coronary arteriosclerosis. Cannabis or tetrahydrocannabinol has damaging effects on the endocrine functions in both male and female of all animal species tested. Among possible mechanisms of action, it is suggested that tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts gonadal functions by depriving the testicular cells of their energy reserves by inhibition of cellular energetics, and that it stimulates androgen-binding protein secretion, which may account for oligospermia seen in chronic cannabis smokers. In addition to these direct effects on gonads, tetrahydrocannabinol interferes with hormonal secretions from the pituitary, including luteinizing hormones, follicle-stimulating hormones and prolactin. Research findings indicate that maternal and paternal exposure to cannabinoids can influence developmental and reproductive functions in the offspring, but it is difficult to separate possible teratogenic effects from subsequent gametotoxic and mutagenic potentials of cannabinoids.

  4. Pharmacological Treatment of Cannabis Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, A.M.; Gorelick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal psychoactive substance in the world. There is a significant increase in the number of treatment admissions for cannabis use disorders in the past few years, and the majority of cannabis-dependent individuals who enter treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence. Thus, there is increased need for medications that can be used to treat this population. So far, no medication has been shown broadly and consistently effective; none has been approved by any national regulatory authority. Medications studied have included those that alleviate symptoms of cannabis withdrawal (e.g., dysphoric mood, irritability), those that directly affect endogenous cannabinoid receptor function, and those that have shown efficacy in treatment of other drugs of abuse or psychiatric conditions. Buspirone is the only medication to date that has shown efficacy for cannabis dependence in a controlled clinical trial. Results from controlled human laboratory studies and small open-label clinical trials suggest that dronabinol, the COMT inhibitor entacapone, and lithium may warrant further study. Recent pre-clinical studies suggest the potential of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors such as URB597, endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes, and nicotinic alpha7 receptor antagonists such as methyllycaconitine (MLA). Controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of these medications and to validate the laboratory models being used to study candidate medications. PMID:21524266

  5. Cannabis Smoking and Cardiovascular Health: It's Complicated.

    PubMed

    Piano, M R

    2017-08-01

    Many states have legalized cannabis use for treatment of certain medical conditions or have legalized cannabis for recreational use. Consequently, cannabis use prevalence has escalated, giving rise to concerns about potential health effects. Cannabis smoking remains the most prevalent route of administration and is associated with inhalation of chemical toxicants. The aim of this article is to summarize the effects of cannabis smoking on the vasculature and occurrence of cardiovascular (CV) events such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  6. Medicinal cannabis: moving the debate forward.

    PubMed

    Newton-Howes, Giles; McBride, Sam

    2016-11-18

    There has been increased interest in cannabis as a medicine both nationally and internationally. Internationally, cannabis is accepted as a medication for a variety of purposes in a variety of legal guises and this, associated with anecdotes of the utility of cannabis as medication has led for calls for it to be 'medicalised' in New Zealand. This viewpoint discusses the issues associated with this approach to accessing cannabis and some of the difficulties that may be associated with it. It is important doctors are at the forefront of the debate surrounding medicalised cannabis. Recommendations as to the ongoing debate are offered.

  7. Cannabis in Sport

    PubMed Central

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215

  8. Cannabis and Cannabinoids for Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso; Kolano, Ashley L; Alvarado-Vázquez, P Abigail

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide the most up-to-date scientific evidence of the potential analgesic effects, or lack thereof, of the marijuana plant (cannabis) or cannabinoids, and of safety or tolerability of their long-term use. We found that inhaled (smoked or vaporized) cannabis is consistently effective in reducing chronic non-cancer pain. Oral cannabinoids seem to improve some aspects of chronic pain (sleep and general quality of life), or cancer chronic pain, but they do not seem effective in acute postoperative pain, abdominal chronic pain, or rheumatoid pain. The available literature shows that inhaled cannabis seems to be more tolerable and predictable than oral cannabinoids. Cannabis or cannabinoids are not universally effective for pain. Continued research on cannabis constituents and improving bioavailability for oral cannabinoids is needed. Other aspects of pain management in patients using cannabis require further open discussion: concomitant opioid use, medical vs. recreational cannabis, abuse potential, etc.

  9. Bias and the cannabis researcher.

    PubMed

    Ungerleider, J T; Andrysiak, T

    1981-01-01

    This report focuses on several aspects of the "drug" cannabis in our society: the historical notion of a chemical as a moral issue (i.e., good and evil) rather than a pharmacological one; the scientist as a human being as well as a witting or unwitting influencer of social policy; the statistical design and manipulation of research consciously or unconsciously for fame and fortune (grants); the research treatment "connection" as part of our drug abuse industrial complex, a billion dollar a year industry; and the covert governmental manipulation and distortion of cannabis (and other drug) data.

  10. Manufacturing technology and application of hemp cigarette paper with dense ash integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yu; Jian-bo, Zhan; Hao, Wan; Ying, Zhang; Li-wei, Li; Jiang, Yu; Ting-ting, Yu; Jiao, Xie; Bao-shan, Yue

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette paper, as one of the significant materials used for combustion, has special and direct influence on the smoke, also directly influencing the ash appearance of cigarettes before and after combustion. In this paper, full hemp cigarette paper was prepared through creative beating and mixing slurry technology, and the advantages of the preparation process were analyzed. Full hemp cigarette paper was creatively applied to the preparation and verification of slim cigarettes, and the ash integration effect in the process of burning and its influence on whiteness were verified. At the same time, the physical and chemical indexes of cigarette paper were tested and studied, and sensory evaluation was applied to verify the effect of cigarette paper on sensory quality.

  11. Development of Highly Repellent Silica Particles for Protection of Hemp Shiv Used as Insulation Materials.

    PubMed

    Bourebrab, Marion A; Durand, Géraldine G; Taylor, Alan

    2017-12-21

    New bio-materials have recently gained interest for use in insulation panels in walls, but wider adoption by the building industry is hindered by their intrinsic properties. The fact that such materials are mainly composed of cellulose makes them combustible, and their hydrophilic surface presents a high water uptake, which would lead to faster biodegradation. A hydrophobic treatment with silica particles was successfully synthesised via Stöber process, characterised, and deposited on hemp shiv. The surface of hemp shiv coated several times with 45 and 120 nm particles were uniformly covered, as well as extensively water repellent. Those samples could withstand in humidity chamber without loss of their hydrophobic property and no sign of mould growth after 72 h of exposure.

  12. Development of Highly Repellent Silica Particles for Protection of Hemp Shiv Used as Insulation Materials

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Géraldine G.

    2017-01-01

    New bio-materials have recently gained interest for use in insulation panels in walls, but wider adoption by the building industry is hindered by their intrinsic properties. The fact that such materials are mainly composed of cellulose makes them combustible, and their hydrophilic surface presents a high water uptake, which would lead to faster biodegradation. A hydrophobic treatment with silica particles was successfully synthesised via Stöber process, characterised, and deposited on hemp shiv. The surface of hemp shiv coated several times with 45 and 120 nm particles were uniformly covered, as well as extensively water repellent. Those samples could withstand in humidity chamber without loss of their hydrophobic property and no sign of mould growth after 72 h of exposure. PMID:29267195

  13. HEMP (high-altitude electromagnetic pulse) test and analysis of selected recloser-control units

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T.K.; Sands, S.H.; Tesche, F.M.

    A simulated HEMP test was performed on power line recloser-control units in the ARES facility during the month of October 1988. Two types of recloser-control units were tested: an electronic control unit presently in wide use in electric power distribution systems and a new microprocessor based unit presently being introduced to electric utilities. It was found that the ARES fields did not cause reproducible disruptive failure of the equipment. Minor upsets, which were considered to be non-disruptive to the recloser operation, were observed. The test results were compared to the results of an analysis from a previous study and itmore » is concluded that the probability of disruptive failure of field operating recloser-control units subjected to a nominal unclassified HEMP environment is small. 3 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Cannabis use expectancies mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and cannabis use among cannabis-dependent veterans.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and cannabis use, and the mediating role of positive and negative expectancies of cannabis use. Participants (n = 100) were cannabis-dependent veterans recruited as part of a larger self-guided cannabis quit study. Baseline (prequit) data were used. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the General Depression subscale of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), and cannabis use expectancies were assessed using the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire. Quantity of cannabis use in the past 90 days was assessed with the Timeline Follow-Back. A parallel multiple mediation path analysis was conducted to simultaneously examine the effects of positive and negative expectancies as mediators of the relation between IDAS-Depression and prequit cannabis use. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were indirectly related to cannabis use through positive, but not negative, expectancies. This effect was unique to IDAS-Dysphoria symptoms. Depressive symptoms, particularly cognitive-affective symptom features, may be important to consider in better understanding positive cannabis effect expectancies among veterans in regard to cannabis use.

  15. Composite Materials Based on Hemp and Flax for Low-Energy Buildings.

    PubMed

    Brzyski, Przemysław; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2017-05-07

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on prospective application of flax/hemp wastes as a filling material of lime-based composites in the construction of low-energy buildings. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement used as additives. The analysis involved evaluation of such properties as porosity, density, thermal conductivity, absorptivity, permeability, as well as compressive and flexural strength. Depending on the quantity of the filler, the properties of the composite changed. This, in turn, enabled to evaluate whether the utilized composite met the thermal requirements established for low-energy buildings. Afterwards, the obtained data were cross-referenced with the results gathered in the case of a room built of autoclaved aerated concrete. In order to prevent reaching the critical surface humidity, the internal surface temperature had to be calculated. Moreover, the chances of interstitial condensation occurring in the wall made of the analyzed lime-flax-hemp composite were determined as well. The study showed that the composite exhibits low strength, low density, low thermal conductivity, and high absorptivity. The external walls made of the lime-flax-hemp composite receive a limited exposure to condensation, but not significant enough to constitute any threat. The requirements established for low-energy buildings can be met by using the analyzed composite.

  16. Composite Materials Based on Hemp and Flax for Low-Energy Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Brzyski, Przemysław; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on prospective application of flax/hemp wastes as a filling material of lime-based composites in the construction of low-energy buildings. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement used as additives. The analysis involved evaluation of such properties as porosity, density, thermal conductivity, absorptivity, permeability, as well as compressive and flexural strength. Depending on the quantity of the filler, the properties of the composite changed. This, in turn, enabled to evaluate whether the utilized composite met the thermal requirements established for low-energy buildings. Afterwards, the obtained data were cross-referenced with the results gathered in the case of a room built of autoclaved aerated concrete. In order to prevent reaching the critical surface humidity, the internal surface temperature had to be calculated. Moreover, the chances of interstitial condensation occurring in the wall made of the analyzed lime–flax–hemp composite were determined as well. The study showed that the composite exhibits low strength, low density, low thermal conductivity, and high absorptivity. The external walls made of the lime–flax–hemp composite receive a limited exposure to condensation, but not significant enough to constitute any threat. The requirements established for low-energy buildings can be met by using the analyzed composite. PMID:28772871

  17. A positive cannabinoids workplace drug test following the ingestion of commercially available hemp seed oil.

    PubMed

    Struempler, R E; Nelson, G; Urry, F M

    1997-01-01

    A commercially available health food product of cold-pressed hemp seed oil ingested by one volunteer twice a day for 4 1/2 days (135 mL total). Urine specimens collected from the volunteer were subjected to standard workplace urine drug testing procedures, and the following concentrations of 11-nor-delta9- tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (9-THCA) were detected: 41 ng/mL 9-THCA at 45 h, 49 ng/mL at 69 h, and 55 ng/mL at 93 h. Ingestion was discontinued after 93 h, and the following concentrations were detected: 68 ng/mL at 108 h, 57 ng/mL at 117 h, 31 ng/mL at 126 h, and 20 ng/mL at 142 h. The first specimen that tested negative (50 ng/mL initial immunoassay test, 15 ng/mL confirmatory gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric test) was at 146 h, which was 53 h after the last hemp seed oil ingestion. Four subsequent specimens taken to 177 h were also negative. This study indicates that a workplace urine drug test positive for cannabinoids may arise from the consumption of commercially available cold-pressed hemp seed oil.

  18. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-08-12

    Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms "cannabis" and "marijuana." Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated "17+" years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated "high maturity" (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational (facts, strain classification), or recreational (games), likely

  19. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  1. Transient Retinal Dysfunctions after Acute Cannabis Use.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Thomas; Robert, Matthieu P; Giersch, Anne; Angioi-Duprez, Karine; Ingster-Moati, Isabelle; Pon-Monnier, Amandine; Schwan, Raymund; Laprevote, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although cannabis is very widespread worldwide, the impact of cannabis on visual function remains poorly understood. This is partly due to numerous difficulties met in developing clinical studies in cannabis users. Here, we report the first documented case of neuroretinal dysfunction after acute cannabis smoking. This observation was favored by the need of an annual ophthalmic evaluation in the context of a chloroquine intake for a systemic lupus erythematosus in a 47-year-old heavy cannabis user. A complete ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity tests, intraocular pressure, fundoscopic examination, automated 10° central visual field, full-field electroretinogram (ERG) and multifocal ERG was performed twice - 30 min and 5 h after cannabis smoking. A strong decrease (up to 48%) in the a-wave amplitude of the full-field ERG was measured 30 min after cannabis smoking for all scotopic responses compared with the responses 5 h after smoking. Other tests showed reproducible results between the 2 series of measurements. This clinical case suggests that acute inhalation of cannabis affects the photoreceptors functioning. This rare situation suggests further investigations are required on the impact of cannabis on retinal processing, especially since cannabis has been incriminated in car injuries. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, Robert J.; Shin, Hayden H.; Gray, Andrew R.; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers. Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. PMID:25837035

  3. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hancox, Robert J; Shin, Hayden H; Gray, Andrew R; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-07-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers.Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  4. A review of the world cannabis situation.

    PubMed

    Leggett, T

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is the world's most widely cultivated and consumed illicit drug, but there remain major gaps in our understanding of global cannabis markets. For example, it appears that premium sinsemilla cannabis, often produced indoors in consumer countries, has become more potent in recent years and that its market share is also growing in some areas. This may be leading to greater localization of cannabis markets. It may also be responsible for the increase in the proportion of cannabis users in treatment populations at the international level. Assessing the extent and impact of this trend, however, is hampered both by a lack of international standards on issues such as terminology and by unanswered research questions. In order to arrive at accurate global estimates of the extent of production, there is a need for more scientific data on cannabis yields. On the demand side, more information is required on the question of cannabis dosage and volumes used by both occasional and regular users. Cannabis is not a uniform drug: the impact of using cannabis of differing potencies and chemical compositions needs to be researched. While issues concerning cannabis have been evaluated many times in the past, it remains a highly adaptable plant and, consequently, a dynamic drug, requiring constant reassessment.

  5. Cannabis arteritis: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cottencin, Olivier; Karila, Laurent; Lambert, Marc; Arveiller, Catherine; Benyamina, Amine; Boissonas, Alain; Goudemand, Michel; Reynaud, Michel

    2010-12-01

    Consumption of cannabis in young adults has continued to increase in recent years. Cannabis arteritis was first described in the 1960s, but the number of cases has continued to increase. We reviewed current knowledge of the different types of cannabis arteritis in young adults and found 70 cases of cannabis arteritis in the literature. We discuss physiopathological arguments in favor of cannabis vascular toxicity per se, although we did not find sufficient evidence to identify cannabis arteritis as a specific diagnostic entity. Many factors suggest a link between cannabis consumption and arteritis in young adults, but it is difficult to say whether this type of arteritis is similar to thromboangiitis obliterans. We were unable to demonstrate a formal association between cannabis smoking and the development of thromboangiitis obliterans, because most case reports showed associated tobacco smoking (97%) and the number of years cannabis had been smoked by the participants was mostly unknown. Cannabis consumption would however seems to be an aggravating factor, together with tobacco, in arteritis, which occurs in young adults.

  6. Quality of life and recreational cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Matthew; IsHak, Waguih William; Danovitch, Itai

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis is now the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and use is increasing. Frequent cannabis use has been associated with adverse social and health effects. We sought to evaluate the relationship between recreational cannabis use and Quality of Life (QoL), a person-centered measure that characterizes the overall sense of health and wellbeing. We hypothesized that QoL would be unchanged or increased among recreational cannabis users, who did not meet criteria for a Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) and that QoL would be lower among those who met criteria for a CUD. We conducted a systematic review, employing guidelines from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The results were categorized into tables and identified trends. Fourteen studies met our pre-defined selection criteria. The studies were heterogeneous and their quality was low. With one exception, we did not identify any population for whom cannabis use was associated with improved QoL. QoL was lower in persons who used cannabis heavily, or who met criteria for CUD. However, this association was inconsistent and the magnitude was weaker than the relationship between QoL and use of other addictive substances (including tobacco and illicit drugs). In this systematic review, heavy cannabis use or CUD was associated with reduced QoL. It is unknown whether reduced QoL drives cannabis use, or whether cannabis use can lead to reduced QoL. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the causal relationship between cannabis and QoL. Furthering the understanding of the relationship between cannabis and QoL can inform public policy, prevention efforts, outcomes, and an objective understanding of the effects of cannabis users. (Am J Addict 2017;26:8-25). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  7. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  8. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  9. THCVA-A - a new additional marker for illegal cannabis consumption.

    PubMed

    Radünz, Lars; Westphal, Folker; Maser, Edmund; Rochholz, Gertrud

    2012-02-10

    The aim of the present investigations was to find markers for differentiating between the consumption of illegal cannabis products and legal medication containing fully synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), e.g., Marinol capsules. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Δ9-THCA-A) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid A (Δ9-THCVA-A) were taken into consideration for analysis, because these substances are the precursors of Δ9-THC and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV) in plant material of Cannabis sativa and are not contained in medical THC formulations. Whereas Δ9-THCA-A is an already well investigated substance, there is little analytical data on Δ9-THCVA-A. The reason for the presented investigations was a case in which a man was tested positive for Δ9-THC during a routine traffic control claiming that the positive serum sample resulted from the intake of a THC medication (Marinol) and not from consuming illegal cannabis products. Sample preparation consisted of a protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Analysis was carried out on a Thermo Fisher LCQ Deca ion trap LC-MS-MS-system using electron spray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. MS(2)- and MS(3)-full scan spectra were recorded for Δ9-THCA-A and Δ9-THCVA-A starting from [M-H](-). Reference spectra were obtained by measuring a Δ9-THCA-A reference solution and an ethanolic cannabis extract for Δ9-THCVA-A as there is no reference material for this cannabinoid available on the market yet. Main transitions for Δ9-THCA-A were m/z 357→313 and 339 in the MS(2)-spectrum and m/z 313→245 and 191 in the MS(3)-spectrum. Fragmentation pattern of Δ9-THCVA-A was identical with a difference of 28 amu less for the precursor ion as well as the fragments due to a shorter alkyl side chain in the molecule (MS(2): m/z 329→285 and 311; MS(3): m/z 285→217 and 163). The two plant cannabinoids Δ9-THCA-A and Δ9-THCVA-A could be detected in the serum sample by LC-MS-MS which proved the intake of illegal

  10. From cannabis to the endocannabinoid system: refocussing attention on potential clinical benefits.

    PubMed

    Youssef, F F; Irving, A J

    2012-06-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the oldest herbal remedies known to man. Over the past four thousand years, it has been used for the treatment of numerous diseases but due to its psychoactive properties, its current medicinal usage is highly restricted. In this review, we seek to highlight advances made over the last forty years in the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the effects of cannabis on the human body and how these can potentially be utilized in clinical practice. During this time, the primary active ingredients in cannabis have been isolated, specific cannabinoid receptors have been discovered and at least five endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters (endocannabinoids) have been identified. Together, these form the framework of a complex endocannabinoid signalling system that has widespread distribution in the body and plays a role in regulating numerous physiological processes within the body. Cannabinoid ligands are therefore thought to display considerable therapeutic potential and the drive to develop compounds that can be targeted to specific neuronal systems at low enough doses so as to eliminate cognitive side effects remains the 'holy grail' of endocannabinoid research.

  11. Do recreational cannabis users, unlicensed and licensed medical cannabis users form distinct groups?

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon R

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to gain a more nuanced perspective on the differences between recreationally and medically motivated cannabis use by distinguishing between people who use cannabis for recreational purposes, unlicensed and licensed medical users. Data collection was conducted online from a convenience sample of 1479 Israeli cannabis users. Multinomial regression analysis compared unlicensed medical users (38%) with recreational (42%) and licensed medical (5.6%) users in terms of sociodemographics, mode, frequency and problematic cannabis use. There were more variables distinguishing unlicensed from licensed users than there were distinguishing features between unlicensed and recreational users. Recreational users were more likely to be male, less likely to eat cannabis, to use cannabis frequently and to use alone and before midday than unlicensed users. Licensed users were older than unlicensed users, they reported less hours feeling stoned, less cannabis use problems and they were more likely to report cannabis use patterns analogous of medication administration for chronic problems (frequent use, vaping, use alone and use before midday). This study suggests that a sizable proportion of cannabis users in Israel self-prescribe cannabis and that licensed medical cannabis users differ from unlicensed users. This is, in turn, suggestive of a rigorous medicalized cannabis program that does not function as a backdoor for legal access to recreational use. However, due to methodological limitations this conclusion is only suggestive. The most meaningful differences across recreational, unlicensed and licensed users were mode and patterns of use rather than cannabis use problems. Current screening tools for cannabis use problems may, however, not be well suited to assess such problems in medically motivated users. Indeed, when screening for problematic cannabis use there is a need for a more careful consideration of whether or not cannabis use is medically motivated

  12. Prevalence and correlates of "Vaping" as a route of cannabis administration in medical cannabis patients.

    PubMed

    Cranford, James A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Bourque, Carrie; Ilgen, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of vaporization (i.e., "vaping") as a route of cannabis administration in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=1485M age=45.1) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed a screening assessment. Participants completed measures of route of cannabis administration, cannabis use, alcohol and other substance use. An estimated 39% (n=511) of the sample reported past-month cannabis vaping, but vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration was rare. Specifically, only 30 participants (2.3% of the full sample and 5.9% of those who reported any vaping) indicated vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration. The majority (87.3%) of those who reported vaping also reported smoking (combustion) as a route of cannabis administration. Being younger than age 44, having more than a high school education, engaging in nonmedical stimulant use, being a returning medical cannabis patient, and greater frequency of cannabis use were associated with higher odds of vaping at the bivariate level and with all variables considered simultaneously. Vaping appears to be relatively common among medical cannabis patients, but is seldom used as the sole route of cannabis administration. highlight the importance of monitoring trends in vaping and other substance use behaviors in this population and underscore the need for longitudinal research into the motives, correlates, and consequences of cannabis vaping in medical cannabis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational

  14. Dutch coffee shops and trends in cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Korf, Dirk J

    2002-01-01

    Conflicting predictions have been made to the influence of decriminalization on cannabis use. Prohibitionists forecast that decriminalization will lead to an increase in consumption of cannabis, while their opponents hypothesise that cannabis use will decline after decriminalization. Most probably cannabis use in the Netherlands so far evolved in two waves, with a first peak around 1970, a low during the late 1970s and early 1980s, and a second peak in the mid-1990s. It is striking that this trend in cannabis use among youth in the Netherlands rather parallels four identified stages in the availability of cannabis. The number of cannabis users peaked when the cannabis was distributed through an underground market (late 1960s and early 1970s). Then the number decreased as house dealers were superseeding the underground market (1970s), and went up again after coffee shops took over the sale of cannabis (1980s), and stabilised or slightly decreased by the end of the 1990s when the number of coffee shops was reduced. Although changes in cannabis policy went along with changes in availability of cannabis and prevalence of cannabis use, it is questionable whether changes in cannabis policy were causally related to trends in cannabis use. Cannabis use also developed in waves in other European countries that did not decriminalize cannabis, as well as in the US. Consequently, trends in cannabis use seem to develop rather independently of cannabis policy.

  15. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk.

  16. Pathways to psychosis in cannabis abuse.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, but the exact biological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review, we attempt to understand the neurobiological pathways that link cannabis use to schizophrenia. This has been an area of great debate; despite similarities between cannabis users and schizophrenia patients, the evidence is not sufficient to establish cause-and-effect. There have been advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of cannabis dependence as well as the role of the cannabinoid system in the development of psychosis and schizophrenia. The neurobiological mechanisms associated with the development of psychosis and effects from cannabis use may be similar but remain elusive. In order to better understand these associations, this paper will show common neurobiological and neuroanatomical changes as well as common cognitive dysfunction in cannabis users and patients of schizophrenia. We conclude that epidemiologic evidence highlights potential causal links; however, neurobiological evidence for causality remains weak.

  17. The Cannabis Information Helpline: Assessing Interest in the Medicinal Use of Cannabis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter J; Albertella, Lucy

    2017-10-15

    The majority of Australians support a change in legislation to allow the use of cannabis for medical purposes. Despite strong public support, very little is known about the patterns of medicinal cannabis use among Australians. This study aims to gain a better understanding of Australian medicinal cannabis users and their patterns of use. The nature of calls to the Cannabis Information and Helpline (N = 15701), a free national service for Australians with concerns regarding cannabis use, were investigated to determine the number of calls made by those who inquired about the medicinal use of cannabis (N = 275) and the implied reasons for use among those who identify using cannabis in this way. The majority of medicinal cannabis inquirers mentioned cannabis to alleviate pain. Further, compared to other callers, medicinal cannabis inquirers were more likely to be male, unemployed, older, and have recently started using cannabis. These findings highlight the need for future research to better understand the issues faced by Australians regarding the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes and how they may be meaningfully addressed. Particular focus should be placed toward older, unemployed males.

  18. Cannabis use and first manic episode.

    PubMed

    Bally, Nathalie; Zullino, Daniele; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2014-08-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug among patients with bipolar disorder. Available data has shown that the risk of psychotic disorders increases with the frequency and intensity of cannabis abuse. The present purpose was to review relevant studies to investigate whether cannabis use can be linked to the onset of mania in bipolar disorder. Articles published between 1972 and December 2013 were searched on Medline and PsychInfo using the following keywords: first manic episode, or onset mania, or bipolar disorder and cannabis. Relevant papers cited in the references of selected articles were further considered for inclusion into the review. Lifetime use of cannabis among bipolar patients appears to be around 70% and approximately 30% of patients with a bipolar disorder present a comorbidity of cannabis abuse or dependence. Cannabis use is associated with younger age at onset of first mania and with more frequent depressive or manic episodes, although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent. Likewise cannabis consumption is related to poorer outcome and an increased risk of rapid cycling or mixed episodes. In contrast, neuro-cognitive functioning seems to be positively affected in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. While cannabis use often precedes first manic episodes, the causal direction remains to be determined. Variations in definition of cannabis use/dependence. Lack of controlled studies limiting definite conclusions about a putative causal relationship between cannabis and onset of mania. Further investigations are needed to clarify the relationships between cannabis use and first manic episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical use of cannabis in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Robert W; Butorac, Mario; Cobian, Eloy Pulido; van der Sluis, Willem

    2005-03-08

    The authors investigated the indications for cannabis prescription in the Netherlands and assessed its efficacy and side effects. A majority (64.1%) of patients reported a good or excellent effect on their symptoms. Of these patients, approximately 44% used cannabis for >/=5 months. Indications were neurologic disorders, pain, musculoskeletal disorders, and cancer anorexia/cachexia. Inhaled cannabis was perceived as more effective than oral administration. Reported side effects were generally mild.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Colon Models Is Derived from Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid That Interacts with Additional Compounds in Cannabis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nallathambi, Rameshprabu; Mazuz, Moran; Ion, Aurel; Selvaraj, Gopinath; Weininger, Smadar; Fridlender, Marcelo; Nasser, Ahmad; Sagee, Oded; Kumari, Puja; Nemichenizer, Diana; Mendelovitz, Maayan; Firstein, Nave; Hanin, Orly; Konikoff, Fred; Kapulnik, Yoram; Naftali, Timna; Koltai, Hinanit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) include Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Cannabis sativa preparations have beneficial effects for IBD patients. However, C. sativa extracts contain hundreds of compounds. Although there is much knowledge of the activity of different cannabinoids and their receptor agonists or antagonists, the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of whole C. sativa extracts has never been characterized in detail with in vitro and ex vivo colon models. Material and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of C. sativa extracts was studied on three lines of epithelial cells and on colon tissue. C. sativa flowers were extracted with ethanol, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of interleukin-8 in colon cells and tissue biopsies, chemical analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts derives from D9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) present in fraction 7 (F7) of the extract. However, all fractions of C. sativa at a certain combination of concentrations have a significant increased cytotoxic activity. GPR55 receptor antagonist significantly reduces the anti-inflammatory activity of F7, whereas cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist significantly increases HCT116 cell proliferation. Also, cannabidiol (CBD) shows dose dependent cytotoxic activity, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was found only for the low concentration of CBD, and in a bell-shaped rather than dose-dependent manner. Activity of the extract and active fraction was verified on colon tissues taken from IBD patients, and was shown to suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) gene expression in both cell culture and colon tissue. Conclusions: It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Colon Models Is Derived from Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid That Interacts with Additional Compounds in Cannabis Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nallathambi, Rameshprabu; Mazuz, Moran; Ion, Aurel; Selvaraj, Gopinath; Weininger, Smadar; Fridlender, Marcelo; Nasser, Ahmad; Sagee, Oded; Kumari, Puja; Nemichenizer, Diana; Mendelovitz, Maayan; Firstein, Nave; Hanin, Orly; Konikoff, Fred; Kapulnik, Yoram; Naftali, Timna; Koltai, Hinanit

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) include Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Cannabis sativa preparations have beneficial effects for IBD patients. However, C. sativa extracts contain hundreds of compounds. Although there is much knowledge of the activity of different cannabinoids and their receptor agonists or antagonists, the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of whole C. sativa extracts has never been characterized in detail with in vitro and ex vivo colon models. Material and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of C. sativa extracts was studied on three lines of epithelial cells and on colon tissue. C. sativa flowers were extracted with ethanol, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of interleukin-8 in colon cells and tissue biopsies, chemical analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts derives from D9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) present in fraction 7 (F7) of the extract. However, all fractions of C. sativa at a certain combination of concentrations have a significant increased cytotoxic activity. GPR55 receptor antagonist significantly reduces the anti-inflammatory activity of F7, whereas cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist significantly increases HCT116 cell proliferation. Also, cannabidiol (CBD) shows dose dependent cytotoxic activity, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was found only for the low concentration of CBD, and in a bell-shaped rather than dose-dependent manner. Activity of the extract and active fraction was verified on colon tissues taken from IBD patients, and was shown to suppress cyclooxygenase-2 ( COX2 ) and metalloproteinase-9 ( MMP9 ) gene expression in both cell culture and colon tissue. Conclusions: It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts

  2. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  3. Medicinal cannabis: rational guidelines for dosing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gregory T; Weydt, Patrick; Kyashna-Tocha, Muraco; Abrams, Donald I

    2004-05-01

    The medicinal value of cannabis (marijuana) is well documented in the medical literature. Cannabinoids, the active ingredients in cannabis, have many distinct pharmacological properties. These include analgesic, anti-emetic, anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as modulation of glial cells and tumor growth regulation. Concurrent with all these advances in the understanding of the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of cannabis, there is a strong need for developing rational guidelines for dosing. This paper will review the known chemistry and pharmacology of cannabis and, on that basis, discuss rational guidelines for dosing.

  4. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-04

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Medical cannabis and chronic opioid therapy.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M

    2010-12-01

    Fourteen states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for medical purposes. A small, high-quality literature supports the efficacy of medical cannabis for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The smoked botanical product, however, is associated with a number of adverse medical and psychiatric consequences. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that acute use of cannabis results in impairment of every important metric related to the safe operation of a motor vehicle. Epidemiological data show associations between recent cannabis use and both psychomotor impairment and motor vehicle crashes, associations that are strengthened by the concomitant use of alcohol and other central nervous system depressants. Finally, data from pain clinics reveals an unusually high prevalence of cannabis use in nearly all age groups and an association between cannabis use and opioid and other substance misuse. Based on available data and expert opinion, concomitant use of cannabis and opioids is an absolute contraindication to the operation of a motor vehicle. In patients who use cannabis and are prescribed opioids, heightened vigilance for opioid- and other substance-related problems is warranted. It is appropriate to refrain from prescribing opioids to individuals using medical cannabis if there is reasonable suspicion that the combination will pose a risk to the patient or others.

  6. [Cannabis use and impairment of respiratory function].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in many countries including France. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but in our country it is mainly smoked in the form of cannabis resin mixed with tobacco. The technique of inhaling cannabis differs from that of tobacco, increasing the time that the smoke spends in contact with the bronchial mucosal and its impact on respiratory function. One cigarette composed of cannabis and tobacco is much more harmful than a cigarette containing only tobacco. In cannabis smokers there is an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and episodes of acute bronchitis. Cannabis produces a rapid bronchodilator effect; chronic use provokes a reduction in specific conductance and increase in airways resistance. Studies on the decline of Forced Expiratory Volume are discordant. Cannabis smoke and tetrahydrocannabinol irritate the bronchial tree. They bring about histological signs of airways inflammation and alter the fungicidal and antibacterial activity of alveolar macrophages. Inhalation of cannabis smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Stopping smoking cannabis will bring about important benefits for lung function. This should encourage clinicians to offer patients support in quitting smoking. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutic benefits of cannabis: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Webb, Charles W; Webb, Sandra M

    2014-04-01

    Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis ("marijuana") has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai'i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0-10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai'i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription.

  8. [Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].

    PubMed

    Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction.

  9. Effect of metal ions on the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp seed oil by lipase Candida sp. 99-125.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jike; Wang, Pei; Ke, Zhaodi; Liu, Xin; Kang, Qiaozhen; Hao, Limin

    2018-07-15

    In order to study the effect of metal ions on the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp seed oil by Candida sp. 99-125, the spectroscopy, stability and hydrolytic activity of the biocatalyst were investigated in presence of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , Sn 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ and Ba 2+ metal ions, respectively. The UV spectroscopy showed that all the metal ions enhanced the absorbance but the decrease of fluorescence intensity was observed. All the metal ions could improve the lipase thermal stability except Cu 2+ and Ba 2+ . Hydrolysis of hemp seed oil proved that Ca 2+ , Fe 3+ , Pb 2+ and Ba 2+ could significantly improve the hydrolytic rate, and metal ions could influence lipase selectivity. The study revealed that metal ions could improve lipase stability, hydrolysis activity in the hydrolytic process of hemp seed oil by Candida sp. 99-125. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical Cannabis in Arizona: Patient Characteristics, Perceptions, and Impressions of Medical Cannabis Legalization.

    PubMed

    Troutt, William D; DiDonato, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Many advances have been made toward understanding the benefits of medical cannabis. However, less is known about medical cannabis patients themselves. Prior research has uncovered many important patient characteristics, but most of that work has been conducted with participants in California, who may not represent medical cannabis patients throughout the United States. Furthermore, it is unknown if medical cannabis legalization, which typically imposes strict regulations on cannabis cultivation and sale, impacts patients' experiences acquiring and using cannabis. The goal of this study was to address these limitations by (1) examining the characteristics, perceptions, and behaviors of medical cannabis patients in Arizona; and (2) questioning participants with a history of cannabis use regarding their experiences with cannabis before and after legalization. Patients in Arizona share many characteristics with those in California, but also key differences, such as average age and degree of cannabis consumption. Participants also had positive perceptions of the effect of medical cannabis legalization, reporting that feelings of safety and awareness were higher after legalization compared to before. The results are discussed in relation to evidence from patients in other states and in terms of their potential policy implications.

  11. Cannabis and sex: multifaceted paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S

    1982-01-01

    At the present level of ignorance about sexuality and cannabis, what rational position can be adopted? First, it must be recognized that even without cannabis, current involvement in sex-related activities may well have been called "promiscuous" by a preceding generation or two. The general loosening of morality, the erosion of family, church and other authoritarian controls, The Pill, antibiotics and other recent developments have contributed to current casual attitudes. Although one may not perceive it, counterculture beliefs have had their impact on the dominant culture. Marijuana has some enhancing effect upon sexual proceedings for some individuals. It may be sexually evocative and gratifying. Nonspecific factors play an important role in this matter. Opposite effects also occur, and an endocrinologic basis for actual diminution of drives and potency may exist. The final paradox is that cannabis' employment for sexual arousal is predominantly an activity of young adults. The older age groups most in need of sexual support and assistance are less frequently involved in its use. It is unclear why this dichotomy between need and utilization exists.

  12. Maternal use of cannabis and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Northstone, Kate

    2002-01-01

    To document the prevalence of cannabis use in a large sample of British women studied during pregnancy, to determine the association between cannabis use and social and lifestyle factors and assess any independent effects on pregnancy outcome. Self-completed questionnaire on use of cannabis before and during pregnancy. Over 12,000 women expecting singletons at 18 to 20 weeks of gestation who were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Any association with the use of cannabis before and during pregnancy with pregnancy outcome was examined, taking into account potentially confounding factors including maternal social background and other substance use during pregnancy. Late fetal and perinatal death, special care admission of the newborn infant, birthweight, birth length and head circumference. Five percent of mothers reported smoking cannabis before and/or during pregnancy; they were younger, of lower parity, better educated and more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, coffee, tea and hard drugs. Cannabis use during pregnancy was unrelated to risk of perinatal death or need for special care, but, the babies of women who used cannabis at least once per week before and throughout pregnancy were 216 g lighter than those of non-users, had significantly shorter birth lengths and smaller head circumferences. After adjustment for confounding factors, the association between cannabis use and birthweight failed to be statistically significant (P = 0.056) and was clearly non-linear: the adjusted mean birthweights for babies of women using cannabis at least once per week before and throughout pregnancy were 90 g lighter than the offspring of other women. No significant adjusted effects were seen for birth length and head circumference. The results of this study suggest that the use of cannabis during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk of perinatal mortality or morbidity in this sample. However, frequent and regular use of cannabis

  13. The role of general parenting and cannabis-specific parenting practices in adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen-Smit, E; Verdurmen, J E E; Engels, R C M E; Vollebergh, W A M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate general and cannabis-specific parenting practices in relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use. Data were derived from the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use among students (N=3209; aged 12-16 years) and one of their parents in 2011. Logistic regression analyses revealed that 1) parental cannabis use was significantly related to more adolescent lifetime and recent cannabis use, and 2) restrictive cannabis-specific parental rules were associated with less adolescent recent cannabis and lifetime use of other illicit drugs, even when controlled for sociodemographic factors, general parenting, adolescent tobacco use, and tobacco-specific parenting. In addition, no significant interaction was observed between parental cannabis use and cannabis-specific rules in their relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use, indicating that cannabis rules are evenly associated with adolescent drug use for families with and without parental cannabis experience. In addition to general parenting practices, restrictive cannabis-specific rules are related to lower adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug rates. Parents who ever used cannabis have children with a higher prevalence of cannabis use. However, their restrictive cannabis-specific rules are equally related to a lower chance of adolescent cannabis use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative genomics of a cannabis pathogen reveals insight into the evolution of pathogenicity in Xanthomonas

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Pesce, Céline; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Koebnik, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas cause diseases on over 350 plant species, including cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). Because of regulatory limitations, the biology of the Xanthomonas-cannabis pathosystem remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the evolution of Xanthomonas strains pathogenic to cannabis, we sequenced the genomes of two geographically distinct Xanthomonas strains, NCPPB 3753 and NCPPB 2877, which were previously isolated from symptomatic plant tissue in Japan and Romania. Comparative multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes revealed that they belong to Group 2, which comprises most of the described species of Xanthomonas. Interestingly, both strains lack the Hrp Type III secretion system and do not contain any of the known Type III effectors. Yet their genomes notably encode two key Hrp pathogenicity regulators HrpG and HrpX, and hrpG and hrpX are in the same genetic organization as in the other Group 2 xanthomonads. Promoter prediction of HrpX-regulated genes suggests the induction of an aminopeptidase, a lipase and two polygalacturonases upon plant colonization, similar to other plant-pathogenic xanthomonads. Genome analysis of the distantly related Xanthomonas maliensis strain 97M, which was isolated from a rice leaf in Mali, similarly demonstrated the presence of HrpG, HrpX, and a HrpX-regulated polygalacturonase, and the absence of the Hrp Type III secretion system and known Type III effectors. Given the observation that some Xanthomonas strains across distinct taxa do not contain hrpG and hrpX, we speculate a stepwise evolution of pathogenicity, which involves (i) acquisition of key regulatory genes and cell wall-degrading enzymes, followed by (ii) acquisition of the Hrp Type III secretion system, which is ultimately accompanied by (iii) successive acquisition of Type III effectors. PMID:26136759

  15. Public opinion and medical cannabis policies: examining the role of underlying beliefs and national medical cannabis policies.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2015-10-14

    Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Robust regression analysis was used to analyse data derived from two nationally representative samples of adults participating in comparable cross-sectional online surveys in one country where medical cannabis smoking is illegal (Norway, n = 2175, 51 % male) and in one country where medical cannabis smoking is legal (Israel, n = 648, 49 % male). The belief that cannabis has medical benefits was more strongly related to support for medical cannabis legalization than were beliefs about addiction and spillover effects. While the support for medical cannabis legalization was stronger in Israel than in Norway (78 vs. 51 %, p < 0.01), the belief variables had, in general, more impact on the policy stand in Norway. The belief that cannabis has medical benefits is particularly salient for support for medical cannabis legalization. It is possible that the recent surge in evidence supporting the medical benefits of cannabis will increase the belief about medical benefits of cannabis in the general population which may in turn increase public support for medical cannabis legalization. Results also suggest that once medical cannabis is legalized, factors beyond cannabis-specific beliefs will increasingly influence medical cannabis legalization support. These conclusions are, however, only suggestive as the current study is based on cross-sectional data. Hopefully, future research will be able to capitalize on changes in medical cannabis policies and conduct longitudinal studies that enable an

  16. Exposure to cannabis in popular music and cannabis use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Douglas, Erika L; Kraemer, Kevin L

    2010-03-01

    Cannabis use is referenced frequently in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is associated independently with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large US urban high schools. We estimated participants' exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists' songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 days) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 27 cannabis references per day [correction added on 19 January 2010, after first online publication: 40 has been changed to 27] (standard deviation = 73 [correction added on 19 January 2010, after first online publication: 104 has been changed to 73]). Twelve per cent (n = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (n = 286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, personality characteristics and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents.

  17. Validation of the Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) in adult cannabis users in treatment.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jason P; Gullo, Matthew J; Feeney, Gerald F X; Young, Ross McD

    2011-06-01

    Outcome expectancies are a key cognitive construct in the etiology, assessment and treatment of Substance Use Disorders. There is a research and clinical need for a cannabis expectancy measure validated in a clinical sample of cannabis users. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) was subjected to exploratory (n=501, mean age 27.45, 78% male) and confirmatory (n=505, mean age 27.69, 78% male) factor analysis in two separate samples of cannabis users attending an outpatient cannabis treatment program. Weekly cannabis consumption was clinically assessed and patients completed the Severity of Dependence Scale-Cannabis (SDS-C) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Two factors representing Negative Cannabis Expectancies and Positive Cannabis Expectancies were identified. These provided a robust statistical and conceptual fit for the data. Internal reliabilities were high. Negative expectancies were associated with greater dependence severity (as measured by the SDS) and positive expectancies with higher consumption. The interaction of positive and negative expectancies was consistently significantly associated with self-reported functioning across all four GHQ-28 scales (Somatic Concerns, Anxiety, Social Dysfunction and Depression). Specifically, within the context of high positive cannabis expectancy, higher negative expectancy was predictive of more impaired functioning. By contrast, within the context of low positive cannabis expectancy, higher negative expectancy was predictive of better functioning. The CEQ is the first cannabis expectancy measure to be validated in a sample of cannabis users in treatment. Negative and positive cannabis expectancy domains were uniquely associated with consumption, dependence severity and self-reported mental health functioning. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K.; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes. PMID:28861492

  19. Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Freeman, T P; Winstock, A R

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use is decreasing in England and Wales, while demand for cannabis treatment in addiction services continues to rise. This could be partly due to an increased availability of high-potency cannabis. Adults residing in the UK were questioned about their drug use, including three types of cannabis (high potency: skunk; low potency: other grass, resin). Cannabis types were profiled and examined for possible associations between frequency of use and (i) cannabis dependence, (ii) cannabis-related concerns. Frequent use of high-potency cannabis predicted a greater severity of dependence [days of skunk use per month: b = 0.254, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.161-0.357, p < 0.001] and this effect became stronger as age decreased (b = -0.006, 95% CI -0.010 to -0.002, p = 0.004). By contrast, use of low-potency cannabis was not associated with dependence (days of other grass use per month: b = 0.020, 95% CI -0.029 to 0.070, p = 0.436; days of resin use per month: b = 0.025, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.067, p = 0.245). Frequency of cannabis use (all types) did not predict severity of cannabis-related concerns. High-potency cannabis was clearly distinct from low-potency varieties by its marked effects on memory and paranoia. It also produced the best high, was preferred, and most available. High-potency cannabis use is associated with an increased severity of dependence, especially in young people. Its profile is strongly defined by negative effects (memory, paranoia), but also positive characteristics (best high, preferred type), which may be important when considering clinical or public health interventions focusing on cannabis potency.

  20. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample ( n =2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes.

  1. Laccase enzyme detoxifies hydrolysates and improves biogas production from hemp straw and miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, Michel; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Holemans, Sander; Vervaeren, Han; Raes, Katleen

    2017-11-01

    The impact of various phenolic compounds, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid on anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass (hemp straw and miscanthus) was studied. Such phenolic compounds have been known to inhibit biogas production during anaerobic digestion. The different phenolic compounds were added in various concentrations: 0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000mg/L. A difference in inhibition of biomethane production between the phenolic compounds was noted. Hydrolysis rate, during anaerobic digestion of miscanthus was inhibited up to 50% by vanillic acid, while vanillic acid had no influence on the initial rate of biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of hemp straw. Miscanthus has a higher lignin concentration (12-30g/100gDM) making it less accessible for degradation, and in combination with phenolic compounds released after harsh pretreatments, it can cause severe inhibition levels during the anaerobic digestion, lowering biogas production. To counter the inhibition, lignin degrading enzymes can be used to remove or degrade the inhibitory phenolic compounds. The interaction of laccase and versatile peroxidase individually with the different phenolic compounds was studied to have insight in the polymerization of inhibitory compounds or breakdown of lignocellulose. Hemp straw and miscanthus were incubated with 0, 100 and 500mg/L of the different phenolic compounds for 0, 6 and 24h and pretreated with the lignin degrading enzymes. A laccase pretreatment successfully detoxified the substrate, while versatile peroxidase however was inhibited by 100mg/L of each of the individual phenolic compounds. Finally a combination of enzymatic detoxification and subsequent biogas production showed that a decrease in phenolic compounds by laccase treatment can considerably lower the inhibition levels of the biogas production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychotic-like experiences with cannabis use predict cannabis cessation and desire to quit: a cannabis discontinuation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sami, Musa; Notley, Caitlin; Kouimtsidis, Christos; Lynskey, Michael; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2018-03-23

    Evidence suggests that cannabis-induced psychotic-like experiences may be a marker of psychosis proneness. The effect of such experiences on cannabis use has not systematically been examined. We undertook a mixed-methods online survey of 1231 cannabis users (including 926 continued users) using the Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire. We examined the effect of psychotic-like and pleasurable experiences on cessation of cannabis and intention to quit. Socio-demographic variables, cannabis use parameters and substance misuse history were included as covariates. Free-text data explored subjective reasons for changes in use. Cessation of cannabis use was associated with greater psychotic-like experiences [p < 0.001, Exp(B) 1.262, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.179-1.351], whilst continued cannabis users were more likely to report pleasurable experiences [p < 0.001, Exp(B) 0.717, 95% CI 0.662-0.776]. Intention to quit cannabis in continued users was associated with greater psychotic-like experiences [p < 0.003, Exp(B) 1.131, 95% CI 1.044-1.225], whilst intention to not quit was significantly associated with increased pleasurable experiences [p < 0.015, Exp(B) 0.892, 95% CI 0.814-0.978]. Whereas former users clearly ascribed cessation to negative experiences, continued users who expressed intention to quit less readily ascribed the intention to negative experiences. Elucidation of psychotic-like experiences may form the basis of a therapeutic intervention for those who wish to quit. Cessation in those with cannabis-induced psychotomimetic experiences may offset the risk for the development of a psychotic disorder, in this higher risk group.

  3. Role of cannabis in cardiovascular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Hamza H.; Ghali, Jalal K.

    2017-01-01

    The growing popularity of medical and recreational consumption of cannabis, especially among the youth, raises immediate concerns regarding its safety and long-terms effects. The cardiovascular effects of cannabis are not well known. Cannabis consumption has been shown to cause arrhythmia including ventricular tachycardia, and potentially sudden death, and to increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). These effects appear to be compounded by cigarette smoking and precipitated by excessive physical activity, especially during the first few hours of consumption. Cannabinoids, or the active compounds of cannabis, have been shown to have heterogeneous effects on central and peripheral circulation. Acute cannabis consumption has been shown to cause an increase in blood pressure, specifically systolic blood pressure (SBP), and orthostatic hypotension. Cannabis use has been reported to increase risk of ischemic stroke, particularly in the healthy young patients. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is currently considered as a promising therapeutic target in the management of several disease conditions. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are being increasingly investigated for their therapeutic effects; however, the value of their benefits over possible complications remains controversial. Despite the considerable research in this field, the benefits of cannabis and its synthetic derivatives remains questionable even in the face of an increasingly tolerating attitude towards recreational consumption and promotion of the therapeutic complications. More efforts are needed to increase awareness among the public, especially youth, about the cardiovascular risks associated with cannabis use and to disseminate the accumulated knowledge regarding its ill effects. PMID:28840009

  4. Cannabis Use, Lung Cancer, and Related Issues.

    PubMed

    Jett, James; Stone, Emily; Warren, Graham; Cummings, K Michael

    2018-04-01

    The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes, with millions of regular users around the world. The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects, such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and for pain management; however, studies are limited, particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products. Smoking cannabis has not been proved to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer, but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of use, small numbers of heavy cannabis smokers, and confounding of the risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer (such as parallel chronic tobacco use). Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally, controlled trials in which the cannabidiol and the delta-9-tetrahydrocabinol strength and use are controlled and documented. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recreational cannabis use: pleasures and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rella, Joseph G

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis is widely used for a variety of reasons, and its changing legal status may foster more new users. Although the acute clinical effects of cannabis are generally benign, clinicians should be aware of health complications and testing limitations. Copyright © 2015 Cleveland Clinic.

  6. Cannabis for Chronic Pain: Challenges and Considerations.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso; Fincham, Jack E; Kolano, Ashley L; Sharpe, Brandi N; Alvarado-Vázquez, P Abigail

    2018-06-01

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has found substantial evidence that cannabis (plant) is effective for the treatment of chronic pain in adults, and moderate evidence that oromucosal cannabinoids (extracts, especially nabiximols) improve short-term sleep disturbances in chronic pain. The paradoxical superiority of the cannabis plant over cannabinoid molecules represents a challenge for the medical community and the established processes that define modern pharmacy. The expanding and variable legalization of cannabis in multiple states nationwide represents an additional challenge for patients and the medical community because recreational and medicinal cannabis are irresponsibly overlapped. Cannabis designed for recreational use (containing high levels of active ingredients) is increasingly available to patients with chronic pain who do not find relief with current pharmacologic entities, which exposes patients to potential harm. This article analyzes the available scientific evidence to address controversial questions that the current state of cannabis poses for health care professionals and chronic pain patients and sets the basis for a more open discussion about the role of cannabis in modern medicine for pain management. A critical discussion on these points, the legal status of cannabis, and considerations for health care providers is presented. © 2018 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  7. Role of cannabis in cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Hemant; Awad, Hamza H; Ghali, Jalal K

    2017-07-01

    The growing popularity of medical and recreational consumption of cannabis, especially among the youth, raises immediate concerns regarding its safety and long-terms effects. The cardiovascular effects of cannabis are not well known. Cannabis consumption has been shown to cause arrhythmia including ventricular tachycardia, and potentially sudden death, and to increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). These effects appear to be compounded by cigarette smoking and precipitated by excessive physical activity, especially during the first few hours of consumption. Cannabinoids, or the active compounds of cannabis, have been shown to have heterogeneous effects on central and peripheral circulation. Acute cannabis consumption has been shown to cause an increase in blood pressure, specifically systolic blood pressure (SBP), and orthostatic hypotension. Cannabis use has been reported to increase risk of ischemic stroke, particularly in the healthy young patients. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is currently considered as a promising therapeutic target in the management of several disease conditions. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are being increasingly investigated for their therapeutic effects; however, the value of their benefits over possible complications remains controversial. Despite the considerable research in this field, the benefits of cannabis and its synthetic derivatives remains questionable even in the face of an increasingly tolerating attitude towards recreational consumption and promotion of the therapeutic complications. More efforts are needed to increase awareness among the public, especially youth, about the cardiovascular risks associated with cannabis use and to disseminate the accumulated knowledge regarding its ill effects.

  8. Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

  9. Baclofen in the management of cannabis dependence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Bruce; Labrune, Nathalie; Lancon, Christophe; Simon, Nicolas

    2014-02-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the world. However, only few studies have shown the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in targeting cannabis withdrawal symptoms or reducing the reinforcing effects of cannabis. Baclofen has been shown to reduce cannabis withdrawal symptoms and the subjective effects of cannabis. We think that the clinical utility of baclofen for cannabis dependence is a reasonable approach. A case report using baclofen is presented and provides preliminary support for the use of baclofen in the management of cannabis dependence.

  10. Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gage, Suzanne H; Hickman, Matthew; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Associations between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes are consistently reported, but establishing causality from observational designs can be problematic. We review the evidence from longitudinal studies that have examined this relationship and discuss the epidemiologic evidence for and against interpreting the findings as causal. We also review the evidence identifying groups at particularly high risk of developing psychosis from using cannabis. Overall, evidence from epidemiologic studies provides strong enough evidence to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders. However, further studies are required to determine the magnitude of this effect, to determine the effect of different strains of cannabis on risk, and to identify high-risk groups particularly susceptible to the effects of cannabis on psychosis. We also discuss complementary epidemiologic methods that can help address these questions. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cannabis arteritis: ever more important to consider.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rui Pedro; Resende, Cristina Isabel Pinho; Vieira, Ana Paula; Brito, Celeste

    2017-03-13

    Cannabis arteritis (CA) is a major and underdiagnosed cause of peripheral arterial disease in young patients. A 34-year-old man, daily smoker of 20 cigarettes and two cannabis cigarettes for 14 years, presented with a necrotic plaque of left hallux for 3 weeks. The Doppler ultrasound and angiography were compatible with severe Buerger's disease. Submitted to a revascularisation procedure and hypocoagulation with rivaroxaban. He had ceased smoking but maintained consumption of cannabis. Owing to the persistence of distal necrosis, amputation of the hallux was performed with good evolution. CA is a subtype of Buerger's disease. It is poorly known but increasingly prevalent and manifests in cannabis users regardless of tobacco use. The drug is considered at least a cofactor of the arteriopathy. The most effective treatment is cessation of consumption. Being cannabis one of the most consumed drugs, its mandatory to ask about its use in all young patients with arteriopathy. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Cannabis and neuropsychiatry, 1: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Cannabis cue reactivity and craving among never, infrequent and heavy cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-04-01

    Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed.

  14. Cannabis Cue Reactivity and Craving Among Never, Infrequent and Heavy Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed. PMID:24264815

  15. Using cannabis to help you sleep: heightened frequency of medical cannabis use among those with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Babson, Kimberly A; Vandrey, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    The use of cannabis for medical purposes is proliferating in the U.S., and PTSD is an explicitly approved condition for accessing medical cannabis in 5 states. Prior research suggests that people with PTSD often use cannabis to help cope with their condition, and that doing so results in more frequent and problematic cannabis use patterns. Specific coping motivations, such as sleep improvement, among medical cannabis users, have not been examined. The present study evaluated specific coping use motivations, frequency of cannabis and alcohol use, and mental health among a convenience sample of patients (N=170) at a medical cannabis dispensary in California. Those with high PTSD scores were more likely to use cannabis to improve sleep, and for coping reasons more generally, compared with those with low PTSD scores. Cannabis use frequency was greater among those with high PTSD scores who used for sleep promoting purposes compared with those with low PTSD scores or those who did not use for sleep promoting purposes. Consistent with prior research, this study found increased rates of coping-oriented use of cannabis and greater frequency of cannabis use among medical users with high PTSD scores compared with low PTSD scores. In addition, sleep improvement appears to be a primary motivator for coping-oriented use. Additional research is needed to examine the health consequences of this pattern of cannabis use and whether alternative sleep promoting interventions (e.g. CBT-I) could reduce the reliance on cannabis for adequate sleep among those with PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder.

  17. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  18. Estimating the economic value of British Columbia's domestic cannabis market: implications for provincial cannabis policy.

    PubMed

    Werb, Dan; Nosyk, Bohdan; Kerr, Thomas; Fischer, Benedikt; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2012-11-01

    British Columbia (BC), Canada, is home to a large illegal cannabis industry that is known to contribute to substantial organized crime concerns. Although debates have emerged regarding the potential benefits of a legally regulated market to address a range of drug policy-related social problems, the value of the local (i.e., domestically consumed) cannabis market has not been characterized. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to generate a median value and 95% credibility interval for retail expenditure estimates of the domestic cannabis market in BC. Model parameter estimates were obtained for the number of cannabis users, the frequency of cannabis use, the quantity of cannabis used, and the price of cannabis from government surveillance data and studies of BC cannabis users. The median annual estimated retail expenditure on cannabis by British Columbians was $407 million (95% Credibility Interval [CI]: $169-948 million). Daily users accounted for the bulk of the cannabis revenue, with a median estimated expenditure of approximately $357 million (95% CI: $149-845 million), followed by weekly users ($44 million, 95% CI: $18-90 million), and monthly users ($6 million, 95% CI: $3-12 million). When under-reporting of cannabis use was adjusted for, the estimated retail expenditure ranged from $443 million (95% CI: $185-1 billion) to $564 million (95% CI: $236-1.3 billion). Based on local consumption patterns, conservative estimates suggest that BC's domestic illegal cannabis trade is worth hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Given the value of this market and the failure and harms of law enforcement efforts to control the cannabis market, policymakers should consider regulatory alternatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Frontal lobe dysfunction in long-term cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, T; Jönsson, S; Warkentin, S

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the neurophysiological effects of cannabis. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in 12 long-term cannabis users shortly after cessation of cannabis use (mean 1.6 days). The findings showed significantly lower mean hemispheric blood flow values and significantly lower frontal values in the cannabis subjects compared to normal controls. The results suggest that the functional level of the frontal lobes is affected by long-term cannabis use.

  20. The Interactive Influence of Cannabis-Related Negative Expectancies and Coping Motives on Cannabis Use Behavior and Problems.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Jeffries, Emily R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Buckner, Julia D

    2016-09-18

    The present study tested whether coping motives for cannabis use moderate the effect of negative expectancies on cannabis use. Participants were 149 (36.2% female, 61.59% non-Hispanic Caucasian) current cannabis users aged 18-36 (M = 21.01, SD = 3.09) who completed measures of cannabis-related expectancies and motives for use. Hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to investigate the predictive value of the interaction between negative expectancies and coping motives on cannabis use outcomes. Results revealed interactions between negative expectancies and coping motives with respect to past 90 day cannabis use frequency and cannabis problems. Global negative effects expectancies were associated with less frequent cannabis use, particularly among those with fewer coping motives. However, negative expectancies were related to more cannabis problems, particularly among those with higher coping motives. These results suggest it may be advisable to take coping motives into account when addressing expectancies among cannabis users.

  1. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  2. Evaluation of mechanical properties of hybrid fiber (hemp, jute, kevlar) reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresha, K. V.; Shivanand, H. K.; Amith, A.; Vidyasagar, H. N.

    2018-04-01

    In today's world composites play wide role in all the engineering fields. The reinforcement of composites decides the properties of the material. Natural fiber composites compared to synthetic fiber possesses poor mechanical properties. The solution for this problem is to use combination of natural fiber and synthetic fiber. Hybridization helps to improve the overall mechanical properties of the material. In this study, hybrid reinforced composites of Hemp fabric/Kevlar fabric/Epoxy and Jute fabric/ Kevlar fabric/Epoxy composites are fabricated using Simple hand layup technique followed by Vacuum bagging process. Appropriate test methods as per standards and guidelines are followed to analyze mechanical behavior of the composites. The mechanical characteristics like tensile, compression and flexural properties of the hybrid reinforced composites are tested as per the ASTM standards by series of tensile test; compression test and three point bending tests were conducted on the hybrid composites. A quantitative relationship between the Hemp fabric/Kevlar fabric/Epoxy and Jute/ Kevlar fabric/Epoxy has been established with constant thickness.

  3. MCPA (4-Chloro-2-ethylphenoxyacetate) resistance in hemp-nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L.).

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Tsafrir; Stephenson, Gerald R; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher

    2006-11-29

    The physiological basis for MCPA resistance in a hemp-nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L.) biotype, obtained from a MCPA-resistant field population, was investigated. Dose-response studies revealed that the resistance factor for MCPA, based on GR50 comparisons of total dry weight of resistant (R) and susceptible (S) plants, was 3.3. Resistance factors for fluroxypyr, dicamba, 2,4-D, glyphosate, and chlorsulfuron were 8.2, 1.7, 1.6, 0.7, and 0.6, respectively. MCPA resistance was not due to differences in absorption, because both R and S biotypes absorbed 54% of applied [14C]MCPA 72 h after treatment. However, R plants exported less (45 vs 58% S) recovered 14C out of treated leaves to the apical meristem (6 vs 13% S) and root (32 vs 38% S). In both biotypes, approximately 20% of the 14C recovered in planta was detected as MCPA metabolites. However, less of the 14C recovered in the roots of R plants was MCPA. Therefore, two different mechanisms protect R hemp-nettle from MCPA phytotoxicity: a lower rate of MCPA translocation and a higher rate of MCPA metabolism in the roots. In support of these results, genetic studies indicated that the inheritance of MCPA resistance is governed by at least two nuclear genes with additive effects.

  4. Effects of selected pectinolytic bacterial strains on water-retting of hemp and fibre properties.

    PubMed

    Di Candilo, M; Bonatti, P M; Guidetti, C; Focher, B; Grippo, C; Tamburini, E; Mastromei, G

    2010-01-01

    To study the effect of selected bacterial strains on hemp water-retting and properties of retted fibre. The trials were performed in laboratory tanks. The traditional water-retting process, without inoculum addition, was compared to a process modified by inoculating water tanks with two selected pectinolytic bacteria: the anaerobic strain Clostridium sp. L1/6 and the aerobic strain Bacillus sp. ROO40B. Six different incubation times were compared. Half the fibre obtained from each tank was combed. Micromorphological analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy on uncombed and combed fibres. Moreover, organoleptic and chemical analyses of uncombed fibres were performed. The inoculum, besides speeding up the process, significantly improved the fibre quality. The fibre was not damaged by mechanical hackling, thanks to the good retting level obtained by the addition of selected strains, differently to what happened with the traditionally retted fibre. The best fibre quality was obtained after 3-4 days of retting with the addition of the bacterial inoculum. Retting is the major limitation to an efficient production of high-quality hemp fibres. The water-retting process and fibre quality were substantially improved by simultaneously inoculating water tanks with two selected pectinolytic strains.

  5. Effect of Fungal Deterioration on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hemp and Flax Natural Fiber Composites

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Bryn; Pakpour, Sepideh; Kazemian, Negin; Klironomos, John; Stoeffler, Karen; Rho, Denis; Denault, Johanne; Milani, Abbas S.

    2017-01-01

    The development and application of bio-sourced composites have been gaining wide attention, yet their deterioration due to the growth of ubiquitous microorganisms during storage/manufacturing/in-service phases is still not fully understood for optimum material selection and design purposes. In this study, samples of non-woven flax fibers, hemp fibers, and mats made of co-mingled randomly-oriented flax or hemp fiber (50%) and polypropylene fiber (50%) were subjected to 28 days of exposure to (i) no water-no fungi, (ii) water only and (iii) water along with the Chaetomium globosum fungus. Biocomposite samples were measured for weight loss over time, to observe the rate of fungal growth and the respiration of cellulose components in the fibers. Tensile testing was conducted to measure mechanical properties of the composite samples under different configurations. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize fungal hyphal growth on the natural fibers, as well as to observe the fracture planes and failure modes of the biocomposite samples. Results showed that fungal growth significantly affects the dry mass as well as the tensile elastic modulus of the tested natural fiber mats and composites, and the effect depends on both the type and the length scale of fibers, as well as the exposure condition and time. PMID:29088118

  6. Health aspects of cannabis: revisited.

    PubMed

    Hollister, Leo E.

    1998-07-01

    Literature pertaining to the effects of cannabis use and health which has been published during the past 11 years has been reviewed. Many older concerns about adverse effects on health (chromosomal damage, 'cannabinol psychosis', endocrine abnormalities, cardiac events, impaired immunity) no longer seem to elicit much interest. Continuing concerns about the adverse cognitive effects of chronic use indicate that these can be demonstrated by proper testing; some studies suggest that they may be long-lasting. Although cannabis does not produce a specific psychosis, the possibility exists that it may exacerbate schizophrenia in persons predisposed to that disorder. However, evidence from retrospective surveys must always be questioned. Tolerance and dependence have occurred in man, confirming previous findings in many other species. Addiction tends to be mild and is probably less severe than with other social drugs. Driving under the influence of cannabis is impaired acutely; how long such impairments last is still unknown. More exacting tasks, such as flying an airplane, may be impaired for as long as 24 hours. While there is no doubt that marijuana smoke contains carcinogens, an increase in cancer among users has thus far been anecdotal. Because of the long latent period between cancer induction and initiation of cigarette smoking, the full story is yet to be told. Marijuana use during pregnancy is not advised although the consequences are usually not greater than those of smoking cigarettes, and far less than those from alcohol use. Whether smoked marijuana should become a therapeutic agent requires a cost-benefit analysis of the potential benefits versus the adverse effects of such use as we now know them.

  7. Effect of Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) Cutting Date and Planting Density on Weed Suppression in Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to: 1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks...

  8. An Hybrid Glass/hemp Fibers Solution Frp Pipes: Technical and Economic Advantages of Hand Lay up VS Light Rtm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicala, G.; Cristaldi, G.; Recca, G.; Ziegmann, G.; ElSabbagh, A.; Dickert, M.

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the replacement of glass fibers with hemp fibers for applications in the piping industry. The choice of hemp fibers was mainly related to the needs, expressed by some companies operating in this sector, for cost reduction without adversely reducing the performances of the pipes. Two processing techniques, namely hand lay up and light RTM, were evaluated. The pipe selected for the study was a curved fitting (90°) flanged at both ends. The fitting must withstand an internal pressure of 10 bar and the presence of acid aqueous solutions. The original lay-up used to build the pipe is a sequence of C-glass, glass mats and glass fabric. Commercial epoxy vinyl ester resin was used as thermoset matrix. Hemp fibers mats were selected as potential substitute of glass fibers mats because of their low cost and ready availability from different commercial sources. The data obtained from the mechanical characterization were used to define a favorable design of the pipe using hemp mats as internal layer. The proposed design for the fittings allowed for a cost reduction of about 24% and a weight saving of about 23% without any drawback in terms of the final performances. The light RTM techniques was developed on purpose for the manufacturing of the curved pipe. The comparison between hand lay up and light RTM evidenced a substantial cost reduction when light RTM was used.

  9. AN HYBRID GLASS/HEMP FIBERS SOLUTION FRP PIPES: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES OF HAND LAY UP VS LIGHT RTM

    SciTech Connect

    Cicala, G.; Cristaldi, G.; Recca, G.

    2008-08-28

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the replacement of glass fibers with hemp fibers for applications in the piping industry. The choice of hemp fibers was mainly related to the needs, expressed by some companies operating in this sector, for cost reduction without adversely reducing the performances of the pipes. Two processing techniques, namely hand lay up and light RTM, were evaluated. The pipe selected for the study was a curved fitting (90 deg.) flanged at both ends. The fitting must withstand an internal pressure of 10 bar and the presence of acid aqueous solutions. The originalmore » lay-up used to build the pipe is a sequence of C-glass, glass mats and glass fabric. Commercial epoxy vinyl ester resin was used as thermoset matrix.Hemp fibers mats were selected as potential substitute of glass fibers mats because of their low cost and ready availability from different commercial sources. The data obtained from the mechanical characterization were used to define a favorable design of the pipe using hemp mats as internal layer. The proposed design for the fittings allowed for a cost reduction of about 24% and a weight saving of about 23% without any drawback in terms of the final performances.The light RTM techniques was developed on purpose for the manufacturing of the curved pipe. The comparison between hand lay up and light RTM evidenced a substantial cost reduction when light RTM was used.« less

  10. Towards a better cannabis drug.

    PubMed

    Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda

    2013-12-01

    This commentary discusses the importance of a new study entitled 'Cannabidiol attenuates deficits of visuo-spatial associative memory induced by Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol' by Wright et al. from the Scripps Institute in La Jolla, California. The results in this study show that the non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol opposes some, but not all, forms of behavioural and memory disruption caused by Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol in male rhesus monkeys. This article is a commentary on the research paper by Wright et al., pp 1365-1373 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12199. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Towards a better cannabis drug

    PubMed Central

    Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This commentary discusses the importance of a new study entitled ‘Cannabidiol attenuates deficits of visuo-spatial associative memory induced by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol’ by Wright et al. from the Scripps Institute in La Jolla, California. The results in this study show that the non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol opposes some, but not all, forms of behavioural and memory disruption caused by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in male rhesus monkeys. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on the research paper by Wright et al., pp 1365–1373 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12199 PMID:24024867

  12. Cannabis can augment thrombolytic properties of rtPA: Intracranial hemorrhage in a heavy cannabis user.

    PubMed

    Shere, Amar; Goyal, Hemant

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in the United States and is considered to have several adverse health effects. There is evidence suggesting that its recreational use is associated with both increased cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Recently, multiple cases of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes associated with cannabis use were reported in the literature (Goyal et al., 2017). It has been suggested that cannabis can affect cerebral auto-regulation and vascular tone leading to vasoconstriction and acute ischemic stroke. However, hemorrhagic strokes, which are often seen with sympathomimetic illicit drugs (e.g. cocaine and amphetamines), have rarely been reported due to cannabis. Many cellular mechanisms within non-ischemic tissue post stroke may be augmented by heavy cannabis use. Here, we describe a rapid development of hemorrhage following thrombolytic therapy in a patient with heavy cannabis use with an ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-medication of achalasia with cannabis, complicated by a cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Luquiens, Amandine; Lourenco, Nelson; Benyamina, Amine; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2015-05-28

    Achalasia is a rare esophagus motility disorder. Medical, endoscopic and surgical treatments are available, but all endorse high relapse rates. No data has been published to date reporting a therapeutic effect of cannabis use neither in achalasia nor on its influence on manometric measurements. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with achalasia. He could benefit from a large panel of therapeutic interventions, but none of them was effective over the time. He first used cannabis at age 20 and identified benefits regarding achalasia symptoms. He maintained regular moderate cannabis use for 9 years, with minimal digestive inconvenience. A manometry performed without cannabis premedication was realized at age 26 and still found a cardiospasm. Cannabis use could explain the gap between functional symptoms assessment and manometry measurement. Further investigations are warranted to explore a therapeutic effect of cannabis in achalasia and possible influence on outcome measurements.

  14. Cannabis use and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M

    2008-05-01

    The present study examined the associations between cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adulthood. A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures included assessments of adolescent and young adult cannabis use and ADHD symptoms at age 25, measures of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage, family adversity, childhood and early adolescent behavioural adjustment and cognitive ability, and adolescent and young adult other drug use. Cannabis use by age 25 was significantly (p<.0001) associated with increasing self-reported adult ADHD symptoms at age 25. Adjustment of the association for potentially confounding factors from childhood and early adolescence reduced the magnitude of the association, but it remained statistically significant (p<.0001). However, control for the mediating effects of other drug use in adolescence and early adulthood reduced the association between cannabis use and adult ADHD symptoms to statistical non-significance (p>.20). The current study suggested that the association between cannabis use and adult ADHD symptoms was mediated by other substance use that was associated with cannabis use. The results suggest that cannabis use leads to other drug use, which in turn leads to increased ADHD symptoms. However, it should be noted that the potential influence of such factors as genetic predispositions may still be unaccounted for.

  15. Cannabis: a rare cause of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Houissa; Mouna, Bouraoui; Leila, Mouelhi; Radhouane, Debbeche; Taoufik, Najjar

    2013-02-01

    Drugs of all types are related to the etiology of pancreatitis in approximately 2% of cases. However, there have been very few reports of acute pancreatitis associated with cannabis use in the general population. This report is the first such case in our country, and involves a 22-year-old North African man who presented to our emergency department with transfixiant epigastric abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The patient denied any past or familial medical history, was taking no medications chronically and had no history of trauma. The patient admitted to smoking one pack of cigarettes a day and occasional cannabis use, and no alcohol consumption. Biological and morphological explorations found Balthazar grade-A acute pancreatitis with no biliary dilatation or obstruction. The etiological workup was normal and, on repeat questioning, the patient admitted to being a regular and excessive user of cannabis, and to having done so 2 days before the abdominal pain. The use of cannabis is frequently seen worldwide and even in North Africa, and regular users, especially young adults, should be informed of the risk of this possible cannabis-induced pancreatic disease. This case should also be borne in mind, although the association of cannabis with pancreatitis is problematic because of the difficulty in monitoring cannabinoids in the body and the illegality of cannabis use and, consequently, getting patients to admit to using it. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use. However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use. For the cancer patient, cannabis has a number of potential benefits, especially in the management of symptoms. Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite. Inhaled cannabis is more effective than placebo in ameliorating peripheral neuropathy in a number of conditions, and it could prove useful in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. A pharmacokinetic interaction study of vaporized cannabis in patients with chronic pain on stable doses of sustained-release opioids demonstrated no clinically significant change in plasma opiates, while suggesting the possibility of synergistic analgesia. Aside from symptom management, an increasing body of in vitro and animal-model studies supports a possible direct anticancer effect of cannabinoids by way of a number of different mechanisms involving apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inhibition of metastasis. Despite an absence of clinical trials, abundant anecdotal reports that describe patients having remarkable responses to cannabis as an anticancer agent, especially when taken as a high-potency orally ingested concentrate, are circulating. Human studies should be conducted to address critical questions related to the foregoing effects.

  17. The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Grotenhermen, Franjo; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten

    2012-07-01

    Cannabis-based medications have been a topic of intense study since the endogenous cannabinoid system was discovered two decades ago. In 2011, for the first time, a cannabis extract was approved for clinical use in Germany. Selective literature review. Cannabis-based medications exert their effects mainly through the activation of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). More than 100 controlled clinical trials of cannabinoids or whole-plant preparations for various indications have been conducted since 1975. The findings of these trials have led to the approval of cannabis-based medicines (dronabinol, nabilone, and a cannabis extract [THC:CBD=1:1]) in several countries. In Germany, a cannabis extract was approved in 2011 for the treatment of moderate to severe refractory spasticity in multiple sclerosis. It is commonly used off label for the treatment of anorexia, nausea, and neuropathic pain. Patients can also apply for government permission to buy medicinal cannabis flowers for self-treatment under medical supervision. The most common side effects of cannabinoids are tiredness and dizziness (in more than 10% of patients), psychological effects, and dry mouth. Tolerance to these side effects nearly always develops within a short time. Withdrawal symptoms are hardly ever a problem in the therapeutic setting. There is now clear evidence that cannabinoids are useful for the treatment of various medical conditions.

  18. Cannabis Use Frequency and Use-Related Impairment among African American and White Users: The Impact of Cannabis Use Motives

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonia M.; Dean, Kimberlye E.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cannabis use motives are differentially related to cannabis-related impairment and coping motives appear to have the strongest relation to use-related impairment. However, it is currently unknown whether African American individuals differ from White persons in reasons for using cannabis. It is also unknown whether motives’ relations to cannabis use and related impairment vary as a function of race. The present study examined the role of race on cannabis use motives and tested whether motives’ relations with cannabis use and related impairment differed by race. Design The sample consisted of 111 (67.6% non-Hispanic White, 32.4% African American) current cannabis-using adults. Results African American participants did not significantly differ from White participants on cannabis use frequency or use-related impairment. African American participants endorsed more social motives than White participants. Race interacted with social, coping, and conformity motives to predict cannabis-related impairment such that these motives were positively related to cannabis impairment among African American, but not White, participants. Conclusion Although African American and White participants do not differ in their cannabis use frequency or cannabis-related impairment, they appear to use cannabis for different reasons. Further, conformity, coping, and social motives were differentially associated with cannabis-related impairment as a function of race. Findings suggest motives for cannabis use should be contexualized in the context of race. PMID:26264291

  19. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti, Farimah; Khazaei, Majid; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS) (Ranunculaceae family) is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS). The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders. PMID:27247928

  20. Rice, Japonica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Main, Marcy; Frame, Bronwyn; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    The importance of rice, as a food crop, is reflected in the extensive global research being conducted in an effort to improve and better understand this particular agronomic plant. In regard to biotechnology, this has led to the development of numerous genetic transformation protocols. Over the years, many of these methods have become increasingly straightforward, rapid, and efficient, thereby making rice valuable as a model crop for scientific research and functional genomics. The focus of this chapter is on one such protocol that uses Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare with an emphasis on tissue desiccation. The explants consist of callus derived from mature seeds which are cocultivated on filter paper postinfection. Hygromycin selection is used for the recovery of subsequent genetically engineered events.

  1. Effect of reclassification of cannabis on hospital admissions for cannabis psychosis: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Ian; Lloyd, Charlie; Hewitt, Catherine; Godfrey, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The UK Misuse of Drugs Act (1971) divided controlled drugs into three groups A, B and C, with descending criminal sanctions attached to each class. Cannabis was originally assigned by the Act to Group B but in 2004, it was transferred to the lowest risk group, Group C. Then in 2009, on the basis of increasing concerns about a link between high strength cannabis and schizophrenia, it was moved back to Group B. The aim of this study is to test the assumption that changes in classification lead to changes in levels of psychosis. In particular, it explores whether the two changes in 2004 and 2009 were associated with changes in the numbers of people admitted for cannabis psychosis. An interrupted time series was used to investigate the relationship between the two changes in cannabis classification and their impact on hospital admissions for cannabis psychosis. Reflecting the two policy changes, two interruptions to the time series were made. Hospital Episode Statistics admissions data was analysed covering the period 1999 through to 2010. There was a significantly increasing trend in cannabis psychosis admissions from 1999 to 2004. However, following the reclassification of cannabis from B to C in 2004, there was a significant change in the trend such that cannabis psychosis admissions declined to 2009. Following the second reclassification of cannabis back to class B in 2009, there was a significant change to increasing admissions. This study shows a statistical association between the reclassification of cannabis and hospital admissions for cannabis psychosis in the opposite direction to that predicted by the presumed relationship between the two. However, the reasons for this statistical association are unclear. It is unlikely to be due to changes in cannabis use over this period. Other possible explanations include changes in policing and systemic changes in mental health services unrelated to classification decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Dopaminergic function in cannabis users and its relationship to cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Morgan, Celia J A; Egerton, Alice; Kapur, Shitij; Curran, H Valerie; Howes, Oliver D

    2014-03-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug globally, and users are at increased risk of mental illnesses including psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Substance dependence and schizophrenia are both associated with dopaminergic dysfunction. It has been proposed, although never directly tested, that the link between cannabis use and schizophrenia is mediated by altered dopaminergic function. We compared dopamine synthesis capacity in 19 regular cannabis users who experienced psychotic-like symptoms when they consumed cannabis with 19 nonuser sex- and age-matched control subjects. Dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as the influx rate constant [Formula: see text] ) was measured with positron emission tomography and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine ([(18)F]-DOPA). Cannabis users had reduced dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum (effect size: .85; t36 = 2.54, p = .016) and its associative (effect size: .85; t36 = 2.54, p = .015) and limbic subdivisions (effect size: .74; t36 = 2.23, p = .032) compared with control subjects. The group difference in dopamine synthesis capacity in cannabis users compared with control subjects was driven by those users meeting cannabis abuse or dependence criteria. Dopamine synthesis capacity was negatively associated with higher levels of cannabis use (r = -.77, p < .001) and positively associated with age of onset of cannabis use (r = .51, p = .027) but was not associated with cannabis-induced psychotic-like symptoms (r = .32, p = .19). These findings indicate that chronic cannabis use is associated with reduced dopamine synthesis capacity and question the hypothesis that cannabis increases the risk of psychotic disorders by inducing the same dopaminergic alterations seen in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF SEX-DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF CANNABIS IN DAILY CANNABIS SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ziva D.; Haney, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background Women exhibit an accelerated progression from first cannabis use to cannabis use disorder (CUD) and show pronounced negative clinical issues related to CUD relative to men. Whether sex-dependent differences in cannabis’ direct effects contribute to the heightened risk in women is unknown. This analysis directly compared cannabis’ abuse-related subjective effects in men and women matched for current cannabis use. Methods Data from four double-blind, within-subject studies measuring the effects of active cannabis (3.27–5.50% THC, depending on study) relative to inactive cannabis (0.00% THC) were combined for this analysis. Data from equal numbers of men and women from each study matched for current cannabis use were pooled (total n = 35 men; 35 women); cannabis’ effects were analyzed according to cannabis condition (active versus inactive) and sex. Results Active cannabis produced more robust subjective effects associated with abuse liability (‘Good,’ ‘Liking,’ ‘Take Again’) and intoxication (‘High,’ ‘Stimulated’) relative to inactive cannabis (p • 0.0001). Women reported higher ratings of abuse-related effects [‘Take Again’ and ‘Good’ (p • 0.05)] relative to men under active cannabis conditions but did not differ in ratings of intoxication. Active cannabis increased heart rate (p • 0.0001) equally for both sexes. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that when matched for cannabis use, women are more sensitive to the subjective effects related to cannabis’ abuse liability relative to men, which may contribute to the enhanced vulnerability to developing CUD. Thus, sex is an important variable to consider when assessing the development of CUD. PMID:24440051

  4. Cannabis Liberalization and Adolescent Cannabis Use: A Cross-National Study in 38 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuyan; Lenzi, Michela; An, Ruopeng

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the associations between types of cannabis control policies at country level and prevalence of adolescent cannabis use. Setting, Participants and Design Multilevel logistic regressions were performed on 172,894 adolescents 15 year of age who participated in the 2001/2002, 2005/2006, or 2009/2010 cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey in 38 European and North American countries. Measures Self-reported cannabis use status was classified into ever use in life time, use in past year, and regular use. Country-level cannabis control policies were categorized into a dichotomous measure (whether or not liberalized) as well as 4 detailed types (full prohibition, depenalization, decriminalization, and partial prohibition). Control variables included individual-level sociodemographic characteristics and country-level economic characteristics. Findings Considerable intra-class correlations (.15-.19) were found at country level. With respect to the dichotomized cannabis control policy, adolescents were more likely to ever use cannabis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, p = .001), use in past year (OR = 1.09, p = .007), and use regularly (OR = 1.26, p = .004). Although boys were substantially more likely to use cannabis, the correlation between cannabis liberalization and cannabis use was smaller in boys than in girls. With respect to detailed types of policies, depenalization was associated with higher odds of past-year use (OR = 1.14, p = .013) and regular use (OR = 1.23, p = .038), and partial prohibition was associated with higher odds of regular use (OR = 2.39, p = .016). The correlation between cannabis liberalization and regular use was only significant after the policy had been introduced for more than 5 years. Conclusions Cannabis liberalization with depenalization and partial prohibition policies was associated with higher levels of regular cannabis use among adolescents. The correlations were heterogeneous between genders and

  5. Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Sandra M

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis (“marijuana”) has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai‘i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0–10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai‘i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription. PMID:24765558

  6. Cannabis Users' Recommended Warnings for Packages of Legally Sold Cannabis: An Australia-Centered Study

    PubMed Central

    Malouff, John M.; Johnson, Caitlin E.; Rooke, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Although cannabis use creates health risks, governments have recently been legalizing either medical use or leisure use. These governments can mandate health warnings on cannabis packages. Prior research examined recommended warnings of cannabis experts. The aim of this study was to obtain suggested cannabis health and safety warnings from cannabis users. Methods: We used a media release, Facebook postings, and announcements in university classes to seek individuals who had used cannabis at least once according to their own report. Using online data collection software that keeps participants anonymous, we asked the individuals to suggest a warning that governments could mandate on cannabis packages. Results: In total, 288 users suggested warnings. Categorizing the warnings into content categories led to six warning topics: (1) risk of harm to mental health and psychological functioning; (2) risk of operating machinery while under the influence; (3) short-term physical side effects; (4) responsible use; (5) long-term negative physical effects; and (6) dependence, addiction, or abuse. The user-suggested warnings overlapped with six expert-recommended warnings identified in prior survey research and included two content areas that did not feature in expert-recommended warnings: short-term physical side effects and the importance of responsible use. Conclusions: The results are consistent with prior findings that some youths perceive cannabis use as potentially harmful. The current findings provide possible new content for warnings on cannabis packages. PMID:28861495

  7. Self-reported cannabis use characteristics, patterns and helpfulness among medical cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bucossi, Meggan M; Babson, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Little research has investigated the demographic and symptom profile of medical cannabis users in states in the USA that have legalized cannabis use. In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the demographic profile of 217 adults currently receiving medical cannabis, as well as differences in problematic use and perceived helpfulness in terms of (i) symptoms of psychological disorders and pain, and (ii) motives for use. Findings indicated that medical cannabis users (i) use and perceive cannabis to be beneficial for multiple conditions, some for which cannabis is not specifically prescribed or allowed at the state level; and (ii) report similar rates of disordered use as compared with population estimates among regular users. Furthermore, problematic cannabis use was predicted by several symptoms of psychological disorders (e.g. depression) and a variety of use motives (e.g. coping), while cannabis was reported as particularly helpful among those with several psychological symptoms (e.g. traumatic intrusions), as well as those reporting use for social anxiety reasons. Results are discussed in terms of future directions for research given the current debates regarding legalization of cannabis for medical purposes and, more generally, the lack of empirical data to inform such debates.

  8. Cannabis Users' Recommended Warnings for Packages of Legally Sold Cannabis: An Australia-Centered Study.

    PubMed

    Malouff, John M; Johnson, Caitlin E; Rooke, Sally E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although cannabis use creates health risks, governments have recently been legalizing either medical use or leisure use. These governments can mandate health warnings on cannabis packages. Prior research examined recommended warnings of cannabis experts. The aim of this study was to obtain suggested cannabis health and safety warnings from cannabis users. Methods: We used a media release, Facebook postings, and announcements in university classes to seek individuals who had used cannabis at least once according to their own report. Using online data collection software that keeps participants anonymous, we asked the individuals to suggest a warning that governments could mandate on cannabis packages. Results: In total, 288 users suggested warnings. Categorizing the warnings into content categories led to six warning topics: (1) risk of harm to mental health and psychological functioning; (2) risk of operating machinery while under the influence; (3) short-term physical side effects; (4) responsible use; (5) long-term negative physical effects; and (6) dependence, addiction, or abuse. The user-suggested warnings overlapped with six expert-recommended warnings identified in prior survey research and included two content areas that did not feature in expert-recommended warnings: short-term physical side effects and the importance of responsible use. Conclusions: The results are consistent with prior findings that some youths perceive cannabis use as potentially harmful. The current findings provide possible new content for warnings on cannabis packages.

  9. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  10. High School Students’ Use of Electronic Cigarettes to Vaporize Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly among high school (HS) students. Of concern, e-cigarettes can be used to vaporize cannabis, although use rates among adolescents are unknown. We evaluated lifetime rates of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis among all lifetime e-cigarette users (27.9%), all lifetime cannabis users (29.2%), and lifetime users of both e-cigarettes and cannabis (18.8%); common means of vaporizing cannabis including hash oil, wax infused with Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and dried cannabis; and demographic predictors of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis. METHODS: In the spring of 2014, 3847 Connecticut HS students completed an anonymous survey assessing e-cigarette and cannabis use. RESULTS: Vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes was common among lifetime e-cigarette users, lifetime cannabis users, and lifetime dual users (e-cigarette 18.0%, cannabis 18.4%, dual users 26.5%). Students reported using e-cigarettes to vaporize hash oil (e-cigarette 15.4%, cannabis 15.5%, dual users 22.9%) and wax infused with THC (e-cigarette 10.0%, cannabis 10.2%, dual users 14.8%) and using portable electronic vaporizers to vaporize dried cannabis leaves (e-cigarette 19.6%, lifetime cannabis 23.1%, lifetime dual users 29.1%). Binary logistic regression indicated that male students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05), younger students (OR = 0.64), lifetime e-cigarette users (OR = 5.27), and lifetime cannabis users (OR = 40.89) were most likely to vaporize cannabis using e-cigarettes. Rates also differed by HS attended. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes were high. These findings raise concerns about the lack of e-cigarette regulations and the potential use of e-cigarettes for purposes other than vaping nicotine. PMID:26347431

  11. Cannabis Withdrawal, Posttreatment Abstinence, and Days to First Cannabis Use Among Emerging Adults in Substance Use Treatment: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jordan P.; Smith, Douglas C.; Morphew, Jason W.; Lei, Xinrong; Zhang, Saijun

    2015-01-01

    Very little prospective research investigates how cannabis withdrawal is associated with treatment outcomes, and this work has not used the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) thresholds for cannabis withdrawal. The sample included 110 emerging adults entering outpatient substance use treatment who were heavy cannabis users with no other drug use and limited alcohol use. We used survival analyses to predict days to first use of cannabis and logistic regression to predict whether participants were abstinent and living in the community at 3 months. Those meeting criteria for cannabis withdrawal were more likely to return to use sooner than those not meeting criteria for cannabis withdrawal. However, the presence of cannabis withdrawal was not a significant predictor of 3-month abstinence. Emerging adults with DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal may have difficulty initiating abstinence in the days following their intake assessment, implying the need for strategies to mitigate their more rapid return to cannabis use. PMID:26877548

  12. Approach to cannabis use disorder in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the clinical features and complications of at-risk cannabis use and cannabis use disorder, and to outline an office-based protocol for screening, identifying, and managing this disorder. Sources of information PubMed was searched for controlled trials, observational studies, and reviews on cannabis use among adolescents and young adults; cannabis-related medical and psychiatric harms; cannabis use disorder and its treatment; and lower-risk cannabis use guidelines. Main message Physicians should ask all patients about cannabis use. They should ask adolescents and young adults and those at highest risk of cannabis-related harms (those with concurrent psychiatric or substance use disorders) more frequently. Physicians should also ask about cannabis use in patients who have problems that could be caused by cannabis, such as mood disorders, psychosis, and respiratory symptoms. In patients who report cannabis use, physicians should inquire about frequency and amount, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, attempts to reduce use, and cannabis-related harms. Lower-risk cannabis users smoke, inhale, or ingest cannabis occasionally without evidence of school, work, or social dysfunction; those with problematic use often use cannabis daily or almost daily, have difficulty reducing their use, and have impaired school, work, or social functioning. Physicians should offer all patients with problematic use brief advice and counseling, focusing on the health effects of cannabis and setting a goal of abstinence (some higher-risk groups should not use cannabis at all) or reduced use, and they should provide practical strategies to reduce cannabis use. Physicians should incorporate simple motivational interviewing techniques into the counseling sessions. They should refer those patients who are unable to reduce use or who are experiencing harms from cannabis use to specialized care, while ensuring those patients remain connected to primary care. As well, physicians

  13. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

  14. Cannabis Problem Experiences Among Users of the Tobacco-Cannabis Combination Known As Blunts

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In most of the world, cannabis smokers mix loose tobacco inside a joint, pipe, spliff, or cone. More recently, a ‘blunt’ formulation combines these two drugs by inserting cannabis into a hollowed-out cigar. Epidemiological research linking simultaneous use of these two drugs and the development of cannabis use disorders (CUD) remains unclear. This study estimates associations linking blunt smoking with levels and subtypes of cannabis problems. Methods Cross-sectional data on 27,767 past-year cannabis users were analyzed from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) conducted from 2009–2012. Ten self-reported items of DSM-IV CUD features elicited a single latent trait of cannabis problem (CP) severity, which was then regressed on past-year blunt smoking and past-month blunt frequency measures within the context of a conceptual model. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis evaluated potential bias in CP feature response by blunt smoking history. Results Past-year blunt smoking was associated with higher CP severity compared to cannabis users who did not smoke blunts. Days of blunt smoking in the past month also predicted higher CP severity than less frequent blunt use. Those smoking blunts experienced more subjectively felt tolerance and having spent more time obtaining or using cannabis, but were less likely to experience other problems, even at the same level of CP severity. Conclusions These findings suggest smoking blunts might promote the development of problematic cannabis use. Responses to cannabis problems differed by history of blunt smoking, possibly implicating an influence of tobacco on measurement of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25746234

  15. Cannabis problem experiences among users of the tobacco-cannabis combination known as blunts.

    PubMed

    Fairman, Brian J

    2015-05-01

    In most of the world, cannabis smokers mix loose tobacco inside a joint, pipe, spliff, or cone. More recently, a 'blunt' formulation combines these two drugs by inserting cannabis into a hollowed-out cigar. Epidemiological research linking simultaneous use of these two drugs and the development of cannabis use disorders (CUD) remains unclear. This study estimates associations linking blunt smoking with levels and subtypes of cannabis problems. Cross-sectional data on 27,767 past-year cannabis users were analyzed from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) conducted from 2009 to 2012. Ten self-reported items of DSM-IV CUD features elicited a single latent trait of cannabis problem (CP) severity, which was then regressed on past-year blunt smoking and past-month blunt frequency measures within the context of a conceptual model. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis evaluated potential bias in CP feature response by blunt smoking history. Past-year blunt smoking was associated with higher CP severity compared to cannabis users who did not smoke blunts. Days of blunt smoking in the past month also predicted higher CP severity than less frequent blunt use. Those smoking blunts experienced more subjectively felt tolerance and having spent more time obtaining or using cannabis, but were less likely to experience other problems, even at the same level of CP severity. These findings suggest smoking blunts might promote the development of problematic cannabis use. Responses to cannabis problems differed by history of blunt smoking, possibly implicating an influence of tobacco on measurement of cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. Quality of evidence We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Main message Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective “high” (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to “cannabinoid” clinics (level

  17. Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; Brunt, Tibor; van Amsterdam, Jan; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2014-07-01

    Increased delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations in cannabis may lead to higher THC exposure, cannabis dependence and treatment need, but users may also adapt the actual intake of THC through reduced inhalation of THC containing smoke (titration). We investigated whether consumers of stronger cannabis use less cannabis per joint or inhale less smoke than those using less potent cannabis and whether these factors predict cannabis dependence severity. Heavy cannabis users (n = 98) brought their own cannabis, rolled a joint and smoked it ad libitum in a naturalistic setting. We analysed the content of the joint, its association with smoking behaviour and the cross-sectional and prospective (1.5-year follow-up) relations between smoking behaviour and cannabis dependence severity (total number of DSM-IV dependence symptoms). THC concentration in cannabis (range 1.10-24.70%) was correlated positively with cannabis dose per joint (b = 0.008, P = 0.01), but the resulting THC concentration per joint (range 0.24-15.72%) was associated negatively with inhalation volume (b = -0.05, P = 0.03). Smoking behaviour measures (number of puffs, inhaled volume, reduction of puff volume and puff duration while smoking) predicted follow-up dependence severity, independently of baseline dependence severity and monthly THC dose (number of joints × cannabis dose × cannabis THC concentration). Monthly THC dose only predicted follow-up dependence severity when unadjusted for baseline severity. Cannabis users titrate their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol intake by inhaling lower volumes of smoke when smoking strong joints, but this does not fully compensate for the higher cannabis doses per joint when using strong cannabis. Thus, users of more potent cannabis are generally exposed to more delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Smoking behaviour appears to be a stronger predictor for cannabis dependence severity than monthly delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol dose.

  18. Impact of age at onset of cannabis use on cannabis dependence and driving under the influence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Le Strat, Yann; Dubertret, Caroline; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    There is growing evidence that driving under the influence of cannabis is associated with a higher risk of motor vehicle crash. Cannabis dependence has been reported to be associated with a three-fold increased risk of motor vehicle crash. The impact of the age at onset of cannabis use on the risk of both cannabis dependence and driving under the influence of cannabis has not been evaluated so far. Data were drawn from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a survey of 43,093 adults aged 18 years and older. We limited our analyses to the sample of participants who reported having ever used cannabis (n=8172), of whom 8068 had a known age at onset of cannabis use. Of the 8068 participants included, 5.15% reported having driven under the influence of cannabis. Among those, only a minority (14.46%) were diagnosed with cannabis dependence. Compared to those who start using cannabis at age 21 years or after, participants who used cannabis before the age of 14 years were 4 times more likely to have a history of cannabis dependence and 3 times more likely to reported having driven under the influence of cannabis. An inverse relationship between the age at onset of cannabis use and driving under the influence and risk of cannabis dependence was found. Starting to smoke cannabis younger than 21 years is associated with both cannabis dependence and driving under the influence of cannabis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Significance of cannabis use to dental practice.

    PubMed

    Maloney, William James

    2011-04-01

    The illicit use of the three main forms of cannabis-marijuana, hash, hash oil-pose certain obstacles and challenges to the dental professional. There are a number of systemic, as well as oral/head and neck manifestations, associated with cannabis use. Dentists need to be aware of these manifestations in order to take whatever precautions and/or modifications to the proposed treatment that might be necessary.

  20. Cannabis and its effects on driving skills.

    PubMed

    Bondallaz, Percy; Favrat, Bernard; Chtioui, Haïthem; Fornari, Eleonora; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Traffic policies show growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis, since cannabinoids are one of the most frequently encountered psychoactive substances in the blood of drivers who are drug-impaired and/or involved in accidents, and in the context of a legalization of medical marijuana and of recreational use. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of cannabis on safe driving remain poorly understood. In order to better understand its acute and long-term effects on psychomotor functions involved in the short term ability and long-term fitness to drive, experimental research has been conducted based on laboratory, simulator or on-road studies, as well as on structural and functional brain imaging. Results presented in this review show a cannabis-induced impairment of actual driving performance by increasing lane weaving and mean distance headway to the preceding vehicle. Acute and long-term dose-dependent impairments of specific cognitive functions and psychomotor abilities were also noted, extending beyond a few weeks after the cessation of use. Some discrepancies found between these studies could be explained by factors such as history of cannabis use, routes of administration, dose ranges, or study designs (e.g. treatment blinding). Moreover, use of both alcohol and cannabis has been shown to lead to greater odds of making an error than use of either alcohol or cannabis alone. Although the correlation between blood or oral fluid concentrations and psychoactive effects of THC needs a better understanding, blood sampling has been shown to be the most effective way to evaluate the level of impairment of drivers under the influence of cannabis. The blood tests have also shown to be useful to highlight a chronic use of cannabis that suggests an addiction and therefore a long-term unfitness to drive. Besides blood, hair and repeated urine analyses are useful to confirm abstinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  1. Blunted stress reactivity in chronic cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; Spradlin, Alexander; Nusbaum, Amy T; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2017-08-01

    One of the most commonly cited reasons for chronic cannabis use is to cope with stress. Consistent with this, cannabis users have shown reduced emotional arousal and dampened stress reactivity in response to negative imagery. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first to examine the effects of an acute stress manipulation on subjective stress and salivary cortisol in chronic cannabis users compared to non-users. Forty cannabis users and 42 non-users were randomly assigned to complete either the stress or no stress conditions of the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). The stress condition of the MAST manipulates both physiological (placing hand in ice bath) and psychosocial stress (performing math under conditions of social evaluation). Participants gave baseline subjective stress ratings before, during, and after the stress manipulation. Cortisol was measured from saliva samples obtained before and after the stress manipulation. Further, cannabis cravings and symptoms of withdrawal were measured. Subjective stress ratings and cortisol levels were significantly higher in non-users in the stress condition relative to non-users in the no stress condition. In contrast, cannabis users demonstrated blunted stress reactivity; specifically, they showed no increase in cortisol and a significantly smaller increase in subjective stress ratings. The stress manipulation had no impact on cannabis users' self-reported cravings or withdrawal symptoms. Chronic cannabis use is associated with blunted stress reactivity. Future research is needed to determine whether this helps to confer resiliency or vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology as well as the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  2. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Cannabis Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Muniyappa, Ranganath; Sable, Sara; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Mari, Andrea; Gharib, Ahmed M.; Walter, Mary; Courville, Amber; Hall, Gail; Chen, Kong Y.; Volkow, Nora D.; Kunos, George; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Skarulis, Monica C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined if chronic cannabis smoking is associated with hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, reduced β-cell function, or dyslipidemia in healthy individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, case-control study, we studied cannabis smokers (n = 30; women, 12; men, 18; 27 ± 8 years) and control subjects (n = 30) matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI (27 ± 6). Abdominal fat depots and intrahepatic fat content were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Insulin-sensitivity indices and various aspects of β-cell function were derived from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). RESULTS Self-reported cannabis use was: 9.5 (2–38) years; joints/day: 6 (3–30) [median (range)]. Carbohydrate intake and percent calories from carbohydrates, but not total energy intake, were significantly higher in cannabis smokers. There were no group differences in percent total body fat, or hepatic fat, but cannabis smokers had a higher percent abdominal visceral fat (18 ± 9 vs. 12 ± 5%; P = 0.004). Cannabis smokers had lower plasma HDL cholesterol (49 ± 14 vs. 55 ± 13 mg/dL; P = 0.02), but fasting levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or free fatty acids (FFA) were not different. Adipocyte insulin resistance index and percent FFA suppression during an OGTT was lower (P < 0.05) in cannabis smokers. However, oral glucose insulin sensitivity index, measures of β-cell function, or incretin concentrations did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS Chronic cannabis smoking was associated with visceral adiposity and adipose tissue insulin resistance but not with hepatic steatosis, insulin insensitivity, impaired pancreatic β-cell function, or glucose intolerance. PMID:23530011

  3. The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the steam-distilled volatile oil of fresh and air-dried, indoor-grown marijuana was studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. In all, 68 components were detected of which 57 were fully identified. Drying of the plant material had no effect on the qualitative composition of the oil and did not affect the ability of individuals familiar with marijuana smell to recognize the odor.

  4. [Cannabis: Effects in the Central Nervous System. Therapeutic, societal and legal consequences].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Olmos, Víctor Manuel; Parra-Bernal, Marisela C

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy. Evidence indicates significant adverse effects of smoked marijuana on the structure, functioning and brain connectivity. Cannabis exposure during pregnancy affects fetal brain development, potentially leading to later behavioral problems in children. Neuropsychological tests and advanced imaging techniques show involvement in the learning process in adolescents with substance use. Also, marijuana increases the cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Social and ethical consequences to legally free marijuana for recreational use may be deleterious transcendentally. The medicinal or psychoactive cannabinol no addictive effect requires controlled proven efficacy and safety before regulatory approval studies.

  5. Analysis of the NMI01 marker for a population database of cannabis seeds.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Nicholas; Allgeier, Lindsay; Lanier, Tommy; Coyle, Heather Miller

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the distribution of genotypes at a single hexanucleotide short tandem repeat (STR) locus in a Cannabis sativa seed database along with seed-packaging information. This STR locus is defined by the polymerase chain reaction amplification primers CS1F and CS1R and is referred to as NMI01 (for National Marijuana Initiative) in our study. The population database consists of seed seizures of two categories: seed samples from labeled and unlabeled packages regarding seed bank source. Of a population database of 93 processed seeds including 12 labeled Cannabis varieties, the observed genotypes generated from single seeds exhibited between one and three peaks (potentially six alleles if in homozygous state). The total number of observed genotypes was 54 making this marker highly specific and highly individualizing even among seeds of common lineage. Cluster analysis associated many but not all of the handwritten labeled seed varieties tested to date as well as the National Park seizure to our known reference database containing Mr. Nice Seedbank and Sensi Seeds commercially packaged reference samples. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Cannabis and psychosis: what is the link?

    PubMed

    Ben Amar, Mohamed; Potvin, Stéphane

    2007-06-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that cannabis consumption is a risk factor for the development of psychotic symptoms. Nonetheless, controversy remains about the causal nature of the association. This review takes the debate further through a critical appraisal of the evidence. An electronic search was performed, allowing to identify 622 studies published until June 1st 2005. Longitudinal studies and literature reviews were selected if they addressed specifically the issues of the cannabis/psychosis relationship or possible mechanisms involved. Ten epidemiological studies were relevant: three supported a causal relationship between cannabis use and diagnosed psychosis; five suggested that chronic cannabis intake increases the frequency of psychotic symptoms, but not of diagnosed psychosis; and two showed no causal relationship. Potential neurobiological mechanisms were also identified, involving dopamine, endocannabinoids, and brain growth factors. Although there is evidence that cannabis use increases the risk of developing psychotic symptoms, the causal nature of this association remains unclear. Contributing factors include heavy consumption, length and early age of exposure, and psychotic vulnerability. This conclusion should be mitigated by uncertainty arising from cannabis use assessment, psychosis measurement, reverse causality and control of residual confounding.

  7. Functional imaging studies in cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Chang, Linda; Chronicle, Edward P

    2007-10-01

    Cannabis remains the most widely used illegal drug in the United States. This update examines the available literature on neuroimaging studies of the brains of cannabis users. The majority of studies examining the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration used PET methods and concluded that administration of THC leads to increased activation in frontal and paralimbic regions and the cerebellum. These increases in activation are broadly consistent with the behavioral effects of the drug. Although there is only equivocal evidence that chronic cannabis use might result in structural brain changes, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-fMRI studies in chronic users consistently show alterations, or neuroadaptation, in the activation of brain networks responsible for higher cognitive functions. It is not yet certain whether these changes are reversible with abstinence. Given the high prevalence of cannabis use among adolescents, studies are needed to evaluate whether cannabis use might affect the developing brain. Considerable further work, employing longitudinal designs, is also required to determine whether cannabis use causes permanent functional alterations in the brains of adults.

  8. US Epidemiology of Cannabis Use and Associated Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the changing US epidemiology of cannabis use and associated problems. Adults and adolescents increasingly view cannabis as harmless, and some can use cannabis without harm. However, potential problems include harms from prenatal exposure and unintentional childhood exposure; decline in educational or occupational functioning after early adolescent use, and in adulthood, impaired driving and vehicle crashes; cannabis use disorders (CUD), cannabis withdrawal, and psychiatric comorbidity. Evidence suggests national increases in cannabis potency, prenatal and unintentional childhood exposure; and in adults, increased use, CUD, cannabis-related emergency room visits, and fatal vehicle crashes. Twenty-nine states have medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and of these, 8 have recreational marijuana laws (RMLs). Many studies indicate that MMLs or their specific provisions did not increase adolescent cannabis use. However, the more limited literature suggests that MMLs have led to increased cannabis potency, unintentional childhood exposures, adult cannabis use, and adult CUD. Ecological-level studies suggest that MMLs have led to substitution of cannabis for opioids, and also possibly for psychiatric medications. Much remains to be determined about cannabis trends and the role of MMLs and RMLs in these trends. The public, health professionals, and policy makers would benefit from education about the risks of cannabis use, the increases in such risks, and the role of marijuana laws in these increases. PMID:28853439

  9. Durability of Starch Based Biodegradable Plastics Reinforced with Manila Hemp Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Shinji

    2011-02-25

    The biodegradability of Manila hemp fiber reinforced biodegradable plastics was studied for 240 days in a natural soil and 30 days in a compost soil. After biodegradability tests, weights were measured and both tensile strength tests and microscopic observation were performed to evaluate the biodegradation behavior of the composites. The results indicate that the tensile strength of the composites displays a sharp decrease for up to five days, followed by a gradual decrease. The weight loss and the reduction in tensile strength of biodegradable composite materials in the compost soil are both significantly greater than those buried in natural soil. The biodegradability of these composites is enhanced along the lower portion because this area is more easily attacked by microorganisms.

  10. Durability of Starch Based Biodegradable Plastics Reinforced with Manila Hemp Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    The biodegradability of Manila hemp fiber reinforced biodegradable plastics was studied for 240 days in a natural soil and 30 days in a compost soil. After biodegradability tests, weights were measured and both tensile strength tests and microscopic observation were performed to evaluate the biodegradation behavior of the composites. The results indicate that the tensile strength of the composites displays a sharp decrease for up to five days, followed by a gradual decrease. The weight loss and the reduction in tensile strength of biodegradable composite materials in the compost soil are both significantly greater than those buried in natural soil. The biodegradability of these composites is enhanced along the lower portion because this area is more easily attacked by microorganisms. PMID:28880000

  11. Hemp reinforce