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Sample records for henrys law constant

  1. Henry's law constants of polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-05-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. Depending on the case, infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediary results. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  2. Henry's law constants of polyols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-12-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  3. Compilation of Henry's law constants, version 3.99

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, R.

    2014-11-01

    Many atmospheric chemicals occur in the gas phase as well as in liquid cloud droplets and aerosol particles. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the distribution between the phases. According to Henry's law, the equilibrium ratio between the abundances in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase is constant for a dilute solution. Henry's law constants of trace gases of potential importance in environmental chemistry have been collected and converted into a uniform format. The compilation contains 14775 values of Henry's law constants for 3214 species, collected from 639 references. It is also available on the internet at henrys-law.org">http://www.henrys-law.org.

  4. Henry's law constants for dimethylsulfide in freshwater and seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, J. W. H.; Wakeham, S. G.; Howes, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distilled water and several waters of varying salinity were subjected, over a 0-32 C temperature range, to measurements for Henry's law constants for dimethylsulfide. Values for distilled water and seawater of the solubility parameters A and C are obtained which support the concept that the concentration of dimethylsulfide in the atmosphere is far from equilibrium with seawater.

  5. Temperature dependencies of Henry's law constants for different plant sesquiterpenes.

    PubMed

    Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-11-01

    Sesquiterpenes are plant-produced hydrocarbons with important ecological functions in plant-to-plant and plant-to-insect communication, but due to their high reactivity they can also play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. So far, there is little information of gas/liquid phase partition coefficients (Henry's law constants) and their temperature dependencies for sesquiterpenes, but this information is needed for quantitative simulation of the release of sesquiterpenes from plants and modeling atmospheric reactions in different phases. In this study, we estimated Henry's law constants (Hpc) and their temperature responses for 12 key plant sesquiterpenes with varying structure (aliphatic, mono-, bi- and tricyclic sesquiterpenes). At 25 °C, Henry's law constants varied 1.4-fold among different sesquiterpenes, and the values were within the range previously observed for monocyclic monoterpenes. Hpc of sesquiterpenes exhibited a high rate of increase, on average ca. 1.5-fold with a 10 °C increase in temperature (Q10). The values of Q10 varied 1.2-fold among different sesquiterpenes. Overall, these data demonstrate moderately high variation in Hpc values and Hpc temperature responses among different sesquiterpenes. We argue that these variations can importantly alter the emission kinetics of sesquiterpenes from plants. PMID:26291755

  6. Henry's law constants of some environmentally important aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Betterton, E.A.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1988-12-01

    The Henry's law constants of seven aldehydes have been determined as a function of temperature by bubble-column and by head-space techniques. The compounds were chosen for their potential importance in the polluted troposphere and to allow structure-reactivity patterns to be investigated. The results (at 25/degree/C) are as follows (in units of M atm/sup /minus/1/): chloral, 3.44 /times/ 10/sup 5/; glyoxal, greater than or equal to3 /times/ 10/sup 5/; methylglyoxal, 3.71 /times/ 10/sup 3/; formaldehyde, 2.97 /times/ 10/sup 3/; benzaldehyde, 3.74 /times/ 10/sup 1/; hydroxyacetaldehyde, 4.14 /times/ 10/sup 4/; acetaldehyde, 1.14 /times/ 10/sup 1/. A plot of Taft's parameter, ..sigma..sigma*, vs log H* (the apparent Henry's law constant) gives a straight line with a slope of 1.72. H* for formaldehyde is anomalously high, as expected, but the extremely high value for hydroxyacetaldehyde was unexpected and may indicate that ..cap alpha..-hydroxy-substituted aldehydes could have an usually high affinity for the aqueous phase. The intrinsic Henry's law constants, H, corrected for hydration, do not show a clear structure-reactivity pattern for this series of aldehydes.

  7. Compilation of Henry's law constants (version 4.0) for water as solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, R.

    2015-04-01

    Many atmospheric chemicals occur in the gas phase as well as in liquid cloud droplets and aerosol particles. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the distribution between the phases. According to Henry's law, the equilibrium ratio between the abundances in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase is constant for a dilute solution. Henry's law constants of trace gases of potential importance in environmental chemistry have been collected and converted into a uniform format. The compilation contains 17 350 values of Henry's law constants for 4632 species, collected from 689 references. It is also available at henrys-law.org"target="_blank">http://www.henrys-law.org.

  8. Henry's law constants of diacids and hydroxy polyacids: recommended values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-03-01

    In spite of the importance of diacids and functionalised diacids for organic aerosol formation through aqueous-phase processes in droplets and aerosol water, there seems to be no reliable set of experimental values for their Henry's law constants (HLCs). We show that their estimation through the use of infinite dilution activity coefficients is also prone to error. Here we present HLC values for diacids and hydroxy polyacids determined from solubilities, water activities and vapour pressures of solids or solutions, by employing thermodynamic relationships. The vapour pressures are found to be the largest source of error, but the analysis of the obtained HLC points to inconsistencies among specific vapour pressure data sets. Although there is considerable uncertainty, the HLC defined as aqueous concentration per unit gaseous partial pressure of linear α- and ω-diacids appear to be higher than estimated by the often cited review work of Saxena and Hildemann (1996).

  9. A critical review of Henry's law constants for chemicals of environmental interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Donald; Shiu, Wan Ying

    1981-10-01

    The Henry's law constants (air-water partition coefficients) of hydrophobic organic compounds of environmental concern are reviewed. An outline of the thermodynamic principles which govern the relationships between vapor pressure, solubility and Henry's law constant for solid and liquid compounds is presented and experimental techniques for obtaining these quantities with the required accuracy are discussed. Vapor pressure, solubility, and Henry's law constant data are tabulated and reviewed for a total of 150 compounds in 12 tables consisting of gaseous, liquid and solid alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, monoaromatics, polynuclear aromatics, halogenated alkanes, alkenes and aromatics, and selected pesticides.

  10. Henry's Law Constant of Organic Nitriles Measured with GC-FID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, B.; Gangoda, M.; Lee, S.

    2012-12-01

    Nitriles are important atmospheric VOCs that paly key roles in the atmospheric nitrogen cycle and secondary aerosol formation. Nitriles and their oxidation products also have serious health effects and thus are important air pollutants. Henry's law constant is an important physical and chemical parameter to determine how gas phase species participate into gas-to-particle conversion and cloud formation and affect human health. Yet, measurements of Henry's law constants of nitriles are entirely lacking. We have developed a simple measurement technique to detect Henry's law constants of organic compounds using gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) coupled with a bubble column. In this presentation, we will show Henry's law constants of a number of atmospherically relevant organic nitrile compounds and their temperature dependence.

  11. Temperature-dependent Henry's law constants of atmospheric organics of biogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Leng, Chunbo; Kish, J Duncan; Kelley, Judas; Mach, Mindy; Hiltner, Joseph; Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Yong

    2013-10-10

    There have been growing interests in modeling studies to understand oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase and their mass transfer to the aqueous phase for their potential roles in cloud chemistry, formation of secondary organic aerosols, and fate of atmospheric organics. Temperature-dependent Henry's law constants, key parameters in the atmospheric models to account for mass transfer, are often unavailable. In the present work, we investigated gas-liquid equilibriums of isoprene, limonene, α-pinene, and linalool using a bubble column technique. These compounds, originating from biogenic sources, were selected for their implications in atmospheric cloud chemistry and secondary organic aerosol formation. We reported Henry's law constants (K(H)), first order loss rates (k), and gas phase diffusion coefficients over a range of temperatures relevant to the lower atmosphere (278-298 K) for the first time. The measurement results of K(H) values for isoprene, limonene, α-pinene, and linalool at 298 K were 0.036 ± 0.003; 0.048 ± 0.004; 0.029 ± 0.004; and 21.20 ± 0.30 mol L(-1) atm(-1), respectively. The fraction for these compounds in stratocumulus and cumulonimbus clouds at 278 K were also estimated in this work (isoprene, 1.0 × 10(-6), 6.8 × 10(-6); limonene, 1.5 × 10(-6), 1.0 × 10(-5); α-pinene, 4.5 × 10(-7), 3.1 × 10(-6); and linalool, 6.2 × 10(-4), 4.2 × 10(-3)). Our measurements in combination with literature results indicated that noncyclic alkenes could have smaller K(H) values than those of cyclic terpenes and that K(H) values may increase with an increasing number of double bonds. It was also shown that estimated Henry's law constants and their temperature dependence based on model prediction can differ from experimental results considerably and that direct measurements of temperature-dependent Henry's law constants of atmospheric organics are necessary for future work.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X VI Appendix VI to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X Compound name CAS No. Acetaldol 107-89-1 Acetamide 60-35-5...

  13. Experimental determination of Henry's law constants of trifluoroacetic acid at 278-298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsuna, Shuzo; Hori, Hisao

    Equilibrium partial pressures of trifluoroacetic acid ( P C(O)OH) over aqueous trifluoroacetic acid test solutions were determined at 278.15, 288.15, and 298.15 K. The concentration of undissociated trifluoroacetic acid ( C C(O)OH) in each test solution was determined by means of attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy and window factor analysis. From the linear relationship between P C(O)OH and C C(O)OH, the Henry's law constant of trifluoroacetic acid ( KH) at 298.15 K was determined to be 5800±700 mol dm -3 atm -1 and KH at temperature T in K was determined to be KH=5780 exp[-4120×(1/298.15-1/ T)] in mol dm -3 atm -1. The KH value at 298.15 K was 0.65 times the reported value [Bowden, D.J., Clegg, S.L., Brimblecombe, P., 1996. The Henry's law constant of trifluoroacetic acid and its partitioning into liquid water in the atmosphere. Chemosphere 32, 405-420] for p Ka=0.47 and it was equal to that for p Ka=0.2.

  14. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constants of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between 4 C and 31 C

    SciTech Connect

    Bamford, H.A.; Poster, D.L.; Baker, J.E.

    1999-09-01

    An understanding of the temperature dependence of the Henry's law constant for organic contaminant is critical when modeling the transport and fate of these contaminants in the environment. The Henry's law constants for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were experimentally determined between 4 and 31 C using a gas-stripping apparatus. The Henry's law constants ranged between 0.02 {+-} 0.01 Pa m{sup 3}/mol for chrysene at 4 C and 73.3 {+-} 20 Pa m{sup 3}/mol for 2-methylnaphthalene at 31 C. The temperature dependence of each PAH was modeled using the van't Hoff equation to calculate the enthalpy and entropy of phase change. For nine of the PAHs, the present study reports the first experimental measured temperature dependence of their Henry's law constant. The enthalpies of phase change ranged between 35.4 {+-} 1.9 kJ/mol for 1-methylphenanthrene and 100 {+-} 8 kJ/mol for chrysene. These data can be used to extrapolate Henry's law values within the experimental temperature ranges. For all PAHs except benzo[a]fluorene, the temperature dependence can be predicted within a relative standard error {lt}10%.

  15. Smog chamber experiments to investigate Henry's law constants of glyoxal using different seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Ronit

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. Hence, they have a direct as well as an indirect impact on the earth's climate. Depending on their formation, one distinguishes between primary and secondary aerosols[1]. Important groups within the secondary aerosols are the secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In order to improve predictions about these impacts on the earth's climate the existing models need to be optimized, because they still underestimate SOA formation[2]. Glyoxal, the smallest α-dicarbonyl, not only acts as a tracer for SOA formation but also as a direct contributor to SOA. Because glyoxal has such a high vapour pressure, it was common knowledge that it does not take part in gas-particle partitioning and therefore has no impact on direct SOA formation. However, the Henry's law constant for glyoxal is surprisingly high. This has been explained by the hydration of the aldehyde groups, which means that a species with a lower vapour pressure is produced. Therefore the distribution of glyoxal between gas- and particle phase is atmospherically relevant and the direct contribution of glyoxal to SOA can no longer be neglected. A high salt concentration present in chamber seed aerosols leads to an enhanced glyoxal uptake into the particle. This effect is called "salting-in". The salting effect depends on the composition of the seed aerosol as well as the soluble compound. For very polar compounds, like glyoxal, a "salting-in" is observed[3]. Glyoxal particle formation during a smog chamber campaign at Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI) in Switzerland was examined using different seed aerosols such as ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and sodium nitrate. The aim of this campaign was to investigate Henry's law constants for different seed aerosols. During the campaign filter samples were taken to investigate the amount of glyoxal in the particle phase. After filter extraction, the analyte was derivatized and measured using UHPLC

  16. Volatility dependence of Henry's law constants of condensable organics: Application to estimate depositional loss of secondary organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Aumont, B.; Knote, C.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Madronich, S.; Tyndall, G.

    2014-07-01

    The water solubility of oxidation intermediates of volatile organic compounds that can condense to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is largely unconstrained in current chemistry-climate models. We apply the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere to calculate Henry's law constants for these intermediate species. Results show a strong negative correlation between Henry's law constants and saturation vapor pressures. Details depend on precursor species, extent of photochemical processing, and NOx levels. Henry's law constants as a function of volatility are made available over a wide range of vapor pressures for use in 3-D models. In an application using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) over the U.S. in summer, we find that dry (and wet) deposition of condensable organic vapors leads to major reductions in SOA, decreasing surface concentrations by ~50% (10%) for biogenic and ~40% (6%) for short chain anthropogenic precursors under the considered volatility conditions.

  17. Measurements of the concentration in rainwater and of the Henry's law constant of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, Kunio; Aoki, Kazuyuki; Nouchi, Isamu; Okita, Toshiichi; Kobayashi, Toshimi; Amakura, Shuji K.; Tajima, Moritaka

    A chemiluminescent method for measuring hydrogen peroxide was developed using hemin as a catalyst for luminol-based H 2O 2 oxidation, which gave a detection limit below 0.1 μg ∝ -1 in the solution. It was shown that most atmospheric species did not give serious interference, and that negative interference of SO 2; could be eliminated if pH of the collecting solution was above 10 whereas O 3, gave significant positive interference. The Henry's law constant of H 2O 2 was experimentally determined to be 1.42 × 10 5 M atm -1 at 20°C at ambient concentration levels of H 2O 2. This method was also applied to the measurements of H 2O 2 concentration in rainwater in Tokyo, Japan, which was in the range of 5-1065μg ∝ -1.

  18. Comments on a model for isotope effects on Henry's law constants in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, P.; Wolfsberg, M.

    1981-05-01

    A model has been proposed in the literature for isotope effects on Henry's law constants in which the motion of the dissolved molecule surrounded by a solvent cage is approximated by the motion of a particle in a cubic box. The isotope effect then arises from the three free translations of the gas phase molecule which become the restricted translations of a particle in a box for the dissolved molecule. The theoretical equation for the isotope effect is derived here on the basis of this model. Zero-point energy arguments have been used in the literature in conjunction with this model to deduce solvent cage dimensions from observed isotope effect data. These arguments are shown here to be theoretically wrong. The correct theory for the particle in a box model gives much larger dimensions for the solvent cage than the incorrect zero-point he solvent cage than the incorrect zero-point energy argument.

  19. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  20. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  1. Henry's law constants measurements of alachlor and dichlorvos between 283 and 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Céline; Le Calvé, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe

    In this work, a dynamic system based on the water/air equilibrium at the interface within the length of a microporous tube was used to determine experimentally the Henry's law constants (HLC) of two pesticides: alachlor and dichlorvos. The measurements were conducted over the range 283-298 K. At 298 K, HLC were found to be equal to HLC=(14±2)×10 3 and HLC=(4.0±0.6)×10 3 (in units of M atm -1) for alachlor and dichlorvos, respectively. The obtained data were use to derive the following Arrhenius expressions: HLC=(8.0±3.4)×10 -10 exp((9200±1600)/ T) for alachlor and HLC=(2.8±0.4)×10 -13 exp((11 100±1500)/ T) for dichlorvos. At a cumulus temperature of 283 K, the fraction of alachlor and dichlorvos in the atmospheric aqueous phase is about 45% and 22%, respectively. Assuming that annual rainfall rate is 1 m/year, the wet deposition lifetimes were then estimated to be of the order of 2.8 days for alachlor and 5.6 days for dichlorvos. These latter are used to compare the relative importance of wet removal towards the lifetime in the gas phase.

  2. Effects of temperature, pH, and ionic strength on the Henry's law constant of triethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Chun-Bo; Roberts, Jason E.; Zeng, Guang; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Liu, Yong

    2015-05-01

    The Henry's law constants (KH) of triethylamine (TEA) in pure water and in 1-octanol were measured for the temperatures pertinent to the lower troposphere (278-298 K) using a bubble column system coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The KH values of TEA in water and 1-octanol at 298 K are 5.75 ± 0.86 mol L-1 atm-1 and 115.62 ± 5.78 mol L-1 atm-1. The KH values display strong dependence on temperature, pH, and ionic strength. The characteristic times for TEA to establish an equilibrium between gas and droplet with a size of 5.6 µm are ~33 s (298 K, pH = 5.6); ~8.9 × 102 s (278 K, pH = 5.6); ~1.3 × 103 s (298 K, pH = 4.0); and 3.6 × 104 s (278 K, pH = 4.0). The evaluation of TEA partitioning between gas phase and condensed phase implies that TEA predominantly resides in rainwater, and TEA loss to organic aerosol is negligible.

  3. Measurement of Henry's law constant for methyl tert-butyl ether using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Bierwagen, B G; Keller, A A

    2001-08-01

    Increasing groundwater contamination with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) requires more efficient remediation technologies. Accurate measurement of MTBE's air-water partitioning coefficient (Henry's law constant, H) is important for the design and optimization of removal efficiency for many treatment systems as well as for predicting its fate and transport. Previously published data for MTBE appear to have some unusual nonlinearity at lower temperatures (15-30 degrees C), and a wide range of values exists for dimensionless H at 25 degrees C, from 0.0216 to 0.1226 in the published literature. We measured H for MTBE using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and a static method that considers equilibrium partitioning in a closed system, for temperatures between 15 and 4 degrees C. To validate our methods, we measured H for benzene, toluene, and trichloroethylene and compared our results to previously published values, with excellent agreement. The Arrhenius plot for MTBE indicates that ln(HMBTE) = 6.85 - 2,900 T(-1), with T in K. At 25 degrees C, HMBTE = 0.0555 +/- 0.0122.

  4. Reinvestigation of the Henry's law constant for hydrogen peroxide with temperature and acidity variation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Daoming; Chen, Zhongming

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is not only an important oxidant in itself; it also serves as both sink and temporary reservoir for other important oxidants including HOx (OH and HO2) radicals and O3 in the atmosphere. Its partitioning between gas and aqueous phases in the atmosphere, usually described by its Henry's law constant (K(H)), significantly influences its role in atmospheric processes. Large discrepancies between the K(H) values reported in previous work, however, have created uncertainty for atmospheric modelers. Based on our newly developed online instrumentation, we have re-determined the temperature and acidity dependence of K(H) for hydrogen peroxide at an air pressure of (0.960 +/- 0.013) atm (1 atm = 1.01325 x 10(5) Pa). The results indicated that the temperature dependence of K(H) for hydrogen peroxide fits to the Van't Hoff equation form, expressed as lnK(H) = a/T - b, and a = -deltaH/R, where K(H) is in M/atm (M is mol/L), T is in degrees Kelvin, R is the ideal gas constant, and deltaH is the standard heat of solution. For acidity dependence, results demonstrated that the K(H) value of hydrogen peroxide appeared to have no obvious dependence on decreasing pH level (from pH 7 to pH 1). Combining the dependence of both temperature and acidity, the obtained a and b were 7024 +/- 138 and 11.97 +/- 0.48, respectively, deltaH was (58.40 +/- 1.15) kJ/(K x mol), and the uncertainties represent sigma. Our determined K(H) values for hydrogen peroxide will therefore be of great use in atmospheric models. PMID:20617734

  5. Determination of Henry's law constants of organochlorine pesticides in deionized and saline water as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Banu; Ozer, Serdar; Sofuoglu, Aysun; Odabasi, Mustafa

    The Henry's law constant ( H) is an important parameter that is required to estimate the air-water exchange of semi-volatile organic compounds. Henry's law constants for 17 banned/restricted/currently used organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were experimentally determined using a gas-stripping technique in deionized and saline water (3%) over a temperature range of 5-35 °C. H values (at 25 °C) ranged between 0.066±0.037 Pa m 3 mol -1 (endosulfan II) and 62.0±24.2 Pa m 3 mol -1 (heptachlor) in deionized water while the range in saline water was 0.28±0.03 Pa m 3 mol -1 ( γ-HCH) and 135.2±31.3 Pa m 3 mol -1 (heptachlor). The increase in dimensionless Henry's law constants ( H') for OCPs over the studied temperature range was between 3 ( γ-HCH)-19 times (chlorpyrifos) and 3 (endosulfan II)-80 times ( trans-nonachlor) in deionized and saline water, respectively. The calculated enthalpies of phase change (Δ HH) were within the ranges previously reported for OCPs and other organic compounds (23.8-100.2 kJ mol -1). The salting-out constant, ks, ranged between 0.04 ( γ-HCH) and 1.80 L mol -1 (endosulfan II) indicating the importance of assessing the H values of OCPs in saline water to accurately determine their partitioning and fate in seawater.

  6. Applying Henry`s Law to groundwater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chidgopkar, V.R.

    1996-03-01

    Air strippers are very popular equipment for mass transfer where air and water are contacted and the contaminants are transferred from water into the air phase. In a typical air-stripper arrangement, water flows from the top and air is blown from the bottom. The increase in surface area between the air and the water phases increases the removal efficiency. In packed towers, high-surface-area packing materials are used to that end. In a sieve tray tower, water flows across the tray through channels separated by baffles and air flows from the bottom, up through holes in the tray. In diffused aerators, air is introduced through a bubbler or a nozzle into the water stream. All these units are commercially available. Several environmental consulting and remediation engineering firms use Henry`s Law to predict the stripping performance of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants present using the above equipment. Extensive work has been done during the past few decades to determine Henry`s Law constant, H. Different procedures are reported in the literature to determine henry`s Law constant for various chemicals from the experimental data and from empirical correlations. This article discusses the reasons why so much error is observed in reported values of henry`s Law constants in the literature--the effect of various parameters such as temperature, co-solubility, etc., on H value. A modified experimental procedure to measure Henry`s Law constant is presented, then the law is applied in predicting stripping performance of various chemicals.

  7. Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)

  8. Estimation of Henry's Law Constant for a Diverse Set of Organic Compounds from Molecular Structure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) vapor pressure and activity coefficient models were coupled to estimate Henry’s Law Constant (HLC) in water and in hexadecane for a wide range of non-polar and polar organic compounds without modification or additional p...

  9. Evaluation and prediction of Henry's law constants and aqueous solubilities for solvents and hydrocarbon fuel components. Volume 1. Technical discussion. Final report, February 1985-September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.B.; Mullins, M.E.; Rogers, T.N.

    1987-09-01

    Laboratory measurements of Henry's law constants are reported for 51 chemicals, spanning a wide range of chemical structures and volatilities. A static headspace method (Equilibrium Partitioning in Closed Systems, referred to as EPICS) was used to measure Henry's Law Constant, with the standard-batch air-stripping method used as a check. An average precision of 5% was obtained for the EPICS runs, and the Henry's law constants agreed reasonably well(within 10%) with the batch air-stripping results and other reported experimental values. Measurements were conducted over a temperature range of 10-30 C, and the data were correlated with a temperature regression equation coupled with a temperature-dependent error term based on 95% confidence limits. The aqueous solubilities of the study compounds were also determined via the shake-flask method at temperatures of 10, 20, and 30/sup 0/C.pacts

  10. A simple method for the accurate determination of the Henry's law constant for highly sorptive, semivolatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A novel technique is developed to determine the Henry's law constants (HLCs) of seven volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with significantly high solubility using a combined application of thermal desorber/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). In light of the strong sorptive properties of these semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), their HLCs were determined by properly evaluating the fraction lost on the surface of the materials used to induce equilibrium (vial, gas-tight syringe, and sorption tube). To this end, a total of nine repeated experiments were conducted in a closed (static) system at three different gas/liquid volume ratios. The best estimates for HLCs (M/atm) were thus 7,200 (propionic acid), 4,700 (i-butyric acid), 4,400 (n-butyric acid), 2,700 (i-valeric acid), 2,400 (n-valeric acid), 1,000 (hexanoic acid), and 1,500 (heptanoic acid). The differences in the HLC values between this study and previous studies, if assessed in terms of the percent difference, ranged from 9.2% (n-valeric acid) to 55.7% (i-valeric acid). We overcame the main cause of errors encountered in previous studies by performing the proper correction of the sorptive losses of the SVOCs that inevitably took place, particularly on the walls of the equilibration systems (mainly the headspace vial and/or the glass tight syringe). PMID:26577086

  11. Micellar partitioning and its effects on Henry's law constants of chlorinated solvents in anionic and nonionic surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunlong; Zheng, Gang; Nichols, Courtney M

    2006-01-01

    Micellar partitioning of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in surfactant solutions and its effects on vapor-liquid equilibrium is fundamental to the overall design and implementation of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation. Surfactant micelles greatly enhance contaminant recovery from the subsurface; however, the reduced volatility of organic compounds compromises the aboveground treatment of surfactant-laden wastewaters using air-stripping process. Batch equilibrium tests were performed to acquire micellar partition coefficients (Km) and apparent Henry's law constants (H*) of three prominent groundwater contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, cis-dichlorethylene) in the presence of two anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS; sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDBS) and two nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100 and Tween 80). The H* values were significantly reduced in the presence of all four surfactants over their critical micelle concentrations (cmc's). On a cmc basis, the anionic surfactant SDS had the greatest effect on H*, followed by SDBS, Triton X-100, and Tween 80. Anionic surfactants decreased H* to an order of magnitude lower than nonionic surfactants, although nonionic surfactants decreased the H* at concentrations significantly lower than the anionic surfactants due to their lower cmc's. Nonionic surfactants present higher Km and molar solubilization ratio than anionic surfactants. Tetrachloroethylene has the highest Km values among three chlorinated solvents, which agrees well with the hydrophobicity (Kow) of these chemicals. An empirical correlation between log Km and log Kow is developed on the basis of data from this study and the Km values reported for a number of chlorinated and nonchlorinated hydrocarbons. Equilibrium data were also tested against three sets of models that describe the partitioning of volatile compounds in vapor-water-micelle phases. Applications of these models in experimentally determining Km from batch

  12. Measuring Uptake Coefficients and Henry's Law Constants of Gas-Phase Species with Models for Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, M. C.; Waring-Kidd, C.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are oxidized in the atmosphere and their products contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. These particles have been shown to have effects on visibility, climate, and human health. Current models typically under-predict SOA concentrations from field measurements. Underestimation of these concentrations could be a result of how models treat particle growth. It is often assumed that particles grow via instantaneous thermal equilibrium partitioning between liquid particles and gas-phase species. Recent work has shown that growth may be better represented by irreversible, kinetically limited uptake of gas-phase species onto more viscous, tar-like SOA. However, uptake coefficients for these processes are not known. The goal of this project is to measure uptake coefficients and solubilities for different gases onto models serving as proxies for SOA and determine how they vary based on the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase. Experiments were conducted using two approaches: attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and a flow system coupled to a mass spectrometer. The ATR crystal was coated with the SOA proxy and the gas-phase species introduced via a custom flow system. Uptake of the gas-phase species was characterized by measuring the intensity of characteristic IR bands as a function of time, from which a Henry's law constant and initial estimate of uptake coefficients could be obtained. Uptake coefficients were also measured in a flow system where the walls of the flow tube were coated with the SOA proxy and gas-phase species introduced via a moveable inlet. Uptake coefficients were derived from the decay in gas-phase species measured by mass spectrometry. The results of this work will establish a structure-interaction relationship for uptake of gases into SOA that can be implemented into regional and global models.

  13. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constants and KOA for simple and heteroatom-substituted PAHs by COSMO-RS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnis, J. Mark; Mackay, Donald; Harner, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Henry's Law constants (H) and octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected nitrogen-, oxygen- and sulfur-containing derivatives have been computed using the COSMO-RS method between -5 and 40 °C in 5 °C intervals. The accuracy of the estimation was assessed by comparison of COSMOtherm values with published experimental temperature-dependence data for these and similar PAHs. COSMOtherm log H estimates with temperature-variation for parent PAHs are shown to have a root-mean-square (RMS) error of 0.38 (PAH), based on available validation data. Estimates of O-, N- and S-substituted derivative log H values are found to have RMS errors of 0.30 at 25 °C. Log KOA estimates with temperature variation from COSMOtherm are shown to be strongly correlated with experimental values for a small set of unsubstituted PAHs, but with a systematic underestimation and associated RMS error of 1.11. Similar RMS error of 1.64 was found for COSMO-RS estimates of a group of critically-evaluated log KOA values at room temperature. Validation demonstrates that COSMOtherm estimates of H and KOA are of sufficient accuracy to be used for property screening and preliminary environmental risk assessment, and perform very well for modeling the influence of temperature on partitioning behavior in the temperature range -5 to 40 °C. Temperature-dependent shifts of up to 2 log units in log H and one log unit for log KOA are predicted for PAH species over the range -5 and 40 °C. Within the family of PAH molecules, COSMO-RS is sufficiently accurate to make it useful as a source of estimates for modeling purposes, following corrections for systematic underestimation of KOA. Average changes in the values for log H and log KOA upon substitution are given for various PAH substituent categories, with the most significant shifts being associated with the ionizing nitro functionality and keto groups.

  14. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constants and KOA for simple and heteroatom-substituted PAHs by COSMO-RS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnis, J. Mark; Mackay, Donald; Harner, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Henry's Law constants (H) and octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected nitrogen-, oxygen- and sulfur-containing derivatives have been computed using the COSMO-RS method between -5 and 40 °C in 5 °C intervals. The accuracy of the estimation was assessed by comparison of COSMOtherm values with published experimental temperature-dependence data for these and similar PAHs. COSMOtherm log H estimates with temperature-variation for parent PAHs are shown to have a root-mean-square (RMS) error of 0.38 (PAH), based on available validation data. Estimates of O-, N- and S-substituted derivative log H values are found to have RMS errors of 0.30 at 25 °C. Log KOA estimates with temperature variation from COSMOtherm are shown to be strongly correlated with experimental values for a small set of unsubstituted PAHs, but with a systematic underestimation and associated RMS error of 1.11. Similar RMS error of 1.64 was found for COSMO-RS estimates of a group of critically-evaluated log KOA values at room temperature. Validation demonstrates that COSMOtherm estimates of H and KOA are of sufficient accuracy to be used for property screening and preliminary environmental risk assessment, and perform very well for modeling the influence of temperature on partitioning behavior in the temperature range -5 to 40 °C. Temperature-dependent shifts of up to 2 log units in log H and one log unit for log KOA are predicted for PAH species over the range -5 and 40 °C. Within the family of PAH molecules, COSMO-RS is sufficiently accurate to make it useful as a source of estimates for modeling purposes, following corrections for systematic underestimation of KOA. Average changes in the values for log H and log KOA upon substitution are given for various PAH substituent categories, with the most significant shifts being associated with the ionizing nitro functionality and keto groups.

  15. A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shan-Hu; Mukherjee, Souptik; Brewer, Brittany; Ryan, Raphael; Yu, Huan; Gangoda, Mahinda

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to measure Henry's law constants of organic compounds using a bubble column and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). This experiment is designed for upper-division undergraduate laboratory courses and can be implemented in conjunction with physical chemistry, analytical…

  16. Smog chamber experiments to investigate Henry's law constants of glyoxal using different seed aerosols as well as imidazole formation in the presence of ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Ronit

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. Hence, they have a direct as well as an indirect impact on the earth's climate. Depending on their formation, one distinguishes between primary and secondary aerosols[1]. Important groups within the secondary aerosols are the secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In order to improve predictions about these impacts on the earth's climate the existing models need to be optimized, because they still underestimate SOA formation[2]. Glyoxal, the smallest α-dicarbonyl, not only acts as a tracer for SOA formation but also as a direct contributor to SOA. Because glyoxal has such a high vapour pressure, it was common knowledge that it does not take part in gas-particle partitioning and therefore has no impact on direct SOA formation. However, the Henry's law constant for glyoxal is surprisingly high. This has been explained by the hydration of the aldehyde groups, which means that a species with a lower vapour pressure is produced. Therefore the distribution of glyoxal between gas- and particle phase is atmospherically relevant and the direct contribution of glyoxal to SOA can no longer be neglected[3]. Besides this particulate glyoxal is able to undergo heterogeneous chemistry with gaseous ammonia to form imidazoles. This plays an important role for regions with aerosols exhibiting alkaline pH values for example from lifestock or soil dust because imidazoles as nitrogen containing compounds change the optical properties of aerosols[4]. A high salt concentration present in chamber seed aerosols leads to an enhanced glyoxal uptake into the particle. This effect is called "salting-in". The salting effect depends on the composition of the seed aerosol as well as the soluble compound. For very polar compounds, like glyoxal, a "salting-in" is observed[3]. Glyoxal particle formation during a smog chamber campaign at Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI) in Switzerland was examined using different seed aerosols

  17. Determination of C1-C5 alkyl nitrates in rain, snow, white frost, lake, and tap water by a combined codistillation head-space gas chromatography technique. Determination of Henry's law constants by head-space GC.

    PubMed

    Hauff, K; Fischer, R G; Ballschmiter, K

    1998-12-01

    Alkyl nitrates with a chain length up to five carbon atoms have been determined in snow, white frost, and surface water. The samples were taken in the vicinity of Ulm, Germany, a region in central Europe. The determination of C1-C5-alkyl nitrates in water samples was achieved with a new water codistillation enrichment technique directly coupled with on-column head-space gas chromatography. The concentrations of the short chain alkyl nitrates in the different forms of wet deposition range from 89 ng L-1 for 1-propyl nitrate down to 35 ng L-1 for 1-pentyl nitrate. C1-C5-alkyl nitrates in wet depositions were also directly determined by static head-space gas chromatography. Gas-water partition coefficients KGW (Henry's law constant H) were determined by head-space gas chromatography and secondly by calculating the Henry's law constant by the ratio of vapor pressure to water solubility. The gas-water partition constants (dimensionless) or Henry's law constants range from KGW = 0.038 (H = 93 Pa m3 mol-1) for 1-propyl nitrate up to KGW = 0.122 (H = 302 Pa m3 mol-1) for 2-pentyl nitrate.

  18. Recent advances in thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery method to eliminate the matrix effect between air and water samples: application to the accurate determination of Henry's law constant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-05-16

    Accurate values for the Henry's law constants are essential to describe the environmental dynamics of a solute, but substantial errors are recognized in many reported data due to practical difficulties in measuring solubility and/or vapor pressure. Despite such awareness, validation of experimental approaches has scarcely been made. An experimental approach based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to concurrently allow the accurate determination of target compounds from the headspace and aqueous samples in closed equilibrated system. The analysis of six aromatics and eight non-aromatic oxygenates was then carried out in a static headspace mode. An estimation of the potential bias and mass balance (i.e., sum of mass measured individually from gas and liquid phases vs. the mass initially added to the system) demonstrates compound-specific phase dependency so that the best results are obtained by aqueous (less soluble aromatics) and headspace analysis (more soluble non-aromatics). Accordingly, we were able to point to the possible sources of biases in previous studies and provide the best estimates for the Henry's constants (Matm(-1)): benzene (0.17), toluene (0.15), p-xylene (0.13), m-xylene (0.13), o-xylene (0.19), styrene (0.27); propionaldehyde (9.26), butyraldehyde (6.19), isovaleraldehyde (2.14), n-valeraldehyde (3.98), methyl ethyl ketone (10.5), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.93), n-butyl acetate (2.41), and isobutyl alcohol (22.2).

  19. Recent advances in thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery method to eliminate the matrix effect between air and water samples: application to the accurate determination of Henry's law constant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-05-16

    Accurate values for the Henry's law constants are essential to describe the environmental dynamics of a solute, but substantial errors are recognized in many reported data due to practical difficulties in measuring solubility and/or vapor pressure. Despite such awareness, validation of experimental approaches has scarcely been made. An experimental approach based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to concurrently allow the accurate determination of target compounds from the headspace and aqueous samples in closed equilibrated system. The analysis of six aromatics and eight non-aromatic oxygenates was then carried out in a static headspace mode. An estimation of the potential bias and mass balance (i.e., sum of mass measured individually from gas and liquid phases vs. the mass initially added to the system) demonstrates compound-specific phase dependency so that the best results are obtained by aqueous (less soluble aromatics) and headspace analysis (more soluble non-aromatics). Accordingly, we were able to point to the possible sources of biases in previous studies and provide the best estimates for the Henry's constants (Matm(-1)): benzene (0.17), toluene (0.15), p-xylene (0.13), m-xylene (0.13), o-xylene (0.19), styrene (0.27); propionaldehyde (9.26), butyraldehyde (6.19), isovaleraldehyde (2.14), n-valeraldehyde (3.98), methyl ethyl ketone (10.5), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.93), n-butyl acetate (2.41), and isobutyl alcohol (22.2). PMID:24704185

  20. Applicability of Henry's Law to helium solubility in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Cooper, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    Applicability of Henry's Law to helium solubility in olivine We have experimentally determined helium solubility in San Carlos olivine across a range of helium partial pressures (PHe) with the goal of quantifying how noble gases behave during partial melting of peridotite. Helium solubility in olivine correlates linearly with PHe between 55 and 1680 bar. This linear relationship suggests Henry's Law is applicable to helium dissolution into olivine up to 1680 bar PHe, providing a basis for extrapolation of solubility relationships determined at high PHe to natural systems. This is the first demonstration of Henry's Law for helium dissolution into olivine. Averaging all the data of the PHe series yields a Henry's coefficient of 3.8(×3.1)×10-12 mol g-1 bar-1. However, the population of Henry's coefficients shows a positive skew (skewness = 1.17), i.e. the data are skewed to higher values. This skew is reflected in the large standard deviation of the population of Henry's coefficients. Averaging the median values from each experiment yields a lower Henry's coefficient and standard deviation: 3.2(× 2.3)×10-12 mol g-1 bar-1. Combining the presently determined helium Henry's coefficient for olivine with previous determinations of helium Henry's coefficients for basaltic melts (e.g. 1) yields a partition coefficient of ~10-4. This value is similar to previous determinations obtained at higher PHe (2). The applicability of Henry's Law here suggests helium is incorporated onto relatively abundant sites within olivine that are not saturated by 1680 bar PHe or ~5×10-9 mol g-1. Large radius vacancies, i.e. oxygen vacancies, are energetically favorable sites for noble gas dissolution (3). However, oxygen vacancies are not abundant enough in San Carlos olivine to account for this solubility (e.g. 4), suggesting the 3x10-12 mol g-1 bar-1 Henry's coefficient is associated with interstitial dissolution of helium. Helium was dissolved into olivine using an externally heated

  1. Effects of surfactants and salt on Henry's constant of n-hexane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunping; Chen, Fayuan; Luo, Shenglian; Xie, Gengxin; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng

    2010-03-15

    n-Hexane biological removal is intrinsically limited by its hydrophobic nature and low bioavailability. The addition of surfactants could enhance the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and change the gas-liquid equilibrium of VOCs. In this paper, the effects of four surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), tert-octylphenoxypoly-ethoxyethanol (Triton X-100), polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), and sodium nitrate on apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane in surfactant solutions were investigated. The apparent Henry's constants were significantly reduced when surfactants concentrations exceeded their critical micelle concentrations (cmc's). On a cmc basis, the anionic surfactant SDS was found to have the greatest effect on the apparent Henry's constant with CTAB succeeding, then followed by Triton X-100 and Tween 80. However, the apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane decreased even more rapidly when Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, was added than when the ionic surfactant of SDS or CTAB was applied under identical mass concentration and other conditions. These results suggest that Triton X-100 have the biggest solubilization of n-hexane among the four surfactants. Sodium nitrate slightly decreased the apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane in surfactant solutions, and could be considered as a cosolvent in the surfactant-(n-hexane) solution. In addition, the relationship between apparent Henry's constant and surfactant concentration was further developed.

  2. On the Henry constant and isosteric heat at zero loading in gas phase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Do, D D; Nicholson, D; Do, H D

    2008-08-01

    The Henry constant and the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading are commonly used as indicators of the strength of the affinity of an adsorbate for a solid adsorbent. It is assumed that (i) they are observable in practice, (ii) the Van Hoff's plot of the logarithm of the Henry constant versus the inverse of temperature is always linear and the slope is equal to the heat of adsorption, and (iii) the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading is either constant or weakly dependent on temperature. We show in this paper that none of these three points is necessarily correct, first because these variables might not be observable since they are outside the range of measurability; second that the linearity of the Van Hoff plot breaks down at very high temperature, and third that the isosteric heat versus loading is a strong function of temperature. We demonstrate these points using Monte Carlo integration and Monte Carlo simulation of adsorption of various gases on a graphite surface. Another issue concerning the Henry constant is related to the way the adsorption excess is defined. The most commonly used equation is the one that assumes that the void volume is the volume extended all the way to a boundary passing through the centres of the outermost solid atoms. With this definition the Henry constant can become negative at high temperatures. Although adsorption at these temperatures may not be practical because of the very low value of the Henry constant, it is more useful to define the Henry constant in such a way that it is always positive at all temperatures. Here we propose the use of the accessible volume; the volume probed by the adsorbate when it is in nonpositive regions of the potential, to calculate the Henry constant.

  3. A Henry's Law Test for Experimental Partitioning Studies of Iron Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chabot, N. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.; Agee, C. B.

    2001-01-01

    Low-level doped solid metal/liquid metal experiments analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS allow Henry's Law to be tested. The results indicate Henry's Law is obeyed and the experimental partition coefficients can be applied to iron meteorites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Application of Henry's Law for Binding Energies of Adsorbed Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Andrew; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Sweany, Mark; Pfeifer, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The method of isosteres is the simplest method used to calculate the differential enthalpy of adsorption. However, it is incredibly sensitive to the choice of model and respective fitting parameters. For a set of isotherms measured on a specific sample, most models converge upon a similar value at high coverage, but are inconsistent in the low pressure regime. In this talk, we investigate the application of various models for localized and mobile adsorption at low pressures in order to obtain binding energy of hydrogen to the adsorbent surface. Henry's Law analysis of the Langmuir Model of adsorption yield binding energies in excellent agreement with those obtained from the Clausius Clapeyron relation. Work supported by DOE-EERE, Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18142.

  5. Determination of Henry's constant, the dissociation constant, and the buffer capacity of the bicarbonate system in ruminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Hille, Katharina T; Hetz, Stefan K; Rosendahl, Julia; Braun, Hannah-Sophie; Pieper, Robert; Stumpff, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Despite the clinical importance of ruminal acidosis, ruminal buffering continues to be poorly understood. In particular, the constants for the dissociation of H2CO3 and the solubility of CO2 (Henry's constant) have never been stringently determined for ruminal fluid. The pH was measured in parallel directly in the rumen and the reticulum in vivo, and in samples obtained via aspiration from 10 fistulated cows on hay- or concentrate-based diets. The equilibrium constants of the bicarbonate system were measured at 38°C both using the Astrup technique and a newly developed method with titration at 2 levels of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2; 4.75 and 94.98 kPa), yielding mean values of 0.234 ± 0.005 mmol ∙ L(-1) ∙ kPa(-1) and 6.11 ± 0.02 for Henry's constant and the dissociation constant, respectively (n/n = 31/10). Both reticular pH and the pH of samples measured after removal were more alkalic than those measured in vivo in the rumen (by ΔpH = 0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.26 ± 0.04). The amount of acid or base required to shift the pH of ruminal samples to 6.4 or 5.8 (base excess) differed between the 2 feeding groups. Experimental results are compared with the mathematical predictions of an open 2-buffer Henderson-Hasselbalch equilibrium model. Because pCO2 has pronounced effects on ruminal pH and can decrease rapidly in samples removed from the rumen, introduction of a generally accepted protocol for determining the acid-base status of ruminal fluid with standard levels of pCO2 and measurement of base excess in addition to pH should be considered.

  6. Determination of Henry's constant, the dissociation constant, and the buffer capacity of the bicarbonate system in ruminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Hille, Katharina T; Hetz, Stefan K; Rosendahl, Julia; Braun, Hannah-Sophie; Pieper, Robert; Stumpff, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Despite the clinical importance of ruminal acidosis, ruminal buffering continues to be poorly understood. In particular, the constants for the dissociation of H2CO3 and the solubility of CO2 (Henry's constant) have never been stringently determined for ruminal fluid. The pH was measured in parallel directly in the rumen and the reticulum in vivo, and in samples obtained via aspiration from 10 fistulated cows on hay- or concentrate-based diets. The equilibrium constants of the bicarbonate system were measured at 38°C both using the Astrup technique and a newly developed method with titration at 2 levels of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2; 4.75 and 94.98 kPa), yielding mean values of 0.234 ± 0.005 mmol ∙ L(-1) ∙ kPa(-1) and 6.11 ± 0.02 for Henry's constant and the dissociation constant, respectively (n/n = 31/10). Both reticular pH and the pH of samples measured after removal were more alkalic than those measured in vivo in the rumen (by ΔpH = 0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.26 ± 0.04). The amount of acid or base required to shift the pH of ruminal samples to 6.4 or 5.8 (base excess) differed between the 2 feeding groups. Experimental results are compared with the mathematical predictions of an open 2-buffer Henderson-Hasselbalch equilibrium model. Because pCO2 has pronounced effects on ruminal pH and can decrease rapidly in samples removed from the rumen, introduction of a generally accepted protocol for determining the acid-base status of ruminal fluid with standard levels of pCO2 and measurement of base excess in addition to pH should be considered. PMID:26519978

  7. BUBBLE STRIPPING TO DETERMINE HYDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN GROUND WATER: A PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF HENRY'S LAW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bubble Stripping Method is a chemical testing method that operates on the principle of Henry's Law. It is useful for determining concentrations of hydrogen in well water, and it is capable of detecting concentrations on the order of nanomoles per liter. The method provides ...

  8. Observation of Henry's Law in Low-Density Measurements of Adsorption on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyubenko, Boris; Schmitz, Denise; Lee, Hao-Chun; Vilches, Oscar E.; Cobden, David H.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the adsorption of noble gases on pristine suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperatures in the limit of low density (coverage), as determined from the shift of the mechanical resonance frequency of the nanotube due to mass loading. The high homogeneity of the nanotube substrate and the sensitivity of the technique allow us to observe Henry's law, in which the coverage is proportional to the gas pressure. In this limit the adsorption isotherm is determined by single-atom effects, allowing unprecedentedly accurate (+/- 2%) determination of the single-particle binding energies to a nanotube. Also, by measuring the deviation from Henry's law as coverage increases we obtain information about the pairwise interactions between the adsorbed atoms using the virial expansion.

  9. Aqueous solubility (in the range between 298.15 and 338.15 K), vapor pressures (in the range between 10(-5) and 80 Pa) and Henry's law constant of 1,2,3,4-dibenzanthracene and 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene.

    PubMed

    Abou-Naccoul, Ramy; Mokbel, Ilham; Bassil, Georgio; Saab, Joseph; Stephan, Khaled; Jose, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous solubility and vapor pressures of 1,2,3,4-dibenzanthracene and 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene were determined using dynamic saturation methods. For the two isomers, aqueous solubility is in the range between 10(-10) and 10(-2) in molar fraction corresponding to temperature between 298.15 and 338.15K. Vapor pressures of the pure solutes range from 10(-5) to 80 Pa. Prior to the study of the two dibenzanthracenes and in order to check the experimental procedures, solubility of fluoranthene (between 298 and 338 K) and vapor pressures of phenanthrene and fluoranthene (between 300 and 470 K) were measured. From aqueous solubility data coupled with the vapor pressures of the pure solutes, partition coefficient air-water, KAW, and Henry's constant, KH, of environmental relevance were calculated.

  10. Inverse temperature dependence of Henry's law coefficients for volatile organic compounds in supercooled water.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Karsten; Starokozhev, Elena; Schmidt, Martin U; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2009-09-01

    Upon supercooling, water expels volatile organic compounds (VOC), and Henry's law coefficients are increasing concomitant with decreasing temperature. This unexpected observation was found by measuring the VOC partitioning between supercooled water and gas phase in the temperature range from -5 degrees C to -15 degrees C for benzene, toluene, ethlybenzene, m-, p-, o-xylenes (BTEX), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Aqueous standard solutions were analyzed using a static headspace method in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Dimensionless Henry's law coefficients (K(AW)) were calculated from measurements of the concentration of the VOCs in the headspace above the standard solutions at temperatures between -25 degrees C and 25 degrees C. The results show that the well known temperature dependence of Henry's law coefficients at temperatures above 0 degrees C is inversed upon decreasing the temperature below 0 degrees C and formation of supercooled water while decreasing the temperature to -15 degrees C. Upon further decrease of the temperature to -25 degrees C freezing of the supercooled water occurs. K(AW) values increase from 0.092 (benzene), 0.099 (toluene), 0.098 (ethylbenzene), 0.117 (m/p-xylene), 0.076 (o-xylene), 0.012 (MTBE) and 0.014 (ETBE at 5 degrees C to 0.298 (benzene), 0.498 (toluene), 0.944 (ethylbenzene), 0.327 (m/p-xylene), 0.342 (o-xylene), 0.029 (MTBE) and 0.041 (ETBE) at -25 degrees C, respectively. Inversion of Henry coefficients upon cooling the aqueous solutions to temperatures below 0 degrees C is explained by the increasing formation of ice-like clusters in the water below 0 degrees C. The VOC are expelled from these clusters resulting in enhanced VOC concentrations in the gas phase upon supercooling. Formation of ice upon further cooling to -25 degrees C results in a further increase of the VOC concentrations in the gas phase above the ice. The findings have implications for the

  11. Henry`s law gas-solid chromatography and correlations of virial coefficients for hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, ethers, and sulfur hexafluoride adsorbed onto carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Rybolt, T.R.; Epperson, M.T.; Weaver, H.W.; Thomas, H.E.; Clare, S.E.; Manning, B.M.; McClung, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    Gas-solid chromatography was used to determine the Henry`s law second gas-solid virial coefficients within the temperature range of 314--615 K for ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, pentane, hexane, heptane, chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, trichlorofluoromethane (Freon 11), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon 22), dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12), methyl ether, ethyl ether, and sulfur hexafluoride with Carbopack B, a microporous carbon adsorbent. The temperature dependence of the second gas-solid virial coefficients of these adsorbates was used in conjunction with analyses based on a graphical method, a single-surface numeric integration method, a single-surface analytic expression method, and a two-surface analytic expression method to determine the gas-solid interaction energies and other parameters. The interaction energies were correlated with a ratio of the critical temperature divided by the square root of the critical pressure. The four methods were compared in their abilities to successfully calculate second gas-solid virial coefficient values.

  12. Analytical Phase Equilibrium Function for Mixtures Obeying Raoult's and Henry's Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robert

    When a mixture of two substances exists in both the liquid and gas phase at equilibrium, Raoults and Henry's laws (ideal solution and ideal dilute solution approximations) can be used to estimate the gas and liquid mole fractions at the extremes of either very little solute or solvent. By assuming that a cubic polynomial can reasonably approximate the intermediate values to these extremes as a function of mole fraction, the cubic polynomial is solved and presented. A closed form equation approximating the pressure dependence on mole fraction of the constituents is thereby obtained. As a first approximation, this is a very simple and potentially useful means to estimate gas and liquid mole fractions of equilibrium mixtures. Mixtures with an azeotrope require additional attention if this type of approach is to be utilized. This work supported in part by federal Grant NRC-HQ-84-14-G-0059.

  13. Analytical Phase Equilibrium Function for Mixtures Obeying Raoult's and Henry's Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robert

    When a mixture of two substances exists in both the liquid and gas phase at equilibrium, Raoults and Henry's laws (ideal solution and ideal dilute solution approximations) can be used to estimate the gas and liquid mole fractions at the extremes of either very little solute or solvent. By assuming that a cubic polynomial can reasonably approximate the intermediate values to these extremes as a function of mole fraction, the cubic polynomial is solved and presented. A closed form equation approximating the pressure dependence on mole fraction of the constituents is thereby obtained. As a first approximation, this is a very simple and potentially useful means to estimate gas and liquid mole fractions of equilibrium mixtures. Mixtures with an azeotrope require additional attention if this type of approach is to be utilized. This work paid for under NRC-HQ-84-14-G-0059.

  14. Henry's Law vaporization studies and thermodynamics of einsteinium-253 metal dissolved in ytterbium

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinschmidt, P.D.; Ward, J.W.; Matlack, G.M.; Haire, R.G.

    1984-07-01

    The cohesive energy of metallic einsteinium determines whether einsteinium is a trivalent or divalent metal. The enthalpy of sublimation, a measure of the cohesive energy, is calculated from the partial pressures of einsteinium over an alloy. The partial pressure of /sup 253/Es has been measured over the range 470--870 K, using combined target and mass spectrometric Knudsen effusion techniques. An alloy was prepared with einsteinium dissolved in a ytterbium solvent to produce a very dilute solution. Partial pressure measurements on the alloy were amenable to the experimental technique and a data analysis using a Henry's law treatment of the data. Vapor pressure data are combined with an estimated crystal entropy S/sup 0//sub 298/ and ..delta..C/sup 0//sub p/ for ytterbium, to produce enthalpy, entropy, and free energy functions from 298 to 1300 K. The vapor pressure of einsteinium in a dilute einsteinium--ytterbium alloy is described by the equation log P(atm) = -(6815 +- 216)/T+2.576 +- 0.337, from which we calculate for the enthalpy of sublimation of pure einsteinium ..delta..H/sup 0//sub 298/ (second law) = 31.76 kcal/mol. The value of the enthalpy of sublimation is consistent with the conclusion that Es is a divalent metal.

  15. DETERMINATION OF HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS FOR VOCS IN ROOM TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to be a newer medium for a wide variety of chemical reactions and are considered as the potential replacements for traditional volatile organic solvents. However, the separation and recovery of organic compounds from ILs has not been systematic...

  16. HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS AND THEIR VARIATION WITH TEMPERATURE. (R825245)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS. (R825689C059)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Solid phase microextraction method development for measuring Henry's Law constants of formaldehyde in aqueous solutions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) has been of special concern as an indoor air pollutant because of its existence in a wide range of products and its adverse health effects. The air-water partitioning behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as formaldehyde is an important process th...

  19. HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS AND MICELLAR PARTITIONING OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into surfactant micelles affects the apparent vapor-liquid equilibrium of VOCs in surfactant solutions. This partitioning will complicate removal of VOCs from surfactant solutions by standard separation processes. Headspace expe...

  20. Steering Law Controlling the Constant Speeds of Control Moment Gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KOYASAKO, Y.; TAKAHASHI, M.

    2016-09-01

    To enable the agile control of satellites, using control moment gyros (CMGs) has become increasingly necessary because of their ability to generate large amounts of torque. However, CMGs have a singularity problem whereby the torque by the CMGs degenerates from three dimensions to two dimensions, affecting spacecraft attitude control performance. This study proposes a new steering control law for CMGs by controlling the constant speed of a CMG. The proposed method enables agile attitude changes, according to the required task, by managing the total angular momentum of the CMGs by considering the distance to external singularities. In the proposed method, the total angular momentum is biased in a specific direction and the angular momentum envelope is extended. The design method can increase the net angular momentum of CMGs which can be exchanged with the satellite. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  1. Partition coefficients for REE between garnets and liquids - Implications of non-Henry's Law behaviour for models of basalt origin and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation of Ce, Sm and Tm rare earth element (REE) partition coefficients between coexisting garnets (both natural and synthetic) and hydrous liquids shows that Henry's Law may not be obeyed over a range of REE concentrations of geological relevance. Systematic differences between the three REE and the two garnet compositions may be explained in terms of the differences between REE ionic radii and those of the dodecahedral site into which they substitute, substantiating the Harrison and Wood (1980) model of altervalent substitution. Model calculations demonstrate that significant variation can occur in the rare earth contents of melts produced from a garnet lherzolite, if Henry's Law partition coefficients do not apply for the garnet phase.

  2. Generation of sub-part-per-billion gaseous volatile organic compounds at ambient temperature by headspace diffusion of aqueous standards through decoupling between ideal and nonideal Henry's law behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-05-21

    In the analysis of volatile organic compounds in air, the preparation of their gaseous standards at low (sub-ppb) concentration levels with high reliability is quite difficult. In this study, a simple dynamic headspace-based approach was evaluated as a means of generating vapor-phase volatile organic compounds from a liquid standard in an impinger at ambient temperature (25 °C). For a given sampling time, volatile organic compound vapor formed in the headspace was swept by bypassing the sweep gas through the impinger and collected four times in quick succession in separate sorbent tubes. In each experiment, a fresh liquid sample was used for each of the four sampling times (5, 10, 20, and 30 min) at a steady flow rate of 50 mL min(-1). The air-water partitioning at the most dynamic (earliest) sweeping stage was established initially in accord with ideal Henry's law, which was then followed by considerably reduced partitioning in a steady-state equilibrium (non-ideal Henry's law). The concentrations of gaseous volatile organic compounds, collected after the steady-state equilibrium, reached fairly constant values: for instance, the mole fraction of toluene measured at a sweeping interval of 10 and 30 min averaged 1.10 and 0.99 nmol mol(-1), respectively (after the initial 10 min sampling). In the second stage of our experiment, the effect of increasing the concentrations of liquid spiking standard was also examined by collecting sweep gas samples from two consecutive 10 min runs. The volatile organic compounds, collected in the first and second 10 min sweep gas samples, exhibited ideal and nonideal Henry's law behavior, respectively. From this observation, we established numerical relationships to predict the mole fraction (or mixing ratio) of each volatile organic compound in steady-state equilibrium in relation to the concentration of standard spiked into the system. This experimental approach can thus be used to produce sub-ppb levels of gaseous volatile organic

  3. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  4. Determination of Henry’s Law Constants Using Internal Standards with Benchmark Values

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is shown that Henry’s law constants can be experimentally determined by comparing headspace content of compounds with known constants to interpolate the constants of other compounds. Studies were conducted over a range of water temperatures to identify temperature dependence....

  5. Patrick Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    Patrick Henry dominated the politics of Virginia and was a powerful voice in the affairs of the early United States. He became a lawyer at age 23 and rose to prominence following his victory in "The Parsons Case." Soon after, he was elected to the House of Burgesses where he challenged the control of the wealthy, established members and shocked…

  6. Blocking laws analysis of dead-end constant flux microfiltration of compressible cakes.

    PubMed

    Chellam, Shankararaman; Xu, Wendong

    2006-09-01

    New blocking law models for dead-end constant flux microfiltration of colloids forming cakes that compressed in a linear and power law manner were derived. Constant pressure and constant flux experiments were performed using bacteria, colloidal silica, and treated natural waters to validate these new models and quantitatively verify blocking law predictions on the role of cake compressibility in microfilter fouling. Statistically invariant values of cake specific resistance and compressibility were obtained for constant flux and constant pressure operation for each feed suspension. This suggests that colloids formed cakes whose hydraulic resistance is dominated by a morphology that did not depend on their mode of deposition, confirming that the cake permeability was determined by the instantaneous pressure. Additionally, an inverse relationship between extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by bacteria and hydrodynamic flux restoration procedures was obtained demonstrating the importance of linking EPS to backwashing frequency when bacteria are present in the feed water.

  7. Realization of power law inflation & variants via variation of the strong coupling constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlHallak, M.; Chamoun, N.

    2016-09-01

    We present a model of power law inflation generated by variation of the strong coupling constant. We then extend the model to two varying coupling constants which leads to a potential consisting of a linear combination of exponential terms. Some variants of the latter may be self-consistent and can accommodate the experimental data of the Planck 2015 and other recent experiments.

  8. METHOD FOR MEASURING THE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS OF SELECTED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS. (R825245)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS OF THIRTEEN POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS BETWEEN 4 C AND 31 C. (R825245)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Dimethylphthalate 131-11-3 Dimethylsulfone 67-71-0 Dimethylsulfoxide 67-68-5 4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol 534-52-1 1,2... 2-Nitrophenol 88-75-5 4-Nitrophenol 100-02-7 N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 Nitrosoguanidine 674-81... mercuric acetate 62-38-4 Phorate 298-02-2 Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 alpha-Picoline (2-methyl pyridine)...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Dimethylphthalate 131-11-3 Dimethylsulfone 67-71-0 Dimethylsulfoxide 67-68-5 4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol 534-52-1 1,2... 2-Nitrophenol 88-75-5 4-Nitrophenol 100-02-7 N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 Nitrosoguanidine 674-81... mercuric acetate 62-38-4 Phorate 298-02-2 Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 alpha-Picoline (2-methyl pyridine)...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Dimethylphthalate 131-11-3 Dimethylsulfone 67-71-0 Dimethylsulfoxide 67-68-5 4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol 534-52-1 1,2... 2-Nitrophenol 88-75-5 4-Nitrophenol 100-02-7 N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 Nitrosoguanidine 674-81... mercuric acetate 62-38-4 Phorate 298-02-2 Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 alpha-Picoline (2-methyl pyridine)...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Dimethylphthalate 131-11-3 Dimethylsulfone 67-71-0 Dimethylsulfoxide 67-68-5 4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol 534-52-1 1,2... 2-Nitrophenol 88-75-5 4-Nitrophenol 100-02-7 N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 Nitrosoguanidine 674-81... mercuric acetate 62-38-4 Phorate 298-02-2 Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 alpha-Picoline (2-methyl pyridine)...

  14. Henry Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Located in Arabia Terra, the crater shown here is known as Henry Crater. Like many other craters on Mars, the interior of Henry Crater is filled with a layered deposit. These materials were brought into the crater sometime after the impact formed the crater. The fine scale of layering can be seen in the right- center portion of the image.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Determination of Constant Parameters of Copper as Power-Law Hardening Material at Different Test Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowser, Md. A.; Mahiuddin, Md.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper a technique has been developed to determine constant parameters of copper as a power-law hardening material by tensile test approach. A work-hardening process is used to describe the increase of the stress level necessary to continue plastic deformation. A computer program is used to show the variation of the stress-strain relation for different values of stress hardening exponent, n and power-law hardening constant, α . Due to its close tolerances, excellent corrosion resistance and high material strength, in this analysis copper (Cu) has been selected as the material. As a power-law hardening material, Cu has been used to compute stress hardening exponent, n and power-law hardening constant, α from tensile test experiment without heat treatment and after heat treatment. A wealth of information about mechanical behavior of a material can be determined by conducting a simple tensile test in which a cylindrical specimen of a uniform cross-section is pulled until it ruptures or fractures into separate pieces. The original cross sectional area and gauge length are measured prior to conducting the test and the applied load and gauge deformation are continuously measured throughout the test. Based on the initial geometry of the sample, the engineering stress-strain behavior (stress-strain curve) can be easily generated from which numerous mechanical properties, such as the yield strength and elastic modulus, can be determined. A universal testing machine is utilized to apply the load in a continuously increasing (ramp) manner according to ASTM specifications. Finally, theoretical results are compared with these obtained from experiments where the nature of curves is found similar to each other. It is observed that there is a significant change of the value of n obtained with and without heat treatment it means the value of n should be determined for the heat treated condition of copper material for their applications in engineering fields.

  16. A simple van't Hoff law for calculating Langmuir constants in clathrate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhlifi, Azzedine; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Picaud, Sylvain; Mousis, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    This work gives a van't Hoff law expression of Langmuir constants of different species for determining their occupancy in clathrate hydrates. First, a pairwise site-site interaction potential energy model is used to calculate the Langmuir constants in an otherwise anisotropic potential environment, as a function of temperature. The results are then fitted to a van't Hoff law expression to give a set of parameters that can be used for calculating clathrates compositions. The van't Hoff law's parameters are given for eighteen gas species trapped in the small and large cavities of structure types I and II. The accuracy of this approach is based on a detailed comparison with available experimental and/or previously calculated data for ethane, cyclo-propane, methane and carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates. A comparison with the analytical cell method is also carried out to better understand the importance of asymmetry and possible limitations of the van't Hoff temperature dependence.

  17. A Simple Method to Calculate the Temperature Dependence of the Gibbs Energy and Chemical Equilibrium Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy and important quantities such as Henry's law constants, activity coefficients, and chemical equilibrium constants is usually calculated by using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Although, this is a well-known approach and traditionally covered as part of any physical chemistry course, the required…

  18. Joseph Henry and the Telegraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochfelder, David

    1997-04-01

    Morse's telegraph rested upon three scientific advances which occured between 1800 and 1830: the development of battery technology, the formulation of laws governing the behavior of electrical components in circuits, and the discovery of electromagnetic phenomena. Joseph Henry was crucial to the development of the early telegraph. His work on electromagnetism made it possible for the electric current to manifest itself as useful mechanical work. Henry developed electromagnets of sufficient lifting power, but which drew relatively small currents; these magnets were the heart of Morse's telegraph receiver. Morse also used electromagnets as relays, which allowed him to transmit signals over great distances. Morse often acknowledged his debt to Henry, and the two enjoyed a cordial working relationship until the mid-1840s. But during the bitter and protracted litigation over Morse's patent, Henry testified (unwillingly, he claimed) against the inventor. This began a lifelong quarrel between the two men, the specifics of which were tedious and petty. In general terms, however, their conflict arose over different notions regarding scientific discovery and technological innovation.

  19. A Unified Kinetics and Equilibrium Experiment: Rate Law, Activation Energy, and Equilibrium Constant for the Dissociation of Ferroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattar, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) is the basis of a suite of four experiments spanning 5 weeks. Students determine the rate law, activation energy, and equilibrium constant for the dissociation of the complex ion in acid solution and base dissociation constant for phenanthroline. The focus on one chemical system simplifies a daunting set of…

  20. Henry Ford Health Systems

    Cancer.gov

    Henry Ford Health Systems evolved from a hospital into a system delivering care to 2.5 million patients and includes the Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program, which focuses on epidemiologic and public health aspects of cancer.

  1. Elastic constants in a pseudomolecular approach for a mixed Maier-Saupe and Nehring-Saupe interaction law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, L. R.; Hibler, I.; Mukai, H.

    1998-09-01

    A pseudomolecular approach is employed to calculate the elastic constants of a nematic liquid crystal by assuming an interaction volume of ellipsoidal shape. We consider a special kind of mixed Maier-Saupe and Nehring-Saupe interaction law characterized by a mixing factor ɛ. To ɛ=0 corresponds the Maier-Saupe law, whereas to the case ɛ=1 corresponds the induced dipole-induced dipole interaction law. The dependence of the elastic constants on the eccentricity of the molecular volume shape and on the mixing factor is investigated by means of a numerical analysis. We show that, for particular values of the eccentricity, the K11 (splay) and K33 (bend) elastic constants become negative for some values of the mixing factor. Moreover, the nonmonotonic behavior of the splay-bend elastic constant with respect to the mixing factor, already reported in a spherical approximation for the interaction volume, is also observed. This result reinforces the indication that the subsurface deformations, if any, are not only due to the splay-bend term.

  2. Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, Manhattan skyline, and George Washington Bridge in background, looking southwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  3. Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, Manhattan skyline, George Washington Bridge, Hudson River, and Palisades Interstate Park in background, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  4. Determination of saltiness from the laws of thermodynamics--estimating the gas constant from psychophysical experiments.

    PubMed

    Norwich, K H

    2001-10-01

    One can relate the saltiness of a solution of a given substance to the concentration of the solution by means of one of the well-known psychophysical laws. One can also compare the saltiness of solutions of different solutes which have the same concentration, since different substances are intrinsically more salty or less salty. We develop here an equation that relates saltiness both to the concentration of the substance (psychophysical) and to a distinguishing physical property of the salt (intrinsic). For a fixed standard molar entropy of the salt being tasted, the equation simplifies to Fechner's law. When one allows for the intrinsic 'noise' in the chemoreceptor, the equation generalizes to include Stevens's law, with corresponding decrease in the threshold for taste. This threshold reduction exemplifies the principle of stochastic resonance. The theory is validated with reference to experimental data.

  5. Lens galaxies in the Illustris simulation: power-law models and the bias of the Hubble constant from time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; Sluse, Dominique; Schneider, Peter; Springel, Volker; Vogelsberger, Mark; Nelson, Dylan; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-02-01

    A power-law density model, i.e. ρ (r) ∝ r^{-γ ^' }}, has been commonly employed in strong gravitational lensing studies, including the so-called time-delay technique used to infer the Hubble constant H0. However, since the radial scale at which strong lensing features are formed corresponds to the transition from the dominance of baryonic matter to dark matter, there is no known reason why galaxies should follow a power law in density. The assumption of a power law artificially breaks the mass-sheet degeneracy, a well-known invariance transformation in gravitational lensing which affects the product of Hubble constant and time delay and can therefore cause a bias in the determination of H0 from the time-delay technique. In this paper, we use the Illustris hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the amplitude of this bias, and to understand how it is related to observational properties of galaxies. Investigating a large sample of Illustris galaxies that have velocity dispersion σSIE ≥ 160 km s-1 at redshifts below z = 1, we find that the bias on H0 introduced by the power-law assumption can reach 20-50 per cent, with a scatter of 10-30 per cent (rms). However, we find that by selecting galaxies with an inferred power-law model slope close to isothermal, it is possible to reduce the bias on H0 to ≲ 5 per cent and the scatter to ≲ 10 per cent. This could potentially be used to form less biased statistical samples for H0 measurements in the upcoming large survey era.

  6. Heterogeneous 'proportionality constants' - A challenge to Taylor's Power Law for temporal fluctuations in abundance.

    PubMed

    Kiflawi, Moshe; Mann, Ofri; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-10-21

    Taylor's Power Law for the temporal fluctuation in population size (TL) posits that the variance in abundance scales according to aM(b); where M is the mean abundance and a and b are the 'proportionality' and 'scaling' coefficients. As one of the few empirical rules in population ecology, TL has attracted substantial theoretical and empirical attention. Much of this attention focused on the scaling coefficient; particularly its ubiquitous deviation from the null value of 2. Here we present a line of reasoning that challenges the power-law interpretation of the empirical log-linear relationship between the mean and variance of population size. At the core of our reasoning is the proposition that populations vary not only with respect to M but also with respect to a; which leaves the log-linear relationship intact but forfeits its power-law interpretation. Using the stochastic logistic-growth model as an example, we show that ignoring among-population variation in a is akin to ignoring the variation in the intrinsic rate of growth (r). Accordingly, we show that the slope of the log-linear relationship (b) is a function of the among-population (co)variation in r and the carrying-capacity. We further demonstrate that local environmental stochasticity is sufficient to generate the full range of observed values of b, and that b can in fact be insensitive to substantial differences in the balance between variance-generating and stabilizing processes. PMID:27449788

  7. Heterogeneous 'proportionality constants' - A challenge to Taylor's Power Law for temporal fluctuations in abundance.

    PubMed

    Kiflawi, Moshe; Mann, Ofri; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-10-21

    Taylor's Power Law for the temporal fluctuation in population size (TL) posits that the variance in abundance scales according to aM(b); where M is the mean abundance and a and b are the 'proportionality' and 'scaling' coefficients. As one of the few empirical rules in population ecology, TL has attracted substantial theoretical and empirical attention. Much of this attention focused on the scaling coefficient; particularly its ubiquitous deviation from the null value of 2. Here we present a line of reasoning that challenges the power-law interpretation of the empirical log-linear relationship between the mean and variance of population size. At the core of our reasoning is the proposition that populations vary not only with respect to M but also with respect to a; which leaves the log-linear relationship intact but forfeits its power-law interpretation. Using the stochastic logistic-growth model as an example, we show that ignoring among-population variation in a is akin to ignoring the variation in the intrinsic rate of growth (r). Accordingly, we show that the slope of the log-linear relationship (b) is a function of the among-population (co)variation in r and the carrying-capacity. We further demonstrate that local environmental stochasticity is sufficient to generate the full range of observed values of b, and that b can in fact be insensitive to substantial differences in the balance between variance-generating and stabilizing processes.

  8. Black holes and Boyle's law — The thermodynamics of the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    When the cosmological constant, Λ, is interpreted as a thermodynamic variable in the study of black hole thermodynamics a very rich structure emerges. It is natural to interpret Λ as a pressure and define the thermodynamically conjugate variable to be the thermodynamic volume of the black hole (which need not bear any relation to the geometric volume). Recent progress in this new direction for black hole thermodynamics is reviewed.

  9. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show that the sample sublimed congruently into HgI2 with no Hg or I2 absorption spectrum observed. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were determined. From these constants the vapor pressure of H912, P, was established as a function of temperatures for the liquid and the solid Beta-phases. The expressions correspond to the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 Kcal/mole, respectively, for the liquid and the Beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 Kcal/mole and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  10. Vertical channel free convection for a power law fluid with a constant heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, T.F. Jr.; Schneider, W.J.

    1984-08-08

    The development of free convection in a purely viscous non-newtonian fluid under the influence of a uniform wall heat flux is investigated. A finite difference solution is presented of the velocity and temperature profiles for the flow of an Ostwald-de Waele (power law) fluid between two symmetrically heated vertical plates. The flow, temperature and heat transfer characteristics of the channel are presented in a dimensionless manner as related to the generalized Grashof and Prandtl numbers and the fully developed flow range is established. The numerical solutions for the developing flow are shown to approach two classical asymptotes - fully developed duct free convection at low Rayleigh numbers and two independent vertical plates at high Rayleigh numbers. A comparison is made between the results of this theoretical investigation and previously published analytical and experimental work on newtonian and non-newtonian fluids. The results and their application to engineering problems are discussed. The changes caused by the addition of soluble substances to water cause significant variations in the mean flow between the plates and in the outlet temperature.

  11. One-loop omega-potential of quantum fields with ellipsoid constant-energy surface dispersion law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.; Shipulya, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    Rapidly convergent expansions of a one-loop contribution to the partition function of quantum fields with ellipsoid constant-energy surface dispersion law are derived. The omega-potential is naturally decomposed into three parts: the quasiclassical contribution, the contribution from the branch cut of the dispersion law, and the oscillating part. The low- and high-temperature expansions of the quasiclassical part are obtained. An explicit expression and a relation of the contribution from the cut with the Casimir term and vacuum energy are established. The oscillating part is represented in the form of the Chowla-Selberg expansion of the Epstein zeta function. Various resummations of this expansion are considered. The general procedure developed is then applied to two models: massless particles in a box both at zero and nonzero chemical potential, and electrons in a thin metal film. Rapidly convergent expansions of the partition function and average particle number are obtained for these models. In particular, the oscillations of the chemical potential of conduction electrons in graphene and a thin metal film due to a variation of size of the crystal are described.

  12. Henry Gray, plagiarist.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    The first edition of Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical (1858) was greeted with accolades, but also provoked serious controversy concerning Henry Gray's failure to acknowledge the work of earlier anatomists. A review in the Medical Times (1859) accused Gray of intellectual theft. The journal took the unusual step of substantiating its indictment by publishing twenty parallel texts from Gray and from a pre-existing textbook, Quain's Anatomy. At the recent "Vesalius Continuum" conference in Zakynthos, Greece (2014) Professor Brion Benninger disputed the theft by announcing from the floor the results of a computer analysis of both texts, which he reported exonerated Gray by revealing no evidence of plagiarism. The analysis has not been forthcoming, however, despite requests. Here the historian of Gray's Anatomy supplements the argument set out in the Medical Times 150 years ago with data suggesting unwelcome personality traits in Henry Gray, and demonstrating the utility of others' work to his professional advancement. Fair dealing in the world of anatomy and indeed the genuineness of the lustre of medical fame are important matters, but whether quantitative evidence has anything to add to the discussion concerning Gray's probity can be assessed only if Benninger makes public his computer analysis. PMID:26696521

  13. Rim of Henry Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 02 April 2002) This portion of the rim of Henry Crater has numerous dark streaks located on the slopes of the inner crater wall. These dark slope streaks have been suggested to have formed when the relatively bright dust that mantles the slopes slides downhill, either exposing a dust-free darker surface or creating a darker surface by increasing its roughness. The topography in this region appears muted, indicating the presence of regional dust mantling. The materials on floor of the crater (middle to lower left) are layered, with differing degrees of hardness and resistance to erosion producing cliffs (resistant layers) and ledges (easily eroded layers). These layered materials may have been originally deposited in water, although deposition by other means, such as windblown dust and sand, is also possible. Henry Crater, named after a 19th Century French astronomer, is 170 km in diameter and is located at 10.9o N, 336.7o W (23.3o E) in a region called Arabia Terra.

  14. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured at sample temperatures between 349 and 610 K for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show the samples sublimed congruently into HGI2 without any observed Hg or I2 absorption spectra. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were derived. From these constants the vapor pressure of HgI2, P, was found to be a function of temperature for the liquid and the solid beta-phases: ln P(atm) = -7700/T(K) + 12.462 (liquid phase) and ln P(atm) = -10150/T(K) + 17.026 (beta-phase). The expressions match the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 kcal/mole respectively, for the liquid and the beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 kcal/mole, and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  15. Herbert and Lou Henry Hoover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue of the children's magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on Herbert and Lou Henry Hoover. The articles included are: (1) "Getting To Know Herbert Clark Hoover"; (2) "Lou Henry Hoover"; (3) "Meet an Iowa Author"; (4) "The Great Depression"; (5) "A Different Kind of Coupon"; (6) "The President's Mountain School"; (6) "Where are the Books?";…

  16. Take a Hike with Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities and relevant Web sites associated with the picture book "Henry Hikes to Fitchburg" which is based on a passage from "Walden" by Henry David Thoreau. Includes author sites, Library of Congress sites, town profiles and histories, nature crafts, and recipes. (LRW)

  17. Joseph Henry and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Joseph Henry (1797-1878) is best known for his work in electromagnetism and as the first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. But he was also a pioneer solar physicist, an early advocate of US participation in astrophysics, and a facilitator of international cooperation in astronomy. This paper will briefly trace his role in the development of the US astronomical community from the time he taught astronomy at Princeton in the 1830s through his death, focusing on failed efforts to persuade US astronomers and patrons of astronomy that the best path for US astronomy should be astrophysics. He thought that the US could make a more significant contribution to astronomy science by striking out on a less travelled path rather than competing with the established European observatories.

  18. Henry’s Law Constant and Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient for Formaldehyde Emission from Small Water Pools under Simulated Indoor Environmental Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Henry’s law constant (HLC) and the overall mass transfer coefficient are both important parameters for modeling formaldehyde emissions from aqueous solutions. In this work, the apparent HLCs for aqueous formaldehyde solutions were determined in the concentration range from 0....

  19. Air-Liquid Partition Coefficient for a Diverse Set of Organic Compounds: Henry’s Law Constant in Water and Hexadecane

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SPARC vapor pressure and activity coefficient models were coupled to estimate Henry’s Law Constant (HLC) in water and in hexadecane for a wide range of non-polar and polar solute organic compounds without modification to/or additional parameterization of the vapor pressure or...

  20. Disobeying Immoral Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Elfie

    1994-01-01

    Describes how one teacher continued to teach after becoming pregnant, even though this was against school policy. Reminds teachers that Henry Thoreau claimed it is moral to disobey an immoral law. (HB)

  1. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. The mechanical first law of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant and its application to the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urano, Miho; Tomimatsu, Akira; Saida, Hiromi

    2009-05-01

    The mechanical first law (MFL) of black hole spacetimes is a geometrical relation which relates variations of the mass parameter and horizon area. While it is well known that the MFL of an asymptotic flat black hole is equivalent to its thermodynamical first law, however we do not know the detail of the MFL of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant which possess a black hole and cosmological event horizons. This paper aims to formulate an MFL of the two-horizon spacetimes. For this purpose, we try to include the effects of two horizons in the MFL. To do so, we make use of the Iyer-Wald formalism and extend it to regard the mass parameter and the cosmological constant as two independent variables which make it possible to treat the two horizons on the same footing. Our extended Iyer-Wald formalism preserves the existence of the conserved Noether current and its associated Noether charge, and gives an abstract form of the MFL of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant. Then, as a representative application of this formalism, we derive the MFL of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) spacetime. Our MFL of the SdS spacetime relates the variations of three quantities: the mass parameter, the total area of the two horizons and the volume enclosed by the two horizons. If our MFL is regarded as a thermodynamical first law of the SdS spacetime, it offers a thermodynamically consistent description of the SdS black hole evaporation process: the mass decreases while the volume and the entropy increase. In our suggestion, a generalized second law is not needed to ensure the second law of SdS thermodynamics for its evaporation process.

  3. [The Henry E. Huntington Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Terry

    The biographical sketch of Henry E. Huntington includes a description of the establishment of the Huntington Library and the purpose and scope of its collection. Although this is a free and public library, its use is restricted to qualified scholars having legitimate research needs. Photographic techniques were developed at the Huntington Library…

  4. Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesterson, David B.

    Designed for use by the general reader, the college student, and the teacher, this book analyzes the life and literary career of Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw), emphasizing his literary ventures and artistic talents. The analysis reveals Billings' talents as a subtle humorist, homespun philosopher, and artist of the essay. Chapters include…

  5. The Right Fit for Henry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, J. Christine; Staff, Linda K.; Theiss, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    When Henry was enrolled in a gifted program in 3rd grade, he showed many of the classic signs of giftedness, but his reading and writing skills were below grade level. An evaluation revealed that he was twice-exceptional--he was gifted and he had a learning disability. Believing that both his giftedness and his learning disability warranted…

  6. Henry Giroux and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trend, David

    2012-01-01

    Henry A. Giroux is well known for pushing the definitions of education. From his early forays into what has been termed the "New Sociology of Education" in the early 1980s to his more recent discussions of "public pedagogy", Giroux has methodically challenged existing orthodoxies. This essay will focus on the interdisciplinary broadening of…

  7. Draper, Henry (1837-82)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    American pioneer of astronomical photography, born in Prince Edward County, VA. Made the first photograph of a stellar spectrum (Vega). His assistant WILLIAMINA FLEMING analysed the objective prism photographs of stellar spectra and formed the basis for the classification of stars, with the data eventually published by ANNIE CANNON as the Henry Draper Catalog of Stellar Spectra....

  8. Apparent equilibrium constants and standard transformed Gibbs energies of biochemical reactions involving carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Alberty, R A

    1997-12-01

    When carbon dioxide is produced in a biochemical reaction, the expression for the apparent equilibrium constant K' can be written in terms of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the gas phase or the total concentration of species containing CO2 in the aqueous phase, referred to here as [TotCO2]. The values of these two apparent equilibrium constants are different because they correspond to different ways of writing the biochemical equations. Their dependencies on pH and ionic strength are also different. The ratio of these two apparent equilibrium constants is equal to the apparent Henry's law constant K'H. This article provides derivations of equations for the calculation of the standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation of TotCO2 and values of the apparent Henry's law constant at various pH levels and ionic strengths. These equations involve the four equilibrium constants interconnecting the five species [CO2(g), CO2(aq), H2CO3, HCO3-, and CO3(2-)] of carbon dioxide. In the literature there are many errors in the treatment of equilibrium data on biochemical reactions involving carbon dioxide, and so several examples are discussed here, including calculation of standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation of reactants. This approach also applies to net reactions, and the net reaction for the oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water is discussed.

  9. Henry Morgenthau's voice in history.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Henry Morgenthau (1856-1946) distinguished himself as the U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, 1913-1916, and as the chairman of the League of Nations Refugee Settlement Commission (RSC) for Greece, 1923-24. I describe aspects of his early life that shaped the man he became, his accomplishments in these two posts, and his feelings about himself over time. At the end I briefly describe his attitude toward a possible Jewish state in Palestine. PMID:25630196

  10. Comparisons of Hamaker constants for ceramic systems with intervening vacuum or water: From force laws and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ackler, H.D.; Chiang, Y.M.; French, R.H.

    1996-05-10

    Van der Waals dispersive forces produce attractive interactions between bodies, playing an important role in many material systems influencing colloidal and emulsion stability, wetting behavior, and intergranular forces in glass-ceramic systems. It is of technological importance to accurately quantify these interactions, conveniently represented by the Hamaker constant, A. To set the current level of accuracy for determining A, they were calculated from Lifshitz theory using full spectral data for muscovite mica, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and rutile TiO{sub 2}, separated by vacuum or water. These were compared to Hamaker constants calculated from physical properties using the Tabor-Winterton approximation, a single oscillator model, a multiple oscillator model, and A`s calculated using force vs separation data from surface force apparatus and atomic force microscope studies. For materials with refractive indices between 1.4 and 1.8 separated by vacuum, all methods produce similar values, but for indices larger than 1.8 separated by vacuum, and any of these materials separated by water, results span a broader range. The present level of accuracy for the determination of Hamaker constants, here taken to be represented by the level of agreement between various methods, ranges from about 10% for the case of SiO{sub 2}/vacuum/SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/water/TiO{sub 2} to a factor of approximately 7 for mica/water/mica.

  11. Development of Monopole Interaction Models for Ionic Compounds. Part I: Estimation of Aqueous Henry’s Law Constants for Ions and Gas Phase pKa Values for Acidic Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) physicochemical mechanistic models for neutral compounds have been extended to estimate Henry’s Law Constant (HLC) for charged species by incorporating ionic electrostatic interaction models. Combinations of absolute aq...

  12. Layered Yardangs in Henry Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-389, 12 June 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-sculpted remnants of layered sedimentary rock that once completely covered the northwestern floor of Henry Crater, an ancient impact basin located at 11.7oN, 336.4oW. These landforms, shaped somewhat like inverted boat hulls, are 'textbook examples' of a wind erosion form known as a yardang. The image covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  13. The Don Henry Story. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Don Henry was a student at the University of Kansas (Lawrence, Kansas) who experienced a profound political change during his years on campus. Henry became a leader in radical campus organizations, volunteered to fight in the Spanish Civil War with the Lincoln Brigade, and died on the battlefield in Aragon (Spain) in September 1937. An article in…

  14. John Henry--The Steel Driving Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David E.; Gulley, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    The story of John Henry provided the setting for sixth-grade class to participate in a John Henry Day of mathematics experiments. The students collected data from experiments where students competed against machines and technology. The student analyzed the data by comparing two box plots, a box plot of human data, and a box plot of machine or…

  15. Henry (Hank) J. Moore (1928-1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.

    Henry (Hank) J. Moore, a member of the AGU Planetary Sciences section, died of a heart attack on September 21, 1998. He was in Utah while on a family trip to visit his daughter. His 70th birthday occurred just 3 weeks before his death. Henry, who was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, took great pride in having found and visited the small town of Albuquerque in the Extremadura region of Spain, noting the geologic similarities between that part of Spain and his birthplace in America.Henry, known for his contributions to the Apollo,Viking, Magellan, and Mars Pathfinder missions, attributed his career to a chance encounter with Gene Shoemaker in 1960. Henry was completing his Ph.D. work in geology at Stanford University and Gene obviously had spotted Henry's keen analytical mind. I suspect this pivotal meeting was far from a chance encounter.

  16. Henry Darcy in his own words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobeck, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    A recently published English translation of the Les Fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon1 provides access to Henry Darcy's own words on the importance of water for public sanitation and on questions engineers face in building water supply systems. Written near the end of Darcy's life, the book is a compendium of the water knowledge he had gained over decades and his opinions on these topics reveal his personality. In the 1840s, Darcy built a water supply system to provide water to 120 street fountains for domestic purposes, street washing and firefighting. Surrounded by poverty, Darcy insisted on free water for the poor and on sharing the spring water with towns located along the aqueduct that brought it to Dijon. In the preface to the book, Darcy introduces his experiment on water flow through sand with the modest words “to my knowledge, no one has experimentally demonstrated the laws of water flow through sand.” This article provides a sampling of the book's insights into the personality of this remarkable man.

  17. Henry Leland (1923-2013).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sally J

    2015-01-01

    This article memorializes Henry Leland (1923-2013). Leland was an advocate for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). He was a skilled clinician and developmentalist, and his application of play therapy to affect specific outcomes in children with IDD was far ahead of its time. His legacy is reflected in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) definition of IDD, in which severity levels are defined by a person's current adaptive capacities rather than their IQ scores. It is reflected in the fact that many states in the country have no institutions at all for persons with IDD because community living and working are now the standard. It is reflected in the social justice actions supporting persons with IDD in prisons and on death row. It is reflected in the empirically supported and widely accepted practices involving service delivery to young children with IDD and their families through use of play strategies. PMID:25581008

  18. Geology of the Henry Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, G.K.

    1877-01-01

    If these pages fail to give a correct account of the structure of the Henry Mountains the fault is mine and I have no excuse. In all the earlier exploration of the Rocky Mountain Region, as well as in much of the more recent survey, the geologist has merely accompanied the geographer and has had no voice in the determination of either the route or the rate of travel. When the structure of a mountain was in doubt he was rarely able to visit the points which should resolve the doubt, but was compelled to turn regretfully away. Not so in the survey of the Henry Mountains. Geological exploration had shown that they were well disposed for examination, and that they promised to give the key to a type of structure which was at best obscurely known; and I was sent by Professor Powell to make a study of them, without restriction as to my order or method. I was limited only in time, the snow stopping my work two months after it was begun. Two months would be far too short a period in which to survey a thousand square miles in Pennsylvania or Illinois, but among the Colorado Plateaus it proved sufficient. A few comprehensive views from mountain tops gave the general distribution of the formations, and the remainder of the time was spent in the examination of the localities which best displayed the peculiar features of the structure. So thorough was the display and so satisfactory the examination, that in preparing my report I have felt less than ever before the desire to revisit the field and prove my conclusions by more extended observation.

  19. Change is a Constant.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Provencher, Matthew T; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Poehling, Gary G

    2015-06-01

    In 2015, Henry P. Hackett, Managing Editor, Arthroscopy, retires, and Edward A. Goss, Executive Director, Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA), retires. Association is a positive constant, in a time of change. With change comes a need for continuing education, research, and sharing of ideas. While the quality of education at AANA and ISAKOS is superior and most relevant, the unique reason to travel and meet is the opportunity to interact with innovative colleagues. Personal interaction best stimulates new ideas to improve patient care, research, and teaching. Through our network, we best create innovation.

  20. Joseph Henry and the American Philosophical Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Walter E.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the extent to which Henry was affiliated with the Society and its influence on his work including his evolving relationship with the Society in the scope of the changing nature of American scientific institutions. (DF)

  1. Obituary: Henry Emil Kandrup, 1955-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David; Gottesman, Stephen T.

    2004-12-01

    Henry Emil Kandrup died on 18 October 2003 at his home in Gainesville Florida. Henry was a theoretical astrophysicist specializing in the application of chaotic dynamics to stellar systems. At the time of his death, Henry was a Professor at the University of Florida where he had taught for 13 years. Henry was born in Manhasset, New York on July 24, 1955 and spent most of his childhood in Great Neck. His parents, Jytte and Fred, were immigrants from Denmark where his father had worked as a silver smith. Henry was a precocious child, skipping both third and fifth grades. With the help of Sidney Spivack, a professor of sociology at Columbia University, his parents enrolled Henry in the Brooks Preparatory School in Andover, Massachusetts. After graduating at age 16, Henry enrolled at Cornell, transferring to Princeton the following year. Henry's parents adored their only child and worked hard to provide him with intellectual opportunities. Henry became an accomplished musician (organ, piano, French horn) and linguist (English, Danish, German) and was a passionate devotee of opera and ballet. Henry received his PhD in 1980 from the University of Chicago, where his thesis advisor was James Ipser. He taught at Oakland University in Michigan and Syracuse University in New York before coming to the University of Florida in 1990. Henry was sui generis. He shunned conventionality in his personal appearance and in his public demeanor, and always chose forthrightness and candor over polite silence. But to those of us who knew Henry well, his bluntness was a reflection of his intellectual consistency. Henry always said exactly what he thought, both in his published work and his public presentations, and never compromised himself for the sake of appearances. Nothing that he said or wrote was less than fully thought out. Henry's PhD thesis was entitled "Stochastic Problems in Stellar Dynamics," and most of his subsequent research was in this field. Motion in stellar systems can be

  2. The elusive Henry Jones Shrapnell.

    PubMed

    McGovern, F H

    1983-07-01

    In a small series of articles published in The London Gazette in 1830 Henry Jones Shrapnell, surgeon, first described the correct form and structure of the tympanic membrane. He divided the drum membrane into two parts, the pars tensa and the pars flaccida. To this day the latter structure is known to every otologist and to most medical students as Shrapnell's membrane. In addition he wrote on the function of the membrana tympani, the nerves of the ear, and the true anatomy of the os incus. Heretofore the lenticular process of the incus was considered a separate bone in the ossicular chain. In spite of his distinctive contribution to medicine, a search of over a decade failed to uncover little basic information about Shrapnell's life, and for this reason he has been called by a distinguished librarian, the elusive Mr. Shrapnell. Recently, from my continued investigation, and with the help of many fine London scholars, a clearer picture has emerged of Shrapnell's forebearers, his family, his education and his death. PMID:6345977

  3. Henry Cavendish and the density of the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lally, Sean P.

    1999-01-01

    From the fall of 1797 through the spring of 1798, Henry Cavendish performed a series of experiments, which now bear his name, that were aimed at determining the density of Earth. While Cavendish is rightfully considered a brilliant experimenter by many historians, he is often credited (in both popular and historical literature) as the scientist who first accurately weighed the Earth and determined the universal constant of gravitation, G. While the universal constant of gravitation and the mass (or weight) of the Earth can indeed be calculated from the density of the Earth, this was neither Cavendish's result nor his intent in writing "Experiments to Determine the Density of the Earth." Rather, Cavendish's interest lies in solving an eighteenth-century dispute: what is the mean density of the Earth?

  4. Joseph Henry's Conception of Scientific Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theerman, Paul

    1997-04-01

    Joseph Henry, America's premier physicist and physics teacher in the mid-nineteenth century, had decided views of scientific knowledge. These were expressed in two ways. First of all, scientific knowledge led to moral betterment. Thus the study of science was a morally good thing. This was not only because it led to the contemplation of God's creation, which was a standard reason justifying the study of science dating from the Scientific Revolution and even earlier. More importantly, the study of science itself was a moral discipline, imparting to scientists the habits and virtues of truthfulness, respect for others, care and diligence, and the discernment of meaningful patterns from experience. The moral ideals of science were expressed most strongly in Henry's upholding the international "Republic of Science"; conversely, cheapening science was a sign of moral failure. Second, for Henry and his generation, science provided a path to sure truth, separate from falsehood of both the politics and the quackery that characterized mid-century public life. Henry promoted this in his championing of the Smithsonian Institution a scientific establishment, against the ideas of others who wanted to make it a literary establishment or a training school for teachers. For Henry, the Smithsonian's scientific reputation would be established by relying on careful peer review in its publications, and supporting established scientists to write authoritative popular works. The purpose of both these activities was to raise the profile of science in the United States and further establish science and the scientific method as a guide to public life.

  5. Cavendish, Henry (1731-1810)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    English chemist and physicist. Cavendish used a sensitive torsion balance (the Cavendish balance), which was made to oscillate under the gravitational force of attraction of large masses, to measure the value of the gravitational constant, G, and used his value to determine the mass of the Earth....

  6. History into Drama: The Perspective of "1 Henry IV."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Larry S.

    1978-01-01

    Contrasts Shakespeare's "Henry V" and "Henry IV" series, in which human interaction becomes history, with plays such as "Julius Caesar," which focus on psychological analysis and the internalized protagonist. (MB)

  7. Inwood Hill Park underpass, below Henry Hudson Parkway southbound, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Inwood Hill Park underpass, below Henry Hudson Parkway southbound, looking southeast. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  8. View of fourlane Henry Hudson Parkway winding through Riverdale, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of four-lane Henry Hudson Parkway winding through Riverdale, showing service roads, from White Hall Cooperative Apartments. Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, the Cloisters and Fort Tryon Park, George Washington Bridge, and Manhattan skyline in background, looking southwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  9. Possible Pasts: Historiography and Legitimation in "Henry VIII."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Ivo

    1996-01-01

    Aims to rehabilitate the reputation of Shakespeare's "Henry VIII" and emphasizes its potential usefulness in the classroom by reconsidering it in the context of Renaissance history writing. Shows how "Henry VIII" can be taught as a commentary on or seen as a continuation of incipient themes in "The Tempest" and "Henry V." (TB)

  10. Lou Henry Hoover and the Girl Scouts: A Tribute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Dare Stark

    This booklet is a special tribute to Lou Henry Hoover, wife of President Herbert Hoover, from a close friend, social secretary, and chief research assistant to the First Lady. The small booklet provides a look at the social history of the era by focusing on Lou Henry Hoover and her interest in the outdoors. Lou Henry Hoover was the first women to…

  11. Henry's Law Activity of Oxygen in Molten Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matousek, J. W.

    2015-09-01

    A model is proposed for the solubility of oxygen in molten iron in dilute solutions in which the oxygen exists in two states, free and associated. Only the free oxygen has thermodynamic activity in the sense of interaction with an electrochemical cell to produce the voltage described by the Nernst equation.

  12. Henry James on the Art of Acting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David W.

    Henry James, the nineteenth-century American novelist, also served on occasion as a theatre critic. Between 1875 and 1890 he reviewed several productions in Boston, New York, London, and Paris for "Atlantic Monthly" and other periodicals. The reviews are of interest because of James' high standards regarding acting and his often devasting comments…

  13. Henri Hubert, racial science and political myth.

    PubMed

    Strenski, I

    1987-10-01

    Henri Hubert developed early Durkheimian critiques of racial sciences such as anthroposociology from his perspective as an archeologist, historian, and ethnographer of primitive European religions. His major works on the "primitive" Celts and Germans continue these critiques of racism. But Hubert also engaged in the political mythologizing of French national identity by trading in the republican myth of "celtisme."

  14. In the Style of Henry Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by Henry Moore's sculptures. This project consists of two activities. In the first activity, students select, sand and stain a wood block that would become a base for their plaster sculpture. This activity would keep the students independently engaged (classroom management) while the…

  15. Henry Ward Beecher: A Nation's Tribune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Daniel Ross

    Henry Ward Beecher was America's most prominent 19th century liberal preacher and a major spokesperson for New England Transcendentalism. His philosophy integrated four fundamental themes: the creation of a moral code based on the internalization of values and peer group pressures, the establishment of the reform ideal of the impartial nonpartisan…

  16. Transcendentalism and Henry Barnard's "School Architecture"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothfork, John

    1977-01-01

    Sketches the intellectual and sociological climate that led Henry Barnard to advocate Greek Revival architecture for school buildings, takes a look at why this style and its implicit values were popular in the era between 1820-1860, and examines a few of the plans in Barnard's "School Architecture" (1838-48). (Author/RK)

  17. Henry Dyer: Engineer and Educational Innovator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsobrook, David; Mitchell, Gordon

    1997-01-01

    Describes the life and contributions of Scottish engineer Henry Dyer to educational developments in Japan and Scotland around the turn of the century. Relates his success in founding the Imperial College of Technology, Tokyo (Japan), and the lessons he brought back to Scotland after that experience. (DSK)

  18. The Ideas of Henry Jenkins and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Byron

    2008-01-01

    Henry Jenkins, director of the Comparative Media Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and keynote speaker at the 2007 American Library Association's "Gaming, Learning and Libraries Symposium" in Chicago is a visionary leader in the areas of new media and media convergence. In a white paper on digital media and learning…

  19. Appreciating Gantos' Jack Henry as an Archetype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jinx Stapleton

    2001-01-01

    Examines the contemporary realism of the literary character Jack Henry, a middle school child, as representative of two classic literary elements, the quest cycle and the lone hero. Concludes that classic structures of plots and characteristics of hero offer many modern protagonists a shape for their realistic and ordinary adventures. (SG/47)

  20. Henri Matisse's "Beasts of the Sea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Henri Matisse (1869-1954) was a very prolific Impressionist/Post-Impressionist artist whose longevity allowed him to produce many wonderful, brightly colored pieces of art that spanned different styles, movements and media. Elementary-school children love color and appreciate any project that does not require their work to be exact or totally…

  1. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface flows can occur as a

  2. Henri Laborit and the inhibition of action.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Edward

    2014-03-01

    Henri Laborit was one of the founders of modern neuropsychopharmacology, having discovered, or participated in, the discovery of chlorpromazine, gamma-OH, clomethiazole, and minaprine. He also put forward a theory regarding the necessity of counteracting the negative consequences of defense mechanisms during anesthesia or behavioral inhibition. The scope of his work covers neurophysiology, pharmacology, psychiatry, and psychosomatics. His independence of spirit meant that most of his research was not done within university settings.

  3. Henri Poincaré and the principle of relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messager, Valérie; Gilmore, Robert; Letellier, Christophe

    2012-09-01

    Often considered as the last 'encyclopedist', Henri Poincaré died one hundred years ago. If he was a prominent man in 1900 French Society, his heritage is not so clearly recognised, particularly in France. Among his too often misunderstood works is his contribution to the theory of relativity, mainly because it is almost never presented within Poincaré's general approach to science, including his philosophical writings. Our aim is therefore to provide an historical account of the main steps (experimental as well as theoretical) which led Poincaré to contribute to the theory of relativity. Starting from the optical experiments which led to the inconsistency of the classical (Galilean) composition law for velocities to explain light propagation, we introduce the FitzGerald and Lorentz contraction which was viewed as the 'sole hypothesis' to explain the Michelson and Morley experiment. We then show that Poincaré's contribution starts with a discussion of the principles governing the mechanics and was built step by step up to express in all its generality the principle of relativity. Poincaré thus showed the invariance of the Maxwell equations under the Lorentz transformation. In doing so, he also discovered the right composition law for velocities. Poincaré's approach to philosophy is detailed to help the reader to understand what a theory meant to him.

  4. James McHenry, M.D. of Fort McHenry in Baltimore Towne.

    PubMed

    Miller, J M

    1992-05-01

    James McHenry, M.D., whose name is best known for the fort immortalized in the Star Spangled Banner, was one of the early members of Med Chi. In addition, he was secretary to George Washington; aide to Lafayette; member of the Maryland Senate, the General Assembly of Maryland, and the US Congress; and signer of the Constitution.

  5. The medical life of Henry Norman Bethune

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Jean; Goulet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Henry Norman Bethune is one of the most exciting and incredible surgeons that Canada has ever produced. Indeed, he is often characterized as one of the world’s best-known surgeons. He was an innovator and his scientific contributions have stood the test of time. In Canada, he will forever be remembered as a social activist committed to the welfare of the poor and to the reform of the health care system. In the People’s Republic of China, he is idolized and remains the only foreigner to ever become a national hero. OBJECTIVE: To detail the numerous and significant achievements of Henry Norman Bethune in the field of thoracic surgery and as a social activist and describe his heroic war-time actions on the battlefields of both Spain and China. METHOD: Information was gathered through the reading of the numerous publications written about the life and work of Bethune, interviews with knowledgeable people from Canadian and Chinese universities, analysis of Bethune’s own publications, and extensive experience of one of the authors in China. RESULTS: In the social sense, Henry Norman Bethune had a difficult personality, but he was deeply caring about the plight of his patients, especially the poor. As a thoracic surgeon, he could be ingenious, thoughtful and effective but he could also be abrasive, restless and temperamental. His scientific contributions were sound and, at the time, gained worldwide attention. As an activist, he led a crusade to reform the Canadian health care system, demanding free health care for all. His outstanding work during the Spanish Civil War, where he organized the first ever mobile blood transfusion unit, and during the Sino-Japanese war, where he was totally committed to the welfare of both soldiers and civilian population, were deliberate acts of resistance against Fascist onslaught and enthusiasm for the Communist cause. CONCLUSIONS: Henry Norman Bethune was unconventional and a revolutionary, but he was brilliant. He will

  6. Dialogue of Differences: The Writing of Henry Holmes Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossen, Howard

    In addition to surveying the writings of Henry Holmes Smith, this paper explains his importance as a theoretician and practitioner of photography. After a discussion of Smith's ideas on "reading photographs" and his concerns with the ethics of photography, particularly of photojournalism, the essays in the book, "Henry Holmes Smith: Selected…

  7. 77 FR 70159 - Knueppel, Henry W.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Knueppel, Henry W.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 15, 2012, Henry W. Knueppel submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking...

  8. Henry Hudson Bridge over Harlem River Shipping Canal at confluence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Bridge over Harlem River Shipping Canal at confluence with Hudson River, from Isham Park, view northeast. Inwood Hill Park on left, Spuyten Duyvil Shorefront Park on right, Palisades Interstate Park in background. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  9. View of cars entering Henry Hudson Parkway southbound at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cars entering Henry Hudson Parkway southbound at the Mosholu Parkway interchange, with outcropping in northwest Van Cortlandt Park in background, looking north. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  10. View of Harlem River Shipping Canal from Henry Hudson Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Harlem River Shipping Canal from Henry Hudson Bridge, looking southeast. Isham Park in center, Inwood Hill Park at right. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  11. Henry Hudson Bridge upper deck and pedestrian walkway showing parapets ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Bridge upper deck and pedestrian walkway showing parapets with pipe rails. View of Inwood Hill Park in background, with a faint view of the Empire State Building amidst distant highrises at left, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  12. West Harlem Walk (Hudson River Valley Greenway) beneath Henry Hudson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Harlem Walk (Hudson River Valley Greenway) beneath Henry Hudson Parkway (HHP) Viaduct at West 155th Street vicinity, with Palisades, George Washington Bridge, and Little Red Lighthouse (visible to left of bridge tower) in background, looking northeast. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  13. Henry Hudson Bridge toll plaza, upper level, looking west. Pipe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Bridge toll plaza, upper level, looking west. Pipe railing parapets and pedestrian walkway on left. Inwood Hill Park in background. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  14. Teaching Students about the Environment with Henry David Thoreau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Walden: The Ballad of Thoreau" is a two-act four-character play about the final two days writer Henry David Thoreau spent in his cabin before leaving Walden Pond. Teachers can use this play to teach about preserving the earth to students. This article presents a brief synopsis of the play and a brief biography of Henry David Thoreau.

  15. 75 FR 21288 - Henry Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Henry Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application April 16, 2010. Take notice that on April 5, 2010, Henry Gas Storage LLC (HGS), 1010 Lamar, Suite 1720, Houston, Texas 77002, filed... section 7(c)(1)(B) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), to perform specific temporary activity related to...

  16. Professor Henry, Mr. Faraday, and the Hunt for Electromagnetic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Albert E.

    1997-04-01

    On different sides of the Atlantic but about the same time, Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry announced success in a quest that had preoccupied the scientific community for a decade: coaxing electricity from magnetism. "Mutual induction," what Faraday and Henry had identified in the early 1830s, would turn out to be not only a foundational concept in the physics of electricity and magnetism but also the principle behind the technology of electrical transformers and generators--two mainstays of industrialization. Although Faraday's breakthrough in London and Henry's in Albany might appear to be classic examples of "independent discovery," they were not. The two natural philosophers shared a similar orientation toward their research and, moreover, a distinctive laboratory instrument: Henry's new, powerful electromagnet. Thus, the story of Henry's and Faraday's search for induction illuminates not only the workings of Victorian science but also the crucial part that an instrument--the unadorned hardware--can play in scientific inquiry. Albert Moyer takes this story from his biography of Joseph Henry that Smithsonian Institution Press is about to publish in commemoration of the 200th anniversary of Henry's birth. The biography focuses on Henry's early and middle years, 1797-1847, from his emergence as America's foremost physical scientist to his election as the Smithsonian Institution's first director.

  17. The Rice University Press Initiative: An Interview with Charles Henry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevitte, Chad; Henry, Charles

    2007-01-01

    In this interview Charles Henry, publisher of the Rice University Press (RUP), discusses RUP's rebirth as a fully digital university press. Henry addresses the circumstances that led to this decision, and he further outlines the RUP business model whereby the press will publish its own titles--both digitally and in print-on-demand--while…

  18. Memory Drum Theory's C Movement: Revelations from Franklin Henry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Mark G.; Christina, Robert W.; Anson, J. Greg

    2008-01-01

    Franklin Henry's "memory drum" theory of neuromotor reaction (Henry & Rogers, 1960) was one of the most influential studies of the response programming stage of information processing. The paper is the most-cited study ever published in the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport." However, few people know there is a noteworthy error in the…

  19. Obituary: Roy Henry Garstang (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malville, J.

    2011-12-01

    Roy Henry Garstang 84 passed away on November 1, 2009 in Boulder Colorado. He was born in Southport, England in September of 1925 to Percy Brocklehurst and Eunice (Gledhill) Garstang. He won a scholarship to Caius College in Cambridge University. Because it was wartime, he could spend only two years at his studies. However, he managed to complete three years of required work during that time, and then spent 1945-46 as a Junior Scientific Officer at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough. He received his BA in 1946 from Cambridge, his MA in 1950, and his PhD in Mathematics in 1954, with a thesis: "Atomic Transitions in Astrophysics," working under D. R. Hartree. He also received a ScD from Cambridge in Physics and Chemistry in 1983. He married Ann in August 1959. She and two daughters, Jennifer and Susan, survive him. While still pursuing his PhD, Roy Garstang served as a Research Associate at the Yerkes Observatory, from 1951-1952, working under Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. During that time he continued with his own calculations of atomic structure and transition probabilities, although these were not part of Chandra's research interests. After earning his PhD, he went to teach at the University of London, where he also served as the Assistant Director of the University of London Observatory (1959-1964). He was editor of "The Observatory" Magazine form 1953-1960. The continuing theme of this research was to help meet the needs of astrophysicists for atomic data. In 1964, he left England for the United States, where he joined the faculty at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he would remain for the rest of his professional career. It was entirely fitting, considering his interest in performing calculations of interest to astrophysicists, that soon after arriving in Boulder he was appointed Chairman of JILA - Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (1966-1967). He was Director of the Division of Physics and AstroGeophysics (1979-80), acting

  20. Are Fundamental Constants Really Constant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Dirac's classical conclusions, that the values of e2, M and m are constants and the quantity of G decreases with time. Evoked considerable interest among researchers and traces historical development by which further experimental evidence points out that both e and G are constant values. (PS)

  1. Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927): the scientist and the man.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Jens H

    2005-02-01

    The pre-eminent achievements of the English physician and physiologist Ernest Henry Starling were his quantitative explanation of the transcapillary transport of fluid, the discovery of the first hormone, secretin, and his formulation of the law of the heart. In some ways Starling was an outsider and he was the centre of several scientific and social controversies. However, throughout his life he stressed fundamental scientific attitudes and ideas with remarkable persistence and power, although also balance, and his scientific achievements have stood the test of time.

  2. Obituary: Henry Albers (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromey, Fred

    2011-12-01

    Henry Albers, professor of astronomy at Vassar College for over thirty years, died March 29, 2009, in Fairhope, Alabama. For his work at Vassar, where he held the Maria Mitchell Chair, Albers received the first Maria Mitchell Women in Science Award for his inspiration of women astronomers. He said "In the final analysis it is the students who bring the joy into teaching." As a professional astronomer, Albers did observational work on Galactic structure in the southern Milky Way, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. In retirement, Albers published Maria Mitchell - A Life in Journals and Letters, the firsthand account of America's first woman astronomer. Albers's research was on photographic near-infrared spectroscopy of red giant stars in the southern Milky Way, some proper motion studies, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. A series of seven NSF grants supported his six trips to Chile to make spectroscopic observations, as well as his sabbatical collaborations at Minnesota, Leiden, and the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh. Henry Albers arrived at Vassar in 1958, to find an astronomy program that had been recently absorbed by the physics department, and that was suffering neglect after the retirement of Maud Makemson. For the next 31 years, with incredible energy -- he sometimes taught seven courses a year -- he built the astronomy program into one double in size (from one to two tenure lines), whose th century facilities have been replaced with a st century observatory. For a remarkable stretch of 20-some-years, Albers and physicist Bob Stearns, with considerable grace, alternated chairmanship of the joint department of physics and astronomy. Henry Albers was a devoted citizen of Vassar College and an enthusiastic participant in the process of faculty governance at that institution. He would have been the first to concede that his enthusiasm was sometimes excessive, and that his contributions at faculty meetings occasionally failed to move the

  3. The death of Henry II of France.

    PubMed

    Faria, M A

    1992-12-01

    On June 30, 1559, King Henry II of France (1519-1559), against the advice of his court ministers, participated in a fateful joust. The wooden lance of his younger opponent pierced the King's headgear, shattered into fragments, and penetrated his right orbit and temple. The King survived for 11 days following the mortal wound and was treated by two of the most distinguished physicians of the Renaissance: Ambroise Paré (1510-1590), the master surgeon, and Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), the great anatomist. The unfortunate event, the nature of the injury, and the medical consultation between these eminent physicians should all be of interest to neurosurgeons. The historical consequences of this event are briefly reviewed. PMID:1432144

  4. Henry Oldenburg - Shaping the Royal Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boas Hall, Marie

    2002-03-01

    Henry Oldenburg, born in 1619 in Bremen, Germany, first came to England as a diplomat on a mission to see Oliver Cromwell. He stayed on in England and in 1662 became the Secretary of the Royal Society, and its best known member to the entire learned world of his time. Through his extensive correspondence, now published, he disseminated the Society's ideals and methods at home and abroad. He fostered and encouraged the talents of many scientists later to be far more famous than he, including Newton, Flamsteed, Malpighi, and Leeuwenhoek with whom, as with many others, he developed real friendship. He founded and edited the Philosophical Transactions, the world's oldest scientific journal.His career sheds new light on the intellectual world of his time, especially its scientific aspects, and on the development of the Royal Society; his private life expands our knowledge of social mobility, the urban society, and the religious views of his time.

  5. Richard Henry Dana (1927-2015).

    PubMed

    Allen, James

    2016-01-01

    Richard Henry Dana was born on June 14, 1927, in Bronxville, New York. Dick was accepted to Princeton University in 1944 on a scholarship and graduated in 1949. He then became a student leader in the Congress of Racial Equality and participated in a series of nonviolent sit-in protests. He completed studies for his doctoral degree at the University of Illinois in clinical psychology (1953). He briefly held a series of clinical and university positions until finally settling down at the University of Arkansas (1969- 1988). It was during his long tenure in Arkansas that Dick authored one of the foundational textbooks in clinical psychology. His groundbreaking work, Multicultural Assessment Perspectives for Professional Psychology (1993), provided the first comprehensive book on the topic. Over a remarkable 10-year period, he produced a flurry of scholarly and professional activity. He passed away peacefully at his home in Portland, Oregon, on August 17, 2015. PMID:26866992

  6. Henry Norris Russell and the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVorkin, D.

    2013-04-01

    Henry Norris Russell, one of the most influential American astronomers of the first half of the 20th Century, had a special place in his heart for the Lowell Observatory. Although privately critical of the founder for his pronouncements about life on Mars and the superiority of the Mars Hill observing site, he always supported the Observatory in public and professional circles. He staunchly supported Tombaugh's detection of a planet as leading from Lowell's prediction, and always promoted V. M. Slipher's spectroscopic investigations of planetary and stellar phenomena. But how did he react to Slipher's puzzling detection of the extreme radial velocities of spiral nebulae starting in 1912, and how did he regard the extension and interpretation of those observations by Hubble and others in following decades? Here we describe the arc of Russell's reactions, dating from Slipher's first detection, as an indicator of how mainstream stellar astronomers reacted to the concept of an expanding universe.

  7. Significance of the Henri-Michaelis-Menten theory in abiotic catalysis: catechol oxidation by δ-MnO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidja, A.; Huang, P. M.

    2002-05-01

    The Henri-Michaelis-Menten theory, for more than eight decades, was only restricted to homogeneous enzymatic catalysis. A mimic of an enzymatic kinetics based on the Henri-Michaelis-Menten concept was experimentally observed in heterogeneous catalysis in the present study with δ-MnO 2 as an abiotic catalyst in the oxidation of catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene). Using the derived linear forms of Lineweaver-Burk or Hofstee, the data show that similar to the enzyme tyrosinase, the kinetics of the catechol oxidation catalyzed by δ-MnO 2 can be described by the Henri-Michaelis-Menten equation, V0= VmaxS/( Km+ S), where Vmax is the maximum velocity and Km the concentration of the substrate ( S) corresponding to an initial velocity ( V0) half of Vmax. By analogy to the enzymatic kinetics, the parameters Vmax and Km for an heterogeneous abiotic catalysis were derived for the first time. Further, based on the concentration of the active centers of the mineral oxide, the kinetic constants kcat and kcat/ Km, respectively, representing the turnover frequency and the efficiency of the mineral catalyst, were also determined from the derived general rate equation of Briggs and Haldane. As an abiotic catalyst, δ-MnO 2 has a paramount role in the oxidation of phenolic compounds in soil, sediment and water environments. Therefore, the present observation is of fundamental and practical significance in elucidating the affinity between an abiotic catalyst and a substrate based on the Henri-Michaelis-Menten theory.

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey September, 1936 VIEW OF FRONT VERANDA TOWARD NORTH - La Casa de Cota de la Cuesta, Lompoc Road, Buellton, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey March 1936 VIEW OF FOUNTAIN IN MISSION PARK, MISSION PROPERTY AT ONE TIME. - Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana, Fountains, Mission Boulevard, San Fernando, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 1. Henry Beardsley standing in front of his store in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Henry Beardsley standing in front of his store in Ohio. Photographer unknown, 1887. Source: William M. Beardsley - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Henri Poincaré: Death centenary (1854-1912)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzmann, Gerhard; Villani, Cédric

    2014-08-01

    The year 2012 marked the centenary of the death of Henri Poincaré (Nancy, 1854-Paris, 1912), and through the agency of the Henri-Poincaré Institute in Paris, the Henri-Poincaré Archives in Nancy and The London Mathematical Society, brought with it several exhibitions and meetings commemorating one of the greatest minds in contemporary times. Often referred to as the last polymath, Poincaré embraced multiple branches of mathematics, theoretical physics and celestial mechanics, and made significant contributions to philosophy of science (Heinzmann & Stump, Henri Poincaré, 2013). He wrote 25 textbooks and monographs, 500-plus articles, and was deeply involved in the organization and administration of science at both the national and international levels.1

  12. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SOAP FACTORY (S. W. Side) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SMITHY AND SOAP FACTORY (LOOKING SOUTH) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF FOUNTAIN, SMITHY AND SOAP FACTORY (LOOKING EAST) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SOAP FACTORY FROM EAST CORNER. - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. James Paget Henry--a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Meehan, J P; Meehan, W P

    1997-01-01

    James Paget Henry really began his productive research career at the outset of the second world war. His studies of acceleration and the anoxia of high altitude were supported by the development of then new techniques of measuring and recording critical physiologic parameters such as vascular pressures, respiratory functions and haemoglobin saturation. His inquisitive mind made productive use of the instruments that had to be made by skilled instrument makers working in university shops. Much of this instrumentation has now found its way into the clinical arena where it is now the main armamentarium of cardiac diagnostic and respiratory function laboratories. His work in the space program preceeded that of the Russians but did not get recognition until Sputnik awakened the world to the possibilities of space flight. His development of the concept of a cardiovascular basis for fluid volume control and the supportive investigative work undertaken constitute a milestone in the annals of experimental physiology. The chimpanzees used in Project Mercury were found to be hypertensive which was related to the method of capture used by the commercial suppliers. This lead Jim to study the effect of early experience on resting blood pressure, an effort that soon developed into provocative studies of the biological basis of the stress response.

  17. James Paget Henry--a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Meehan, J P; Meehan, W P

    1997-01-01

    James Paget Henry really began his productive research career at the outset of the second world war. His studies of acceleration and the anoxia of high altitude were supported by the development of then new techniques of measuring and recording critical physiologic parameters such as vascular pressures, respiratory functions and haemoglobin saturation. His inquisitive mind made productive use of the instruments that had to be made by skilled instrument makers working in university shops. Much of this instrumentation has now found its way into the clinical arena where it is now the main armamentarium of cardiac diagnostic and respiratory function laboratories. His work in the space program preceeded that of the Russians but did not get recognition until Sputnik awakened the world to the possibilities of space flight. His development of the concept of a cardiovascular basis for fluid volume control and the supportive investigative work undertaken constitute a milestone in the annals of experimental physiology. The chimpanzees used in Project Mercury were found to be hypertensive which was related to the method of capture used by the commercial suppliers. This lead Jim to study the effect of early experience on resting blood pressure, an effort that soon developed into provocative studies of the biological basis of the stress response. PMID:9401600

  18. Fighting desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    "Fighting Desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic" is an investigation of Tropic of Cancer that investigates the deeply repressed homoerotic desire that periodically surfaces. This reading is dependent upon an interpretation of Eve Sedgwick that proposes male sexuality as a continuum. By looking at the nature of the male-male relationships, as well as the lack of emotion and presence in the male-female relationships, I will show that the most intimate relationships are between men, and that these relationships are expressed through the telling of stories about (heterosexual) sex; this is the function of women within the novel: one has sex with a woman, not for the pleasure that the act brings, but for the pleasure that the recounting of the story to other men brings. Furthermore, I will look at Miller's use of puns within the novel and how they also contribute to a homoerotic reading. None of this is to argue that Miller was not homophobic and sexist--Miller very clearly was--the purpose of this essay is to show the complex nature of sexuality, even within a protagonist who asserts a very defined heterosexuality.

  19. Science Advisor and Applied Physicist: Joseph Henry Serves His Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    1997-04-01

    When Joseph Henry accepted the postion of secretary of the Smithsonian in 1846, his career changed radically. Although he never ceased thinking of himself as a research scientist and educator, thereafter his chief roles were those of science administrator and advisor to both the executive and legislative branches of the federal government for both science and technology. His effectiveness as an advocate became more important than his skill as an experimental physicist. Even when he entered the laboratory, his role had changed. No longer was he concerned with basic research. As a member of various government boards and committees, Henry spent the last three decades of his life concerned with the application of fundamental knowledge for the improvement of the human condition. This paper will discuss Henry's service on behalf of his country.

  20. 4. PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT OF HENRY OSSAWA TANNER Photocopy of pre1930 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT OF HENRY OSSAWA TANNER Photocopy of pre-1930 photograph, courtesy of Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. - Henry O. Tanner House, 2908 West Diamond Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Linear and non-linear relationships mapping the Henry’s law parameters of organic pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Ortiz, Erlinda V.; Coelho, Leandro dos S.; Duchowicz, Pablo R.

    2010-08-01

    This work aims to predict the air to water partitioning for 96 organic pesticides by means of the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships Theory. After performing structural feature selection with Genetics Algorithms and Replacement Method linear approaches, it is found that among the most important molecular features appears the Moriguchi octanol-water partition coefficient, and higher lipophilicities would lead to compounds having higher Henry's law constants. We also compare the statistical performance achieved by four fully-connected Feed-Forward Multilayer Perceptrons Artificial Neural Networks. The statistical results found reveal that the best performing model uses the Levenberg-Marquardt with Bayesian regularization (BR) weighting function for achieving the most accurate predictions.

  2. Henry Giroux on Democracy Unsettled: From Critical Pedagogy to the War on Youth--An Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This interview conducted with Henry Giroux begins by probing Henry's childhood, upbringing and undergraduate years to discover where his sense of social justice took hold. It also questions Henry about his working-class background and the major influences on his thought, including his relationships with Paulo Freire and Howard Zinn. The interview…

  3. Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Thinking and Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, David

    2013-01-01

    Computers have become powerful conceptual and intellectual tools. Examples will be given showing how computer simulations clarified the nature of some important astrophysical processes: gravitational collapse to black holes or neutron stars, the synthesis of the elements, supernova explosions, and turbulent motion in stars. Originally computers were thought of as tools for solving differential equations by numerical integration, but modern use of computers more closely resembles the construction of a digital model of reality based on conservation laws. Implications of our new abilities to solve nonlinear problems, and the synergism developing between analytic and digital theory will be discussed, with historical comments.

  4. The Transformative Intellectual: An Examination of Henry Giroux's Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashani, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Henry Giroux's contributions to critical pedagogy. The author demonstrates how Giroux, as a public intellectual, has found his Ethics in the right place. The author further argues that Giroux's Ethics of virtue are present not only in the public person but also in his transformative writing.

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing c. 1845 Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - Grove Street Cemetery Entrance, 227 Grove Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing EAST SIDE ELEVATION Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - Willis Bristol House, 584 Chapel Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey June 1936 STONE CHURCH, SANCTUARY EAST WALL (LOOKING EAST) - Mission San Juan Capistrano, Stone Church, Olive Street, between U.S. Highway 101 & Main Street, San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, CA

  8. A Conservation with...Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Lynne V.

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interview between National Endowment for the Humanities chairman, Lynne V. Cheney, and Harvard professor, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Includes discussion of multiculturalism as it relates to free speech, sexism, racism, hate speech, and ethnocentrism. Emphasizes both the open tradition of Western culture and the recent pressure for…

  9. Circles, Teenagers, and "Henry V": A Short Shakespeare Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    The residency about which the author writes was with students at The Roeper School in Birmingham, Michigan. This school is unusual in its support for a liberal arts and process-based education. In this article the author, an accomplished director and Teaching Artist, recounts the many engaging dimensions of a student production of "Henry V."

  10. Lagrangian circulation study near Cape Henry, Virginia. [Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the circulation near Cape Henry, Virginia, was made using surface and seabed drifters and radar tracked surface buoys coupled to subsurface drag plates. Drifter releases were conducted on a line normal to the beach just south of Cape Henry. Surface drifter recoveries were few; wind effects were strongly noted. Seabed drifter recoveries all exhibited onshore motion into Chesapeake Bay. Strong winds also affected seabed recoveries, tending to move them farther before recovery. Buoy trajectories in the vicinity of Cape Henry appeared to be of an irrotational nature, showing a clockwise rotary tide motion. Nearest the cape, the buoy motion elongated to almost parallel depth contours around the cape. Buoy motion under the action of strong winds showed that currents to at least the depth of the drag plates substantially are altered from those of low wind conditions near the Bay mouth. Only partial evidence could be found to support the presence of a clockwise nontidal eddy at Virginia Beach, south of Cape Henry.

  11. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey June 1936 RUINS OF INDUSTRIAL SHOPS, TAKEN FROM NORTH WEST CORNER. - Mission San Juan Capistrano, Industrial Shops, Olive Street, between U.S. Highway 101 & Main Street, San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, CA

  12. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey June 1936 EAST WALL OF INDUSTRIAL SHOPS (LOOKING NORTH) - Mission San Juan Capistrano, Industrial Shops, Olive Street, between U.S. Highway 101 & Main Street, San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, CA

  13. America's Earliest Revolutionary Voice: Po-Pay--Not Patrick Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Gordon R.

    A full century before Patrick Henry's persuasive battle for the rights of oppressed people, a San Juan Pueblo Indian medicine man known only as Po-Pay was the masterful communicator and agitator who orchestrated the first American revolution to drive the Spanish back into Mexico. Seeking mineral wealth, cheap labor, and the maximum number of…

  14. The Henry semianalytical solution for saltwater intrusion with reduced dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidane, Ali; Younes, Anis; Huggenberger, Peter; Zechner, Eric

    2012-06-01

    The Henry semianalytical solution for salt water intrusion is widely used for benchmarking density dependent flow codes. The method consists of replacing the stream function and the concentration by a double set of Fourier series. These series are truncated at a given order and the remaining coefficients are calculated by solving a highly nonlinear system of algebraic equations. The solution of this system is often subject to substantial numerical difficulties. Previous works succeeded to provide semianalytical solutions only for saltwater intrusion problems with unrealistic large amount of dispersion. In this work, different truncations for the Fourier series are tested and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, which has a quadratic rate of convergence, is applied to calculate their coefficients. The obtained results provide semianalytical solutions for the Henry problem in the case of reduced dispersion coefficients and for two freshwater recharge values: the initial value suggested by Henry (1964) and the reduced one suggested by Simpson and Clement (2004). The developed semianalytical solutions are compared against numerical results obtained by using the method of lines and advanced spatial discretization schemes. The obtained semianalytical solutions improve considerably the worthiness of the Henry problem and therefore, they are more suitable for testing density dependent flow codes.

  15. Challenging Texts: Teaching Deliberately--Reading Henry David Thoreau's "Walden"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    One of the more difficult 19th-century American texts for high school students to read is undoubtedly Henry David Thoreau's "Walden." His erudite allusions, often page-long sentences, and sophisticated sense of the ironic initially leave many students cold. Still, the author encourages them to read amid the din of a cultural cacophony that shouts…

  16. A Teacher's Guide for William Shakespeare's "Henry V."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide for William Shakespeare's play "Henry V" is designed to accompany the Kenneth Branagh Masterpiece Theater film production of the play, and to help teachers use the film in a variety of ways. The guide includes pre-viewing background information, five teaching units, and a pullout poster for classroom display. The guide begins…

  17. Battling for Liberty: Tecumseh's and Patrick Henry's Language of Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    The reading program described in this lesson plan extends the study of Patrick Henry's "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death" speech to demonstrate the ways Native Americans also resisted oppression through rhetoric. During five 50-minute lessons, students will: develop an awareness of both Native and non-Native movements to resist oppression and…

  18. 15. Photocopy of map, drawn by Henry Hagey, circa 1900 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of map, drawn by Henry Hagey, circa 1900 (from Willing Inhabitants, original in possession of author, Joyce Munro). FRANCONIA TOWNSHIP MAP. BRIDGE LOCATION IN BOTTOM CENTER - Allentown Road Bridge, Spanning Skippack Creek on Allentown Road, Franconia, Montgomery County, PA

  19. The Failed Educations of John Stuart Mill and Henry Adams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes and contrasts Mill's "Autobiography" and Adams'"The Education of Henry Adams" in order to present two approaches to the nature of education and of failure. Maintains that their perspectives may serve as catalysts and cautions for contemporary theories of education and its utility and relevance. (CAM)

  20. Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Presents a five-lesson, high school instructional unit on the ideas and activities of Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and discussion questions. Provides quotations by Thoreau and King. (CFR)

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey, MaY 1937 SHOP RUINS (DETAIL OF SOAP OVEN) - Mission San Juan Capistrano, Industrial Shops, Olive Street, between U.S. Highway 101 & Main Street, San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, CA

  2. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SOAP FACTORY & SMITHY (FROM S. E. END OF SOAP FACTORY) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Modification of the characteristic gravitational constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujičić, V. A.

    2006-08-01

    In the educational and scientific literature the numerical values of gravitational constants are seen as only approximately correct. The numerical values are different in work by various researchers, as also are the formulae and definitions of constants employed. In this paper, on the basis of Newton’s laws and Kepler’s laws we prove that it is necessary to modify the characteristic gravitational constants and their definitions. The formula for the geocentric gravitational constant of the satellites Kosmos N and the Moon are calculated.

  4. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson (1820-1904).

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H

    2009-11-01

    Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. He was stimulated by Edwin Chadwick and Charles Dickens, and by Charles Darwin's observations on the earthworm. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of 2004. PMID:20029076

  5. Henri Rouvière (1876-1952) French anatomist.

    PubMed

    Romero-Reverón, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Henri Rouvière (1876-1952): medical doctor and professor of human anatomy at Paris University and Honorary Member of the French Academy of Medicine. He wrote important essays on human anatomy and related topics, including a Compendium of Anatomy and Dissection (1911), A Treatise on Descriptive, Topographical and Functional Anatomy (1921), an anatomy of the human lymphatic system (1932), General Anatomy, Original Forms and Anatomical Structures (1939).

  6. W. Henry Robinson: Popularising astronomy in Victorian Walsall and Birmingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S.

    William Henry Robinson was one of the most prominent citizens of Walsall, then part of Staffordshire, in the Victorian and Edwardian periods. An influential businessman, he managed to combine printing, publishing, editing a newspaper, writing books and poetry, maintaining a library and retail trading with founding the town's literary institute, and bringing the scientists, explorers, authors and cultural pursuits of the day to his home town. An amateur astronomer in his own right, Robinson was instrumental in setting up the BAA's Midland Branch.

  7. [Assassination of Henri IV, mental disorders and criminal responsibility].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    On 14th May 1610, François Ravaillac, a delusional mystic, assassinated King Henri IV. Under the Ancien Regime, regicide was considered as a supreme act of patricide and received the ultimate punishment even if the perpetrator showed obvious signs of insanity. What would the situation be today? A study of this notorious historical episode provides a reflection on the way dangerousness linked to mental disorders has been viewed and treated over the last four centuries.

  8. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson (1820-1904).

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H

    2009-11-01

    Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. He was stimulated by Edwin Chadwick and Charles Dickens, and by Charles Darwin's observations on the earthworm. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of 2004.

  9. In praise of the literary eponym—Henry V sign

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, C.; Marks, J. Charles

    2013-01-01

    The use of eponyms in medicine is often discouraged. However, the literary eponym should be an exception as it is not linked with many of the difficulties associated with conventional eponyms and offers descriptive brevity and accuracy. Here, we illustrate the point with Henry V sign, which will be familiar to many who have cared for patients in the terminal stage of illness. PMID:23108030

  10. Henry Mayhew: journalist, social investigator, and foreshadower of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2012-09-01

    As a journalist, Henry Mayhew recorded daily life in London in the latter half of the nineteenth century. His approach remains of interest to historians and social scientists today in that it foreshadowed qualitative research. The article highlights methodological aspects of Mayhew's investigations and analyzes two of his reports, one on a cholera outbreak and the other on a female street vendor. It also addresses some analyses that have critiqued his work.

  11. Twilight of the gods: John Henry Mackay's Der Unschuldige.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, H

    1993-01-01

    The writings of the Scotch-German John Henry Mackay are important for the early cultural history of the modern gay movement. This article recalls this unjustly neglected anarchist writer and advocate of man/boy love by tracing his biography and pointing out his contacts with others in the movement. His late novella Der Unschuldige is analyzed to show that Mackay has encoded homosexuality there in a unique and individual way. PMID:8113599

  12. Salting Constants of Small Organic Molecules in Aerosol-Relevant Salts and Application to Aerosol Formation in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waxman, E.; Carlton, A. M. G.; Ziemann, P. J.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from small water-soluble molecules such as glyoxal and methyl glyoxal is a topic of emerging interest. Results from recent field campaigns, e.g. Waxman et al. (2013, GRL) and Knote et al. (2014, ACP), show that these molecules can form significant SOA mass as a result of 'salting-in'. Salting-in happens when a molecule's solubility increases with salt concentration and salting-out is the reverse. Salting effects modify the solubility exponentially with increasing salt concentration, and thus the effective Henry's law constant can strongly modify partitioning, and multiphase chemical reaction rates in aerosol water. Moreover, the solubility in aerosol water cannot easily inferred based on the solubility in cloud water, as the salting effects could change the solubility by a factor of 104 or more. In this work, we have devised and applied a novel experimental setup to measure salting constants using an ion trap mass spectrometer. We focus on small, water soluble molecules like methyl glyoxal and similar compounds and measure salting constants for aerosol-relevant salts including ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and sodium chloride. The Setschenow salting-constant values are then used to parameterize the effects of salting in CMAQ. We present a series of sensitivity studies of the effects that inorganic aerosols have on the SOA formation from small soluble molecules in the southeastern United States.

  13. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume II: Family Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    Second in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with family law. Papers and authors included are: "Attitudes of Divorced Men and Women to the Family" (Margaret Harrison), "Dispute Resolution in Australian Family Law" (Henry Finlay), "Descriptive Analysis,…

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Joseph Henry: The Rise of an American Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Elspeth

    1998-09-01

    Albert Moyer has clearly done his research into the events of Joseph Henry's life. The personal, professional, sociological and scientific aspects have been meticulously detailed throughout and the ordering, as in the chapter headings, is chronological, so that there is some element of each of these aspects in each chapter. This is unfortunately both the strength and the weakness of the biography, as the detail seemed to me to be the most remarkable characteristic of the writing. But, the bigger stories, or the themes, which might have been possible, seemed to get lost. Hence, I found this a book for those who are seriously interested in Joseph Henry; but for those whose interest might be more general, say having an interest in nineteenth century growth of scientific institutions, or wanting to understand the conceptual development of electromagnetism, there seemed to be too much which came from the Henry point of view, rather than locating Henry within his time and context. This is a remark about style, rather than omission of content, as the myriad of details in each paragraph certainly inform the reader about the context. For instance, some sociology of the USA in the nineteenth century could be inferred, say showing how a young man from a modest background might make his way into a professional life, but the information is so particularly a description of Henry's experience that one has to rely on prior knowledge or make assumptions in order to create a sociological perspective. That is, I now know, what happened to Henry, but I do not know if his case was in any sense typical or atypical. Similarly there is information about education in general at that time, and scientific education, research and its publication, as it applied to Henry. The relationships between science in the USA and in Europe have a place, and there is quite a bit of information about the institutions in which Henry worked, particularly Albany Academy, Princeton and the Smithsonian. Henry

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Joseph Henry: The Rise of an American Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Elspeth

    1998-09-01

    Albert Moyer has clearly done his research into the events of Joseph Henry's life. The personal, professional, sociological and scientific aspects have been meticulously detailed throughout and the ordering, as in the chapter headings, is chronological, so that there is some element of each of these aspects in each chapter. This is unfortunately both the strength and the weakness of the biography, as the detail seemed to me to be the most remarkable characteristic of the writing. But, the bigger stories, or the themes, which might have been possible, seemed to get lost. Hence, I found this a book for those who are seriously interested in Joseph Henry; but for those whose interest might be more general, say having an interest in nineteenth century growth of scientific institutions, or wanting to understand the conceptual development of electromagnetism, there seemed to be too much which came from the Henry point of view, rather than locating Henry within his time and context. This is a remark about style, rather than omission of content, as the myriad of details in each paragraph certainly inform the reader about the context. For instance, some sociology of the USA in the nineteenth century could be inferred, say showing how a young man from a modest background might make his way into a professional life, but the information is so particularly a description of Henry's experience that one has to rely on prior knowledge or make assumptions in order to create a sociological perspective. That is, I now know, what happened to Henry, but I do not know if his case was in any sense typical or atypical. Similarly there is information about education in general at that time, and scientific education, research and its publication, as it applied to Henry. The relationships between science in the USA and in Europe have a place, and there is quite a bit of information about the institutions in which Henry worked, particularly Albany Academy, Princeton and the Smithsonian. Henry

  16. New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold

  17. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  18. Henry Cavendish, Johann von Soldner, and the deflection of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.

    1988-05-01

    The gravitational deflection of light based on Newtonian theory and the corpuscular model of light was calculated, but never published, around 1784 by Henry Cavendish, almost 20 years earlier than the first published calculation by Johann Georg von Soldner. The two results are slightly different because, while Cavendish treated a light ray emitted from infinity, von Soldner treated a light ray emitted from the surface of the gravitating body. At the first order of approximation, they agree with each other; both are one-half the value predicted by general relativity and confirmed by experiment.

  19. Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915): neglected neurologist and scientist.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2010-01-01

    Henry Charlton Bastian was born in Truro, Cornwall. He graduated in 1861 at the University College, London, where he worked most of his life. He was one of the first neurologists appointed to the National Hospital, Queen Square. There, he conducted original investigations and pursued wide interests both in medical and biological sciences. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1868. In addition to his reputation as a neurological diagnostician and intellectual, he became an advocate of the vexed doctrine of abiogenesis.

  20. Copper(II)-Catalyzed Nitroaldol (Henry) Reactions: Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Murugavel, Govindarasu; Sadhu, Pradeep; Punniyamurthy, Tharmalingam

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled copper(II) complexes are described as effective catalysts for nitroaldol (Henry) reactions on water. The protocol involves a heterogeneous process and the catalysts can be recovered and recycled without loss of activity. Further, C2-symmetric N,N'-substituted chiral copper(II) salan complexes are found to be more effective catalysts than chiral copper(II) salen complexes for reactions in homogeneous catalysis, with high enantioselectivities. The reactions involve bifunctional catalysis, bearing the properties of a Brønsted base, as well as a Lewis acid, to effect the reaction in the absence of external additives.

  1. Fundamental Constants and Tests with Simple Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    Precise measurements with simple atoms provide stringent tests of physical laws, improving the accuracy of fundamental constants--a set of which will be selected to fully define the proposed New International System of Units. This talk focuses on the atomic constants (namely, the Rydberg constant, the fine-structure constant, and the proton charge radius), discussing the impact of the proton radius obtained from the Lamb-shift measurements in muonic hydrogen. Significant discrepancies persist despite years of careful examination: the slightly smaller proton radius obtained from muonic hydrogen requires the Rydberg constant and the fine-structure constant to have values that disagree significantly with the CODATA recommendations. After giving a general overview, I will discuss our effort to produce one-electron ions in Rydberg states, to enable a different test of theory and measurement of the Rydberg constant.

  2. Report on the geology of the Henry Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, G.K.

    1877-01-01

    The Henry Mountains have been visited only by the explorer. Previous to 1869 they were not placed upon any map, nor was mention made of them in any of the published accounts of exploration or survey in the Rocky Mountain region. In that year Professor Powell while descending the Colorado River in boats passed near their foot, and gave to them the name which they bear in honor of Prof. Joseph Henry, the distinguished physicist. In 1872 Prof. A. H. Thompson, engaged in the continuance of the survey of the river, led a party across the mountains by the Penellen Pass, and climbed some of the highest peaks. Frontiersmen in search of farming and grazing lands or of the precious metals have since that time paid several visits to the mountains; but no survey was made of them until the years 1875 and 1876, when Mr. Walter H. Graves and the writer visited them for that purpose. They are situated in Southern Utah, and are crossed by the meridian of 110° 45' and the thirty-eighth parallel. They stand upon the right bank of the Colorado River of the West, and between its tributaries, the Dirty Devil and the Escalante.

  3. 1787 and 1776: Patrick Henry, James Madison, and the Revolutionary Legitimacy of the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Lance

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Patrick Henry's and James Madison's opinions on how the U.S. Constitution should be constructed. Describes how Henry introduced a set of substantive objections which were shared by Antifederalists throughout the country and persuaded many Revolutionaries that the Constitution was essentially at odds with the principles of 1776. (BSR)

  4. 33 CFR 80.515 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC. 80.515 Section 80.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.515 Cape Henry, VA...

  5. 33 CFR 80.515 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC. 80.515 Section 80.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.515 Cape Henry, VA...

  6. 33 CFR 80.515 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC. 80.515 Section 80.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.515 Cape Henry, VA...

  7. 33 CFR 80.515 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC. 80.515 Section 80.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.515 Cape Henry, VA...

  8. 33 CFR 80.515 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Hatteras, NC. 80.515 Section 80.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.515 Cape Henry, VA...

  9. Into the Past through the Future: Captain Picard Meets Henry V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumrich, Ann Nord

    1994-01-01

    Describes beginning a unit on Shakespeare and his play "Henry V" by showing and discussing in class an episode from the television program "Star Trek: The Next Generation" called "The Defector," which opens with a scene from Henry V and makes allusions to the play throughout the episode. (SR)

  10. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  11. Breaking of Henry's law for noble gas and CO2 solubility in silicate melt under pressure.

    PubMed

    Sarda, Philippe; Guillot, Bertrand

    2005-07-01

    Degassing of the Earth is still poorly understood, as is the large scatter in He/Ar ratios observed in mid-ocean ridge basalts. A possible explanation for such observations is that vesiculation occurs at great depths with noble-gas solubilities different from those measured at 1 bar (ref. 1). Here we develop a hard-sphere model for noble-gas solubility and find that, owing to melt compaction, solubility may decrease by several orders of magnitude when pressure increases, an effect subtly overbalanced by the compression of the fluid phase. Our results satisfactorily explain recent experimental data on argon solubility in silicate melts, where argon concentration increases almost linearly with pressure, then levels off at pressures of 50-100 kbar (refs 2-5). We also model vesiculation during magma ascent at ridges and find that noble-gas partitioning between melt and CO2 vesicles at depth differs significantly from that at low pressure. Starting at 10 kbar (approximately 35 km depth), several stages of vesiculation occur followed by vesicle loss, which explains the broad variability of He-Ar concentration data in mid-ocean ridge basalts. 'Popping rocks', exceptional samples with high vesicularity, may represent fully vesiculated ridge magma, whereas common samples would simply have lost such vesicles.

  12. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  13. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level. PMID:26633380

  14. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-12-02

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level.

  15. Henry More and the development of absolute time.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emily

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics. Finally, this paper argues that More should be added to the list of sources that later English thinkers - including Newton and Samuel Clarke - drew on in constructing their absolute accounts of time. PMID:26568082

  16. Emily Dickinson's ophthalmic consultation with Henry Willard Williams, MD.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Donald L

    2012-12-01

    Emily Dickinson is one of America's premier poets of the 19th century. Henry Willard Williams, MD, was one of the very first physicians to limit his practice to ophthalmology and was the established leader in his field in Boston, Massachusetts. They met during the time of the Civil War, when Emily consulted him about her ophthalmic disorder. No records of the diagnosis survive. Photophobia, aching eyes, and a restriction in her ability to work up close were her main symptoms. Iritis, exotropia, or psychiatric problems are the most frequent diagnoses offered to explain her difficulties. Rather than attempt a definitive conclusion, this article will offer an additional possibility that Dr Williams likely considered (ie, hysterical hyperaesthesia of the retina). This was a common diagnosis at that time, although it has currently faded from use.

  17. [Henri Moissan: the man, the collector, the teacher].

    PubMed

    Viel, C

    2008-01-01

    On December 10 1906, Henri Moissan was in Stockholm to receive the Nobel Prize for chemistry for his isolation of fluorine in 1886 and for his electric arc furnace he described for the first time in 1892 then later improved and which opened the way to the new field of high-temperature chemistry. This was the first Nobel Prize for chemistry awarded to a Frenchman and Moissan was the only French pharmacist to have received this high distinction. He died suddenly at the age of 54 years, two months after receiving his Nobel Prize. In this presentation, we report the main elements of his biography, recalling the man, the teacher and the great collector of paintings and autographs, particularly from the period of the French revolution. We have used several unpublished or little known documents concerning this great scientist who with is broad culture and malicious humor always found the time, despite his many obligations, to satisfy his literary and artistic tastes.

  18. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  19. W.E. Henry Symposium compendium: The importance of magnetism in physics and material science

    SciTech Connect

    Carwell, H.

    1997-09-19

    This compendium contains papers presented at the W. E. Henry Symposium, The Importance of Magnetism in Physics and Material Science. The one-day symposium was conducted to recognize the achievements of Dr. Warren Elliot Henry as educator, scientist, and inventor in a career spanning almost 70 years. Dr. Henry, who is 88 years old, attended the symposium. Nobel Laureate, Dr. Glenn Seaborg, a friend and colleague for over 40 years, attended the event and shared his personal reminiscences. Dr. Seaborg is Associate Director-At-Large at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Compendium begins with three papers which demonstrate the ongoing importance of magnetism in physics and material science. Other contributions cover the highlights of Dr. Henry`s career as a researcher, educator, and inventor. Colleagues and former students share insights on the impact of Dr. Henry`s research in the field of magnetism, low temperature physics, and solid state physics; his influence on students as an educator; and his character, intellect and ingenuity, and passion for learning and teaching. They share a glimpse of the environment and times that molded him as a man, and the circumstances under which he made his great achievements despite the many challenges he faced.

  20. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1990). Part I: Media and Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    This section of the proceedings is comprised of 11 papers dealing with the relationship between media and the law. Papers include: "Equal before the Law: Three Media Myths of the American Legal System" (Henry Itkin); "The Role of Senator Albert Gore, Jr. in Satellite/Cable Legislation" (Michael B. Doyle); "The Law of Quotation Marks: Masson v. New…

  1. Laser Propulsion and the Constant Momentum Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, C. William; Mead, Franklin B.; Knecht, Sean D.

    2004-03-01

    We show that perfect propulsion requires a constant momentum mission, as a consequence of Newton's second law. Perfect propulsion occurs when the velocity of the propelled mass in the inertial frame of reference matches the velocity of the propellant jet in the rocket frame of reference. We compare constant momentum to constant specific impulse propulsion, which, for a given specification of the mission delta V, has an optimum specific impulse that maximizes the propelled mass per unit jet kinetic energy investment. We also describe findings of more than 50 % efficiency for conversion of laser energy into jet kinetic energy by ablation of solids.

  2. Laser Propulsion and the Constant Momentum Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C. William; Mead, Franklin B. Jr.; Knecht, Sean D.

    2004-03-30

    We show that perfect propulsion requires a constant momentum mission, as a consequence of Newton's second law. Perfect propulsion occurs when the velocity of the propelled mass in the inertial frame of reference matches the velocity of the propellant jet in the rocket frame of reference. We compare constant momentum to constant specific impulse propulsion, which, for a given specification of the mission delta V, has an optimum specific impulse that maximizes the propelled mass per unit jet kinetic energy investment. We also describe findings of more than 50 % efficiency for conversion of laser energy into jet kinetic energy by ablation of solids.

  3. [Henri Moissn, first French Nobel prize winner in chemistry: the man, the picture collector].

    PubMed

    Viel, C

    1999-03-01

    Born in Paris in September 1852, Henri Moisson died in February 1907, two months after receiving the Nobel prize for chemistry. After a short schooling at Meaux college, he was destined to be a clock maker. He owes his vocation for chemistry to Jules Plicque, a chemist and friend at the college. Henri Moisson attended Fremy's school of chemistry at the Paris Natural History Museum and undertook pharmaceutical studies. In this presentation, we take a look at Henri Moissan's child-hood and teenage years, his scientific education and offer a glimpse of the man and the picture collector.

  4. The "Global" Formulation of Thermodynamics and the First Law: 50 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gislason, Eric A.; Craig, Norman C.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, Henry Bent published his groundbreaking article in this "Journal" introducing the "global" formulation of thermodynamics. In the following years, the global formulation was elaborated by Bent and by one of the present authors. The global formulation of the first law focuses on conservation of energy and the recognition that…

  5. On the Khinchin Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We prove known identities for the Khinchin constant and develop new identities for the more general Hoelder mean limits of continued fractions. Any of these constants can be developed as a rapidly converging series involving values of the Riemann zeta function and rational coefficients. Such identities allow for efficient numerical evaluation of the relevant constants. We present free-parameter, optimizable versions of the identities, and report numerical results.

  6. The hubble constant.

    PubMed

    Huchra, J P

    1992-04-17

    The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and distance in the expanding universe. It is a fundamental property of cosmology that sets both the scale and the expansion age of the universe. It is determined by measurement of galaxy The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and development of new techniques for the measurements of galaxy distances, both calibration uncertainties and debates over systematic errors remain. Current determinations still range over nearly a factor of 2; the higher values favored by most local measurements are not consistent with many theories of the origin of large-scale structure and stellar evolution. PMID:17743107

  7. The cosmological constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Sean M.; Press, William H.; Turner, Edwin L.

    1992-01-01

    The cosmological constant problem is examined in the context of both astronomy and physics. Effects of a nonzero cosmological constant are discussed with reference to expansion dynamics, the age of the universe, distance measures, comoving density of objects, growth of linear perturbations, and gravitational lens probabilities. The observational status of the cosmological constant is reviewed, with attention given to the existence of high-redshift objects, age derivation from globular clusters and cosmic nuclear data, dynamical tests of Omega sub Lambda, quasar absorption line statistics, gravitational lensing, and astrophysics of distant objects. Finally, possible solutions to the physicist's cosmological constant problem are examined.

  8. 78 FR 8682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Henri Labrouste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Henri Labrouste: Structure Brought to Light'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the...

  9. An Empirical Examination of Lotka's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1986-01-01

    Findings of empirical examination of author productivity data to determine conformity to Lotka's law indicate that: most data didn't fit inverse square function; two constants in Lotka's formulation (slope n, constant c) must be derived from observed distribution; inverse square law was special case of inverse exponential relationship. (37…

  10. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  11. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2”...

  12. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2”...

  13. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2”...

  14. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2”...

  15. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2”...

  16. Fundamental Physical Constants

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 121 CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants (Web, free access)   This site, developed in the Physics Laboratory at NIST, addresses three topics: fundamental physical constants, the International System of Units (SI), which is the modern metric system, and expressing the uncertainty of measurement results.

  17. Calculation of magnetostriction constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatebayashi, T.; Ohtsuka, S.; Ukai, T.; Mori, N.

    1986-02-01

    The magnetostriction constants h1 and h2 for Ni and Fe metals and the anisotropy constants K1 and K2 for Fe metal are calculated on the basis of the approximate d bands obtained by Deegan's prescription, by using Gilat-Raubenheimer's method. The obtained results are compared with the experimental ones.

  18. Henry's voices: the representation of auditory verbal hallucinations in an autobiographical narrative.

    PubMed

    Demjén, Zsófia; Semino, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The book Henry's Demons (2011) recounts the events surrounding Henry Cockburn's diagnosis of schizophrenia from the alternating perspectives of Henry himself and his father Patrick. In this paper, we present a detailed linguistic analysis of Henry's first-person accounts of experiences that could be described as auditory verbal hallucinations. We first provide a typology of Henry's voices, taking into account who or what is presented as speaking, what kinds of utterances they produce and any salient stylistic features of these utterances. We then discuss the linguistically distinctive ways in which Henry represents these voices in his narrative. We focus on the use of Direct Speech as opposed to other forms of speech presentation, the use of the sensory verbs hear and feel and the use of 'non-factive' expressions such as I thought and as if. We show how different linguistic representations may suggest phenomenological differences between the experience of hallucinatory voices and the perception of voices that other people can also hear. We, therefore, propose that linguistic analysis is ideally placed to provide in-depth accounts of the phenomenology of voice hearing and point out the implications of this approach for clinical practice and mental healthcare. PMID:25505160

  19. Enzyme-Catalyzed Henry Reaction in Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xuemei; Zhang, Suoqin; Zheng, Liangyu

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme-catalyzed Henry reaction was realized using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a reaction medium. The lipase from Aspergillus niger (lipase AS) showed excellent catalytic activity toward the substrates aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane in choline chloride:glycerol at a molar ratio of 1:2. Addition of 30 vol% water to DES further improved the lipase activity and inhibited DES-catalyzed transformation. A final yield of 92.2% for the lipase AS-catalyzed Henry reaction was achieved under optimized reaction conditions in only 4 h. In addition, the lipase AS activity was improved by approximately 3-fold in a DES-water mixture compared with that in pure water, which produced a final yield of only 33.4%. Structural studies with fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the established strong hydrogen bonds between DES and water may be the main driving force that affects the spatial conformation of the enzyme, leading to a change in lipase activity. The methodology was also extended to the aza-Henry reaction, which easily occurred in contrast to that in pure water. The enantioselectivity of both Henry and aza-Henry reactions was not found. However, the results are still remarkable, as we report the first use of DES as a reaction medium in a lipase-catalyzed Henry reaction.

  20. Henry's voices: the representation of auditory verbal hallucinations in an autobiographical narrative.

    PubMed

    Demjén, Zsófia; Semino, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The book Henry's Demons (2011) recounts the events surrounding Henry Cockburn's diagnosis of schizophrenia from the alternating perspectives of Henry himself and his father Patrick. In this paper, we present a detailed linguistic analysis of Henry's first-person accounts of experiences that could be described as auditory verbal hallucinations. We first provide a typology of Henry's voices, taking into account who or what is presented as speaking, what kinds of utterances they produce and any salient stylistic features of these utterances. We then discuss the linguistically distinctive ways in which Henry represents these voices in his narrative. We focus on the use of Direct Speech as opposed to other forms of speech presentation, the use of the sensory verbs hear and feel and the use of 'non-factive' expressions such as I thought and as if. We show how different linguistic representations may suggest phenomenological differences between the experience of hallucinatory voices and the perception of voices that other people can also hear. We, therefore, propose that linguistic analysis is ideally placed to provide in-depth accounts of the phenomenology of voice hearing and point out the implications of this approach for clinical practice and mental healthcare.

  1. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd

    PubMed Central

    du Toit, Johan T.; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range. PMID:26673758

  2. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  3. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd.

    PubMed

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Dobson, Lauren K; du Toit, Johan T; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range. PMID:26673758

  4. Henry Beecher's Contributions to the Ethics of Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Veatch, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    In the 1950s and '60s, Henry Beecher pioneered the discussion of the ethics of clinical research, leading eventually to the publication of the famous New England Journal of Medicine article summarizing 22 research studies that Beecher suggests were unethical. Those studies generally showed a pattern of posing serious risks to subjects without anticipated proportional benefit. Beecher famously claimed that the problem was not that researchers were malicious or evil; rather, he claimed the problem was they manifested thoughtlessness or carelessness. He called for more rigorous self-scrutiny rather than public review.This article argues that Beecher's reliance on conscientious investigators is problematic. In particular, it focuses on benefits and harms to the exclusion of other moral criteria. However, both research subjects and public regulators are also concerned about autonomy and the consent requirement, confidentiality, and fairness in subject selection and research design. The movement in the 1970s toward more public scrutiny was critical, even though Beecher was right in holding that it was not "vicious disregard for subject welfare" that explained unethical protocols. PMID:27499481

  5. Henry Duret (1849-1921): a surgeon and forgotten neurologist.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Courrivaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Henri Duret (1849-1921) was a surgeon whose training started in the laboratory of Jean-Martin Charcot and Alfred Vulpian at La Salpêtrière in 1874. Using injections of colored gelatine, Duret was the first to describe the distribution of supply arteries in the brainstem and then in the cortex. His descriptions correlated irrigated territories, infarcted zones and secondary neurological deficits. He focused his 1878 thesis on experimental studies of brain trauma and localized the origin of disturbances in autonomic function and vigilance to the brainstem. He linked these disturbances to microhemorrhages affecting the medulla and pons, which are now known as Duret hemorrhages. Over 40 years, he authored numerous publications on digestive and gynecological surgery and on teaching in these areas. In 1905, another of his innovative works was published, which covered brain tumours, their clinical manifestations, the pathophysiological consequences of intracranial hypertension and the corresponding surgical treatments. This little-known treatise is in fact a pioneering work in neurosurgery, published well before the more familiar works of Victor Horsley and Harvey Cushing.

  6. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd.

    PubMed

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Dobson, Lauren K; du Toit, Johan T; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range.

  7. The enigmatic figure of Dr Henry Maudsley (1835-1918).

    PubMed

    Pantelidou, Maria; Demetriades, Andreas K

    2014-08-01

    In spite of his contribution to psychiatry in 19th century Britain, Henry Maudsley remains a mysterious figure, a man mostly known for his donation to the London County Council for the building of the Maudsley Hospital and for The Maudsley Annual Lecture created in honour of his benevolence. Besides Sir Aubrey Lewis' article in 1951 and Michael Collie's attempt in 1988 to construct a biographical study on Maudsley, there does not seem to be any current endeavour to tell the story of his life, whereas Trevor Turner's contribution to the 2004 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives a somewhat scathing but unattributed account of Maudsley's personality. This essay attempts to explore his contributions to the Medico-Psychological Association (MPA), the current Royal College of Psychiatrists, his editorship of the Journal of Mental Health (currently named the British Journal of Psychiatry), his literary contributions and his vision for a psychiatric hospital. This essay is an attempt to demystify his figure and to explore some of the rumours and criticisms surrounding his name and the reasons why so little has been written about him. It is also a venture to unravel his complex personality and his intricate philosophy. PMID:24944050

  8. The enigmatic figure of Dr Henry Maudsley (1835-1918).

    PubMed

    Pantelidou, Maria; Demetriades, Andreas K

    2014-08-01

    In spite of his contribution to psychiatry in 19th century Britain, Henry Maudsley remains a mysterious figure, a man mostly known for his donation to the London County Council for the building of the Maudsley Hospital and for The Maudsley Annual Lecture created in honour of his benevolence. Besides Sir Aubrey Lewis' article in 1951 and Michael Collie's attempt in 1988 to construct a biographical study on Maudsley, there does not seem to be any current endeavour to tell the story of his life, whereas Trevor Turner's contribution to the 2004 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives a somewhat scathing but unattributed account of Maudsley's personality. This essay attempts to explore his contributions to the Medico-Psychological Association (MPA), the current Royal College of Psychiatrists, his editorship of the Journal of Mental Health (currently named the British Journal of Psychiatry), his literary contributions and his vision for a psychiatric hospital. This essay is an attempt to demystify his figure and to explore some of the rumours and criticisms surrounding his name and the reasons why so little has been written about him. It is also a venture to unravel his complex personality and his intricate philosophy.

  9. Henry Duret (1849-1921): a surgeon and forgotten neurologist.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Courrivaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Henri Duret (1849-1921) was a surgeon whose training started in the laboratory of Jean-Martin Charcot and Alfred Vulpian at La Salpêtrière in 1874. Using injections of colored gelatine, Duret was the first to describe the distribution of supply arteries in the brainstem and then in the cortex. His descriptions correlated irrigated territories, infarcted zones and secondary neurological deficits. He focused his 1878 thesis on experimental studies of brain trauma and localized the origin of disturbances in autonomic function and vigilance to the brainstem. He linked these disturbances to microhemorrhages affecting the medulla and pons, which are now known as Duret hemorrhages. Over 40 years, he authored numerous publications on digestive and gynecological surgery and on teaching in these areas. In 1905, another of his innovative works was published, which covered brain tumours, their clinical manifestations, the pathophysiological consequences of intracranial hypertension and the corresponding surgical treatments. This little-known treatise is in fact a pioneering work in neurosurgery, published well before the more familiar works of Victor Horsley and Harvey Cushing. PMID:25227400

  10. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eleanor M; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ziemann, Paul J; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols. We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), and NH4(+) and find Gibbs free energies of water displacement of -10.9, -22.0, -22.9, 2.09, and 1.2 kJ/mol for glyoxal monohydrate and -3.1, -10.3, -7.91, 6.11, and 1.6 kJ/mol for methylglyoxal monohydrate with uncertainties of 8 kJ/mol. The quantum chemical calculations support that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-) modify partitioning, while cations do not. Other factors such as ion charge or partitioning volume effects likely need to be considered to fully explain salting effects. PMID:26335375

  11. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eleanor M; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ziemann, Paul J; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols. We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), and NH4(+) and find Gibbs free energies of water displacement of -10.9, -22.0, -22.9, 2.09, and 1.2 kJ/mol for glyoxal monohydrate and -3.1, -10.3, -7.91, 6.11, and 1.6 kJ/mol for methylglyoxal monohydrate with uncertainties of 8 kJ/mol. The quantum chemical calculations support that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-) modify partitioning, while cations do not. Other factors such as ion charge or partitioning volume effects likely need to be considered to fully explain salting effects.

  12. Space Shuttle astrodynamical constants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, B. F.; Williamson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Basic space shuttle astrodynamic constants are reported for use in mission planning and construction of ground and onboard software input loads. The data included here are provided to facilitate the use of consistent numerical values throughout the project.

  13. The cosmological constant problem

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs.

  14. Constant potential pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of constant potential pulse polarography, In which all pulses are to be the same potential, is presented theoretically and evaluated experimentally. The response obtained is in the form of a faradaic current wave superimposed on a constant capacitative component. Results obtained with a computer-controlled system exhibit a capillary response current similar to that observed In normal pulse polarography. Calibration curves for Pb obtained using a modified commercial pulse polarographic instrument are in good accord with theoretical predictions.

  15. [Hypospadia and infertility of Henry II of France (1519-1559)].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M; Al-Shajlawi, S; Sohn, M

    2014-03-01

    Henry II (1519-1559) of France was the second son of Francis I (1494-1547) and Claude de France (1498-1524) born in 1519 in St. Germain-en-Laye. After his older brother's and his father's death in 1547, he was anointed the French king in Reims. In 1533 already, as a 14-year-old boy, for reasons of state, he was married to the same aged Catherine de Medici (1519-1589), as her uncle was Pope Clement VII (1478-1534). The marriage remained childless for 11 years since Henry, due to a distinct hypospadia and a completely sexually inexperienced wife was unable to conceive children with her. His existing liaison to Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566) - a 19-year-older maid of honor of his father Francis I from 1537 until his death - influenced his sexual life immensely.The blame for the childless marriage was placed primarily on his wife, as Henry had become father of an illegitimate daughter with a mistress. Catherine then underwent all possible medical and alchemical procedures to finally give birth to the hoped Dauphin. Ironically, her rival for the favor of her husband, Diane de Poitiers was one of her greatest allies. She made clear that the cause lay with Henry and not with his wife. This was confirmed by the added solid physician Jean Fernel (1497-1558). His treatment of Henry and the simultaneous training of the unexperienced Catherine by Diane de Poitiers led to success.The result was the birth of Francis II (1544-1560) in 1544, the first of 10 children in 12 years. Thus, the dynasty was saved. After the death of Henry in a tragic tournament accident in 1559, three of his sons became kings of France. But the line of Valois remained without further descendants and was continued by Henry IV, the first Bourbon king in 1589. PMID:24585117

  16. The Works of Henry Moseley, 1887-1915

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scerri, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In 1913 Henry Moseley, an unknown young English physicist published an article in the Philosophical Magazine under the title of ``The High Frequency Spectra of the Elements.'' The 10-page article was to have far reaching implications in both chemistry and physics and helped to resolve a major conundrum in the periodic table of the elements. The talk will briefly examine the life and work of Moseley who died tragically while fighting in the trenches of World War I in 1915. The build-up to the discovery of atomic number took several different avenues including contributions from Rutherford and Barkla. However the more direct motivation for Moseley's work, as he readily acknowledged, were the articles of an unknown Dutch econometrician Anton Van den Broek who attempted to improve on Mendeleev's periodic table. Moseley began as a student of Rutherford at Manchester and took a keen interest in the development of research using X-rays following the work of Roentgen, von Laue and Bragg. Although Rutherford was at first reluctant to enter this new field he soon yielded to young Moseley's request and sent him to Leeds for brief training with Bragg. On returning to Manchester, Moseley devised an ingenious apparatus in which a set of metal samples could be rotated so as to become the target for a beam of electrons in order to measure the frequencies of the emitted K X-rays. The first set of such experiments used nine successive elements in the periodic table, from titanium to zinc. Moseley's now immense fame rests with the results of this study as well as a subsequent one which extended the study into a further 30 elements, in addition to the use that his method was put to by himself as well as subsequent chemists and physicists.

  17. Henry Daniel Cogswell, DDS (1819-1900): a temperance advocate, philanthropist and builder of ice-water fountains.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Theobald, M S; Christen, J A

    1999-07-01

    Henry Daniel Cogswell (Fig. 1), the second of five children, was born in Tolland, Connecticut on March 3, 1819. His father, George Washington Cogswell, was a general carpenter, architect and builder of moderate circumstances. In 1827, when Henry was eight, his mother died. The following year, Henry's father moved to Orwell, (Oswego County) New York, in hopes of improving his financial condition. Henry was left behind in the care of his paternal grandfather, who died several months later, leaving the 10-year old boy, stranded and forced to rely upon his own resources. (In those times, when families were separated, individual members had limited means of locating one another.)

  18. Variation of Fundamental Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flambaum, V. V.

    2006-11-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain a fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence. We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant α, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance.

  19. Elastic constants of calcite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.

    1962-01-01

    The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.

  20. Solute and heat transport model of the Henry and hilleke laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Christian D; Dausman, Alyssa M; Sukop, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    SEAWAT is a coupled version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS designed to simulate variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. The most recent version of SEAWAT, called SEAWAT Version 4, includes new capabilities to represent simultaneous multispecies solute and heat transport. To test the new features in SEAWAT, the laboratory experiment of Henry and Hilleke (1972) was simulated. Henry and Hilleke used warm fresh water to recharge a large sand-filled glass tank. A cold salt water boundary was represented on one side. Adjustable heating pads were used to heat the bottom and left sides of the tank. In the laboratory experiment, Henry and Hilleke observed both salt water and fresh water flow systems separated by a narrow transition zone. After minor tuning of several input parameters with a parameter estimation program, results from the SEAWAT simulation show good agreement with the experiment. SEAWAT results suggest that heat loss to the room was more than expected by Henry and Hilleke, and that multiple thermal convection cells are the likely cause of the widened transition zone near the hot end of the tank. Other computer programs with similar capabilities may benefit from benchmark testing with the Henry and Hilleke laboratory experiment. PMID:19563419

  1. Solute and heat transport model of the Henry and Hilleke laboratory experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, C.D.; Dausman, A.M.; Sukop, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    SEAWAT is a coupled version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS designed to simulate variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. The most recent version of SEAWAT, called SEAWAT Version 4, includes new capabilities to represent simultaneous multispecies solute and heat transport. To test the new features in SEAWAT, the laboratory experiment of Henry and Hilleke (1972) was simulated. Henry and Hilleke used warm fresh water to recharge a large sand-filled glass tank. A cold salt water boundary was represented on one side. Adjustable heating pads were used to heat the bottom and left sides of the tank. In the laboratory experiment, Henry and Hilleke observed both salt water and fresh water flow systems separated by a narrow transition zone. After minor tuning of several input parameters with a parameter estimation program, results from the SEAWAT simulation show good agreement with the experiment. SEAWAT results suggest that heat loss to the room was more than expected by Henry and Hilleke, and that multiple thermal convection cells are the likely cause of the widened transition zone near the hot end of the tank. Other computer programs with similar capabilities may benefit from benchmark testing with the Henry and Hilleke laboratory experiment. Journal Compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Law 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  3. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  4. The law of constant rejection. [chemical bonding in crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in analytical technique, study of multielement partitioning in natural systems, and improvements in ionic radius values have permitted construction of Onuma diagrams, in which the logarithm of partition coefficient is plotted versus ionic radius. The optimum radii, corresponding to crystallographic sites, do change in response to changes in major element composition for any particular mineral-type. In natural systems elements compete for sites rather than substituting for another element. It is proposed on empirical grounds, for equilibrium ionic bonding, that Onuma diagram curves for a particular lattice site are parabolic near optimum radius, linear elsewhere, parallel for different valences, and mirror images on opposite sides of optimum. Deviations may be due to overlapping peaks, liquid structure, polyvalence, bonding differences, contamination, kinetics, alteration, etc. However, dominant crystal-chemical control is indicated.

  5. The Hubble constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huchra, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble constant is the constant of proportionality between recession velocity and distance in the expanding universe. It is a fundamental property of cosmology that sets both the scale and the expansion age of the universe. It is determined by measurement of galaxy radial velocities and distances. Although there has been considerable progress in the development of new techniques for the measurements of galaxy distances, both calibration uncertainties and debates over systematic errors remain. Current determinations still range over nearly a factor of 2; the higher values favored by most local measurements are not consistent with many theories of the origin of large-scale structure and stellar evolution.

  6. [Henry Toussaint and Louis Pasteur. Rivalry over a vaccine].

    PubMed

    Chevallier-Jussiau, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Henry Toussaint (1847-1890) is a veterinary who studied in Veterinary School of Lyon with his great master Auguste Chauveau the famous physiologist. This place is the First School founded in Europe at the end of the XVIIIth century and has opened a way of thinking. His carrer brilliant and rich begins first in Lyon and then when he is named Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at the Veterinary School of Toulouse. Doctor of Science and Doctor of Medecine Toussaint applies "the experimental method" to his research in his laboratory and makes a lot of publications. He starts with Anatomy, then Physiology and soon he prioritizes his research to infestious diseases which cause serious damage to cattle in this time. He developes his own methods about anthrax an its "bacteridie", its nature, its way of culture and especially he studies the physiopathology of this disease. Pasteur is a renowned scientist who does study Microbiology at the same time in his laboratory in Paris, and precisely anthrax. He has explained his theories about "microbes" and has predominant advice. Toussaint admires Pasteur; in the year 1879 he finds first and isolates the microbe of "cholera des poules" (now Pasteurella) and gives Pasteur this new germ which will be used by Pasteur for his particular works about reducing of virulence by successive subcultures. In 1880 with his publishing on July 12 at the Academy of Science, Toussaint presents his successful result with an attenuated vaccine against anthrax: he has got protection against anthrax for dogs and sheep by using a vaccine which he has reduced off virulence by chemical manner. Academy congratulates him. Pasteur jealous of one's reputation contests the demonstration of Toussaint because he does not believe in the chemical method too different from his tests but will make use of this method for an experience open to the public in Pouilly-le-Fort in 1881. After this promotional event Pasteur will product and sell vaccines maked in his

  7. Compassion is a constant.

    PubMed

    Scott, Tricia

    2015-11-01

    Compassion is a powerful word that describes an intense feeling of commiseration and a desire to help those struck by misfortune. Most people know intuitively how and when to offer compassion to relieve another person's suffering. In health care, compassion is a constant; it cannot be rationed because emergency nurses have limited time or resources to manage increasing demands.

  8. XrayOpticsConstants

    2005-06-20

    This application (XrayOpticsConstants) is a tool for displaying X-ray and Optical properties for a given material, x-ray photon energy, and in the case of a gas, pressure. The display includes fields such as the photo-electric absorption attenuation length, density, material composition, index of refraction, and emission properties (for scintillator materials).

  9. Compassion is a constant.

    PubMed

    Scott, Tricia

    2015-11-01

    Compassion is a powerful word that describes an intense feeling of commiseration and a desire to help those struck by misfortune. Most people know intuitively how and when to offer compassion to relieve another person's suffering. In health care, compassion is a constant; it cannot be rationed because emergency nurses have limited time or resources to manage increasing demands. PMID:26542898

  10. Agreement Between the Board of Trustees of Henry Ford Community College and the Henry Ford Community College Federation of Teachers, American Federation of Teachers, Local 1650, 1973-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry Ford Community Coll., Dearborn, MI.

    This agreement between the Board of Trustees of Henry Ford Community College and the Henry Ford Community College Federation of Teachers, American Federation of Teachers, Local 1650 covers the period of 1973-1975. Contents of the agreement cover recognition, board of trustee rights, union-board relations, conditions of employment, seniority, the…

  11. Agreement between the Board of Trustees of Henry Ford Community College and the Henry Ford Community College Federation of Teachers, American Federation of Teachers Local 1650, 1987-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry Ford Community Coll., Dearborn, MI.

    This collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of Henry Ford Community College and the Henry Ford Community College Federation of Teachers establishes conditions of employment for all full-time teachers, counselors, librarians, placement officers, and selected other professional personnel. The articles in the agreement set…

  12. Economics and feasibility of co-composting solid waste in McHenry County. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, J.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of composting various segments of the waste stream produced in McHenry County, IL. In particular, the study emphasized co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) with septage, co-composting of MSW with septage and sludge, leaf- and yard-waste composting, and composting various animal wastes. In addition to specific analysis of co-composting in McHenry, the report includes chapters on the technical description and implementation of composting, environmental considerations of co-composting, comparisons of different proprietary systems, the economics of composting, and an analysis of compost markets.

  13. 77 FR 836 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Henry and Spalding Counties, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Henry and... milepost 9.72 M (east of Trestle Road in Locust Grove), in Henry and Spalding Counties, Ga. The...

  14. Basic Assumptions in the Virginia Ratification Debates: Patrick Henry vs. James Madison on the Nature of Man and Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einhorn, Lois

    The identifiably different rhetorical behaviors of Patrick Henry and James Madison, as expressed in their Virginia debates, reflect each man's philosophical view of human nature and the role of reason in human behavior. Patrick Henry, expressing the pessimism of Calvinistic tradition, believed that people are intrinsically evil with a dominant…

  15. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  16. Varying constants quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2015-02-01

    We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including Λ-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c{sub 0} a{sup n} and G(a)=G{sub 0} a{sup q}. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ''from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor a{sub t} is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

  17. New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold

  18. Cosmology with varying constants.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos J A P

    2002-12-15

    The idea of possible time or space variations of the 'fundamental' constants of nature, although not new, is only now beginning to be actively considered by large numbers of researchers in the particle physics, cosmology and astrophysics communities. This revival is mostly due to the claims of possible detection of such variations, in various different contexts and by several groups. I present the current theoretical motivations and expectations for such variations, review the current observational status and discuss the impact of a possible confirmation of these results in our views of cosmology and physics as a whole.

  19. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  20. Nursing Program Associate in Applied Science Degree, Patrick Henry Community College. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jean

    In 1988, a quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness, quality, and image of Patrick Henry Community College's (PHCC's) nursing program. The study was initiated in response to faculty and administrator concern about the low passing rates of nursing graduates on the state licensing board examination. The…

  1. The Heuristic Method, Precursor of Guided Inquiry: Henry Armstrong and British Girls' Schools, 1890-1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff; Rayner-Canham, Marelene

    2015-01-01

    Though guided-inquiry learning, discovery learning, student-centered learning, and problem-based learning are commonly believed to be recent new approaches to the teaching of chemistry, in fact, the concept dates back to the late 19th century. Here, we will show that it was the British chemist, Henry Armstrong, who pioneered this technique,…

  2. Astronaut Henry W. Harsfield, Jr. in suit donning/doffing exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut Henry W. Harsfield, Jr., STS-4 pilot, takes part in a suit donning/doffing exercise aboard a KC-135 'zero-gravity' aircraft. Mission Specialist William F. Fisher, far left, stands ready to assist in the exercise. Hartsfield is wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) minus gloves and helmet.

  3. High School Decision-Making at Henry Lord Middle School in Fall River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronhard, Aimee A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how students at Henry Lord Middle School in Fall River take into consideration their initial college and career aspirations when making their decision for high school. Self-efficacy theory, critical theory, and a literature review related to high school decision-making inform the analysis of…

  4. View of Crew Commander Henry Hartsfield Jr. loading film into IMAX camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    View of Crew Commander Henry Hartsfield Jr. loading film into the IMAX camera during the 41-D mission. The camera is floating in front of the middeck lockers. Above it is a sticker of the University of Kansas mascott, the Jayhawk.

  5. 2004 Foster G. McGaw Prize. Winner: Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Gina

    2005-04-01

    Henry Ford Health System's commitment to community service took root with its founding in 1915 and has been embraced by leaders ever since. Wide-ranging efforts of school health programs offering grief support for children earned it the 2004 McGaw Prize.

  6. Detroit's Henry Ford Health System awarded Foster G. McGaw Prize.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, is named winner of the prestigious Foster G. McGaw Prize for excellence in community service. The organization received 100,000 dollars from the sponsors, the American Hospital Association, The Baxter International Foundation and the Cardinal Health Foundation.

  7. Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jim

    This teacher's guide explores Fort McHenry and the British attack on Baltimore Harbor (Maryland) in 1814. The guide contains 11 lessons: (1) "Where in the World Is Baltimore?" (no handout-use classroom resources); (2) "Why Baltimore?" (Handout-Why Baltimore?); (3) "Now Where Do We Place the Fort?" (Handout-Map of Patapsco River/Baltimore Harbor);…

  8. Mounting a Curricular Revolution: An Interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Zastrow, Claus

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Harvard professor and cultural critic who has captured 25 million viewers with his PBS documentary series, African American Lives (WNET). Using genealogical research and DNA science, Gates traces the family history of 19 famous African Americans. What results is a rich and moving…

  9. Enter the Madcap Prince of Wales: Students Directing "Henry IV, Part I."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Elise Ann

    1993-01-01

    Argues that William Shakespeare's "Henry IV, Part I" is an appropriate and useful text for secondary English classrooms. Shows how the play lends itself to performance-based instruction. Outlines ways of accomplishing student engagement, using film versions, and assigning written work. (HB)

  10. On New Rhetoric, John Henry Newman and the Language of Metaphors: Implications for Branding Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler-Brunner, Jennifer Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This project interprets how John Henry Newman's (1801-1890) system of thought informs the philosophical and theoretical grounds for rhetorical praxis in the marketplace. His seminal lessons in "An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent" (1870) and "The Idea of a University" (1873 ed.) demonstrate the metaphoric power of words…

  11. Henry David Thoreau: American Transcendentalism and the Implications for Rhetoric in American Civic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grapsy, Ronald P., Jr.

    The American Philosopher Henry David Thoreau provides modern students an important perspective on the state and operation of democratic institutions and society. Many critics of his philosophy cite the author's inability to live up to his articulated tenets as grounds to dismiss the exhortative writings as idealistic and implausible. This essay…

  12. The Rhetoric of Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, Renowned Speaker and Journalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Melbourne S.

    Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, a journalist and speaker, headed a back-to-Africa movement in the second half of the nineteenth century that was one of the first black rhetorical movements to meet the challenges of institutionalized racism in the United States. Turner was a preacher in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, becoming first an elder…

  13. Henry Evelyn Bliss--The Other Immortal, or a Prophet without Honour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Vanda

    2008-01-01

    The paper takes a retrospective look at the work of Henry Evelyn Bliss, classificationist theorist and author of the "Bibliographic Classification". Major features of his writings and philosophy are examined and evaluated for the originality of their contribution to the corpus of knowledge in the discipline. Reactions to Bliss's work are analysed,…

  14. Pickering, Edward Charles (1846-1919) and Pickering, William Henry (1858-1938)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomers—two brothers. Born in Boston, MA, Edward became director of the Harvard College Observatory and observed the brightnesses of 45 000 stars. He hired a number of women, including WILLIAMINA P FLEMING, ANNIE J CANNON, Antonia Maury and HENRIETTA LEAVITT, and produced the Henry Draper Catalog, classifying the spectra of hundreds of thousands of stars. He and HERMANN CARL VOGEL independent...

  15. A new understanding of the first electromagnetic machine: Joseph Henry's vibrating motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Michael G.; Stern, Lucas E.

    2011-02-01

    In 1831, Henry invented a battery-powered rocking-beam motor that he later described as the first electromagnetic machine. He repeatedly modified the design over his career, but only one version of a motor actually constructed by Henry is known to exist. This version is in a collection of Henry instruments at Princeton University. We found that the Princeton motor cannot have operated in the form that was displayed as early as 1884. We found evidence in several historical documents and in the instrument itself that the field magnet shown with the motor is a mistake. Instead of a single horizontal bar magnet, the motor was designed to use two elliptical magnets. We presume the error was made by whoever assembled the first public display. We modeled the dynamics of Henry's vibrating motor and compared our results to the operation of a replica motor. Modeling provides insight into how the motor is able to vibrate indefinitely even in the presence of energy loss due to friction.

  16. Visualizing the Life and Legacy of Henry VIII: Guiding Students with Eight Types of Graphic Organizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Kottler, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Delving into the life and legacy of Henry VIII is both complex and captivating. People seem compelled to learn more abut his critical contributions and controversial conduct that range from the significant to the scandalous. Reflecting on the history of the world would be incomplete without investigating the events and escapades associated with…

  17. The Imaginary World of Henri Rousseau. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne

    While Henri Rousseau's work was not easily classified into any definitive artistic style of the time--impressionism, post-impressionism, fauvism, or cubism--it has been considered a forerunner of surrealism because of its dreamlike sensibility. This teaching guide provides information about Rousseau and his work, focusing on "Tropical Forest with…

  18. Neoliberalism, Democracy and the University as a Public Sphere: An Interview with Henry A. Giroux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    "Truthout" contributor, director of "Truthout's" Public Intellectual Project (truth-out.org/public-intellectual-project) and Truthout board member Henry A. Giroux responds to questions about how the excesses of neoliberal politics have reshaped and subverted the democratic mission of higher education.

  19. Control-Structure Ratings on the Fox River at McHenry and Algonquin, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary P.; Hortness, Jon E.; Parker, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Natural Resources-Office of Water Resources operates control structures on a reach of the Fox River in northeastern Illinois between McHenry and Algonquin. The structures maintain water levels in the river for flood-control and recreational purposes. This report documents flow ratings for hinged-crest gates, a broad-crested weir, sluice gates, and an ogee spillway on the control structures at McHenry and Algonquin. The ratings were determined by measuring headwater and tailwater stage along with streamflow at a wide range of flows at different gate openings. Standard control-structure rating techniques were used to rate each control structure. The control structures at McHenry consist of a 221-feet(ft)-long broad-crested weir, a 4-ft-wide fish ladder, a 50-ft-wide hinged-crest gate, five 13.75-ft-wide sluice gates, and a navigational lock. Sixty measurements were used to rate the McHenry structures. The control structures at Algonquin consist of a 242-ft-long ogee spillway and a 50-ft-wide hinged-crest gate. Forty-one measurements were used to rate the Algonquin control structures.

  20. Neostusakia, a new name for preoccupied Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Berytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of homonymy in the heteropteran family Berytidae is addressed. The genus Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera) is preoccupied by Stusakia Frýda, 1998 (Mollusca: Gastropoda). As a consequence, the replacement name Neostusakia, new name, is proposed. In addition, the only two included s...

  1. Pre-Education Programs: A Comprehensive Project at Henry Ford Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopf, Deborah; Smyrski, Larry

    This document presents an overview of a four-year comprehensive pre-education project at Henry Ford Community College (HFCC) in Michigan. To meet the needs of school districts that preferred a 32-credit certificate program as well as districts that preferred a 60-unit associate degree, HFCC employed a career-ladder approach: A 32-credit…

  2. Highly enantioselective Henry reactions of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by an amino alcohol-copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dan-Dan; Lai, Wen-Han; Hu, Di; Chen, Zheng; Wu, An-An; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Zhou, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-08-20

    Amino alcohol-Cu(II) catalyst: Highly enantioselective Henry reactions between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane have been developed. The reactions were catalyzed by an easily available and operationally simple amino alcohol-copper(II) catalyst. In total, 38 substrates were tested and the R-configured products were obtained in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:22791567

  3. The Henry Ford Academy: An Innovative Space for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    n/a, n/a

    2005-01-01

    Edith Graybill, English instructor at the Henry Ford Academy in Dearborn, Michigan, speaks about her school's English language arts curriculum, the influence of the school on the role of English language arts, the theories of teaching and learning used at the Academy, and other related topics. She believes that most of the students appreciate…

  4. Fin-de-Siecle Advances in Neuroeducation: Henry Herbert Donaldson and Reuben Post Halleck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoridou, Zoe D.; Triarhou, Lazaros C.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on two early attempts at bridging neuroscience and education, made by Henry Herbert Donaldson (1857-1938), a neurologist, and Reuben Post Halleck (1859-1936), an educator. Their works, respectively entitled "The Growth of the Brain: A Study of the Nervous System in Relation to Education" (1895) and "The Education of the…

  5. From Romantic Idealism to Enlightenment Rationalism: Lucretia Coffin Mott Responds to Richard Henry Dana, Sr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that the contrast between speeches by Richard Henry Dana Sr. and Lucretia Coffin Mott lies not only in their two views of the woman's place and role in society but also in the respective orientation toward Romantic idealism and Enlightenment rationalism. (TB)

  6. Movement, Memory and Mathematics: Henri Bergson and the Ontology of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Ferrara, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Using the work of philosopher Henri Bergson (1859-1941) to examine the nature of movement and memory, this article contributes to recent research on the role of the body in learning mathematics. Our aim in this paper is to introduce the ideas of Bergson and to show how these ideas shed light on mathematics classroom activity. Bergson's monist…

  7. Henry David Thoreau, Martin Luther King Jr., and the American Tradition of Protest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. fundamentally altered the tradition of protest and reform. Compares and contrasts the role of each man in U.S. social and constitutional history. Concludes that while Thoreau lacked the broad influence of King, his writings influenced both King and Mohandas Gandhi. (CFR)

  8. James McHenry: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Less than five years after his first landing in the American colonies, James McHenry, a well-education Scots-Irish immigrant, was serving with the Continental Army outside Boston (Massachusetts), and his military experience led him into a lengthy career of public service where he forcefully and consistently upheld the ideal of a strong central…

  9. Probing Planck's Law at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…

  10. Lotka's Law: A Testing Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1985-01-01

    A step-by-step outline is presented for testing the applicability of Lotka's law of scientific productivity. Steps include the computation of the values of the exponent and constant based on Lotka's method and the test for significance of observed frequency distribution against the estimated theoretical distribution derived from Lotka's formula.…

  11. Equivalent refractive-index structure constant of non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Zhu, Wenyue; Wu, Xiaoqing; Rao, Ruizhong

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between the non-Kolmogorov refractive-index structure constant and the Kolmogorov refractive-index structure constant is derived by using the refractive-index structure function and the variance of refractive-index fluctuations. It shows that the non-Kolmogorov structure constant is proportional to the Kolmogorov structure constant and the scaling factor depends on the outer scale and the spectral power law. For a fixed Kolmogorov structure constant, the non-Kolmogorov structure constant increases with a increasing outer scale for the power law less than 11/3, the trend is opposite for the power law greater than 11/3. This equivalent relation provides a way of obtaining the non-Kolmogorov structure constant by using the Kolmogorov structure constant.

  12. Environmental law institute

    SciTech Connect

    Futrell, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    Congress and the Clinton Administration must consider reauthorizing some of the country's most important environmental statutes during a time of increasing environmental concern and decreasing financial resources. The debate over the U.S. environmental direction is fierce; yet if history is any guide, the result of the commotion will be better policy. The constant tugging and pulling may slog the law-making process, but resulting policy is often much better because of it. Fundamental policy issues continue to be as pertinent today as they were in the 1970s.

  13. About variable constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blichert-Toft, J.; Albarede, F.

    2011-12-01

    When only modern isotope compositions are concerned, the choice of normalization values is inconsequential provided that their values are universally accepted. No harm is done as long as large amounts of standard reference material with known isotopic differences with respect to the reference value ('anchor point') can be maintained under controlled conditions. For over five decades, the scientific community has been referring to an essentially unavailable SMOW for stable O and H isotopes and to a long-gone belemnite sample for carbon. For radiogenic isotopes, the isotope composition of the daughter element, the parent-daughter ratio, and a particular value of the decay constant are all part of the reference. For the Lu-Hf system, for which the physical measurements of the decay constant have been particularly defective, the reference includes the isotope composition of Hf and the Lu/Hf ratio of an unfortunately heterogeneous chondrite mix that has been successively refined by Patchett and Tatsumoto (1981), Blichert-Toft and Albarede (1997, BTA), and Bouvier et al. (2008, BVP). The \\varepsilonHf(T) difference created by using BTA and BVP is nearly within error (+0.45 epsilon units today and -0.36 at 3 Ga) and therefore of little or no consequence. A more serious issue arises when the chondritic reference is taken to represent the Hf isotope evolution of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE): the initial isotope composition of the Solar System, as determined by the indistinguishable intercepts of the external eucrite isochron (Blichert-Toft et al., 2002) and the internal angrite SAH99555 isochron (Thrane et al., 2010), differs from the chondrite value of BTA and BVP extrapolated to 4.56 Ga by ~5 epsilon units. This difference and the overestimated value of the 176Lu decay constant derived from the slopes of these isochrons, have been interpreted as reflecting irradiation of the solar nebula by either gamma (Albarede et al., 2006) or cosmic rays (Thrane et al., 2010) during

  14. Measurement of the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The absolute value of the solar constant and the long term variations that exist in the absolute value of the solar constant were measured. The solar constant is the total irradiance of the Sun at a distance of one astronomical unit. An absolute radiometer removed from the effects of the atmosphere with its calibration tested in situ was used to measure the solar constant. The importance of an accurate knowledge of the solar constant is emphasized.

  15. Dissolved-Solids Load in Henrys Fork Upstream from the Confluence with Antelope Wash, Wyoming, Water Years 1970-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Katharine; Kenney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Annual dissolved-solids load at the mouth of Henrys Fork was estimated by using data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 09229500, Henrys Fork near Manila, Utah. The annual dissolved-solids load for water years 1970-2009 ranged from 18,300 tons in 1977 to 123,300 tons in 1983. Annual streamflows for this period ranged from 14,100 acre-feet in 1977 to 197,500 acre-feet in 1983. The 25-percent trimmed mean dissolved-solids load for water years 1970-2009 was 44,300 tons per year at Henrys Fork near Manila, Utah. Previous simulations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model for dissolved solids specific to water year 1991 conditions in the Upper Colorado River Basin predicted an annual dissolved-solids load of 25,000 tons for the Henrys Fork Basin upstream from Antelope Wash. On the basis of computed dissolved-solids load data from Henrys Fork near Manila, Utah, together with estimated annual dissolved-solids load from Antelope Wash and Peoples Canal, this prediction was adjusted to 37,200 tons. As determined by simulations with the Upper Colorado River Basin SPARROW model, approximately 56 percent (14,000 tons per year) of the dissolved-solids load at Henrys Fork upstream from Antelope Wash is associated with the 21,500 acres of irrigated agricultural lands in the upper Henrys Fork Basin.

  16. The Hubble constant.

    PubMed

    Tully, R B

    1993-06-01

    Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

  17. When constants are important

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the authors discuss several complexity aspects pertaining to neural networks, commonly known as the curse of dimensionality. The focus will be on: (1) size complexity and depth-size tradeoffs; (2) complexity of learning; and (3) precision and limited interconnectivity. Results have been obtained for each of these problems when dealt with separately, but few things are known as to the links among them. They start by presenting known results and try to establish connections between them. These show that they are facing very difficult problems--exponential growth in either space (i.e. precision and size) and/or time (i.e., learning and depth)--when resorting to neural networks for solving general problems. The paper will present a solution for lowering some constants, by playing on the depth-size tradeoff.

  18. The Hubble constant.

    PubMed Central

    Tully, R B

    1993-01-01

    Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

  19. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-manometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment.

  20. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, T.J.

    1994-06-07

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment is disclosed. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-nanometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment. 10 figs.

  1. Constant attitude orbit transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cress, Peter; Evans, Michael

    A two-impulse orbital transfer technique is described in which the spacecraft attitude remains constant for both burns, eliminating the need for attitude maneuvers between the burns. This can lead to significant savings in vehicle weight, cost and complexity. Analysis is provided for a restricted class of applications of this transfer between circular orbits. For those transfers with a plane change less than 30 deg, the total velocity cost of the maneuver is less than twelve percent greater than that of an optimum plane split Hohmann transfer. While this maneuver does not minimize velocity requirement, it does provide a means of achieving necessary transfer while substantially reducing the cost and complexity of the spacecraft.

  2. A Constant Pressure Bomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, F W

    1924-01-01

    This report describes a new optical method of unusual simplicity and of good accuracy suitable to study the kinetics of gaseous reactions. The device is the complement of the spherical bomb of constant volume, and extends the applicability of the relationship, pv=rt for gaseous equilibrium conditions, to the use of both factors p and v. The method substitutes for the mechanical complications of a manometer placed at some distance from the seat of reaction the possibility of allowing the radiant effects of reaction to record themselves directly upon a sensitive film. It is possible the device may be of use in the study of the photoelectric effects of radiation. The method makes possible a greater precision in the measurement of normal flame velocities than was previously possible. An approximate analysis shows that the increase of pressure and density ahead of the flame is negligible until the velocity of the flame approaches that of sound.

  3. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses (1) a Michigan court decision concerning reverse discrimination and voluntary affirmative action policies; (2) the Massachusetts Supreme Court's rejection of the work-to-rule strategy; and (3) an Arkansas law that will allow teachers failing a basic skills and literacy test to be fired only when their state certification expires. (MLF)

  4. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

  5. Some Dynamical Effects of the Cosmological Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axenides, M.; Floratos, E. G.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    Newton's law gets modified in the presence of a cosmological constant by a small repulsive term (antigravity) that is proportional to the distance. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data (Λ~=10-52 m-2), we investigate the significance of this term on various astrophysical scales. We find that on galactic scales or smaller (less than a few tens of kpc), the dynamical effects of the vacuum energy are negligible by several orders of magnitude. On scales of 1 Mpc or larger however we find that the vacuum energy can significantly affect the dynamics. For example we show that the velocity data in the local group of galaxies correspond to galactic masses increased by 35% in the presence of vacuum energy. The effect is even more important on larger low density systems like clusters of galaxies or superclusters.

  6. Hyperscaling violation and the shear diffusion constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolekar, Kedar S.; Mukherjee, Debangshu; Narayan, K.

    2016-09-01

    We consider holographic theories in bulk (d + 1)-dimensions with Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating exponents z , θ at finite temperature. By studying shear gravitational modes in the near-horizon region given certain self-consistent approximations, we obtain the corresponding shear diffusion constant on an appropriately defined stretched horizon, adapting the analysis of Kovtun, Son and Starinets. For generic exponents with d - z - θ > - 1, we find that the diffusion constant has power law scaling with the temperature, motivating us to guess a universal relation for the viscosity bound. When the exponents satisfy d - z - θ = - 1, we find logarithmic behaviour. This relation is equivalent to z = 2 +deff where deff =di - θ is the effective boundary spatial dimension (and di = d - 1 the actual spatial dimension). It is satisfied by the exponents in hyperscaling violating theories arising from null reductions of highly boosted black branes, and we comment on the corresponding analysis in that context.

  7. Theoretical Evaluation of the Transient Response of Constant Head and Constant Flow-Rate Permeability Tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, M.; Takahashi, M.; Morin, R.H.; Esaki, T.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented that compares the response characteristics of the constant head and the constant flowrate (flow pump) laboratory techniques for quantifying the hydraulic properties of geologic materials having permeabilities less than 10-10 m/s. Rigorous analytical solutions that describe the transient distributions of hydraulic gradient within a specimen are developed, and equations are derived for each method. Expressions simulating the inflow and outflow rates across the specimen boundaries during a constant-head permeability test are also presented. These solutions illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method, including insights into measurement accuracy and the validity of using Darcy's law under certain conditions. The resulting observations offer practical considerations in the selection of an appropriate laboratory test method for the reliable measurement of permeability in low-permeability geologic materials.

  8. Laws of population growth.

    PubMed

    Rozenfeld, Hernán D; Rybski, Diego; Andrade, José S; Batty, Michael; Stanley, H Eugene; Makse, Hernán A

    2008-12-01

    An important issue in the study of cities is defining a metropolitan area, because different definitions affect conclusions regarding the statistical distribution of urban activity. A commonly employed method of defining a metropolitan area is the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), based on rules attempting to capture the notion of city as a functional economic region, and it is performed by using experience. The construction of MSAs is a time-consuming process and is typically done only for a subset (a few hundreds) of the most highly populated cities. Here, we introduce a method to designate metropolitan areas, denoted "City Clustering Algorithm" (CCA). The CCA is based on spatial distributions of the population at a fine geographic scale, defining a city beyond the scope of its administrative boundaries. We use the CCA to examine Gibrat's law of proportional growth, which postulates that the mean and standard deviation of the growth rate of cities are constant, independent of city size. We find that the mean growth rate of a cluster by utilizing the CCA exhibits deviations from Gibrat's law, and that the standard deviation decreases as a power law with respect to the city size. The CCA allows for the study of the underlying process leading to these deviations, which are shown to arise from the existence of long-range spatial correlations in population growth. These results have sociopolitical implications, for example, for the location of new economic development in cities of varied size. PMID:19033186

  9. Beyond the Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    about the distances to galaxies and thereby about the expansion rate of the Universe. A simple way to determine the distance to a remote galaxy is by measuring its redshift, calculate its velocity from the redshift and divide this by the Hubble constant, H0. For instance, the measured redshift of the parent galaxy of SN 1995K (0.478) yields a velocity of 116,000 km/sec, somewhat more than one-third of the speed of light (300,000 km/sec). From the universal expansion rate, described by the Hubble constant (H0 = 20 km/sec per million lightyears as found by some studies), this velocity would indicate a distance to the supernova and its parent galaxy of about 5,800 million lightyears. The explosion of the supernova would thus have taken place 5,800 million years ago, i.e. about 1,000 million years before the solar system was formed. However, such a simple calculation works only for relatively ``nearby'' objects, perhaps out to some hundred million lightyears. When we look much further into space, we also look far back in time and it is not excluded that the universal expansion rate, i.e. the Hubble constant, may have been different at earlier epochs. This means that unless we know the change of the Hubble constant with time, we cannot determine reliable distances of distant galaxies from their measured redshifts and velocities. At the same time, knowledge about such change or lack of the same will provide unique information about the time elapsed since the Universe began to expand (the ``Big Bang''), that is, the age of the Universe and also its ultimate fate. The Deceleration Parameter q0 Cosmologists are therefore eager to determine not only the current expansion rate (i.e., the Hubble constant, H0) but also its possible change with time (known as the deceleration parameter, q0). Although a highly accurate value of H0 has still not become available, increasing attention is now given to the observational determination of the second parameter, cf. also the Appendix at the

  10. Keratin Protein-Catalyzed Nitroaldol (Henry) Reaction and Comparison with Other Biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Häring, Marleen; Pettignano, Asja; Quignard, Françoise; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Díaz Díaz, David

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe a preliminary investigation on the ability of natural keratin to catalyze the nitroaldol (Henry) reaction between aldehydes and nitroalkanes. Both aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups were converted into the corresponding β-nitroalcohol products in both DMSO and in water in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as a phase transfer catalyst. Negligible background reactions (i.e., negative control experiment in the absence of keratin protein) were observed in these solvent systems. Aromatic aldehydes bearing electron-donating groups and aliphatic aldehydes showed poor or no conversion, respectively. In general, the reactions in water/TBAB required twice the amount of time than in DMSO to achieve similar conversions. Moreover, comparison of the kinetics of the keratin-mediated nitroaldol (Henry) reaction with other biopolymers revealed slower rates for the former and the possibility of fine-tuning the kinetics by appropriate selection of the biopolymer and solvent. PMID:27571051

  11. A French description of German psychology laboratories in 1893 by Victor Henri, a collaborator of Binet.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Barnes, Marissa E; Murray, David J

    2015-05-01

    There is a rich tradition of writings about the foundation of psychology laboratories, particularly in the United States but also in France. Various documents exist concerning former German laboratories in American and French literature. But the most interesting French paper was certainly written by a young psychologist named Victor Henri (1872-1940) who was a close collaborator of Alfred Binet (1857-1911) in the 1890s. Visiting various psychology laboratories, he wrote, in 1893, a clear description of the laboratories of Wundt, G. E. Müller, Martius and Ebbinghaus. An English translation is given of Henri's paper and the historical importance of his contribution is here expounded by contrasting the German and French psychologies of the time.

  12. Taxing junk food: applying the logic of the Henry tax review to food.

    PubMed

    Bond, Molly E; Williams, Michael J; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe

    2010-10-18

    The recent review of taxation in Australia - the Henry tax review - has recommended that the federal government increase the taxes already levied on tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are put forward as the best way of reducing the social harms caused by the use and misuse of these substances. Junk foods have the same pattern of misuse and the same social costs as tobacco and alcohol. The Henry tax review rejects the idea of taxing fatty foods, and to date the government has not implemented a tax on junk food. We propose that a tax on junk food be implemented as a tool to reduce consumption and address the obesity epidemic. PMID:20955126

  13. DNA-catalyzed Henry reaction in pure water and the striking influence of organic buffer systems.

    PubMed

    Häring, Marleen; Pérez-Madrigal, Maria M; Kühbeck, Dennis; Pettignano, Asja; Quignard, Françoise; Díaz, David Díaz

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript we report a critical evaluation of the ability of natural DNA to mediate the nitroaldol (Henry) reaction at physiological temperature in pure water. Under these conditions, no background reaction took place (i.e., control experiment without DNA). Both heteroaromatic aldehydes (e.g., 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde) and aromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups reacted satisfactorily with nitromethane obeying first order kinetics and affording the corresponding β-nitroalcohols in good yields within 24 h. In contrast, aliphatic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes having electron-donating groups either did not react or were poorly converted. Moreover, we discovered that a number of metal-free organic buffers efficiently promote the Henry reaction when they were used as reaction media without adding external catalysts. This constitutes an important observation because the influence of organic buffers in chemical processes has been traditionally underestimated.

  14. Osler's Pupil, Henry W. Ochsner, MD (1877–1902): His Life, Lineage, and Death

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Paul S.

    2007-01-01

    In multiple editions of his Principles and Practice of Medicine, a 1904 speech, and his essay “A Student Life,” Sir William Osler mentions and laments the death due to typhoid of his pupil, Henry W. Ochsner (1877–1902). Harvey Cushing, MD, in his biography of Osler, describes how deeply Osler was moved by “poor” Ochsner's death. Yet little is known about Ochsner. This article describes the life story, lineage, and death of Henry W. Ochsner, MD, a son of Swiss pioneers who settled in Waumandee, Wisconsin. He was a member of a family that includes medical luminaries (e.g., Albert J. Ochsner, MD, the famous Chicago surgeon, and Alton Ochsner, MD, the founder of the Ochsner Clinic); a brilliant student and physician; a humble and beloved fellow citizen; and a favorite pupil of Osler. PMID:21603518

  15. Keratin Protein-Catalyzed Nitroaldol (Henry) Reaction and Comparison with Other Biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Häring, Marleen; Pettignano, Asja; Quignard, Françoise; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Díaz Díaz, David

    2016-08-25

    Here we describe a preliminary investigation on the ability of natural keratin to catalyze the nitroaldol (Henry) reaction between aldehydes and nitroalkanes. Both aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups were converted into the corresponding β-nitroalcohol products in both DMSO and in water in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as a phase transfer catalyst. Negligible background reactions (i.e., negative control experiment in the absence of keratin protein) were observed in these solvent systems. Aromatic aldehydes bearing electron-donating groups and aliphatic aldehydes showed poor or no conversion, respectively. In general, the reactions in water/TBAB required twice the amount of time than in DMSO to achieve similar conversions. Moreover, comparison of the kinetics of the keratin-mediated nitroaldol (Henry) reaction with other biopolymers revealed slower rates for the former and the possibility of fine-tuning the kinetics by appropriate selection of the biopolymer and solvent.

  16. A Relationship between Lotka's Law, Bradford's Law, and Zipf's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1986-01-01

    A common functional relationship among Lotka's law, Bradford's law, and Zipf's law is derived. The proof takes explicit account of the sequences of observed values of the variables by means of an index. This approach results in a more realistic and precise formulation of each law. (Author/EM)

  17. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Henry Draper Catalogue (edition 1985)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An updated, corrected and extended machine-readable version of the catalog is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version was corrected; letters indicating supplemental stars in the BD have been moved to a new byte to distinguish them from double-star components; and the machine readable portion of The Henry Draper Extension (HDE) (HA 100) was converted to the same format as the main catalog, with additional data added as necessary.

  18. Speculative Truth - Henry Cavendish, Natural Philosophy, and the Rise of Modern Theoretical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormmach, Russell

    2004-03-01

    With a never-before published paper by Lord Henry Cavendish, as well as a biography on him, this book offers a fascinating discourse on the rise of scientific attitudes and ways of knowing. A pioneering British physicist in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Cavendish was widely considered to be the first full-time scientist in the modern sense. Through the lens of this unique thinker and writer, this book is about the birth of modern science.

  19. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1983: Henry Taube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, J.

    2002-07-01

    The 1983 Nobel Prize was awarded to Henry Taube for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes. Taube's work represents a watershed in the development of the mechanistic chemistry of inorganic transition metal complexes. His studies of those reactions is a central feature in courses in mechanistic inorganic chemistry, and his description of inner-sphere and outer-sphere electron transfer mechanisms remain as the textbook examples.

  20. Bis(oxazoline)-based coordination polymers: a recoverable system for enantioselective Henry reactions.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Beatriz; García, José I; Herrerías, Clara I; Mayoral, José A; Miñana, Ana C

    2012-07-01

    An efficient release-capture strategy for the recovery and reuse of enantioselective catalysts in the Henry reaction is described. This strategy is based on the precipitation of an insoluble coordination polymer at the end of each reaction, allowing easy separation from products. The coordination polymer is formed through aggregation of Cu(II) ions with ditopic bisoxazoline-based chiral ligands. Up to 11 catalytic cycles have been conducted keeping good yields and enantioselectivities.

  1. Total Synthesis of Anti-Influenza Agents Zanamivir and Zanaphosphor via Asymmetric Aza-Henry Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Zhi; Fang, Jim-Min

    2016-09-01

    The potent anti-influenza agents, zanamivir and its phosphonate congener, are synthesized by using a nitro group as the latent amino group at C4 for asymmetric aza-Henry reaction with a chiral sulfinylimine, which is derived from inexpensive d-glucono-δ-lactone to establish the essential nitrogen-containing substituent at C5. This method provides an efficient way to construct the densely substituted dihydropyran core of zanamivir and zanaphosphor without using the hazardous azide reagent. PMID:27541804

  2. Henry Beecher and Consent to Research: a critical re-examination.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G

    2016-01-01

    Henry Beecher is an iconic figure in research ethics, best known for blowing the whistle on unethical clinical research in 1966. This article traces the evolution of Beecher's view on consent to research and juxtaposes these views with his own practices relating to informed consent in the conduct of clinical research. Additionally, critical examination of Beecher's conception of informed consent as an ideal has important implications for contemporary research ethics. PMID:27499486

  3. anti-Selective Asymmetric Henry Reaction Catalyzed by a Heterobimetallic Cu-Sm-Aminophenol Sulfonamide Complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Deng, Ping; Zeng, Youmao; Xiong, Yan; Zhou, Hui

    2016-04-01

    A novel heterobimetallic Cu/Sm/aminophenol sulfonamide complex has been developed by a convenient one-pot method for the anti-selective asymmetric Henry reaction. The corresponding anti-β-nitro alcohols are obtained in up to 99% yield, >30:1 dr, and 98% ee. The results of control experiments and ESI-MS analysis of the complex indicate that the monomeric bimetallic Cu/Sm/1 complex would be the active species.

  4. William Henry Welch (1850–1934): the road to Johns Hopkins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    William Henry Welch's selection in 1884 as the first faculty member of the new medical school at Johns Hopkins created the invigorating atmosphere that generated the revolutionary changes in medical training and laboratory medicine that transformed medicine in America. Dr. Welch's family traditions, his New England upbringing, Yale education, and German university experience prepared a unique individual to lead American medicine into the 20th century. PMID:21738298

  5. The delusion of the Master: the last days of Henry James.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    The novelist Henry James shared with his brother William, the author of the Principles of Psychology, a deep interest in the ways in which personal identity is built through one's history and experiences. At the end of his life, Henry James suffered a vascular stroke in the right hemisphere and developed a striking identity delusion. He dictated in a perfectly clear and coherent manner two letters as if they were written by Napoleon Bonaparte. He also showed signs of reduplicative paramnesia. Negative symptoms resulting from right hemisphere damage may disrupt the feelings of "warmth and intimacy and immediacy" and the "resemblance among the parts of a continuum of feelings (especially bodily feelings)", which are the foundation of personal identity according to William James. On the other hand, a left hemisphere receiving inadequate input from the damaged right hemisphere may produce positive symptoms such as delusional, confabulatory narratives. Other fragments dictated during Henry James's final disease reveal some form of insight, if partial and disintegrated, into his condition. Thus, even when consciousness is impaired by brain damage, something of its deep nature may persist, as attested by the literary characteristics of the last fragments of the Master.

  6. The last ride of Henry II of France: orbital injury and a king's demise.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Kian; Choe, Christina H; Vagefi, M Reza; Eckstein, Lauren A

    2015-01-01

    Jousting was a popular pastime for royalty in the Renaissance era. Injuries were common, and the eye was particularly at risk from the splinters of the wooden lance. On June 30, 1559, Henry II of France participated in a jousting tournament to celebrate two royal weddings. In the third match, Gabriel de Montgomery struck Henry on the right shoulder and the lance splintered, sending wooden shards into his face and right orbit. Despite being cared for by the prominent physicians Ambroise Paré and Andreas Vesalius, the king died 10 days later and was found to have a cerebral abscess. The wound was not explored immediately after the injury; nevertheless, wooden foreign bodies were discovered in the orbit at the time of autopsy. The dura had not been violated, suggesting that an infection may have traveled from the orbit into the brain. Nostradamus and Luca Guarico, the astrologer to the Medici family, had prophesied the death of Henry II of France, but he ignored their warnings and thus changed the course of history in Renaissance Europe. PMID:25890627

  7. The delusion of the Master: the last days of Henry James.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    The novelist Henry James shared with his brother William, the author of the Principles of Psychology, a deep interest in the ways in which personal identity is built through one's history and experiences. At the end of his life, Henry James suffered a vascular stroke in the right hemisphere and developed a striking identity delusion. He dictated in a perfectly clear and coherent manner two letters as if they were written by Napoleon Bonaparte. He also showed signs of reduplicative paramnesia. Negative symptoms resulting from right hemisphere damage may disrupt the feelings of "warmth and intimacy and immediacy" and the "resemblance among the parts of a continuum of feelings (especially bodily feelings)", which are the foundation of personal identity according to William James. On the other hand, a left hemisphere receiving inadequate input from the damaged right hemisphere may produce positive symptoms such as delusional, confabulatory narratives. Other fragments dictated during Henry James's final disease reveal some form of insight, if partial and disintegrated, into his condition. Thus, even when consciousness is impaired by brain damage, something of its deep nature may persist, as attested by the literary characteristics of the last fragments of the Master. PMID:24057119

  8. Universal equations and constants of turbulent motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumert, H. Z.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a parameter-free theory of shear-generated turbulence at asymptotically high Reynolds numbers in incompressible fluids. It is based on a two-fluids concept. Both components are materially identical and inviscid. The first component is an ensemble of quasi-rigid dipole-vortex tubes (vortex filaments, excitations) as quasi-particles in chaotic motion. The second is a superfluid performing evasive motions between the tubes. The local dipole motions follow Helmholtz' law. The vortex radii scale with the energy-containing length scale. Collisions between quasi-particles lead either to annihilation (likewise rotation, turbulent dissipation) or to scattering (counterrotation, turbulent diffusion). There are analogies with birth and death processes of population dynamics and their master equations and with Landau's two-fluid theory of liquid helium. For free homogeneous decay the theory predicts the turbulent kinetic energy to follow t-1. With an adiabatic wall condition it predicts the logarithmic law with von Kármán's constant as 1/\\sqrt {2\\,\\pi }= 0.399 . Likewise rotating couples form localized dissipative patches almost at rest (→ intermittency) wherein under local quasi-steady conditions the spectrum evolves into an ‘Apollonian gear’ as discussed first by Herrmann (1990 Correlation and Connectivity (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 108-20). Dissipation happens exclusively at scale zero and at finite scales this system is frictionless and reminds of Prigogine's (1947 Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles (Liege: Desoer) p 143) law of minimum (here: zero) entropy production. The theory predicts further the prefactor of the 3D-wavenumber spectrum (a Kolmogorov constant) as \\frac {1}{3}(4\\,\\pi )^{2/3}=1.802 , well within the scatter range of observational, experimental and direct numerical simulation results.

  9. If Coulomb's law were not inverse square: The charge distribution inside a solid conducting sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Ross L.

    1990-04-01

    The distribution of charge between concentric conducting shells has been at the heart of the most sensitive tests of the exponent in Coulomb's law since the days of Henry Cavendish. But it appears that no one has ever answered the question of how an excess of charge would distribute itself throughout the interior of a solid conductor if Coulomb's law were other than inverse square. Spherically symmetric solutions to this problem have been found under the assumption that the potential of a point charge varies either as e-kr/r or as 1/rn.

  10. A random walk on water (Henry Darcy Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2009-04-01

    the history of philosophy of science (cf. Laplace's demon), is, at the same time, one of the founders of probability theory, which he regarded as "nothing but common sense reduced to calculation". This harmonizes with James Clerk Maxwell's view that "the true logic for this world is the calculus of Probabilities" and was more recently and epigrammatically formulated in the title of Edwin Thompson Jaynes's book "Probability Theory: The Logic of Science" (2003). Abandoning dichotomous logic, either on ontological or epistemic grounds, we can identify randomness or stochasticity with unpredictability. Admitting that (a) uncertainty is an intrinsic property of nature; (b) causality implies dependence of natural processes in time and thus suggests predictability; but, (c) even the tiniest uncertainty (e.g., in initial conditions) may result in unpredictability after a certain time horizon, we may shape a stochastic representation of natural processes that is consistent with Karl Popper's indeterministic world view. In this representation, probability quantifies uncertainty according to the Kolmogorov system, in which probability is a normalized measure, i.e., a function that maps sets (areas where the initial conditions or the parameter values lie) to real numbers (in the interval [0, 1]). In such a representation, predictability (suggested by deterministic laws) and unpredictability (randomness) coexist, are not separable or additive components, and it is a matter of specifying the time horizon of prediction to decide which of the two dominates. An elementary numerical example has been devised to illustrate the above ideas and demonstrate that they offer a pragmatic and useful guide for practice, rather than just pertaining to philosophical discussions. A chaotic model, with fully and a priori known deterministic dynamics and deterministic inputs (without any random agent), is assumed to represent the hydrological balance in an area partly covered by vegetation

  11. Origins of Newton's First Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Anyone who has taught introductory physics should know that roughly a third of the students initially believe that any object at rest will remain at rest, whereas any moving body not propelled by applied forces will promptly come to rest. Likewise, about half of those uninitiated students believe that any object moving at a constant speed must be continually pushed if it is to maintain its motion.1 That's essentially Aristotle's law of motion and it is so "obviously" borne out by experience that it was accepted by scholars for 2000 years, right through the Copernican Revolution. But, of course, it's fundamentally wrong. This paper tells the story of how the correct understanding, the law of inertia, evolved and how Newton came to make it his first law.

  12. Eye position dependency of nystagmus during constant vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bockisch, Christopher J; Khojasteh, Elham; Straumann, Dominik; Hegemann, Stefan C A

    2013-04-01

    Alexander's law, the eye position dependency of nystagmus due to peripheral vestibular lesions, has been hypothesized to occur due to adaptive changes in the brainstem velocity-to-position neural integrator in response to non-reciprocal vestibular stimulation. We investigated whether it develops during passive head rotations that produce constant nystagmus for >35 s. The yaw rotation stimulus consisted of a 1-s acceleration (100°/s(2)), followed by a lower acceleration ramp (starting at 7.3°/s(2) and increasing at 0.04°/s(2)/s) until 400°/s was reached after 38 s. This stimulus was designed to offset the ~15 s vestibular ocular reflex time constant (and the 150 s adaptation time constant) and produce constant velocity slow phases. In contrast to peripheral lesions, this vestibular stimulation is the result of real head turns and has the push-pull characteristics of natural movements. The procedure was successful, as the average velocity of 31°/s was unchanged over the final 35 s of the acceleration period. In all 10 healthy human subjects, we found a large and stable Alexander's law, with an average velocity-versus-position slope of -0.366 in the first half that was not significantly different in the second half, -0.347. These slopes correspond to integrator time constants of <3 s, are much less than normal time constants (~25 s), and are similar to those observed in patients with peripheral vestibular lesions. Alexander's law also developed, on average, in 10 s. We conclude that Alexander's law is not simply a consequence of non-reciprocal vestibular stimulation.

  13. Are the Truly Constant Constants of Nature? How is the Real Material Space and its Structure?

    SciTech Connect

    Luz Montero Garcia, Jose de la; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    In a concise and simplified way, some matters of authors' theories -Unified Theory of the Physical and Mathematical Universal Constants and Quantum Cellular Structural Geometry-, an only one theoretical main body MN2. This investigation has as objective the search of the last cells that base the existence, unicity and harmony of matter, as well as its structural-formal and dynamic-functional diversity. The quantitative hypothesis is demonstrated that 'World is one, is one; but it is one Arithmetic-Geometric-Topological-Dimensional and Structural-Cellular-Dynamic one, simultaneously'. In the Frontiers of Fundamental Physics such last cells are the cells of own Real Material Space of whose whole accretion, interactive and staggered all the existing one at all the hierarchic levels arises, cells these below which make no sense to speak of structure and, therefore, of existence. The cells of the Real Material Space are its 'Atoms'. Law of Planetary Systems or '4th Kepler's Law'.

  14. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  15. Polytopic bis(oxazoline)-based ligands for recoverable catalytic systems applied to the enantioselective Henry reaction.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Beatriz; García, José I; Herrerías, Clara I; Mayoral, José A; Miñana, Ana C

    2015-09-21

    Several kinds of polytopic chiral ligands (including ditopic, tritopic and tetratopic), based on the bis(oxazoline) and azabis(oxazoline) motifs, have been tested in the preparation of recoverable catalytic systems for the Henry reaction. The results obtained with the different ligands are, in general, good, but they point to the existence of a delicate balance between the coordinating ability of the ligand, the catalytic activity and the recovery of the catalyst by formation of the coordination polymer, related to the easiness to form oligomeric species in solution.

  16. Ground-water aspects of the lower Henrys Fork region, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.J.; Mundorff, M.J.; Walker, E.H.

    1967-01-01

    The lower Henrys Fork region includes the plains and low benches between Ashton and the junction of Henrys Fork and Snake River in eastern Idaho. The northwestern and western parts of the area are part of the Snake River lava plain. The central part of the area is occupied by alluvial plains of the Snake, Teton, and Falls Rivers, and Henrys Fork. The southeastern part of the area is a bench (Rexburg Bench), chiefly on silicic and basaltic volcanic rocks, which rises gradually to mountain peaks southeast of the area. The basalt, and the sand and gravel under the alluvial plains are good aquifers and yield large amounts of water with small drawdowns. The silicic volcanic rocks and the interbedded ash, pyroclastics, and sedimentary deposits generally yield much less water than the basalt and alluvium. The regional water table slopes southward beneath the basalt and alluvial plains. Seepage from stream channels and irrigated tracts has resulted in an extensive body of ground water perched above the regional water table. The perched water in part moves vertically down to the regional water table and in part laterally to the streams. Ground water beneath the Rexburg Bench moves generally northwestward to join the regional ground-water body beneath the alluvial plain. The regional water table is below the level of the streams in the area and ground water in the main aquifer, therefore is not tributary to the streams. Recharge to the regional water table is estimated to average 725,000 acre-feet annually. Pumping from the regional ground-water reservoir for irrigation or other uses would have no effect on streamflow or surface-water rights within the study area. However, depletion of the underflow would eventually reduce the inflow to American Falls Reservoir unless the depletion was offset by additional recharge. Total withdrawals of ground water for irrigation in 1962 were estimated to be 25,000 acre-feet and caused no significant decline in the water table. In the

  17. A new revision of the Hdec (Henry Draper Extension Charts) catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashimbaeva, N.; Sementsov, V.

    A new version of the HDEC (Henry Draper Extension Charts) catalog is presented. The catalog includes 88,548 entries, more than 3500 of which (components of binary systems) were earlier corrupted by an algorithmic error (1579 multiple systems were revealed). Spectral classification of these objects has been corrected manually using the CDS data. We also corrected some mistakes of the catalog detected by the measurement model and cross-matching with other CDS catalogs, and, in some cases, by the authors of the catalog and through collaboration of the HDEC users.

  18. The Henry Cecil Ranson McBay Chair in Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bota, Kofi B.; King, James, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The goals and objectives of the Henry Cecil Ransom McBay Chair in Space Sciences were to: (1) provide leadership in developing and expanding Space Science curriculum; (2) contribute to the research and education endeavors of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program; (3) expand opportunities for education and hands-on research in Space and Earth Sciences; (4) enhance scientific and technological literacy at all educational levels and to increase awareness of opportunities in the Space Sciences; and (5) develop a pipeline, starting with high school, of African American students who will develop into a cadre of well-trained scientists with interest in Space Science Research and Development.

  19. Henri Wallon's Theory of Early Child Development: The Role of Emotions

    PubMed

    Veer

    1996-12-01

    The present paper gives an account of part of the stage theory of early child development of the French theorist Henri Wallon (1879-1962). Unlike his contemporary Jean Piaget, Wallon concentrated his efforts upon a description of the child's emotional development and the role emotions play in establishing the bond between child and caregiver. The description of Wallon's stage theory is preceded by biographical information and a presentation of his methodological views. It is argued that Wallon's theory is unique in its focus, exerted influence upon theorists such as Lev Vygotsky, and is basically compatible with modern insights about the nature of child development and the growth of intersubjectivity.

  20. [Sauveur-Henri-Victor Bouvier (1799-1877): orthopaedist, surgeon and promoter of physical education].

    PubMed

    Monet, Jacques; Quin, Grégory

    2013-01-01

    This article establishes the biography of a little known physician of the 19th century., whose commitment with orthopaedics and formulation of medical gymnastics was important: the surgeon-orthopaedist Sauveur-Henri-Victor Bouvier. Several constitutive processes of the medical field of the 19th century are analysed: specialization (around orthopaedics), professionalization and development of various therapeutic and hygienic methods (among them medical gymnastics). Bouvier's biography is particularly instructive and sheds new light on these different processes, as well as on the institutionalization of orthopaedics from the 1820's up to the 1870's, at the intersection between medical and educative fields, between hospital, medical faculty and teaching of gymnastics. PMID:24308261

  1. Stopping time: Henry Fox Talbot and the origins of freeze-frame photography.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Chitra

    2008-09-01

    As an image-making tool for scientists studying the transient, instantaneous photography has long been seen as opening up a visual realm previously inaccessible to the inferior testimony of the human eye. But when photographic pioneer Henry Fox Talbot took the first photograph of a moving object by the light of an electric spark in 1851, he was guided by existing visual practices designed to create instantaneous vision in the eye itself. Exploring the background behind the peculiar subject of his experiment - a mechanically spinning disc - reveals a hidden prehistory of spark-illuminated photography: physicists' pre-photographic techniques for stopping time.

  2. Henri Wallon's Theory of Early Child Development: The Role of Emotions

    PubMed

    Veer

    1996-12-01

    The present paper gives an account of part of the stage theory of early child development of the French theorist Henri Wallon (1879-1962). Unlike his contemporary Jean Piaget, Wallon concentrated his efforts upon a description of the child's emotional development and the role emotions play in establishing the bond between child and caregiver. The description of Wallon's stage theory is preceded by biographical information and a presentation of his methodological views. It is argued that Wallon's theory is unique in its focus, exerted influence upon theorists such as Lev Vygotsky, and is basically compatible with modern insights about the nature of child development and the growth of intersubjectivity. PMID:8979855

  3. Automatic gesture analysis using constant affine velocity.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Jenny; Boulanger, Pierre; Pham, Minh Tu; Moreau, Richard; Prieto, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Hand human gesture recognition has been an important research topic widely studied around the world, as this field offers the ability to identify, recognize, and analyze human gestures in order to control devices or to interact with computer interfaces. In particular, in medical training, this approach is an important tool that can be used to obtain an objective evaluation of a procedure performance. In this paper, some obstetrical gestures, acquired by a forceps, were studied with the hypothesis that, as the scribbling and drawing movements, they obey the one-sixth power law, an empirical relationship which connects path curvature, torsion, and euclidean velocity. Our results show that obstetrical gestures have a constant affine velocity, which is different for each type of gesture and based on this idea this quantity is proposed as an appropriate classification feature in the hand human gesture recognition field. PMID:25570332

  4. Constants and Variables of Nature

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Carroll

    2009-04-03

    It is conventional to imagine that the various parameters which characterize our physical theories, such as the fine structure constant or Newton’s gravitational constant, are truly “constant”, in the sense that they do not change from place to place or time to time. Recent developments in both theory and observation have led us to re-examine this assumption, and to take seriously the possibility that our supposed constants are actually gradually changing. I will discuss why we might expect these parameters to vary, and what observation and experiment have to say about the issue.

  5. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  6. Simulating Supercapacitors: Can We Model Electrodes As Constant Charge Surfaces?

    PubMed

    Merlet, Céline; Péan, Clarisse; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Madden, Paul A; Simon, Patrice; Salanne, Mathieu

    2013-01-17

    Supercapacitors based on an ionic liquid electrolyte and graphite or nanoporous carbon electrodes are simulated using molecular dynamics. We compare a simplified electrode model in which a constant, uniform charge is assigned to each carbon atom with a realistic model in which a constant potential is applied between the electrodes (the carbon charges are allowed to fluctuate). We show that the simulations performed with the simplified model do not provide a correct description of the properties of the system. First, the structure of the adsorbed electrolyte is partly modified. Second, dramatic differences are observed for the dynamics of the system during transient regimes. In particular, upon application of a constant applied potential difference, the increase in the temperature, due to the Joule effect, associated with the creation of an electric current across the cell follows Ohm's law, while unphysically high temperatures are rapidly observed when constant charges are assigned to each carbon atom. PMID:26283432

  7. Simulating Supercapacitors: Can We Model Electrodes As Constant Charge Surfaces?

    PubMed

    Merlet, Céline; Péan, Clarisse; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Madden, Paul A; Simon, Patrice; Salanne, Mathieu

    2013-01-17

    Supercapacitors based on an ionic liquid electrolyte and graphite or nanoporous carbon electrodes are simulated using molecular dynamics. We compare a simplified electrode model in which a constant, uniform charge is assigned to each carbon atom with a realistic model in which a constant potential is applied between the electrodes (the carbon charges are allowed to fluctuate). We show that the simulations performed with the simplified model do not provide a correct description of the properties of the system. First, the structure of the adsorbed electrolyte is partly modified. Second, dramatic differences are observed for the dynamics of the system during transient regimes. In particular, upon application of a constant applied potential difference, the increase in the temperature, due to the Joule effect, associated with the creation of an electric current across the cell follows Ohm's law, while unphysically high temperatures are rapidly observed when constant charges are assigned to each carbon atom.

  8. Teaching Global Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  9. The Hubble Constant and the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    In 1929 Edwin Hubble proved that our universe is expanding by showing that the farther a galaxy is from us, the faster it is speeding away into space. This velocity-distance relation came to be called Hubble's law, and the value that describes the rate of expansion is known as the Hubble constant, or H0 . Like the speed of light, H0 is a fundamental constant, and it is a key parameter needed to estimate both the age and size of the universe. Since the late 1950s astronomers have been arguing for an H0 value between 50 to 100 kilometers per second per megaparsec, a lack of precision that produced an unacceptably wide range of ages for the universe—anywhere from 10 to 20 billion years. Using the Hubble Space Telescope, Freedman and her colleagues measured H0 to an unprecedented level of accuracy, deriving a value of 72, with an uncertainty of 10 percent—a milestone achievement in cosmology. The new result suggests that our universe is about 13 billion years old, give or take a billion years, and it's a value that sits comfortably alongside the 12 billion years estimated for the age of the oldest stars.

  10. Homogenization and effective parameters for the Henry problem in heterogeneous formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, R.; Attinger, S.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2005-11-01

    General upscaling of density-dependent flow is investigated for the classical two-dimensional Henry problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Combined theoretical and numerical results are here presented. Effective flow and transport parameters for saline intrusions could be derived for statistically isotropic and anisotropic heterogeneous permeability fields by use of homogenization theory, applying also to the preasymptotic regime. Our numerical results indicate that heterogeneities in permeability affect foremost the transient evolution of saltwater intrusion, whereas the steady state saltwater distribution is less sensitive to spatially varying permeabilities and longitudinal dispersion. For the isotropic media the effective permeability is found to correspond to the geometric mean, as under conditions without fluid density contrast. The extension of results to anisotropic media requires nontrivial corrections for the effective permeability, which include the variance of log(k) and the directional correlation lengths. The appropriate dispersion coefficients for the problem correspond to the local dispersion coefficients, rather than macrodispersion coefficients. These results are discussed in light of the specific flow configuration posed in the Henry problem.

  11. Preventing child obesity: a long-term evaluation of the HENRY approach.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca E; Willis, Thomas A; Aspinall, Nichola; Candida, Hunt; George, Jackie; Rudolf, Mary C J

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels, yet many health professionals lack confidence in working with parents around lifestyle change. HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young) aims to tackle this through training practitioners to work more effectively with parents of preschoolers around obesity and lifestyle issues.We evaluated the long-term impact of HENRY training on health professionals' knowledge, skills and confidence in tackling obesity prevention. All practitioners trained 2007-11 (n = 1601) were invited to complete an online survey. 237 emails (14.8%) were undeliverable; 354 (26.0%) of the remainder completed the survey. A majority (67%) reported using knowledge and skills gained on a regular basis in their professional lives. Sessions on the importance of empathy and key parenting skills were considered particularly useful, with 78% and 74% respectively reporting regular use of these skills. Effects on respondents' personal lives were also reported: 61% applied the knowledge and skills at home, identifying for example, more shared family mealtimes and reduced portion sizes. The impact endures, with 71% of those undergoing training > 12 months ago, stating that they continued to use concepts in their professional lives. The findings suggest that brief training can have a sustained impact on practitioners' professional and personal lives.

  12. Preventing child obesity: a long-term evaluation of the HENRY approach.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca E; Willis, Thomas A; Aspinall, Nichola; Candida, Hunt; George, Jackie; Rudolf, Mary C J

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels, yet many health professionals lack confidence in working with parents around lifestyle change. HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young) aims to tackle this through training practitioners to work more effectively with parents of preschoolers around obesity and lifestyle issues.We evaluated the long-term impact of HENRY training on health professionals' knowledge, skills and confidence in tackling obesity prevention. All practitioners trained 2007-11 (n = 1601) were invited to complete an online survey. 237 emails (14.8%) were undeliverable; 354 (26.0%) of the remainder completed the survey. A majority (67%) reported using knowledge and skills gained on a regular basis in their professional lives. Sessions on the importance of empathy and key parenting skills were considered particularly useful, with 78% and 74% respectively reporting regular use of these skills. Effects on respondents' personal lives were also reported: 61% applied the knowledge and skills at home, identifying for example, more shared family mealtimes and reduced portion sizes. The impact endures, with 71% of those undergoing training > 12 months ago, stating that they continued to use concepts in their professional lives. The findings suggest that brief training can have a sustained impact on practitioners' professional and personal lives. PMID:23914474

  13. Proc, Dr. Sam, Uncle Henry, and the "Little Green Book". Interview by Charles F. Wooley.

    PubMed

    Harvey, W Proctor

    2005-01-01

    During his house staff training before World War II, Dr. W. Proctor Harvey encountered Dr. Samuel A. Levine at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. Following military service, Harvey returned to Boston and became Levine's first cardiology fellow. The book Clinical Auscultation of the Heart--the Little Green Book by Levine and Harvey in 1949 combined Levine's clinical wisdom with Harvey's objective phonocardiographic methods and brought an important objective dimension to the art of cardiac auscultation. Both Levine and Harvey shared experiences and friendship with Henry Christian, the first Physician-in-Chief when the new Brigham Hospital Opened in 1913. Christian, appointed Dean of the Harvard Medical School in 1908 at the age of 32, was referred to as the "Boy Dean." He held the Hersey Chair of Theory and Practice of Physic from 1908 until 1939, was one of the founding group of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, and a major force in academic medicine. Levine served as intern to Christian and then joined the Brigham medical staff in 1915. Proctor Harvey followed Henry Christian's path from their mutual hometown of Lyunchburg, VA to the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital. A series of illuminating and respectful professional interactions--initially between Christian and Levine, between Levine and Harvey in the early 1940s, and between Harvey and Christian in the 1950s--provide the background for the genesis of the Little Green Book and a remarkable example of academic heritage.

  14. Data set for background investigation of atmospheric constituents for Cape Henry site: August 5-22, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The laboratory was located within the Fort Story Military Reservation at Cape Henry between 5 August and 21 August 1974. Total sulfur, total hydrocarbons, NO, NO2, Nox, and O3 were monitored and reported as hourly averages. Visibility was measured using an integrating nephelometer and reported as hourly averages. Twenty-four hour averaged mass loading was determined using two high volume air samplers located on different levels (25' and 50') at the site. Temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, barometric pressure and solar radiation intensity were measured at the site or supplemented by readings taken by the U. S. Coast Guard at the Cape Henry Light House.

  15. Ground-water aspects of the lower Henrys Fork region, eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.; Mundorff, Maurice John; Walker, Eugene H.

    1970-01-01

    The lower Henrys Fork region in eastern Idaho includes the plains and low benches between Ashton and the junction of Henrys Fork and Snake River. The northwestern and western parts of the area are part of the Snake River basalt plain. The central part of the area is occupied by alluvial plains of the Snake, Teton, and Falls Rivers and of Henrys Fork. The alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt. The southeastern part of the area is a bench (Rexburg Bench), chiefly on silicic and basaltic volcanic rocks, which rises gradually to mountain peaks (Big Hole Mountains) southeast of the area. Irrigation wells open to the basalt under the Snake River Plain and the basalt and sands and gravels under the alluvial plains yield large amounts of water with small drawdowns. Irrigation wells in the silicic volcanic rocks and the interbedded ash, pyroclastics, and sedimentary deposits beneath the Rexburg Bench generally yield much less water. The regional water table slopes southwestward beneath the basalt and alluvial plains. It is recharged by precipitation that infiltrates into the ground in the headwaters of Henrys Fork and Falls, and Teton Rivers and by water that moves downward from an extensive perched water body caused by seepage from stream channels and surface-water irrigation. The perched water in part moves vertically down to the regional water table and in part laterally to the streams. Ground water beneath the Rexburg Bench moves generally northwestward to join the regional ground-water body beneath the alluvia,1 and basalt plain, but this area contributes very little recharge to the main aquifer body. Recharge to the regional water table is estimated to average 725,000 acre-feet annually. The regional water table is below the level of the streams in the area, and ground water in the main aquifer, therefore, is not tributary to the streams. Pumping from the regional ground-water reservoir for irrigation or other uses would have no effect on streamflow or surface

  16. Localized (super)gravity and cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakushadze, Zurab

    2000-11-01

    We consider localization of gravity in domain wall solutions of Einstein's gravity coupled to a scalar field with a generic potential. We discuss conditions on the scalar potential such that domain wall solutions are non-singular. Such solutions even exist for appropriate potentials which have no minima at all and are unbounded below. Domain walls of this type have infinite tension, while usual kink type of solutions interpolating between two AdS minima have finite tension. In the latter case the cosmological constant on the domain wall is necessarily vanishing, while in the former case it can be zero or negative. Positive cosmological constant is allowed for singular domain walls. We discuss non-trivial conditions for physically allowed singularities arising from the requirement that truncating the space at the singularities be consistent. Non-singular domain walls with infinite tension might a priori avoid recent "no-go" theorems indicating impossibility of supersymmetric embedding of kink type of domain walls in gauged supergravity. We argue that (non-singular) domain walls are stable even if they have infinite tension. This is essentially due to the fact that localization of gravity in smooth domain walls is a Higgs mechanism corresponding to a spontaneous breakdown of translational invariance. As to discontinuous domain walls arising in the presence of δ-function "brane" sources, they explicitly break translational invariance. Such solutions cannot therefore be thought of as limits of smooth domain walls. We point out that if the scalar potential has no minima and approaches finite negative values at infinity, then higher derivative terms are under control, and do not affect the cosmological constant which is vanishing for such backgrounds. Nonetheless, we also point out that higher curvature terms generically delocalize gravity, so that the desired lower-dimensional Newton's law is no longer reproduced.

  17. Solubility of hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} mixtures in water under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dhima, A.; Hemptinne, J.C. de; Jose, J.

    1999-08-01

    New solubility data for methane, carbon dioxide, and their binary mixtures in pure water were obtained at 344.25 K and from 10 to 100 MPa. A thermodynamic model that combines a cubic equation of state (Peng-Robinson with k{sub ij} given in the literature) with the Henry`s law approach has been elaborated. It has been shown that the (P,T) functional form of Henry`s constant given by the Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation is applicable. It involves two important parameters: partial molar volume at infinite dilution and Henry`s constant at the vapor pressure of water. Neither of these two parameters is a function of pressure or composition. The Henry`s constant correlations of Li and Nghiem and Harvey, and the partial molar volume correlation of Lyckman et al. have been validated using a great number of solubility data.

  18. The Politics of Knowledge and the Revitalization of American Democracy: A Response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Cary

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex." Henry Giroux has written a provocative assessment of the contemporary challenges facing the United States as a society, which over the course of the 20th century had assumed the role of leader and exemplar…

  19. Constant fields and constant gradients in open ionic channels.

    PubMed

    Chen, D P; Barcilon, V; Eisenberg, R S

    1992-05-01

    Ions enter cells through pores in proteins that are holes in dielectrics. The energy of interaction between ion and charge induced on the dielectric is many kT, and so the dielectric properties of channel and pore are important. We describe ionic movement by (three-dimensional) Nemst-Planck equations (including flux and net charge). Potential is described by Poisson's equation in the pore and Laplace's equation in the channel wall, allowing induced but not permanent charge. Asymptotic expansions are constructed exploiting the long narrow shape of the pore and the relatively high dielectric constant of the pore's contents. The resulting one-dimensional equations can be integrated numerically; they can be analyzed when channels are short or long (compared with the Debye length). Traditional constant field equations are derived if the induced charge is small, e.g., if the channel is short or if the total concentration gradient is zero. A constant gradient of concentration is derived if the channel is long. Plots directly comparable to experiments are given of current vs voltage, reversal potential vs. concentration, and slope conductance vs. concentration. This dielectric theory can easily be tested: its parameters can be determined by traditional constant field measurements. The dielectric theory then predicts current-voltage relations quite different from constant field, usually more linear, when gradients of total concentration are imposed. Numerical analysis shows that the interaction of ion and channel can be described by a mean potential if, but only if, the induced charge is negligible, that is to say, the electric field is spatially constant.

  20. Constant fields and constant gradients in open ionic channels.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D P; Barcilon, V; Eisenberg, R S

    1992-01-01

    Ions enter cells through pores in proteins that are holes in dielectrics. The energy of interaction between ion and charge induced on the dielectric is many kT, and so the dielectric properties of channel and pore are important. We describe ionic movement by (three-dimensional) Nemst-Planck equations (including flux and net charge). Potential is described by Poisson's equation in the pore and Laplace's equation in the channel wall, allowing induced but not permanent charge. Asymptotic expansions are constructed exploiting the long narrow shape of the pore and the relatively high dielectric constant of the pore's contents. The resulting one-dimensional equations can be integrated numerically; they can be analyzed when channels are short or long (compared with the Debye length). Traditional constant field equations are derived if the induced charge is small, e.g., if the channel is short or if the total concentration gradient is zero. A constant gradient of concentration is derived if the channel is long. Plots directly comparable to experiments are given of current vs voltage, reversal potential vs. concentration, and slope conductance vs. concentration. This dielectric theory can easily be tested: its parameters can be determined by traditional constant field measurements. The dielectric theory then predicts current-voltage relations quite different from constant field, usually more linear, when gradients of total concentration are imposed. Numerical analysis shows that the interaction of ion and channel can be described by a mean potential if, but only if, the induced charge is negligible, that is to say, the electric field is spatially constant. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:1376159

  1. Effective cosmological constant induced by stochastic fluctuations of Newton's constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cesare, Marco; Lizzi, Fedele; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2016-09-01

    We consider implications of the microscopic dynamics of spacetime for the evolution of cosmological models. We argue that quantum geometry effects may lead to stochastic fluctuations of the gravitational constant, which is thus considered as a macroscopic effective dynamical quantity. Consistency with Riemannian geometry entails the presence of a time-dependent dark energy term in the modified field equations, which can be expressed in terms of the dynamical gravitational constant. We suggest that the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe may be ascribed to quantum fluctuations in the geometry of spacetime rather than the vacuum energy from the matter sector.

  2. Optical constants of solid methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.; Bruel, C.; Judish, J. P.; Khanna, R. K.; Pollack, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Methane is the most abundant simple organic molecule in the outer solar system bodies. In addition to being a gaseous constituent of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets and Titan, it is present in the solid form as a constituent of icy surfaces such as those of Triton and Pluto, and as cloud condensate in the atmospheres of Titan, Uranus, and Neptune. It is expected in the liquid form as a constituent of the ocean of Titan. Cometary ices also contain solid methane. The optical constants for both solid and liquid phases of CH4 for a wide temperature range are needed for radiative transfer calculations, for studies of reflection from surfaces, and for modeling of emission in the far infrared and microwave regions. The astronomically important visual to near infrared measurements of solid methane optical constants are conspicuously absent from the literature. Preliminary results are presented of the optical constants of solid methane for the 0.4 to 2.6 micron region. K is reported for both the amorphous and the crystalline (annealed) states. Using the previously measured values of the real part of the refractive index, n, of liquid methane at 110 K n is computed for solid methane using the Lorentz-Lorentz relationship. Work is in progress to extend the measurements of optical constants n and k for liquid and solid to both shorter and longer wavelengths, eventually providing a complete optical constants database for condensed CH4.

  3. Mapping Henry: Synchrotron-sourced X-ray fluorescence mapping and ultra-high-definition scanning of an early Tudor portrait of Henry VIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dredge, Paula; Ives, Simon; Howard, Daryl L.; Spiers, Kathryn M.; Yip, Andrew; Kenderdine, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    A portrait of Henry VIII on oak panel c. 1535 has recently undergone technical examination to inform questions regarding authorship and the painting's relationship to a group of similar works in the collections of the National Portrait Gallery, London, and the Society of Antiquaries. Due to previous conservation treatments of the painting, the conventional transmission X-radiograph image was difficult to interpret. As a result, the painting underwent high-definition X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental mapping on the X-ray fluorescence microscopy beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Scans were conducted at 12.6 and 18.5 keV, below and above the lead (Pb) L edges, respectively. Typical scan parameters were 120 μm pixel size at 7 ms dwell time, with the largest scan covering an area 545 × 287 mm2 collected in 23 h (10.8 MP). XRF mapping of the panel has guided the conservation treatment of the painting and the revelation of previously obscured features. It has also provided insight into the process of making of the painting. The informative and detailed elemental maps, alongside ultra-high-definition scans of the painting undertaken before and after varnish and over-paint removal, have assisted in comparison of the finely painted details with the London paintings. The resolution offered by the combination of imaging techniques identifies pigment distribution at an extremely fine scale, enabling a new understanding of the artist's paint application.

  4. Optical constants of solid methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.; Bruel, C.; Judish, J. P.; Khanna, R. K.; Pollack, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    Methane is the most abundant simple organic molecule in the outer solar system bodies. In addition to being a gaseous constituent of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets and Titan, it is present in the solid form as a constituent of icy surfaces such as those of Triton and Pluto, and as cloud condensate in the atmospheres of Titan, Uranus, and Neptune. It is expected in the liquid form as a constituent of the ocean of Titan. Cometary ices also contain solid methane. The optical constants for both solid and liquid phases of CH4 for a wide temperature range are needed for radiative transfer calculations, for studies of reflection from surfaces, and for modeling of emission in the far infrared and microwave regions. The astronomically important visual to near infrared measurements of solid methane optical constants are conspicuously absent from the literature. Preliminary results are presented on the optical constants of solid methane for the 0.4 to 2.6 micrometer region. Deposition onto a substrate at 10 K produces glassy (semi-amorphous) material. Annealing this material at approximately 33 K for approximately 1 hour results in a crystalline material as seen by sharper, more structured bands and negligible background extinction due to scattering. The constant k is reported for both the amorphous and the crystalline (annealed) states. Typical values (at absorption maxima) are in the .001 to .0001 range. Below lambda = 1.1 micrometers the bands are too weak to be detected by transmission through the films less than or equal to 215 micrometers in thickness, employed in the studies to date. Using previously measured values of the real part of the refractive index, n, of liquid methane at 110 K, n is computed for solid methane using the Lorentz-Lorenz relationship. Work is in progress to extend the measurements of optical constants n and k for liquid and solid to both shorter and longer wavelengths, eventually providing a complete optical constants database for

  5. Cosmologies with variable gravitational constant

    SciTech Connect

    Narkikar, J.V.

    1983-03-01

    In 1937 Dirac presented an argument, based on the socalled large dimensionless numbers, which led him to the conclusion that the Newtonian gravitational constant G changes with epoch. Towards the end of the last century Ernst Mach had given plausible arguments to link the property of inertia of matter to the large scale structure of the universe. Mach's principle also leads to cosmological models with a variable gravitational constant. Three cosmologies which predict a variable G are discussed in this paper both from theoretical and observational points of view.

  6. Elastic constants for 8-OCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Grzegorz; Zywucki, B.; Jadzyn, Jan

    1993-10-01

    The Frederiks transitions for the n-octyloxycyanobiphenyl (8-OCB) placed in the external magnetic and electric field as a function of the temperature have been studied. On the basis of threshold values Bc and Uc, the elastic constants for splay, bend and twist modes are determined. The magnetic anisotropy of 8-OCB as a function of temperature has been determined. The K11 and K33 elastic constants show the pretransitional nematic- smectic A effect. The values of critical exponents obtained from the temperature dependence of K11 and K33 in the vicinity of N-SA phase transition are discussed.

  7. Tax Law System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  8. Innovations in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

  9. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  10. New broadband square-law detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. S.; Gardner, R. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Compact device has wide dynamic range, accurate square-law response, good thermal stability, high-level dc output with immunity to ground-loop problems, ability to insert known time constants for radiometric applications, and fast response times compatible with computer systems.

  11. Equivalence of structure constants in non-Kolmogorov and Kolmogorov spectra.

    PubMed

    Baykal, Yahya; Gerçekcioğlu, Hamza

    2011-12-01

    We find the equivalence of the structure constants in non-Kolmogorov and Kolmogorov spectra in a turbulent atmosphere. As the reference point, the spherical wave scintillation index in a non-Kolmogorov medium is used. Relations of the structure constants are found to be functions of the power law of the turbulence spectrum and the Fresnel zone. It will be useful to employ the equivalence of the structure constants in making performance comparisons found with non-Kolmogorov and Kolmogorov spectra.

  12. A conservation law for virus infection kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kakizoe, Yusuke; Morita, Satoru; Nakaoka, Shinji; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kei; Miura, Tomoyuki; Beauchemin, Catherine A A; Iwami, Shingo

    2015-07-01

    Conservation laws are among the most important properties of a physical system, but are not commonplace in biology. We derived a conservation law from the basic model for viral infections which consists in a small set of ordinary differential equations. We challenged the conservation law experimentally for the case of a virus infection in a cell culture. We found that the derived, conserved quantity remained almost constant throughout the infection period, implying that the derived conservation law holds in this biological system. We also suggest a potential use for the conservation law in evaluating the accuracy of experimental measurements. PMID:25882746

  13. A conservation law for virus infection kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kakizoe, Yusuke; Morita, Satoru; Nakaoka, Shinji; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kei; Miura, Tomoyuki; Beauchemin, Catherine A A; Iwami, Shingo

    2015-07-01

    Conservation laws are among the most important properties of a physical system, but are not commonplace in biology. We derived a conservation law from the basic model for viral infections which consists in a small set of ordinary differential equations. We challenged the conservation law experimentally for the case of a virus infection in a cell culture. We found that the derived, conserved quantity remained almost constant throughout the infection period, implying that the derived conservation law holds in this biological system. We also suggest a potential use for the conservation law in evaluating the accuracy of experimental measurements.

  14. "Extraordinary Understandings" of Composition at the University of Chicago: Frederick Champion Ward, Kenneth Burke, and Henry W. Sams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, James P.

    2007-01-01

    While Richard Weaver, R. S. Crane, Richard McKeon, and Robert Streeter have been most identified with rhetoric at the University of Chicago and its institutional return in the 1950s, the archival record demonstrates that Frederick Champion Ward, dean of the undergraduate "College" from 1947 to 1954, and Henry W. Sams, director of English in the…

  15. Life of Henry Barnard: The First United States Commissioner of Education, 1867-1870. Bulletin, 1919, No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Bernard C.

    1919-01-01

    Henry Barnard was "one of the men who revitalized the American common-school system", and as such, he is clearly worthy of a biography. Not only was his service a noted one to elementary education, but as college president and as the organizer of the United States Bureau of Education his activity also touched other parts of the country's…

  16. Plastic (wire-combed) grooving of a slip-formed concrete runway overlay at Patrick Henry Airport: An initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlin, E. C.; Horne, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A wire-comb technique is described for transversely grooving the surface of a freshly laid (plastic state) slip-formed concrete overlay installed at Patrick Henry Airport. This method of surface texturing yields better water drainage and pavement skid resistance than that obtained with an older conventional burlap drag concrete surface treatment installed on an adjacent portion of the runway.

  17. A Vision for the Future: Henry G. Bennett Memorial Library, Southeastern Oklahoma State University Strategic Plan, 2002-2007.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dorothy

    This document presents the five-year strategic plan developed by the library director, staff, and the Library Committee for the Henry G. Bennett Memorial Library, Southeastern Oklahoma State University. The goal of this plan is to provide a framework that the library can use to focus energy and resources in fulfilling the mission of the library…

  18. Disposable Youth/Damaged Democracy: Youth, Neoliberalism, and the Promise of Pedagogy in the Work of Henry Giroux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps more extensively and provocatively than any other contemporary theorist, Henry Giroux has theorized the relationship between youth and democratic public life. Beginning arguably with his first book, Ideology, Culture, and the Process of Schooling (Temple University Press, 1981), and continuing across a number of critically acclaimed works…

  19. The functions of writing: transmission between generations and role assignment within the family, in Henry James and his family.

    PubMed

    Green, A

    1994-06-01

    The Jameses provide abundant material for this study of the function of writing within a family, combining a relationship between generations and between the sexes among siblings. The starting point is Henry's dream of the Galerie d'Apollon, which can be referred to its sources in reality; its autobiographical account; and its transformation into a story. This material gives clues to some central features of his unconscious conflicts with both his father and elder brother. The father's writings deal with his concern with religion, which expresses his relationship with his own father. William transforms his father's theology into philosophy and becomes one of the pioneers of modern psychology. Alice's diary recounts her identification with her father's infirmity through her hysterical paralysis. Henry's work reveals that he is the one who really succeeded in solving his conflicts with the father. His literature is transgressive according to his father's and brother's values, though he shares their ideal of a consciousness common to the Jameses. Through fiction, Henry has indirect access to the drives; but only in his work did he acknowledge these, overcoming his oedipal conflicts. Thus Henry is the closest of the Jameses to psychoanalysis; his work enables us to make some hypotheses regarding the creative process.

  20. "Young People Are No Longer at Risk--They Are the Risk": Henry Giroux's "Youth in a Suspect Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClennen, Sophia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes Henry Giroux's recent book Youth in a Suspect Society: democracy or disposability? (Palgrave, 2009) and situates it within his post-9/11 critical interventions. Giroux has focused his recent work on theorizing, critiquing and challenging the confluence of militarization, corporatization and right-wing ideology that has…

  1. "Undoubtedly a Powerful Influence": Victor Henry's "Antinomies linguistiques" (1896) with an Annotated Translation of the First Chapter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Victor Henry's innovative presentation of some underlying contradictions in the premises on which linguistics is founded, cast in the Kantian form of antinomies. The review argues that no science remains more strongly contested than linguistics, a science whose origins are paradoxical and that contains outdated concepts. (30 references)…

  2. Searching for Politics with Henry Giroux: Through Cultural Studies to Public Pedagogy and the "Terror of Neoliberalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Henry A. Giroux is recognized as one of the fifty most significant thinkers on education in the 20th century. He is also considered a scholar of immense influence in a number of fields internationally, hardly an inconsequential accolade in a century noted for a glut of educational and social thinkers. Yet, its wide-ranging and ever-expanding…

  3. Teacher as Actor--Henry David Thoreau--From Room One-Eleven to Walden Pond and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barto, David

    To help maintain class interest in the important themes addressed in "Walden" and "The Duties of Civil Disobedience," a high school English teacher has presented a dramatic monologue as Henry David Thoreau to his students. After much library research, the teacher used some of the props characteristic of the author, such as a walking stick and a…

  4. All Are Worthy to Know the Earth: Henry De la Beche and the Origin of Geological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Henry T. De la Beche (1796-1855) began his geological career within an elite circle (Geological Society of London, 1817; FRS, 1819), collaborating with influential gentlemen geologists and publishing original research. When his independent income dwindled, De la Beche managed to secure governmental funding for his mapping projects. This led to…

  5. Constituting Antebellum African American Identity: Resistance, Violence, and Masculinity in Henry Highland Garnet's (1843) "Address to the Slaves"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasinski, James

    2007-01-01

    In August 1843 Presbyterian minister Henry Highland Garnet delivered his "Address to the Slaves of the United States of America" to the National Convention of Colored Citizens in Buffalo, NY. While often read (and almost as often dismissed) as either an unqualified call for a violent slave rebellion or, at the least, a celebration of prior acts of…

  6. Values, Leadership, and Quality: The Administration of Higher Education. The David D. Henry Lectures, 1979-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1990

    This book contains five lectures, delivered as part of the David D. Henry lecture series, whose common theme revolved around broadly defined issues related to the administration of higher education. The first lecture, "Quality and Equality in Health Professions Education and Service" (Lloyd C. Elam), argues that quality and equality in the…

  7. Prediction of Henry Constants and Adsorption Mechanism of Volatile Organic Compounds on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Using Support Vector Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-De, Cheng; Cong-Zhong, Cai

    2016-04-01

    Not Available Supported by the Innovative Talent Funds for Project 985 under Grant No WLYJSBJRCTD201102, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No CQDXWL-2013-014, the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing under Grant No CSTC2006BB5240, and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Universities of China under Grant No NCET-07-0903.

  8. Boltzmann's constant: A laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglak, Haym

    1989-03-01

    The mean-square displacement of a latex microsphere is determined from its projection on a TV monitor. The distribution of displacement is shown to be Gaussian. Boltzmann's constant, calculated from the pooled data of several observers, is in excellent agreement with the accepted value. The experiment is designed for one laboratory period in the advanced undergraduate laboratory.

  9. Ten Thousand Solar Constants Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    "Radiometer for Accurate (+ or - 1%) Measurement of Solar Irradiances Equal to 10,000 Solar Constants," gives additional information on radiometer described elsewhere. Self-calibrating, water-cooled, thermopile radiometer measures irradiance produced in solar image formed by parabolic reflector or by multiple-mirror solar installation.

  10. The 1% concordance Hubble constant

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Hinshaw, G.

    2014-10-20

    The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. A precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H {sub 0}/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.

  11. Variation of fundamental constants: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flambaum, Victor

    2008-05-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. There are some hints for the variation of different fundamental constants in quasar absorption spectra and Big Bang nucleosynthesis data. A large number of publications (including atomic clocks) report limits on the variations. We want to study the variation of the main dimensionless parameters of the Standard Model: 1. Fine structure constant alpha (combination of speed of light, electron charge and Plank constant). 2. Ratio of the strong interaction scale (LambdaQCD) to a fundamental mass like electron mass or quark mass which are proportional to Higgs vacuum expectation value. The proton mass is propotional to LambdaQCD, therefore, the proton-to-electron mass ratio comes into this second category. We performed necessary atomic, nuclear and QCD calculations needed to study variation of the fundamental constants using the Big Bang Nucleosynthsis, quasar spectra, Oklo natural nuclear reactor and atomic clock data. The relative effects of the variation may be enhanced in transitions between narrow close levels in atoms, molecules and nuclei. If one will study an enhanced effect, the relative value of systematic effects (which are not enhanced) may be much smaller. Note also that the absolute magnitude of the variation effects in nuclei (e.g. in very narrow 7 eV transition in 229Th) may be 5 orders of magnitude larger than in atoms. A different possibility of enhancement comes from the inversion transitions in molecules where splitting between the levels is due to the quantum tunneling amplitude which has strong, exponential dependence on the electron to proton mass ratio. Our study of NH3 quasar spectra has already given the best limit on the variation of electron to proton mass ratio.

  12. Varying Fine-Structure Constant and the Cosmological Constant Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasunori

    We start with a brief account of the latest analysis of the Oklo phenomenon providing the still most stringent constraint on time variability of the fine-structure constant α. Comparing this with the recent result from the measurement of distant QSO's appears to indicate a non-uniform time-dependence, which we argue to be related to another recent finding of the accelerating universe. This view is implemented in terms of the scalar-tensor theory, applied specifically to the small but nonzero cosmological constant. Our detailed calculation shows that these two phenomena can be understood in terms of a common origin, a particular behavior of the scalar field, dilaton. We also sketch how this theoretical approach makes it appropriate to revisit non-Newtonian gravity featuring small violation of Weak Equivalence Principle at medium distances.

  13. The diary of assistant surgeon Henry Piers, HMS Investigator, 1850-54.

    PubMed

    Savours, A

    1990-01-01

    From the 16th to the mid 19th century, many voyages were made from England to discover a North West Passage between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. The Investigator was one of some 40 vessels that searched for the lost North West Passage expedition of 1845-48 under the command of Sir John Franklin in HM Ships Erebus and Terror, which became beset among what are now known as the Canadian Arctic Islands. The "Investigators" found no trace of Franklin, but were the first to traverse the North West Passage, although their ship had to be abandoned in Mercy Bay on Banks Island after two winters there. The diary of Assistant Surgeon Henry Piers, from the manuscript collection of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, is here examined. Reference is also made to the narrative and report published by the senior surgeon of the Investigator, Dr Alexander Armstrong. PMID:2197406

  14. The biologist as psychologist: Henry Fairfield Osborn's early mental ability investigations.

    PubMed

    Young, Jacy L

    2012-01-01

    In the early 1880s, biologist Henry Fairfield Osborn conducted some of the first questionnaire research in American psychology. This article details how he came to distribute Francis Galton's questionnaire on mental imagery in the United States, as well as how he altered it to suit his own burgeoning psychological research interests. The development and circulation of questionnaires at the very beginning of American scientific psychology, first by Osborn and later by G. Stanley Hall, is discussed in terms of the new psychology's often-overlooked methodological plurality. Further, Osborn's late nineteenth century interest in individual variation and group differences in mental imagery ability are discussed in relation to his pervasive educational and social concerns, as well as his eventual status as a prominent eugenicist in the twentieth century United States. This research into mental imagery ability foreshadows the eugenic-oriented intelligence testing that developed in the early twentieth century. PMID:22589139

  15. The personality and health of King Henry VIII (1491-1547).

    PubMed

    Keynes, Milo

    2005-08-01

    The projection of Henry VIII in the first half of his reign, which began in 1509, is of a magnificent and accomplished 'imperial prince', the possessor of superb physical health. In 1528, when aged 37, he showed a marked change in personality due, it is here argued, to depressive illness, from which he recovered by the mid-1530s. Such ill health has not been recognized previously and it engenders a need for a reassessment of his character and actions during these years of illness. He did not suffer from syphilis and the well-known leg ulcers were less incapacitating than has been described in the past. This truly enormous and overweight man was 55 years old when he died in 1547 in chronic heart failure.

  16. HENRY H. CHEEK AND TRANSFORMISM: NEW LIGHT ON CHARLES DARWIN'S EDINBURGH BACKGROUND.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Bill

    2015-06-20

    Evidence for the transformist ideas espoused by Henry H. Cheek (1807-33), a contemporary of Charles Darwin's at the University of Edinburgh, sheds new light on the intellectual environment of Edinburgh in the late 1820s and early 1830s. Cheek was the author of several papers dealing with the transmutation of species influenced by the theories of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844), Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) and the Comte de Buffon (1707-88). Some of these were read to student societies, others appeared in the Edinburgh Journal of Natural and Geographical Science, which Cheek edited between 1829 and 1831. His writings give us a valuable window onto some of the transformist theories that were circulating among Darwin's fellow medical students in the late 1820s, to which Darwin would have been exposed during his time in Edinburgh, and for which little other concrete evidence survives.

  17. Henry H. Cheek and transformism: new light on Charles Darwin's Edinburgh background

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for the transformist ideas espoused by Henry H. Cheek (1807–33), a contemporary of Charles Darwin's at the University of Edinburgh, sheds new light on the intellectual environment of Edinburgh in the late 1820s and early 1830s. Cheek was the author of several papers dealing with the transmutation of species influenced by the theories of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772–1844), Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) and the Comte de Buffon (1707–88). Some of these were read to student societies, others appeared in the Edinburgh Journal of Natural and Geographical Science, which Cheek edited between 1829 and 1831. His writings give us a valuable window onto some of the transformist theories that were circulating among Darwin's fellow medical students in the late 1820s, to which Darwin would have been exposed during his time in Edinburgh, and for which little other concrete evidence survives. PMID:26665300

  18. Henry Pritchett and his introduction to the Flexner Report of 1910.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Steven L; Groce, Victoria A; Littleton, Beth; Gunderman, Richard B

    2010-11-01

    This article provides historical background on Henry S. Pritchett, first president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (CFAT), analysis of his introduction to Abraham Flexner's 1910 report on medical education, and discussion of the major role that Pritchett played in conceiving the study on which the Flexner Report is based and his advocacy of the report's findings. The authors examine Pritchett's career as a scientist, scholar, and administrator. A textual analysis of the introduction to the Flexner Report demonstrates Pritchett's unique contributions to the report and how they complement Flexner's perspectives and conclusions. Finally, the authors discuss the significance of Pritchett's introduction, his rhetorical choices, and Pritchett's and CFAT's subsequent advocacy activities to improve medical education. PMID:20881820

  19. New Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Oliveira, A. C.; Gomes, F. A. A.; Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, Henry T.

    2008-04-28

    The new 0.60-m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel was designed to study advanced air-breathing propulsion system such as supersonic combustion and/or laser technologies. In addition, it may be used for hypersonic flow studies and investigations of the electromagnetic (laser) energy addition for flow control. This new hypersonic shock tunnel was designed and installed at the Laboratory for of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu, IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The design of the tunnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for the experiments performed at the laboratory. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures up to 360 atm. and up to 9,000 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization.

  20. Henry Sigerist and the history of medicine in Latin America: his correspondence with Juan R. Beltran.

    PubMed

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    During the years of World War II, the American Association for the History of Medicine fostered a Pan-American policy aimed at establishing relationships with Latin American historians of medicine. Juan R. Beltrán, professor of history of medicine at the University of Buenos Aires, also pursued an energetic program of academic diplomacy. The correspondence between Henry Sigerist and Beltrán makes manifest that by 1941 good channels of communication were established between Baltimore and Buenos Aires, but the friendly links did not last long. The motives for this can be found in the competing aims of the AAHM and Beltrán, and the pattern of international relationships during the war years.

  1. Acid Brothers: Henry Beecher, Timothy Leary, and the psychedelic of the century.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Henry Knowles Beecher, an icon of human research ethics, and Timothy Francis Leary, a guru of the counterculture, are bound together in history by the synthetic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Both were associated with Harvard University during a critical period in their careers and of drastic social change. To all appearances the first was a paragon of the establishment and a constructive if complex hero, the second a rebel and a criminal, a rogue and a scoundrel. Although there is no evidence they ever met, Beecher's indirect struggle with Leary over control of the 20th century's most celebrated psychedelic was at the very heart of his views about the legitimate, responsible investigator. That struggle also proves to be a revealing bellwether of the increasingly formalized scrutiny of human experiments that was then taking shape. PMID:27499488

  2. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt's painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray's famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray's method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray's book within the teaching of medicine. PMID:20447244

  3. Surface-water/ground-water interaction along reaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hortness, Jon E.; Vidmar, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Declining water levels in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and decreases in spring discharges from the aquifer to the Snake River have spurred studies to improve understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction on the plain. This study was done to estimate streamflow gains and losses along specific reaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork and to compare changes in gain and loss estimates to changes in ground-water levels over time. Data collected during this study will be used to enhance the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to refine computer models of ground-water flow and surface-water/ground-water interactions. Estimates of streamflow gains and losses along specific subreaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork, based on the results of five seepage studies completed during 2001?02, varied greatly across the study area, ranging from a loss estimate of 606 ft3/s in a subreach of the upper Snake River near Heise to a gain estimate of 3,450 ft3/s in a subreach of the Snake River that includes Thousand Springs. Some variations over time also were apparent in specific subreaches. Surface spring flow accounted for much of the inflow to subreaches having large gain estimates. Several subreaches alternately gained and lost streamflow during the study. Changes in estimates of streamflow gains and losses along some of the subreaches were compared with changes in water levels, measured at three different times during 2001?02, in adjacent wells. In some instances, a strong relation between changes in estimates of gains or losses and changes in ground-water levels was apparent.

  4. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt’s painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray’s famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray’s method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray’s book within the teaching of medicine. PMID:20447244

  5. The Impact of the Henry Draper Catalogue on 20th-century Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welther, B. L.

    1999-12-01

    By 1900 there was a definite need to update the great star catalogues of the 19th century. First of all, the coordinates in them were pinned to the epoch of 1875. Then, too, the magnitudes were not on any systematic scale. Finally, they were all published before astronomers had any ideas or data for classifying large numbers of stars by their spectra. Under the leadership of Edward Pickering and the financing of Anna Palmer Draper, the work on the Henry Draper Memorial began at Harvard College Observatory in the late 1880s. Its primary goal was to gather and classify the photographic spectra of about 100,000 stars. As a test case, Pickering had Williamina Fleming develop a simple classification scheme and apply it to the spectra of about 10,000 stars. The Draper Catalogue was published in 1890. For the next two decades, Pickering worked to have astronomers approve the Harvard Classification scheme. After that happened in 1910 at the meeting of the International Solar Union, Annie Jump Cannon began the project of classifying 100,000 stars. She was so efficient that she completed the work in two years. Rather than limiting it to that number at that time, she continued classifying spectra for another two years for a total of 225,300 stars. Although Cannon completed the classification in 1915, it was not until 1918 that the first of nine volumes of the Henry Draper Catalogue was published. At that time, it was greeted with enthusiasm and congratulations from eminent astronomers around the world: Jacobus Kapteyn in the Netherlands, Herbert Hall Turner in England, Harlow Shapley in California, to name a few. Today, the HD Catalogue is now online and endures as a source of coherent data for a wide variety of ongoing investigations of the Milky Way.

  6. Rationale and design of the Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project (the FIT project).

    PubMed

    Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Whelton, Seamus; Blaha, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Although physical fitness is a powerful prognostic marker in clinical medicine, most cardiovascular population-based studies do not have a direct measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness. In line with the call from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute for innovative, low-cost, epidemiologic studies leveraging electronic medical record (EMR) data, we describe the rationale and design of the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project (The FIT Project). The FIT Project is unique in its combined use of directly measured clinical exercise data retrospective collection of medical history and medication treatment data at the time of the stress test, retrospective supplementation of supporting clinical data using the EMR and administrative databases and epidemiologic follow-up for cardiovascular events and total mortality via linkage with claims files and the death registry. The FIT Project population consists of 69 885 consecutive physician-referred patients (mean age, 54 ± 10 years; 54% males) who underwent Bruce protocol treadmill stress testing at Henry Ford Affiliated Hospitals between 1991 and 2009. Patients were followed for the primary outcomes of death, myocardial infarction, and need for coronary revascularization. The median estimated peak metabolic equivalent (MET) level was 10, with 17% of the patients having a severely reduced fitness level (METs < 6). At the end of the follow-up duration, 15.9%, 5.6%, and 6.7% of the patients suffered all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or revascularization procedures, respectively. The FIT Project is the largest study of physical fitness to date. With its use of modern electronic clinical epidemiologic techniques, it is poised to answer many clinically relevant questions related to exercise capacity and prognosis.

  7. Henry Solomon Wellcome: A philanthropist and a pioneer sponsor of medical research in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Henry Solomon Wellcome, the famous drug manufacturer had a fascinating association with the Sudan. Besides supporting tropical medicine research in this country, he established an extensive project in the Sudan that aimed at combining archeological excavations, philanthropy and social reform. This article is an archives-based account on this side of Wellcome’s association with the Sudan. The article starts with Wellcome’s early years in the American Midwest and the evolution of his career and his rise as a world-renowned drug manufacturer. After the battle of Omdurman, Wellcome visited Sudan in 1900 – 1901 where he offered to support the establishment of the research laboratories which later came to be known as the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum. He then became directly involved in the planning and running of extensive archeological excavations in the central Sudan. This project served as a field in which Wellcome found an outlet for his philanthropy. More than 4000 labourers were employed in Jebel Moya. Professional archeologists and anatomists were recruited by Wellcome to supervise the work, and all the requirements in terms of equipment were catered for. Wellcome devised a Savings Bank System whereby part of the earnings of each labourer were saved to him till the end of the season. He also introduced one of his innovations: aerial photography using box kite which was used for the first time in archeology. Wellcome made it a rule that no applicant should be turned away. The Camp Commandant had to find suitable work for each applicant, including the handicapped who were assigned to appropriate jobs like mending baskets or cutting grass for building huts. Wellcome’s welfare work had a significant impact on the local inhabitants of Jebel Moya. Henry Solomon Wellcome, 1906. Oil painting by Hugh Goldwin Riviere. Credit: Wellcome Library PMID:27493379

  8. Correction for instrument time constant in determination of reaction kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, Marie; Clark, Jared; Thomas, Nathan; Nicholson, Allen; Hansen, Lee D.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Hansen, Jaron

    2010-02-01

    Rates of reactions can be expressed as dn/dt = kcf(n) where n is moles of reaction, k is a rate constant, c is a proportionality constant, and f(n) is a function of the properties of the sample. When the instrument time constant, ?, and k are sufficiently comparable that measured rates are significantly affected by instrument response, correction for instrument response must be done to obtain accurate reaction kinetics. Correction for instrument response has previously been done by truncating early data or by use of the Tian equation. Both methods can lead to significant errors. We describe a method for simultaneous determination of ?, k, and c by fitting equations describing the combined instrument response and rate law to rates observed as a function of time. The method was tested with data on the heat rate from acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose.

  9. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof. Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special…

  10. Three pion nucleon coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Arriola, E.; Amaro, J. E.; Navarro Pérez, R.

    2016-08-01

    There exist four pion nucleon coupling constants, fπ0pp, - fπ0nn, fπ+pn/2 and fπ-np/2 which coincide when up and down quark masses are identical and the electron charge is zero. While there is no reason why the pion-nucleon-nucleon coupling constants should be identical in the real world, one expects that the small differences might be pinned down from a sufficiently large number of independent and mutually consistent data. Our discussion provides a rationale for our recent determination fp2 = 0.0759(4),f 02 = 0.079(1),f c2 = 0.0763(6), based on a partial wave analysis of the 3σ self-consistent nucleon-nucleon Granada-2013 database comprising 6713 published data in the period 1950-2013.

  11. Quaternions as astrometric plate constants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferys, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A new method for solving problems in relative astrometry is proposed. In it, the relationship between the measured quantities and the components of the position vector of a star is modeled using quaternions, in effect replacing the plate constants of a standard four-plate-constant solution with the four components of a quaternion. The method allows a direct solution for the position vectors of the stars, and hence for the equatorial coordinates. Distortions, magnitude, and color effects are readily incorporated into the formalism, and the method is directly applicable to overlapping-plate problems. The advantages of the method include the simplicity of the resulting equations, their freedom from singularities, and the fact that trigonometric functions and tangential point transformations are not needed to model the plate material. A global solution over the entire sky is possible.

  12. Three pion nucleon coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Arriola, E.; Amaro, J. E.; Navarro Pérez, R.

    2016-08-01

    There exist four pion nucleon coupling constants, fπ0pp, ‑ fπ0nn, fπ+pn/2 and fπ‑np/2 which coincide when up and down quark masses are identical and the electron charge is zero. While there is no reason why the pion-nucleon-nucleon coupling constants should be identical in the real world, one expects that the small differences might be pinned down from a sufficiently large number of independent and mutually consistent data. Our discussion provides a rationale for our recent determination fp2 = 0.0759(4),f 02 = 0.079(1),f c2 = 0.0763(6), based on a partial wave analysis of the 3σ self-consistent nucleon-nucleon Granada-2013 database comprising 6713 published data in the period 1950-2013.

  13. Time-Varying Fundamental Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, Keith

    2003-04-01

    Recent data from quasar absorption systems can be interpreted as arising from a time variation in the fine-structure constant. However, there are numerous cosmological, astro-physical, and terrestrial bounds on any such variation. These includes bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (from the ^4He abundance), the Oklo reactor (from the resonant neutron capture cross-section of Sm), and from meteoretic lifetimes of heavy radioactive isotopes. The bounds on the variation of the fine-structure constant are significantly strengthened in models where all gauge and Yukawa couplings vary in a dependent manner, as would be expected in unified theories. Models which are consistent with all data are severly challenged when Equivalence Principle constraints are imposed.

  14. Henry Smyth Jr. award lecture--occupational exposure limits: do we need them? Who is responsible? How do we get them?

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Harry J

    2005-04-01

    The Henry F. Smyth Jr. Award is presented to an individual who has recognized the needs of the industrial hygiene profession and has made major contributions to fulfill those needs, thereby contributing to the improvement of the public welfare. The American Academy of Industrial Hygiene (now the Academy of Industrial Hygiene) established the Henry F. Smyth Jr. Award in 1981. Henry F. Smyth Jr. was a dedicated teacher and a productive researcher whose projects enhanced the profession. This year's Award was presented to Harry Ettinger, CIH, PE, at the 2004 Professional Conference on Industrial Hygiene (PCIH) in Montreal, Canada.

  15. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof.2 Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special case of a complicated mathematical formalism.3 Either way, little or no physical insight is provided to the student regarding the underlying physics. This paper presents a novel, basic, and transparent derivation of the Biot-Savart law for a point charge based only on Maxwell's displacement current term in Ampere's law. This derivation can serve many pedagogical purposes. For example, it can be used as lecture material at any academic level to obtain the Biot-Savart law for a point charge from simple principles. It can also serve as a practical example of the important fact that a changing electric flux produces a magnetic field.

  16. Universal constants and equations of turbulent motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumert, Helmut

    2011-11-01

    For turbulence at high Reynolds number we present an analogy with the kinetic theory of gases, with dipoles made of vortex tubes as frictionless, incompressible but deformable quasi-particles. Their movements are governed by Helmholtz' elementary vortex rules applied locally. A contact interaction or ``collision'' leads either to random scatter of a trajectory or to the formation of two likewise rotating, fundamentally unstable whirls forming a dissipative patch slowly rotating around its center of mass, the latter almost at rest. This approach predicts von Karman's constant as 1/sqrt(2 pi) = 0.399 and the spatio-temporal dynamics of energy-containing time and length scales controlling turbulent mixing [Baumert 2005, 2009]. A link to turbulence spectra was missing so far. In the present contribution it is shown that the above image of dipole movements is compatible with Kolmogorov's spectra if dissipative patches, beginning as two likewise rotating eddies, evolve locally into a space-filling bearing in the sense of Herrmann [1990], i.e. into an ``Apollonian gear.'' Its parts and pieces are are frictionless, excepting the dissipative scale of size zero. Our approach predicts the dimensionless pre-factor in the 3D Eulerian wavenumber spectrum (in terms of pi) as 1.8, and in the Lagrangian frequency spectrum as the integer number 2. Our derivations are free of empirical relations and rest on geometry, methods from many-particle physics, and on elementary conservation laws only. Department of the Navy Grant, ONR Global

  17. [International malpractice law].

    PubMed

    Stellpflug, M H

    2001-10-01

    According to German Civil Law the liability of a physician in telemedicine can be based on the breach of contractual duties or tort. In telemedicine doctor and patient are separated by distance. In the case of cross border telemedicine Medical Malpractice Law becomes an international issue with many new questions arising. The rules and regulations of "private international law" determine which law has to be applied. The German private international law allows the patient to choose either the law of the state in which the doctor acts or that state in which the therapeutical damage is being suffered. Another important question arises in determining the jurisdiction (of a court). The European agreements give the patient the right to choose. A "choice of jurisdiction clause" or a "choice of law clause" can help to decide with binding force which law and what jurisdiction has to be applied. However, various regulations concerned with consumer protection restrict the permission of such agreements.

  18. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  19. [International malpractice law].

    PubMed

    Stellpflug, M H

    2001-10-01

    According to German Civil Law the liability of a physician in telemedicine can be based on the breach of contractual duties or tort. In telemedicine doctor and patient are separated by distance. In the case of cross border telemedicine Medical Malpractice Law becomes an international issue with many new questions arising. The rules and regulations of "private international law" determine which law has to be applied. The German private international law allows the patient to choose either the law of the state in which the doctor acts or that state in which the therapeutical damage is being suffered. Another important question arises in determining the jurisdiction (of a court). The European agreements give the patient the right to choose. A "choice of jurisdiction clause" or a "choice of law clause" can help to decide with binding force which law and what jurisdiction has to be applied. However, various regulations concerned with consumer protection restrict the permission of such agreements. PMID:11688223

  20. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  1. Millikan's measurement of Planck's constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Robert Millikan is famous for measuring the charge of the electron. His result was better than any previous measurement and his method established that there was a fundamental unit of charge, or charge quantization. He is less well-known for his measurement of Planck's constant, although, as discussed below, he is often mistakenly given credit for providing significant evidence in support of Einstein's photon theory of light.1 His Nobel Prize citation was "for his work on the elementary electric charge of electricity and the photoelectric effect," an indication of the significance of his work on the photoelectric effect.

  2. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  3. Communication, Law, and Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon M.

    The author takes the position that communication is an essential, but often overlooked component of law and justice; furthermore, some of the current problems in the area of law and justice are basically communication problems. The author traces the early development of communication and law as closely related disciplines, with emphasis on the…

  4. The Laws Are Yours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  5. On Teaching Natural Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  6. Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, William C., Jr.

    The purpose of this chapter is to suggest outlines of a preventive law practice, raise issues, and provoke further thought and discussion concerning the application of preventive law principles and techniques to the management and operation of educational systems. The theory of preventive law and some of its premises are examined in order to…

  7. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  8. Zipf's law in multifragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Campi, X.; Krivine, H.

    2005-11-01

    We discuss the meaning of Zipf's law in nuclear multifragmentation. We remark that Zipf's law is a consequence of a power-law fragment size distribution with exponent {tau}{approx_equal}2. We also recall why the presence of such a distribution is not a reliable signal of a liquid-gas phase transition.

  9. Water, law, science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  10. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility. PMID:15015547

  11. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility.

  12. Discharge ratings for control structures at McHenry Dam on the Fox River, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three measurement of discharge were used to determine discharge ratings for the five adjustable sluice gates, spillway and fish ladder at McHenry Dam on the Fox River in Illinois. Discharge ratings were determined for free weir, free orifice, and submerged orifice flow regimes. Hydraulic conditions that identify flow regimes at McHenry Dam are defined by ratios between headwater depth (h1), tailwater depth (h3), and gate opening (hg). Flow under the sluice gates is identified as weir flow when the ratio of gate opening to headwater depth is greater than 0.73, and as orifice flow when hg/H1 is less than 0.73. Free orifice flow occurs when the ratio of tailwater depth to gate opening is less than 1.3, and submerged orifice flow occurs when h3/hg is greater than 1.3. Flow under the sluice gates is identified as free weir flow when the ratio of tailwater depth to headwater depth is less than 0.75, and as submerged weir flow when h3/h1 is greater than 0.75. Flow over the spillway is identified as free weir flow when the ratio of tailwater depth to headwater depth is less than 0.60, and as submerged weir flow when h3/h1 is greater than 0.60. Discharge coefficients to be used in equations to compute discharge for various hydraulic conditions were determined. Four discharge measurement, ranging from 169 to 2990 cu ft/sec, were used to define discharge coefficients that varies from 2.61 to 3.14 for free weir flow over the spillway. Nineteen discharge measurements, ranging from 180 to 4050 cu ft/sec, were used to define discharge coefficients for free weir, free orifice, and submerged orifice flow under the sluice gates. The average value of the discharge coefficient for free weir flow under the sluice gates is 3.17. Discharge coefficients for free orifice flow varied from 0.48 to 0.66 and the discharge coefficients for submerged orifice flow from the two measurements were 0.59 and 0.67. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Fifty Years of Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, E. M.

    1999-05-01

    It is easy to pick out my most memorable meeting of the AAS: the 149th meeting held in January, 1977, and hosted by the University of Hawaii, in Honolulu, HI. It was the meeting at which two traditions of the Society were broken, and we moved into the era of equal opportunity for women astronomers. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin received the highest award of the AAS: the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship. This award had never before been available to women, otherwise Cecilia would, years earlier, have been honored for the many achievements in her lifetime of renowned astronomical research. And I, the first woman to be elected President of the AAS, had the honor of presenting the illuminated scroll to Cecilia, and of introducing her on the platform where she delivered the Henry Norris Russell Prize Lecture, entitled ``Fifty Years of Novae"(1) . Cecilia opened by comparing the experience of young and old scientists in achieving exciting results from their research, and then led us through the history of the discoveries of and about some famous novae. She described the physical picture that emerged from studies of their light curves, their spectra, and the discovery of their binary nature. Three important tables were included, listing data on cataclysmic binaries (dwarf novae) and their link to the nova phenomenon in general. She recalled that she and Sergei Gaposchkin had hesitated between the names catastrophic and cataclysmic for the dwarf novae, and decided on the latter, from the dictionary definitions of those two terms: ``a cataclysm is a great and general flood" while a catastrophe ``is a final event". The nova phenomenon is recurrent, as are the dwarf novae, and both involve an outpouring of a flood of energy. She concluded by describing her 50 years' experience with novae as presenting ``the contemporary portrait of a nova", rather than a final picture, and by forecasting that the next 50 years of discovering and studying novae will be as full of surprises as the

  14. Stability constant estimator user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.P.; Castleton, K.J.; Rustad, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the Stability Constant Estimator (SCE) program is to estimate aqueous stability constants for 1:1 complexes of metal ions with ligands by using trends in existing stability constant data. Such estimates are useful to fill gaps in existing thermodynamic databases and to corroborate the accuracy of reported stability constant values.

  15. A Test of Star Formation Laws in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan C.

    2010-02-01

    We use observations of the radial profiles of the mass surface density of total, Σ g , and molecular, ΣH2, gas rotation velocity and star formation rate surface density, Σsfr, of the molecular dominated regions of 12 disk galaxies from Leroy et al. to test several star formation laws: a "Kennicutt-Schmidt power law," Σsfr = Ag Σ1.5 g,2; a "constant molecular law," Σsfr = A H2ΣH2,2 the "turbulence-regulated laws" of Krumholz & McKee (KM) and Krumholz, McKee, & Tumlinson (KMT), a "gas-Ω law," Σsfr = B ΩΣ g Ω and a shear-driven "giant molecular cloud (GMC) collisions law," Σsfr = B CCΣ g Ω(1 - 0.7β), where β ≡ d ln v circ/d ln r. We find the constant molecular law, KMT turbulence law, and GMC collision law are the most accurate, with an rms error of a factor of 1.5 if the normalization constants are allowed to vary between galaxies. Of these three laws, the GMC collision law does not require a change in physics to account for the full range of star formation activity seen from normal galaxies to circumnuclear starbursts. A single global GMC collision law with B CC = 8.0 × 10-3, i.e., a gas consumption time of 20 orbital times for β = 0, yields an rms error of a factor of 1.8.

  16. A TEST OF STAR FORMATION LAWS IN DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jonathan C.

    2010-02-10

    We use observations of the radial profiles of the mass surface density of total, {sigma} {sub g}, and molecular, {sigma}{sub H2}, gas rotation velocity and star formation rate surface density, {sigma}{sub sfr}, of the molecular dominated regions of 12 disk galaxies from Leroy et al. to test several star formation laws: a 'Kennicutt-Schmidt power law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = A{sub g} {sigma}{sup 1.5} {sub g,2}; a 'constant molecular law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = A {sub H2}{sigma}{sub H2,2}; the 'turbulence-regulated laws' of Krumholz and McKee (KM) and Krumholz, McKee, and Tumlinson (KMT), a 'gas-{omega} law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = B {sub {omega}}{sigma} {sub g}{omega}; and a shear-driven 'giant molecular cloud (GMC) collisions law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = B {sub CC}{sigma} {sub g}{omega}(1 - 0.7{beta}), where {beta} {identical_to} d ln v {sub circ}/d ln r. We find the constant molecular law, KMT turbulence law, and GMC collision law are the most accurate, with an rms error of a factor of 1.5 if the normalization constants are allowed to vary between galaxies. Of these three laws, the GMC collision law does not require a change in physics to account for the full range of star formation activity seen from normal galaxies to circumnuclear starbursts. A single global GMC collision law with B {sub CC} = 8.0 x 10{sup -3}, i.e., a gas consumption time of 20 orbital times for {beta} = 0, yields an rms error of a factor of 1.8.

  17. Approximation of Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  18. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  19. The Treatment of the Laws of Dynamics in Higher Level Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikoin, I. K.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how Newton's three laws of dynamics are taught in high school in the Soviet Union. Rejects introducing Newton's second law as an equation defining mass as a proportionality constant. Shows how the concept of mass can be introduced independently of Newton's Law. (GA)

  20. Apportionment of NMHC tailpipe vs non-tailpipe emissions in the Fort McHenry and Tuscarora mountain tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertler, Alan W.; Fujita, Eric M.; Pierson, William R.; Wittorff, David N.

    Measurements of on-road emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were made in the Fort McHenry Tunnel (Baltimore) and Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel (Pennsylvania) during the summer of 1992. Measurements were made during 11 one-hour periods in the Fort McHenry Tunnel and during 11 one-hour periods in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel. The observed light-duty fleets were quite new, with a median model year of approximately 1989. Speciated NMHC values were obtained from analyses of canister and Tenax samples, and light-duty speciated emission factors were calculated for the two tunnels. Fuel samples were collected in the area around the tunnels for use in constructing headspace and liquid fuel profiles for the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Profiles of tailpipe emissions were obtained from the literature. The CMB was used to apportion tailpipe from non-tailpipe emissions. Non-tailpipe sources were found to constitute approximately 15% of the light-duty NMHC emissions. The Federal automotive emission-rate models, MOBILE4.1 and MOBILE5, underpredicted non-tailpipe emissions, assigning approximately 9% and 6.5%, respectively, to non-tailpipe sources. In terms of total absolute emissions, MOBILE5 predictions were approximately a factor of 2 greater than MOBILE4.1 predictions. Both MOBILE4.1 and MOBILE5 underestimated the NMHC emissions in the Fort McHenry Tunnel and overpredicted the NMHC emissions in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel. In all cases, the MOBILE models underestimated the absolute value of the non-tailpipe emissions. The ability of the MOBILE models to account for observed emissions when conditions are more variable than those studies in the Fort McHenry and Tuscarora Mountain tunnels is still an open question.

  1. William Henry, Duke of Gloucester (1689-1700), son of Queen Anne (1665-1714), could have ruled Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Holmes, G E F; Holmes, F F

    2008-02-01

    Hope for continuation of the Stuart dynasty in Britain ended with the death, from pneumonia in 1700, of the 11-year-old son of Princess Anne and Prince George, William Henry Duke of Gloucester. Considered by some to have been physically and mentally unfit to reign, careful examination of primary source materials shows him to have been a bright and interesting boy with mild hydrocephalus. Had he lived, he could have ruled. PMID:18463064

  2. Synthesis of novel Schiff base ligands from gluco- and galactochloraloses for the Cu(II) catalyzed asymmetric Henry reaction.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Sevda; Telli, Fatma Ç; Salman, Yeşim; Astley, Stephen T

    2015-04-30

    A series of chiral Schiff base ligands has been prepared using aminochloralose derivatives of glucose and galactose. These ligands were used as catalysts in the asymmetric Henry reaction in the presence of Cu(II) ions giving yields of up to 95%. An interesting solvent dependency on enantiomeric control was observed with the best enantiomeric excesses (up to 91%) being obtained in the presence of water. PMID:25742867

  3. Noncovalent immobilization of ionic-tagged box-Cu(OAc)2 complex and its application in asymmetric Henry reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Huai; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Xiao; Liu, Ying-Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Immobilized Cu(OAc)(2)-bis(oxazolines) via hydrogen bonding by SBA-15 was applied to asymmetric Henry reaction, and good enantioselectivities were obtained (up to 83% ee) between 2-methoxybenzaldehyde and CH(3)NO(2) in isopropyl alcohol (iPrOH). The catalyst could be reused seven times without any obvious loss in enantioselectivity. For the first time, this facile and clean immobilization method is applied to the use of bis(oxazolines) complexes. PMID:23001750

  4. Preparation of Poly(ionic liquid)s-Supported Recyclable Organocatalysts for the Asymmetric Nitroaldol (Henry) Reaction.

    PubMed

    Großeheilmann, Julia; Bandomir, Jenny; Kragl, Udo

    2015-12-21

    A novel strategy for the embedding of quinine-based organocatalysts in polymerized ionic liquids-based hydrogels is presented. With this technique, the encapsulated organocatalyst was successfully recovered and reused for four cycles without any loss of enantioselectivity (up to 91% ee) for the asymmetric nitroaldol (Henry) reaction. In this study, high catalyst leaching was significantly reduced (<0.01%) by controlling the water content. After catalyst removal, evaporation of the solvent affords the product in 98% purity without any further purification.

  5. Statistical Modelling of the Soil Dielectric Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Marczewski, Wojciech; Bogdan Usowicz, Jerzy; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2010-05-01

    The dielectric constant of soil is the physical property being very sensitive on water content. It funds several electrical measurement techniques for determining the water content by means of direct (TDR, FDR, and others related to effects of electrical conductance and/or capacitance) and indirect RS (Remote Sensing) methods. The work is devoted to a particular statistical manner of modelling the dielectric constant as the property accounting a wide range of specific soil composition, porosity, and mass density, within the unsaturated water content. Usually, similar models are determined for few particular soil types, and changing the soil type one needs switching the model on another type or to adjust it by parametrization of soil compounds. Therefore, it is difficult comparing and referring results between models. The presented model was developed for a generic representation of soil being a hypothetical mixture of spheres, each representing a soil fraction, in its proper phase state. The model generates a serial-parallel mesh of conductive and capacitive paths, which is analysed for a total conductive or capacitive property. The model was firstly developed to determine the thermal conductivity property, and now it is extended on the dielectric constant by analysing the capacitive mesh. The analysis is provided by statistical means obeying physical laws related to the serial-parallel branching of the representative electrical mesh. Physical relevance of the analysis is established electrically, but the definition of the electrical mesh is controlled statistically by parametrization of compound fractions, by determining the number of representative spheres per unitary volume per fraction, and by determining the number of fractions. That way the model is capable covering properties of nearly all possible soil types, all phase states within recognition of the Lorenz and Knudsen conditions. In effect the model allows on generating a hypothetical representative of

  6. Asympotics with positive cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonga, Beatrice; Ashtekar, Abhay; Kesavan, Aruna

    2014-03-01

    Since observations to date imply that our universe has a positive cosmological constant, one needs an extension of the theory of isolated systems and gravitational radiation in full general relativity from the asymptotically flat to asymptotically de Sitter space-times. In current definitions, one mimics the boundary conditions used in asymptotically AdS context to conclude that the asymptotic symmetry group is the de Sitter group. However, these conditions severely restricts radiation and in fact rules out non-zero flux of energy, momentum and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves. Therefore, these formulations of asymptotically de Sitter space-times are uninteresting beyond non-radiative spacetimes. The situation is compared and contrasted with conserved charges and fluxes at null infinity in asymptotically flat space-times.

  7. Philicities, Fugalities, and Equilibrium Constants.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Herbert; Ofial, Armin R

    2016-05-17

    The mechanistic model of Organic Chemistry is based on relationships between rate and equilibrium constants. Thus, strong bases are generally considered to be good nucleophiles and poor nucleofuges. Exceptions to this rule have long been known, and the ability of iodide ions to catalyze nucleophilic substitutions, because they are good nucleophiles as well as good nucleofuges, is just a prominent example for exceptions from the general rule. In a reaction series, the Leffler-Hammond parameter α = δΔG(⧧)/δΔG° describes the fraction of the change in the Gibbs energy of reaction, which is reflected in the change of the Gibbs energy of activation. It has long been considered as a measure for the position of the transition state; thus, an α value close to 0 was associated with an early transition state, while an α value close to 1 was considered to be indicative of a late transition state. Bordwell's observation in 1969 that substituent variation in phenylnitromethanes has a larger effect on the rates of deprotonation than on the corresponding equilibrium constants (nitroalkane anomaly) triggered the breakdown of this interpretation. In the past, most systematic investigations of the relationships between rates and equilibria of organic reactions have dealt with proton transfer reactions, because only for few other reaction series complementary kinetic and thermodynamic data have been available. In this Account we report on a more general investigation of the relationships between Lewis basicities, nucleophilicities, and nucleofugalities as well as between Lewis acidities, electrophilicities, and electrofugalities. Definitions of these terms are summarized, and it is suggested to replace the hybrid terms "kinetic basicity" and "kinetic acidity" by "protophilicity" and "protofugality", respectively; in this way, the terms "acidity" and "basicity" are exclusively assigned to thermodynamic properties, while "philicity" and "fugality" refer to kinetics

  8. Genetic comparison of the head of Henri IV and the presumptive blood from Louis XVI (both Kings of France).

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Olalde, Iñigo; Solé, Neus; Ramírez, Oscar; Babelon, Jean-Pierre; Galland, Bruno; Calafell, Francesc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2013-03-10

    A mummified head was identified in 2010 as belonging to Henri IV, King of France. A putative blood sample from the King Louis XVI preserved into a pyrographically decorated gourd was analyzed in 2011. Both kings are in a direct male-line descent, separated by seven generations. We have retrieved the hypervariable region 1 of the mitochondrial DNA as well as a partial Y-chromosome profile from Henri IV. Five STR loci match the alleles found in Louis XVI, while another locus shows an allele that is just one mutation step apart. Taking into consideration that the partial Y-chromosome profile is extremely rare in modern human databases, we concluded that both males could be paternally related. The likelihood ratio of the two samples belonging to males separated by seven generations (as opposed to unrelated males) was estimated as 246.3, with a 95% confidence interval between 44.2 and 9729. Historically speaking, this forensic DNA data would confirm the identity of the previous Louis XVI sample, and give another positive argument for the authenticity of the head of Henri IV.

  9. The death of Henry II, King of France (1519-1559). From myth to medical and historical fact.

    PubMed

    Zanello, Marc; Charlier, Philippe; Corns, Robert; Devaux, Bertrand; Berche, Patrick; Pallud, Johan

    2015-01-01

    On 30 June 1559, Henry II, King of France, was mortally wounded in the head by a lance during a jousting match. Despite the best efforts of his physicians, Ambroise Paré and Andreas Vesalius, King Henry died 11 days later. This article, based on previously unpublished evidence, aims at examining the historical account of his death against modern medical practice to establish the probable cause of the king's death. We also discuss what treatments the doctors in the sixteenth century may have had to offer. Historical accounts of the joust provide details of the incident including the position of the visor of the king's helmet. Descriptions of the wood fragments removed from the right orbit by Italian observers and a new translation of the autopsy by Andreas Vesalius allow an accurate description of the actual injury. Our research counters previous theories and concludes that Henry II was the victim of craniofacial trauma involving the right eye and that he died from periorbital cellulitis caused by a retained foreign body in the wound, complicated by a left interhemispheric empyema preceded by a traumatic interhemispheric haematoma. It would appear that the royal court doctors advocated a wait-and-see strategy, with little actual input from Ambroise Paré or Andreas Vesalius, with a clearly regrettable outcome. PMID:25421951

  10. Genetic comparison of the head of Henri IV and the presumptive blood from Louis XVI (both Kings of France).

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Olalde, Iñigo; Solé, Neus; Ramírez, Oscar; Babelon, Jean-Pierre; Galland, Bruno; Calafell, Francesc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2013-03-10

    A mummified head was identified in 2010 as belonging to Henri IV, King of France. A putative blood sample from the King Louis XVI preserved into a pyrographically decorated gourd was analyzed in 2011. Both kings are in a direct male-line descent, separated by seven generations. We have retrieved the hypervariable region 1 of the mitochondrial DNA as well as a partial Y-chromosome profile from Henri IV. Five STR loci match the alleles found in Louis XVI, while another locus shows an allele that is just one mutation step apart. Taking into consideration that the partial Y-chromosome profile is extremely rare in modern human databases, we concluded that both males could be paternally related. The likelihood ratio of the two samples belonging to males separated by seven generations (as opposed to unrelated males) was estimated as 246.3, with a 95% confidence interval between 44.2 and 9729. Historically speaking, this forensic DNA data would confirm the identity of the previous Louis XVI sample, and give another positive argument for the authenticity of the head of Henri IV. PMID:23283403

  11. The death of Henry II, King of France (1519-1559). From myth to medical and historical fact.

    PubMed

    Zanello, Marc; Charlier, Philippe; Corns, Robert; Devaux, Bertrand; Berche, Patrick; Pallud, Johan

    2015-01-01

    On 30 June 1559, Henry II, King of France, was mortally wounded in the head by a lance during a jousting match. Despite the best efforts of his physicians, Ambroise Paré and Andreas Vesalius, King Henry died 11 days later. This article, based on previously unpublished evidence, aims at examining the historical account of his death against modern medical practice to establish the probable cause of the king's death. We also discuss what treatments the doctors in the sixteenth century may have had to offer. Historical accounts of the joust provide details of the incident including the position of the visor of the king's helmet. Descriptions of the wood fragments removed from the right orbit by Italian observers and a new translation of the autopsy by Andreas Vesalius allow an accurate description of the actual injury. Our research counters previous theories and concludes that Henry II was the victim of craniofacial trauma involving the right eye and that he died from periorbital cellulitis caused by a retained foreign body in the wound, complicated by a left interhemispheric empyema preceded by a traumatic interhemispheric haematoma. It would appear that the royal court doctors advocated a wait-and-see strategy, with little actual input from Ambroise Paré or Andreas Vesalius, with a clearly regrettable outcome.

  12. Exploring the association of John Henry active coping and education on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks in the USA.

    PubMed

    Fernander, Anita F; Patten, Christi A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Stevens, Susanna R; Eberman, Kay M; Hurt, Richard D

    2005-02-01

    Although smoking is used as a coping tool in response to stress and Blacks have been found to report smoking more in response to stress than Whites, little research exists that has examined ethno-culturally specific constructs of stress and coping as they relate to smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks in the USA. This study explored the association between the ethno-culturally interactively defined construct of John Henryism, as well as the individual contributions of John Henry active coping and education on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence in a relatively urban-Midwestern Black population. Self-identified Black patients (n = 146) who had previously received a clinical intervention for nicotine dependence were followed to assess smoking status and John Henry active coping. Results revealed that patients with low levels of education who had low levels of John Henry active coping reported higher nicotine dependence scores than any other education by John Henry active coping group. Furthermore, low levels of John Henry active coping were associated with the use of menthol cigarettes and lower-educational level was associated with smoking greater than 20 cigarettes per day. Further community-based studies examining this construct among Black smokers in various socio-cultural contexts are needed to clarify the association between John Henry active coping and socioeconomic status on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks.

  13. Mineral resources of the Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area, Fremont County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tysdal, R.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Peters, T.J.

    1988-06-10

    A mineral-resource survey of the 350-acre Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area (ID-035-077) was made in 1986-87. No identified resources (known) or currently active claims exist within or adjacent to the wilderness study area. There is potential for several types of undiscovered mineral resources within the study area. The southwestern part of the wilderness study area, along the Madison Range fault, is rated as having a moderate energy-resource potential for geothermal water; the remainder of the study area has a low potential for resources of this commodity. A small outcrop of marble in the southernmost part of the study area has a low mineral-resource potential for talc; for talc in marble possibly concealed beneath the study area the mineral-resource potential is rated as unknown. The study area has a low mineral-resource potential for iron in hematite-mineralized amphibolite gneiss, and for gold, silver, and uranium. The area has no mineral-resource potential for phosphate, because the host strata have been eroded; and no resource potential for oil and gas.

  14. Uncovering strata: An investigation into the graphic innovations of geologist Henry T. De la Beche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, Renee M.

    An historical investigation into the types of illustrations in the Golden Age of Geology (1788--1840) revealed the nature and progression of graphic representation at the dawning of geology as a science. Exhaustive sampling of geology texts published in the period of focus proceeded until saturation was achieved. Qualitative analysis and evaluation of early illustrations were accomplished with Edward R. Tufte's theory of graphic design. Hypothesis testing around a correlation coefficient revealed significance at the 99% confidence level for relationships between publication year and number of included graphics, and publication year and the graphic density of texts. Henry T. De la Beche emerged as an important geologist who made numerous innovative graphic contributions in the Golden Age of Geology. De la Beche promoted colliding theory graphics, or the accurate portrayal of the earth's sections and scenes that would remain valuable for future generations of geologists. He was apparently the first geologist to utilize the small multiple format. De la Beche also designed and drew scientific caricatures that encapsulated the theoretical debates of the day, as well as the social, cultural, and historical influences on the emerging theories of geology. These scientific caricatures have emerged as instructional graphics with significant classroom potential for teaching the nature of science. De la Beche also drew the first portrayal of a scene from deep time, Duria antiquior, which became the first innovative classroom geology teaching graphic. Through his introduction and development of several important genres of visual explanation, De la Beche emerged as the Father of Visual Geology Education.

  15. Water in sand and gravel deposits in McHenry County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, J.R.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    Two general types of sand and gravel occur in McHenry County - unconfined aquifers, which are at or near the land surface, and semiconfined aquifers, which are overlain by one or more till members. Water levels in both types of aquifers are mapped from measurements made in the spring of 1979. The water-level configuration roughly parallels the land surface. Moraines and other topographically high features coincide with ground-water divides of local flow systems. Flow paths from divides to low-lands are relatively short - a few miles or less. Recharge predominates in uplands, whereas discharge predominates in lowlands. Water levels change seasonally in response to variations in recharge and discharge conditions. The highest water levels occur during spring and decline during the rest of the year. Ground water is of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type and is of acceptable quality for most uses. However, for domestic and some industrial uses, treatment may be required to reduce hardness and to remove iron. Hardness ranged from 130 to 600 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate, and dissolved iron concentrations ranges from less than 10 to 6200 micrograms per liter. The specific conductance of ground water ranged from 260 to 1170 micromhos per centimeter. Specific conductance exceeded 1000 micromhos per centimeter near Huntley and Hebron. Nitrate concentration was generally less than 0.68 milligrams per liter. 22 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. New quartz oscillator switching method for nano-Henry range inductance measurements.

    PubMed

    Matko, Vojko; Jezernik, Karel

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a new method for nano-Henry inductance measurements at the frequency of 4.999 MHz with a single quartz crystal oscillating in the switching oscillating circuit. The real novelty of this method, however, lies in a considerable reduction of the temperature influence of AT-cut crystal frequency change in the temperature range between 0 °C and 50 °C through a switching method which compensates for the crystal's natural temperature characteristics. This allows for the compensation of any influences on the crystal such as the compensation of the non-linear temperature characteristics and the ageing of both the crystal and other oscillating circuit elements, as well as the reduction of the output frequency measurement errors with the help of an additional reference frequency. The experimental results show that the switching method greatly improves the measurement of small inductance changes in the range between μH and nH, allowing as a result high-precision measurements (~0.35 fH) in this range.

  17. Henry Knowles Beecher, Jay Katz, and the Transformation of Research with Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Capron, Alexander Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research. The work that Henry Beecher and Jay Katz did on the ethics of human experimentation beginning in 1964-which was mutually supportive but also divergent in its premises and prescriptions-played a prominent role in the policy-making processes. Beecher, whose detailed disclosure of the ethical lapses of leading researchers in his renowned 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article initiated the policy reform process, proved less influential in shaping those reforms than Katz. Ultimately, Beecher was one of the last and best exemplars of "medical ethics," while Katz-in his service on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel and in his testimony before, and work with, the Senate Health subcommittee-was an early practitioner of bioethics, a field in which the rules are not all written and applied by the medical profession but arise through a messier process involving outsiders and formal regulatory decisions.

  18. Tools for groundwater protection planning: An example from McHenry County, Illinois, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berg, R.C.; Curry, B. Brandon; Olshansky, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for producing aquifer sensitivity maps from three-dimensional geologic maps, called stack-unit maps. Stack-unit maps depict the succession of geologic materials to a given depth, and aquifer sensitivity maps interpret the successions according to their ability to transmit potential contaminants. Using McHenry County, Illinois, as a case study, stack-unit maps and an aquifer sensitivity assessment were made to help land-use planners, public health officials, consultants, developers, and the public make informed decisions regarding land use. A map of aquifer sensitivity is important for planning because the county is one of the fastest growing counties in the nation, and highly vulnerable sand and gravel aquifers occur within 6 m of ground surface over 75% of its area. The aquifer sensitivity map can provide guidance to regulators seeking optimal protection of groundwater resources where these resources are particularly vulnerable. In addition, the map can be used to help officials direct waste-disposal and industrial facilities and other sensitive land-use practices to areas where the least damage is likely to occur, thereby reducing potential future liabilities.

  19. Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927) on the glomerular and tubular functions of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Fine, Leon G

    2014-01-01

    Around the turn of the 20th century, Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927) made many fundamental contributions to the understanding of human physiology. With a deep interest in how fluid balance is regulated, he naturally turned to explore the intricacies of kidney function. Early in his career he focused upon the process of glomerular filtration and was able to substantiate the view of Carl Ludwig that this process can be explained entirely upon the basis of hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients across the glomerular capillary wall and that the process can be regulated by alterations in the tone of the afferent and efferent arterioles. To explore renal tubular function he employed a heart-lung-kidney model in the dog and was able to infer that certain substances are reabsorbed by the tubules (e.g. sodium chloride) and certain by tubular secretion (e.g. uric acid, indigo carmine dye). By temporarily blocking tubular function using hydrocyanic acid he was able to conclude that secreted substances must be taken up on the peritubular side of the cell and concentrated within the cell to drive the secretory process. Finally, he was able to appreciate that the kidney is an organ which is regulated according to the needs of the organism and that the processes of glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and reabsorption are all subject to regulatory influences, which have evolved to conserve the normal chemical composition of the cells and fluids of the body. PMID:24970544

  20. William Henry Jackson (1861--1952): Riel's secretary: another case of involuntary commitment?

    PubMed

    Greenland, C; Griffin, J D

    1978-11-01

    Although there have been many studies of the trial of Louis Riel, following the 1885 rebellion, much less attention has been paid to the fate of his secretary William Henry Jackson, who was charged with "treason-felony" and found not guilty, reason of insanity. In an effort to throw some new light on this neglected aspect of midico-legal history, this paper describes the intense political and religious relationship between Riel and his secretary which culminated in the onset of Jackson's mental illness. After a trial lasting less than half an hour, Jackson was committed to the "Selkirk Asylum" under a warrant of the then Lieutenant-Governor. Two weeks before Riel was executed, Jackson escaped from hospital and made his way into the U.S.A. No attempt was made to capture him. Jackson, having changed his name to Honoré Jaxon, became a labour organizer. He died in the psychopathic ward of Bellevue Hospital in New York on 10th January, 1952 at the age of ninety.