Science.gov

Sample records for henrys law constant

  1. Henry's law constants for dimethylsulfide in freshwater and seawater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, J. W. H.; Wakeham, S. G.; Howes, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distilled water and several waters of varying salinity were subjected, over a 0-32 C temperature range, to measurements for Henry's law constants for dimethylsulfide. Values for distilled water and seawater of the solubility parameters A and C are obtained which support the concept that the concentration of dimethylsulfide in the atmosphere is far from equilibrium with seawater.

  2. Henry's law constants of some environmentally important aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Betterton, E.A.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1988-12-01

    The Henry's law constants of seven aldehydes have been determined as a function of temperature by bubble-column and by head-space techniques. The compounds were chosen for their potential importance in the polluted troposphere and to allow structure-reactivity patterns to be investigated. The results (at 25/degree/C) are as follows (in units of M atm/sup /minus/1/): chloral, 3.44 /times/ 10/sup 5/; glyoxal, greater than or equal to3 /times/ 10/sup 5/; methylglyoxal, 3.71 /times/ 10/sup 3/; formaldehyde, 2.97 /times/ 10/sup 3/; benzaldehyde, 3.74 /times/ 10/sup 1/; hydroxyacetaldehyde, 4.14 /times/ 10/sup 4/; acetaldehyde, 1.14 /times/ 10/sup 1/. A plot of Taft's parameter, ..sigma..sigma*, vs log H* (the apparent Henry's law constant) gives a straight line with a slope of 1.72. H* for formaldehyde is anomalously high, as expected, but the extremely high value for hydroxyacetaldehyde was unexpected and may indicate that ..cap alpha..-hydroxy-substituted aldehydes could have an usually high affinity for the aqueous phase. The intrinsic Henry's law constants, H, corrected for hydration, do not show a clear structure-reactivity pattern for this series of aldehydes.

  3. Physicochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Aqueous solubilities, n-octanol/water partition coefficients, and Henry`s law constants

    SciTech Connect

    Maagd, P.G.J. de; Opperhuizen, A.; Sijm, D.T.H.M.; Hulscher, D.T.E.M. ten; Heuvel, H. van den

    1998-02-01

    Aqueous solubilities, n-octanol/water partition coefficients (K{sub ow}S), and Henry`s law constants were determined for a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a generator-column, slow-stirring, and gas-purge method, respectively. The currently obtained data were compared to available literature data. For seven of the PAHs no K{sub ow}S previously were determined with the slow-stirring method. For four of the PAHs the present study reports the first experimental Henry`s law constants. Relationships between subcooled liquid solubilities, K{sub ow}S, and Henry`s law constants as a function of molar volume are discussed. A consistent data set was obtained, for which an excellent correlation was found between subcooled liquid solubility and molar volume. A linear fit did not accurately describe the relationship between log K{sub ow} and molar volume. This is probably due to a decreasing solubility in n-octanol with increasing molar volume. Finally, a high correlation was found between Henry`s law constant and molar volume. The presently obtained dataset can be used to predict the fate and behavior of unsubstituted homocyclic PAHs.

  4. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constants of metolachlor and diazinon.

    PubMed

    Feigenbrugel, Valérie; Le Calvé, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe

    2004-10-01

    A dynamic system based on the water/air equilibrium at the interface within the length of a microporous tube has been used to determine experimentally the Henry's law constants (HLC) of two pesticides: metolachlor and diazinon. The measurements were conducted over the temperature range 283-301 K. At 293 K, HLCs values are (42.6+/-2.8) x 10(3) (in units of M atm(-1)) for metolachlor and (3.0+/-0.3)x10(3) for diazinon. The obtained data were used to derive the following Arrhenius expressions: HLC=(3.0+/-0.4) x 10(-11) exp((10,200+/-1,000)/T) for metolachlor and (7.2+/-0.5) x 10(-15) exp((11,900+/-700)/T) for diazinon. At a cumulus cloud temperature of 283 K, the fractions of metolachlor and diazinon in the atmospheric aqueous phase are about 57% and 11% respectively. In order to evaluate the impact of a cloud on the atmospheric chemistry of both studied pesticides, we compare also their atmospheric lifetimes under clear sky (tau(gas)), and cloudy conditions (tau(multiphase)). The calculated multiphase lifetimes (in units of hours) are significantly lower than those in gas phase at a cumulus temperature of 283 K (in parentheses): metolachlor, 0.4 (2.9); diazinon, 1.9 (5.0).

  5. Effective Henry's Law constant measurements for glyoxal in model aerosols containing sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, C. J.; Waxman, E.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Prevot, A. S.; Noziere, B.; Hoffmann, T.; Volkamer, R.

    2011-12-01

    Traditional models represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation based on the gas-phase oxidation of a limited set of precursor molecules. However, these models tend to under-estimate the amounts and degree of oxygenation of actual SOA, indicating missing processes. One such source that has become increasingly important in recent years is glyoxal (CHOCHO, the smallest alpha-dicarbonyl). Unlike traditional SOA precursors, glyoxal forms SOA by partitioning to the aqueous phase according to Henry's Law. This work presents an analysis of Henry's Law constants for glyoxal uptake to laboratory-generated aerosols in a dynamically coupled gas-aerosol system. We combine CU LED-CE-DOAS measurements of gas-phase glyoxal with online HR-Tof-AMS and time-resolved HPLC ESI MS/MS particle-phase measurements to characterize the time resolved evolution of glyoxal partitioning, and relate molecular-specific measurements to AMS mass spectra. The experiments were performed in the simulation chamber facility at PSI, Switzerland, and investigate ammonium sulfate (AS), and mixed AS / fulvic acid seed aerosols under relative humidity conditions ranging from 50 to 85% RH. The Henry's Law and effective Henry's Law constants are compared with other values reported in the literature.

  6. Effective Henry's Law constant measurements for glyoxal in model aerosols containing sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, C.; Waxman, E.; Slowik, J.; Dommen, J.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Noziere, B.; Hoffmann, T.; Volkamer, R.

    2012-04-01

    Traditional models represent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation based on the gas-phase oxidation of a limited set of precursor molecules. However, these models tend to under-estimate the amounts and degree of oxygenation of actual SOA, indicating missing processes. One such source that has become increasingly important in recent years is glyoxal (CHOCHO, the smallest alpha-dicarbonyl). Unlike traditional SOA precursors, glyoxal forms SOA by partitioning to the aqueous phase according to Henry's Law. This work presents an analysis of Henry's Law constants for glyoxal uptake to laboratory-generated aerosols in a dynamically coupled gas-aerosol system. We combine CU LED-CE-DOAS measurements of gas-phase glyoxal with online HR-Tof-AMS and time-resolved HPLC ESI MS/MS particle-phase measurements to characterize the time resolved evolution of glyoxal partitioning, and relate molecular-specific measurements to AMS mass spectra. The experiments were performed in the simulation chamber facility at PSI, Switzerland, and investigate ammonium sulfate (AS), and mixed AS / fulvic acid seed aerosols under relative humidity conditions ranging from 50 to 85% RH. The Henry's Law and effective Henry's Law constants are compared with other values reported in the literature.

  7. Evaluation and Prediction of Henry’s Law Constants and Aqueous Solubilities for Solvents and Hydrocarbon Fuel Components. Volume 2. Experimental Henry’s Law Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    HYDROCARBON FUEL COMPONENTS VOL II: EXPERIMENTAL HENRY’S LAW DATA N G.B. HOWE, M.E. MULLINS, T.N. ROGERS N RESEARCH TRIANGLE INSTITUTE P.O. BOX 12194 RESEARCH...constants agreed reasonably well (within 10 percent) with the batch air-stripping results and other reported experimental values. Measurements were conducted...OF THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED ITEM 19. ABSTRACT (Cont’d) in dilute aqueous solutions., Volume II: Experimental Henry’s Law Data (Volume Ii of 11I) This

  8. [Henry's law constant measurement for hydrogen peroxide using oxidative decoloration of BPR].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhong-ming; Qu, Xiao-cao

    2005-07-01

    The temperature-dependent Henry's Law Constant for hydrogen peroxide was measured. The gas phase of hydrogen peroxide from the vapor saturator collected in a cryogenic trap was analyzed by a spectrophotometric determination, based on the oxidative decoloration of BPR (bromopryogallol red) reaction with hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of hemin. At 10 degrees C - 35 degrees C, the relationship between Henry's Law constant K(H) (mol x L(-1) x atm(-1)) of hydrogen peroxide and temperature T (K) can be expressed as ln K(H) = a/T - b, where a = 7 269+/-22, and b = 13.26+/-0.08. The standard heat of hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution is 60.43+/-0.18 kJ x K(-1) x mol(-1).

  9. Temperature-dependent Henry's law constants of atmospheric organics of biogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Leng, Chunbo; Kish, J Duncan; Kelley, Judas; Mach, Mindy; Hiltner, Joseph; Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Yong

    2013-10-10

    There have been growing interests in modeling studies to understand oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase and their mass transfer to the aqueous phase for their potential roles in cloud chemistry, formation of secondary organic aerosols, and fate of atmospheric organics. Temperature-dependent Henry's law constants, key parameters in the atmospheric models to account for mass transfer, are often unavailable. In the present work, we investigated gas-liquid equilibriums of isoprene, limonene, α-pinene, and linalool using a bubble column technique. These compounds, originating from biogenic sources, were selected for their implications in atmospheric cloud chemistry and secondary organic aerosol formation. We reported Henry's law constants (K(H)), first order loss rates (k), and gas phase diffusion coefficients over a range of temperatures relevant to the lower atmosphere (278-298 K) for the first time. The measurement results of K(H) values for isoprene, limonene, α-pinene, and linalool at 298 K were 0.036 ± 0.003; 0.048 ± 0.004; 0.029 ± 0.004; and 21.20 ± 0.30 mol L(-1) atm(-1), respectively. The fraction for these compounds in stratocumulus and cumulonimbus clouds at 278 K were also estimated in this work (isoprene, 1.0 × 10(-6), 6.8 × 10(-6); limonene, 1.5 × 10(-6), 1.0 × 10(-5); α-pinene, 4.5 × 10(-7), 3.1 × 10(-6); and linalool, 6.2 × 10(-4), 4.2 × 10(-3)). Our measurements in combination with literature results indicated that noncyclic alkenes could have smaller K(H) values than those of cyclic terpenes and that K(H) values may increase with an increasing number of double bonds. It was also shown that estimated Henry's law constants and their temperature dependence based on model prediction can differ from experimental results considerably and that direct measurements of temperature-dependent Henry's law constants of atmospheric organics are necessary for future work.

  10. Smog chamber experiments to investigate Henry's law constants of glyoxal using different seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Ronit

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. Hence, they have a direct as well as an indirect impact on the earth's climate. Depending on their formation, one distinguishes between primary and secondary aerosols[1]. Important groups within the secondary aerosols are the secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In order to improve predictions about these impacts on the earth's climate the existing models need to be optimized, because they still underestimate SOA formation[2]. Glyoxal, the smallest α-dicarbonyl, not only acts as a tracer for SOA formation but also as a direct contributor to SOA. Because glyoxal has such a high vapour pressure, it was common knowledge that it does not take part in gas-particle partitioning and therefore has no impact on direct SOA formation. However, the Henry's law constant for glyoxal is surprisingly high. This has been explained by the hydration of the aldehyde groups, which means that a species with a lower vapour pressure is produced. Therefore the distribution of glyoxal between gas- and particle phase is atmospherically relevant and the direct contribution of glyoxal to SOA can no longer be neglected. A high salt concentration present in chamber seed aerosols leads to an enhanced glyoxal uptake into the particle. This effect is called "salting-in". The salting effect depends on the composition of the seed aerosol as well as the soluble compound. For very polar compounds, like glyoxal, a "salting-in" is observed[3]. Glyoxal particle formation during a smog chamber campaign at Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI) in Switzerland was examined using different seed aerosols such as ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and sodium nitrate. The aim of this campaign was to investigate Henry's law constants for different seed aerosols. During the campaign filter samples were taken to investigate the amount of glyoxal in the particle phase. After filter extraction, the analyte was derivatized and measured using UHPLC

  11. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  12. Effective Henry's law partitioning and the salting constant of glyoxal in aerosols containing sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Christopher J; Waxman, Eleanor M; Slowik, Jay G; Dommen, Josef; Pfaffenberger, Lisa; Praplan, Arnaud P; Prévôt, André S H; Baltensperger, Urs; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-05-07

    The reversible partitioning of glyoxal was studied in simulation chamber experiments for the first time by time-resolved measurements of gas-phase and particle-phase concentrations in sulfate-containing aerosols. Two complementary methods for the measurement of glyoxal particle-phase concentrations are compared: (1) an offline method utilizing filter sampling of chamber aerosols followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis and (2) positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data. Ammonium sulfate (AS) and internally mixed ammonium sulfate/fulvic acid (AS/FA) seed aerosols both show an exponential increase of effective Henry's law coefficients (KH,eff) with AS concentration (cAS, in mol kg(-1) aerosol liquid water, m = molality) and sulfate ionic strength, I(SO4(2-)) (m). A modified Setschenow plot confirmed that "salting-in" of glyoxal is responsible for the increased partitioning. The salting constant for glyoxal in AS is K(S)CHOCHO = (-0.24 ± 0.02) m(-1), and found to be independent of the presence of FA. The reversible glyoxal uptake can be described by two distinct reservoirs for monomers and higher molecular weight species filling up at characteristic time constants. These time constants are τ1 ≈ 10(2) s and τ2 ≈ 10(4) s at cAS < 12 m, and about 1-2 orders of magnitude slower at higher cAS, suggesting that glyoxal uptake is kinetically limited at high salt concentrations.

  13. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  14. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constant for hydrogen cyanide. Generation of trace standard gaseous hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R

    2010-04-15

    Primary data for the temperature dependent solubility of HCN in water do not presently exist for low concentrations of HCN at environmentally or physiologically relevant temperatures. Henry's Law constant (K(H), M/atm) for the vapor-solution equilibrium of HCN was determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 9.00 +/- 0.03 at 296.6 +/- 0.1 K) from 287-311 K. Stable gas phase concentrations of HCN are generated by established techniques, via air equilibration of aqueous cyanide partitioned by a microporous membrane. The effluent gaseous HCN, in equilibrium with the constant temperature aqueous cyanide, was collected in dilute NaOH and determined by a spectrophotometrically using cobinamide. The K(H) of HCN may be expressed as ln K(H) (M/atm) = (8205.7 +/- 341.9)/T - (25.323 +/- 1.144); r(2) = 0.9914) where T is the absolute temperature in K. This corresponds to 9.02 and 3.00 M/atm at 25 and 37.4 degrees C, respectively, compared to actual measurements of 9.86 and 3.22 at 25.0 and 37.8 degrees C, respectively. The technique also allows for convenient generation of trace levels of HCN at ppbv-ppmv levels that can be further diluted.

  15. Effects of temperature, pH, and ionic strength on the Henry's law constant of triethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Chun-Bo; Roberts, Jason E.; Zeng, Guang; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Liu, Yong

    2015-05-01

    The Henry's law constants (KH) of triethylamine (TEA) in pure water and in 1-octanol were measured for the temperatures pertinent to the lower troposphere (278-298 K) using a bubble column system coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The KH values of TEA in water and 1-octanol at 298 K are 5.75 ± 0.86 mol L-1 atm-1 and 115.62 ± 5.78 mol L-1 atm-1. The KH values display strong dependence on temperature, pH, and ionic strength. The characteristic times for TEA to establish an equilibrium between gas and droplet with a size of 5.6 µm are ~33 s (298 K, pH = 5.6); ~8.9 × 102 s (278 K, pH = 5.6); ~1.3 × 103 s (298 K, pH = 4.0); and 3.6 × 104 s (278 K, pH = 4.0). The evaluation of TEA partitioning between gas phase and condensed phase implies that TEA predominantly resides in rainwater, and TEA loss to organic aerosol is negligible.

  16. Reinvestigation of the Henry's law constant for hydrogen peroxide with temperature and acidity variation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Daoming; Chen, Zhongming

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is not only an important oxidant in itself; it also serves as both sink and temporary reservoir for other important oxidants including HOx (OH and HO2) radicals and O3 in the atmosphere. Its partitioning between gas and aqueous phases in the atmosphere, usually described by its Henry's law constant (K(H)), significantly influences its role in atmospheric processes. Large discrepancies between the K(H) values reported in previous work, however, have created uncertainty for atmospheric modelers. Based on our newly developed online instrumentation, we have re-determined the temperature and acidity dependence of K(H) for hydrogen peroxide at an air pressure of (0.960 +/- 0.013) atm (1 atm = 1.01325 x 10(5) Pa). The results indicated that the temperature dependence of K(H) for hydrogen peroxide fits to the Van't Hoff equation form, expressed as lnK(H) = a/T - b, and a = -deltaH/R, where K(H) is in M/atm (M is mol/L), T is in degrees Kelvin, R is the ideal gas constant, and deltaH is the standard heat of solution. For acidity dependence, results demonstrated that the K(H) value of hydrogen peroxide appeared to have no obvious dependence on decreasing pH level (from pH 7 to pH 1). Combining the dependence of both temperature and acidity, the obtained a and b were 7024 +/- 138 and 11.97 +/- 0.48, respectively, deltaH was (58.40 +/- 1.15) kJ/(K x mol), and the uncertainties represent sigma. Our determined K(H) values for hydrogen peroxide will therefore be of great use in atmospheric models.

  17. Determination of Henry's law constants of organochlorine pesticides in deionized and saline water as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Banu; Ozer, Serdar; Sofuoglu, Aysun; Odabasi, Mustafa

    The Henry's law constant ( H) is an important parameter that is required to estimate the air-water exchange of semi-volatile organic compounds. Henry's law constants for 17 banned/restricted/currently used organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were experimentally determined using a gas-stripping technique in deionized and saline water (3%) over a temperature range of 5-35 °C. H values (at 25 °C) ranged between 0.066±0.037 Pa m 3 mol -1 (endosulfan II) and 62.0±24.2 Pa m 3 mol -1 (heptachlor) in deionized water while the range in saline water was 0.28±0.03 Pa m 3 mol -1 ( γ-HCH) and 135.2±31.3 Pa m 3 mol -1 (heptachlor). The increase in dimensionless Henry's law constants ( H') for OCPs over the studied temperature range was between 3 ( γ-HCH)-19 times (chlorpyrifos) and 3 (endosulfan II)-80 times ( trans-nonachlor) in deionized and saline water, respectively. The calculated enthalpies of phase change (Δ HH) were within the ranges previously reported for OCPs and other organic compounds (23.8-100.2 kJ mol -1). The salting-out constant, ks, ranged between 0.04 ( γ-HCH) and 1.80 L mol -1 (endosulfan II) indicating the importance of assessing the H values of OCPs in saline water to accurately determine their partitioning and fate in seawater.

  18. Quantitative structure-property relationships for predicting Henry's law constant from molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Dearden, John C; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2003-08-01

    Various models are available for the prediction of Henry's law constant (H) or the air-water partition coefficient (Kaw), its dimensionless counterpart. Incremental methods are based on structural features such as atom types, bond types, and local structural environments; other regression models employ physicochemical properties, structural descriptors such as connectivity indices, and descriptors reflecting the electronic structure. There are also methods to calculate H from the ratio of vapor pressure (p(v)) and water solubility (S(w)) that in turn can be estimated from molecular structure, and quantum chemical continuum-solvation models to predict H via the solvation-free energy (deltaG(s)). This review is confined to methods that calculate H from molecular structure without experimental information and covers more than 40 methods published in the last 26 years. For a subset of eight incremental methods and four continuum-solvation models, a comparative analysis of their prediction performance is made using a test set of 700 compounds that includes a significant number of more complex and drug-like chemical structures. The results reveal substantial differences in the application range as well as in the prediction capability, a general decrease in prediction performance with decreasing H, and surprisingly large individual prediction errors, which are particularly striking for some quantum chemical schemes. The overall best-performing method appears to be the bond contribution method as implemented in the HENRYWIN software package, yielding a predictive squared correlation coefficient (q2) of 0.87 and a standard error of 1.03 log units for the test set.

  19. Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)

  20. Estimation of Henry's Law Constant for a Diverse Set of Organic Compounds from Molecular Structure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) vapor pressure and activity coefficient models were coupled to estimate Henry’s Law Constant (HLC) in water and in hexadecane for a wide range of non-polar and polar organic compounds without modification or additional p...

  1. Aqueous solubility, Henry's law constants and air/water partition coefficients of n-octane and two halogenated octanes.

    PubMed

    Sarraute, S; Delepine, H; Costa Gomes, M F; Majer, V

    2004-12-01

    New data on the aqueous solubility of n-octane, 1-chlorooctane and 1-bromooctane are reported between 1 degree C and 45 degrees C. Henry's law constants, K(H), and air/water partition coefficients, K(AW), were calculated by associating the measured solubility values to vapor pressures taken from literature. The mole fraction aqueous solubility varies between (1.13-1.60)x10(-7) for n-octane with a minimum at approximately 23 degrees C, (3.99-5.07)x10(-7) for 1-chlorooctane increasing monotonically with temperature and (1.60-3.44)x10(-7) for 1-bromooctane with a minimum near 18 degrees C. The calculated air-water partition coefficients increase with temperature and are two orders of magnitude lower for the halogenated derivatives compared to octane. The precision of the results, taken as the average absolute deviations of the aqueous solubility, the Henry's law constants, or the air/water partition coefficients, from appropriate smoothing equations as a function of temperature is of 3% for n-octane and of 2% and 4% for 1-chlorooctane and 1-bromooctane, respectively. A new apparatus based on the dynamic saturation column method was used for the solubility measurements. Test measurements with n-octane indicated the capability of measuring solubilities between 10(-6) and 10(-10) in mole fraction, with an estimated accuracy better than +/-10%. A thorough thermodynamic analysis of converting measured data to air/water partition coefficients is presented.

  2. PTR-MS measurements and analysis of models for the calculation of Henry's law constants of monosulfides and disulfides.

    PubMed

    Schuhfried, Erna; Biasioli, Franco; Aprea, Eugenio; Cappellin, Luca; Soukoulis, Christos; Ferrigno, Antonella; Märk, Tilmann D; Gasperi, Flavia

    2011-04-01

    Sulfides are known for their strong odor impact even at very low concentrations. Here, we report Henry's law constants (HLCs) measured at the nanomolar concentration range in water for monosulfides (dimethylsulfide, ethylmethylsulfide, diethylsulfide, allylmethylsulfide) and disulfides (dimethyldisulfide, diethylsulfide, dipropylsulfide) using a dynamic stripping technique coupled to Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). The experimental data were compared with literature values and to vapor/solubility calculations and their consistency was confirmed employing the extra-thermodynamic enthalpy-entropy compensation effect. Our experimental data are compatible with reported literature values, and they are typically lower than averaged experimental literature values by about 10%. Critical comparison with other freely available models (modeled vapor/solubility; group and bond additivity methods; Linear Solvation Energy Relationship; SPARC) was performed to validate their applicability to monosulfides and disulfides. Evaluation of theoretical models reveals a large deviation from our measured values by up to four times (in units of Matm(-1)). Two group contribution models were adjusted in view of the new data, and HLCs for a list of sulfur compounds were calculated. Based on our findings we recommend the evaluation and adaption of theoretical models for monosulfides and disulfides to lower values of solubility and higher values of fugacity.

  3. Henry's law constant and overall mass transfer coefficient for formaldehyde emission from small water pools under simulated indoor environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Roache, Nancy F; Mocka, Corey A; Allen, Matt R; Mason, Mark A

    2015-02-03

    The Henry's law constant (HLC) and the overall mass transfer coefficient are both important parameters for modeling formaldehyde emissions from aqueous solutions. In this work, the apparent HLCs for formaldehyde aqueous solutions were determined in the concentration range from 0.01% to 1% (w/w) and at different temperatures (23, 40, and 55 °C) by a static headspace extraction method. The aqueous solutions tested included formaldehyde in water, formaldehyde-water with nonionic surfactant Tergitol NP-9, and formaldehyde-water with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. Overall, the measured HLCs ranged from 8.33 × 10(-6) to 1.12 × 10(-4) (gas-concentration/aqueous-concentration, dimensionless). Fourteen small-chamber tests were conducted with formaldehyde solutions in small pools. By applying the measured HLCs, the formaldehyde overall liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients (KOLs) were determined to be in the range of 8.12 × 10(-5) to 2.30 × 10(-4) m/h, and the overall gas-phase mass transfer coefficients were between 2.84 and 13.4 m/h. The influences of the formaldehyde concentration, temperature, agitation rate, and surfactant on HLC and KOL were investigated. This study provides useful data to support source modeling for indoor formaldehyde originating from the use of household products that contain formaldehyde-releasing biocides.

  4. Determination of temperature dependent Henry's law constants of polychlorinated naphthalenes: Application to air-sea exchange in Izmir Bay, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Adali, Mutlu

    2016-12-01

    The Henry's law constant (H) is a crucial variable to investigate the air-water exchange of persistent organic pollutants. H values for 32 polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners were measured using an inert gas-stripping technique at five temperatures ranging between 5 and 35 °C. H values in deionized water (at 25 °C) varied between 0.28 ± 0.08 Pa m3 mol-1 (PCN-73) and 18.01 ± 0.69 Pa m3 mol-1 (PCN-42). The agreement between the measured and estimated H values from the octanol-water and octanol-air partition coefficients was good (measured/estimated ratio = 1.00 ± 0.41, average ± SD). The calculated phase change enthalpies (ΔHH) were within the interval previously determined for other several semivolatile organic compounds (42.0-106.4 kJ mol-1). Measured H values, paired atmospheric and aqueous concentrations and meteorological variables were also used to reveal the level and direction of air-sea exchange fluxes of PCNs at the coast of Izmir Bay, Turkey. The net PCN air-sea exchange flux varied from -0.55 (volatilization, PCN-24/14) to 2.05 (deposition, PCN-23) ng m-2 day-1. PCN-19, PCN-24/14, PCN-42, and PCN-33/34/37 were mainly volatilized from seawater while the remaining congeners were mainly deposited. The overall number of the cases showing deposition was higher (67.9%) compared to volatilization (21.4%) and near equilibrium (10.7%).

  5. Measuring Uptake Coefficients and Henry's Law Constants of Gas-Phase Species with Models for Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, M. C.; Waring-Kidd, C.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are oxidized in the atmosphere and their products contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. These particles have been shown to have effects on visibility, climate, and human health. Current models typically under-predict SOA concentrations from field measurements. Underestimation of these concentrations could be a result of how models treat particle growth. It is often assumed that particles grow via instantaneous thermal equilibrium partitioning between liquid particles and gas-phase species. Recent work has shown that growth may be better represented by irreversible, kinetically limited uptake of gas-phase species onto more viscous, tar-like SOA. However, uptake coefficients for these processes are not known. The goal of this project is to measure uptake coefficients and solubilities for different gases onto models serving as proxies for SOA and determine how they vary based on the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase. Experiments were conducted using two approaches: attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and a flow system coupled to a mass spectrometer. The ATR crystal was coated with the SOA proxy and the gas-phase species introduced via a custom flow system. Uptake of the gas-phase species was characterized by measuring the intensity of characteristic IR bands as a function of time, from which a Henry's law constant and initial estimate of uptake coefficients could be obtained. Uptake coefficients were also measured in a flow system where the walls of the flow tube were coated with the SOA proxy and gas-phase species introduced via a moveable inlet. Uptake coefficients were derived from the decay in gas-phase species measured by mass spectrometry. The results of this work will establish a structure-interaction relationship for uptake of gases into SOA that can be implemented into regional and global models.

  6. Determining the Henry's Law constants of THMs in seawater by means of purge-and-trap gas chromatography (PT-GC): the influence of seawater as sample matrix.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bevia, Francisco; Fernandez-Torres, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    The influence of seawater salts as salting out agents on the purge-and-trap gas chromatography (PT-GC) determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) was studied. This is particularly important since seawater is chlorinated when used as a cooling agent in coastal nuclear power stations. The chlorination produces unwanted THMs as by-products. A PT-GC apparatus was used to determine the Henry's Law constant of each THM, with seawater as the sample matrix.

  7. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constants and KOA for simple and heteroatom-substituted PAHs by COSMO-RS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnis, J. Mark; Mackay, Donald; Harner, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Henry's Law constants (H) and octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected nitrogen-, oxygen- and sulfur-containing derivatives have been computed using the COSMO-RS method between -5 and 40 °C in 5 °C intervals. The accuracy of the estimation was assessed by comparison of COSMOtherm values with published experimental temperature-dependence data for these and similar PAHs. COSMOtherm log H estimates with temperature-variation for parent PAHs are shown to have a root-mean-square (RMS) error of 0.38 (PAH), based on available validation data. Estimates of O-, N- and S-substituted derivative log H values are found to have RMS errors of 0.30 at 25 °C. Log KOA estimates with temperature variation from COSMOtherm are shown to be strongly correlated with experimental values for a small set of unsubstituted PAHs, but with a systematic underestimation and associated RMS error of 1.11. Similar RMS error of 1.64 was found for COSMO-RS estimates of a group of critically-evaluated log KOA values at room temperature. Validation demonstrates that COSMOtherm estimates of H and KOA are of sufficient accuracy to be used for property screening and preliminary environmental risk assessment, and perform very well for modeling the influence of temperature on partitioning behavior in the temperature range -5 to 40 °C. Temperature-dependent shifts of up to 2 log units in log H and one log unit for log KOA are predicted for PAH species over the range -5 and 40 °C. Within the family of PAH molecules, COSMO-RS is sufficiently accurate to make it useful as a source of estimates for modeling purposes, following corrections for systematic underestimation of KOA. Average changes in the values for log H and log KOA upon substitution are given for various PAH substituent categories, with the most significant shifts being associated with the ionizing nitro functionality and keto groups.

  8. Practical deviations from Henry`s law for water/air partitioning of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, J.F.; Rovani, J.F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    A study was conducted to define parameters relating to the use of a down hole submersible photoionization detector (PID) probe to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an artificial headspace. The partitioning of toluene and trichloroethylene between water and air was studied as a function of analyte concentration and water temperature. The Henry`s law constant governing this partitioning represents an ideal condition at infinite dilution for a particular temperature. The results show that in practice. this partitioning is far from ideal. Conditions resulting in apparent, practical deviations from Henry`s law include temperature and VOC concentration. Thus, a single value of Henry`s law constant for a particular VOC such as toluene can provide only an approximation of concentration in the field. Detector response in saturated humidity environments as a function of water temperature and analyte concentration was studied also.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chloride 79-44-7 Dimethyldisulfide 624-92-0 Dimethylformamide 68-12-2 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 57-14-7... Less Than 0.1 Y/X VI Appendix VI to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X Compound name CAS No. Acetaldol 107-89-1 Acetamide 60-35-5...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chloride 79-44-7 Dimethyldisulfide 624-92-0 Dimethylformamide 68-12-2 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 57-14-7... Less Than 0.1 Y/X VI Appendix VI to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X Compound name CAS No. Acetaldol 107-89-1 Acetamide 60-35-5...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chloride 79-44-7 Dimethyldisulfide 624-92-0 Dimethylformamide 68-12-2 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 57-14-7... Less Than 0.1 Y/X VI Appendix VI to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X Compound name CAS No. Acetaldol 107-89-1 Acetamide 60-35-5...

  12. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) of carboxylic acids: Determination of Henry's law constants and axillary odour investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartungen, Eugen Von; Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Jaksch, Dagmar; Boscaini, Elena; Dunphy, Patrick J.; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2004-12-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used as an analytical tool to measure gas-phase concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. Chemical ionisation of C2C6 carboxylic acids by PTR-MS produced intense protonated molecular ions (with traces of hydrates) along with acylium ion fragments. Gas-phase concentrations were derived using the established method for calculating PTR-MS sensitivity factors. Henry's law constants of carboxylic acids for aqueous solutions at 40 °C were determined. Direct monitoring of volatile fatty acids, known to be associated with secretions from the human axilla, was performed via a specially designed transfer device situated in the axilla. Mass spectral data corresponded with the findings of a sensory assessor.

  13. A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shan-Hu; Mukherjee, Souptik; Brewer, Brittany; Ryan, Raphael; Yu, Huan; Gangoda, Mahinda

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to measure Henry's law constants of organic compounds using a bubble column and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). This experiment is designed for upper-division undergraduate laboratory courses and can be implemented in conjunction with physical chemistry, analytical…

  14. Smog chamber experiments to investigate Henry's law constants of glyoxal using different seed aerosols as well as imidazole formation in the presence of ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Ronit

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. Hence, they have a direct as well as an indirect impact on the earth's climate. Depending on their formation, one distinguishes between primary and secondary aerosols[1]. Important groups within the secondary aerosols are the secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In order to improve predictions about these impacts on the earth's climate the existing models need to be optimized, because they still underestimate SOA formation[2]. Glyoxal, the smallest α-dicarbonyl, not only acts as a tracer for SOA formation but also as a direct contributor to SOA. Because glyoxal has such a high vapour pressure, it was common knowledge that it does not take part in gas-particle partitioning and therefore has no impact on direct SOA formation. However, the Henry's law constant for glyoxal is surprisingly high. This has been explained by the hydration of the aldehyde groups, which means that a species with a lower vapour pressure is produced. Therefore the distribution of glyoxal between gas- and particle phase is atmospherically relevant and the direct contribution of glyoxal to SOA can no longer be neglected[3]. Besides this particulate glyoxal is able to undergo heterogeneous chemistry with gaseous ammonia to form imidazoles. This plays an important role for regions with aerosols exhibiting alkaline pH values for example from lifestock or soil dust because imidazoles as nitrogen containing compounds change the optical properties of aerosols[4]. A high salt concentration present in chamber seed aerosols leads to an enhanced glyoxal uptake into the particle. This effect is called "salting-in". The salting effect depends on the composition of the seed aerosol as well as the soluble compound. For very polar compounds, like glyoxal, a "salting-in" is observed[3]. Glyoxal particle formation during a smog chamber campaign at Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI) in Switzerland was examined using different seed aerosols

  15. Henry’s Law Constants for 2-Azidoethanamine Hypergols: Estimates From a Density Functional Theory/Polarizable Continuum Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    of ),298( iG corrg are based on the ideal gas law and the calculation of S via a standard method ( McQuarrie , 1999). 6 An issue in the...Amine Azide-Based Hydrazine Alternative Hypergols; ARL-TR-4516; U.S. Army Research Laboratory: Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 2008. McQuarrie , D. A

  16. Vapour pressures, aqueous solubility, Henry's law constants and air/water partition coefficients of 1,8-dichlorooctane and 1,8-dibromooctane.

    PubMed

    Sarraute, Sabine; Mokbel, Ilham; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Majer, Vladimir; Delepine, Hervé; Jose, Jacques

    2006-09-01

    New data on the vapour pressures and aqueous solubility of 1,8-dichlorooctane and 1,8-dibromooctane are reported as a function of temperature between 20 degrees C and 80 degrees C and 1 degrees C and 40 degrees C, respectively. For the vapour pressures, a static method was used during the measurements which have an estimated uncertainty between 3% and 5%. The aqueous solubilities were determined using a dynamic saturation column method and the values are accurate to within +/-10%. 1,8-Dichlorooctane is more volatile than 1,8-dibromooctane in the temperature range covered (p(sat) varies from 3 to 250 Pa and from 0.53 to 62 Pa, respectively) and is also approximately three times more soluble in water (mole fraction solubilities at 25 degrees C of 5.95 x 10(-7) and 1.92 x 10(-7), respectively). A combination of the two sets of data allowed the calculation of the Henry's law constants and the air water partition coefficients. A simple group contribution concept was used to rationalize the data obtained.

  17. Henry's law constant, octanol-air partition coefficient and supercooled liquid vapor pressure of carbazole as a function of temperature: application to gas/particle partitioning in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Cetin, Banu; Sofuoglu, Aysun

    2006-02-01

    The Henry's law constant for carbazole was experimentally determined between 5 and 35 degrees C using a gas-stripping technique. The following equation was obtained for dimensionless Henry's law constant (H') versus temperature (T, K): ln H' = -3982(T,K)(-1) + 1.01. Temperature-dependent octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and supercooled liquid vapor pressures (PL,Pa) of carbazole were also determined using the GC retention time method. The temperature dependence of KOA and PL were explained by the following: log KOA = 4076/(T,K) - 5.65, log PL(Pa) = -3948(T,K)(- 1) + 11.48. The gas and particle-phase carbazole concentrations measured previously in Chicago, IL in 1995 was used for gas/particle partitioning modeling. Octanol based absorptive partitioning model consistently underpredicted the gas/particle partition coefficients (Kp) for all sampling periods. However, overall there was a good agreement between the measured Kp and soot-based model predictions.

  18. Applicability of Henry's Law to helium solubility in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Cooper, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    Applicability of Henry's Law to helium solubility in olivine We have experimentally determined helium solubility in San Carlos olivine across a range of helium partial pressures (PHe) with the goal of quantifying how noble gases behave during partial melting of peridotite. Helium solubility in olivine correlates linearly with PHe between 55 and 1680 bar. This linear relationship suggests Henry's Law is applicable to helium dissolution into olivine up to 1680 bar PHe, providing a basis for extrapolation of solubility relationships determined at high PHe to natural systems. This is the first demonstration of Henry's Law for helium dissolution into olivine. Averaging all the data of the PHe series yields a Henry's coefficient of 3.8(×3.1)×10-12 mol g-1 bar-1. However, the population of Henry's coefficients shows a positive skew (skewness = 1.17), i.e. the data are skewed to higher values. This skew is reflected in the large standard deviation of the population of Henry's coefficients. Averaging the median values from each experiment yields a lower Henry's coefficient and standard deviation: 3.2(× 2.3)×10-12 mol g-1 bar-1. Combining the presently determined helium Henry's coefficient for olivine with previous determinations of helium Henry's coefficients for basaltic melts (e.g. 1) yields a partition coefficient of ~10-4. This value is similar to previous determinations obtained at higher PHe (2). The applicability of Henry's Law here suggests helium is incorporated onto relatively abundant sites within olivine that are not saturated by 1680 bar PHe or ~5×10-9 mol g-1. Large radius vacancies, i.e. oxygen vacancies, are energetically favorable sites for noble gas dissolution (3). However, oxygen vacancies are not abundant enough in San Carlos olivine to account for this solubility (e.g. 4), suggesting the 3x10-12 mol g-1 bar-1 Henry's coefficient is associated with interstitial dissolution of helium. Helium was dissolved into olivine using an externally heated

  19. Henry's law constants measurements of the nonylphenol isomer 4(3‧,5‧-dimethyl-3‧-heptyl)-phenol, tertiary octylphenol and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane between 278 and 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhiyong; Le Calvé, Stéphane; Feigenbrugel, Valérie; Preuß, Thomas G.; Vinken, Ralph; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Ruck, Wolfgang

    2004-09-01

    Henry's Law Constants (HLC, M atm-1) were determined for the diastereomeric mixture of the nonylphenol isomer 4(3‧,5‧-dimethyl-3‧-heptyl)-phenol diastereomers (NP353(+) and NP353(-)), tertiary octylphenol (t-OP) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) in artificial seawater over a temperature range 278-298 K using a dynamic equilibrium system. Trace organic substances present in the gas phase were trapped by tandem XAD-2 cartridges and extracted with a soxhlet extractor. The extracts were derivatived with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and then analyzed with GC-MS in the selective ion mode. At 293 K and in artificial seawater, HLC (M atm-1) were found to be equal to: NP353(+), HLC=(483±169); NP353(-), HLC=(551±193); t-OP, HLC=(400±140); γ-HCH, HLC=(876±307). The obtained data were used to derive the following Van't Hoff expressions: ln HLC (NP353(+))=8.73 (±0.95)×(1000/T) -23.61 (±3.30); ln HLC (NP353(-))=8.61 (±0.91)×(1000/T)-23.08 (±3.18); ln HLC (t-OP)=9.03 (±1.40)×(1000/T)-24.83 (±4.86); ln HLC (γ-HCH)=6.17 (±1.08)×(1000/T)-14.28 (±3.75). The derived enthalpies of solvation for NP353(+), NP353(-), t-OP and γ-HCH are -72.6±7.9, -71.6±7.6, -75.1±11.5 and -51.3±9.0 kJ mol-1, respectively. The HLC measurements of γ-HCH, which was used as reference substance, were in good agreement with literature values and its corresponding derived enthalpy of solvation agrees well to the previous values reported in the literature. A reassessment of the air/water gas exchange based on experimentally derived HLC was made for the nonylphenol (NP) in the Lower Hudson River estuary (New York/New Jersey, USA) that was previously reported by Van Ry. A net atmospheric deposition was calculated for the gas exchange of NP in the Lower Bay (Ffw=0.13), and it nearly reaches the condition of equilibrium in the Upper Bay (Ffw=0.46).

  20. Effects of surfactants and salt on Henry's constant of n-hexane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunping; Chen, Fayuan; Luo, Shenglian; Xie, Gengxin; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng

    2010-03-15

    n-Hexane biological removal is intrinsically limited by its hydrophobic nature and low bioavailability. The addition of surfactants could enhance the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and change the gas-liquid equilibrium of VOCs. In this paper, the effects of four surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), tert-octylphenoxypoly-ethoxyethanol (Triton X-100), polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), and sodium nitrate on apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane in surfactant solutions were investigated. The apparent Henry's constants were significantly reduced when surfactants concentrations exceeded their critical micelle concentrations (cmc's). On a cmc basis, the anionic surfactant SDS was found to have the greatest effect on the apparent Henry's constant with CTAB succeeding, then followed by Triton X-100 and Tween 80. However, the apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane decreased even more rapidly when Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, was added than when the ionic surfactant of SDS or CTAB was applied under identical mass concentration and other conditions. These results suggest that Triton X-100 have the biggest solubilization of n-hexane among the four surfactants. Sodium nitrate slightly decreased the apparent Henry's constant of n-hexane in surfactant solutions, and could be considered as a cosolvent in the surfactant-(n-hexane) solution. In addition, the relationship between apparent Henry's constant and surfactant concentration was further developed.

  1. On the Henry constant and isosteric heat at zero loading in gas phase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Do, D D; Nicholson, D; Do, H D

    2008-08-01

    The Henry constant and the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading are commonly used as indicators of the strength of the affinity of an adsorbate for a solid adsorbent. It is assumed that (i) they are observable in practice, (ii) the Van Hoff's plot of the logarithm of the Henry constant versus the inverse of temperature is always linear and the slope is equal to the heat of adsorption, and (iii) the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading is either constant or weakly dependent on temperature. We show in this paper that none of these three points is necessarily correct, first because these variables might not be observable since they are outside the range of measurability; second that the linearity of the Van Hoff plot breaks down at very high temperature, and third that the isosteric heat versus loading is a strong function of temperature. We demonstrate these points using Monte Carlo integration and Monte Carlo simulation of adsorption of various gases on a graphite surface. Another issue concerning the Henry constant is related to the way the adsorption excess is defined. The most commonly used equation is the one that assumes that the void volume is the volume extended all the way to a boundary passing through the centres of the outermost solid atoms. With this definition the Henry constant can become negative at high temperatures. Although adsorption at these temperatures may not be practical because of the very low value of the Henry constant, it is more useful to define the Henry constant in such a way that it is always positive at all temperatures. Here we propose the use of the accessible volume; the volume probed by the adsorbate when it is in nonpositive regions of the potential, to calculate the Henry constant.

  2. Correlation of Henry's law, virial coefficients for the adsorption of hydrocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons on microporous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Rybolt, T.R.; Olson, D.R. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-03-15

    Correlations were developed and used to calculate gas-solid interaction energy parameters which in turn were used to calculate Henry's law constants for the adsorption of a series of hydrocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons on either a 13X zeolite or a microporous carbon, SuperSorb. The adsorption energetic parameter was correlated with the boiling point, critical constant ratio (critical temperature divided by the square root of the critical pressure), number of carbon atoms, and molecular structure or atomic structure of the adsorbate molecule. These correlations were used to calculate gas-solid interaction energies and, with a selection of the gas-solid interaction potential parameters, were used in an integral expression to calculate the gas-solid virial coefficients. The critical constant ratio was found to provide the best means of predicting the gas-solid interaction energy and the corresponding second gas-solid virial coefficient. This approach could be used to predict the extent adsorption in the Henry's law region using only adsorbate molecular properties where energy correlations have been previously established for a series of adsorbate molecules.

  3. Direct volumetric measurement of gas oversolubility in nanoliquids: beyond Henry's law.

    PubMed

    Pera-Titus, Marc; El-Chahal, Rayan; Rakotovao, Volainiana; Daniel, Cécile; Miachon, Sylvain; Dalmon, Jean-Alain

    2009-08-24

    The properties of condensed matter are strongly affected by confinement and size effects at the nanoscale. Herein, we measured by microvolumetry the increased solubility of H(2) in a series of solvents (CHCl(3), CCl(4), n-hexane, ethanol, and water) when confined in the cavities of mesoporous solids (gamma-alumina, silica, and MCM-41). Gas/liquid solubilities are enhanced by up to 15 times over the corresponding bulk values for nanoliquid sizes smaller than 15 nm as long as gas/liquid interfaces are mesoconfined in a porous network. Although Henry's law constant apparently no longer applies under these confinement, the concentration of dissolved H(2) still increases linearly with increasing pressure in the range 1-5 bar. We discuss the role and main implications of surface excess concentrations at mesoconfined gas/liquid interfaces in enhancing gas solubility.

  4. Henry constant and isosteric heat at zero-loading for gas adsorption in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Do, D D; Do, H D; Wongkoblap, A; Nicholson, D

    2008-12-28

    The Henry constant and the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading in a carbon nanotube bundle are studied with Monte Carlo integration for the adsorption of gases over a range of temperatures. The spacing between nanotubes in a bundle is determined from the minimization of potential energy of interaction between these tubes. We study different tube configurations with bundles of 2, 3, 4 and 7 tubes. Depending on the configuration it is found that the spacing is of between 0.31 to 0.333 nm, and this falls within the range reported in the literature. The Henry constant has been carefully defined so that it will not become negative at high temperatures. This is done with the aid of accessible volume, rather than the usual absolute void volume. We show that linearity of the van't Hoff plot for the Henry constant is not strictly followed. Furthermore the slope of this plot is not equal to the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero loading, which is found to be a strong function of temperature. From the results we find that the Henry constant and the heat of adsorption depend on the tube configuration. In general the adsorption in the cusp interstices is strongest followed by that inside the tube and finally on the outer surface. However for very small tubes adsorption occurs inside the tube first. For molecules with orientation, the behaviour is even more interesting and the shape of the isosteric heat versus temperature depends on the degree of orientation, tube configuration and the domain of adsorption (interstices, inside the tube and on the outer surface).

  5. Determination of Henry's constant, the dissociation constant, and the buffer capacity of the bicarbonate system in ruminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Hille, Katharina T; Hetz, Stefan K; Rosendahl, Julia; Braun, Hannah-Sophie; Pieper, Robert; Stumpff, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Despite the clinical importance of ruminal acidosis, ruminal buffering continues to be poorly understood. In particular, the constants for the dissociation of H2CO3 and the solubility of CO2 (Henry's constant) have never been stringently determined for ruminal fluid. The pH was measured in parallel directly in the rumen and the reticulum in vivo, and in samples obtained via aspiration from 10 fistulated cows on hay- or concentrate-based diets. The equilibrium constants of the bicarbonate system were measured at 38°C both using the Astrup technique and a newly developed method with titration at 2 levels of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2; 4.75 and 94.98 kPa), yielding mean values of 0.234 ± 0.005 mmol ∙ L(-1) ∙ kPa(-1) and 6.11 ± 0.02 for Henry's constant and the dissociation constant, respectively (n/n = 31/10). Both reticular pH and the pH of samples measured after removal were more alkalic than those measured in vivo in the rumen (by ΔpH = 0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.26 ± 0.04). The amount of acid or base required to shift the pH of ruminal samples to 6.4 or 5.8 (base excess) differed between the 2 feeding groups. Experimental results are compared with the mathematical predictions of an open 2-buffer Henderson-Hasselbalch equilibrium model. Because pCO2 has pronounced effects on ruminal pH and can decrease rapidly in samples removed from the rumen, introduction of a generally accepted protocol for determining the acid-base status of ruminal fluid with standard levels of pCO2 and measurement of base excess in addition to pH should be considered.

  6. Perturbation theory in the catalytic rate constant of the Henri-Michaelis-Menten enzymatic reaction.

    PubMed

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Kosmas, Marios; Papamichael, Emmanouel M

    2012-11-01

    The Henry-Michaelis-Menten (HMM) mechanism of enzymatic reaction is studied by means of perturbation theory in the reaction rate constant k (2) of product formation. We present analytical solutions that provide the concentrations of the enzyme (E), the substrate (S), as well as those of the enzyme-substrate complex (C), and the product (P) as functions of time. For k (2) small compared to k (-1), we properly describe the entire enzymatic activity from the beginning of the reaction up to longer times without imposing extra conditions on the initial concentrations E ( o ) and S ( o ), which can be comparable or much different.

  7. BUBBLE STRIPPING TO DETERMINE HYDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN GROUND WATER: A PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF HENRY'S LAW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bubble Stripping Method is a chemical testing method that operates on the principle of Henry's Law. It is useful for determining concentrations of hydrogen in well water, and it is capable of detecting concentrations on the order of nanomoles per liter. The method provides ...

  8. Henry`s law solubilities and Setchenow coefficients for biogenic reduced sulfur species obtained from gas-liquid uptake measurements

    SciTech Connect

    De Bruyn, W.J.; Swartz, E.; Hu, J.H.

    1995-04-20

    Biogenically produced reduced sulfur compounds, including dimethylsulfide (DMS, CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are a major source of sulfur in the marine atmosphere. This source is estimated to contribute 25-40% of global sulfur emissions. These species and their oxidation products, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}), and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), dominate the production of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion-produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. Using a newly developed bubble column apparatus, a series of aqueous phase uptake studies have been completed for the reduced sulfur species DMS, H{sub 2}S, CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}SH, and OCS. Aqueous phase uptake has been studied as a function of temperature (278-298 K), pH (1-14), H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration (0-1 M), NaCl concentration (0-5 M), and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration (0-4 M). The Henry`s law coefficients for CH{sub 3}SH and CS{sub 2} were determined for the first time, as were the Setchenow coefficients for all the species studied. 33 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Aqueous solubility (in the range between 298.15 and 338.15 K), vapor pressures (in the range between 10(-5) and 80 Pa) and Henry's law constant of 1,2,3,4-dibenzanthracene and 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene.

    PubMed

    Abou-Naccoul, Ramy; Mokbel, Ilham; Bassil, Georgio; Saab, Joseph; Stephan, Khaled; Jose, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous solubility and vapor pressures of 1,2,3,4-dibenzanthracene and 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene were determined using dynamic saturation methods. For the two isomers, aqueous solubility is in the range between 10(-10) and 10(-2) in molar fraction corresponding to temperature between 298.15 and 338.15K. Vapor pressures of the pure solutes range from 10(-5) to 80 Pa. Prior to the study of the two dibenzanthracenes and in order to check the experimental procedures, solubility of fluoranthene (between 298 and 338 K) and vapor pressures of phenanthrene and fluoranthene (between 300 and 470 K) were measured. From aqueous solubility data coupled with the vapor pressures of the pure solutes, partition coefficient air-water, KAW, and Henry's constant, KH, of environmental relevance were calculated.

  10. Henry`s law gas-solid chromatography and correlations of virial coefficients for hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, ethers, and sulfur hexafluoride adsorbed onto carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Rybolt, T.R.; Epperson, M.T.; Weaver, H.W.; Thomas, H.E.; Clare, S.E.; Manning, B.M.; McClung, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    Gas-solid chromatography was used to determine the Henry`s law second gas-solid virial coefficients within the temperature range of 314--615 K for ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, pentane, hexane, heptane, chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, trichlorofluoromethane (Freon 11), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon 22), dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12), methyl ether, ethyl ether, and sulfur hexafluoride with Carbopack B, a microporous carbon adsorbent. The temperature dependence of the second gas-solid virial coefficients of these adsorbates was used in conjunction with analyses based on a graphical method, a single-surface numeric integration method, a single-surface analytic expression method, and a two-surface analytic expression method to determine the gas-solid interaction energies and other parameters. The interaction energies were correlated with a ratio of the critical temperature divided by the square root of the critical pressure. The four methods were compared in their abilities to successfully calculate second gas-solid virial coefficient values.

  11. Systematic harmonic power laws inter-relating multiple fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakeres, Donald; Buckhanan, Wayne; Andrianarijaona, Vola

    2017-01-01

    Power laws and harmonic systems are ubiquitous in physics. We hypothesize that 2, π, the electron, Bohr radius, Rydberg constant, neutron, fine structure constant, Higgs boson, top quark, kaons, pions, muon, Tau, W, and Z when scaled in a common single unit are all inter-related by systematic harmonic powers laws. This implies that if the power law is known it is possible to derive a fundamental constant's scale in the absence of any direct experimental data of that constant. This is true for the case of the hydrogen constants. We created a power law search engine computer program that randomly generated possible positive or negative powers searching when the product of logical groups of constants equals 1, confirming they are physically valid. For 2, π, and the hydrogen constants the search engine found Planck's constant, Coulomb's energy law, and the kinetic energy law. The product of ratios defined by two constants each was the standard general format. The search engine found systematic resonant power laws based on partial harmonic fraction powers of the neutron for all of the constants with products near 1, within their known experimental precision, when utilized with appropriate hydrogen constants. We conclude that multiple fundamental constants are inter-related within a harmonic power law system.

  12. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry's constants - Separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants.

    PubMed

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik R; Comber, Mike; Mayer, Philipp

    2017-05-01

    During simulation-type biodegradation tests, volatile chemicals will continuously partition between water phase and headspace. This study addressed how (1) this partitioning affects test results and (2) can be accounted for by combining equilibrium partition and dynamic biodegradation models. An aqueous mixture of 9 (semi)volatile chemicals was first generated using passive dosing and then diluted with environmental surface water producing concentrations in the ng/L to μg/L range. After incubation for 2 h to 4 weeks, automated Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relatively to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Biodegradation rate constants relating to the chemical in the water phase, kwater, were generally a factor 1 to 11 times higher than biodegradation rate constants relating to the total mass of chemical in the test system, ksystem, with one exceptional factor of 72 times for a long chain alkane. True water phase degradation rate constants were found (i) more appropriate for risk assessment than test system rate constants, (ii) to facilitate extrapolation to other air-water systems and (iii) to be better defined input parameters for aquatic exposure and fate models.

  13. Nonlocal conservation laws of the constant astigmatism equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaváč, Adam; Marvan, Michal

    2017-03-01

    For the constant astigmatism equation, we construct a system of nonlocal conservation laws (an abelian covering) closed under the reciprocal transformations. The corresponding potentials are functionally independent modulo a Wronskian type relation.

  14. In-cloud multiphase behaviour of acetone in the troposphere: gas uptake, Henry's law equilibrium and aqueous phase photooxidation.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Laurent; Katrib, Yasmine; Isikli, Estelle; Liu, Yao; Wortham, Henri; Mirabel, Philippe; Le Calvé, Stéphane; Monod, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Acetone is ubiquitous in the troposphere. Several papers have focused in the past on its gas phase reactivity and its impact on tropospheric chemistry. However, acetone is also present in atmospheric water droplets where its behaviour is still relatively unknown. In this work, we present its gas/aqueous phase transfer and its aqueous phase photooxidation. The uptake coefficient of acetone on water droplets was measured between 268 and 281K (γ=0.7 x 10(-2)-1.4 x 10(-2)), using the droplet train technique coupled to a mass spectrometer. The mass accommodation coefficient α (derived from γ) was found in the range (1.0-3.0±0.25) x 10(-2). Henry's law constant of acetone was directly measured between 283 and 298K using a dynamic equilibrium system (H((298K))=(29±5)Matm(-1)), with the Van't Hoff expression lnH(T)=(5100±1100)/T-(13.4±3.9). A recommended value of H was suggested according to comparison with literature. The OH-oxidation of acetone in the aqueous phase was carried out at 298K, under two different pH conditions: at pH=2, and under unbuffered conditions. In both cases, the formation of methylglyoxal, formaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, acetic acid/acetate and formic acid/formate was observed. The formation of small amounts of four hydroperoxides was also detected, and one of them was identified as peroxyacetic acid. A drastic effect of pH was observed on the yields of formaldehyde, one hydroperoxide, and, (to a lesser extent) acetic acid/acetate. Based on the experimental observations, a chemical mechanism of OH-oxidation of acetone in the aqueous phase was proposed and discussed. Atmospheric implications of these findings were finally discussed.

  15. Comparative study of the dynamic gravimetric and pulse chromatographic methods for the determination of Henry constants of adsorption for VOC zeolite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokerman, J.; Canet, X.; Mougin, P.; Limborg-Noetinger, S.; Frère, M.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a comparative study between a gravimetric apparatus operating under dynamic conditions and a pulse chromatographic device developed for the determination of Henry constants of adsorption for VOC-zeolite systems. In both cases, we provide a description of the experimental set-up and procedure, as well as a complete report on the treatment of the rough experimental data. The experimental errors are also discussed. The comparison work is based on the study of the adsorption of toluene on a NaY zeolite (Si/Al 2.43) for temperatures ranging from 503 to 623 K. The maximal discrepancy found between the experimental Henry constants was 15.0%. The pulse chromatographic method is only dedicated to high-temperature measurements. For low-temperature experiments, the rough data cannot be treated in an efficient way, and it is not possible to obtain reliable Henry constant values. The dynamic gravimetric method is not temperature limited. It is however time-consuming, especially when low-temperature measurements (not presented in this paper) are concerned. Both methods are complementary if the determination of Henry constants is required in a wide temperature range.

  16. Guidance law based on piecewise constant control for hypersonic gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, David G.; Seguin, Jean-Marie

    A midcourse guidance law is developed for the descent of a hypersonic glider to a fixed target on the ground. It is based on an optimal piecewise constant control (N intervals) obtained from an approximate physical model (flat earth, exponential atmosphere, parabolic drag polar, etc). The resulting optimal control equations can be integrated either analytically or by quadrature, and the guidance algorithm requires the solution of 2N+1 nonlinear algebraic equations. The guidance law is implemented in a realistic glider simulation, the intercept is achieved, and final velocities within 14 percent of the true values are obtained for the downrange and crossranges considered.

  17. HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS AND MICELLAR PARTITIONING OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into surfactant micelles affects the apparent vapor-liquid equilibrium of VOCs in surfactant solutions. This partitioning will complicate removal of VOCs from surfactant solutions by standard separation processes. Headspace expe...

  18. Solid phase microextraction method development for measuring Henry's Law constants of formaldehyde in aqueous solutions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) has been of special concern as an indoor air pollutant because of its existence in a wide range of products and its adverse health effects. The air-water partitioning behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as formaldehyde is an important process th...

  19. DETERMINATION OF HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS FOR VOCS IN ROOM TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to be a newer medium for a wide variety of chemical reactions and are considered as the potential replacements for traditional volatile organic solvents. However, the separation and recovery of organic compounds from ILs has not been systematic...

  20. Steering Law Controlling the Constant Speeds of Control Moment Gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KOYASAKO, Y.; TAKAHASHI, M.

    2016-09-01

    To enable the agile control of satellites, using control moment gyros (CMGs) has become increasingly necessary because of their ability to generate large amounts of torque. However, CMGs have a singularity problem whereby the torque by the CMGs degenerates from three dimensions to two dimensions, affecting spacecraft attitude control performance. This study proposes a new steering control law for CMGs by controlling the constant speed of a CMG. The proposed method enables agile attitude changes, according to the required task, by managing the total angular momentum of the CMGs by considering the distance to external singularities. In the proposed method, the total angular momentum is biased in a specific direction and the angular momentum envelope is extended. The design method can increase the net angular momentum of CMGs which can be exchanged with the satellite. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  1. Henry's law solubilities and Śetchenow coefficients for biogenic reduced sulfur species obtained from gas-liquid uptake measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruyn, W. J.; Swartz, E.; Hu, J. H.; Shorter, Jeffrey A.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E.

    1995-04-01

    Biogenically produced reduced sulfur compounds, including dimethylsulfide (DMS, CH3SCH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are a major source of sulfur in the marine atmosphere. This source is estimated to contribute 25-40% of global sulfur emissions. These species and their oxidation products, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2), and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), dominate the production of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion-produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. Using a newly developed bubble column apparatus, a series of aqueous phase uptake studies have been completed for the reduced sulfur species DMS, H2S, CS2, CH3SH, and OCS. Aqueous phase uptake has been studied as a function of temperature (278-298 K), pH (1-14), H2O2 concentration (0-1 M), NaCl concentration (0-5 M), and (NH4)2SO4 concentration (0-4 M). The Henry's law coefficients for CH3SH and CS2 were determined for the first time, as were the Setchenow coefficients for all the species studied.

  2. Partition coefficients for REE between garnets and liquids - Implications of non-Henry's Law behaviour for models of basalt origin and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation of Ce, Sm and Tm rare earth element (REE) partition coefficients between coexisting garnets (both natural and synthetic) and hydrous liquids shows that Henry's Law may not be obeyed over a range of REE concentrations of geological relevance. Systematic differences between the three REE and the two garnet compositions may be explained in terms of the differences between REE ionic radii and those of the dodecahedral site into which they substitute, substantiating the Harrison and Wood (1980) model of altervalent substitution. Model calculations demonstrate that significant variation can occur in the rare earth contents of melts produced from a garnet lherzolite, if Henry's Law partition coefficients do not apply for the garnet phase.

  3. Generation of sub-part-per-billion gaseous volatile organic compounds at ambient temperature by headspace diffusion of aqueous standards through decoupling between ideal and nonideal Henry's law behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-05-21

    In the analysis of volatile organic compounds in air, the preparation of their gaseous standards at low (sub-ppb) concentration levels with high reliability is quite difficult. In this study, a simple dynamic headspace-based approach was evaluated as a means of generating vapor-phase volatile organic compounds from a liquid standard in an impinger at ambient temperature (25 °C). For a given sampling time, volatile organic compound vapor formed in the headspace was swept by bypassing the sweep gas through the impinger and collected four times in quick succession in separate sorbent tubes. In each experiment, a fresh liquid sample was used for each of the four sampling times (5, 10, 20, and 30 min) at a steady flow rate of 50 mL min(-1). The air-water partitioning at the most dynamic (earliest) sweeping stage was established initially in accord with ideal Henry's law, which was then followed by considerably reduced partitioning in a steady-state equilibrium (non-ideal Henry's law). The concentrations of gaseous volatile organic compounds, collected after the steady-state equilibrium, reached fairly constant values: for instance, the mole fraction of toluene measured at a sweeping interval of 10 and 30 min averaged 1.10 and 0.99 nmol mol(-1), respectively (after the initial 10 min sampling). In the second stage of our experiment, the effect of increasing the concentrations of liquid spiking standard was also examined by collecting sweep gas samples from two consecutive 10 min runs. The volatile organic compounds, collected in the first and second 10 min sweep gas samples, exhibited ideal and nonideal Henry's law behavior, respectively. From this observation, we established numerical relationships to predict the mole fraction (or mixing ratio) of each volatile organic compound in steady-state equilibrium in relation to the concentration of standard spiked into the system. This experimental approach can thus be used to produce sub-ppb levels of gaseous volatile organic

  4. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  5. Determination of Henry’s Law Constants Using Internal Standards with Benchmark Values

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is shown that Henry’s law constants can be experimentally determined by comparing headspace content of compounds with known constants to interpolate the constants of other compounds. Studies were conducted over a range of water temperatures to identify temperature dependence....

  6. Patrick Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    Patrick Henry dominated the politics of Virginia and was a powerful voice in the affairs of the early United States. He became a lawyer at age 23 and rose to prominence following his victory in "The Parsons Case." Soon after, he was elected to the House of Burgesses where he challenged the control of the wealthy, established members and…

  7. Two phenomenological constants explain similarity laws in stably stratified turbulence.

    PubMed

    Katul, Gabriel G; Porporato, Amilcare; Shah, Stimit; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2014-02-01

    In stably stratified turbulent flows, the mixing efficiency associated with eddy diffusivity for heat, or equivalently the turbulent Prandtl number (Pr(t)), is fraught with complex dynamics originating from the scalewise interplay between shear generation of turbulence and its dissipation by density gradients. A large corpus of data and numerical simulations agree on a near-universal relation between Pr(t) and the Richardson number (R(i)), which encodes the relative importance of buoyancy dissipation to mechanical production of turbulent kinetic energy. The Pr(t)-R(i) relation is shown to be derivable solely from the cospectral budgets for momentum and heat fluxes if a Rotta-like return to isotropy closure for the pressure-strain effects and Kolmogorov's theory for turbulent cascade are invoked. The ratio of the Kolmogorov to the Kolmogorov-Obukhov-Corrsin phenomenological constants, and a constant associated with isotropization of the production whose value (= 3/5) has been predicted from Rapid Distortion Theory, explain all the macroscopic nonlinearities.

  8. Realization of power law inflation & variants via variation of the strong coupling constant

    SciTech Connect

    AlHallak, M.; Chamoun, N.

    2016-09-05

    We present a model of power law inflation generated by variation of the strong coupling constant. We then extend the model to two varying coupling constants which leads to a potential consisting of a linear combination of exponential terms. Some variants of the latter may be self-consistent and can accommodate the experimental data of the Planck 2015 and other recent experiments.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Acetylaminofluorene 53-96-3 3-Acetyl-5-hydroxypiperidine 3-Acetylpiperidine 618-42-8 1-Acetyl-2-thiourea 591-08-2 Acrylamide 79-06-1 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Adenine 73-24-5 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3 Alachlor 15972-60-8 Aldicarb 116-06-3 Ametryn 834-12-8 4-Aminobiphenyl 92-67-1 4-Aminopyridine 504-24-5...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 265 - Compounds With Henry's Law Constant Less Than 0.1 Y/X

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Acetylaminofluorene 53-96-3 3-Acetyl-5-hydroxypiperidine 3-Acetylpiperidine 618-42-8 1-Acetyl-2-thiourea 591-08-2 Acrylamide 79-06-1 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Adenine 73-24-5 Adipic acid 124-04-9 Adiponitrile 111-69-3 Alachlor 15972-60-8 Aldicarb 116-06-3 Ametryn 834-12-8 4-Aminobiphenyl 92-67-1 4-Aminopyridine 504-24-5...

  11. A simple van't Hoff law for calculating Langmuir constants in clathrate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhlifi, Azzedine; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Picaud, Sylvain; Mousis, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    This work gives a van't Hoff law expression of Langmuir constants of different species for determining their occupancy in clathrate hydrates. First, a pairwise site-site interaction potential energy model is used to calculate the Langmuir constants in an otherwise anisotropic potential environment, as a function of temperature. The results are then fitted to a van't Hoff law expression to give a set of parameters that can be used for calculating clathrates compositions. The van't Hoff law's parameters are given for eighteen gas species trapped in the small and large cavities of structure types I and II. The accuracy of this approach is based on a detailed comparison with available experimental and/or previously calculated data for ethane, cyclo-propane, methane and carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates. A comparison with the analytical cell method is also carried out to better understand the importance of asymmetry and possible limitations of the van't Hoff temperature dependence.

  12. Quantum-statistical equilibrium and the ``law'' of constant Fermi potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Coz, Yannick L.

    2003-02-01

    We apply the general quantum-statistical density-matrix formalism to an independent-electron gas within a space-dependent external electric potential, under equilibrium conditions. This problem is analogous to an ideal semiconductor homojunction diode. We solve the resulting equilibrium density-matrix equation using a perturbation theory. Next, we derive a first-order quantum correction to the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann density-potential formula. The correction appears as an added curvature term in external potential. It represents expected quantum-mechanical scattering against a spatially varying potential. Our results indicate that the commonly encountered thermodynamic or statistical-mechanical "law" of constant, equilibrium Fermi potential—with Fermi potential a parameter in the Maxwell-Boltzmann density-potential formula—is not fundamentally exact. In a general space-dependent potential, this "law," we prove, is simply a classical approximation.

  13. Joseph Henry and the Telegraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochfelder, David

    1997-04-01

    Morse's telegraph rested upon three scientific advances which occured between 1800 and 1830: the development of battery technology, the formulation of laws governing the behavior of electrical components in circuits, and the discovery of electromagnetic phenomena. Joseph Henry was crucial to the development of the early telegraph. His work on electromagnetism made it possible for the electric current to manifest itself as useful mechanical work. Henry developed electromagnets of sufficient lifting power, but which drew relatively small currents; these magnets were the heart of Morse's telegraph receiver. Morse also used electromagnets as relays, which allowed him to transmit signals over great distances. Morse often acknowledged his debt to Henry, and the two enjoyed a cordial working relationship until the mid-1840s. But during the bitter and protracted litigation over Morse's patent, Henry testified (unwillingly, he claimed) against the inventor. This began a lifelong quarrel between the two men, the specifics of which were tedious and petty. In general terms, however, their conflict arose over different notions regarding scientific discovery and technological innovation.

  14. A Simple Method to Calculate the Temperature Dependence of the Gibbs Energy and Chemical Equilibrium Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy and important quantities such as Henry's law constants, activity coefficients, and chemical equilibrium constants is usually calculated by using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Although, this is a well-known approach and traditionally covered as part of any physical chemistry course, the required…

  15. A Unified Kinetics and Equilibrium Experiment: Rate Law, Activation Energy, and Equilibrium Constant for the Dissociation of Ferroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattar, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) is the basis of a suite of four experiments spanning 5 weeks. Students determine the rate law, activation energy, and equilibrium constant for the dissociation of the complex ion in acid solution and base dissociation constant for phenanthroline. The focus on one chemical system simplifies a daunting set of…

  16. John Henry: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikola-Lisa, W.

    1998-01-01

    Compares three children's books retelling the legend of John Henry: "John Henry: An American Legend" by Ezra Jack Keats (1965), "John Henry" by Julius Lester (1994), and "The Legend of John Henry" by Terry Small (1994). Differences in imagery, language, symbolism, and themes are discussed. (MAK)

  17. Henry Ford Health Systems

    Cancer.gov

    Henry Ford Health Systems evolved from a hospital into a system delivering care to 2.5 million patients and includes the Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program, which focuses on epidemiologic and public health aspects of cancer.

  18. Evaluation and Prediction of Henry’s Law Constants and Aqueous Solubilities for Solvents and Hydrocarbon Fuel Components. Volume 1. Technical Discussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Physical Chemistry, vol, 64, pp, 1643-1648, 1960. 49. Prausnitz, J. M., E. Azevedo and R. Litchenthaler, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase E ,uilibri 2nd edition, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1986, I•8 "’•86 N1

  19. Determination of saltiness from the laws of thermodynamics--estimating the gas constant from psychophysical experiments.

    PubMed

    Norwich, K H

    2001-10-01

    One can relate the saltiness of a solution of a given substance to the concentration of the solution by means of one of the well-known psychophysical laws. One can also compare the saltiness of solutions of different solutes which have the same concentration, since different substances are intrinsically more salty or less salty. We develop here an equation that relates saltiness both to the concentration of the substance (psychophysical) and to a distinguishing physical property of the salt (intrinsic). For a fixed standard molar entropy of the salt being tasted, the equation simplifies to Fechner's law. When one allows for the intrinsic 'noise' in the chemoreceptor, the equation generalizes to include Stevens's law, with corresponding decrease in the threshold for taste. This threshold reduction exemplifies the principle of stochastic resonance. The theory is validated with reference to experimental data.

  20. The Henry Problem Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasaki, K.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Maekawa, K.

    2006-12-01

    We have modeled laboratory experiments of saltwater intrusion in a configuration resembling the so-called Henry Problem using TOUGH2/EOS7. The experiment differs from the Henry Problem in that the freshwater boundary condition is that of Dirichlet, a difference that is not expected to affect the overall results very much. The simulation matched the saltwater wedge profile of the experiment, the main feature of which was the sharp interface (lack of dispersion) between the freshwater and saltwater. Prior solutions of the Henry Problem show a wide transition zone between freshwater and saltwater arising from the use of a large dispersion coefficient. Henry attributed the large dispersion to the effect of tidally induced motion. In our simulation, we imposed a time-varying sinusoidal boundary condition to see if a larger transition zone can be created without using a larger dispersion coefficient. However, for the parameters used we were not able to do so. It is still plausible that the wide transition zone observed at Biscayne Bay (and as modeled in the Henry Problem) is caused by a particular formation heterogeneity and transient effects. Our analysis, based on a laboratory experiment and accompanying modeling, suggests that dispersion is quite limited. Nonetheless, we question the validity of the use of a large dispersion coefficient where the groundwater velocity is very low, or where the flow is in the opposite direction of the concentration gradient. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231

  1. One-loop omega-potential of quantum fields with ellipsoid constant-energy surface dispersion law

    SciTech Connect

    Kazinski, P.O.; Shipulya, M.A.

    2011-10-15

    Rapidly convergent expansions of a one-loop contribution to the partition function of quantum fields with ellipsoid constant-energy surface dispersion law are derived. The omega-potential is naturally decomposed into three parts: the quasiclassical contribution, the contribution from the branch cut of the dispersion law, and the oscillating part. The low- and high-temperature expansions of the quasiclassical part are obtained. An explicit expression and a relation of the contribution from the cut with the Casimir term and vacuum energy are established. The oscillating part is represented in the form of the Chowla-Selberg expansion of the Epstein zeta function. Various resummations of this expansion are considered. The general procedure developed is then applied to two models: massless particles in a box both at zero and nonzero chemical potential, and electrons in a thin metal film. Rapidly convergent expansions of the partition function and average particle number are obtained for these models. In particular, the oscillations of the chemical potential of conduction electrons in graphene and a thin metal film due to a variation of size of the crystal are described. - Highlights: > We study quantum fields with ellipsoid constant-energy surface dispersion law. > Rapidly convergent expansions of the omega-potential are derived. > Various resummations of the Chowla-Selberg expansion are obtained. > We establish a relation of the Casimir term with the vacuum energy. > Oscillations of the chemical potential of electrons in graphene are described.

  2. Heterogeneous 'proportionality constants' - A challenge to Taylor's Power Law for temporal fluctuations in abundance.

    PubMed

    Kiflawi, Moshe; Mann, Ofri; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-10-21

    Taylor's Power Law for the temporal fluctuation in population size (TL) posits that the variance in abundance scales according to aM(b); where M is the mean abundance and a and b are the 'proportionality' and 'scaling' coefficients. As one of the few empirical rules in population ecology, TL has attracted substantial theoretical and empirical attention. Much of this attention focused on the scaling coefficient; particularly its ubiquitous deviation from the null value of 2. Here we present a line of reasoning that challenges the power-law interpretation of the empirical log-linear relationship between the mean and variance of population size. At the core of our reasoning is the proposition that populations vary not only with respect to M but also with respect to a; which leaves the log-linear relationship intact but forfeits its power-law interpretation. Using the stochastic logistic-growth model as an example, we show that ignoring among-population variation in a is akin to ignoring the variation in the intrinsic rate of growth (r). Accordingly, we show that the slope of the log-linear relationship (b) is a function of the among-population (co)variation in r and the carrying-capacity. We further demonstrate that local environmental stochasticity is sufficient to generate the full range of observed values of b, and that b can in fact be insensitive to substantial differences in the balance between variance-generating and stabilizing processes.

  3. Black holes and Boyle's law — The thermodynamics of the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2015-02-01

    When the cosmological constant, Λ, is interpreted as a thermodynamic variable in the study of black hole thermodynamics a very rich structure emerges. It is natural to interpret Λ as a pressure and define the thermodynamically conjugate variable to be the thermodynamic volume of the black hole (which need not bear any relation to the geometric volume). Recent progress in this new direction for black hole thermodynamics is reviewed.

  4. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show that the sample sublimed congruently into HgI2 with no Hg or I2 absorption spectrum observed. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were determined. From these constants the vapor pressure of H912, P, was established as a function of temperatures for the liquid and the solid Beta-phases. The expressions correspond to the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 Kcal/mole, respectively, for the liquid and the Beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 Kcal/mole and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  5. Boy Scouts for Henry.

    PubMed

    Allen, Richard E

    2006-01-01

    "Can we do anything for you?" The question was embarrassing. Henry had been poked and prodded and preserved far beyond his wishes. In a medical system that scorns comfort care, a resident physician is troubled by the case of an elderly man with poor quality of life. An awkward attempt at a Boy Scout service project emphasizes how poorly we comfort the terminally ill despite modern technology and interventionalism.

  6. Henry Gray, plagiarist.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    The first edition of Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical (1858) was greeted with accolades, but also provoked serious controversy concerning Henry Gray's failure to acknowledge the work of earlier anatomists. A review in the Medical Times (1859) accused Gray of intellectual theft. The journal took the unusual step of substantiating its indictment by publishing twenty parallel texts from Gray and from a pre-existing textbook, Quain's Anatomy. At the recent "Vesalius Continuum" conference in Zakynthos, Greece (2014) Professor Brion Benninger disputed the theft by announcing from the floor the results of a computer analysis of both texts, which he reported exonerated Gray by revealing no evidence of plagiarism. The analysis has not been forthcoming, however, despite requests. Here the historian of Gray's Anatomy supplements the argument set out in the Medical Times 150 years ago with data suggesting unwelcome personality traits in Henry Gray, and demonstrating the utility of others' work to his professional advancement. Fair dealing in the world of anatomy and indeed the genuineness of the lustre of medical fame are important matters, but whether quantitative evidence has anything to add to the discussion concerning Gray's probity can be assessed only if Benninger makes public his computer analysis.

  7. Take a Hike with Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities and relevant Web sites associated with the picture book "Henry Hikes to Fitchburg" which is based on a passage from "Walden" by Henry David Thoreau. Includes author sites, Library of Congress sites, town profiles and histories, nature crafts, and recipes. (LRW)

  8. Temperature Dependence of Henry’s Law Constant for Hydrogen Cyanide. Generation of Trace Standard Gaseous Hydrogen Cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary data for the temperature dependent solubility of HCN in water do not presently exist for low concentrations of HCN at environmentally or physiologically relevant temperatures. Henry’s Law constant (KH, M/atm) for the vapor-solution equilibrium of HCN was determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 9.00±0.03 at 296.6±0.1 K) from 287–311 K. Stable gas phase concentrations of HCN are generated by established techniques, via air equilibration of aqueous cyanide partitioned by a microporous membrane. The effluent gaseous HCN, in equilibrium with the constant temperature aqueous cyanide, was collected in dilute NaOH and determined by a spectrophotometrically using cobinamide. The KH of HCN may be expressed as ln KH (M/atm) = (8205.7±341.9)/T − (25.323±1.144); r2 = 0.9914) where T is the absolute temperature in K. This corresponds to 9.02 and 3.00 M/atm at 25 and 37.4 °C, respectively, compared to actual measurements of 9.86 and 3.22 at 25.0 and 37.8 °C, respectively. The technique also allows for convenient generation of trace levels of HCN at ppbv-ppmv levels that can be further diluted. PMID:20302333

  9. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured at sample temperatures between 349 and 610 K for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show the samples sublimed congruently into HGI2 without any observed Hg or I2 absorption spectra. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were derived. From these constants the vapor pressure of HgI2, P, was found to be a function of temperature for the liquid and the solid beta-phases: ln P(atm) = -7700/T(K) + 12.462 (liquid phase) and ln P(atm) = -10150/T(K) + 17.026 (beta-phase). The expressions match the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 kcal/mole respectively, for the liquid and the beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 kcal/mole, and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  10. Joseph Henry and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Joseph Henry (1797-1878) is best known for his work in electromagnetism and as the first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. But he was also a pioneer solar physicist, an early advocate of US participation in astrophysics, and a facilitator of international cooperation in astronomy. This paper will briefly trace his role in the development of the US astronomical community from the time he taught astronomy at Princeton in the 1830s through his death, focusing on failed efforts to persuade US astronomers and patrons of astronomy that the best path for US astronomy should be astrophysics. He thought that the US could make a more significant contribution to astronomy science by striking out on a less travelled path rather than competing with the established European observatories.

  11. Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: II. Parameter testing, scaling constants, and the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekin, Jack W.; Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2016-12-01

    A scaling study of several thousand Nb3Sn critical-current (I c) measurements is used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE), a relation that can quickly and accurately extrapolate limited datasets to obtain full three-dimensional dependences of I c on magnetic field (B), temperature (T), and mechanical strain (ɛ). The relation has the advantage of being easy to implement, and offers significant savings in sample characterization time and a useful tool for magnet design. Thorough data-based analysis of the general parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) shows the existence of three universal scaling constants for practical Nb3Sn conductors. The study also identifies the scaling parameters that are conductor specific and need to be fitted to each conductor. This investigation includes two new, rare, and very large I c(B,T,ɛ) datasets (each with nearly a thousand I c measurements spanning magnetic fields from 1 to 16 T, temperatures from ˜2.26 to 14 K, and intrinsic strains from -1.1% to +0.3%). The results are summarized in terms of the general USL parameters given in table 3 of Part 1 (Ekin J W 2010 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 23 083001) of this series of articles. The scaling constants determined for practical Nb3Sn conductors are: the upper-critical-field temperature parameter v = 1.50 ± 0.04 the cross-link parameter w = 3.0 ± 0.3 and the strain curvature parameter u = 1.7 ± 0.1 (from equation (29) for b c2(ɛ) in Part 1). These constants and required fitting parameters result in the ESE relation, given by I c ( B , T , ɛ ) B = C [ b c 2 ( ɛ ) ] s ( 1 - t 1.5 ) η - μ ( 1 - t 2 ) μ b p ( 1 - b ) q with reduced magnetic field b ≡ B/B c2*(T,ɛ) and reduced temperature t ≡ T/T c*(ɛ), where: B c 2 * ( T , ɛ ) = B c 2 * ( 0 , 0 ) ( 1 - t 1.5 ) b c 2 ( ɛ ) T c * ( ɛ ) = T c * ( 0 ) [ b c 2 ( ɛ ) ] 1/3 and fitting parameters: C, B c2*(0,0), T c*(0), s, either η or μ (but not both), plus the parameters in the strain function b c2

  12. Disobeying Immoral Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Elfie

    1994-01-01

    Describes how one teacher continued to teach after becoming pregnant, even though this was against school policy. Reminds teachers that Henry Thoreau claimed it is moral to disobey an immoral law. (HB)

  13. Air-Liquid Partition Coefficient for a Diverse Set of Organic Compounds: Henry’s Law Constant in Water and Hexadecane

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SPARC vapor pressure and activity coefficient models were coupled to estimate Henry’s Law Constant (HLC) in water and in hexadecane for a wide range of non-polar and polar solute organic compounds without modification to/or additional parameterization of the vapor pressure or...

  14. Henry’s Law Constant and Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient for Formaldehyde Emission from Small Water Pools under Simulated Indoor Environmental Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Henry’s law constant (HLC) and the overall mass transfer coefficient are both important parameters for modeling formaldehyde emissions from aqueous solutions. In this work, the apparent HLCs for aqueous formaldehyde solutions were determined in the concentration range from 0....

  15. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. [The Henry E. Huntington Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Terry

    The biographical sketch of Henry E. Huntington includes a description of the establishment of the Huntington Library and the purpose and scope of its collection. Although this is a free and public library, its use is restricted to qualified scholars having legitimate research needs. Photographic techniques were developed at the Huntington Library…

  17. Henry Giroux and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trend, David

    2012-01-01

    Henry A. Giroux is well known for pushing the definitions of education. From his early forays into what has been termed the "New Sociology of Education" in the early 1980s to his more recent discussions of "public pedagogy", Giroux has methodically challenged existing orthodoxies. This essay will focus on the interdisciplinary broadening of…

  18. The Beauty of Henri Matisse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, David

    2004-01-01

    Because beauty has for a long time now been politically incorrect (at least among certain influential critics and academic historians) the art of Henri Matisse has recently suffered from a kind of benign neglect. His goals were luxury, calm, and voluptuousness, not social critique. Liberated from any vital connection with everyday life, they often…

  19. The Right Fit for Henry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, J. Christine; Staff, Linda K.; Theiss, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    When Henry was enrolled in a gifted program in 3rd grade, he showed many of the classic signs of giftedness, but his reading and writing skills were below grade level. An evaluation revealed that he was twice-exceptional--he was gifted and he had a learning disability. Believing that both his giftedness and his learning disability warranted…

  20. Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesterson, David B.

    Designed for use by the general reader, the college student, and the teacher, this book analyzes the life and literary career of Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw), emphasizing his literary ventures and artistic talents. The analysis reveals Billings' talents as a subtle humorist, homespun philosopher, and artist of the essay. Chapters include…

  1. Henry Morgenthau's voice in history.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Henry Morgenthau (1856-1946) distinguished himself as the U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, 1913-1916, and as the chairman of the League of Nations Refugee Settlement Commission (RSC) for Greece, 1923-24. I describe aspects of his early life that shaped the man he became, his accomplishments in these two posts, and his feelings about himself over time. At the end I briefly describe his attitude toward a possible Jewish state in Palestine.

  2. Determination of Paris' law constants and crack length evolution via Extended and Unscented Kalman filter: An application to aircraft fuselage panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiwei; Binaud, Nicolas; Gogu, Christian; Bes, Christian; Fu, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Prediction of fatigue crack length in aircraft fuselage panels is one of the key issues for aircraft structural safety since it helps prevent catastrophic failures. Accurate estimation of crack length propagation is also meaningful for helping develop aircraft maintenance strategies. Paris' law is often used to capture the dynamics of fatigue crack propagation in metallic material. However, uncertainties are often present in the crack growth model, measured crack size and pressure differential in each flight and need to be accounted for accurate prediction. The aim of this paper is to estimate the two unknown Paris' law constants m and C as well as the crack length evolution by taking into account these uncertainties. Due to the nonlinear nature of the Paris' law, we propose here an on-line estimation algorithm based on two widespread nonlinear filtering techniques, Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The numerical experiments indicate that both EKF and UKF estimated the crack length well and accurately identified the unknown parameters. Although UKF is theoretical superior to EKF, in this Paris' law application EKF is comparable in accuracy to UKF and requires less computational expense.

  3. Wormhole spectrum of a quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology minimally coupled to a power-law scalar field and the cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Pyo; Page, Don N.

    1992-05-01

    The expansion of the wave function of a quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology minimally coupled to a scalar field with a power-law potential by its scalar-field part decouples the gravitational-field part into an infinite system of linear homogeneous differential equations (equivalent to a matrix equation). The solutions for the gravitational-field part are found in the product integral formulation. It is shown that there exists a spectrum of the wave functions exponentially damped for large three-geometries under the condition that the cosmological constant should vanish. These are interpeted as the Hawking-Page wormholes.

  4. Development of Monopole Interaction Models for Ionic Compounds. Part I: Estimation of Aqueous Henry’s Law Constants for Ions and Gas Phase pKa Values for Acidic Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) physicochemical mechanistic models for neutral compounds have been extended to estimate Henry’s Law Constant (HLC) for charged species by incorporating ionic electrostatic interaction models. Combinations of absolute aq...

  5. The Don Henry Story. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Don Henry was a student at the University of Kansas (Lawrence, Kansas) who experienced a profound political change during his years on campus. Henry became a leader in radical campus organizations, volunteered to fight in the Spanish Civil War with the Lincoln Brigade, and died on the battlefield in Aragon (Spain) in September 1937. An article in…

  6. John Henry--The Steel Driving Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David E.; Gulley, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    The story of John Henry provided the setting for sixth-grade class to participate in a John Henry Day of mathematics experiments. The students collected data from experiments where students competed against machines and technology. The student analyzed the data by comparing two box plots, a box plot of human data, and a box plot of machine or…

  7. Endoscopic Release of Master Knot of Henry.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    A post-traumatic partial tear of the flexor hallucis longus tendon at the master knot of Henry and the resultant fibrosis of the knot can result in pain at the medial foot arch or posteromedial ankle pain with trigger hallux. Open debridement of the master knot of Henry is indicated if the symptoms do not improve with nonoperative treatment. The open procedure requires extensive soft-tissue dissection because the master knot of Henry is a deep structure. Endoscopic release of the master knot of Henry is an alternative to the open procedure and has the advantage of less surgical trauma and potential for less chance of recurrence of fibrosis of the master knot of Henry.

  8. Geology of the Henry Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, G.K.

    1877-01-01

    If these pages fail to give a correct account of the structure of the Henry Mountains the fault is mine and I have no excuse. In all the earlier exploration of the Rocky Mountain Region, as well as in much of the more recent survey, the geologist has merely accompanied the geographer and has had no voice in the determination of either the route or the rate of travel. When the structure of a mountain was in doubt he was rarely able to visit the points which should resolve the doubt, but was compelled to turn regretfully away. Not so in the survey of the Henry Mountains. Geological exploration had shown that they were well disposed for examination, and that they promised to give the key to a type of structure which was at best obscurely known; and I was sent by Professor Powell to make a study of them, without restriction as to my order or method. I was limited only in time, the snow stopping my work two months after it was begun. Two months would be far too short a period in which to survey a thousand square miles in Pennsylvania or Illinois, but among the Colorado Plateaus it proved sufficient. A few comprehensive views from mountain tops gave the general distribution of the formations, and the remainder of the time was spent in the examination of the localities which best displayed the peculiar features of the structure. So thorough was the display and so satisfactory the examination, that in preparing my report I have felt less than ever before the desire to revisit the field and prove my conclusions by more extended observation.

  9. Change is a Constant.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Provencher, Matthew T; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Poehling, Gary G

    2015-06-01

    In 2015, Henry P. Hackett, Managing Editor, Arthroscopy, retires, and Edward A. Goss, Executive Director, Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA), retires. Association is a positive constant, in a time of change. With change comes a need for continuing education, research, and sharing of ideas. While the quality of education at AANA and ISAKOS is superior and most relevant, the unique reason to travel and meet is the opportunity to interact with innovative colleagues. Personal interaction best stimulates new ideas to improve patient care, research, and teaching. Through our network, we best create innovation.

  10. Joseph Henry and the American Philosophical Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Walter E.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the extent to which Henry was affiliated with the Society and its influence on his work including his evolving relationship with the Society in the scope of the changing nature of American scientific institutions. (DF)

  11. Obituary: Henry Emil Kandrup, 1955-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David; Gottesman, Stephen T.

    2004-12-01

    Henry Emil Kandrup died on 18 October 2003 at his home in Gainesville Florida. Henry was a theoretical astrophysicist specializing in the application of chaotic dynamics to stellar systems. At the time of his death, Henry was a Professor at the University of Florida where he had taught for 13 years. Henry was born in Manhasset, New York on July 24, 1955 and spent most of his childhood in Great Neck. His parents, Jytte and Fred, were immigrants from Denmark where his father had worked as a silver smith. Henry was a precocious child, skipping both third and fifth grades. With the help of Sidney Spivack, a professor of sociology at Columbia University, his parents enrolled Henry in the Brooks Preparatory School in Andover, Massachusetts. After graduating at age 16, Henry enrolled at Cornell, transferring to Princeton the following year. Henry's parents adored their only child and worked hard to provide him with intellectual opportunities. Henry became an accomplished musician (organ, piano, French horn) and linguist (English, Danish, German) and was a passionate devotee of opera and ballet. Henry received his PhD in 1980 from the University of Chicago, where his thesis advisor was James Ipser. He taught at Oakland University in Michigan and Syracuse University in New York before coming to the University of Florida in 1990. Henry was sui generis. He shunned conventionality in his personal appearance and in his public demeanor, and always chose forthrightness and candor over polite silence. But to those of us who knew Henry well, his bluntness was a reflection of his intellectual consistency. Henry always said exactly what he thought, both in his published work and his public presentations, and never compromised himself for the sake of appearances. Nothing that he said or wrote was less than fully thought out. Henry's PhD thesis was entitled "Stochastic Problems in Stellar Dynamics," and most of his subsequent research was in this field. Motion in stellar systems can be

  12. Henry Cavendish and the density of the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lally, Sean P.

    1999-01-01

    From the fall of 1797 through the spring of 1798, Henry Cavendish performed a series of experiments, which now bear his name, that were aimed at determining the density of Earth. While Cavendish is rightfully considered a brilliant experimenter by many historians, he is often credited (in both popular and historical literature) as the scientist who first accurately weighed the Earth and determined the universal constant of gravitation, G. While the universal constant of gravitation and the mass (or weight) of the Earth can indeed be calculated from the density of the Earth, this was neither Cavendish's result nor his intent in writing "Experiments to Determine the Density of the Earth." Rather, Cavendish's interest lies in solving an eighteenth-century dispute: what is the mean density of the Earth?

  13. Joseph Henry's Conception of Scientific Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theerman, Paul

    1997-04-01

    Joseph Henry, America's premier physicist and physics teacher in the mid-nineteenth century, had decided views of scientific knowledge. These were expressed in two ways. First of all, scientific knowledge led to moral betterment. Thus the study of science was a morally good thing. This was not only because it led to the contemplation of God's creation, which was a standard reason justifying the study of science dating from the Scientific Revolution and even earlier. More importantly, the study of science itself was a moral discipline, imparting to scientists the habits and virtues of truthfulness, respect for others, care and diligence, and the discernment of meaningful patterns from experience. The moral ideals of science were expressed most strongly in Henry's upholding the international "Republic of Science"; conversely, cheapening science was a sign of moral failure. Second, for Henry and his generation, science provided a path to sure truth, separate from falsehood of both the politics and the quackery that characterized mid-century public life. Henry promoted this in his championing of the Smithsonian Institution a scientific establishment, against the ideas of others who wanted to make it a literary establishment or a training school for teachers. For Henry, the Smithsonian's scientific reputation would be established by relying on careful peer review in its publications, and supporting established scientists to write authoritative popular works. The purpose of both these activities was to raise the profile of science in the United States and further establish science and the scientific method as a guide to public life.

  14. Cavendish, Henry (1731-1810)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    English chemist and physicist. Cavendish used a sensitive torsion balance (the Cavendish balance), which was made to oscillate under the gravitational force of attraction of large masses, to measure the value of the gravitational constant, G, and used his value to determine the mass of the Earth....

  15. History into Drama: The Perspective of "1 Henry IV."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Larry S.

    1978-01-01

    Contrasts Shakespeare's "Henry V" and "Henry IV" series, in which human interaction becomes history, with plays such as "Julius Caesar," which focus on psychological analysis and the internalized protagonist. (MB)

  16. View of fourlane Henry Hudson Parkway winding through Riverdale, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of four-lane Henry Hudson Parkway winding through Riverdale, showing service roads, from White Hall Cooperative Apartments. Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, the Cloisters and Fort Tryon Park, George Washington Bridge, and Manhattan skyline in background, looking southwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  17. The Ideas of Henry Jenkins and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Byron

    2008-01-01

    Henry Jenkins, director of the Comparative Media Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and keynote speaker at the 2007 American Library Association's "Gaming, Learning and Libraries Symposium" in Chicago is a visionary leader in the areas of new media and media convergence. In a white paper on digital media and learning…

  18. Livres d'Artiste: Henri Matisse, Jazz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godlewski, Susan Glover

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the life of Henri Matisse and how he created his paper cut-outs, which were reproduced in a book. Discusses the importance of artists' books. Suggests some creative activities for all grades in book making and paper cut-outs that could be worked in conjunction with a language arts program. (KM)

  19. The Historical World of Henry Adams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Kent

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines Henry Adams' writings on history by considering four topics which comprise the basis of his thinking: politics, religion, sex, and science. Adam's main goal was to make history a means of exploring the most significant dimensions of human being. (Author/RM)

  20. In the Style of Henry Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by Henry Moore's sculptures. This project consists of two activities. In the first activity, students select, sand and stain a wood block that would become a base for their plaster sculpture. This activity would keep the students independently engaged (classroom management) while the…

  1. Appreciating Gantos' Jack Henry as an Archetype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jinx Stapleton

    2001-01-01

    Examines the contemporary realism of the literary character Jack Henry, a middle school child, as representative of two classic literary elements, the quest cycle and the lone hero. Concludes that classic structures of plots and characteristics of hero offer many modern protagonists a shape for their realistic and ordinary adventures. (SG/47)

  2. Henry James on the Art of Acting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David W.

    Henry James, the nineteenth-century American novelist, also served on occasion as a theatre critic. Between 1875 and 1890 he reviewed several productions in Boston, New York, London, and Paris for "Atlantic Monthly" and other periodicals. The reviews are of interest because of James' high standards regarding acting and his often…

  3. Heroes of peer review: Hyongbum (Henry) Kim.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyongbum

    2016-09-29

    Peer reviewers are the unsung heroes of science. We celebrate reviewers through a series of interviews with people who have made particularly strong recent contributions to Genome Biology as reviewers. The first interview is with Hyongbum (Henry) Kim, an Associate Professor at Yonsei University College of Medicine in South Korea.

  4. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface flows can occur as a

  5. Henri Laborit and the inhibition of action.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Edward

    2014-03-01

    Henri Laborit was one of the founders of modern neuropsychopharmacology, having discovered, or participated in, the discovery of chlorpromazine, gamma-OH, clomethiazole, and minaprine. He also put forward a theory regarding the necessity of counteracting the negative consequences of defense mechanisms during anesthesia or behavioral inhibition. The scope of his work covers neurophysiology, pharmacology, psychiatry, and psychosomatics. His independence of spirit meant that most of his research was not done within university settings.

  6. Henri Laborit and the inhibition of action

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Henri Laborit was one of the founders of modern neuropsychopharmacology, having discovered, or participated in, the discovery of chlorpromazine, gamma-OH, clomethiazole, and minaprine. He also put forward a theory regarding the necessity of counteracting the negative consequences of defense mechanisms during anesthesia or behavioral inhibition. The scope of his work covers neurophysiology, pharmacology, psychiatry, and psychosomatics. His independence of spirit meant that most of his research was not done within university settings. PMID:24733976

  7. Henri Poincaré and the principle of relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messager, Valérie; Gilmore, Robert; Letellier, Christophe

    2012-09-01

    Often considered as the last 'encyclopedist', Henri Poincaré died one hundred years ago. If he was a prominent man in 1900 French Society, his heritage is not so clearly recognised, particularly in France. Among his too often misunderstood works is his contribution to the theory of relativity, mainly because it is almost never presented within Poincaré's general approach to science, including his philosophical writings. Our aim is therefore to provide an historical account of the main steps (experimental as well as theoretical) which led Poincaré to contribute to the theory of relativity. Starting from the optical experiments which led to the inconsistency of the classical (Galilean) composition law for velocities to explain light propagation, we introduce the FitzGerald and Lorentz contraction which was viewed as the 'sole hypothesis' to explain the Michelson and Morley experiment. We then show that Poincaré's contribution starts with a discussion of the principles governing the mechanics and was built step by step up to express in all its generality the principle of relativity. Poincaré thus showed the invariance of the Maxwell equations under the Lorentz transformation. In doing so, he also discovered the right composition law for velocities. Poincaré's approach to philosophy is detailed to help the reader to understand what a theory meant to him.

  8. VISTA, GENERAL HENRY LEAVENWORTH MONUMENT AND CONTEXT LOOKING DOWN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VISTA, GENERAL HENRY LEAVENWORTH MONUMENT AND CONTEXT LOOKING DOWN THE HILL TOWARD BIDDLE BLVD. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery, 395 Biddle Boulevard, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  9. Henry Barton Jacobs, William Osler's intimate friend

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    William Osler was considered a universal friend by physicians of his era but, as with most people, his intimate friends were few. Henry Barton Jacobs became a close friend as one of the “latchkeyers” who lived next door to the Oslers in Baltimore, and the friendship intensified after Jacobs married Mary Sloan Frick Garrett, the fabulously wealthy widow of a former patient. The couples stayed close after the Oslers moved to Oxford, vacationing together and corresponding frequently. The couple friendship between the Oslers and the Jacobses benefited American medicine in specific ways, including the care of patients with tuberculosis and the care of children. PMID:28127152

  10. Henry Barton Jacobs, William Osler's intimate friend.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charles S

    2017-01-01

    William Osler was considered a universal friend by physicians of his era but, as with most people, his intimate friends were few. Henry Barton Jacobs became a close friend as one of the "latchkeyers" who lived next door to the Oslers in Baltimore, and the friendship intensified after Jacobs married Mary Sloan Frick Garrett, the fabulously wealthy widow of a former patient. The couples stayed close after the Oslers moved to Oxford, vacationing together and corresponding frequently. The couple friendship between the Oslers and the Jacobses benefited American medicine in specific ways, including the care of patients with tuberculosis and the care of children.

  11. William Henry Bragg (1862-1942)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da C. Andrade, E. N.

    In the late fifties Robert John Bragg, a young man of twenty-five, retired from the sea, where he had been serving as an officer in the merchant navy, and purchased with some monies that had been l to him the farm called Stoneraise Place at Westward, near Wigton, in Cumberland; Here he settled down to a farmer's life. In 1861 he married Mary Wood, the daughter of the Vicar of the parish of Westward, and the next year, on 2 July 1862, William Henry Bragg, later to be President of the Royal Society, was born…

  12. Henry Crew, a successful teacher of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiaozhen, Xu; Michaelson, Robert C.

    1987-09-01

    Henry Crew had a long career in teaching physics at Johns Hopkins University, Haverford College, and Northwestern University. In those decades, Crew made great contributions to physics education. He published 13 books including popular textbooks and well-known translations. His 123 scientific articles included works on spectroscopy, physics education, history of science, biographies of physics, and so forth. He was awarded the highest honor for a physics teacher in the United States—the Oersted Medal. At the same time, he was an active scientist, and he participated as a founder of such academic societies as the American Physical Society, the American Association of University Professors, and the History of Science Society.

  13. The medical life of Henry Norman Bethune

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Jean; Goulet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Henry Norman Bethune is one of the most exciting and incredible surgeons that Canada has ever produced. Indeed, he is often characterized as one of the world’s best-known surgeons. He was an innovator and his scientific contributions have stood the test of time. In Canada, he will forever be remembered as a social activist committed to the welfare of the poor and to the reform of the health care system. In the People’s Republic of China, he is idolized and remains the only foreigner to ever become a national hero. OBJECTIVE: To detail the numerous and significant achievements of Henry Norman Bethune in the field of thoracic surgery and as a social activist and describe his heroic war-time actions on the battlefields of both Spain and China. METHOD: Information was gathered through the reading of the numerous publications written about the life and work of Bethune, interviews with knowledgeable people from Canadian and Chinese universities, analysis of Bethune’s own publications, and extensive experience of one of the authors in China. RESULTS: In the social sense, Henry Norman Bethune had a difficult personality, but he was deeply caring about the plight of his patients, especially the poor. As a thoracic surgeon, he could be ingenious, thoughtful and effective but he could also be abrasive, restless and temperamental. His scientific contributions were sound and, at the time, gained worldwide attention. As an activist, he led a crusade to reform the Canadian health care system, demanding free health care for all. His outstanding work during the Spanish Civil War, where he organized the first ever mobile blood transfusion unit, and during the Sino-Japanese war, where he was totally committed to the welfare of both soldiers and civilian population, were deliberate acts of resistance against Fascist onslaught and enthusiasm for the Communist cause. CONCLUSIONS: Henry Norman Bethune was unconventional and a revolutionary, but he was brilliant. He will

  14. Professor Henry, Mr. Faraday, and the Hunt for Electromagnetic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Albert E.

    1997-04-01

    On different sides of the Atlantic but about the same time, Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry announced success in a quest that had preoccupied the scientific community for a decade: coaxing electricity from magnetism. "Mutual induction," what Faraday and Henry had identified in the early 1830s, would turn out to be not only a foundational concept in the physics of electricity and magnetism but also the principle behind the technology of electrical transformers and generators--two mainstays of industrialization. Although Faraday's breakthrough in London and Henry's in Albany might appear to be classic examples of "independent discovery," they were not. The two natural philosophers shared a similar orientation toward their research and, moreover, a distinctive laboratory instrument: Henry's new, powerful electromagnet. Thus, the story of Henry's and Faraday's search for induction illuminates not only the workings of Victorian science but also the crucial part that an instrument--the unadorned hardware--can play in scientific inquiry. Albert Moyer takes this story from his biography of Joseph Henry that Smithsonian Institution Press is about to publish in commemoration of the 200th anniversary of Henry's birth. The biography focuses on Henry's early and middle years, 1797-1847, from his emergence as America's foremost physical scientist to his election as the Smithsonian Institution's first director.

  15. Dialogue of Differences: The Writing of Henry Holmes Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossen, Howard

    In addition to surveying the writings of Henry Holmes Smith, this paper explains his importance as a theoretician and practitioner of photography. After a discussion of Smith's ideas on "reading photographs" and his concerns with the ethics of photography, particularly of photojournalism, the essays in the book, "Henry Holmes Smith:…

  16. Teaching Students about the Environment with Henry David Thoreau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Walden: The Ballad of Thoreau" is a two-act four-character play about the final two days writer Henry David Thoreau spent in his cabin before leaving Walden Pond. Teachers can use this play to teach about preserving the earth to students. This article presents a brief synopsis of the play and a brief biography of Henry David Thoreau.

  17. 75 FR 21288 - Henry Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... characteristics and the feasibility of developing the Cote Blanche Island salt dome for natural gas storage in St... Energy Regulatory Commission Henry Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Application April 16, 2010. Take notice that on April 5, 2010, Henry Gas Storage LLC (HGS), 1010 Lamar, Suite 1720, Houston, Texas 77002,...

  18. View of cars entering Henry Hudson Parkway southbound at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cars entering Henry Hudson Parkway southbound at the Mosholu Parkway interchange, with outcropping in northwest Van Cortlandt Park in background, looking north. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  19. On an isotherm thermodynamically consistent in Henry's region for describing gas adsorption in microporous materials.

    PubMed

    Pera-Titus, Marc

    2010-05-15

    The Dubinin-Astakhov and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms, originally formulated from the classical volume filling theory of micropores, constitute the most accepted models for describing gas adsorption in microporous materials. The most important weakness of these equations relies on the fact that they do not reduce to Henry's law at low pressures, not providing therefore a proper characterization of adsorbents in the early stage of adsorption. In this paper, we propose a way out of this inherent problem using the thermodynamic isotherm developed in a previous study [J. Llorens, M. Pera-Titus, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 331 (2009) 302]. This isotherm allows the generation of a series of equations that make available a comprehensive description of gas adsorption for the whole set of relative pressures (including Henry's region), also providing explicit information about energy heterogeneity of the adsorbent through the two characteristic m parameters of the thermodynamic isotherm (i.e., m(1) and m(2)). The obtained isotherm converges into the Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm for relative pressures higher than 0.1, the characteristic α parameter of this isotherm being expressed as α=m(2)-1 and the affinity coefficient (β) as a sole function of m(2). An expression differing from the Dubinin-Astakhov isotherm has been obtained for describing Henry's region, providing relevant information about confinement effects when applied to zeolites.

  20. Obituary: Roy Henry Garstang (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malville, J.

    2011-12-01

    Roy Henry Garstang 84 passed away on November 1, 2009 in Boulder Colorado. He was born in Southport, England in September of 1925 to Percy Brocklehurst and Eunice (Gledhill) Garstang. He won a scholarship to Caius College in Cambridge University. Because it was wartime, he could spend only two years at his studies. However, he managed to complete three years of required work during that time, and then spent 1945-46 as a Junior Scientific Officer at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough. He received his BA in 1946 from Cambridge, his MA in 1950, and his PhD in Mathematics in 1954, with a thesis: "Atomic Transitions in Astrophysics," working under D. R. Hartree. He also received a ScD from Cambridge in Physics and Chemistry in 1983. He married Ann in August 1959. She and two daughters, Jennifer and Susan, survive him. While still pursuing his PhD, Roy Garstang served as a Research Associate at the Yerkes Observatory, from 1951-1952, working under Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. During that time he continued with his own calculations of atomic structure and transition probabilities, although these were not part of Chandra's research interests. After earning his PhD, he went to teach at the University of London, where he also served as the Assistant Director of the University of London Observatory (1959-1964). He was editor of "The Observatory" Magazine form 1953-1960. The continuing theme of this research was to help meet the needs of astrophysicists for atomic data. In 1964, he left England for the United States, where he joined the faculty at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he would remain for the rest of his professional career. It was entirely fitting, considering his interest in performing calculations of interest to astrophysicists, that soon after arriving in Boulder he was appointed Chairman of JILA - Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (1966-1967). He was Director of the Division of Physics and AstroGeophysics (1979-80), acting

  1. Henry Norris Russell and the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVorkin, D.

    2013-04-01

    Henry Norris Russell, one of the most influential American astronomers of the first half of the 20th Century, had a special place in his heart for the Lowell Observatory. Although privately critical of the founder for his pronouncements about life on Mars and the superiority of the Mars Hill observing site, he always supported the Observatory in public and professional circles. He staunchly supported Tombaugh's detection of a planet as leading from Lowell's prediction, and always promoted V. M. Slipher's spectroscopic investigations of planetary and stellar phenomena. But how did he react to Slipher's puzzling detection of the extreme radial velocities of spiral nebulae starting in 1912, and how did he regard the extension and interpretation of those observations by Hubble and others in following decades? Here we describe the arc of Russell's reactions, dating from Slipher's first detection, as an indicator of how mainstream stellar astronomers reacted to the concept of an expanding universe.

  2. Henry Oldenburg - Shaping the Royal Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boas Hall, Marie

    2002-03-01

    Henry Oldenburg, born in 1619 in Bremen, Germany, first came to England as a diplomat on a mission to see Oliver Cromwell. He stayed on in England and in 1662 became the Secretary of the Royal Society, and its best known member to the entire learned world of his time. Through his extensive correspondence, now published, he disseminated the Society's ideals and methods at home and abroad. He fostered and encouraged the talents of many scientists later to be far more famous than he, including Newton, Flamsteed, Malpighi, and Leeuwenhoek with whom, as with many others, he developed real friendship. He founded and edited the Philosophical Transactions, the world's oldest scientific journal.His career sheds new light on the intellectual world of his time, especially its scientific aspects, and on the development of the Royal Society; his private life expands our knowledge of social mobility, the urban society, and the religious views of his time.

  3. Obituary: Henry Albers (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromey, Fred

    2011-12-01

    Henry Albers, professor of astronomy at Vassar College for over thirty years, died March 29, 2009, in Fairhope, Alabama. For his work at Vassar, where he held the Maria Mitchell Chair, Albers received the first Maria Mitchell Women in Science Award for his inspiration of women astronomers. He said "In the final analysis it is the students who bring the joy into teaching." As a professional astronomer, Albers did observational work on Galactic structure in the southern Milky Way, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. In retirement, Albers published Maria Mitchell - A Life in Journals and Letters, the firsthand account of America's first woman astronomer. Albers's research was on photographic near-infrared spectroscopy of red giant stars in the southern Milky Way, some proper motion studies, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. A series of seven NSF grants supported his six trips to Chile to make spectroscopic observations, as well as his sabbatical collaborations at Minnesota, Leiden, and the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh. Henry Albers arrived at Vassar in 1958, to find an astronomy program that had been recently absorbed by the physics department, and that was suffering neglect after the retirement of Maud Makemson. For the next 31 years, with incredible energy -- he sometimes taught seven courses a year -- he built the astronomy program into one double in size (from one to two tenure lines), whose th century facilities have been replaced with a st century observatory. For a remarkable stretch of 20-some-years, Albers and physicist Bob Stearns, with considerable grace, alternated chairmanship of the joint department of physics and astronomy. Henry Albers was a devoted citizen of Vassar College and an enthusiastic participant in the process of faculty governance at that institution. He would have been the first to concede that his enthusiasm was sometimes excessive, and that his contributions at faculty meetings occasionally failed to move the

  4. Are Fundamental Constants Really Constant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Dirac's classical conclusions, that the values of e2, M and m are constants and the quantity of G decreases with time. Evoked considerable interest among researchers and traces historical development by which further experimental evidence points out that both e and G are constant values. (PS)

  5. Significance of the Henri-Michaelis-Menten theory in abiotic catalysis: catechol oxidation by δ-MnO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidja, A.; Huang, P. M.

    2002-05-01

    The Henri-Michaelis-Menten theory, for more than eight decades, was only restricted to homogeneous enzymatic catalysis. A mimic of an enzymatic kinetics based on the Henri-Michaelis-Menten concept was experimentally observed in heterogeneous catalysis in the present study with δ-MnO 2 as an abiotic catalyst in the oxidation of catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene). Using the derived linear forms of Lineweaver-Burk or Hofstee, the data show that similar to the enzyme tyrosinase, the kinetics of the catechol oxidation catalyzed by δ-MnO 2 can be described by the Henri-Michaelis-Menten equation, V0= VmaxS/( Km+ S), where Vmax is the maximum velocity and Km the concentration of the substrate ( S) corresponding to an initial velocity ( V0) half of Vmax. By analogy to the enzymatic kinetics, the parameters Vmax and Km for an heterogeneous abiotic catalysis were derived for the first time. Further, based on the concentration of the active centers of the mineral oxide, the kinetic constants kcat and kcat/ Km, respectively, representing the turnover frequency and the efficiency of the mineral catalyst, were also determined from the derived general rate equation of Briggs and Haldane. As an abiotic catalyst, δ-MnO 2 has a paramount role in the oxidation of phenolic compounds in soil, sediment and water environments. Therefore, the present observation is of fundamental and practical significance in elucidating the affinity between an abiotic catalyst and a substrate based on the Henri-Michaelis-Menten theory.

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey June 1936 GUEST HOUSE, NORTH WALL AND CLOISTER - Mission San Juan Capistrano, Guest House, Olive Street, between U.S. Highway 101 & Main Street, San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, CA

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey June 1936 GUEST HOUSE (OR BARRACKS), SOUTHEAST CORNER - Mission San Juan Capistrano, Guest House, Olive Street, between U.S. Highway 101 & Main Street, San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, CA

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey June 1936 NORTH ELEVATION OF GUEST HOUSE - Mission San Juan Capistrano, Guest House, Olive Street, between U.S. Highway 101 & Main Street, San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, CA

  9. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey June 1936 SOUTH ENTRANCE RO GUEST HOUSE. - Mission San Juan Capistrano, Guest House, Olive Street, between U.S. Highway 101 & Main Street, San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, CA

  10. Henri Poincaré: Death centenary (1854-1912)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzmann, Gerhard; Villani, Cédric

    2014-08-01

    The year 2012 marked the centenary of the death of Henri Poincaré (Nancy, 1854-Paris, 1912), and through the agency of the Henri-Poincaré Institute in Paris, the Henri-Poincaré Archives in Nancy and The London Mathematical Society, brought with it several exhibitions and meetings commemorating one of the greatest minds in contemporary times. Often referred to as the last polymath, Poincaré embraced multiple branches of mathematics, theoretical physics and celestial mechanics, and made significant contributions to philosophy of science (Heinzmann & Stump, Henri Poincaré, 2013). He wrote 25 textbooks and monographs, 500-plus articles, and was deeply involved in the organization and administration of science at both the national and international levels.1

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey May, 1937 BARRACKS BUILDING #2 (SOUTH SECTION) NORTH AND EAST FRONTS - Fort Tejon, Barracks Number Two, Highway 99, Lebec, Kern County, CA

  12. 17. Photocopy of Photograph (Original held by Henry Ford Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of Photograph (Original held by Henry Ford Archives, Dearborn, Michigan, Detroit Edison Negative No. 2976, 8 March 1915) NORTH SIDE AND EAST FRONT, FROM HART, LOOKING SOUTH - Detroit Edison Hart Substation, 11736 East Vernor, Detroit, MI

  13. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey June 1936 STONE CHURCH, CEILING OF SANCTUARY - Mission San Juan Capistrano, Stone Church, Olive Street, between U.S. Highway 101 & Main Street, San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, CA

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey March 1936 VIEW OF FOUNTAIN IN MISSION PARK, MISSION PROPERTY AT ONE TIME. - Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana, Fountains, Mission Boulevard, San Fernando, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey May 1937 S. W. CORRIDOR OF PATIO. - Casa del Rancho Santa Margarita y Los Flores, U.S. Highway 101, Oceanside, San Diego County, CA

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey September, 1936 VIEW OF FRONT VERANDA TOWARD NORTH - La Casa de Cota de la Cuesta, Lompoc Road, Buellton, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photographed by Henry F. Withey, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photographed by Henry F. Withey, April 4th, 1934. SOUTH PORCH FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Mrs. A. L. M. Vhay House, 835 Leguna Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 4th, 1934 SOUTH PORCH AT SOUTHWEST CORNER - Mrs. A. L. M. Vhay House, 835 Leguna Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photographed by Henry F. Withey, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photographed by Henry F. Withey, April 4th, 1934 SOUTH PORCH, LOOKING EAST - Mrs. A. L. M. Vhay House, 835 Leguna Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 18. Photocopy of Photograph (Original held by Henry Ford Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of Photograph (Original held by Henry Ford Archives, Dearborn, Michigan, Detroit Edison Negative No. 3545, 5 October 1915) INTERIOR VIEW, MACHINE ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH - Detroit Edison Hart Substation, 11736 East Vernor, Detroit, MI

  1. 1. Henry Beardsley standing in front of his store in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Henry Beardsley standing in front of his store in Ohio. Photographer unknown, 1887. Source: William M. Beardsley - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. HENRY STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, DETAIL OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HENRY STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, DETAIL OF NORTH ELEVATION - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 WEST REAR FROM GARDEN SHOWING SOUTH WALL OF PATIO. - Andres Pico House, 10940 Sepulveda Boulevard, San Fernando, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey, March 1936. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH. - Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana, Church, Mission Road, San Fernando, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey March 1936 VIEW OF INTERIOR (NORTH WALL AT CHANCEL) - Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana, Church, Mission Road, San Fernando, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey March 1936 FOUNTAIN AND STATUE IN MISSION PARK AND MISSION MONASTERY (SOUTH FRONT) - Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana, Fountains, Mission Boulevard, San Fernando, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey, March 1936 EAST ELEVATION (REAR) - Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana, Church, Mission Road, San Fernando, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SMITHY AND SOAP FACTORY (LOOKING SOUTH) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF FOUNTAIN, SMITHY AND SOAP FACTORY (LOOKING EAST) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SOAP FACTORY (S. W. Side) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SOAP FACTORY FROM EAST CORNER. - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey May 1937 GENERAL VIEW (FROM SOUTH) - Casa del Rancho Santa Margarita y Los Flores, U.S. Highway 101, Oceanside, San Diego County, CA

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photographed by Henry F. Withey, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photographed by Henry F. Withey, April 19, 1934. VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Pioneer House of the Mother Colony, 414 North West Street (moved from North Los Angeles Street), Anaheim, Orange County, CA

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photographed by Henry F. Withey, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photographed by Henry F. Withey, April 19th, 1934. VIEW FROM THE NORTHWEST - Pioneer House of the Mother Colony, 414 North West Street (moved from North Los Angeles Street), Anaheim, Orange County, CA

  15. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 MONASTERY GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, Monastery, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 DETAIL OF DOOR TO SACRISTRY (EXTERIOR) - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  17. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 GENERAL VIEW OF CHURCH AND LIVING QUARTERS FROM GARDEN. - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, Monastery, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 NORTH ELEVATION OF CHURCH - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  19. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 DETAIL OF CHURCH LOGGIA (NORTH ELEVATION, EXTERIOR) - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 EAST ELEVATION OF CHURCH (FRONT) - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  1. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 Church Nave (General view) - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  2. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 GARDEN SIDE OF LIVING QUARTERS (WEST AND CHURCH SOUTH) - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, Monastery, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  3. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 MAIN ENTRANCE DOOR TO CHURCH (EAST FRONT) - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  4. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 SACRISTRY WINDOW, NORTH ELEVATION (EXTERIOR) - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  5. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 CHURCH NAVE (GENERAL VIEW) - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 MONASTERY GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTHEAST (EAST FRONT) - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, Monastery, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION OF CHURCH FROM EAST END - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey December 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION OF CHURCH FROM WEST END - Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 782 Monterey Street, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  9. Guy V. Henry: A Study in Military Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-13

    off, and some water had cleared his throat, he was asked the somewhat absurd question of how he felt. ’ Bully ,’ was his somewhat unexpected reply. ’Never... suicide to avoid capture. In another article reporting the alleged massacre, the correspondent asserted that, knowing Henry, he believed the Major...close to his youngest son William Seton Henry. Seton, as he was called, was five years younger than Guy, Jr. and was still a teenager when his father

  10. Fighting desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    "Fighting Desires: Henry Miller's Queer Tropic" is an investigation of Tropic of Cancer that investigates the deeply repressed homoerotic desire that periodically surfaces. This reading is dependent upon an interpretation of Eve Sedgwick that proposes male sexuality as a continuum. By looking at the nature of the male-male relationships, as well as the lack of emotion and presence in the male-female relationships, I will show that the most intimate relationships are between men, and that these relationships are expressed through the telling of stories about (heterosexual) sex; this is the function of women within the novel: one has sex with a woman, not for the pleasure that the act brings, but for the pleasure that the recounting of the story to other men brings. Furthermore, I will look at Miller's use of puns within the novel and how they also contribute to a homoerotic reading. None of this is to argue that Miller was not homophobic and sexist--Miller very clearly was--the purpose of this essay is to show the complex nature of sexuality, even within a protagonist who asserts a very defined heterosexuality.

  11. James Paget Henry--a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Meehan, J P; Meehan, W P

    1997-01-01

    James Paget Henry really began his productive research career at the outset of the second world war. His studies of acceleration and the anoxia of high altitude were supported by the development of then new techniques of measuring and recording critical physiologic parameters such as vascular pressures, respiratory functions and haemoglobin saturation. His inquisitive mind made productive use of the instruments that had to be made by skilled instrument makers working in university shops. Much of this instrumentation has now found its way into the clinical arena where it is now the main armamentarium of cardiac diagnostic and respiratory function laboratories. His work in the space program preceeded that of the Russians but did not get recognition until Sputnik awakened the world to the possibilities of space flight. His development of the concept of a cardiovascular basis for fluid volume control and the supportive investigative work undertaken constitute a milestone in the annals of experimental physiology. The chimpanzees used in Project Mercury were found to be hypertensive which was related to the method of capture used by the commercial suppliers. This lead Jim to study the effect of early experience on resting blood pressure, an effort that soon developed into provocative studies of the biological basis of the stress response.

  12. Science Advisor and Applied Physicist: Joseph Henry Serves His Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    1997-04-01

    When Joseph Henry accepted the postion of secretary of the Smithsonian in 1846, his career changed radically. Although he never ceased thinking of himself as a research scientist and educator, thereafter his chief roles were those of science administrator and advisor to both the executive and legislative branches of the federal government for both science and technology. His effectiveness as an advocate became more important than his skill as an experimental physicist. Even when he entered the laboratory, his role had changed. No longer was he concerned with basic research. As a member of various government boards and committees, Henry spent the last three decades of his life concerned with the application of fundamental knowledge for the improvement of the human condition. This paper will discuss Henry's service on behalf of his country.

  13. Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Thinking and Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, David

    2013-01-01

    Computers have become powerful conceptual and intellectual tools. Examples will be given showing how computer simulations clarified the nature of some important astrophysical processes: gravitational collapse to black holes or neutron stars, the synthesis of the elements, supernova explosions, and turbulent motion in stars. Originally computers were thought of as tools for solving differential equations by numerical integration, but modern use of computers more closely resembles the construction of a digital model of reality based on conservation laws. Implications of our new abilities to solve nonlinear problems, and the synergism developing between analytic and digital theory will be discussed, with historical comments.

  14. Henry Giroux on Democracy Unsettled: From Critical Pedagogy to the War on Youth--An Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This interview conducted with Henry Giroux begins by probing Henry's childhood, upbringing and undergraduate years to discover where his sense of social justice took hold. It also questions Henry about his working-class background and the major influences on his thought, including his relationships with Paulo Freire and Howard Zinn. The interview…

  15. The Henry semianalytical solution for saltwater intrusion with reduced dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidane, Ali; Younes, Anis; Huggenberger, Peter; Zechner, Eric

    2012-06-01

    The Henry semianalytical solution for salt water intrusion is widely used for benchmarking density dependent flow codes. The method consists of replacing the stream function and the concentration by a double set of Fourier series. These series are truncated at a given order and the remaining coefficients are calculated by solving a highly nonlinear system of algebraic equations. The solution of this system is often subject to substantial numerical difficulties. Previous works succeeded to provide semianalytical solutions only for saltwater intrusion problems with unrealistic large amount of dispersion. In this work, different truncations for the Fourier series are tested and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, which has a quadratic rate of convergence, is applied to calculate their coefficients. The obtained results provide semianalytical solutions for the Henry problem in the case of reduced dispersion coefficients and for two freshwater recharge values: the initial value suggested by Henry (1964) and the reduced one suggested by Simpson and Clement (2004). The developed semianalytical solutions are compared against numerical results obtained by using the method of lines and advanced spatial discretization schemes. The obtained semianalytical solutions improve considerably the worthiness of the Henry problem and therefore, they are more suitable for testing density dependent flow codes.

  16. The Transformative Intellectual: An Examination of Henry Giroux's Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashani, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Henry Giroux's contributions to critical pedagogy. The author demonstrates how Giroux, as a public intellectual, has found his Ethics in the right place. The author further argues that Giroux's Ethics of virtue are present not only in the public person but also in his transformative writing.

  17. America's Earliest Revolutionary Voice: Po-Pay--Not Patrick Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Gordon R.

    A full century before Patrick Henry's persuasive battle for the rights of oppressed people, a San Juan Pueblo Indian medicine man known only as Po-Pay was the masterful communicator and agitator who orchestrated the first American revolution to drive the Spanish back into Mexico. Seeking mineral wealth, cheap labor, and the maximum number of…

  18. Portrait of a confederate secret agent: Henry A. Parr, DDS.

    PubMed

    Hyson, J M; Swanson, B Z

    1996-07-01

    Dr. Henry Albert Parr wore many faces during his career beginning with his Civil War service as a Confederate secret service agent and ending as a presidential dentist. How he played the roles in between as a pirate, accused murderer, pharmacist, inventor, and dental educator is a real odyssey--and worthy of documentation.

  19. A Teacher's Guide for William Shakespeare's "Henry V."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide for William Shakespeare's play "Henry V" is designed to accompany the Kenneth Branagh Masterpiece Theater film production of the play, and to help teachers use the film in a variety of ways. The guide includes pre-viewing background information, five teaching units, and a pullout poster for classroom display. The…

  20. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing EAST SIDE ELEVATION Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - Willis Bristol House, 584 Chapel Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 15. Photocopy of map, drawn by Henry Hagey, circa 1900 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of map, drawn by Henry Hagey, circa 1900 (from Willing Inhabitants, original in possession of author, Joyce Munro). FRANCONIA TOWNSHIP MAP. BRIDGE LOCATION IN BOTTOM CENTER - Allentown Road Bridge, Spanning Skippack Creek on Allentown Road, Franconia, Montgomery County, PA

  2. Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Presents a five-lesson, high school instructional unit on the ideas and activities of Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and discussion questions. Provides quotations by Thoreau and King. (CFR)

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Henry Austin's Drawing c. 1845 Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Yale University, New Haven, Conn. - Grove Street Cemetery Entrance, 227 Grove Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. The Hope of Radical Education: A Conversation with Henry Giroux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Radical education is questioning institutions and assumptions about education. An interview presents ideas of the spokesperson, Henry Giroux. They include the following: (1) traditional thinkers have the wrong perception of education; (2) education should engender empowerment; (3) radical education goes beyond a Marxist perspective; and (4)…

  5. Lagrangian circulation study near Cape Henry, Virginia. [Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the circulation near Cape Henry, Virginia, was made using surface and seabed drifters and radar tracked surface buoys coupled to subsurface drag plates. Drifter releases were conducted on a line normal to the beach just south of Cape Henry. Surface drifter recoveries were few; wind effects were strongly noted. Seabed drifter recoveries all exhibited onshore motion into Chesapeake Bay. Strong winds also affected seabed recoveries, tending to move them farther before recovery. Buoy trajectories in the vicinity of Cape Henry appeared to be of an irrotational nature, showing a clockwise rotary tide motion. Nearest the cape, the buoy motion elongated to almost parallel depth contours around the cape. Buoy motion under the action of strong winds showed that currents to at least the depth of the drag plates substantially are altered from those of low wind conditions near the Bay mouth. Only partial evidence could be found to support the presence of a clockwise nontidal eddy at Virginia Beach, south of Cape Henry.

  6. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey, MaY 1937 SHOP RUINS (DETAIL OF SOAP OVEN) - Mission San Juan Capistrano, Industrial Shops, Olive Street, between U.S. Highway 101 & Main Street, San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, CA

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SOAP FACTORY & SMITHY (FROM S. E. END OF SOAP FACTORY) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Patrick Henry Community College Institutional Master Plan, 1987-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jean; And Others

    Patrick Henry Community College's (PHCC's) 1987-1992 institutional master plan was developed to inform readers of the college's mission, goals, history, current status, and plans for the future. Section 1 presents a description of the college and projections for the future in terms of: (1) PHCC's contributions to the community, such as its…

  9. The Failed Educations of John Stuart Mill and Henry Adams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes and contrasts Mill's "Autobiography" and Adams'"The Education of Henry Adams" in order to present two approaches to the nature of education and of failure. Maintains that their perspectives may serve as catalysts and cautions for contemporary theories of education and its utility and relevance. (CAM)

  10. Challenging Texts: Teaching Deliberately--Reading Henry David Thoreau's "Walden"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    One of the more difficult 19th-century American texts for high school students to read is undoubtedly Henry David Thoreau's "Walden." His erudite allusions, often page-long sentences, and sophisticated sense of the ironic initially leave many students cold. Still, the author encourages them to read amid the din of a cultural cacophony that shouts…

  11. Universe of constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  12. Geology and geography of the Henry Mountains region, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles B.; Averitt, Paul; Miller, Ralph L.

    1953-01-01

    The Henry Mountains region in southeastern Utah is one of the classic areas in geology because of the study made there by Grove Karl Gilbert in 1875 and 1876. His report on the geology of the mountains was the first to recognize that intrusive bodies may deform their host rocks and the first to show clearly the significance of the evenly eroded plains, now known as pediments, at the foot of desert mountains.The Henry Mountains with the surrounding structural basin is a rugged, dry, and sparsely settled region, a part of the Colorado Plateaus province. The natural obstacles of the region-the aridity and ruggedness-have kept it primitive. It has not been penetrated by modern methods of transportation and thus it persists as a roadless frontier. Even the Indians seem to have made little use of the region; explorers did not enter it until 1869 and settlements were not started until the eighties.

  13. Marshak waves: Constant flux vs constant T-a (slight) paradigm shift

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.D.

    1994-12-22

    We review the basic scaling laws for Marshak waves and point out the differences in results for wall loss, albedo, and Marshak depth when a constant absorbed flux is considered as opposed to a constant absorbed temperature. Comparisons with LASNEX simulations and with data are presented that imply that a constant absorbed flux is a more appropriate boundary condition.

  14. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson (1820-1904).

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H

    2009-11-01

    Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. He was stimulated by Edwin Chadwick and Charles Dickens, and by Charles Darwin's observations on the earthworm. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of 2004.

  15. W. Henry Robinson: Popularising astronomy in Victorian Walsall and Birmingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S.

    William Henry Robinson was one of the most prominent citizens of Walsall, then part of Staffordshire, in the Victorian and Edwardian periods. An influential businessman, he managed to combine printing, publishing, editing a newspaper, writing books and poetry, maintaining a library and retail trading with founding the town's literary institute, and bringing the scientists, explorers, authors and cultural pursuits of the day to his home town. An amateur astronomer in his own right, Robinson was instrumental in setting up the BAA's Midland Branch.

  16. Henri Rouvière (1876-1952) French anatomist.

    PubMed

    Romero-Reverón, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Henri Rouvière (1876-1952): medical doctor and professor of human anatomy at Paris University and Honorary Member of the French Academy of Medicine. He wrote important essays on human anatomy and related topics, including a Compendium of Anatomy and Dissection (1911), A Treatise on Descriptive, Topographical and Functional Anatomy (1921), an anatomy of the human lymphatic system (1932), General Anatomy, Original Forms and Anatomical Structures (1939).

  17. In praise of the literary eponym—Henry V sign

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, C.; Marks, J. Charles

    2013-01-01

    The use of eponyms in medicine is often discouraged. However, the literary eponym should be an exception as it is not linked with many of the difficulties associated with conventional eponyms and offers descriptive brevity and accuracy. Here, we illustrate the point with Henry V sign, which will be familiar to many who have cared for patients in the terminal stage of illness. PMID:23108030

  18. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume II: Family Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    Second in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with family law. Papers and authors included are: "Attitudes of Divorced Men and Women to the Family" (Margaret Harrison), "Dispute Resolution in Australian Family Law" (Henry Finlay),…

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Joseph Henry: The Rise of an American Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Elspeth

    1998-09-01

    Albert Moyer has clearly done his research into the events of Joseph Henry's life. The personal, professional, sociological and scientific aspects have been meticulously detailed throughout and the ordering, as in the chapter headings, is chronological, so that there is some element of each of these aspects in each chapter. This is unfortunately both the strength and the weakness of the biography, as the detail seemed to me to be the most remarkable characteristic of the writing. But, the bigger stories, or the themes, which might have been possible, seemed to get lost. Hence, I found this a book for those who are seriously interested in Joseph Henry; but for those whose interest might be more general, say having an interest in nineteenth century growth of scientific institutions, or wanting to understand the conceptual development of electromagnetism, there seemed to be too much which came from the Henry point of view, rather than locating Henry within his time and context. This is a remark about style, rather than omission of content, as the myriad of details in each paragraph certainly inform the reader about the context. For instance, some sociology of the USA in the nineteenth century could be inferred, say showing how a young man from a modest background might make his way into a professional life, but the information is so particularly a description of Henry's experience that one has to rely on prior knowledge or make assumptions in order to create a sociological perspective. That is, I now know, what happened to Henry, but I do not know if his case was in any sense typical or atypical. Similarly there is information about education in general at that time, and scientific education, research and its publication, as it applied to Henry. The relationships between science in the USA and in Europe have a place, and there is quite a bit of information about the institutions in which Henry worked, particularly Albany Academy, Princeton and the Smithsonian. Henry

  20. Reconstructing Henry: Or, Why Everything You Needed to Know about Wilderness Philosophy You Could Have Learned from Henry David Thoreau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Henry David Thoreau has gotten a bad rap lately. He's been pigeon-holed as a "romantic" by resource managers who do not have a tiny fragment of his wisdom and don't know anything about him. He's been accused of hypocrisy because his cabin at Walden Pond was not, after all, very remote. His wilderness trips, in this age of fly-in mountaineering,…

  1. AdaMeasure: An Implementation of the Halstead and Henry Metrics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    recursive descent parser. Each function is preceded -- by the grammar productions they are implementing. with PARSER 2, PARSER 3. HENRY GLOBAL...by the grammar productions they are implementing. with PARSER 4. HENRY GLOBAL. HENRY, BYPASS FUNCTION. HALSTEAD METRIC, GLOB3AL PARSER. GLOBAL, TEXT...are the lowest level productions for our top-down. -- recursive descent parser. Each function is preceded -- by the grammar productions they are

  2. [From apprenticeship to Nobel Prize: Henri Moissan's fabulous destiny].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2008-01-01

    Born in Paris on September 28, 1852, son of an eastern railways' employee and of a dressmaker, Henri Moissan's secondary schooling in Meaux did not allow him to get access to the sesame diploma "baccalauréat" (GCE). In 1869, he did obtain a special certificate of secondary schooling so that he could become an apprentice in watch making. That could have been the end of the story, but dreadful event for France appeared to have beneficial effects for Moissan. Under the threat of the Prussian army, Moissan's family took refuge near Paris. This gave the young Henri the opportunity to register as a student for the second-class pharmacy diploma, which did not need, at the time, the GCE. Moissan became then a trainee in pharmacy in 1871. Meanwhile, he followed the special schooling of "Ecole de chimie" founded by E. Frémy, and then joined the laboratory of Dehérain at the Museum, where he worked in plant physiology. He finally obtained the famous "baccalauréat" (GCE) and could register as a student in first-class pharmacy. He became a pharmacist as well as a doctor in sciences. In 1883, Moissan was named professor at the school of pharmacy in Paris. In 1886, he isolated fluorine by electrolysis of fluorhydric acid, in the presence of potassium fluoride, at a low temperature. He then studied diamond synthesis and gave a start to high temperature chemistry, designing his famous furnace. These findings and many others allowed Moissan to rise to membership in many learned academies around the world. Crowning achievement, Moissan won the Nobel Prize in 1906. A man of culture, collector of autographs and paintings, he died in 1907. Nothing of that would have been possible if there had not been a second-class pharmacist diploma. The history of Henri Moissan is one of a rise from apprenticeship to the Nobel Prize.

  3. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    PubMed

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  4. Henry Cavendish, Johann von Soldner, and the deflection of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.

    1988-05-01

    The gravitational deflection of light based on Newtonian theory and the corpuscular model of light was calculated, but never published, around 1784 by Henry Cavendish, almost 20 years earlier than the first published calculation by Johann Georg von Soldner. The two results are slightly different because, while Cavendish treated a light ray emitted from infinity, von Soldner treated a light ray emitted from the surface of the gravitating body. At the first order of approximation, they agree with each other; both are one-half the value predicted by general relativity and confirmed by experiment.

  5. Henri Ey's neojacksonism and the psychopathology of disintegrated mind.

    PubMed

    Farina, Benedetto; Ceccarelli, Maurizio; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    The French psychiatrist Henri Ey developed his organo-dynamic theory of the mind function and consciousness 50 years ago incorporating Hughling Jackson's thinking, along with psychiatric and philosophical theorizations by Janet and Bergson. This model has not received the attention it deserved, but recent advances in neuroscience rekindled interest for Ey's theory. By overcoming the Cartesian mind-body dualism and treating the mind-body unit as an inseparable whole, this model opens the way for the integrated treatment of mental disorders. Ey's conceptualization of consciousness as being simultaneously both synchronous and diachronic anticipates current theories of consciousness (Damasio, Edelman, Mesulam).

  6. Report on the geology of the Henry Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, G.K.

    1877-01-01

    The Henry Mountains have been visited only by the explorer. Previous to 1869 they were not placed upon any map, nor was mention made of them in any of the published accounts of exploration or survey in the Rocky Mountain region. In that year Professor Powell while descending the Colorado River in boats passed near their foot, and gave to them the name which they bear in honor of Prof. Joseph Henry, the distinguished physicist. In 1872 Prof. A. H. Thompson, engaged in the continuance of the survey of the river, led a party across the mountains by the Penellen Pass, and climbed some of the highest peaks. Frontiersmen in search of farming and grazing lands or of the precious metals have since that time paid several visits to the mountains; but no survey was made of them until the years 1875 and 1876, when Mr. Walter H. Graves and the writer visited them for that purpose. They are situated in Southern Utah, and are crossed by the meridian of 110° 45' and the thirty-eighth parallel. They stand upon the right bank of the Colorado River of the West, and between its tributaries, the Dirty Devil and the Escalante.

  7. Evaluation of confinement effects in zeolites under Henry's adsorption regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pera-Titus, Marc; Llorens, Joan

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides a detailed thermodynamic analysis of gas/vapour adsorption in zeolites at low pressures. At these conditions, we show first that Henry's isotherm can be conveniently rewritten using the thermodynamic isotherm model developed in a previous study [J. Llorens, M. Pera-Titus, Description of gas adsorption on microporous materials: evaluation of energy heterogeneity, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 331, 2009, 302-311], linking the integral free energy of adsorption relative to saturation, Ψ/ RT, expressed as a Kiselev integral, with the variable Z = 1/-ln( Π), being Π the relative pressure. Relevant information about sorbate confinement effects in zeolites can be inferred using strong sorbates under Henry's adsorption regime using the thermodynamic formulation provided here. The confining level of zeolites can be characterized by a parameter ( m1), whose value depends on the zeolite framework, but remains essentially unchanged with the sorbate probe molecule and temperature. We illustrate the application of these concepts using a collection of MFI and MTW-type zeolites as model systems.

  8. Into the Past through the Future: Captain Picard Meets Henry V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumrich, Ann Nord

    1994-01-01

    Describes beginning a unit on Shakespeare and his play "Henry V" by showing and discussing in class an episode from the television program "Star Trek: The Next Generation" called "The Defector," which opens with a scene from Henry V and makes allusions to the play throughout the episode. (SR)

  9. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey. Plan of Fort McHenry, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey. Plan of Fort McHenry, by William Tell Poussin, 1819. National Archives, Records of the War Department, Cartographic Section, Record Group 77, drawer 51, sheet 2. - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. 1787 and 1776: Patrick Henry, James Madison, and the Revolutionary Legitimacy of the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Lance

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Patrick Henry's and James Madison's opinions on how the U.S. Constitution should be constructed. Describes how Henry introduced a set of substantive objections which were shared by Antifederalists throughout the country and persuaded many Revolutionaries that the Constitution was essentially at odds with the principles of 1776. (BSR)

  11. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  12. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  13. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level. PMID:26633380

  14. Emily Dickinson's ophthalmic consultation with Henry Willard Williams, MD.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Donald L

    2012-12-01

    Emily Dickinson is one of America's premier poets of the 19th century. Henry Willard Williams, MD, was one of the very first physicians to limit his practice to ophthalmology and was the established leader in his field in Boston, Massachusetts. They met during the time of the Civil War, when Emily consulted him about her ophthalmic disorder. No records of the diagnosis survive. Photophobia, aching eyes, and a restriction in her ability to work up close were her main symptoms. Iritis, exotropia, or psychiatric problems are the most frequent diagnoses offered to explain her difficulties. Rather than attempt a definitive conclusion, this article will offer an additional possibility that Dr Williams likely considered (ie, hysterical hyperaesthesia of the retina). This was a common diagnosis at that time, although it has currently faded from use.

  15. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  16. W.E. Henry Symposium compendium: The importance of magnetism in physics and material science

    SciTech Connect

    Carwell, H.

    1997-09-19

    This compendium contains papers presented at the W. E. Henry Symposium, The Importance of Magnetism in Physics and Material Science. The one-day symposium was conducted to recognize the achievements of Dr. Warren Elliot Henry as educator, scientist, and inventor in a career spanning almost 70 years. Dr. Henry, who is 88 years old, attended the symposium. Nobel Laureate, Dr. Glenn Seaborg, a friend and colleague for over 40 years, attended the event and shared his personal reminiscences. Dr. Seaborg is Associate Director-At-Large at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Compendium begins with three papers which demonstrate the ongoing importance of magnetism in physics and material science. Other contributions cover the highlights of Dr. Henry`s career as a researcher, educator, and inventor. Colleagues and former students share insights on the impact of Dr. Henry`s research in the field of magnetism, low temperature physics, and solid state physics; his influence on students as an educator; and his character, intellect and ingenuity, and passion for learning and teaching. They share a glimpse of the environment and times that molded him as a man, and the circumstances under which he made his great achievements despite the many challenges he faced.

  17. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1990). Part I: Media and Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    This section of the proceedings is comprised of 11 papers dealing with the relationship between media and the law. Papers include: "Equal before the Law: Three Media Myths of the American Legal System" (Henry Itkin); "The Role of Senator Albert Gore, Jr. in Satellite/Cable Legislation" (Michael B. Doyle); "The Law of…

  18. Cosmological constant, fine structure constant and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hao; Zou, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we consider the cosmological constant model Λ ∝ α ^{-6}, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the hint of varying fine structure constant α was found in 1998. If Λ ∝ α ^{-6} is right, it means that the cosmological constant Λ should also be varying. Here, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant Λ ∝ α ^{-6}, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. Then we consider the observational constraints on these models by using the 293 Δ α /α data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars. We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the very narrow ranges of O(10^{-5}) typically. On the other hand, we can also view the varying cosmological constant model Λ ∝ α ^{-6} from another perspective, namely it can be equivalent to a model containing "dark energy" and "warm dark matter", but there is no interaction between them. We find that this is also fully consistent with the observational constraints on warm dark matter.

  19. The "Global" Formulation of Thermodynamics and the First Law: 50 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gislason, Eric A.; Craig, Norman C.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, Henry Bent published his groundbreaking article in this "Journal" introducing the "global" formulation of thermodynamics. In the following years, the global formulation was elaborated by Bent and by one of the present authors. The global formulation of the first law focuses on conservation of energy and the recognition that…

  20. Laser Propulsion and the Constant Momentum Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C. William; Mead, Franklin B. Jr.; Knecht, Sean D.

    2004-03-30

    We show that perfect propulsion requires a constant momentum mission, as a consequence of Newton's second law. Perfect propulsion occurs when the velocity of the propelled mass in the inertial frame of reference matches the velocity of the propellant jet in the rocket frame of reference. We compare constant momentum to constant specific impulse propulsion, which, for a given specification of the mission delta V, has an optimum specific impulse that maximizes the propelled mass per unit jet kinetic energy investment. We also describe findings of more than 50 % efficiency for conversion of laser energy into jet kinetic energy by ablation of solids.

  1. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  2. 78 FR 8682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Henri Labrouste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Henri Labrouste: Structure Brought to Light'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the...

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of SSR 241586 by using an organo-catalyzed Henry reaction.

    PubMed

    Cochi, Anne; Métro, Thomas-Xavier; Pardo, Domingo Gomez; Cossy, Janine

    2010-08-20

    An organo-catalyzed Henry reaction, applied to an alpha-keto ester, has allowed the enantioselective synthesis of SSR 241586, a 2,2-disubstituted morpholine active in the treatment of schizophrenia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  4. An Empirical Examination of Lotka's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1986-01-01

    Findings of empirical examination of author productivity data to determine conformity to Lotka's law indicate that: most data didn't fit inverse square function; two constants in Lotka's formulation (slope n, constant c) must be derived from observed distribution; inverse square law was special case of inverse exponential relationship. (37…

  5. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2”...

  6. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2”...

  7. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2”...

  8. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2”...

  9. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2”...

  10. American Chemical Society division of fuel chemistry Henry H. Storch award.

    SciTech Connect

    Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    American Chemical Society Division of Fuel Chemistry Henry H. Storch Award ... The purpose of the Henry H. Storch Award is to recognize distinguished contributions worldwide to fundamental or engineering research on the chemistry and utilization of all hydrocarbon fuels, with the exception of petroleum. ... The award was established in 1964 by the American Chemical Society Division of Fuel Chemistry and administered by the Division until 1985.

  11. Organocatalytic asymmetric assembly reactions for the syntheses of carbohydrate derivatives by intermolecular Michael-Henry reactions

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Hisatoshi; Imashiro, Ritsuo; Hernández-Torres, Gloria; Barbas, Carlos F.

    2010-01-01

    Given the significance of carbohydrates in life, medicine, and industry, the development of simple and efficient de novo methods to synthesize carbohydrates are highly desirable. Organocatalytic asymmetric assembly reactions are powerful tools to rapidly construct molecules with stereochemical complexity from simple precursors. Here, we present a simple and robust methodology for the asymmetric synthesis of pyranose derivatives with talo- and manno- configurations from simple achiral precursors through organocatalytic asymmetric intermolecular Michael–Henry reaction sequences. In this process, (tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)acetaldehyde 1 was successfully utilized in two ways: as a donor in a highly selective anti-Michael reaction and as an acceptor in a consecutive Henry reaction. Varied nitroolefins served as Michael acceptors and varied aldehydes substituted for 1 as Henry acceptors providing for the construction of a wide range of carbohydrates with up to 5 stereocenters. In these reactions, a catalyst-controlled Michael reaction followed by a substrate-controlled Henry reaction provided 3,4-dideoxytalose derivatives 6 in a highly stereoselective manner. The Henry reaction was affected by addition of a simple base such as triethylamine: A complex chiral base was not necessary. 3,4-Dideoxymannose derivatives 7 were produced by simply changing the base from triethylamine to 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene. Extension of this methodology to a syn-Michael initiated sequence was also successful. A mechanistic discussion is provided to explain the unusual substrate-induced stereoselectivity of the Henry reaction. PMID:20639468

  12. Henry's voices: the representation of auditory verbal hallucinations in an autobiographical narrative.

    PubMed

    Demjén, Zsófia; Semino, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The book Henry's Demons (2011) recounts the events surrounding Henry Cockburn's diagnosis of schizophrenia from the alternating perspectives of Henry himself and his father Patrick. In this paper, we present a detailed linguistic analysis of Henry's first-person accounts of experiences that could be described as auditory verbal hallucinations. We first provide a typology of Henry's voices, taking into account who or what is presented as speaking, what kinds of utterances they produce and any salient stylistic features of these utterances. We then discuss the linguistically distinctive ways in which Henry represents these voices in his narrative. We focus on the use of Direct Speech as opposed to other forms of speech presentation, the use of the sensory verbs hear and feel and the use of 'non-factive' expressions such as I thought and as if. We show how different linguistic representations may suggest phenomenological differences between the experience of hallucinatory voices and the perception of voices that other people can also hear. We, therefore, propose that linguistic analysis is ideally placed to provide in-depth accounts of the phenomenology of voice hearing and point out the implications of this approach for clinical practice and mental healthcare.

  13. Enzyme-Catalyzed Henry Reaction in Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xuemei; Zhang, Suoqin; Zheng, Liangyu

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme-catalyzed Henry reaction was realized using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a reaction medium. The lipase from Aspergillus niger (lipase AS) showed excellent catalytic activity toward the substrates aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane in choline chloride:glycerol at a molar ratio of 1:2. Addition of 30 vol% water to DES further improved the lipase activity and inhibited DES-catalyzed transformation. A final yield of 92.2% for the lipase AS-catalyzed Henry reaction was achieved under optimized reaction conditions in only 4 h. In addition, the lipase AS activity was improved by approximately 3-fold in a DES-water mixture compared with that in pure water, which produced a final yield of only 33.4%. Structural studies with fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the established strong hydrogen bonds between DES and water may be the main driving force that affects the spatial conformation of the enzyme, leading to a change in lipase activity. The methodology was also extended to the aza-Henry reaction, which easily occurred in contrast to that in pure water. The enantioselectivity of both Henry and aza-Henry reactions was not found. However, the results are still remarkable, as we report the first use of DES as a reaction medium in a lipase-catalyzed Henry reaction.

  14. A citation analysis of Henri Tajfel's work on intergroup relations.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Kitty; Louw, Johann

    2009-02-01

    The late Henri Tajfel (1919-1982) is one of the central figures who shaped the development of post-war European social psychology. His contributions range from the establishment of an infrastructure for a European social psychology, and the start of a new intellectual movement within social psychology, to the formulation of a set of concepts addressing intergroup relations that were finally integrated into Social Identity Theory. The present study provides an empirical examination of Tajfel's contribution to intergroup research over the last 30 years via a citation analysis of five journals: the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the British Journal of Social Psychology, the European Journal of Social Psychology, the South African Journal of Psychology, and the German Journal of Social Psychology (Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie). The results indicate that Tajfel's work on intergroup relations is increasingly cited, especially since the 1990s, and the international recognition of his work is substantial. Three possible reasons for the recognition his work still enjoys are proposed: its potential to generate theoretical and empirical controversies; its explanatory power; and the extent to which his work is used as a referential framework.

  15. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd.

    PubMed

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Dobson, Lauren K; du Toit, Johan T; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range.

  16. The enigmatic figure of Dr Henry Maudsley (1835-1918).

    PubMed

    Pantelidou, Maria; Demetriades, Andreas K

    2014-08-01

    In spite of his contribution to psychiatry in 19th century Britain, Henry Maudsley remains a mysterious figure, a man mostly known for his donation to the London County Council for the building of the Maudsley Hospital and for The Maudsley Annual Lecture created in honour of his benevolence. Besides Sir Aubrey Lewis' article in 1951 and Michael Collie's attempt in 1988 to construct a biographical study on Maudsley, there does not seem to be any current endeavour to tell the story of his life, whereas Trevor Turner's contribution to the 2004 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives a somewhat scathing but unattributed account of Maudsley's personality. This essay attempts to explore his contributions to the Medico-Psychological Association (MPA), the current Royal College of Psychiatrists, his editorship of the Journal of Mental Health (currently named the British Journal of Psychiatry), his literary contributions and his vision for a psychiatric hospital. This essay is an attempt to demystify his figure and to explore some of the rumours and criticisms surrounding his name and the reasons why so little has been written about him. It is also a venture to unravel his complex personality and his intricate philosophy.

  17. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  18. On the Khinchin Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We prove known identities for the Khinchin constant and develop new identities for the more general Hoelder mean limits of continued fractions. Any of these constants can be developed as a rapidly converging series involving values of the Riemann zeta function and rational coefficients. Such identities allow for efficient numerical evaluation of the relevant constants. We present free-parameter, optimizable versions of the identities, and report numerical results.

  19. Darwin's laws.

    PubMed

    Haufe, Chris

    2012-03-01

    There is widespread agreement among contemporary philosophers of biology and philosophically-minded biologists that Darwin's insights about the intrusion of chance processes into biological regularities undermines the possibility of there being biological laws. Darwin made references to "designed laws." He also freely described some laws as having exceptions. This paper provides a philosophical analysis of the notion of scientific laws that was dominant in Darwin's time, and in all probability the one which he inherited. The analysis of laws is then used to show how it could have been natural for Darwin to believe in designed laws that had exceptions, and to highlight the continuity between the metaphysics of pre-Darwinian, Darwinian, and contemporary biological science. One important result is the removal of one motivation for the anti-laws sentiment in philosophy and biology.

  20. Fundamental Physical Constants

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 121 CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants (Web, free access)   This site, developed in the Physics Laboratory at NIST, addresses three topics: fundamental physical constants, the International System of Units (SI), which is the modern metric system, and expressing the uncertainty of measurement results.

  1. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eleanor M; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ziemann, Paul J; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-10-06

    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols. We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), and NH4(+) and find Gibbs free energies of water displacement of -10.9, -22.0, -22.9, 2.09, and 1.2 kJ/mol for glyoxal monohydrate and -3.1, -10.3, -7.91, 6.11, and 1.6 kJ/mol for methylglyoxal monohydrate with uncertainties of 8 kJ/mol. The quantum chemical calculations support that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-) modify partitioning, while cations do not. Other factors such as ion charge or partitioning volume effects likely need to be considered to fully explain salting effects.

  2. The Works of Henry Moseley, 1887-1915

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scerri, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In 1913 Henry Moseley, an unknown young English physicist published an article in the Philosophical Magazine under the title of ``The High Frequency Spectra of the Elements.'' The 10-page article was to have far reaching implications in both chemistry and physics and helped to resolve a major conundrum in the periodic table of the elements. The talk will briefly examine the life and work of Moseley who died tragically while fighting in the trenches of World War I in 1915. The build-up to the discovery of atomic number took several different avenues including contributions from Rutherford and Barkla. However the more direct motivation for Moseley's work, as he readily acknowledged, were the articles of an unknown Dutch econometrician Anton Van den Broek who attempted to improve on Mendeleev's periodic table. Moseley began as a student of Rutherford at Manchester and took a keen interest in the development of research using X-rays following the work of Roentgen, von Laue and Bragg. Although Rutherford was at first reluctant to enter this new field he soon yielded to young Moseley's request and sent him to Leeds for brief training with Bragg. On returning to Manchester, Moseley devised an ingenious apparatus in which a set of metal samples could be rotated so as to become the target for a beam of electrons in order to measure the frequencies of the emitted K X-rays. The first set of such experiments used nine successive elements in the periodic table, from titanium to zinc. Moseley's now immense fame rests with the results of this study as well as a subsequent one which extended the study into a further 30 elements, in addition to the use that his method was put to by himself as well as subsequent chemists and physicists.

  3. "Recognizing Numerical Constants"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The advent of inexpensive, high performance computer and new efficient algorithms have made possible the automatic recognition of numerically computed constants. In other words, techniques now exist for determining, within certain limits, whether a computed real or complex number can be written as a simple expression involving the classical constants of mathematics. In this presentation, some of the recently discovered techniques for constant recognition, notably integer relation detection algorithms, will be presented. As an application of these methods, the author's recent work in recognizing "Euler sums" will be described in some detail.

  4. Henry Daniel Cogswell, DDS (1819-1900): a temperance advocate, philanthropist and builder of ice-water fountains.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Theobald, M S; Christen, J A

    1999-07-01

    Henry Daniel Cogswell (Fig. 1), the second of five children, was born in Tolland, Connecticut on March 3, 1819. His father, George Washington Cogswell, was a general carpenter, architect and builder of moderate circumstances. In 1827, when Henry was eight, his mother died. The following year, Henry's father moved to Orwell, (Oswego County) New York, in hopes of improving his financial condition. Henry was left behind in the care of his paternal grandfather, who died several months later, leaving the 10-year old boy, stranded and forced to rely upon his own resources. (In those times, when families were separated, individual members had limited means of locating one another.)

  5. The cosmological constant problem

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs.

  6. Science Is Constantly Cool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichinger, John

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students attempt to keep water at a constant temperature. Helps students in grades three to six hone their skills in prediction, observation, measurement, data collection, graphing, data analysis, and communication. (JRH)

  7. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  8. Solute and heat transport model of the Henry and hilleke laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Christian D; Dausman, Alyssa M; Sukop, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    SEAWAT is a coupled version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS designed to simulate variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. The most recent version of SEAWAT, called SEAWAT Version 4, includes new capabilities to represent simultaneous multispecies solute and heat transport. To test the new features in SEAWAT, the laboratory experiment of Henry and Hilleke (1972) was simulated. Henry and Hilleke used warm fresh water to recharge a large sand-filled glass tank. A cold salt water boundary was represented on one side. Adjustable heating pads were used to heat the bottom and left sides of the tank. In the laboratory experiment, Henry and Hilleke observed both salt water and fresh water flow systems separated by a narrow transition zone. After minor tuning of several input parameters with a parameter estimation program, results from the SEAWAT simulation show good agreement with the experiment. SEAWAT results suggest that heat loss to the room was more than expected by Henry and Hilleke, and that multiple thermal convection cells are the likely cause of the widened transition zone near the hot end of the tank. Other computer programs with similar capabilities may benefit from benchmark testing with the Henry and Hilleke laboratory experiment.

  9. Solute and heat transport model of the Henry and Hilleke laboratory experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, C.D.; Dausman, A.M.; Sukop, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    SEAWAT is a coupled version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS designed to simulate variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. The most recent version of SEAWAT, called SEAWAT Version 4, includes new capabilities to represent simultaneous multispecies solute and heat transport. To test the new features in SEAWAT, the laboratory experiment of Henry and Hilleke (1972) was simulated. Henry and Hilleke used warm fresh water to recharge a large sand-filled glass tank. A cold salt water boundary was represented on one side. Adjustable heating pads were used to heat the bottom and left sides of the tank. In the laboratory experiment, Henry and Hilleke observed both salt water and fresh water flow systems separated by a narrow transition zone. After minor tuning of several input parameters with a parameter estimation program, results from the SEAWAT simulation show good agreement with the experiment. SEAWAT results suggest that heat loss to the room was more than expected by Henry and Hilleke, and that multiple thermal convection cells are the likely cause of the widened transition zone near the hot end of the tank. Other computer programs with similar capabilities may benefit from benchmark testing with the Henry and Hilleke laboratory experiment. Journal Compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  10. Annie Jump Cannon: `` Life after The Henry Draper Catalogue.''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welther, B. L.

    1993-05-01

    Seventy-five years ago the first three volumes of The Henry Draper Catalogue were published. The pages printed in 1918 contain the spectral types, revised magnitudes, and updated positions for more than 77,000 stars. For the nine volumes of the catalogue, Cannon classified spectra for 225,300 stars; and in her lifetime, spectra for almost 400,000 stars. This work netted her half a dozen honorary degrees, the Draper Medal of the NAS, and numerous other prizes and honors. In his preface to Volume 1, Edward Pickering noted that it took two years to process the copy for the initial volumes and estimated that it would take two more years to complete the copy for the remaining volumes. But shortly after he wrote the preface for Volume 3 in December 1918, Pickering died. And it proved to take three times as long as he had predicted to complete the publication of all nine volumes of the catalogue by the spring of 1924. Although Cannon had enjoyed much more independence and status than the other women at HCO, she had looked to Pickering for guidance and financial support for her astronomical projects. Without him, she had to develop other resources and also had to represent the Harvard Classification for the first IAU meeting in Rome in 1922. Although she did not attend the meeting, she corresponded with Frederick Seares at Mount Wilson Observatory about various questions that astronomers had raised about classifying spectra. Meanwhile, in 1921 Harlow Shapley was appointed Director of HCO. He oversaw the publication of the final volumes of the HD and encouraged Cannon to extend it for stars in special regions. For the HD Extension, he hired Margaret Walton to assist Cannon. But the cost of labor to determine positions and magnitudes was prohibitive, so for many stars the HDE lists only the BD number and spectral type. Even that format proved too costly in the depression and war years. Consequently, the last volume of the HDE was published as charts after World War II.

  11. The law of constant rejection. [chemical bonding in crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in analytical technique, study of multielement partitioning in natural systems, and improvements in ionic radius values have permitted construction of Onuma diagrams, in which the logarithm of partition coefficient is plotted versus ionic radius. The optimum radii, corresponding to crystallographic sites, do change in response to changes in major element composition for any particular mineral-type. In natural systems elements compete for sites rather than substituting for another element. It is proposed on empirical grounds, for equilibrium ionic bonding, that Onuma diagram curves for a particular lattice site are parabolic near optimum radius, linear elsewhere, parallel for different valences, and mirror images on opposite sides of optimum. Deviations may be due to overlapping peaks, liquid structure, polyvalence, bonding differences, contamination, kinetics, alteration, etc. However, dominant crystal-chemical control is indicated.

  12. Dr. Henry Head and lessons learned from his self-experiment on radial nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Lenfest, Stephen M; Vaduva-Nemes, Andreea; Okun, Michael S

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the authors aim to review Dr. Henry Head's famous and dramatic nerve sectioning experiment. They discuss the implications of his experimental approach as well as the effect his experiment had on the field of neurology. Henry Head was a prominent British neurologist who contributed greatly to the understanding of the sensory examination through an experiment in which he had his own radial nerve transected. Head carefully documented the sensory changes following the sectioning. He hypothesized the existence of two separate sensory systems: protopathic and epicritic. Head was one of the first scientists to speculate on sensory dissociation, and his writings generated both enthusiasm and controversy. Although the ethical issue of self-experimentation was raised by his bold experiment and many aspects of his investigations and conclusions have been criticized, Head undoubtedly contributed important clinical lessons to neurology. Arguably, Henry Head's greatest contribution was the realization that the neurological portion of the sensory examination was anything but straightforward.

  13. Agreement between the Board of Trustees of Henry Ford Community College and the Henry Ford Community College Federation of Teachers, American Federation of Teachers Local 1650, 1987-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry Ford Community Coll., Dearborn, MI.

    This collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of Henry Ford Community College and the Henry Ford Community College Federation of Teachers establishes conditions of employment for all full-time teachers, counselors, librarians, placement officers, and selected other professional personnel. The articles in the agreement set…

  14. Agreement Between the Board of Trustees of Henry Ford Community College and the Henry Ford Community College Federation of Teachers, American Federation of Teachers, Local 1650, 1973-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry Ford Community Coll., Dearborn, MI.

    This agreement between the Board of Trustees of Henry Ford Community College and the Henry Ford Community College Federation of Teachers, American Federation of Teachers, Local 1650 covers the period of 1973-1975. Contents of the agreement cover recognition, board of trustee rights, union-board relations, conditions of employment, seniority, the…

  15. Dielectric Constant of Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelson, Kenneth S.; Ackmann, James J.

    1997-03-01

    We have used a finite element method to calculate the dielectric constant of a cubic array of spheres. Extensive calculations support preliminary conclusions reported previously (K. Mendelson and J. Ackmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 41), 657 (1996).. At frequencies below 100 kHz the real part of the dielectric constant (ɛ') shows oscillations as a function of the volume fraction of suspension. These oscillations disappear at low conductivities of the suspending fluid. Measurements of the dielectric constant (J. Ackmann, et al., Ann. Biomed. Eng. 24), 58 (1996). (H. Fricke and H. Curtis, J. Phys. Chem. 41), 729 (1937). are not sufficiently sensitive to show oscillations but appear to be consistent with the theoretical results.

  16. Elastic constants of calcite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.

    1962-01-01

    The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.

  17. Taxing junk food: applying the logic of the Henry tax review to food.

    PubMed

    Bond, Molly E; Williams, Michael J; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe

    2010-10-18

    The recent review of taxation in Australia - the Henry tax review - has recommended that the federal government increase the taxes already levied on tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are put forward as the best way of reducing the social harms caused by the use and misuse of these substances. Junk foods have the same pattern of misuse and the same social costs as tobacco and alcohol. The Henry tax review rejects the idea of taxing fatty foods, and to date the government has not implemented a tax on junk food. We propose that a tax on junk food be implemented as a tool to reduce consumption and address the obesity epidemic.

  18. 76 FR 50171 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Henrys Fork Salinity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan, Sweetwater and Uinta Counties, WY; Daggett and Summit... Statement (EIS) for the Henrys Fork Salinity Control Project Plan (SCPP). The NRCS will be the lead agency... Improvements'' alternative assumes a salinity control project will be implemented. Existing financial...

  19. Conflict, Retrenchment, and Reappraisal: The Administration of Higher Education. The David D. Henry Lectures, 1972-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    The first five David D. Henry lectures, and discussion and response to the first four, are presented in this book. Following a brief introduction by John E. Corbally and a biography of David Dobbs Henry, Clark Kerr's paper, "The Administration of Higher Education in an Era of Change and Conflict" (presented in October, 1972) focuses on…

  20. Redshift in Hubble's constant.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple-Raston, M.

    1997-01-01

    A topological field theory with Bogomol'nyi solitons is examined. The Bogomol'nyi solitons have much in common with the instanton in Yang-Mills theory; consequently the author called them 'topological instantons'. When periodic boundary conditions are imposed, the field theory comments indirectly on the speed of light within the theory. In this particular model the speed of light is not a universal constant. This may or may not be relevant to the current debate in astronomy and cosmology over the large values of the Hubble constant obtained by the latest generation of ground- and space-based telescopes. An experiment is proposed to detect spatial variation in the speed of light.

  1. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  2. Percolation with Constant Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Edward

    2014-06-01

    We introduce and study a model of percolation with constant freezing ( PCF) where edges open at constant rate , and clusters freeze at rate independently of their size. Our main result is that the infinite volume process can be constructed on any amenable vertex transitive graph. This is in sharp contrast to models of percolation with freezing previously introduced, where the limit is known not to exist. Our interest is in the study of the percolative properties of the final configuration as a function of . We also obtain more precise results in the case of trees. Surprisingly the algebraic exponent for the cluster size depends on the degree, suggesting that there is no lower critical dimension for the model. Moreover, even for , it is shown that finite clusters have algebraic tail decay, which is a signature of self organised criticality. Partial results are obtained on , and many open questions are discussed.

  3. Constant-pressure Blowers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, E

    1940-01-01

    The conventional axial blowers operate on the high-pressure principle. One drawback of this type of blower is the relatively low pressure head, which one attempts to overcome with axial blowers producing very high pressure at a given circumferential speed. The Schicht constant-pressure blower affords pressure ratios considerably higher than those of axial blowers of conventional design with approximately the same efficiency.

  4. New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold

  5. The Hubble Constant.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Neal

    2015-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H0 values of around 72-74 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), with typical errors of 2-3 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) and typical errors of 1-2 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  6. The Rhetoric of Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, Renowned Speaker and Journalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Melbourne S.

    Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, a journalist and speaker, headed a back-to-Africa movement in the second half of the nineteenth century that was one of the first black rhetorical movements to meet the challenges of institutionalized racism in the United States. Turner was a preacher in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, becoming first an elder…

  7. Neoliberalism, Democracy and the University as a Public Sphere: An Interview with Henry A. Giroux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    "Truthout" contributor, director of "Truthout's" Public Intellectual Project (truth-out.org/public-intellectual-project) and Truthout board member Henry A. Giroux responds to questions about how the excesses of neoliberal politics have reshaped and subverted the democratic mission of higher education.

  8. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  9. [Portrait of a Confederate secret agent: the dentis Henry A. Parr].

    PubMed

    Hyson, J M; Swanson, B Z

    1998-11-01

    Dr. Henry A. Parr had many aspects in his career, beginning life as secret confederate agent during the Civil War, and finally ending as the president's dentist. The way he played these roles, as a pirate, accused of murder, as a pharmacist, inventor and dental teacher, makes up a real odysey, well documented.

  10. Henri Matisse: Color and Light. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Carla

    Henri Matisse painted "Open Window, Collioure" in the summer of 1905, when he and Andre Derain worked together in Collioure (France), a small Mediterranean fishing port near the Spanish border. This teaching guide discusses the painting "Open Window, Collioure" and Matisse's use of light and vibrant color. The guide provides…

  11. Enter the Madcap Prince of Wales: Students Directing "Henry IV, Part I."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Elise Ann

    1993-01-01

    Argues that William Shakespeare's "Henry IV, Part I" is an appropriate and useful text for secondary English classrooms. Shows how the play lends itself to performance-based instruction. Outlines ways of accomplishing student engagement, using film versions, and assigning written work. (HB)

  12. Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jim

    This teacher's guide explores Fort McHenry and the British attack on Baltimore Harbor (Maryland) in 1814. The guide contains 11 lessons: (1) "Where in the World Is Baltimore?" (no handout-use classroom resources); (2) "Why Baltimore?" (Handout-Why Baltimore?); (3) "Now Where Do We Place the Fort?" (Handout-Map of…

  13. A new understanding of the first electromagnetic machine: Joseph Henry's vibrating motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Michael G.; Stern, Lucas E.

    2011-02-01

    In 1831, Henry invented a battery-powered rocking-beam motor that he later described as the first electromagnetic machine. He repeatedly modified the design over his career, but only one version of a motor actually constructed by Henry is known to exist. This version is in a collection of Henry instruments at Princeton University. We found that the Princeton motor cannot have operated in the form that was displayed as early as 1884. We found evidence in several historical documents and in the instrument itself that the field magnet shown with the motor is a mistake. Instead of a single horizontal bar magnet, the motor was designed to use two elliptical magnets. We presume the error was made by whoever assembled the first public display. We modeled the dynamics of Henry's vibrating motor and compared our results to the operation of a replica motor. Modeling provides insight into how the motor is able to vibrate indefinitely even in the presence of energy loss due to friction.

  14. Development of a Career Student Guide for the Tech Prep Program for Henry County High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Ruth Ann

    This practicum report describes the research conducted in preparation for developing a career student guide to acquaint students attending Henry County High School (HCHS) in McDonough, Georgia, with the school's new tech prep program. Chapters 1 and 2 contain background information about HCHS' tech prep program and a review of literature regarding…

  15. Visualizing the Life and Legacy of Henry VIII: Guiding Students with Eight Types of Graphic Organizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Kottler, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Delving into the life and legacy of Henry VIII is both complex and captivating. People seem compelled to learn more abut his critical contributions and controversial conduct that range from the significant to the scandalous. Reflecting on the history of the world would be incomplete without investigating the events and escapades associated with…

  16. Mounting a Curricular Revolution: An Interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Zastrow, Claus

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Harvard professor and cultural critic who has captured 25 million viewers with his PBS documentary series, African American Lives (WNET). Using genealogical research and DNA science, Gates traces the family history of 19 famous African Americans. What results is a rich and moving…

  17. The Imaginary World of Henri Rousseau. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne

    While Henri Rousseau's work was not easily classified into any definitive artistic style of the time--impressionism, post-impressionism, fauvism, or cubism--it has been considered a forerunner of surrealism because of its dreamlike sensibility. This teaching guide provides information about Rousseau and his work, focusing on "Tropical Forest…

  18. The Science of Science: A Physicist Reads Barnes, Bloor and Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermin, N. David

    1998-01-01

    In their book entitled Scientific Knowledge, Barry Barnes, David Bloor, and John Henry repudiate the notion that physical environment plays no role in the creation of scientific knowledge, thereby removing a major bone of contention between scientists and practitioners of the sociology of scientific knowledge. A physicist discusses ways in which…

  19. Neostusakia, a new name for preoccupied Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Berytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of homonymy in the heteropteran family Berytidae is addressed. The genus Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera) is preoccupied by Stusakia Frýda, 1998 (Mollusca: Gastropoda). As a consequence, the replacement name Neostusakia, new name, is proposed. In addition, the only two included s...

  20. Intensive Language Instruction at a Small Liberal Arts College: The Dartmouth Model at Emory & Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Charles W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Describes Emory & Henry College's adoption and succesful use of the Dartmouth method based on attraction of students to program, retention of students, enthusiasm of college community and improved performance of students when compared to proficiency of students in simultaneously taught traditional courses. (Author/BK)

  1. James McHenry: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Less than five years after his first landing in the American colonies, James McHenry, a well-education Scots-Irish immigrant, was serving with the Continental Army outside Boston (Massachusetts), and his military experience led him into a lengthy career of public service where he forcefully and consistently upheld the ideal of a strong central…

  2. The Heuristic Method, Precursor of Guided Inquiry: Henry Armstrong and British Girls' Schools, 1890-1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff; Rayner-Canham, Marelene

    2015-01-01

    Though guided-inquiry learning, discovery learning, student-centered learning, and problem-based learning are commonly believed to be recent new approaches to the teaching of chemistry, in fact, the concept dates back to the late 19th century. Here, we will show that it was the British chemist, Henry Armstrong, who pioneered this technique,…

  3. Henry David Thoreau, Martin Luther King Jr., and the American Tradition of Protest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. fundamentally altered the tradition of protest and reform. Compares and contrasts the role of each man in U.S. social and constitutional history. Concludes that while Thoreau lacked the broad influence of King, his writings influenced both King and Mohandas Gandhi. (CFR)

  4. High School Decision-Making at Henry Lord Middle School in Fall River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronhard, Aimee A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how students at Henry Lord Middle School in Fall River take into consideration their initial college and career aspirations when making their decision for high school. Self-efficacy theory, critical theory, and a literature review related to high school decision-making inform the analysis of…

  5. Astronaut Henry W. Harsfield, Jr. in suit donning/doffing exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut Henry W. Harsfield, Jr., STS-4 pilot, takes part in a suit donning/doffing exercise aboard a KC-135 'zero-gravity' aircraft. Mission Specialist William F. Fisher, far left, stands ready to assist in the exercise. Hartsfield is wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) minus gloves and helmet.

  6. Movement, Memory and Mathematics: Henri Bergson and the Ontology of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Ferrara, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Using the work of philosopher Henri Bergson (1859-1941) to examine the nature of movement and memory, this article contributes to recent research on the role of the body in learning mathematics. Our aim in this paper is to introduce the ideas of Bergson and to show how these ideas shed light on mathematics classroom activity. Bergson's monist…

  7. 77 FR 71190 - Henry County, Iowa; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Henry County, Iowa; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... turbine bay and receiving water via a concrete conduit structure equipped with trash racks; (4) a...

  8. On New Rhetoric, John Henry Newman and the Language of Metaphors: Implications for Branding Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler-Brunner, Jennifer Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This project interprets how John Henry Newman's (1801-1890) system of thought informs the philosophical and theoretical grounds for rhetorical praxis in the marketplace. His seminal lessons in "An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent" (1870) and "The Idea of a University" (1873 ed.) demonstrate the metaphoric power of words…

  9. Control-Structure Ratings on the Fox River at McHenry and Algonquin, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary P.; Hortness, Jon E.; Parker, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Natural Resources-Office of Water Resources operates control structures on a reach of the Fox River in northeastern Illinois between McHenry and Algonquin. The structures maintain water levels in the river for flood-control and recreational purposes. This report documents flow ratings for hinged-crest gates, a broad-crested weir, sluice gates, and an ogee spillway on the control structures at McHenry and Algonquin. The ratings were determined by measuring headwater and tailwater stage along with streamflow at a wide range of flows at different gate openings. Standard control-structure rating techniques were used to rate each control structure. The control structures at McHenry consist of a 221-feet(ft)-long broad-crested weir, a 4-ft-wide fish ladder, a 50-ft-wide hinged-crest gate, five 13.75-ft-wide sluice gates, and a navigational lock. Sixty measurements were used to rate the McHenry structures. The control structures at Algonquin consist of a 242-ft-long ogee spillway and a 50-ft-wide hinged-crest gate. Forty-one measurements were used to rate the Algonquin control structures.

  10. Fin-de-Siecle Advances in Neuroeducation: Henry Herbert Donaldson and Reuben Post Halleck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoridou, Zoe D.; Triarhou, Lazaros C.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on two early attempts at bridging neuroscience and education, made by Henry Herbert Donaldson (1857-1938), a neurologist, and Reuben Post Halleck (1859-1936), an educator. Their works, respectively entitled "The Growth of the Brain: A Study of the Nervous System in Relation to Education" (1895) and "The Education of the…

  11. Henry Evelyn Bliss--The Other Immortal, or a Prophet without Honour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Vanda

    2008-01-01

    The paper takes a retrospective look at the work of Henry Evelyn Bliss, classificationist theorist and author of the "Bibliographic Classification". Major features of his writings and philosophy are examined and evaluated for the originality of their contribution to the corpus of knowledge in the discipline. Reactions to Bliss's work are analysed,…

  12. The new chemical insight for understanding the mechanism of Henry reaction over Cu(II) catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe-Ning; Wang, Kangli; Cui, Deng; Wu, Anan

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we present an alternative mechanism without the initial coordination of reactant and catalyst for the asymmetric Henry reaction over Cu(II) catalyst. Our calculations show that the re-coordination of acetate and Cu center is essential for the enantioselectivity. Thus, any effect of the re-coordination process would affect the enantioselectivity for this reaction.

  13. Henry Herbert Goddard and the Politics of Mental Measurement (1910-1920).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalves, Linda

    The history of the study of human mental ability is an example of the dialectic in social science between those who interpret data within the framework of existing social inequities and those who look for perspectives that might eventually dissolve inequities. The dedication of Henry Herbert Goddard to a belief in the scientific proof of…

  14. Probing Planck's Law at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…

  15. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

  16. World Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, David

    This consultant paper is intended to provide information useful to a goal of this curriculum development project in the war/peace field, that is to encourage students to search intelligently for alternatives to war. The most fundamental assumptions used in thinking about international law are described, including some assumptions about systemic…

  17. The Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Wendy; Madore, Barry; Mager, Violet; Persson, Eric; Rigby, Jane; Sturch, Laura

    2008-12-01

    We present a plan to measure a value of the Hubble constant having a final systematic uncertainty of only 3% by taking advantage of Spitzer's unique mid-infrared capabilities. This involves using IRAC to undertake a fundamental recalibration of the Cepheid distance scale and progressively moving it out to pure Hubble flow by an application of a revised mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation. The calibration and application, in one coherent and self-consistent program, will go continuously from distances of parsecs to several hundred megaparsecs. It will provide a first-ever mid-IR calibration of Cepheids in the Milky Way, LMC and Key Project spiral galaxies and a first-ever measurement and calibration of the TF relation at mid-infrared wavelengths, and finally a calibration of Type Ia SNe. Most importantly this program will be undertaken with a single instrument, on a single telescope, working exclusively at mid-infrared wavelengths that are far removed from the obscuring effects of dust extinction. Using Spitzer in this focused way will effectively eliminate all of the major systematics in the Cepheid and TF distance scales that have been the limiting factors in all previous applications, including the HST Key Project. By executing this program, based exclusively on Spitzer data, we will deliver a value of the Hubble constant, having a statistical precision better than 11%, with all currently known systematics quantified and constrained to a level of less than 3%. A value of Ho determined to this level of systematic accuracy is required for up-coming cosmology experiments, including Planck. A more accurate value of the Hubble constant will directly result in other contingently measured cosmological parameters (e.g., Omega_m, Omega_L, & w) having their covariant uncertainties reduced significantly now. Any further improvements using this route will have to await JWST, for which this study is designed to provide a lasting and solid foundation, and ultimately a value of Ho

  18. Dissolved-Solids Load in Henrys Fork Upstream from the Confluence with Antelope Wash, Wyoming, Water Years 1970-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Katharine; Kenney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Annual dissolved-solids load at the mouth of Henrys Fork was estimated by using data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 09229500, Henrys Fork near Manila, Utah. The annual dissolved-solids load for water years 1970-2009 ranged from 18,300 tons in 1977 to 123,300 tons in 1983. Annual streamflows for this period ranged from 14,100 acre-feet in 1977 to 197,500 acre-feet in 1983. The 25-percent trimmed mean dissolved-solids load for water years 1970-2009 was 44,300 tons per year at Henrys Fork near Manila, Utah. Previous simulations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model for dissolved solids specific to water year 1991 conditions in the Upper Colorado River Basin predicted an annual dissolved-solids load of 25,000 tons for the Henrys Fork Basin upstream from Antelope Wash. On the basis of computed dissolved-solids load data from Henrys Fork near Manila, Utah, together with estimated annual dissolved-solids load from Antelope Wash and Peoples Canal, this prediction was adjusted to 37,200 tons. As determined by simulations with the Upper Colorado River Basin SPARROW model, approximately 56 percent (14,000 tons per year) of the dissolved-solids load at Henrys Fork upstream from Antelope Wash is associated with the 21,500 acres of irrigated agricultural lands in the upper Henrys Fork Basin.

  19. Cosmology with varying constants.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos J A P

    2002-12-15

    The idea of possible time or space variations of the 'fundamental' constants of nature, although not new, is only now beginning to be actively considered by large numbers of researchers in the particle physics, cosmology and astrophysics communities. This revival is mostly due to the claims of possible detection of such variations, in various different contexts and by several groups. I present the current theoretical motivations and expectations for such variations, review the current observational status and discuss the impact of a possible confirmation of these results in our views of cosmology and physics as a whole.

  20. Stigma law.

    PubMed

    1998-10-30

    Massachusetts enacted a law, called House No. 2099, that relieves real estate brokers from liability for not disclosing the history of a property to a potential buyer. The statute says that certain information does not need to be disclosed in a real estate transaction. Such information includes whether any previous occupants had HIV/AIDS or any other disease that is unlikely to be transmitted casually.

  1. The Hubble Constant.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Neal

    2007-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. In the last 20 years, much progress has been made and estimates now range between 60 and 75 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), with most now between 70 and 75 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), a huge improvement over the factor-of-2 uncertainty which used to prevail. Further improvements which gave a generally agreed margin of error of a few percent rather than the current 10% would be vital input to much other interesting cosmology. There are several programmes which are likely to lead us to this point in the next 10 years.

  2. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-manometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment.

  3. A Constant Pressure Bomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, F W

    1924-01-01

    This report describes a new optical method of unusual simplicity and of good accuracy suitable to study the kinetics of gaseous reactions. The device is the complement of the spherical bomb of constant volume, and extends the applicability of the relationship, pv=rt for gaseous equilibrium conditions, to the use of both factors p and v. The method substitutes for the mechanical complications of a manometer placed at some distance from the seat of reaction the possibility of allowing the radiant effects of reaction to record themselves directly upon a sensitive film. It is possible the device may be of use in the study of the photoelectric effects of radiation. The method makes possible a greater precision in the measurement of normal flame velocities than was previously possible. An approximate analysis shows that the increase of pressure and density ahead of the flame is negligible until the velocity of the flame approaches that of sound.

  4. When constants are important

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the authors discuss several complexity aspects pertaining to neural networks, commonly known as the curse of dimensionality. The focus will be on: (1) size complexity and depth-size tradeoffs; (2) complexity of learning; and (3) precision and limited interconnectivity. Results have been obtained for each of these problems when dealt with separately, but few things are known as to the links among them. They start by presenting known results and try to establish connections between them. These show that they are facing very difficult problems--exponential growth in either space (i.e. precision and size) and/or time (i.e., learning and depth)--when resorting to neural networks for solving general problems. The paper will present a solution for lowering some constants, by playing on the depth-size tradeoff.

  5. The Hubble constant.

    PubMed Central

    Tully, R B

    1993-01-01

    Five methods of estimating distances have demonstrated internal reproducibility at the level of 5-20% rms accuracy. The best of these are the cepheid (and RR Lyrae), planetary nebulae, and surface-brightness fluctuation techniques. Luminosity-line width and Dn-sigma methods are less accurate for an individual case but can be applied to large numbers of galaxies. The agreement is excellent between these five procedures. It is determined that Hubble constant H0 = 90 +/- 10 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 parsec (pc) = 3.09 x 10(16) m]. It is difficult to reconcile this value with the preferred world model even in the low-density case. The standard model with Omega = 1 may be excluded unless there is something totally misunderstood about the foundation of the distance scale or the ages of stars. PMID:11607391

  6. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, T.J.

    1994-06-07

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment is disclosed. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-nanometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment. 10 figs.

  7. Relativistic covariance of Ohm's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, R.; Schober, G. A. H.

    2016-04-01

    The derivation of Lorentz-covariant generalizations of Ohm's law has been a long-term issue in theoretical physics with deep implications for the study of relativistic effects in optical and atomic physics. In this article, we propose an alternative route to this problem, which is motivated by the tremendous progress in first-principles materials physics in general and ab initio electronic structure theory in particular. We start from the most general, Lorentz-covariant first-order response law, which is written in terms of the fundamental response tensor χμ ν relating induced four-currents to external four-potentials. By showing the equivalence of this description to Ohm's law, we prove the validity of Ohm's law in every inertial frame. We further use the universal relation between χμ ν and the microscopic conductivity tensor σkℓ to derive a fully relativistic transformation law for the latter, which includes all effects of anisotropy and relativistic retardation. In the special case of a constant, scalar conductivity, this transformation law can be used to rederive a standard textbook generalization of Ohm's law.

  8. Gladstone-Dale constant for CF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, A. W., Jr.; Goad, W. K.

    1980-05-01

    The Gladstone-Dale constant, which relates the refractive index to density, was measured for CF4 by counting fringes of a two-beam interferometer, one beam of which passes through a cell containing the test gas. The experimental approach and sources of systematic and imprecision errors are discussed. The constant for CF4 was measured at several wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum. A value of 0.122 cu cm/g with an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.001 cu cm/g was determined for use in the visible region. A procedure for noting the departure of the gas density from the ideal-gas law is discussed.

  9. Some Dynamical Effects of the Cosmological Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axenides, M.; Floratos, E. G.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    Newton's law gets modified in the presence of a cosmological constant by a small repulsive term (antigravity) that is proportional to the distance. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data (Λ~=10-52 m-2), we investigate the significance of this term on various astrophysical scales. We find that on galactic scales or smaller (less than a few tens of kpc), the dynamical effects of the vacuum energy are negligible by several orders of magnitude. On scales of 1 Mpc or larger however we find that the vacuum energy can significantly affect the dynamics. For example we show that the velocity data in the local group of galaxies correspond to galactic masses increased by 35% in the presence of vacuum energy. The effect is even more important on larger low density systems like clusters of galaxies or superclusters.

  10. Asymmetric Synthesis of Substituted Thiolanes through Domino Thia-Michael-Henry Dynamic Covalent Systemic Resolution using Lipase Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Vongvilai, Pornrapee; Sakulsombat, Morakot; Fischer, Andreas; Ramström, Olof

    2014-03-24

    Dynamic systems based on consecutive thia-Michael and Henry reactions were generated and transformed using lipase-catalyzed asymmetric transformation. Substituted thiolane structures with three contiguous stereocenters were resolved in the process in high yields and high enantiomeric excesses.

  11. Osler's Pupil, Henry W. Ochsner, MD (1877–1902): His Life, Lineage, and Death

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Paul S.

    2007-01-01

    In multiple editions of his Principles and Practice of Medicine, a 1904 speech, and his essay “A Student Life,” Sir William Osler mentions and laments the death due to typhoid of his pupil, Henry W. Ochsner (1877–1902). Harvey Cushing, MD, in his biography of Osler, describes how deeply Osler was moved by “poor” Ochsner's death. Yet little is known about Ochsner. This article describes the life story, lineage, and death of Henry W. Ochsner, MD, a son of Swiss pioneers who settled in Waumandee, Wisconsin. He was a member of a family that includes medical luminaries (e.g., Albert J. Ochsner, MD, the famous Chicago surgeon, and Alton Ochsner, MD, the founder of the Ochsner Clinic); a brilliant student and physician; a humble and beloved fellow citizen; and a favorite pupil of Osler. PMID:21603518

  12. A French description of German psychology laboratories in 1893 by Victor Henri, a collaborator of Binet.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Barnes, Marissa E; Murray, David J

    2015-05-01

    There is a rich tradition of writings about the foundation of psychology laboratories, particularly in the United States but also in France. Various documents exist concerning former German laboratories in American and French literature. But the most interesting French paper was certainly written by a young psychologist named Victor Henri (1872-1940) who was a close collaborator of Alfred Binet (1857-1911) in the 1890s. Visiting various psychology laboratories, he wrote, in 1893, a clear description of the laboratories of Wundt, G. E. Müller, Martius and Ebbinghaus. An English translation is given of Henri's paper and the historical importance of his contribution is here expounded by contrasting the German and French psychologies of the time.

  13. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1983: Henry Taube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, J.

    2002-07-01

    The 1983 Nobel Prize was awarded to Henry Taube for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes. Taube's work represents a watershed in the development of the mechanistic chemistry of inorganic transition metal complexes. His studies of those reactions is a central feature in courses in mechanistic inorganic chemistry, and his description of inner-sphere and outer-sphere electron transfer mechanisms remain as the textbook examples.

  14. Speculative Truth - Henry Cavendish, Natural Philosophy, and the Rise of Modern Theoretical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormmach, Russell

    2004-03-01

    With a never-before published paper by Lord Henry Cavendish, as well as a biography on him, this book offers a fascinating discourse on the rise of scientific attitudes and ways of knowing. A pioneering British physicist in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Cavendish was widely considered to be the first full-time scientist in the modern sense. Through the lens of this unique thinker and writer, this book is about the birth of modern science.

  15. [Count Henri de Bonneval (1806-1882), practitioner of homeopathy, agronomist and philanthropist].

    PubMed

    Neuzil, Eugène; Cousse, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Count Henri de Bonneval, was born in Bordeaux in 1806, in the line of descent of one of the most ancient French families of noble rank. He was assistant manager of the Strasbourg stud farm in 1830, when Louis-Philippe, an Orleanist, ascended to the throne of the Bourbon Charles X. As several other legitimists, Count Henri refused to take an oath to the new king and prefered to resign his position. Interested in medicine, he was deeply impressed by Hahnemann's Organon der Heilkunst and decided to leave France for KOthen, in Saxony, in order to learn homeopathy directly from its founder Back to France, he defended in Montpellier the first French medical thesis devoted to homeopathy and then opened a consulting room in Bordeaux. He rapidly gained a solid reputation and a large audience as a practitioner of homeopathy. At the same time, Henri acquired the Chateau de Latresne and the 500 acres surrounding land. He renovated and brought up to date the agricultural and wine-producing activities of the estate. The medical doctor soon proved to be an expert agronomist, extending his competence to the famous vineyard Chateau Canon of St. Emilion. Throughout his life, the Count showed notable qualities of philanthropy, materialized at Latresne by the construction of a church and, adjacent to the chapel, a boarding school, two classrooms and shelters for poor or sick old people. At the end of his life, Henri de Bonneval wrote a comprehensive book, that includes the presentation and discussions of the homeopathic methods, some philosophical reflections and personal memories.

  16. Mineral resources of the Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area, Fremont County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tysdal, R.G. ); Peters, T.J. )

    1988-01-01

    The authors report on the 350-acre Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area in the southern part of the Madison Range. Fremont County, Idaho, and is about 17 miles north of the hamlet of Islan Park. The southwestern part of the wilderness study area, along the Madison Range Fault, is rated as having a moderate energy resource potential for geothermal water, and the remainder of the study area has a low potential for this resource.

  17. Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

    In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

  18. Theoretical Evaluation of the Transient Response of Constant Head and Constant Flow-Rate Permeability Tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, M.; Takahashi, M.; Morin, R.H.; Esaki, T.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented that compares the response characteristics of the constant head and the constant flowrate (flow pump) laboratory techniques for quantifying the hydraulic properties of geologic materials having permeabilities less than 10-10 m/s. Rigorous analytical solutions that describe the transient distributions of hydraulic gradient within a specimen are developed, and equations are derived for each method. Expressions simulating the inflow and outflow rates across the specimen boundaries during a constant-head permeability test are also presented. These solutions illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method, including insights into measurement accuracy and the validity of using Darcy's law under certain conditions. The resulting observations offer practical considerations in the selection of an appropriate laboratory test method for the reliable measurement of permeability in low-permeability geologic materials.

  19. Oxalate Content of the Herb Good-King-Henry, Blitum Bonus-Henricus.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanying; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2015-05-12

    The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves, stems and buds of Good-King-Henry (Blitum Bonus-Henricus) were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. The large, mature leaves contained 42% more total oxalate than in the small leaves and the soluble oxalate content of the large leaves was 33% higher than the smaller leaves. Cooking the mixed leaves, stems and buds in boiling water for two minutes significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate when compared to the raw plant parts. Pesto sauce made from mixed leaves contained 257 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight; this was largely made up of insoluble oxalates (85% of the total oxalate content). Soup made from mixed leaves contained lower levels of total oxalates (44.26 ± 0.49 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight) and insoluble oxalate made up 49% of the oxalate contents. The levels of oxalates in the Good-King-Henry leaves were high, suggesting that the leaves should be consumed occasionally as a delicacy because of their unique taste rather than as a significant part of the diet. However, the products made from Good-King-Henry leaves indicated that larger amounts could be consumed as the oxalate levels were reduced by dilution and processing.

  20. Oxalate Content of the Herb Good-King-Henry, Blitum Bonus-Henricus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanying; Savage, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves, stems and buds of Good-King-Henry (Blitum Bonus-Henricus) were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. The large, mature leaves contained 42% more total oxalate than in the small leaves and the soluble oxalate content of the large leaves was 33% higher than the smaller leaves. Cooking the mixed leaves, stems and buds in boiling water for two minutes significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate when compared to the raw plant parts. Pesto sauce made from mixed leaves contained 257 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight; this was largely made up of insoluble oxalates (85% of the total oxalate content). Soup made from mixed leaves contained lower levels of total oxalates (44.26 ± 0.49 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight) and insoluble oxalate made up 49% of the oxalate contents. The levels of oxalates in the Good-King-Henry leaves were high, suggesting that the leaves should be consumed occasionally as a delicacy because of their unique taste rather than as a significant part of the diet. However, the products made from Good-King-Henry leaves indicated that larger amounts could be consumed as the oxalate levels were reduced by dilution and processing. PMID:28231194

  1. Mercury chemistry in the MBL: Modeling results including Hg + halogen atom reaction rate constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgecock, I. M.; Pirrone, N.

    2003-04-01

    The inclusion, of recently published kinetic data for the reactions between gas phase elemental Hg and halogen atoms and molecules, in a photochemical box model including aerosols of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL), suggests that the cycling of Hg over the world's oceans may be much more dynamic than was once thought, as a direct result of halogen activation from marine aerosols. The rate of gas phase oxidation of Hg(0) in the model leads to high concentrations of gas phase oxidised Hg (Hg(II)), which is deposited to the sea surface either directly from the gas phase or indirectly via scavenging by sea salt and non-sea-salt sulphate aerosol particles and subsequent deposition. The model base run predicts Hg(II) concentrations higher than those measured in the marine atmosphere, and a lifetime for Hg(0) of a matter of days, rather than months as has been generally assumed. In light of previous measurements and the known stability of the hemispherical background concentration of Hg(0) the influence of liquid water content (the number of deliquescent aerosol droplets), cloud optical depth at the top of the boundary layer, and the Henry's Law constants for HgCl2 and HgBr2 have been investigated. In order to maintain a stable background concentration of Hg(0) a source strength (for emission from the sea, or entrainment from the free troposphere) of at least 15 ng m-2 hr-1 is required, which seems most unlikely considering results from flux chamber experiments. The model therefore either overestimates the rate of gas phase oxidation or lacks a fundamental reduction process. The evidence from studies of mercury depletion events in the Arctic troposphere lend support to the fast reaction between Hg(0) and Br containing radicals which have been included in the model, it is necessary therefore to investigate homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms for the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) in order to explain the measured Hg(II) concentrations in the MBL and the stable

  2. If Coulomb's law were not inverse square: The charge distribution inside a solid conducting sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Ross L.

    1990-04-01

    The distribution of charge between concentric conducting shells has been at the heart of the most sensitive tests of the exponent in Coulomb's law since the days of Henry Cavendish. But it appears that no one has ever answered the question of how an excess of charge would distribute itself throughout the interior of a solid conductor if Coulomb's law were other than inverse square. Spherically symmetric solutions to this problem have been found under the assumption that the potential of a point charge varies either as e-kr/r or as 1/rn.

  3. Universal equations and constants of turbulent motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumert, H. Z.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a parameter-free theory of shear-generated turbulence at asymptotically high Reynolds numbers in incompressible fluids. It is based on a two-fluids concept. Both components are materially identical and inviscid. The first component is an ensemble of quasi-rigid dipole-vortex tubes (vortex filaments, excitations) as quasi-particles in chaotic motion. The second is a superfluid performing evasive motions between the tubes. The local dipole motions follow Helmholtz' law. The vortex radii scale with the energy-containing length scale. Collisions between quasi-particles lead either to annihilation (likewise rotation, turbulent dissipation) or to scattering (counterrotation, turbulent diffusion). There are analogies with birth and death processes of population dynamics and their master equations and with Landau's two-fluid theory of liquid helium. For free homogeneous decay the theory predicts the turbulent kinetic energy to follow t-1. With an adiabatic wall condition it predicts the logarithmic law with von Kármán's constant as 1/\\sqrt {2\\,\\pi }= 0.399 . Likewise rotating couples form localized dissipative patches almost at rest (→ intermittency) wherein under local quasi-steady conditions the spectrum evolves into an ‘Apollonian gear’ as discussed first by Herrmann (1990 Correlation and Connectivity (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 108-20). Dissipation happens exclusively at scale zero and at finite scales this system is frictionless and reminds of Prigogine's (1947 Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles (Liege: Desoer) p 143) law of minimum (here: zero) entropy production. The theory predicts further the prefactor of the 3D-wavenumber spectrum (a Kolmogorov constant) as \\frac {1}{3}(4\\,\\pi )^{2/3}=1.802 , well within the scatter range of observational, experimental and direct numerical simulation results.

  4. A random walk on water (Henry Darcy Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2009-04-01

    the history of philosophy of science (cf. Laplace's demon), is, at the same time, one of the founders of probability theory, which he regarded as "nothing but common sense reduced to calculation". This harmonizes with James Clerk Maxwell's view that "the true logic for this world is the calculus of Probabilities" and was more recently and epigrammatically formulated in the title of Edwin Thompson Jaynes's book "Probability Theory: The Logic of Science" (2003). Abandoning dichotomous logic, either on ontological or epistemic grounds, we can identify randomness or stochasticity with unpredictability. Admitting that (a) uncertainty is an intrinsic property of nature; (b) causality implies dependence of natural processes in time and thus suggests predictability; but, (c) even the tiniest uncertainty (e.g., in initial conditions) may result in unpredictability after a certain time horizon, we may shape a stochastic representation of natural processes that is consistent with Karl Popper's indeterministic world view. In this representation, probability quantifies uncertainty according to the Kolmogorov system, in which probability is a normalized measure, i.e., a function that maps sets (areas where the initial conditions or the parameter values lie) to real numbers (in the interval [0, 1]). In such a representation, predictability (suggested by deterministic laws) and unpredictability (randomness) coexist, are not separable or additive components, and it is a matter of specifying the time horizon of prediction to decide which of the two dominates. An elementary numerical example has been devised to illustrate the above ideas and demonstrate that they offer a pragmatic and useful guide for practice, rather than just pertaining to philosophical discussions. A chaotic model, with fully and a priori known deterministic dynamics and deterministic inputs (without any random agent), is assumed to represent the hydrological balance in an area partly covered by vegetation

  5. Origins of Newton's First Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Anyone who has taught introductory physics should know that roughly a third of the students initially believe that any object at rest will remain at rest, whereas any moving body not propelled by applied forces will promptly come to rest. Likewise, about half of those uninitiated students believe that any object moving at a constant speed must be continually pushed if it is to maintain its motion.1 That's essentially Aristotle's law of motion and it is so "obviously" borne out by experience that it was accepted by scholars for 2000 years, right through the Copernican Revolution. But, of course, it's fundamentally wrong. This paper tells the story of how the correct understanding, the law of inertia, evolved and how Newton came to make it his first law.

  6. Is Planck's quantization constant unique?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-07-01

    A cornerstone of Quantum Mechanics is the existence of a non-zero least action, the Planck constant. However, the basic concepts and theoretical developments of Quantum Mechanics are independent of its specific numerical value. A different constant h _{*}, similar to the Planck constant h, but ˜12 orders of magnitude larger, characterizes plasmas. The study of >50 different geophysical, space, and laboratory plasmas, provided the first evidence for the universality and the quantum nature of h _{*}, revealing that it is a new quantization constant. The recent results show the diagnostics for determining whether plasmas are characterized by the Planck or the new quantization constant, compounding the challenge to reconcile both quantization constants in quantum mechanics.

  7. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  8. Inclusion and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damer, Linda K.

    2001-01-01

    Describe four different laws related to the education of children with disabilities: (1) Public Law 94-142; (2) Public Law 99-457; (3) Public Law 101-336 ADA; and (4) Public Law 101-476 IDEA. Discusses the topic of mainstreaming and highlights the recent legal decisions that have occurred. (CMK)

  9. A Novel Bis-Thiourea Organocatalyst for the Asymmetric Aza-Henry Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Rampalakos, Constantinos; Wulff, William D.

    2013-01-01

    A novel bis-thiourea BINAM-based catalyst for the asymmetric aza-Henry reaction has been developed. This catalyst promotes the reaction of N-Boc imines with nitroalkanes to afford β-nitroamines with good yields and high enantioselectivities. This catalyst has the advantage that it can be prepared in a single step from commercially available materials. A model is proposed for the catalyst action where the both components of the reaction are activated simultaneously by hydrogen bonding. Regardless of the mechanism, the success of the present catalyst demonstrates the potential of bis-thioureas as an interesting class of relatively unexplored catalysts. PMID:23795151

  10. Henri Wallon's Theory of Early Child Development: The Role of Emotions

    PubMed

    Veer

    1996-12-01

    The present paper gives an account of part of the stage theory of early child development of the French theorist Henri Wallon (1879-1962). Unlike his contemporary Jean Piaget, Wallon concentrated his efforts upon a description of the child's emotional development and the role emotions play in establishing the bond between child and caregiver. The description of Wallon's stage theory is preceded by biographical information and a presentation of his methodological views. It is argued that Wallon's theory is unique in its focus, exerted influence upon theorists such as Lev Vygotsky, and is basically compatible with modern insights about the nature of child development and the growth of intersubjectivity.

  11. A new revision of the Hdec (Henry Draper Extension Charts) catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashimbaeva, N.; Sementsov, V.

    A new version of the HDEC (Henry Draper Extension Charts) catalog is presented. The catalog includes 88,548 entries, more than 3500 of which (components of binary systems) were earlier corrupted by an algorithmic error (1579 multiple systems were revealed). Spectral classification of these objects has been corrected manually using the CDS data. We also corrected some mistakes of the catalog detected by the measurement model and cross-matching with other CDS catalogs, and, in some cases, by the authors of the catalog and through collaboration of the HDEC users.

  12. Highly enantioselective asymmetric Henry reaction catalyzed by novel chiral phase transfer catalysts derived from cinchona alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Vijaya, Ponmuthu Kottala; Murugesan, Sepperumal; Siva, Ayyanar

    2016-10-25

    A new type of di-site chiral phase transfer catalyst has been designed and synthesized from cinchona alkaloids as a chiral precursor. The prepared catalysts are applied in the asymmetric Henry reaction to a wide range of aldehydes using mild concentrations of a base and solvent and under room-temperature conditions. Under the optimized reaction conditions, the highest chemical yields up to 99% along with an excellent enantiomeric excess (ee) up to 99% were obtained using the prepared cinchona alkaloid based chiral phase transfer catalysts.

  13. The Henry Cecil Ranson McBay Chair in Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bota, Kofi B.; King, James, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The goals and objectives of the Henry Cecil Ransom McBay Chair in Space Sciences were to: (1) provide leadership in developing and expanding Space Science curriculum; (2) contribute to the research and education endeavors of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program; (3) expand opportunities for education and hands-on research in Space and Earth Sciences; (4) enhance scientific and technological literacy at all educational levels and to increase awareness of opportunities in the Space Sciences; and (5) develop a pipeline, starting with high school, of African American students who will develop into a cadre of well-trained scientists with interest in Space Science Research and Development.

  14. [Sauveur-Henri-Victor Bouvier (1799-1877): orthopaedist, surgeon and promoter of physical education].

    PubMed

    Monet, Jacques; Quin, Grégory

    2013-01-01

    This article establishes the biography of a little known physician of the 19th century., whose commitment with orthopaedics and formulation of medical gymnastics was important: the surgeon-orthopaedist Sauveur-Henri-Victor Bouvier. Several constitutive processes of the medical field of the 19th century are analysed: specialization (around orthopaedics), professionalization and development of various therapeutic and hygienic methods (among them medical gymnastics). Bouvier's biography is particularly instructive and sheds new light on these different processes, as well as on the institutionalization of orthopaedics from the 1820's up to the 1870's, at the intersection between medical and educative fields, between hospital, medical faculty and teaching of gymnastics.

  15. QCD coupling constants and VDM

    SciTech Connect

    Erkol, G.; Ozpineci, A.; Zamiralov, V. S.

    2012-10-23

    QCD sum rules for coupling constants of vector mesons with baryons are constructed. The corresponding QCD sum rules for electric charges and magnetic moments are also derived and with the use of vector-meson-dominance model related to the coupling constants. The VDM role as the criterium of reciprocal validity of the sum rules is considered.

  16. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  17. Teaching Global Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  18. Automatic gesture analysis using constant affine velocity.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Jenny; Boulanger, Pierre; Pham, Minh Tu; Moreau, Richard; Prieto, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Hand human gesture recognition has been an important research topic widely studied around the world, as this field offers the ability to identify, recognize, and analyze human gestures in order to control devices or to interact with computer interfaces. In particular, in medical training, this approach is an important tool that can be used to obtain an objective evaluation of a procedure performance. In this paper, some obstetrical gestures, acquired by a forceps, were studied with the hypothesis that, as the scribbling and drawing movements, they obey the one-sixth power law, an empirical relationship which connects path curvature, torsion, and euclidean velocity. Our results show that obstetrical gestures have a constant affine velocity, which is different for each type of gesture and based on this idea this quantity is proposed as an appropriate classification feature in the hand human gesture recognition field.

  19. Proc, Dr. Sam, Uncle Henry, and the "Little Green Book". Interview by Charles F. Wooley.

    PubMed

    Harvey, W Proctor

    2005-01-01

    During his house staff training before World War II, Dr. W. Proctor Harvey encountered Dr. Samuel A. Levine at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. Following military service, Harvey returned to Boston and became Levine's first cardiology fellow. The book Clinical Auscultation of the Heart--the Little Green Book by Levine and Harvey in 1949 combined Levine's clinical wisdom with Harvey's objective phonocardiographic methods and brought an important objective dimension to the art of cardiac auscultation. Both Levine and Harvey shared experiences and friendship with Henry Christian, the first Physician-in-Chief when the new Brigham Hospital Opened in 1913. Christian, appointed Dean of the Harvard Medical School in 1908 at the age of 32, was referred to as the "Boy Dean." He held the Hersey Chair of Theory and Practice of Physic from 1908 until 1939, was one of the founding group of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, and a major force in academic medicine. Levine served as intern to Christian and then joined the Brigham medical staff in 1915. Proctor Harvey followed Henry Christian's path from their mutual hometown of Lyunchburg, VA to the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital. A series of illuminating and respectful professional interactions--initially between Christian and Levine, between Levine and Harvey in the early 1940s, and between Harvey and Christian in the 1950s--provide the background for the genesis of the Little Green Book and a remarkable example of academic heritage.

  20. Preventing child obesity: a long-term evaluation of the HENRY approach.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca E; Willis, Thomas A; Aspinall, Nichola; Candida, Hunt; George, Jackie; Rudolf, Mary C J

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels, yet many health professionals lack confidence in working with parents around lifestyle change. HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young) aims to tackle this through training practitioners to work more effectively with parents of preschoolers around obesity and lifestyle issues.We evaluated the long-term impact of HENRY training on health professionals' knowledge, skills and confidence in tackling obesity prevention. All practitioners trained 2007-11 (n = 1601) were invited to complete an online survey. 237 emails (14.8%) were undeliverable; 354 (26.0%) of the remainder completed the survey. A majority (67%) reported using knowledge and skills gained on a regular basis in their professional lives. Sessions on the importance of empathy and key parenting skills were considered particularly useful, with 78% and 74% respectively reporting regular use of these skills. Effects on respondents' personal lives were also reported: 61% applied the knowledge and skills at home, identifying for example, more shared family mealtimes and reduced portion sizes. The impact endures, with 71% of those undergoing training > 12 months ago, stating that they continued to use concepts in their professional lives. The findings suggest that brief training can have a sustained impact on practitioners' professional and personal lives.

  1. Data set for background investigation of atmospheric constituents for Cape Henry site: August 5-22, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The laboratory was located within the Fort Story Military Reservation at Cape Henry between 5 August and 21 August 1974. Total sulfur, total hydrocarbons, NO, NO2, Nox, and O3 were monitored and reported as hourly averages. Visibility was measured using an integrating nephelometer and reported as hourly averages. Twenty-four hour averaged mass loading was determined using two high volume air samplers located on different levels (25' and 50') at the site. Temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, barometric pressure and solar radiation intensity were measured at the site or supplemented by readings taken by the U. S. Coast Guard at the Cape Henry Light House.

  2. Ground-water aspects of the lower Henrys Fork region, eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.; Mundorff, Maurice John; Walker, Eugene H.

    1970-01-01

    The lower Henrys Fork region in eastern Idaho includes the plains and low benches between Ashton and the junction of Henrys Fork and Snake River. The northwestern and western parts of the area are part of the Snake River basalt plain. The central part of the area is occupied by alluvial plains of the Snake, Teton, and Falls Rivers and of Henrys Fork. The alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt. The southeastern part of the area is a bench (Rexburg Bench), chiefly on silicic and basaltic volcanic rocks, which rises gradually to mountain peaks (Big Hole Mountains) southeast of the area. Irrigation wells open to the basalt under the Snake River Plain and the basalt and sands and gravels under the alluvial plains yield large amounts of water with small drawdowns. Irrigation wells in the silicic volcanic rocks and the interbedded ash, pyroclastics, and sedimentary deposits beneath the Rexburg Bench generally yield much less water. The regional water table slopes southwestward beneath the basalt and alluvial plains. It is recharged by precipitation that infiltrates into the ground in the headwaters of Henrys Fork and Falls, and Teton Rivers and by water that moves downward from an extensive perched water body caused by seepage from stream channels and surface-water irrigation. The perched water in part moves vertically down to the regional water table and in part laterally to the streams. Ground water beneath the Rexburg Bench moves generally northwestward to join the regional ground-water body beneath the alluvia,1 and basalt plain, but this area contributes very little recharge to the main aquifer body. Recharge to the regional water table is estimated to average 725,000 acre-feet annually. The regional water table is below the level of the streams in the area, and ground water in the main aquifer, therefore, is not tributary to the streams. Pumping from the regional ground-water reservoir for irrigation or other uses would have no effect on streamflow or surface

  3. The Politics of Knowledge and the Revitalization of American Democracy: A Response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Cary

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Henry Giroux's "The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex." Henry Giroux has written a provocative assessment of the contemporary challenges facing the United States as a society, which over the course of the 20th century had assumed the role of leader and exemplar…

  4. Simulating Supercapacitors: Can We Model Electrodes As Constant Charge Surfaces?

    PubMed

    Merlet, Céline; Péan, Clarisse; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Madden, Paul A; Simon, Patrice; Salanne, Mathieu

    2013-01-17

    Supercapacitors based on an ionic liquid electrolyte and graphite or nanoporous carbon electrodes are simulated using molecular dynamics. We compare a simplified electrode model in which a constant, uniform charge is assigned to each carbon atom with a realistic model in which a constant potential is applied between the electrodes (the carbon charges are allowed to fluctuate). We show that the simulations performed with the simplified model do not provide a correct description of the properties of the system. First, the structure of the adsorbed electrolyte is partly modified. Second, dramatic differences are observed for the dynamics of the system during transient regimes. In particular, upon application of a constant applied potential difference, the increase in the temperature, due to the Joule effect, associated with the creation of an electric current across the cell follows Ohm's law, while unphysically high temperatures are rapidly observed when constant charges are assigned to each carbon atom.

  5. Oxygen Michaelis constants for tyrosinase.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-López, J N; Ros, J R; Varón, R; García-Cánovas, F

    1993-01-01

    The Michaelis constant of tyrosinase for oxygen in the presence of monophenols and o-diphenols, which generate a cyclizable o-quinone, has been studied. This constant depends on the nature of the monophenol and o-diphenol and is always lower in the presence of the former than of the latter. From the mechanism proposed for tyrosinase and from its kinetic analysis [Rodríguez-López, J. N., Tudela, J., Varón, R., García-Carmona, F. and García-Cánovas, F. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 3801-3810] a quantitative ratio has been established between the Michaelis constants for oxygen in the presence of monophenols and their o-diphenols. This ratio is used for the determination of the Michaelis constant for oxygen with monophenols when its value cannot be calculated experimentally. PMID:8352753

  6. Avogadro's Number and Avogadro's Constant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses three possible methods of thinking about the implications of the definitions of the Avogadro constant and number. Indicates that there is only one way to arrive at a simple and standard conclusion. (CC)

  7. Innovations in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the…

  8. Students and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Designed as a practical approach to the study of law, this publication offers seven lesson plans focusing on legal topics that have potential significance to high school students preparing to enter the world of work. Lesson plans address the following topics: minors and the law, automobile insurance, employment law, sports and the law, computer…

  9. Tax Law System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  10. Search for a Variation of Fundamental Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubachs, W.

    2013-06-01

    Since the days of Dirac scientists have speculated about the possibility that the laws of nature, and the fundamental constants appearing in those laws, are not rock-solid and eternal but may be subject to change in time or space. Such a scenario of evolving constants might provide an answer to the deepest puzzle of contemporary science, namely why the conditions in our local Universe allow for extreme complexity: the fine-tuning problem. In the past decade it has been established that spectral lines of atoms and molecules, which can currently be measured at ever-higher accuracies, form an ideal test ground for probing drifting constants. This has brought this subject from the realm of metaphysics to that of experimental science. In particular the spectra of molecules are sensitive for probing a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio μ, either on a cosmological time scale, or on a laboratory time scale. A comparison can be made between spectra of molecular hydrogen observed in the laboratory and at a high redshift (z=2-3), using the Very Large Telescope (Paranal, Chile) and the Keck telescope (Hawaii). This puts a constraint on a varying mass ratio Δμ/μ at the 10^{-5} level. The optical work can also be extended to include CO molecules. Further a novel direction will be discussed: it was discovered that molecules exhibiting hindered internal rotation have spectral lines in the radio-spectrum that are extremely sensitive to a varying proton-electron mass ratio. Such lines in the spectrum of methanol were recently observed with the radio-telescope in Effelsberg (Germany). F. van Weerdenburg, M.T. Murphy, A.L. Malec, L. Kaper, W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 180802 (2011). A. Malec, R. Buning, M.T. Murphy, N. Milutinovic, S.L. Ellison, J.X. Prochaska, L. Kaper, J. Tumlinson, R.F. Carswell, W. Ubachs, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 403, 1541 (2010). E.J. Salumbides, M.L. Niu, J. Bagdonaite, N. de Oliveira, D. Joyeux, L. Nahon, W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 86, 022510

  11. Constant fields and constant gradients in open ionic channels.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D P; Barcilon, V; Eisenberg, R S

    1992-01-01

    Ions enter cells through pores in proteins that are holes in dielectrics. The energy of interaction between ion and charge induced on the dielectric is many kT, and so the dielectric properties of channel and pore are important. We describe ionic movement by (three-dimensional) Nemst-Planck equations (including flux and net charge). Potential is described by Poisson's equation in the pore and Laplace's equation in the channel wall, allowing induced but not permanent charge. Asymptotic expansions are constructed exploiting the long narrow shape of the pore and the relatively high dielectric constant of the pore's contents. The resulting one-dimensional equations can be integrated numerically; they can be analyzed when channels are short or long (compared with the Debye length). Traditional constant field equations are derived if the induced charge is small, e.g., if the channel is short or if the total concentration gradient is zero. A constant gradient of concentration is derived if the channel is long. Plots directly comparable to experiments are given of current vs voltage, reversal potential vs. concentration, and slope conductance vs. concentration. This dielectric theory can easily be tested: its parameters can be determined by traditional constant field measurements. The dielectric theory then predicts current-voltage relations quite different from constant field, usually more linear, when gradients of total concentration are imposed. Numerical analysis shows that the interaction of ion and channel can be described by a mean potential if, but only if, the induced charge is negligible, that is to say, the electric field is spatially constant. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:1376159

  12. A conservation law for virus infection kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kakizoe, Yusuke; Morita, Satoru; Nakaoka, Shinji; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kei; Miura, Tomoyuki; Beauchemin, Catherine A A; Iwami, Shingo

    2015-07-07

    Conservation laws are among the most important properties of a physical system, but are not commonplace in biology. We derived a conservation law from the basic model for viral infections which consists in a small set of ordinary differential equations. We challenged the conservation law experimentally for the case of a virus infection in a cell culture. We found that the derived, conserved quantity remained almost constant throughout the infection period, implying that the derived conservation law holds in this biological system. We also suggest a potential use for the conservation law in evaluating the accuracy of experimental measurements.

  13. Effective cosmological constant induced by stochastic fluctuations of Newton's constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cesare, Marco; Lizzi, Fedele; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2016-09-01

    We consider implications of the microscopic dynamics of spacetime for the evolution of cosmological models. We argue that quantum geometry effects may lead to stochastic fluctuations of the gravitational constant, which is thus considered as a macroscopic effective dynamical quantity. Consistency with Riemannian geometry entails the presence of a time-dependent dark energy term in the modified field equations, which can be expressed in terms of the dynamical gravitational constant. We suggest that the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe may be ascribed to quantum fluctuations in the geometry of spacetime rather than the vacuum energy from the matter sector.

  14. Disposable Youth/Damaged Democracy: Youth, Neoliberalism, and the Promise of Pedagogy in the Work of Henry Giroux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps more extensively and provocatively than any other contemporary theorist, Henry Giroux has theorized the relationship between youth and democratic public life. Beginning arguably with his first book, Ideology, Culture, and the Process of Schooling (Temple University Press, 1981), and continuing across a number of critically acclaimed works…

  15. Plastic (wire-combed) grooving of a slip-formed concrete runway overlay at Patrick Henry Airport: An initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlin, E. C.; Horne, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A wire-comb technique is described for transversely grooving the surface of a freshly laid (plastic state) slip-formed concrete overlay installed at Patrick Henry Airport. This method of surface texturing yields better water drainage and pavement skid resistance than that obtained with an older conventional burlap drag concrete surface treatment installed on an adjacent portion of the runway.

  16. "Undoubtedly a Powerful Influence": Victor Henry's "Antinomies linguistiques" (1896) with an Annotated Translation of the First Chapter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Victor Henry's innovative presentation of some underlying contradictions in the premises on which linguistics is founded, cast in the Kantian form of antinomies. The review argues that no science remains more strongly contested than linguistics, a science whose origins are paradoxical and that contains outdated concepts. (30 references)…

  17. Constituting Antebellum African American Identity: Resistance, Violence, and Masculinity in Henry Highland Garnet's (1843) "Address to the Slaves"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasinski, James

    2007-01-01

    In August 1843 Presbyterian minister Henry Highland Garnet delivered his "Address to the Slaves of the United States of America" to the National Convention of Colored Citizens in Buffalo, NY. While often read (and almost as often dismissed) as either an unqualified call for a violent slave rebellion or, at the least, a celebration of…

  18. "Young People Are No Longer at Risk--They Are the Risk": Henry Giroux's "Youth in a Suspect Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClennen, Sophia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes Henry Giroux's recent book Youth in a Suspect Society: democracy or disposability? (Palgrave, 2009) and situates it within his post-9/11 critical interventions. Giroux has focused his recent work on theorizing, critiquing and challenging the confluence of militarization, corporatization and right-wing ideology that has…

  19. Life of Henry Barnard: The First United States Commissioner of Education, 1867-1870. Bulletin, 1919, No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Bernard C.

    1919-01-01

    Henry Barnard was "one of the men who revitalized the American common-school system", and as such, he is clearly worthy of a biography. Not only was his service a noted one to elementary education, but as college president and as the organizer of the United States Bureau of Education his activity also touched other parts of the country's…

  20. Searching for Politics with Henry Giroux: Through Cultural Studies to Public Pedagogy and the "Terror of Neoliberalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Henry A. Giroux is recognized as one of the fifty most significant thinkers on education in the 20th century. He is also considered a scholar of immense influence in a number of fields internationally, hardly an inconsequential accolade in a century noted for a glut of educational and social thinkers. Yet, its wide-ranging and ever-expanding…

  1. Teacher as Actor--Henry David Thoreau--From Room One-Eleven to Walden Pond and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barto, David

    To help maintain class interest in the important themes addressed in "Walden" and "The Duties of Civil Disobedience," a high school English teacher has presented a dramatic monologue as Henry David Thoreau to his students. After much library research, the teacher used some of the props characteristic of the author, such as a…

  2. All Are Worthy to Know the Earth: Henry De la Beche and the Origin of Geological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Henry T. De la Beche (1796-1855) began his geological career within an elite circle (Geological Society of London, 1817; FRS, 1819), collaborating with influential gentlemen geologists and publishing original research. When his independent income dwindled, De la Beche managed to secure governmental funding for his mapping projects. This led to…

  3. A Vision for the Future: Henry G. Bennett Memorial Library, Southeastern Oklahoma State University Strategic Plan, 2002-2007.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dorothy

    This document presents the five-year strategic plan developed by the library director, staff, and the Library Committee for the Henry G. Bennett Memorial Library, Southeastern Oklahoma State University. The goal of this plan is to provide a framework that the library can use to focus energy and resources in fulfilling the mission of the library…

  4. Optical constants of solid methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.; Bruel, C.; Judish, J. P.; Khanna, R. K.; Pollack, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Methane is the most abundant simple organic molecule in the outer solar system bodies. In addition to being a gaseous constituent of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets and Titan, it is present in the solid form as a constituent of icy surfaces such as those of Triton and Pluto, and as cloud condensate in the atmospheres of Titan, Uranus, and Neptune. It is expected in the liquid form as a constituent of the ocean of Titan. Cometary ices also contain solid methane. The optical constants for both solid and liquid phases of CH4 for a wide temperature range are needed for radiative transfer calculations, for studies of reflection from surfaces, and for modeling of emission in the far infrared and microwave regions. The astronomically important visual to near infrared measurements of solid methane optical constants are conspicuously absent from the literature. Preliminary results are presented of the optical constants of solid methane for the 0.4 to 2.6 micron region. K is reported for both the amorphous and the crystalline (annealed) states. Using the previously measured values of the real part of the refractive index, n, of liquid methane at 110 K n is computed for solid methane using the Lorentz-Lorentz relationship. Work is in progress to extend the measurements of optical constants n and k for liquid and solid to both shorter and longer wavelengths, eventually providing a complete optical constants database for condensed CH4.

  5. Death in the White House: President William Henry Harrison's Atypical Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Jane; Mackowiak, Philip A

    2014-10-01

    Historians have long maintained that pneumonia killed William Henry Harrison (1773-1841) just 1 month after he became the ninth president of the United States. For more than a century and a half, it has been alleged that the aged Harrison caught a fatal chill the day he was sworn into office while delivering an overly long inaugural address in wet, freezing weather without a hat, overcoat, and gloves. However, a careful review of the detailed case summary written by his personal physician suggests that enteric fever, not pneumonia per se, was the disorder that carried off "Old Tippecanoe." Two other presidents of that era, James Knox Polk and Zachary Taylor, also developed severe gastroenteritis while in office. Taylor's illness, like Harrison's, proved fatal. In all 3 cases, the illnesses were likely a consequence of the unsanitary conditions that existed in the nation's capital during most of the nineteenth century.

  6. The biologist as psychologist: Henry Fairfield Osborn's early mental ability investigations.

    PubMed

    Young, Jacy L

    2012-01-01

    In the early 1880s, biologist Henry Fairfield Osborn conducted some of the first questionnaire research in American psychology. This article details how he came to distribute Francis Galton's questionnaire on mental imagery in the United States, as well as how he altered it to suit his own burgeoning psychological research interests. The development and circulation of questionnaires at the very beginning of American scientific psychology, first by Osborn and later by G. Stanley Hall, is discussed in terms of the new psychology's often-overlooked methodological plurality. Further, Osborn's late nineteenth century interest in individual variation and group differences in mental imagery ability are discussed in relation to his pervasive educational and social concerns, as well as his eventual status as a prominent eugenicist in the twentieth century United States. This research into mental imagery ability foreshadows the eugenic-oriented intelligence testing that developed in the early twentieth century.

  7. The inertia of sex: Henry Adams on family and the politics of unconditional love.

    PubMed

    Duff, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a reassessment of the contemporary relevance of the political thought of Henry Adams through a focus on his ideas about the relationship between family and politics. Adams' ideas have been dismissed by contemporary thinkers, like Richard Rorty, who rely on similar ideas about the role family should play in politics. The article traces the role of ideas about family as a unifying theme in Adams' history, fiction, and autobiography. It shows both why Adams believed familial sentiments, especially feminine and motherly love, were crucial to political unity, and why he thought these sentiments had become increasingly difficult to rely upon. In showing how Adams wrestled with the difficulties that emerge in putting familial sentiments to use for politics, the article suggests that Adams' ideas offer useful lessons for contemporary thinkers interested in the relationship between family and politics.

  8. Henry Sigerist and the history of medicine in Latin America: his correspondence with Juan R. Beltran.

    PubMed

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    During the years of World War II, the American Association for the History of Medicine fostered a Pan-American policy aimed at establishing relationships with Latin American historians of medicine. Juan R. Beltrán, professor of history of medicine at the University of Buenos Aires, also pursued an energetic program of academic diplomacy. The correspondence between Henry Sigerist and Beltrán makes manifest that by 1941 good channels of communication were established between Baltimore and Buenos Aires, but the friendly links did not last long. The motives for this can be found in the competing aims of the AAHM and Beltrán, and the pattern of international relationships during the war years.

  9. Henry H. Cheek and transformism: new light on Charles Darwin's Edinburgh background

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for the transformist ideas espoused by Henry H. Cheek (1807–33), a contemporary of Charles Darwin's at the University of Edinburgh, sheds new light on the intellectual environment of Edinburgh in the late 1820s and early 1830s. Cheek was the author of several papers dealing with the transmutation of species influenced by the theories of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772–1844), Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) and the Comte de Buffon (1707–88). Some of these were read to student societies, others appeared in the Edinburgh Journal of Natural and Geographical Science, which Cheek edited between 1829 and 1831. His writings give us a valuable window onto some of the transformist theories that were circulating among Darwin's fellow medical students in the late 1820s, to which Darwin would have been exposed during his time in Edinburgh, and for which little other concrete evidence survives. PMID:26665300

  10. From bench to bedside: Claude Bernard, Henry K. Beecher, MD, and science in anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Matthew L

    2013-04-01

    Success with the medical management of pain grew tremendously after William Thomas Green Morton's successful demonstration of surgical anesthesia in 1846: Henry K. Beecher's clinical and experimental contributions to anesthesia during and after World War II had a profound impact on how clinicians and experimentalists study human populations in medicine. Beecher found that pain research required human subjects because pain was different for each individual. Nearly 100 years before Beecher, Claude Bernard similarly considered the complexity and uniqueness of human research subjects. Bernard and Beecher both preferred animal subjects in research when appropriate, but suggested that studies involving some mental, bodily, and cognitive processes required human subjects. Although Beecher and Bernard's lives did not overlap, these two men similarly confronted the issues of complexity in human and animal research, particularly in those phenomena involving higher cognitive functions.

  11. Acid Brothers: Henry Beecher, Timothy Leary, and the psychedelic of the century.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Henry Knowles Beecher, an icon of human research ethics, and Timothy Francis Leary, a guru of the counterculture, are bound together in history by the synthetic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Both were associated with Harvard University during a critical period in their careers and of drastic social change. To all appearances the first was a paragon of the establishment and a constructive if complex hero, the second a rebel and a criminal, a rogue and a scoundrel. Although there is no evidence they ever met, Beecher's indirect struggle with Leary over control of the 20th century's most celebrated psychedelic was at the very heart of his views about the legitimate, responsible investigator. That struggle also proves to be a revealing bellwether of the increasingly formalized scrutiny of human experiments that was then taking shape.

  12. New Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B.; Oliveira, A. C.; Gomes, F. A. A.; Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, Henry T.

    2008-04-01

    The new 0.60-m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel was designed to study advanced air-breathing propulsion system such as supersonic combustion and/or laser technologies. In addition, it may be used for hypersonic flow studies and investigations of the electromagnetic (laser) energy addition for flow control. This new hypersonic shock tunnel was designed and installed at the Laboratory for of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu, IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The design of the tunnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for the experiments performed at the laboratory. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures up to 360 atm. and up to 9,000 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization.

  13. The personality and health of King Henry VIII (1491-1547).

    PubMed

    Keynes, Milo

    2005-08-01

    The projection of Henry VIII in the first half of his reign, which began in 1509, is of a magnificent and accomplished 'imperial prince', the possessor of superb physical health. In 1528, when aged 37, he showed a marked change in personality due, it is here argued, to depressive illness, from which he recovered by the mid-1530s. Such ill health has not been recognized previously and it engenders a need for a reassessment of his character and actions during these years of illness. He did not suffer from syphilis and the well-known leg ulcers were less incapacitating than has been described in the past. This truly enormous and overweight man was 55 years old when he died in 1547 in chronic heart failure.

  14. Samuel Hartlib on the death of Descartes: a rediscovered letter to Henry More

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Leigh T. I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discloses the content of a previously overlooked epistle by the Anglo-Prussian intelligencer Samuel Hartlib to Henry More concerning the death of René Descartes. After a discussion situating the letter within the sequence of the More–Hartlib correspondence, an analysis of the rhetorical structure of the epistle is offered, followed by a brief assessment of Hartlib's attitude towards Descartes, and the identification of his source concerning the news of the philosopher's death. An account of the transmission of the letter via a nineteenth-century periodical is also provided. The text of Hartlib's letter and an overlooked passage of Hartlib's diary concerning Descartes's death, which draws on the content of the More letter, are presented as appendixes.

  15. Inconstant Planck’s constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangano, Gianpiero; Lizzi, Fedele; Porzio, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the Dirac idea that fundamental constants are dynamical variables and by conjectures on quantum structure of space-time at small distances, we consider the possibility that Planck constant ℏ is a time depending quantity, undergoing random Gaussian fluctuations around its measured constant mean value, with variance σ2 and a typical correlation timescale Δt. We consider the case of propagation of a free particle and a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator coherent state, and show that the time evolution in both cases is different from the standard behavior. Finally, we discuss how interferometric experiments or exploiting coherent electromagnetic fields in a cavity may put effective bounds on the value of τ = σ2Δt.

  16. Optical constants of solid methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, C.; Arakawa, E. T.; Bruel, C.; Judish, J. P.; Khanna, R. K.; Pollack, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    Methane is the most abundant simple organic molecule in the outer solar system bodies. In addition to being a gaseous constituent of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets and Titan, it is present in the solid form as a constituent of icy surfaces such as those of Triton and Pluto, and as cloud condensate in the atmospheres of Titan, Uranus, and Neptune. It is expected in the liquid form as a constituent of the ocean of Titan. Cometary ices also contain solid methane. The optical constants for both solid and liquid phases of CH4 for a wide temperature range are needed for radiative transfer calculations, for studies of reflection from surfaces, and for modeling of emission in the far infrared and microwave regions. The astronomically important visual to near infrared measurements of solid methane optical constants are conspicuously absent from the literature. Preliminary results are presented on the optical constants of solid methane for the 0.4 to 2.6 micrometer region. Deposition onto a substrate at 10 K produces glassy (semi-amorphous) material. Annealing this material at approximately 33 K for approximately 1 hour results in a crystalline material as seen by sharper, more structured bands and negligible background extinction due to scattering. The constant k is reported for both the amorphous and the crystalline (annealed) states. Typical values (at absorption maxima) are in the .001 to .0001 range. Below lambda = 1.1 micrometers the bands are too weak to be detected by transmission through the films less than or equal to 215 micrometers in thickness, employed in the studies to date. Using previously measured values of the real part of the refractive index, n, of liquid methane at 110 K, n is computed for solid methane using the Lorentz-Lorenz relationship. Work is in progress to extend the measurements of optical constants n and k for liquid and solid to both shorter and longer wavelengths, eventually providing a complete optical constants database for

  17. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt’s painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray’s famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray’s method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray’s book within the teaching of medicine. PMID:20447244

  18. Henry Solomon Wellcome: A philanthropist and a pioneer sponsor of medical research in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Henry Solomon Wellcome, the famous drug manufacturer had a fascinating association with the Sudan. Besides supporting tropical medicine research in this country, he established an extensive project in the Sudan that aimed at combining archeological excavations, philanthropy and social reform. This article is an archives-based account on this side of Wellcome’s association with the Sudan. The article starts with Wellcome’s early years in the American Midwest and the evolution of his career and his rise as a world-renowned drug manufacturer. After the battle of Omdurman, Wellcome visited Sudan in 1900 – 1901 where he offered to support the establishment of the research laboratories which later came to be known as the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum. He then became directly involved in the planning and running of extensive archeological excavations in the central Sudan. This project served as a field in which Wellcome found an outlet for his philanthropy. More than 4000 labourers were employed in Jebel Moya. Professional archeologists and anatomists were recruited by Wellcome to supervise the work, and all the requirements in terms of equipment were catered for. Wellcome devised a Savings Bank System whereby part of the earnings of each labourer were saved to him till the end of the season. He also introduced one of his innovations: aerial photography using box kite which was used for the first time in archeology. Wellcome made it a rule that no applicant should be turned away. The Camp Commandant had to find suitable work for each applicant, including the handicapped who were assigned to appropriate jobs like mending baskets or cutting grass for building huts. Wellcome’s welfare work had a significant impact on the local inhabitants of Jebel Moya. Henry Solomon Wellcome, 1906. Oil painting by Hugh Goldwin Riviere. Credit: Wellcome Library PMID:27493379

  19. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt's painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray's famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray's method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray's book within the teaching of medicine.

  20. Cosmological constant from quantum spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Shahn; Tao, Wen-Qing

    2015-06-01

    We show that a hypothesis that spacetime is quantum with coordinate algebra [xi,t ]=λPxi , and spherical symmetry under rotations of the xi, essentially requires in the classical limit that the spacetime metric is the Bertotti-Robinson metric, i.e., a solution of Einstein's equations with a cosmological constant and a non-null electromagnetic field. Our arguments do not give the value of the cosmological constant or the Maxwell field strength, but they cannot both be zero. We also describe the quantum geometry and the full moduli space of metrics that can emerge as classical limits from this algebra.

  1. On flows having constant vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Paul H.; Wu, Cheng-Chin

    2011-10-01

    Constant vorticity flows of a uniform fluid in a rigid ellipsoidal container rotating at a variable rate are considered. These include librationally driven and precessionally driven flows. The well-known Poincaré solution for precessionally driven flow in a spheroid is generalized to an ellipsoid with unequal principal axes. The dynamic stability of these flows is investigated, and of other flows in which the angular velocity of the container is constant in time. Solutions for the Chandler wobble are discussed. The role of an invariant, called here the Helmholtzian, is examined.

  2. Vibrational force constants for acetaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova, B.

    1990-05-01

    The vibrational force field of ethanal (acetaldehyde), CH 3CHO, is refined by using procedures with differential increments for the force constants (Commun. Dep. Chem., Bulg. Acad. Sci., 21/3 (1988) 433). The characteristics general valence force constants of the high-dimensional symmetry classes of ethanal, A' of tenth and A″ of fifth order, are determined for the experimental assignment of bands. The low barrier to hindered internal rotation about the single carbon—carbon bond is quantitatively estimated on the grounds of normal vibrational analysis.

  3. Cosmologies with variable gravitational constant

    SciTech Connect

    Narkikar, J.V.

    1983-03-01

    In 1937 Dirac presented an argument, based on the socalled large dimensionless numbers, which led him to the conclusion that the Newtonian gravitational constant G changes with epoch. Towards the end of the last century Ernst Mach had given plausible arguments to link the property of inertia of matter to the large scale structure of the universe. Mach's principle also leads to cosmological models with a variable gravitational constant. Three cosmologies which predict a variable G are discussed in this paper both from theoretical and observational points of view.

  4. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof. Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special…

  5. Energy conservation and constants variation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiselburd, L.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Sisterna, P.; Vucetich, H.

    If fundamental constants vary, the internal energy of macroscopic bodies should change. This should produce observable effects. It is shown that those effects can produce upper bounds on the variation of much lower than those coming from Eötvös experiments.

  6. Variations of the solar constant

    SciTech Connect

    Sofia, S.

    1981-12-01

    The variations in data received from rocket-borne and balloon-borne instruments are discussed. Indirect techniques to measure and monitor the solar constant are presented. Emphasis is placed on the correlation of data from the Solar Maximum Mission and the Nimbus 7 satellites. Abstracts of individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base.

  7. Constant-bandwidth constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer.

    PubMed

    Ligeza, P

    2007-07-01

    A constant-temperature anemometer (CTA) enables the measurement of fast-changing velocity fluctuations. In the classical solution of CTA, the transmission band is a function of flow velocity. This is a minor drawback when the mean flow velocity does not significantly change, though it might lead to dynamic errors when flow velocity varies over a considerable range. A modification is outlined, whereby an adaptive controller is incorporated in the CTA system such that the anemometer's transmission band remains constant in the function of flow velocity. For that purpose, a second feedback loop is provided, and the output signal from the anemometer will regulate the controller's parameters such that the transmission bandwidth remains constant. The mathematical model of a CTA that has been developed and model testing data allow a through evaluation of the proposed solution. A modified anemometer can be used in measurements of high-frequency variable flows in a wide range of velocities. The proposed modification allows the minimization of dynamic measurement errors.

  8. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof.2 Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special case of a complicated mathematical formalism.3 Either way, little or no physical insight is provided to the student regarding the underlying physics. This paper presents a novel, basic, and transparent derivation of the Biot-Savart law for a point charge based only on Maxwell's displacement current term in Ampere's law. This derivation can serve many pedagogical purposes. For example, it can be used as lecture material at any academic level to obtain the Biot-Savart law for a point charge from simple principles. It can also serve as a practical example of the important fact that a changing electric flux produces a magnetic field.

  9. Cryogenic temperature characteristics of Verdet constant of terbium sesquioxide ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snetkov, I. L.; Palashov, O. V.

    2016-12-01

    The dependence of the Verdet constant on temperature in the (80-300 K) range for a promising magneto-active material terbium sesquioxide Tb2O3 at the wavelengths of 405-1064 nm is considered. For each of the studied wavelengths, the Verdet constant of the material cooled down to the liquid nitrogen temperature increased by more than a factor of 3.2 as compared to the room temperature value. Similarly to the other paramagnetics, the increase follows the law ∼1/T. Approximations for the temperature dependence of the Verdet constant have been obtained and the value of 1/V·(dV/dT) has been estimated. This information is needed to determine the angle of rotation as well as the variation of the extinction ratio of a Faraday isolator with temperature and extremely important at creation a cryogenic Faraday devices.

  10. Administrative Law Judges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  11. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  12. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  13. Dielectric-constant gas thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiser, Christof; Zandt, Thorsten; Fellmuth, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    The principles, techniques and results from dielectric-constant gas thermometry (DCGT) are reviewed. Primary DCGT with helium has been used for measuring T-T90 below the triple point of water (TPW), where T is the thermodynamic temperature and T90 is the temperature on the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90), and, in an inverse regime with T as input quantity, for determining the Boltzmann constant at the TPW. Furthermore, DCGT allows the determination of several important material properties including the polarizability of neon and argon as well as the virial coefficients of helium, neon, and argon. With interpolating DCGT (IDCGT), the ITS-90 has been approximated in the temperature range from 4 K to 25 K. An overview and uncertainty budget for each of these applications of DCGT is provided, accompanied by corroborating evidence from the literature or, for IDCGT, a CIPM key comparison.

  14. Three pion nucleon coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Arriola, E.; Amaro, J. E.; Navarro Pérez, R.

    2016-08-01

    There exist four pion nucleon coupling constants, fπ0pp, - fπ0nn, fπ+pn/2 and fπ-np/2 which coincide when up and down quark masses are identical and the electron charge is zero. While there is no reason why the pion-nucleon-nucleon coupling constants should be identical in the real world, one expects that the small differences might be pinned down from a sufficiently large number of independent and mutually consistent data. Our discussion provides a rationale for our recent determination fp2 = 0.0759(4),f 02 = 0.079(1),f c2 = 0.0763(6), based on a partial wave analysis of the 3σ self-consistent nucleon-nucleon Granada-2013 database comprising 6713 published data in the period 1950-2013.

  15. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  16. On Teaching Natural Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  17. School of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article explains how Street Law helps teachers to defuse tensions between students and police through a combination of education, empathy, and expertise. Street Law was born at Georgetown in 1972. Every year, it sends two dozen law students like Courtney Donovan into Washington, D.C., high schools to help teach the year long course. Street…

  18. Education on Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  19. The Laws Are Yours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  20. Renormalization constants from string theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vecchia, P.; Magnea, L.; Lerda, A.; Russo, R.; Marotta, R.

    The authors review some recent results on the calculation of renormalization constants in Yang-Mills theory using open bosonic strings. The technology of string amplitudes, supplemented with an appropriate continuation off the mass shell, can be used to compute the ultraviolet divergences of dimensionally regularized gauge theories. The results show that the infinite tension limit of string amplitudes corresponds to the background field method in field theory.

  1. The Greenland gravitational constant experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Ander, M. E.; Lautzenhiser, T. V.; Parker, R. L.; Aiken, C. L. V.; Gorman, M. R.; Nieto, M. M.; Cooper, A. P. R.; Ferguson, J. F.; Fisher, E.; Greer, J.; Hammer, P.; Hansen, B. L.; McMechan, G. A.; Sasagawa, G. S.; Sidles, C.; Stevenson, J. M.; Wirtz, J.

    1990-09-01

    An Airy-type geophysical experiment was conducted in a 2-km-deep hole in the Greenland ice cap at depths between 213 m and 1673 m to test for possible violations of Newton's inverse square law. Gravity measurements were made at eight depths in 183-m intervals with a LaCoste & Romberg borehole gravity meter. An anomalous variation in gravity totaling 3.87 mGal (3.87x10-5m/s2) in the depth interval of 1460 m was observed. This may be attributed either to a breakdown of Newtonian gravity or to unexpected density variations in the rock below the ice.

  2. Complex unconstrained three-dimensional hand movement and constant equi-affine speed.

    PubMed

    Maoz, Uri; Berthoz, Alain; Flash, Tamar

    2009-02-01

    One long-established simplifying principle behind the large repertoire and high versatility of human hand movements is the two-thirds power law-an empirical law stating a relationship between local geometry and kinematics of human hand trajectories during planar curved movements. It was further generalized not only to various types of human movements, but also to motion perception and prediction, although it was unsuccessful in explaining unconstrained three-dimensional (3D) movements. Recently, movement obeying the power law was proved to be equivalent to moving with constant planar equi-affine speed. Generalizing such motion to 3D space-i.e., to movement at constant spatial equi-affine speed-predicts the emergence of a new power law, whose utility for describing spatial scribbling movements we have previously demonstrated. In this empirical investigation of the new power law, subjects repetitively traced six different 3D geometrical shapes with their hand. We show that the 3D power law explains the data consistently better than both the two-thirds power law and an additional power law that was previously suggested for spatial hand movements. We also found small yet systematic modifications of the power-law's exponents across the various shapes, which further scrutiny suggested to be correlated with global geometric factors of the traced shape. Nevertheless, averaging over all subjects and shapes, the power-law exponents are generally in accordance with constant spatial equi-affine speed. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the potential role of non-Euclidean geometry in motion planning and control. Moreover, these results seem to imply a relationship between geometry and kinematics that is more complex than the simple local one stipulated by the two-thirds power law and similar models.

  3. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility.

  4. Approximation of Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  5. Universal constants and equations of turbulent motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumert, Helmut

    2011-11-01

    For turbulence at high Reynolds number we present an analogy with the kinetic theory of gases, with dipoles made of vortex tubes as frictionless, incompressible but deformable quasi-particles. Their movements are governed by Helmholtz' elementary vortex rules applied locally. A contact interaction or ``collision'' leads either to random scatter of a trajectory or to the formation of two likewise rotating, fundamentally unstable whirls forming a dissipative patch slowly rotating around its center of mass, the latter almost at rest. This approach predicts von Karman's constant as 1/sqrt(2 pi) = 0.399 and the spatio-temporal dynamics of energy-containing time and length scales controlling turbulent mixing [Baumert 2005, 2009]. A link to turbulence spectra was missing so far. In the present contribution it is shown that the above image of dipole movements is compatible with Kolmogorov's spectra if dissipative patches, beginning as two likewise rotating eddies, evolve locally into a space-filling bearing in the sense of Herrmann [1990], i.e. into an ``Apollonian gear.'' Its parts and pieces are are frictionless, excepting the dissipative scale of size zero. Our approach predicts the dimensionless pre-factor in the 3D Eulerian wavenumber spectrum (in terms of pi) as 1.8, and in the Lagrangian frequency spectrum as the integer number 2. Our derivations are free of empirical relations and rest on geometry, methods from many-particle physics, and on elementary conservation laws only. Department of the Navy Grant, ONR Global

  6. A Test of Star Formation Laws in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan C.

    2010-02-01

    We use observations of the radial profiles of the mass surface density of total, Σ g , and molecular, ΣH2, gas rotation velocity and star formation rate surface density, Σsfr, of the molecular dominated regions of 12 disk galaxies from Leroy et al. to test several star formation laws: a "Kennicutt-Schmidt power law," Σsfr = Ag Σ1.5 g,2; a "constant molecular law," Σsfr = A H2ΣH2,2 the "turbulence-regulated laws" of Krumholz & McKee (KM) and Krumholz, McKee, & Tumlinson (KMT), a "gas-Ω law," Σsfr = B ΩΣ g Ω and a shear-driven "giant molecular cloud (GMC) collisions law," Σsfr = B CCΣ g Ω(1 - 0.7β), where β ≡ d ln v circ/d ln r. We find the constant molecular law, KMT turbulence law, and GMC collision law are the most accurate, with an rms error of a factor of 1.5 if the normalization constants are allowed to vary between galaxies. Of these three laws, the GMC collision law does not require a change in physics to account for the full range of star formation activity seen from normal galaxies to circumnuclear starbursts. A single global GMC collision law with B CC = 8.0 × 10-3, i.e., a gas consumption time of 20 orbital times for β = 0, yields an rms error of a factor of 1.8.

  7. A TEST OF STAR FORMATION LAWS IN DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jonathan C.

    2010-02-10

    We use observations of the radial profiles of the mass surface density of total, {sigma} {sub g}, and molecular, {sigma}{sub H2}, gas rotation velocity and star formation rate surface density, {sigma}{sub sfr}, of the molecular dominated regions of 12 disk galaxies from Leroy et al. to test several star formation laws: a 'Kennicutt-Schmidt power law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = A{sub g} {sigma}{sup 1.5} {sub g,2}; a 'constant molecular law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = A {sub H2}{sigma}{sub H2,2}; the 'turbulence-regulated laws' of Krumholz and McKee (KM) and Krumholz, McKee, and Tumlinson (KMT), a 'gas-{omega} law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = B {sub {omega}}{sigma} {sub g}{omega}; and a shear-driven 'giant molecular cloud (GMC) collisions law', {sigma}{sub sfr} = B {sub CC}{sigma} {sub g}{omega}(1 - 0.7{beta}), where {beta} {identical_to} d ln v {sub circ}/d ln r. We find the constant molecular law, KMT turbulence law, and GMC collision law are the most accurate, with an rms error of a factor of 1.5 if the normalization constants are allowed to vary between galaxies. Of these three laws, the GMC collision law does not require a change in physics to account for the full range of star formation activity seen from normal galaxies to circumnuclear starbursts. A single global GMC collision law with B {sub CC} = 8.0 x 10{sup -3}, i.e., a gas consumption time of 20 orbital times for {beta} = 0, yields an rms error of a factor of 1.8.

  8. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Fifty Years of Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, E. M.

    1999-05-01

    It is easy to pick out my most memorable meeting of the AAS: the 149th meeting held in January, 1977, and hosted by the University of Hawaii, in Honolulu, HI. It was the meeting at which two traditions of the Society were broken, and we moved into the era of equal opportunity for women astronomers. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin received the highest award of the AAS: the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship. This award had never before been available to women, otherwise Cecilia would, years earlier, have been honored for the many achievements in her lifetime of renowned astronomical research. And I, the first woman to be elected President of the AAS, had the honor of presenting the illuminated scroll to Cecilia, and of introducing her on the platform where she delivered the Henry Norris Russell Prize Lecture, entitled ``Fifty Years of Novae"(1) . Cecilia opened by comparing the experience of young and old scientists in achieving exciting results from their research, and then led us through the history of the discoveries of and about some famous novae. She described the physical picture that emerged from studies of their light curves, their spectra, and the discovery of their binary nature. Three important tables were included, listing data on cataclysmic binaries (dwarf novae) and their link to the nova phenomenon in general. She recalled that she and Sergei Gaposchkin had hesitated between the names catastrophic and cataclysmic for the dwarf novae, and decided on the latter, from the dictionary definitions of those two terms: ``a cataclysm is a great and general flood" while a catastrophe ``is a final event". The nova phenomenon is recurrent, as are the dwarf novae, and both involve an outpouring of a flood of energy. She concluded by describing her 50 years' experience with novae as presenting ``the contemporary portrait of a nova", rather than a final picture, and by forecasting that the next 50 years of discovering and studying novae will be as full of surprises as the

  9. Discharge ratings for control structures at McHenry Dam on the Fox River, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three measurement of discharge were used to determine discharge ratings for the five adjustable sluice gates, spillway and fish ladder at McHenry Dam on the Fox River in Illinois. Discharge ratings were determined for free weir, free orifice, and submerged orifice flow regimes. Hydraulic conditions that identify flow regimes at McHenry Dam are defined by ratios between headwater depth (h1), tailwater depth (h3), and gate opening (hg). Flow under the sluice gates is identified as weir flow when the ratio of gate opening to headwater depth is greater than 0.73, and as orifice flow when hg/H1 is less than 0.73. Free orifice flow occurs when the ratio of tailwater depth to gate opening is less than 1.3, and submerged orifice flow occurs when h3/hg is greater than 1.3. Flow under the sluice gates is identified as free weir flow when the ratio of tailwater depth to headwater depth is less than 0.75, and as submerged weir flow when h3/h1 is greater than 0.75. Flow over the spillway is identified as free weir flow when the ratio of tailwater depth to headwater depth is less than 0.60, and as submerged weir flow when h3/h1 is greater than 0.60. Discharge coefficients to be used in equations to compute discharge for various hydraulic conditions were determined. Four discharge measurement, ranging from 169 to 2990 cu ft/sec, were used to define discharge coefficients that varies from 2.61 to 3.14 for free weir flow over the spillway. Nineteen discharge measurements, ranging from 180 to 4050 cu ft/sec, were used to define discharge coefficients for free weir, free orifice, and submerged orifice flow under the sluice gates. The average value of the discharge coefficient for free weir flow under the sluice gates is 3.17. Discharge coefficients for free orifice flow varied from 0.48 to 0.66 and the discharge coefficients for submerged orifice flow from the two measurements were 0.59 and 0.67. (Author 's abstract)

  10. WHY IS THE SOLAR CONSTANT NOT A CONSTANT?

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K. J.; Xu, J. C.; Gao, P. X.; Yang, L. H.; Liang, H. F.; Zhan, L. S.

    2012-03-10

    In order to probe the mechanism of variations of the solar constant on the inter-solar-cycle scale, the total solar irradiance (TSI; the so-called solar constant) in the time interval of 1978 November 7 to 2010 September 20 is decomposed into three components through empirical mode decomposition and time-frequency analyses. The first component is the rotation signal, counting up to 42.31% of the total variation of TSI, which is understood to be mainly caused by large magnetic structures, including sunspot groups. The second is an annual-variation signal, counting up to 15.17% of the total variation, the origin of which is not known at this point in time. Finally, the third is the inter-solar-cycle signal, counting up to 42.52%, which is inferred to be caused by the network magnetic elements in quiet regions, whose magnetic flux ranges from (4.27-38.01) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx.

  11. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  12. The Treatment of the Laws of Dynamics in Higher Level Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikoin, I. K.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how Newton's three laws of dynamics are taught in high school in the Soviet Union. Rejects introducing Newton's second law as an equation defining mass as a proportionality constant. Shows how the concept of mass can be introduced independently of Newton's Law. (GA)

  13. An Isothermal and Isochromatic Comparison of Gall's and Planck's Black Body Radiation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    2008-04-01

    Gall's black body radiation law ( Iλ=σT^6b^2λe^-λTb ) derived by treating emission as a decay process (BAPS, March 2007, X21.4, Denver, CO), exactly satisfies the three empirical laws of black body radiation and employs the same empirical constants. Planck's law ( Iλ=c1λ^51e^c2 λT -1) is seen as a modification of Wien's law ( Iλ=c1λ^5 1e^c2λT) with new parameters derived from the idea that EMR travels in packets (quanta). Planck's law allows for further adjustments of the constants than does Wien's law, so as to better fit the empirical laws, but these constants are not identical to the empirical constants. The exponent in λ-5 also has to be adjusted for a better intensity fit. While the isothermal curves for the laws of Gall and Planck both show a maximum intensity defined by Wien's displacement law ( λmT=b), the isochromatic curves are markedly different. Gall's law gives a maximum at λTm=6b whereas Planck's law shows a continuous increase of intensity with temperature. The latter thus appears to lead to a high temperature catastrophe. Measurement of the isochromatic curves should provide a definitive test of the validity of these laws.

  14. Henry Adams’s Life of George Cabot Lodge: A Portrait of the Artist as an Alienated Man

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-20

    literary tradition, especially as had been handed down from Adams’s Puritan forebears. My aim is to present the most complete critical study of this...several critics have pointed to this book as evidence of Adams’s diminished talents--when a careful study of the book in fact demonstrates otherwise...critical studies have given more than cursory attention to the Life of Lodge: J. C. Levenson, The Mind and Art of Henry Adams (1957); George Hochfield

  15. [Charles-Henri Fialon (1846-1933). Creator of the historical museum of the faculty of pharmacy of Paris].

    PubMed

    Bzoura, Elie; Flahaut, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Charles-Henri Fialon stopped his pharmaceutical activities in 1892 and he devoted his time to artistic and historic works. He achieved an important collection of pharmaceutical pots and objects which he gave to the school of Pharmacy of Paris. These gifts were collected in a room named "Musée Fialon ". This museum was enlarged twice and presently is in the "Guillaume Valette" gallery. His content is described in this paper.

  16. Asymmetric Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Tetrahydropyrans via a One-Pot Organocatalytic Michael/Henry/Ketalization Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    A diastereo- and enantioselective Michael/Henry/ketalization sequence to functionalized tetrahydropyrans is described. The multicomponent cascade reaction uses acetylacetone or β-keto esters, β-nitrostyrenes, and alkynyl aldehydes as substrates affording tetrahydropyrans with five contiguous stereocenters. Employing a bifunctional quinine-based squaramide organocatalyst, the title compounds are obtained in moderate to good yields (27–80%), excellent enantiomeric excesses (93–99% ee), and high diastereomeric ratios (dr > 20:1) after one crystallization. PMID:24971998

  17. Millikan's measurement of Planck's constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Robert Millikan is famous for measuring the charge of the electron. His result was better than any previous measurement and his method established that there was a fundamental unit of charge, or charge quantization. He is less well-known for his measurement of Planck's constant, although, as discussed below, he is often mistakenly given credit for providing significant evidence in support of Einstein's photon theory of light.1 His Nobel Prize citation was "for his work on the elementary electric charge of electricity and the photoelectric effect," an indication of the significance of his work on the photoelectric effect.

  18. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  19. Assessing uncertainty in physical constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrion, Max; Fischhoff, Baruch

    1986-09-01

    Assessing the uncertainty due to possible systematic errors in a physical measurement unavoidably involves an element of subjective judgment. Examination of historical measurements and recommended values for the fundamental physical constants shows that the reported uncertainties have a consistent bias towards underestimating the actual errors. These findings are comparable to findings of persistent overconfidence in psychological research on the assessment of subjective probability distributions. Awareness of these biases could help in interpreting the precision of measurements, as well as provide a basis for improving the assessment of uncertainty in measurements.

  20. Genetic comparison of the head of Henri IV and the presumptive blood from Louis XVI (both Kings of France).

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Olalde, Iñigo; Solé, Neus; Ramírez, Oscar; Babelon, Jean-Pierre; Galland, Bruno; Calafell, Francesc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2013-03-10

    A mummified head was identified in 2010 as belonging to Henri IV, King of France. A putative blood sample from the King Louis XVI preserved into a pyrographically decorated gourd was analyzed in 2011. Both kings are in a direct male-line descent, separated by seven generations. We have retrieved the hypervariable region 1 of the mitochondrial DNA as well as a partial Y-chromosome profile from Henri IV. Five STR loci match the alleles found in Louis XVI, while another locus shows an allele that is just one mutation step apart. Taking into consideration that the partial Y-chromosome profile is extremely rare in modern human databases, we concluded that both males could be paternally related. The likelihood ratio of the two samples belonging to males separated by seven generations (as opposed to unrelated males) was estimated as 246.3, with a 95% confidence interval between 44.2 and 9729. Historically speaking, this forensic DNA data would confirm the identity of the previous Louis XVI sample, and give another positive argument for the authenticity of the head of Henri IV.

  1. Mineral resources of the Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area, Fremont County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tysdal, R.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Peters, T.J.

    1988-06-10

    A mineral-resource survey of the 350-acre Henry's Lake Wilderness Study Area (ID-035-077) was made in 1986-87. No identified resources (known) or currently active claims exist within or adjacent to the wilderness study area. There is potential for several types of undiscovered mineral resources within the study area. The southwestern part of the wilderness study area, along the Madison Range fault, is rated as having a moderate energy-resource potential for geothermal water; the remainder of the study area has a low potential for resources of this commodity. A small outcrop of marble in the southernmost part of the study area has a low mineral-resource potential for talc; for talc in marble possibly concealed beneath the study area the mineral-resource potential is rated as unknown. The study area has a low mineral-resource potential for iron in hematite-mineralized amphibolite gneiss, and for gold, silver, and uranium. The area has no mineral-resource potential for phosphate, because the host strata have been eroded; and no resource potential for oil and gas.

  2. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810): hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water, and weighing the world.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-07-01

    Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) was an outstanding chemist and physicist. Although he was not a major figure in the history of respiratory physiology he made important discoveries concerning hydrogen, carbon dioxide, atmospheric air, and water. Hydrogen had been prepared earlier by Boyle but its properties had not been recognized; Cavendish described these in detail, including the density of the gas. Carbon dioxide had also previously been studied by Black, but Cavendish clarified its properties and measured its density. He was the first person to accurately analyze atmospheric air and reported an oxygen concentration very close to the currently accepted value. When he removed all the oxygen and nitrogen from an air sample, he found that there was a residual portion of about 0.8% that he could not characterize. Later this was shown to be argon. He produced large amounts of water by burning hydrogen in oxygen and recognized that these were its only constituents. Cavendish also worked on electricity and heat. However, his main contribution outside chemistry was an audacious experiment to measure the density of the earth, which he referred to as "weighing the world." This involved determining the gravitational attraction between lead spheres in a specially constructed building. Although this was a simple experiment in principle, there were numerous complexities that he overcame with meticulous attention to experimental details. His result was very close to the modern accepted value. The Cavendish Experiment, as it is called, assures his place in the history of science.

  3. Henry Knowles Beecher, Jay Katz, and the Transformation of Research with Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Capron, Alexander Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research. The work that Henry Beecher and Jay Katz did on the ethics of human experimentation beginning in 1964-which was mutually supportive but also divergent in its premises and prescriptions-played a prominent role in the policy-making processes. Beecher, whose detailed disclosure of the ethical lapses of leading researchers in his renowned 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article initiated the policy reform process, proved less influential in shaping those reforms than Katz. Ultimately, Beecher was one of the last and best exemplars of "medical ethics," while Katz-in his service on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel and in his testimony before, and work with, the Senate Health subcommittee-was an early practitioner of bioethics, a field in which the rules are not all written and applied by the medical profession but arise through a messier process involving outsiders and formal regulatory decisions.

  4. The pleasures and perils of prophetic advocacy: Henry E. Sigerist and the politics of medical reform.

    PubMed Central

    Fee, E

    1996-01-01

    Henry E. Sigerist, an internationally renowned medical historian, played a surprisingly important and visible role in American medical politics in the 1930s and 1940s. Born in Paris of Swiss parents, he was professor in Leipzig, Germany, before coming to the United States in 1932 as professor of the history of medicine at Johns Hopkins University. Once in America. Sigerist became deeply involved in medical politics and the campaign for national health insurance. He argued that individualized medical practice was outdated and should gradually be superseded by state-run and state-financed health services. National health insurance was but one step in this historical progression. Sigerist thus lent the weight of history itself to the cause of medical care reform. The charming and erudite Sigerist was welcomed by the leaders of academic medicine in America. Soon, he emerged as a spokesman of the left wing of the medical profession, an effective and popular speaker and an impassioned advocate of socialized medicine. This paper traces Sigerist's political ideas and activities, and his contributions toward medical care reform in the United States. Images p1639-a p1642-a PMID:8916536

  5. Modeling hydrodynamics, temperature and water quality in Henry Hagg Lake, Oregon, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annette B.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional model CE-QUAL-W2 was used to simulate hydrodynamics, temperature, and water quality in Henry Hagg Lake, Oregon, for the years 2000 through 2003. Input data included lake bathymetry, meteorologic conditions, tributary inflows, tributary temperature and water quality, and lake outflows. Calibrated constituents included lake hydrodynamics, water temperature, orthophosphate, total phosphorus, ammonia, algae, chlorophyll a, zooplankton, and dissolved oxygen. Other simulated constituents included nitrate, dissolved and particulate organic matter, dissolved solids, and suspended sediment. Two algal groups (blue-green algae, and all other algae) were included in the model to simulate the lakes algal communities. Measured lake stage data were used to calibrate the lakes water balance; calibration of water temperature and water quality relied upon vertical profile data taken in the deepest part of the lake near the dam. The model initially was calibrated with data from 200001 and tested with data from 200203. Sensitivity tests were performed to examine the response of the model to specific parameters and coefficients, including the light-extinction coefficient, wind speed, tributary inflows of phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter, sediment oxygen demand, algal growth rates, and zooplankton feeding preference factors.

  6. Tools for groundwater protection planning: An example from McHenry County, Illinois, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berg, R.C.; Curry, B. Brandon; Olshansky, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for producing aquifer sensitivity maps from three-dimensional geologic maps, called stack-unit maps. Stack-unit maps depict the succession of geologic materials to a given depth, and aquifer sensitivity maps interpret the successions according to their ability to transmit potential contaminants. Using McHenry County, Illinois, as a case study, stack-unit maps and an aquifer sensitivity assessment were made to help land-use planners, public health officials, consultants, developers, and the public make informed decisions regarding land use. A map of aquifer sensitivity is important for planning because the county is one of the fastest growing counties in the nation, and highly vulnerable sand and gravel aquifers occur within 6 m of ground surface over 75% of its area. The aquifer sensitivity map can provide guidance to regulators seeking optimal protection of groundwater resources where these resources are particularly vulnerable. In addition, the map can be used to help officials direct waste-disposal and industrial facilities and other sensitive land-use practices to areas where the least damage is likely to occur, thereby reducing potential future liabilities.

  7. About and beyond the Henri-Michaelis-Menten rate equation for single-substrate enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bajzer, Zeljko; Strehler, Emanuel E

    2012-01-20

    For more than a century the simple single-substrate enzyme kinetics model and related Henri-Michaelis-Menten (HMM) rate equation have been thoroughly explored in various directions. In the present paper we are concerned with a possible generalization of this rate equation recently proposed by F. Kargi (BBRC 382 (2009) 157-159), which is assumed to be valid both in the case that the total substrate or enzyme is in excess and the quasi-steady-state is achieved. We demonstrate that this generalization is grossly inadequate and propose another generalization based on application of the quasi-steady-state condition and conservation equations for both enzyme and substrate. The standard HMM equation is derived by (a) assuming the quasi-steady-state condition, (b) applying the conservation equation only for the enzyme, and (c) assuming that the substrate concentration at quasi-steady-state can be approximated by the total substrate concentration [S](0). In our formula the rate is already expressed through [S](0), and we only assume that when quasi-steady-state is achieved the amount of product formed is negligible compared to [S](0). Numerical simulations show that our formula is generally more accurate than the HMM formula and also can provide a good approximation when the enzyme is in excess, which is not the case for the HMM formula. We show that the HMM formula can be derived from our expression by further assuming that the total enzyme concentration is negligible compared to [S](0).

  8. Water in sand and gravel deposits in McHenry County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, J.R.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    Two general types of sand and gravel occur in McHenry County - unconfined aquifers, which are at or near the land surface, and semiconfined aquifers, which are overlain by one or more till members. Water levels in both types of aquifers are mapped from measurements made in the spring of 1979. The water-level configuration roughly parallels the land surface. Moraines and other topographically high features coincide with ground-water divides of local flow systems. Flow paths from divides to low-lands are relatively short - a few miles or less. Recharge predominates in uplands, whereas discharge predominates in lowlands. Water levels change seasonally in response to variations in recharge and discharge conditions. The highest water levels occur during spring and decline during the rest of the year. Ground water is of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type and is of acceptable quality for most uses. However, for domestic and some industrial uses, treatment may be required to reduce hardness and to remove iron. Hardness ranged from 130 to 600 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate, and dissolved iron concentrations ranges from less than 10 to 6200 micrograms per liter. The specific conductance of ground water ranged from 260 to 1170 micromhos per centimeter. Specific conductance exceeded 1000 micromhos per centimeter near Huntley and Hebron. Nitrate concentration was generally less than 0.68 milligrams per liter. 22 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Henry James's "The Ambassadors": the promise to lonely adolescents that there will be a future.

    PubMed

    Young, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a lonely time for all of us, as we shift our emotional attachment from our parents to our own autonomous selves and to those people outside our families who will be essential to our emotional growth. Perhaps because Henry James's novel The Ambassadors (1903) deals so masterfully with this subject, it promised the author that there would be a future beyond her senior year in college. The novel has two protagonists: a young American who has arrived at his maturity in Paris, and a middle-aged man who lives in a gray, ungratifying world because he has missed the opportunity to complete his unfolding into an independent sexual being. For background material, James called upon two periods from his own life: his unhappy adolescence, which he overcame by making a life for himself as a writer in England, and his continuing emotional growth at the time he wrote the novel, at the age of 56. The author deals with both adolescence itself and with the ways in which we use the coping skills and creative strengths we developed in adolescence to enrich our lives and sustain ourselves at times of crisis.

  10. Inspiring engineering minds to advance human health: the Henry Samueli School of Engineering's Department of BME.

    PubMed

    Lee, Abraham; Wirtanen, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The growth of biomedical engineering at The Henry Samueli School of Engineering at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) has been rapid since the Center for Biomedical Engineering was first formed in 1998 [and was later renamed as the Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME) in 2002]. Our current mission statement, “Inspiring Engineering Minds to Advance Human Health,” serves as a reminder of why we exist, what we do, and the core principles that we value and by which we abide. BME exists to advance the state of human health via engineering innovation and practices. To attain our goal, we are empowering our faculty to inspire and mobilize our students to address health problems. We treasure the human being, particularly the human mind and health. We believe that BME is where minds are nurtured, challenged, and disciplined, and it is also where the health of the human is held as a core mission value that deserves our utmost priority (Figure 1). Advancing human health is not a theoretical practice; it requires bridging between disciplines (engineering and medicine) and between communities (academic and industry).

  11. [Henri-Léonard Bertin and the development of agriculture in the Age of Enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Pédro, Georges

    2012-05-01

    This meeting of the Committee on the History of Science and Epistemology takes place as we celebrate the 250th anniversary of the creation of the world's first veterinary schools, a major event among all those that, in the wake of the Physiocrat movement initiated by Quesnay and DuPont de Nemours, shaped the modernisation of agriculture in France during the 18th century. Henri-Léonard Bertin (1720-1792) was the impetus to the restructuring process. He was well aware that farming should not remain an activity that solely provides a livelihood for the population, but that it needed to be modernised, i.e. it should produce more, and better. His view was that agriculture could become a great source of riches for France and therefore, a true economic and even political force. He used the various official positions he occupied during that period (Intendant of Lyon (1754-1757), Controller General of Finances (1759-1763), Minister-Secretary of State for Agriculture (1763-1780) to initiate a number of reforms that brought about the modernisation of the kingdom's agricultural world.

  12. Dr Walter Henry Anderson (1870-1937) and the mission hospital at Safed, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Gordon S

    2013-02-01

    Walter Henry Anderson, a brewer's clerk in Burton-upon-Trent, became a missionary doctor, supported by a society promoting welfare and evangelism in Jewish communities abroad. His family background was rich in pastoral ministry at home and adventure abroad. Arguably, this background played a part in his decision to serve the Jews of Safed. His life in Palestine entailed much enterprise and hardship as he raised a family, fought disease and set up a mission hospital serving not only the Jewish community but persons of all faiths. His years in Palestine, from 1894 to 1915, were times of peace in the Middle East before the turmoil unleashed by the Great War. Jews from the Diaspora were gaining an increasing foothold in Palestine, their 'Promised Land'. Themes of that era - the rise of Zionism, confrontation between Judaism and evangelical Christianity, conflict between immigrant Jew and Palestinian Arab and the remarkable travels of Lawrence of Arabia were interwoven with the lives of Dr Anderson and his family.

  13. Cosmological constant and local gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabeu, Jose; Espinoza, Catalina; Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2010-04-15

    We discuss the linearization of Einstein equations in the presence of a cosmological constant, by expanding the solution for the metric around a flat Minkowski space-time. We demonstrate that one can find consistent solutions to the linearized set of equations for the metric perturbations, in the Lorentz gauge, which are not spherically symmetric, but they rather exhibit a cylindrical symmetry. We find that the components of the gravitational field satisfying the appropriate Poisson equations have the property of ensuring that a scalar potential can be constructed, in which both contributions, from ordinary matter and {Lambda}>0, are attractive. In addition, there is a novel tensor potential, induced by the pressure density, in which the effect of the cosmological constant is repulsive. We also linearize the Schwarzschild-de Sitter exact solution of Einstein's equations (due to a generalization of Birkhoff's theorem) in the domain between the two horizons. We manage to transform it first to a gauge in which the 3-space metric is conformally flat and, then, make an additional coordinate transformation leading to the Lorentz gauge conditions. We compare our non-spherically symmetric solution with the linearized Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric, when the latter is transformed to the Lorentz gauge, and we find agreement. The resulting metric, however, does not acquire a proper Newtonian form in terms of the unique scalar potential that solves the corresponding Poisson equation. Nevertheless, our solution is stable, in the sense that the physical energy density is positive.

  14. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  15. Stability constant estimator user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.P.; Castleton, K.J.; Rustad, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the Stability Constant Estimator (SCE) program is to estimate aqueous stability constants for 1:1 complexes of metal ions with ligands by using trends in existing stability constant data. Such estimates are useful to fill gaps in existing thermodynamic databases and to corroborate the accuracy of reported stability constant values.

  16. On Hack's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  17. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  18. Statistical Modelling of the Soil Dielectric Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Marczewski, Wojciech; Bogdan Usowicz, Jerzy; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2010-05-01

    The dielectric constant of soil is the physical property being very sensitive on water content. It funds several electrical measurement techniques for determining the water content by means of direct (TDR, FDR, and others related to effects of electrical conductance and/or capacitance) and indirect RS (Remote Sensing) methods. The work is devoted to a particular statistical manner of modelling the dielectric constant as the property accounting a wide range of specific soil composition, porosity, and mass density, within the unsaturated water content. Usually, similar models are determined for few particular soil types, and changing the soil type one needs switching the model on another type or to adjust it by parametrization of soil compounds. Therefore, it is difficult comparing and referring results between models. The presented model was developed for a generic representation of soil being a hypothetical mixture of spheres, each representing a soil fraction, in its proper phase state. The model generates a serial-parallel mesh of conductive and capacitive paths, which is analysed for a total conductive or capacitive property. The model was firstly developed to determine the thermal conductivity property, and now it is extended on the dielectric constant by analysing the capacitive mesh. The analysis is provided by statistical means obeying physical laws related to the serial-parallel branching of the representative electrical mesh. Physical relevance of the analysis is established electrically, but the definition of the electrical mesh is controlled statistically by parametrization of compound fractions, by determining the number of representative spheres per unitary volume per fraction, and by determining the number of fractions. That way the model is capable covering properties of nearly all possible soil types, all phase states within recognition of the Lorenz and Knudsen conditions. In effect the model allows on generating a hypothetical representative of

  19. Constant magnification optical tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A constant magnification optical tracking system for continuously tracking of a moving object is described. In the tracking system, a traveling objective lens maintains a fixed relationship with an object to be optically tracked. The objective lens was chosen to provide a collimated light beam oriented in the direction of travel of the moving object. A reflective surface is attached to the traveling objective lens for reflecting an image of the moving object. The object to be tracked is a free-falling object which is located at the focal point of the objective lens for at least a portion of its free-fall path. A motor and control means is provided for mantaining the traveling objective lens in a fixed relationship relative to the free-falling object, thereby keeping the free-falling object at the focal point and centered on the axis of the traveling objective lens throughout its entire free-fall path.

  20. Philicities, Fugalities, and Equilibrium Constants.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Herbert; Ofial, Armin R

    2016-05-17

    The mechanistic model of Organic Chemistry is based on relationships between rate and equilibrium constants. Thus, strong bases are generally considered to be good nucleophiles and poor nucleofuges. Exceptions to this rule have long been known, and the ability of iodide ions to catalyze nucleophilic substitutions, because they are good nucleophiles as well as good nucleofuges, is just a prominent example for exceptions from the general rule. In a reaction series, the Leffler-Hammond parameter α = δΔG(⧧)/δΔG° describes the fraction of the change in the Gibbs energy of reaction, which is reflected in the change of the Gibbs energy of activation. It has long been considered as a measure for the position of the transition state; thus, an α value close to 0 was associated with an early transition state, while an α value close to 1 was considered to be indicative of a late transition state. Bordwell's observation in 1969 that substituent variation in phenylnitromethanes has a larger effect on the rates of deprotonation than on the corresponding equilibrium constants (nitroalkane anomaly) triggered the breakdown of this interpretation. In the past, most systematic investigations of the relationships between rates and equilibria of organic reactions have dealt with proton transfer reactions, because only for few other reaction series complementary kinetic and thermodynamic data have been available. In this Account we report on a more general investigation of the relationships between Lewis basicities, nucleophilicities, and nucleofugalities as well as between Lewis acidities, electrophilicities, and electrofugalities. Definitions of these terms are summarized, and it is suggested to replace the hybrid terms "kinetic basicity" and "kinetic acidity" by "protophilicity" and "protofugality", respectively; in this way, the terms "acidity" and "basicity" are exclusively assigned to thermodynamic properties, while "philicity" and "fugality" refer to kinetics

  1. Omnidirectional antenna having constant phase

    DOEpatents

    Sena, Matthew

    2017-04-04

    Various technologies presented herein relate to constructing and/or operating an antenna having an omnidirectional electrical field of constant phase. The antenna comprises an upper plate made up of multiple conductive rings, a lower ground-plane plate, a plurality of grounding posts, a conical feed, and a radio frequency (RF) feed connector. The upper plate has a multi-ring configuration comprising a large outer ring and several smaller rings of equal size located within the outer ring. The large outer ring and the four smaller rings have the same cross-section. The grounding posts ground the upper plate to the lower plate while maintaining a required spacing/parallelism therebetween.

  2. Quantum electrodynamics and fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wundt, Benedikt Johannes Wilhelm

    The unprecedented precision achieved both in the experimental measurements as well as in the theoretical description of atomic bound states make them an ideal study object for fundamental physics and the determination of fundamental constants. This requires a careful study of the effects from quantum electrodynamics (QED) on the interaction between the electron and the nucleus. The two theoretical approaches for the evaluation of QED corrections are presented and discussed. Due to the presence of two energy scales from the binding potential and the radiation field, an overlapping parameter has to be used in both approaches in order to separate the energy scales. The different choices for the overlapping parameter in the two methods are further illustrated in a model example. With the nonrelativistic theory, relativistic corrections in order ( Zalpha)2 to the two-photon decay rate of ionic states are calculated, as well as the leading radiative corrections of alpha( Zalpha)2ln[(Zalpha)-2 ]. It is shown that the corrections is gauge-invariant under a "hybrid" gauge transformation between Coulomb and Yennie gauge. Furthermore, QED corrections for Rydberg states in one-electron ions are investigated. The smallness of the corrections and the absence of nuclear size corrections enable very accurate theoretical predictions. Measuring transition frequencies and comparing them to the theoretical predictions, QED theory can be tested more precisely. In turn, this could yield a more accurate value for the Rydberg constant. Using a transition in a nucleus with a well determined mass, acting as a reference, a comparison to transition in other nuclei can even allow to determined nuclear masses. Finally, in order to avoid an additional uncertainty in nuclei with non zero nuclear spin, QED self-energy corrections to the hyperfine structure up to order alpha(Zalpha)2Delta EHFS are determined for highly excited Rydberg states.

  3. Public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2001-09-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agen cies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system.

  4. Public Health Law Reform

    PubMed Central

    Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2001-01-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agencies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system. PMID:11527757

  5. School Law Update...Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…

  6. Gladstone-Dale constant for CF4. [experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W., Jr.; Goad, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    The Gladstone-Dale constant, which relates the refractive index to density, was measured for CF4 by counting fringes of a two-beam interferometer, one beam of which passes through a cell containing the test gas. The experimental approach and sources of systematic and imprecision errors are discussed. The constant for CF4 was measured at several wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum. A value of 0.122 cu cm/g with an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.001 cu cm/g was determined for use in the visible region. A procedure for noting the departure of the gas density from the ideal-gas law is discussed.

  7. Flexure and faulting of sedimentary host rocks during growth of igneous domes, Henry Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, M.D.; Pollard, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    A sequence of sedimentary rocks about 4 km thick was bent, stretched and uplifted during the growth of three igneous domes in the southern Henry Mountains. Mount Holmes, Mount Ellsworth and Mount Hillers are all about 12 km in diameter, but the amplitudes of their domes are about 1.2, 1.85 and 3.0 km, respectively. These mountains record successive stages in the inflation of near-surface diorite intrusions that are probably laccolithic in origin. The host rocks deformed along networks of outcrop-scale faults, or deformation bands, marked by crushed grains, consolidation of the porous sandstone and small displacements of sedimentary beds. Zones of deformation bands oriented parallel to the beds and formation contacts subdivided the overburden into thin mechanical layers that slipped over one another during doming. Measurements of outcrop-scale fault populations at the three mountains reveal a network of faults that strikes at high angles to sedimentary beds which themselves strike tangentially about the domes. These faults have normal and reverse components of slip that accommodated bending and stretching strains within the strata. An early stage of this deformation is displayed at Mount Holmes, where states of stress computed from three fault samples correlate with the theoretical distribution of stresses resulting from bending of thin, circular, elastic plates. Field observations and analysis of frictional driving stresses acting on horizontal planes above an opening-mode dislocation, as well as the paleostress analysis of faulting, indicate that bedding-plane slip and layer flexure were important components of the early deformation. As the amplitude of doming increased, radial and circumferential stretching of the strata and rotation of the older faults in the steepening limbs of the domes increased the complexity of the fault patterns. Steeply-dipping, map-scale faults with dip-slip displacements indicate a late-stage jostling of major blocks over the central

  8. Is There a Cosmological Constant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, Christopher

    2002-07-01

    The grant contributed to the publication of 18 refereed papers and 5 conference proceedings. The primary uses of the funding have been for page charges, travel for invited talks related to the grant research, and the support of a graduate student, Charles Keeton. The refereed papers address four of the primary goals of the proposal: (1) the statistics of radio lenses as a probe of the cosmological model (#1), (2) the role of spiral galaxies as lenses (#3), (3) the effects of dust on statistics of lenses (#7, #8), and (4) the role of groups and clusters as lenses (#2, #6, #10, #13, #15, #16). Four papers (#4, #5, #11, #12) address general issues of lens models, calibrations, and the relationship between lens galaxies and nearby galaxies. One considered cosmological effects in lensing X-ray sources (#9), and two addressed issues related to the overall power spectrum and theories of gravity (#17, #18). Our theoretical studies combined with the explosion in the number of lenses and the quality of the data obtained for them is greatly increasing our ability to characterize and understand the lens population. We can now firmly conclude both from our study of the statistics of radio lenses and our survey of extinctions in individual lenses that the statistics of optically selected quasars were significantly affected by extinction. However, the limits on the cosmological constant remain at lambda < 0.65 at a 2-sigma confidence level, which is in mild conflict with the results of the Type la supernova surveys. We continue to find that neither spiral galaxies nor groups and clusters contribute significantly to the production of gravitational lenses. The lack of group and cluster lenses is strong evidence for the role of baryonic cooling in increasing the efficiency of galaxies as lenses compared to groups and clusters of higher mass but lower central density. Unfortunately for the ultimate objective of the proposal, improved constraints on the cosmological constant, the next

  9. Is There a Cosmological Constant?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochanek, Christopher; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The grant contributed to the publication of 18 refereed papers and 5 conference proceedings. The primary uses of the funding have been for page charges, travel for invited talks related to the grant research, and the support of a graduate student, Charles Keeton. The refereed papers address four of the primary goals of the proposal: (1) the statistics of radio lenses as a probe of the cosmological model (#1), (2) the role of spiral galaxies as lenses (#3), (3) the effects of dust on statistics of lenses (#7, #8), and (4) the role of groups and clusters as lenses (#2, #6, #10, #13, #15, #16). Four papers (#4, #5, #11, #12) address general issues of lens models, calibrations, and the relationship between lens galaxies and nearby galaxies. One considered cosmological effects in lensing X-ray sources (#9), and two addressed issues related to the overall power spectrum and theories of gravity (#17, #18). Our theoretical studies combined with the explosion in the number of lenses and the quality of the data obtained for them is greatly increasing our ability to characterize and understand the lens population. We can now firmly conclude both from our study of the statistics of radio lenses and our survey of extinctions in individual lenses that the statistics of optically selected quasars were significantly affected by extinction. However, the limits on the cosmological constant remain at lambda < 0.65 at a 2-sigma confidence level, which is in mild conflict with the results of the Type la supernova surveys. We continue to find that neither spiral galaxies nor groups and clusters contribute significantly to the production of gravitational lenses. The lack of group and cluster lenses is strong evidence for the role of baryonic cooling in increasing the efficiency of galaxies as lenses compared to groups and clusters of higher mass but lower central density. Unfortunately for the ultimate objective of the proposal, improved constraints on the cosmological constant, the next

  10. [Law 6/84: "an inappropriate law"].

    PubMed

    Barroco, L E

    1994-01-01

    The intervention of Dr. Luis Elmano Barroco was evaluated at a meeting on March 19, 1994, on the topic of the state of abortion after 10 years of the new abortion law. Some aspects of the law of 1984 are characterized as inappropriate and inadequate because of the experience of the maternity ward of Dr. Alfredo da Costa. It was expected that in the wake of the publication of the law, official health care institutions would provide services for termination of pregnancy in accordance with legal indications. However, a survey carried out by the Association for Family Planning in July 1993 revealed that more than 50% of hospitals did not perform abortions because of the inexistence of specialized services or lack of resources or on grounds of conscientious objection. Even a revision of the abortion law does not take into consideration the fact that before 12 weeks of gestation it is difficult to precisely confirm grave lesions or the physical and psychological state of health of the pregnant woman which could be potentially life threatening. It was not taken into account either that it is impossible to diagnose definitively chromosomal aberrations, severe diseases, and fetal malformation before the 16th week. The law did not contemplate the prevailing socioeconomical conditions either that lead to clandestine abortion with high morbidity and mortality from cervical lesions, uterine perforation, infections, sepsis, and salpingitis. Prenatal diagnosis for eugenic abortion can be carried out by cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid and ecography, but such diagnosis probably amounts to only 30-40% of risk cases in the whole country. A recent study by the Johns Hopkins University indicated that the chance of survival of a child born before 24 weeks is nil, therefore the limit of induced abortion should be extended to the 24th week to facilitate diagnosis of possible genetic abnormalities.

  11. The Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  12. School Law Update, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 separate chapters comprising this volume. The titles and authors of the chapters are as follows: (1) Due Process of Law: Loudermill v. Cleveland Board of Education (Hooker); (2) Schools, Technology and the Law (Helm); (3)…

  13. Careers in Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Solomon J.

    1991-01-01

    Opportunities for blacks in law enforcement careers are detailed. Local and federal law enforcement agencies are hiring members of minority groups. In a climate in which so many young African Americans are involved in negative behaviors, others should take the opportunity to try to provide positive role models. (SLD)

  14. The Corporate Law Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofsky, James S.

    1976-01-01

    On the premise that corporate counsel must be an able diagnostician before he can focus on highly specialized and interrelated issues of business law, the author suggests an approach to corporate law curriculum in which the basic course balances the quality and quantity of material designed to create the needed sensitivity. (JT)

  15. Know Your Laws. Czechoslovakian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ziembinski, Vera

    This Czechoslovakian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first…

  16. Know Your Laws. Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.

    This Italian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult students with law they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  17. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  18. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  19. Know Your Laws. Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ackerson, Leonor

    This Spanish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of…

  20. Know Your Laws. Polish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Kopania, Margaret

    This Polish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  1. California Library Laws, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    California Library Laws 2009 is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as follows.…

  2. California Library Laws, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "California Library Laws 2008" is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized…

  3. Laws for Young Mountaineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanawha County Board of Education, Charleston, WV.

    This booklet introduces secondary grade students to the criminal laws of West Virginia. It can easily be adapted and used by educators in other states. The authors believe that young people must recognize and understand these laws and the mechanisms which society uses to implement and enforce them if they are to function as an integral, important,…

  4. Teaching Information Technology Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  5. Science and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald; Merrill, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Explaines the role of the Carnegie Commission which was formed to explore the relationship between the disciplines of science, technology, and the law. Discusses concerns about the individual right of privacy in projects such as the Human Genome Project. Focuses on the panel on Science, Technology, and Law which was established in 1999. (YDS)

  6. Pop Goes the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  7. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  8. Teachers and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; And Others

    This book is designed to promote legal literacy for public school teachers. It examines a wide range of constitutional, statutory, and case law that directly affects their work. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the knowledge necessary to comply with the law, assert their rights, and bring violations to the attention of administrators and…

  9. Bicycle Law Enforcement Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William W.; Stutts, Jane C.

    This manual is an attempt to draw together relevant resources and information for localities interested in developing a bicycle law enforcement operation. It is divided into five major sections. Section I explains the need for and importance of bicycle law enforcement. In section II are presented examples of past and current bicycle law…

  10. Social Studies: Law Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  11. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  12. Reinventing Howard's Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Gwendolyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts by Alice Gresham Bullock, dean of the Howard University School of Law, to improve the school (including building a new library and improving relations with faculty) and restore Howard to its previous stature as a leader in civil rights law. (EV)

  13. Charles' Law of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

  14. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines…

  15. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity.…

  16. Explicit representations for multiscale Lévy processes and asymptotics of multifractal conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górska, K.; Woyczyński, W. A.

    2015-08-01

    Nonlinear conservation laws driven by Lévy processes have solutions which, in the case of supercritical nonlinearities, have an asymptotic behavior dictated by the solutions of the linearized equations. Thus, the explicit representation of the latter is of interest in the nonlinear theory. In this paper, we concentrate on the case where the driving Lévy process is a multiscale stable (anomalous) diffusion, which corresponds to the case of multifractal conservation laws considered in Biler et al. [J. Differ. Equations 148, 9 (1998); Stud. Math. 135, 231 (1999); Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare, Anal. Nonlineaire 18, 613 (2001); and Stud. Math. 148, 171 (2001)]. The explicit representations, building on the previous work on single-scale problems (see, e.g., Górska and Penson [Phys. Rev. E 83, 061125 (2011)]), are developed in terms of the special functions (such as Meijer G functions) and are amenable to direct numerical evaluations of relevant probabilities.

  17. Dynamics of gas bubble growth in a supersaturated solution with Sievert's solubility law.

    PubMed

    Gor, G Yu; Kuchma, A E

    2009-07-21

    This paper presents a theoretical description of diffusion growth of a gas bubble after its nucleation in supersaturated liquid solution. We study systems where gas molecules completely dissociate in the solvent into two parts, thus making Sievert's solubility law valid. We show that the difference between Henry's and Sievert's laws for chemical equilibrium conditions causes the difference in bubble growth dynamics. Assuming that diffusion flux is steady we obtain a differential equation on bubble radius. Bubble dynamics equation is solved analytically for the case of homogeneous nucleation of a bubble, which takes place at a significant pressure drop. We also obtain conditions of diffusion flux steadiness. The fulfillment of these conditions is studied for the case of nucleation of water vapor bubbles in magmatic melts.

  18. International resources law

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  19. Numerical simulation of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.

  20. The Greenland gravitational constant experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ander, Mark E.; Parker, Robert L.; Aiken, Carlos L. V.; Gorman, Michael R.; Nieto, Michael Martin; Cooper, A. Paul R.; Ferguson, John F.; Fisher, Elizabeth; Greer, James; Hammer, Phil; Hansen, B. Lyle; McMechan, George A.; Sasagawa, Glenn S.; Sidles, Cyndi; Stevenson, J. Mark; Wirtz, Jim

    1990-09-01

    An Airy-type geophysical experiment was conducted in a 2-km-deep hole in the Greenland ice cap at depths between 213 m and 1673 m to test for possible violations of Newton's inverse square law. The experiment was done at Dye 3, the location of a Distant Early Warming Line radar dome and the site of the deepest of the Greenland Ice-Sheet Program (GISP) drill holes. Gravity measurements were made at eight depths in 183-m intervals with a LaCoste & Romberg borehole gravity meter. Prior to the experiment the borehole, gravity meter was calibrated with an absolute gravity meter, and the wireline depth-finding system used in the borehole logging was calibrated in a vertical mine-shaft against a laser geodimeter. The density of the ice in the region was calculated from measurements taken from ice cores obtained from earlier drilling observations. Ice penetrating radar was employed in order to correct the gravity data for the topography of the ice-rock interface. Surface gravity observations were made to assess the extent to which density variations in the sub-ice rock could affect the vertical gravity gradient. The locations of the gravity observation points were determined with a combination of GPS recording, first-order leveling, and EDM surveying. An anomalous variation in gravity totaling 3.87 mGal (3.87×10-5 m/s2) in a depth interval of 1460 m was observed. This may be attributed either to a breakdown of Newtonian gravity or to unexpected density variations in the rock below the ice.